WorldWideScience

Sample records for blenders

  1. Mastering Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Blender, the free alternative for professional-quality 3D animation is a complex program to learn, but once users become familiar with its power, they begin to seek more from it.  This book is the first of its kind to explore the more advanced features of Blender so that you can get the most out of the software. You'll take your Blender skills to a whole new level with the featured in-depth coverage of intricate uses for Blender's modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects tools in a professional environment.

  2. Blender For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    van Gumster, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The exciting new book on the exciting new Blender 2.5! If you want to design 3D animation, here's your chance to jump in with both feet, free software, and a friendly guide at your side! Blender For Dummies, 2nd Edition is the perfect introduction to the popular, open-source, Blender 3D animation software, specifically the revolutionary new Blender 2.5. Find out what all the buzz is about with this easy-access guide. Even if you?re just beginning, you'll learn all the Blender 2.5 ropes, get the latest tips, and soon start creating 3D animation that dazzles.Walks you through what you need to kn

  3. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  4. Blender for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    van Gumster, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Learn to: Create realistic animations with this free, open source software Build 3D objects with meshes, curves, and surfaces Take advantage of new features, including the incredibly powerful Cycles renderer Jump into Blender and start animating Is your head full of images that would be marvelous in motion? Make it happen! This plain-English guide shows you how to use Blender, the open source animation suite that lets you produce professional results. You'll learn to create 3D objects, get them moving with animation and rigging, set the scene with cameras and lighting, and maybe even go p

  5. Blender Foundations The Essential Guide to Learning Blender 26

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Blender Foundations is the definitive resource for getting started with 3D art in Blender, one of the most popular 3D/Animation tools on the market . With the expert insight and experience of Roland Hess, noted Blender expert and author, animators and artists will learn the basics starting with the revised 2.6 interface, modeling tools, sculpting, lighting and materials through rendering, compositing and video editing. Some of the new features covered include the completely re-thought interface, the character animation and keying system, and the smoke simulator. More than just a tutorial gui

  6. Visualizing Astronomical Data with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    We present methods for using the 3D graphics program Blender in the visualization of astronomical data. The software's forte for animating 3D data lends itself well to use in astronomy. The Blender graphical user interface and Python scripting capabilities can be utilized in the generation of models for data cubes, catalogs, simulations, and surface maps. We review methods for data import, 2D and 3D voxel texture applications, animations, camera movement, and composite renders. Rendering times can be improved by using graphic processing units (GPUs). A number of examples are shown using the software features most applicable to various kinds of data paradigms in astronomy.

  7. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  8. Blender Studio Projects Digital Movie-Making

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to get professional results from Blender. Start from scratch-the way it happens in the studio-and create fully rendered objects with Blender open-source 3D animation software and this real-world, roll-up-your-sleeves guide. No time is wasted-this book plunges straight into step-by-step instruction designed to help you build skills and create solid assets for film, video, and games. Blender is gaining clout in professional settings, and you can get a running start with this series of hands-on tutorials that encompasses multiple disciplines. The book includes a DVD with starter, interm

  9. Blender production creating short animations from start to finish

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Blender has become one of the most popular 3D animation tools on the market because it is robust and absolutely free. Blender Production is the definitive resource for anyone who wants to create short animations from scratch. With this book, and Blender, you have the ideal platform to make it happen.  Blender expert and author Roland Hess walks you through the entire process of creating a short animation including: writing, storyboarding, blocking, character creation, animation, rendering, and production. The associated web site includes the full Blender software kit and a compl

  10. Automatic Deployment of Services in the Cloud with Aeolus Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cosmo, Roberto; Eiche, Antoine; Mauro, Jacopo; Zacchiroli, Stefano; Zavattaro, Gianluigi; Zwolakowski, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    International audience We present Aeolus Blender (Blender in the following), a software product for the automatic deployment and configuration of complex service-based, distributed software systems in the " cloud ". By relying on a configuration optimiser and a deployment planner, Blender fully automates the deployment of real-life applications on OpenStack cloud deployments , by exploiting a knowledge base of software services provided by the Mandriva Armonic tool suite. The final deploym...

  11. The complete guide to blender graphics computer modeling and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Blain, John M

    2014-01-01

    Smoothly Leads Users into the Subject of Computer Graphics through the Blender GUIBlender, the free and open source 3D computer modeling and animation program, allows users to create and animate models and figures in scenes, compile feature movies, and interact with the models and create video games. Reflecting the latest version of Blender, The Complete Guide to Blender Graphics: Computer Modeling & Animation, 2nd Edition helps beginners learn the basics of computer animation using this versatile graphics program. This edition incorporates many new features of Blender, including developments

  12. Blender cycles lighting and rendering cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Iraci, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth guide full of step-by-step recipes to explore the concepts behind the usage of Cycles. Packed with illustrations, and lots of tips and tricks; the easy-to-understand nature of the book will help the reader understand even the most complex concepts with ease.If you are a digital artist who already knows your way around Blender, and you want to learn about the new Cycles' rendering engine, this is the book for you. Even experts will be able to pick up new tips and tricks to make the most of the rendering capabilities of Cycles.

  13. Development of Virtual Morphometric Globes Using Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Florinsky, I V

    2015-01-01

    Virtual globes - programs implementing interactive three-dimensional (3D) models of planets - are increasingly used in geosciences. Global morphometric models can be useful for tectonic and planetary studies. We describe the development of the first testing version of the system of virtual morphometric globes for the Earth, Mars, and the Moon. As the initial data, we used three 15'-gridded global digital elevation models (DEMs) extracted from SRTM30_PLUS, the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter gridded archives. For three planetary bodies, we derived global digital models and maps of several morphometric attributes (i.e., horizontal curvature, vertical curvature, minimal curvature, maximal curvature, and catchment area). To develop the system, we used Blender, the open-source software for 3D modeling and visualization. First, a 3D sphere model was generated. Second, the global morphometric maps as textures were imposed to the sphere surface. Finally, the real-time 3D graphics B...

  14. Blender aplinkos naudojimo garsinio signalo modeliavimui galimybių tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanauskas, Ginas

    2010-01-01

    Šiame darbe tiriamos trimatės Blender aplinkos panaudojamumo garsinių signalų modeliavimui galimybės. Darbe aprašyta programos vartotojo sąsaja, vidinė architektūra, ištirtos vidinio programavimo galimybės ir pateikti tyrimų rezultatai. Naudojant Python programavimo kalbą buvo sukurta garsinių signalų analizės ir vizualizavimo programa SigBlender, veikianti Blender aplinkoje. Programa naudoja beveik periodinių garso signalų periodų išskyrimo algoritmą, kuris buvo sukurtas ir realizuotas darbo...

  15. Blender 2.6 cycles, materials and textures cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, practical style this Cookbook deep-dives into a wide-array of techniques used to create realistic materials and textures.This book is perfect for you if you have used Blender before but are new to the impressive Cycles renderer. You should have some knowledge of the Blender interface, though this is not a strict requirement. If you want to create realistic, stunning materials and textures using Cycles, then this book is for you!

  16. AstroBlend: An Astrophysical Visualization Package for Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Naiman, J P

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth in scale and complexity of both computational and observational astrophysics over the past decade necessitates efficient and intuitive methods for examining and visualizing large datasets. Here, I present {\\it AstroBlend}, an open-source Python library for use within the three dimensional modeling software, {\\it Blender}. While {\\it Blender} has been a popular open-source software among animators and visual effects artists, in recent years it has also become a tool for visualizing astrophysical datasets. {\\it AstroBlend} combines the three dimensional capabilities of {\\it Blender} with the analysis tools of the widely used astrophysical toolset, {\\it yt}, to afford both computational and observational astrophysicists the ability to simultaneously analyze their data and create informative and appealing visualizations. The introduction of this package includes a description of features, work flow, and various example visualizations. A website - www.astroblend.com - has been developed which incl...

  17. Interactividad programada en el Game Engine de Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez García, Guzmán

    2013-01-01

    Con este proyecto se ha desarrollado una guía introductoria a uno de los aspectos más complejos y especializados de Blender, que es el control de su motor de videojuegos mediante programas escritos en Python. Está orientado a lectores que tienen un conocimiento amplio sobre el manejo de Blender, su interfaz y el funcionamiento de sus diferentes elementos, así como una mínima experiencia en cuanto a programación. Se ha organizado en una parte descriptiva, centrada en el lenguaje Pytho...

  18. Beginning Blender Open Source 3D Modeling, Animations, and Game Design

    CERN Document Server

    Flavell, L

    2010-01-01

    A new world of creative possibilities is opened by Blender, the most popular and powerful open source 3D and animation tool. Blender is not just free software; it is also an important professional tool used in animated shorts, television commercials, and shows, as well as in production for films like Spiderman 2. Lance Flavell's Beginning Blender will give you the skills to start shaping new worlds and virtual characters, and perhaps lead you down a new professional path. Beginning Blender covers the Blender 2.5 release in-depth. The book starts with the creation of simple figures using basic

  19. AstroBlend: Visualization package for use with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    AstroBlend is a visualization package for use in the three dimensional animation and modeling software, Blender. It reads data in via a text file or can use pre-fab isosurface files stored as OBJ or Wavefront files. AstroBlend supports a variety of codes such as FLASH (ascl:1010.082), Enzo (ascl:1010.072), and Athena (ascl:1010.014), and combines artistic 3D models with computational astrophysics datasets to create models and animations.

  20. AstroBlend: An astrophysical visualization package for Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    The rapid growth in scale and complexity of both computational and observational astrophysics over the past decade necessitates efficient and intuitive methods for examining and visualizing large datasets. Here, I present AstroBlend, an open-source Python library for use within the three dimensional modeling software, Blender. While Blender has been a popular open-source software among animators and visual effects artists, in recent years it has also become a tool for visualizing astrophysical datasets. AstroBlend combines the three dimensional capabilities of Blender with the analysis tools of the widely used astrophysical toolset, yt, to afford both computational and observational astrophysicists the ability to simultaneously analyze their data and create informative and appealing visualizations. The introduction of this package includes a description of features, work flow, and various example visualizations. A website - www.astroblend.com - has been developed which includes tutorials, and a gallery of example images and movies, along with links to downloadable data, three dimensional artistic models, and various other resources.

  1. Blender Pump Fuel Survey: CRC Project E-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.

    2011-07-01

    To increase the number of ethanol blends available in the United States, several states have 'blender pumps' that blend gasoline with flex-fuel vehicle (FFV) fuel. No specification governs the properties of these blended fuels, and little information is available about the fuels sold at blender pumps. No labeling conventions exist, and labeling on the blender pumps surveyed was inconsistent.; The survey samples, collected across the Midwestern United States, included the base gasoline and FFV fuel used in the blends as well as the two lowest blends offered at each station. The samples were tested against the applicable ASTM specifications and for critical operability parameters. Conventional gasoline fuels are limited to 10 vol% ethanol by the U.S. EPA. The ethanol content varied greatly in the samples. Half the gasoline samples contained some ethanol, while the other half contained none. The FFV fuel samples were all within the specification limits. No pattern was observed for the blend content of the higher ethanol content samples at the same station. Other properties tested were specific to higher-ethanol blends. This survey also tested the properties of fuels containing ethanol levels above conventional gasoline but below FFV fuels.

  2. Cellulose nanofiber extraction from grass by a modified kitchen blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaito, Antonio Norio; Ikenaga, Koh; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers have been used to reinforce polymers, delivering composites with strength that in some cases can be superior to that of engineering plastics. The extraction of nanofibers from plant fibers can be achieved through specialized equipment that demands high energy input, despite delivering extremely low yields. The high extraction cost confines the use of cellulose nanofibers to the laboratory and not for industrial applications. This study aims to extract nanofibers from grass by using a kitchen blender. Earlier studies have demonstrated that paper sheets made of blender-extracted nanofibers (after 5 min to 10 min of blending) have strengths on par with paper sheets made from commercially available cellulose nanofibers. By optimizing the design of the blender bottle, nanofibrillation can be achieved in shorter treatment times, reducing the energy consumption (in the present case, to half) and the overall extraction cost. The raw materials used can be extended to the residue straw of agricultural crops, as an alternative to the usual pulp fibers obtained from wood.

  3. Blenders in centre unstable Hénon-like families: with an application to heterodimensional bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give an explicit family of polynomial maps called centre unstable Hénon-like maps and prove that they exhibit blenders for some parameter values. Using this family, we also prove the occurrence of blenders near certain non-transverse heterodimensional cycles under high regularity assumptions. The proof involves a renormalization scheme along heteroclinic orbits. We also investigate the connection between the blender and the original heterodimensional cycle. (paper)

  4. Spherical Panorama Visualization of Astronomical Data with Blender and Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2016-06-01

    We describe methodology to generate 360 degree spherical panoramas of both 2D and 3D data. The techniques apply to a variety of astronomical data types - all sky maps, 2D and 3D catalogs as well as planetary surface maps. The results can be viewed in a desktop browser or interactively with a mobile phone or tablet. Static displays or panoramic video renderings of the data can be produced. We review the Python code and usage of the 3D Blender software for projecting maps onto 3D surfaces and the various tools for distributing visualizations.

  5. 3D - mallinnus, työnkulku Blender - ohjelmalla

    OpenAIRE

    Paukkonen, Eemeli

    2015-01-01

    Työn tarkoitus on oppia lisää 3D-mallinnuksesta ja Blenderin toiminnasta. Lisäksi tavoite on innostaa 3D-mallinnuksesta kiinnostuneita luomaan omia projekteja. Lyhyesti 3D-mallinnus tarkoittaa tietokoneohjelmalla luotavaa mallia, joka esitetään kolmiulot-teisesti. Malleja käytetään viihdeteollisuudessa, lääketieteessä, arkkitehtuurissa sekä 3D-tulostuksessa, joka on viime vuosien aikana saanut enemmän huomiota. Opinnäytetyössä tutustutaan 3D-mallinnukseen käyttäen Blender-ilmaisohjelmaa...

  6. Blender master class a hands-on guide to modeling, sculpting, materials, and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Simonds, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Blender is a powerful and free 3D graphics tool used by artists and designers worldwide. But even experienced designers can find it challenging to turn an idea into a polished piece.For those who have struggled to create professional-quality projects in Blender, author Ben Simonds offers this peek inside his studio. You'll learn how to create 3D models as you explore the creative process that he uses to model three example projects: a muscular bat creature, a futuristic robotic spider, and ancient temple ruins. Along the way, you'll master the Blender interface and learn how to create and refi

  7. Blender Pump Fuel Survey: CRC Project E-95-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Alleman, T. L.

    2014-05-01

    With the increasing fuel diversity in the marketplace, the Coordinating Research Council and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a survey of mid-level ethanol blends (MLEBs) in the market. A total of 73 fuel samples were collected from 20 retail stations. To target Class 4 volatility, the fuel samples were collected primarily in the midwestern United States in the month of February. Samples included the gasoline (E0), Flex Fuel, and every MLEB that was offered from each of the 20 stations. Photographs of each station were taken at the time of sample collection, detailing the pump labeling and configuration. The style and labeling of the pump, hose, and dispenser nozzle are all important features to prevent misfueling events. The physical location of the MLEB product relative to the gasoline product can also be important to prevent misfueling. In general, there were many differences in the style and labeling of the blender pumps surveyed in this study. All samples were analyzed for volatility and ethanol content. For the MLEB samples collected, the fuels tended to be lower in ethanol content than their indicated amount; however, the samples were all within 10 vol% of their indicated blend level. One of the 20 Flex Fuel samples was outside of the allowable limits for ethanol content. Four of the 20 Flex Fuel samples had volatility below the minimum requirement for Class 4.

  8. THE USE OF DOMESTIC MICROWAVE OVEN AND BLENDER IN BIODIESEL SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOSO, Claudia Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose in this study the use of household appliances, microwave oven and household blender without adaptation, in fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis from the transesterification of waste frying oil for use in chemistry lessons at different levels of education. The advantage in using the microwave oven, in particular, is in reducing reaction time by almost 10 times compared to traditional experiments. Furthermore, the use of such appliances without adjustments, both of the oven as the blender, eliminates the need for sophisticated equipment and glassware high cost. The success of the reaction, even in these conditions, can be noticed by CCD analysis and 1H NMR spectrum. The realization of biodiesel synthesis in the classroom with the aforementioned tools allows relating chemical concepts such as transesterification reactions, saponification, combustion, stoichiometry and catalysis with environmental issues surrounding sustainable development, recycling and biofuel.

  9. Turbulence-assisted shear exfoliation of graphene using household detergent and a kitchen blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrla, Eswaraiah; Paton, Keith R.; Backes, Claudia; Harvey, Andrew; Smith, Ronan J.; McCauley, Joe; Coleman, Jonathan N.

    2014-09-01

    To facilitate progression from the lab to commercial applications, it will be necessary to develop simple, scalable methods to produce high quality graphene. Here we demonstrate the production of large quantities of defect-free graphene using a kitchen blender and household detergent. We have characterised the scaling of both graphene concentration and production rate with the mixing parameters: mixing time, initial graphite concentration, rotor speed and liquid volume. We find the production rate to be invariant with mixing time and to increase strongly with mixing volume, results which are important for scale-up. Even in this simple system, concentrations of up to 1 mg ml-1 and graphene masses of >500 mg can be achieved after a few hours mixing. The maximum production rate was ~0.15 g h-1, much higher than for standard sonication-based exfoliation methods. We demonstrate that graphene production occurs because the mean turbulent shear rate in the blender exceeds the critical shear rate for exfoliation.To facilitate progression from the lab to commercial applications, it will be necessary to develop simple, scalable methods to produce high quality graphene. Here we demonstrate the production of large quantities of defect-free graphene using a kitchen blender and household detergent. We have characterised the scaling of both graphene concentration and production rate with the mixing parameters: mixing time, initial graphite concentration, rotor speed and liquid volume. We find the production rate to be invariant with mixing time and to increase strongly with mixing volume, results which are important for scale-up. Even in this simple system, concentrations of up to 1 mg ml-1 and graphene masses of >500 mg can be achieved after a few hours mixing. The maximum production rate was ~0.15 g h-1, much higher than for standard sonication-based exfoliation methods. We demonstrate that graphene production occurs because the mean turbulent shear rate in the blender exceeds

  10. ILSI Task Force on enteral nutrition; estimated composition and costs of blenderized diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Borghi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Blenderized tube diets (BTD are used in some parts of Brazil and few studies have analyzed their features in comparison with industrialized preparations. Among 14 randomly collected BTD recipes 9 were poorly described or failed to standardize foodstuffs and portions and, consequently, nutrient and energy composition was difficult to define. Only five BTD allowed theoretical estimation of their nutritional properties. Macronutrient content was highly variable, often conflicting with accepted daily recommendations. According to the literature there are further disadvantages with BTD use including diet high risk of contamination, physical and chemical instability, and high osmolarity and viscosity. Nominal cost of BTD was comparatively low in relation to industrialized formulas; however we did not compute labor and indirect expenses, probably rendering final value more expensive than with the industrialized alternative. It is likely that within such circumstances, hospital and home care malnutrition will not be adequately dealt with and related complications may occur. It is concluded that the continued use of blenderized tube feeding diets requires careful assessment, prioritizing correction of potencial nutritional deficits by means of safe, balanced, chemically complete and effective nutritional prescriptions.

  11. ILSI Task Force on enteral nutrition; estimated composition and costs of blenderized diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Roseli; Dutra Araujo, Thalita; Airoldi Vieira, Roberta Ianni; Theodoro de Souza, Telma; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2013-01-01

    Blenderized tube diets (BTD) are used in some parts of Brazil and few studies have analyzed their features in comparison with industrialized preparations. Among 14 randomly collected BTD recipes 9 were poorly described or failed to standardize foodstuffs and portions and, consequently, nutrient and energy composition was difficult to define. Only five BTD allowed theoretical estimation of their nutritional properties. Macronutrient content was highly variable, often conflicting with accepted daily recommendations. According to the literature there are further disadvantages with BTD use including diet high risk of contamination, physical and chemical instability, and high osmolarity and viscosity. Nominal cost of BTD was comparatively low in relation to industrialized formulas; however we did not compute labor and indirect expenses, probably rendering final value more expensive than with the industrialized alternative. It is likely that within such circumstances, hospital and home care malnutrition will not be adequately dealt with and related complications may occur. It is concluded that the continued use of blenderized tube feeding diets requires careful assessment, prioritizing correction of potencial nutritional deficits by means of safe, balanced, chemically complete and effective nutritional prescriptions. PMID:24506385

  12. Diseño y fase de testing de un videojuego en Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Román Rodríguez, Ana

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto es diseñar y desarrollar la versión beta de un videojuego con la herramienta Blender en su versión 2.49b. Se trata de un videojuego, en el que el jugador se encontrará con tres niveles, que irán incrementando en dificultad según los vaya superando. Para ello contará con diversas habilidades que le ayudarán a la hora de conseguir el objetivo final y retos que tendrá que ir superando, y que le harán más complicado el camino hasta dicho objetivo. A su ve...

  13. fMRI data visualization with BrainBlend and Blender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Martin; Hertog, Matthias; Fernandez, Raul; Hauke, Sascha; Heider, Dominik; Dannlowski, Udo; Konrad, Carsten

    2010-03-01

    The visualization and exploration of neuroimaging data is important for the analysis of anatomical and functional magnetic resonance (MR) images and thresholded statistical parametric maps. While two-dimensional orthogonal views of neuroimaging data are used to display statistical analyses, real three-dimensional (3d) depictions are helpful for showing the spatial distribution of a functional network, as well as its temporal evolution. However, viewers that are freely available on the internet offer only limited rendering capabilities and depictions of temporal changes of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response. In this article, we present BrainBlend, a toolbox for the software package Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), that generates voxeldata files to be used with the open-source 3d-software "Blender". Our interface between SPM and Blender permits the use of any Analyze- and Nifti-file for the creation of images and animations of transparent volumetric objects. Different kinds of anatomical, functional and statistical data can be rendered as volumetric objects in order to convey an immediate understanding of the three-dimensional shape. Representations of functional networks can be animated using a time course extracted from the general linear model or the independent component analysis. Relative BOLD activations of functional MR-images can be calculated for a time-resolved depiction of hemodynamic changes. The resulting animation can be displayed along with its corresponding paradigm matrix and the presented stimuli. BrainBlend is particularly suitable for the visual exploration of interactions between functional networks, for time-resolved animations of BOLD changes and meets high demands on visual quality in images and animations. PMID:20033355

  14. An Analysis of the Technological Structure of Refineries and Blenders: Estimation of the Leontief Multiproduct Cost Function and Reservation Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Leontief multiproduct flexible cost function aims to give an approach to the technology used by refineries and blenders. In general, this cost function satisfies rational behavior restrictions imposed by economic theory. The estimated marginal costs are incorporated in a monopolistic competition model to calculate the virtual prices of other products provided by refineries and blenders in the hypothetical situation in which reformulated gasoline is absent in fuel markets. I have found that conventional gasoline and other product prices are greater than those in the mentioned hypothetical case. This result reflects the fact that consumers are being charged with high prices in order to have available a fuel which satisfies the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA regulations. Finally, when all the products become perfect substitutes, i.e. consumers are not interested in the quality of fuels, price differences tend to be negligibly small.

  15. Quantification of Tribocharging of Pharmaceutical Powders in V-Blenders: Experiments, Multiscale Modeling, and Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Shivangi; Hancock, Bruno; Abramov, Yuriy; Yu, Weili; Rowland, Martin; Huang, Zhonghui; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceutical powders are very prone to electrostatic charging by colliding and sliding contacts. In pharmaceutical formulation processes, particle charging is often a nuisance and can cause problems in the manufacture of products, such as affecting powder flow, fill, and dose uniformity. For a fundamental understanding of the powder triboelectrification, it is essential to study charge transfer under well-defined conditions. Hence, all experiments in the present study were conducted in a V-blender located inside a glove box with a controlled humidity of 20%. To understand tribocharging, different contact surfaces, namely aluminum, Teflon, poly methyl methacrylate, and nylon were used along with 2 pharmaceutical excipients and 2 drug substances. For the pharmaceutical materials, the work function values were estimated using MOPAC, a semiempirical molecular orbital package which has been previously used for the solid-state studies and molecular structure predictions. For a mechanistic understanding of tribocharging, a discrete element model incorporating charge transfer and electrostatic forces was developed. An effort was made to correlate tribocharging of pharmaceutical powders to properties such as cohesive energy density and surface energy. The multiscale model used is restricted as it considers only spherical particles with smooth surfaces. It should be used judiciously for other experimental assemblies because it does not represent a full validation of a tightly integrated model. PMID:26921122

  16. 3D for iPhone Apps with Blender and SIO2 Your Guide to Creating 3D Games and More with Open-Source Software

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Create exciting, interactive 3D apps for the iPhone and iPod Touch. What a combination-using free, open-source Blender software and the SI02 game engine to create very cool 3D characters and games for the very hot devices of the moment, the iPhone and iPod Touch. Whether you're coming to this as an iPhone developer or as a Blender artist, this book is for you. Learn how to create 3D content using Blender's WYSIWYG approach, find helpful information on Xcode and other iPhone SDK topics, master physical collisions, and acquire the skills you need to bridge both worlds with fun, compelling conten

  17. Powder and other divided solids mixing. Scale-up and parametric study of a ribbon blender used in pharmaceutical powders mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Pascal; Abatzoglou, Nicolas

    2006-02-01

    This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of ribbon blender operational parameters on mixture quality. Mix quality parameters and blend uniformity limits are enforced by regulatory bodies. These limits have served in this present work as targets for blending end-points. In a laboratory-scale model ribbon blender, built by scaling down a real industrial unit, powder mixtures composed of white and blue microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were blended. Blend uniformity was evaluated using a statistical analysis method under various operating conditions such as loading patterns, blender filling percentage, impeller rotational speeds, and mixing times. It was shown that the filling percentage is the most influential mixing parameter. At high impeller rotational speed, the blending end-point was never reached during experimentation.

  18. El uso del programa Blender con alumnos de 4º de la E.S.O. en la asignatura de informática

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara-Gracenea, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar la viabilidad y las ventajas que puede tener la inclusión del modelado y la animación 3D en la asignatura de informática en una clase de 4º de la E.S.O. Se realizará un estudio sobre el trabajo que se ha hecho hasta ahora en este sentido; para después llevar a cabo el diseño de una unidad didáctica. Para realizar el trabajo se ha optado por el programa Blender 3D (www.blender.org) por razones que más adelante se explican detalladamente. Se tratará ...

  19. Real-time monitoring of powder mixing in a convective blender using non-invasive reflectance NIR spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Luke J; Nordon, Alison; Littlejohn, David

    2008-01-01

    A convective blender based on a scaled down version of a high shear mixer-granulator was used to produce binary mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) and aspirin, citric acid, aspartame or povidone. Spectra of stationary Avicel or aspirin powder provided an indication of the information depth achieved with the NIR spectrometer used in the study, and confirmed previously reported effects of particle size and wavenumber. However, it was demonstrated that for 10% w/w aspirin in Avicel, the information depth at the C-H second overtone of aspirin (about 2.4 mm) was unaffected by changes in the particle size of aspirin and was determined by the major component. By making non-invasive NIR measurements as powders were mixed, it was possible to illustrate differences in the mixing characteristics of aspirin, citric acid, aspartame or povidone with Avicel, which were related to differences in the cohesive properties of the particles. Mixing profiles based on second overtone signals were better for quantitative analysis than those derived from first overtone measurements. It was also demonstrated that the peak-to-peak noise of the mixing profile obtained from the second overtone of aspirin changed linearly with the particle size of aspirin added to Avicel. Hence, measurement of the mixing profile in real time with NIR spectrometry provided simultaneously the opportunity to study the dynamics of powder mixing, make quantitative measurements and monitor possible changes in particle size during blending. PMID:18087614

  20. Finger injuries by fast rotating blades: A case report of an accident with a blender and the intervention of the fire brigade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillenbrand, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] We present a case report of a 27-year-old female who had an accident with a blender. She was brought to the Emergency Department having pinched her left forefinger between the blades. Previous attempts by the local fire brigade to free the finger initially failed. After several attempts it finally succeeded by turning it carefully away from the blade. Although first impressions of the accident might have expected a worse injury, fortunately it just showed a nail bed cut. Most accidents of this type cause serious injuries with the involvement of vessels, nerves, tendons, muscles or bones.

  1. An Analytic Network Process approach for the environmental aspect selection problem — A case study for a hand blender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereketli Zafeirakopoulos, Ilke, E-mail: ibereketli@gsu.edu.tr; Erol Genevois, Mujde, E-mail: merol@gsu.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess, in a systematic way, the environmental aspects and its potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product's life cycle. It is widely accepted and considered as one of the most powerful tools to support decision-making processes used in ecodesign and sustainable production in order to learn about the most problematic parts and life cycle phases of a product and to have a projection for future improvements. However, since Life Cycle Assessment is a cost and time intensive method, companies do not intend to carry out a full version of it, except for large corporate ones. Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, which do not have enough budget for and knowledge on sustainable production and ecodesign approaches, focusing only on the most important possible environmental aspect is unavoidable. In this direction, finding the right environmental aspect to work on is crucial for the companies. In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, Analytic Network Process is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. The proposed methodology aims at providing a simplified environmental assessment to producers. It is applied for a hand blender, which is a member of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment family. The decision criteria for the environmental aspects and relations of dependence are defined. The evaluation is made by the Analytic Network Process in order to create a realistic approach to inter-dependencies among the criteria. The results are computed via the Super Decisions software. Finally, it is observed that the procedure is completed in less time, with less data, with less cost and in a less subjective way than conventional approaches. - Highlights: • We present a simplified environmental assessment methodology to support LCA. • ANP is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. • ANP deals well with the interdependencies between aspects

  2. Auto-generation of mine shaft engineering model based on Blender%基于Blender的矿山井巷模型自动生成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊绵国; 朱权洁; 刘晓云; 吕垒; 盛建龙

    2012-01-01

    以开源三维软件Blender和矿山基础信息库为资源,利用Python编程语言提出矿山井巷几何模型的计算方法,并通过Blender自带Python API调用Blender建模引擎,从而实现对矿山井巷三维模型的自动生成.运行结果表明所设计的模型简单易行,完全开源后无需软件费用.%Based on the open-source 3D software Blender and mining-based information database, this paper uses the Python programming language to arrive at the calculation method of mine geometric model. By calling Blender modeling engine through Python API, it has realized the auto-generation of 3D model of the mine shaft engineering. The model is found to be simple, feasible and what's more, costless thanks to the use of completely open-source software.

  3. A Study of 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data Based on the Blender%基于 Blender的天文数据三维可视化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱旭冉; 朱明; 蔡栩

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy is entering a new era of discovery.Employing new facilities for observation and computation will routinely generate data in large amounts.It becomes increasingly important to efficiently process and display astronomical data.While visualization and analysis tools specialized for astronomy are being developed, it is also a trend to modify and integrate software packages in other scientific disciplines to work for astronomical data.As an example of the trend, we adapt the Blender, a graphic software tool with a flexible user interface and an enhanced development environment.In this paper we present the implementation of two Python modules as plugins for the Blender to display 3D spectral-line data cube and make 3D animations of N-body simulations.%天文学是一门以观测为基础的古老学科,在不同波段的各种形式天文望远镜的观测已经积累了大量的数据,天文学领域对数据的处理与展示有着很高的要求与期望。目前有很多团队着力于开发天文数据的可视化分析工具和软件,同时,有很多其他领域的软件,通过整合和修改也可以应用到天文数据上。介绍了对三维建模软件Blender的工具包的再开发,结合其内置的Python API和BPY库,实现对常用天文数据三维数据单元( Data Cube)和N体模拟结果的实时静态和动态三维可视化。

  4. The intestine is a blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Kravets, Victoria; Hu, David

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines Contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  5. Development of virtual morphometric globes using Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Florinsky, I. V.; Filippov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Virtual globes - programs implementing interactive three-dimensional (3D) models of planets - are increasingly used in geosciences. Global morphometric models can be useful for tectonic and planetary studies. We describe the development of the first testing version of the system of virtual morphometric globes for the Earth, Mars, and the Moon. As the initial data, we used three 15'-gridded global digital elevation models (DEMs) extracted from SRTM30_PLUS, the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and...

  6. Nuclear blenders: blended learning from Rensselaer's Reactor Critical Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensselaer's senior level undergraduate nuclear engineering course 'Critical Reactor Laboratory' is highly regarded and much loved. If you can get in, that is. But now it's a required course, nuclear engineering enrollment is up, and others are knocking on our door to get in. How might one offer such a unique course to the masses, without losing the whole point of a laboratory experience? This presentation looks at the costs and benefits of the transition to a 'blended learning' mode -- the merging of traditional, face-to-face instruction and web-based instruction as a solution. As part of the presentation, the course and the facility will be highlighted by short excepts from the 50 minute movie 'Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Neutron Chain Reactions (but were afraid to ask)'.

  7. Hybrid Acoustic Modelling of Historic Spaces Using Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Van Mourik, Jelle; Oxnard, Stephen; Foteinou, Aglaia; Murphy, Damian Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historic spaces provide a challenge in terms of achieving accurate acoustic modelling and auralisation due to the large volumes typically involved, implying significant computational overhead, uncertainty in terms of the construction materials’ properties, and translating this into appropriate physically based boundary conditions. Hybrid acoustic modeling approaches seek to solve the computational problem through complementary assimilation of various modeling paradigms. SonicRender is such a ...

  8. Avoimen lähdekoodin Blender vs. kaupallinen 3ds Max

    OpenAIRE

    Siira, Jarmo

    2007-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan avoimen ja suljetun lähdekoodin eroja. Avoimen lähdekoodin ohjelmissa lähdekoodi on kaikkien nähtävissä ja muokattavissa. Avoimia ohjelmia saa kopioida, muokata ja myydä vapaasti, kunhan lähdekoodi pysyy avoimena. Suljetun lähdekoodin ohjelmia ei yleensä saa levittää vapaasti, eikä lähdekoodi ole nähtävillä. Työssä perehdytään avoimen ja suljetun lähdekoodin ohjelmistokehityksen hyviin ja huonoihin puoliin sekä tuloksiin. Tärkein osio työstä on kuitenkin kahde...

  9. BLENDER VS. 3DS MAX : Case Panssarivaunun 3D-mallinnus

    OpenAIRE

    Kaistila, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Tässä toiminnallisessa opinnäytetyössä käsitellään 3D-mallinnuksen työnkulkua ja oppimiskäyrää kaupallisen ja avoimen lähdekoodin ohjelmistossa. Juuri nämä vertailukohteet valittiin, koska näiden ohjelmistojen kohdalla kyetään hyödyntämään henkilökohtaista kokemusta opintojen ajalta. Työn tarkoituksena on tuoda esiin ohjelmien vahvuudet ja heikkoudet käyttäjän näkökulmasta. Tutkimusmenetelmäksi valittiin kvalitatiivinen menetelmä. Vertailu opinnäytteessä kohdistuu käyttöliittymään, ohjelmi...

  10. HELP: XID+, The Probabilistic De-blender for Herschel SPIRE maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, P. D.; Oliver, S.; Betancourt, M.; Clarke, C.; Cowley, W. I.; Duivenvoorden, S.; Farrah, D.; Griffin, M.; Lacey, C.; Le Floc'h, E.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sargent, M.; Scudder, J. M.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Wang, L.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a new prior-based source extraction tool, XID+, to carry out photometry in the Herschel SPIRE maps at the positions of known sources. XID+ is developed using a probabilistic Bayesian framework which provides a natural framework in which to include prior information, and uses the Bayesian inference tool Stan to obtain the full posterior probability distribution on flux estimates. In this paper, we discuss the details of XID+ and demonstrate the basic capabilities and performance by running it on simulated SPIRE maps resembling the COSMOS field, and comparing to the current prior-based source extraction tool DESPHOT. We show that not only does XID+ perform better on metrics such as flux accuracy and flux uncertainty accuracy, we illustrate how obtaining the posterior probability distribution can help overcome some of the issues inherent with maximum likelihood based source extraction routines. We run XID+ on the COSMOS SPIRE maps from HerMES, using a 24 μm catalogue as a positional prior, and a uniform flux prior ranging from 0.01 to 1000 mJy. We show the marginalised SPIRE colour-colour plot and marginalised contribution to the cosmic infrared background at the SPIRE wavelengths. XID+ is a core tool arising from the Herschel Extragalactic Legacy Project (HELP) and we discuss how additional work within HELP providing prior information on fluxes can and will be utilised. The software is available at https://github.com/H-E-L-P/XID_plus. We also provide the data product for COSMOS. We believe this is the first time that the full posterior probability of galaxy photometry has been provided as a data product.

  11. HELP: XID+, The Probabilistic De-blender for Herschel SPIRE maps

    CERN Document Server

    Hurley, P D; Betancourt, M; Clarke, C; Cowley, W I; Duivenvoorden, S; Farrah, D; Griffin, M; Lacey, C; Floc'h, E Le; Papadopoulos, A; Sargent, M; Scudder, J M; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Wang, L

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new prior-based source extraction tool, XID+, to carry out photometry in the Herschel SPIRE maps at the positions of known sources. XID+ is developed using a probabilistic Bayesian framework which provides a natural framework in which to include prior information, and uses the Bayesian inference tool, Stan, to obtain the full posterior probability distribution on flux estimates. In this paper, we discuss the details of XID+ and demonstrate the basic capabilities and performance by running it on simulated SPIRE maps resembling the COSMOS field, and comparing to the current prior-based source extraction tool DESPHOT. We show that not only does XID+ perform better on metrics such as flux accuracy and flux uncertainty accuracy, we illustrate how obtaining the posterior probability distribution can help overcome some of the issues inherent with maximum likelihood based source extraction routines. We run XID+ on the COSMOS SPIRE maps from HerMES, using a 24 $\\mathrm{\\mu m}$ catalogue as a prior ...

  12. Bacterial contamination of blenderized whole food and commercial enteral tube feedings in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M M; Sorreda-Esguerra, P; Santos, E E; Platon, B G; Castro, C G; Idrisalman, E R; Chen, N R; Shott, S; Comer, G M

    2001-12-01

    Hospital-prepared tube feedings from four Philippine acute-care hospitals were analysed for microbial contamination. Two feedings were prepared on three separate days at each hospital. The tube feedings were either blended natural whole foods or a reconstituted commercial powdered nutritional product. Samples of each feeding were collected for coliform count and standard plate count at the time of preparation and at 1, 2 and 4 h after preparation after maintenance at room temperature (26-31 degrees C). At the time of preparation, mean coliform and standard plate counts for all samples were 10.3 most probable number per gram (MPN/g) and 7.4x10(4)colony-forming units per gram (cfu/g), respectively. Nine of 24 samples (38%) had coliform counts greater than 10 MPN/g, and 22/24 (92%) samples had standard plate counts greater than 10(3) cfu/g. There were significant increases in mean coliform and standard plate counts over 4 h (P=0.0005 and P=0.008, respectively). At 4 h after preparation, the mean coliform and standard plate counts were 18.2 MPN/g and 2.1x10(5) cfu/g, respectively. At this time, 18/24 (75%) samples had coliform counts greater than 10 MPN/g and 20/24 (83%) samples had standard plate counts greater than 10(5) cfu/g. The results of this study show that the microbial quality of the majority of the hospital-prepared enteral tube feedings analysed were not within published guidelines for safety.

  13. Submarine Blender's Blade 3D Model Parametric Design%搅拌器转轮三维造型的参数化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪红云; 吴春笃; 储金宇

    2007-01-01

    搅拌器转轮的性能好坏关系到污水处理的效果,目前设计主要是依靠二维平面的CAD设计.为了能够更直观地表达出所设计转轮实际的形状,便于生产加工,利用Pro/ENGINEER软件的二次开发功能,基于参数化的设计,通过编制程序,实现了转轮的三维自动造型,为以后的批量设计生产打下一定的基础.

  14. 77 FR 69620 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... renewable fuels and any party who own/intend to own RINs which include blenders, brokers and marketers... RINs which include blenders, brokers and marketers dropped from 3000 responses to 1650 thus...

  15. The Study of SIMCA, PLS-DA, WT-ANN Models for Coconut Oil Blender Qualitative Identification%基于SIMCA、PLS-DA、WT-ANN模型的椰子油掺混定性识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹飞宇; 王兴国; 陈卫军; 王挥

    2016-01-01

    根据不同油脂的紫外特征光谱,利用SIMCA,PLS-DA,WT-ANN 3种模型对椰子油中掺混大豆油、葵花籽油和玉米油的油脂类别进行判定分析.结果显示,WT-ANN对3种掺混油脂类别的识别效果最佳,预测集R2分别达到了0.998 9(大豆油)、0.981 1(葵花籽油)、0.999 9(玉米油),且在不同浓度下识别率均达到了100%,而SIMCA和PLS-DA的识别准确度相对较低,且受掺混浓度的影响较大.WT-ANN结合紫外光谱是一种有效判定椰子油中掺混油脂类别的分析方法.

  16. 高龄卧床患者鼻饲自制匀浆膳食鼻饲量及其间隔时间%The elderly bedridden patients with nasogastric tube feeding and home-made blenderized diet time interval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄丽辉; 黄鑫

    2015-01-01

    objective:to explore-bed nasogastric homemade homogenate diet in patients with nasal feeding amount and time interval. Methods:choose from June 2013 to June 2015 treated 80 cases of senile patients in bed, is divided into two groups, using different number of nasogastric, nasal feeding amount, contrast and the incidence of adverse reactions observed two groups of patients as well as the body quality and so on. Results:the incidence of complications (15%) of patients with observation group was obviously lower than the control group (45%), significant differences (P<0.05). Conclusion:the impact of different nasogastric scheme for the patient.%目的:探析高龄卧床患者鼻饲自制匀浆膳食鼻饲量及其间隔时间。方法:选我院2013年6月至2015年6月收治的80例高龄卧床患者,分成两组,采用不同的鼻饲次数、鼻饲量,对比与观察两组患者的不良反应发生率以及体质量等。结果:观察组患者并发症发生率(15%)明显低于对照组(45%),差异性显著(P<0.05)。结论:不同的鼻饲方案对患者产生的影响不同。

  17. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE OS MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO DE METACERCÁRIAS DE ASCOCOTYLE SP (TREMATODA: DIGENEA DOS TECIDOS DE MUGIL LIZA VALENCIENNES, 1836 (TELEOSTEI: MUGILIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand and consumption of fish and their derivatives has increased considerably in recent years. However, fish are ideal hosts of numerous parasites, highlighting the need to develop new research methodologies for its detection. The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of Ascocotyle metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea extraction from visceral tissues of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 (Teleostei: Mugilidae by two methods: homogenization by blender or mixer. Twentysix samples of M. liza were collected, being 16 liver samples and 10 samples of muscle tissue. Approximately 5g of each sample were processed by blender and mixer techniques homogenization for metacercariae extraction. In liver samples, up to 46 metacercariae were found in samples homogenized in blender. The lowest amount found was 2 metacercariae for blender and mixer techniques. In samples of muscle tissue, 4 metacercariae were observed in the mixer extraction. The lowest amount was found to be 2 parasites to blender and mixer. The mean metacercariae found and extracted from muscle tissue were 0.2 (+0.357 and 1.2 (+0.963 for blender and mixer, respectively. The averages of metacercariae found and extracted from fish liver, in blender and mixer, were 24 (+15.145 and 18 (+8.246, respectively. The homogenization techniques for blender and mixer were effective for the extraction of metacercariae of mullet fish tissues, suggesting that they may be directly applicable in the field of study, especially due to the ease of testing.

  18. 40 CFR 80.28 - Liability for violations of gasoline volatility controls and prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... refiner (if he is not an ethanol blender) at whose refinery the gasoline was produced or the importer at...; (3) The ethanol blender (if any) at whose ethanol blending plant the gasoline was produced, except as... whose ethanol blending plant the gasoline was produced, except as provided in paragraph (g)(6) or...

  19. Design and analysis of two-layer anonymous communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-ping; WANG Jian-xin

    2007-01-01

    A new architecture for scalable anonymous communication system(SACS) was proposed. The users were divided into several subgroups managed by different sub-blenders, and all sub-blenders were managed by the main-blender using two layers management scheme. The identity information of members are distributed on different sub-blenders, which makes each member keep much less information and network overload greatly reduce. The anonymity and the overhead of the new scheme were analyzed and compared with that of Crowds, which shows the cost of storage and network overhead for the new scheme largely decreases while the anonymity is little degraded. The experiment results also show that the new system architecture is well scalable. The ratio of management cost of SACS to that of Crowds is about 1:25 while the value of P(I|H1+) only increases by 0.001-0.020, which shows that SACS keeps almost the same anonymity with Crowds.

  20. 26 CFR 48.4101-1 - Taxable fuel; registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... person is— (1) A feedstock user; (2) A gasohol blender; (3) An industrial user; (4) A throughputter that... information reports required under section 4101(d); (iv) Make available for inspection on demand by...

  1. Uusika Muudised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    BBC kokkuvõttest Inglismaa raadiojaamade enimmängitavatest artistidest ; USA muusikaajakirja Blender avaldatud halvimate poplaulude pingereast ; Ansambli Cure uuest ilmuvast heliplaadist ; Ansambli Spice Girls taasühinemisplaanidest

  2. Comment on "Scaling of atmosphere and ocean temperature correlations in observations and climate models"

    CERN Document Server

    Bunde, A; Havlin, S; Koscielny-Bunde, E; Schellnhuber, H J; Vjushin, D; Bunde, Armin; Eichner, Jan F.; Havlin, Shlomo; Koscielny-Bunde, Eva; Schellnhuber, Hans J.; Vjushin, Dmitry

    2003-01-01

    In a recent letter [K. Fraedrich and R. Blender, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 108501 (2003)], Fraedrich and Blender studied the scaling of atmosphere and ocean temperature. They analyzed monthly temperature records by using the detrended fluctuation analysis and claim that the scaling exponent alpha over the inner continents is equal to 0.5, being characteristic of uncorrelated random sequences. Here we show that also for the inner continents, the exponent is between 0.6 and 0.7, similar as for the coastline-stations.

  3. 40 CFR 80.69 - Requirements for downstream oxygenate blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for downstream oxygenate... downstream oxygenate blending. The requirements of this section apply to all reformulated gasoline blendstock... annual compliance period; (D) A process for notifying oxygenate blenders and other downstream parties...

  4. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-17

    This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

  5. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

  6. Selecting Toys and Gifts for Severely Mentally and Physically Handicapped People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Learning Resources System/Child Serve, Scottdale.

    Suggestions are given regarding selection of gifts and toys for severely handicapped persons. General principles (such as safety and durability) are followed by specific suggestions about clothes, food, toys (including musical instruments and balls), books and records, and various types of equipment (such as blenders for food preparation, tape…

  7. Effect of resination technique on mechanical properties of medium density fiberboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Ayrilmis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different resination techniques relative to the mechanical properties of commercially produced thick medium density fiberboard (MDF were investigated. The amount of urea-formaldehyde resin (11 wt% applied to the wood fibers was gradually decreased in the blowline (11, 10.5, 10, and 9.5 wt%, while it was gradually increased in the short-retention blender (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5. wt%. The internal bond strength of the MDF boards considerably improved as the amount of the resin applied to the fibers in the short-retention blender was increased to 1.5 wt%. In particular, the increase in the IB strength was most pronounced as the resin content increased from 1 to 1.5%. The edge and face screw withdrawal resistances increased by 7.7 and 7.9% as the amount of the resin applied to the fibers in the blender was increased. Similar values were also observed for the flexural properties. Overall, the total resin content in the production of thick MDF can be decreased as blender resination, a means of post-dryer resin addition, is incorporated into the blowline resination technique.

  8. Development of Technology for Immobilization of Waste Salt from Electrorefining Spent Nuclear Fuel in Zeolite-A for Eventual Disposition in a Ceramic Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Simpson; Prateek Sachdev

    2008-04-01

    The results of process development for the blending of waste salt from the electrorefining of spent fuel with zeolite-A are presented. This blending is a key step in the ceramic waste process being used for treatment of EBR-II spent fuel and is accomplished using a high-temperature v-blender. A labscale system was used with non-radioactive surrogate salts to determine optimal particle size distributions and time at temperature. An engineering-scale system was then installed in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility hot cell and used to demonstrate blending of actual electrorefiner salt with zeolite. In those tests, it was shown that the results are still favorable with actinide-loaded salt and that batch size of this v-blender could be increased to a level consistent with efficient production operations for EBR-II spent fuel treatment. One technical challenge that remains for this technology is to mitigate the problem of material retention in the v-blender due to formation of caked patches of salt/zeolite on the inner v-blender walls.

  9. 40 CFR 80.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... altering either the quality or quantity of the gasoline or diesel fuel. (u) Ethanol blending plant means any refinery at which gasoline is produced solely through the addition of ethanol to gasoline, and at which the quality or quantity of gasoline is not altered in any other manner. (v) Ethanol blender...

  10. 40 CFR 80.140 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as corrosion inhibitors, antioxidants, metal deactivators, and handling solvents. Detergent blender... in 40 CFR part 80, subpart A, or, if not defined in 40 CFR part 80, subpart A, shall have the meaning given them in 40 CFR part 79, subpart A. Additization means the addition of detergent to gasoline...

  11. Nutrition After Fifty: Tips and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eggs 4 egg whites ½-1 Tbsp. canola oil 2-3 cloves garlic (or to taste), minced 3 cups finely ... 2 Tbsp. flour ⅛ tsp. nutmeg Pinch of cloves Vanilla nonfat frozen yogurt ... running blender, drizzle oil and blend 30 seconds. Transfer to bowl and ...

  12. 21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. 589...) Blender means any firm or individual which obtains processed animal protein from more than one source or... determined that protein derived from mammalian tissues for use in ruminant feed is a food additive subject...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4081-6 - Gasoline; gasohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gasoline; gasohol. 48.4081-6 Section 48.4081-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE... blender, is in substantially the same form as the model certificate provided in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)...

  14. 40 CFR 80.104 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produced or imported; (vii) The product transfer documents for any conventional gasoline received; (viii... or importer, including the contract with the oxygenate blender and records relating to the audits... that the gasoline was produced or imported for use in Alaska, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  15. Preparation and characterization of cellulose gels from corn cobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueous cellulose gels were prepared by extraction of ground corn cobs with hot aqueous sodium hydroxide/sodium hypochlorite and shearing. Initial shearing in a blender broke up cob tissue structure into individual cells and resulted in a gel. Subsequent shearing in a high pressure homogenizer incre...

  16. 3D-grafiikka ja pelimoottorit

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan miten 3D-mallit saadaan sellaiseen muotoon, että ne olisivat käytettävissä eri pelimoottoreissa. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten luodaan 3D-malleja pelimoottoreihin, sekä miten 3D-mallinnusohjelmat ja pelimoottorit eroavat toisistaan, kun käsitellään 3D-malleja. Tässä työssä pelimoottoreina toimivat Valven Source sekä Epic Gamesin Unreal Engine 3. 3D-mallinnusohjelmista käytössä olivat Autodeskin 3ds Max 2014 ja Blender Foundationin Blender 2.7...

  17. FRELLED: A realtime volumetric data viewer for astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R.

    2015-11-01

    I present a new FITS viewer designed to explore 3D spectral line data (in particular H I) and assist with visual source extraction and analysis. Using the artistic software Blender, FRELLED can visualize even large (∼6003 voxels) data sets at high frame rates (≳ 10 f.p.s.) in 3D. Blender's interface enables easy navigation within the 3D environment, and the FRELLED scripts support world coordinate systems. A variety of tools are included to aid source extraction and analysis, including interactively masking data (using 3D polyhedra of arbitrary complexity), querying NED, calculating the flux in specified volumes, generating contour plots and overlaying optical data. It includes tools to overlay n-body particle data, and multi-volume rendering is supported. The interface is designed to make cataloguing sources as easy as possible and I show that this can be as much as a factor of 50 times faster than using other viewers.

  18. FRELLED : A Realtime Volumetric Data Viewer For Astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    I present a new FITS viewer designed to explore 3D spectral line data (in particular HI) and assist with visual source extraction and analysis. Using the artistic software Blender, FRELLED can visualise even large (~600^3 voxels) data sets at high frame rates (10 f.p.s.) in 3D. Blender's interface enables easy navigation within the 3D environment, and the FRELLED scripts support world coordinate systems. A variety of tools are included to aid source extraction and analysis, including interactively masking data (using 3D polyhedra of arbitrary complexity), querying NED, calculating the flux in specified volumes, generating contour plots and overlaying optical data. It includes tools to overlay n-body particle data, and multi-volume rendering is supported. The interface is designed to make cataloguing sources as easy as possible and I show that this can be as much as a factor of 50 times faster than using other viewers.

  19. Methodological proposal for the volumetric study of archaeological ceramics through 3D edition free-software programs: the case of the celtiberians cemeteries of the meseta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez Climent

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the free-software programs have been converted into the ideal tools for the archaeological researches, reaching the same level as other commercial programs. For that reason, the 3D modeling tool Blender has reached in the last years a great popularity offering similar characteristics like other commercial 3D editing programs such as 3D Studio Max or AutoCAD. Recently, it has been developed the necessary script for the volumetric calculations of three-dimnesional objects, offering great possibilities to calculate the volume of the archaeological ceramics. In this paper, we present a methodological approach for the volumetric studies with Blender and a study case of funerary urns from several celtiberians cemeteries of the Spanish Meseta. The goal is to demonstrate the great possibilities that the 3D editing free-software tools have in the volumetric studies at the present time.

  20. Pressurized hopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Secure Automated Fuel Fabrication Line is being developed to reduce personnel exposure and to improve safeguards. Fertile and fissile fuel powders are blended in the line for making fuel pellets. A pressurized hopper was developed for use not only as a blender, but also as a storage and feeding device. It works with or without injection tubes to produce a well-blended powder with reduced agglomerate population. Results of blending experiments using dry Kaolin clay and Tempra pigment are given

  1. Demonstration of protocol for computer-aided forensic facial reconstruction with free software and photogrammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Cícero André da Costa Moraes; Paulo Eduardo Miamoto Dias; Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Forensic facial reconstruction (FFR) is an auxiliary technique that approximates a face in order to generate identifications. Technological development allows access to open software that can be applied to FFR. The demonstrated protocol has features from creating 3D replicas of the skull to finishing and displaying the reconstruction. PPT GUI is used for 3D scanning, and the resulting point cloud is converted into a 3D mesh in MeshLab. The sculpture is made in Blender, according to t...

  2. Study of 3D-modelling software environments

    OpenAIRE

    Егорова, Ирина Николаевна; Гайдамащук, Алиса Владимировна

    2013-01-01

    The study of three-dimensional modeling software packages such as Autodesk Maya, Autodesk 3Ds Studio Max, Lightwave 3D, Maxon Cinema 4D, Blender, ZBrush was conducted in the paper. The analysis of software packages allowed to identify the most effective ones. These were Autodesk Maya, Autodesk 3Ds Studio Max and ZBrush packages. The selected software packages were used for the creation of a computer scene, the main elements of which are interior, character and animation. Practical research al...

  3. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  4. The story of global patent inventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces the global patent inventions, which are soap floating on the water, computer, radar, zipper, fuel cell, a raincoat, a pencil, a ball point pen, vitamin, an ice saw, a subway, post it, endoscope, ultrasonic detector, machine to pierce the hall, hair-restorer, a refrigerator, tricycle tractor of Benz steam engine of watt, carburettor, aluminum smelting process, video game, ice cream freezer, lead powder, piling system, burner using infrared rays, small projector, blender for recycling of resource, and artificial silk.

  5. Simulating complex robotic scenarios with MORSE

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverria, Gilberto; Lemaignan, Séverin; Degroote, Arnaud; Lacroix, Simon; Karg, Michael; Koch, Pierrick; Lesire, Charles; Stinckwich, Serge

    2012-01-01

    MORSE is a robotic simulation software developed by roboticists from several research laboratories. It is a framework to evaluate robotic algorithms and their integration in complex environments, modeled with the Blender 3D real-time engine which brings realistic rendering and physics simulation. The simulations can be specified at various levels of abstraction. This enables researchers to focus on their field of interest, that can range from processing low-level sensor data to the integratio...

  6. Roles for evolving markets, policies, and technology improvements in U.S. corn ethanol industry development

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews changes in markets, technologies, and policies that affect corn ethanol profit-ability and industry expansion. Historically, the corn ethanol industry was stimulated by high petro-fuel prices, successful corn and processing technology improvements, and government incentives, such as a blenders' tax credit and mandated markets defined by the leaded fuel ban and reformulated fuel. Presently, the corn ethanol industry has expanded slightly beyond the point of a normal capita...

  7. Pemanfaatan Limbah Kulit Jeruk Keprok (Citrus Reticulata Blanco syn) Sebagai Bahan Penguat Nanokertas Selulosa Bakteri Dari Air Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Ichwani, Reisya

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibres combined with cellulose of orange peels organic waste (OP) have been used for the providing nanopaper. BC pellicle that has been crushed by home blender and combined with cellulose of orange peels in various concentration. The content of cellulose in bacterial cellulose pellicle is 4,53 % in nanosized and the cellulose content in the orange peels is 5,63 % in microsized. After preparing in sheet, the characterization has been done including m...

  8. Mii School: New 3D Technologies Applied in Education to Detect Drug Abuses and Bullying in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, José Alberto; Espínola, Moisés; Cangas, Adolfo J.; Iribarne, Luis

    Mii School is a 3D school simulator developed with Blender and used by psychology researchers for the detection of drugs abuses, bullying and mental disorders in adolescents. The school simulator created is an interactive video game where the players, in this case the students, have to choose, along 17 scenes simulated, the options that better define their personalities. In this paper we present a technical characteristics description and the first results obtained in a real school.

  9. Authenticity analysis of citrus essential oils by HPLC-UV-MS on oxygenated heterocyclic components

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Fan; Qingli Wu; Simon, James E.; Shyi-Neng Lou; Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-01-01

    Citrus essential oils are widely applied in food industry as the backbone of citrus flavors. Unfortunately, due to relatively simple chemical composition and tremendous price differences among citrus species, adulteration has been plaguing the industry since its inception. Skilled blenders are capable of making blends that are almost indistinguishable from authentic oils through conventional gas chromatography analysis. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was...

  10. Izdelava spletnega učbenika za 3D modeliranje v Blenderju

    OpenAIRE

    Čuk, Marjeta

    2016-01-01

    V teoretičnem delu diplomskega dela smo opisali e–izobraževanje in sisteme za upravljanje vsebin in izobraževanja. V empiričnem delu smo izdelali prototip interaktivnega spletnega učbenika za 3D modeliranje v programu Blender za vaje pri predmetu Digitalno 3d oblikovanje 1 dodiplomskega študija Oblikovanja tekstilij in oblačil. V prvem sklopu empiričnega dela smo opisali pripravo vsebine spletnega učbenika in programskih orodij, s katerimi smo vsebino pripravili. Sledi opis namestitve l...

  11. PCs The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, David

    2005-01-01

    Your vacuum comes with one. Even your blender comes with one. But your PC--something that costs a whole lot more and is likely to be used daily and for tasks of far greater importance and complexity--doesn't come with a printed manual. Thankfully, that's not a problem any longer: PCs: The Missing Manual explains everything you need to know about PCs, both inside and out, and how to keep them running smoothly and working the way you want them to work. A complete PC manual for both beginners and power users, PCs: The Missing Manual has something for everyone. PC novices will appreciate the una

  12. PolyGraph: a Polymer Visualization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutkosky, Ashok; Tarazi, Najeeb; Lieberman Aiden, Erez

    2012-02-01

    Rapid advances in computational hardware and parallelization have made complex simulations of large polymers increasingly ubiquitous. However, visualizing such simulations remains a challenge. Here we present PolyGraph, a Blender-powered visualization system for complex polymer simulations. As a specific example, we study molecular dynamics simulations of condensing polymers. We illustrate our initial simulation results, suggesting that formation of local beads is an initial step in the condensation process. (This finding is consistent with earlier conjectures about polymer condensation.) PolyGraph makes it possible to create precise and visually appealing clips of polymer simulations. *contributed equally

  13. Design of an interactive game-based application for improving the resolution of common Computer Network issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ciau Uitzil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The need to find new ways to help students in the learning process makes us more involved with technology which evolves every day. This background leads us to find new methods and forms of teaching that help students accelerate their learning skills in a different way from the traditional, as in the case of learning through play, a concept that has been used in many games which have had great impact recently, becoming an innovative tool for learning. This paper shows the design of an interactive game-based application developed with Blender 2.49b tool to be implemented in the area of computer networks.

  14. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE JOGO DE COMPUTADOR PARA INTERAÇÃO ENTRE UMA PESSOA PORTADORA DE DEFICIÊNCIA VISUAL E OUTRA NÃO PORTADORA

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Ikeda; Mário Augusto Pazoti

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a computer game that allows interaction between two users, one of them visually impaired, to be guided by sound alerts. According to the IBGE census of 2000, about 10% of the population has complete or partial visual impairment. There are not many tools available that allow such interaction. To develop this game we have used free tools like Audacity and Blender3D. The result of the work was very satisfactory and highlights the interest and need for enter...

  15. Three-dimensional modeling and highly refined mesh generation of the aorta artery and its tunics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazotto, J. A.; Neves, L. A.; Machado, J. M.; Momente, J. C.; Shiyou, Y.; Godoy, M. F.; Zafalon, G. F. D.; Pinto, A. R.; Valêncio, C. R.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes strategies and techniques to perform modeling and automatic mesh generation of the aorta artery and its tunics (adventitia, media and intima walls), using open source codes. The models were constructed in the Blender package and Python scripts were used to export the data necessary for the mesh generation in TetGen. The strategies proposed are able to provide meshes of complicated and irregular volumes, with a large number of mesh elements involved (12,000,000 tetrahedrons approximately). These meshes can be used to perform computational simulations by Finite Element Method (FEM).

  16. 3D-mallinnuksen ja visualisoinnin hyödyntäminen asennusohjeessa

    OpenAIRE

    Tumelius, Hanne-Mari

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tilaajana oli oululainen mekaniikkasuunnitteluyritys Conseptas Oy. Työn tavoitteena oli tehdä kuvallinen ohjeistus ja animaatio samasta asennuksesta ja vertailla niitä keskenään. Tavoitteena oli myös käyttää ilmaista Blender-ohjelmaa animaation tekemiseen. Työn aikana paneuduttiin mallinnusteoriaan ja visualisointiin. CAD-ohjelmilla kappale mallinnetaan parametrisesti. Mallinnuksessa voidaan käyttää Bottom-up- tai Top-Down-suunnittelua. Suunnittelutöissä käytetään usein eri...

  17. The RIN Market as a New Stage in the Development of Environmentally Friendly Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Kakorina; Timerkhan Bakhautdinov; Elias Dmitriev

    2014-01-01

    Since the signing of the US Energy Policy Act of 2005 by US President G.W.Bush a new market has been organized for trading a specific financial asset called Renewable Identification Numbers (RIN). RIN is a security, whose price is a tax stimulating fuel blenders and consumers in the USA to use more ecological fuels. The aim of this working paper is to introduce Russian readers to the basics of the RIN market, as information about the market is still scarce in Russian. In particular, we discus...

  18. An Experimental Study on Gravity Blending Silo with an Inner Downcomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel gravity blender with an inner downcomer was experimentallystudied in this work. The flow characteristics of solid through thedowncomer with branch pipes and the influence of the number of intakeopenings and their axial position along the downcomer on blendingefficiency were investigated. The results of tracer experiments showthat better blending quality can be obtained if the intake openingsalong the downcomer are designated according to the equal time intervalprinciple. More intake openings are beneficial for blending efficiency,and the solids flow rate through the branch pipes along the downcomercan be predicted by the Beverloo equation.

  19. An Experimental Study on Gravity Blending Silo with an Inner Downcomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易江林; 景山; 陈银飞; 郭艳; 金涌

    2000-01-01

    A novel gravity blender with an inner downcomer was experimentally studied in this work. The flow characteristics of solid through the downcomer with branch pipes and the influence of the number of intake openings and their axial position along the downcomer on blending efficiency were investigated. The results of tracer experi-ments show that better blending quality can be obtained if the intake openings along the downcomer are designated according to the equal time interval principle. More intake openings are beneficial for blending efficiency, and the solids flow rate through the branch pipes along the downcomer can be predicted by the Beverloo equation.

  20. Open Source e transmedialità. L'esperienza del Cineca nel campo del Virtual Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele De Luca

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available CINECA experience in virtual archaeological reconstructions has led towards the creation of philological and communicative realizations such as «Apa the Etruscan and 2700 years of Bolognese History» – for the Museum of the History of Bologna – and «Marcus Caelius – the value of memory», for the Archaeological Museum of Bologna. The aim of both projects is communicating culture in a narrative way with a philological care and implementing a modelling methodology suitable for a transmedial reuse. The open source approach, mainly trough the adoption of the Blender sw, has provided the right tools.

  1. MakerBot projects blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    MakerBot Projects Blueprints is a project-based book, with each chapter taking you through the creation of an awesome stand-alone project. MakerBot Project Blueprints is for anyone with an interest in the 3D printing revolution and the slightest bit of computer skills. Whether you own a 3D printer or not you can design for them. All it takes is Blender, a free 3D modeling tool, this book and a little creativity and someday you'll be able to hold something you designed in the computer in your hands.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  3. Abundance of $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonatti, C.; Diaz, L. J.

    2009-01-01

    A diffeomorphism $f$ has a $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangency if there is a $C^1$-neighbourhood $\\cU$ of $f$ such that every diffeomorphism in $g\\in \\cU$ has a hyperbolic set $\\La_g$, depending continuously on $g$, such that the stable and unstable manifolds of $\\La_g$ have some non-transverse intersection. For every manifold of dimension greater than or equal to three, we exhibit a local mechanism (blender-horseshoes) generating diffeomorphisms with $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies. Using bl...

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  5. Google SketchUp for Game Design Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    de Jongh, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The book takes a clear, step-by-step approach to building a complete game level using SketchUp with many props and textures. This book is designed for anyone who wants to create entire 3D worlds in freely available game engines such as Unity 3D, CryEngine, Ogre, Panda3D, Unreal Engine, and Blender Game Engine. It also targets all those who wish to create new levels and assets to sell in game asset stores or use in visualization or animation.

  6. Desenvolupament d'un videojoc en 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Ricart López, Eduard

    2009-01-01

    La industria de los videojuegos crece exponencialmente y está ya superando a otras industrias punteras del ocio. En este proyecto, nos hemos planteado la realización de un videojuego con visualización en el espacio real 3D. Para la realización del videojuego se ha usado el siguiente software: Blender para diseñar los modelos 3D, C++ como lenguaje de programación para desarrollar el código y un conjunto de librerías básicas para desarrollar un videojuego llamadas Ogre3d (Motor Gráfico). La lóg...

  7. Petroleum supply monthly with data for June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Data presented in this publication describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the U.S. The report includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Both summary and detailed statistics are presented. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  8. Mechanical Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Parman, Julian; Juuti, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä luotiin tornipuolustuspeli Unityllä käyttäen 3D-malleja. Opinnäytetyön peli on demoversio. Peli on suunniteltu käyttäen suppeaa pelisuunnitelmaa. Pelin 3D-mallit on luotu käyttäen Blender 3D-mallinnusohjelmaa. Pelin grafiikat on tuotettu GIMP2-kuvankäsittelyohjelmalla. Pelin viholliset ja tornit on toteutettu 3D-malleina. Pelissä on tarkoituksena puolustaa omaa tukikohtaa vihollisaalloilta, jotka tulevat tietä pitkin. Lopputuloksena saatiin aikaan toimiva demoversio Mech...

  9. 3D-hahmojen toteutus mobiilipeliin

    OpenAIRE

    Kemppainen, Matti

    2012-01-01

    Mobiilipelien suosio on kasvanut räjähdysmäisesti viime vuosina älypuhelinten kehittymisen myötä. Tässä opinnäytetyössä selvitetään kolmiulotteisen pelihahmon toteutusprosessi mobiilipeliin. Lisäksi pohditaan maksullisten ja ilmaisten ohjelmien eroja toteutuksessa. Pelihahmojen toteutus perustuu mobiilipeliprojektiin peliyrityksessä, jossa työskentelin graafikkona. Ohjelmien vertailussa on mukana 3D Studio Max, Blender 3D, Photoshop ja GIMP. Käytännön osuudessa käydään läpi 3D-pelihahmon...

  10. Biosteel

    OpenAIRE

    Remelin, Rickard

    2008-01-01

    This is the reflection of a graduation work done by Rickard Remelin. The work was made to create a proof of concept for a complex 3D computer game. All common elements such as creating Design document, story, programming, 3D modeling, texturing, animation, sound, etc, has been developed singlehandedly. Software used are Gimp, Blender, Gameblender and Audacity. The code was partly written in Python. Detta är reflektionen av ett kandidatarbete gjort av Rickard Remelin. Arbetet har gått ut p...

  11. 3D Visualization of Machine Learning Algorithms with Astronomical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    We present innovative machine learning (ML) methods using unsupervised clustering with minimum spanning trees (MSTs) to study 3D astronomical catalogs. Utilizing Python code to build trees based on galaxy catalogs, we can render the results with the visualization suite Blender to produce interactive 360 degree panoramic videos. The catalogs and their ML results can be explored in a 3D space using mobile devices, tablets or desktop browsers. We compare the statistics of the MST results to a number of machine learning methods relating to optimization and efficiency.

  12. Modeling Kepler transit light curves as false positives: Rejection of blend scenarios for KOI-377, and strong evidence for a super-Earth-size planet in a multiple system

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Guillermo; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Brown, Timothy M; Bryson, Stephen T; Buchhave, Lars A; Charbonneau, David; Ciardi, David R; Dunham, Edward W; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Ford, Eric B; Gautier, Thomas N; Gilliland, Ronald L; Holman, Matthew J; Howell, Steve B; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Monet, David G; Prsa, Andrej; Ragozzine, Darin; Rowe, Jason F; Sasselov, Dimitar D

    2010-01-01

    The high-precision light curves from the Kepler mission contain valuable information on the nature of the phenomena producing the transit-like signals. To assist in exploring the possibility that they are the result of an astrophysical false positive, we describe a procedure we refer to as BLENDER to model the photometry not in terms of a planet orbiting a star, but instead as a "blend". A blend may consist of a background or foreground eclipsing binary (or star-planet pair) whose eclipses are attenuated by the light of the candidate and possibly other stars within the photometric aperture. We apply the technique to the case of KOI-377, a particularly interesting Kepler target harboring two previously confirmed Saturn-size planets (Kepler-9 b and Kepler-9 c) showing transit timing variations, and an additional shallower signal with a 1.6-day period that would correspond to a super-Earth with a radius of 1.4 R(Earth), the smallest yet discovered. Using BLENDER together with constraints from high-resolution ima...

  13. Evaluation of the lubrication mechanism at various rotation speeds and granule filling levels in a container mixer using a thermal effusivity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Jumpei; Aoki, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    To research the detailed mechanism of the lubrication process using the thermal effusivity sensor, the relationships of the lubrication progress with the pattern of powder flow, the rotation speed and the filling level were investigated. The thermal effusivity profile was studied as a function of the number of rotations at various rotation speeds. It was observed that at lower rotation speeds, the profiles of the lubrication progress were almost the same, regardless of the rotation speed. In this region, the highest speed was defined as the critical rotation speed (CRS), which was found to be one of the important factors. The CRS had close relations with avalanche flow in the blender. The first and the second phases were observed in the lubrication process. The first phase was influenced by the CRS and the filling level in the blender. The second phase was influenced by the rotation speed. The mechanism of two-phase process was proposed as a macro progression of the dispersion of the lubricant (first phase) and micro progression of the coating of the powder particles with lubricant (second phase). The accurate monitoring by the thermal effusivity sensor was able to help a better understanding in the lubrication process. PMID:25000482

  14. Preparation of High Density Polyethylene/Waste Polyurethane Blends Compatibilized with Polyethylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride by Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane (PU is a very popular polymer that is used in a variety of applications due to its good mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. However, PU recycling has received significant attention due to environmental issues. In this study, we developed a recycling method for waste PU that utilizes the radiation grafting technique. Grafting of waste PU was carried out using a radiation technique with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA. The PE-g-MA-grafted PU/high density polyethylene (HDPE composite was prepared by melt-blending at various concentrations (0–10 phr of PE-g-MA-grafted PU. The composites were characterized using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and their surface morphology and thermal/mechanical properties are reported. For 1 phr PU, the PU could be easily introduced to the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender after the radiation-induced grafting of PU with PE-g-MA. PE-g-MA was easily reacted with PU according to the increasing radiation dose and was located at the interface between the PU and the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender, which improved the interfacial interactions and the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. However, the elongation at break for a PU content >2 phr was drastically decreased.

  15. Comparison of Mid-latitude Cyclones in Sea Level Pressure, Gepotential Height and Vorticity Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Christoph C.; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The mid-latitudes are dominated by diurnal variability, which is related to traveling high- and low-pressure systems. The lows or cyclones are a major source of natural hazards. This has led to growing interest in the scientific community to develop Eulerian and Lagrangian measures and to analyze the atmospheric high-frequency variability. One important issue is that there is no straight forward definition of cyclones resulting in a large variety of so-called cyclone detection and tracking methods. Each of these methods relies on different input fields which are related to specific features of a cyclone, e.g., sea level pressure (SLP), which specifically focuses on the mass aspect of the velocity field. Recently, the available methods have been compared with respect to climatology and life cycles using the ERA interim data set (Neu et al. 2013). Based on this study we investigate different fields as input for one specific method. We focus on the three mostly used input data, sea level pressure (SLP), 1000-hPa gepotential height (Z1000) and 850-hPa vorticity (850VOR). The cyclone detection and tracking method developed by Blender et al. (1997) is used and we apply it to ERA interim data in the 1.5 x 1.5 resolution. The method was mainly applied for Z1000 and the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., Blender et al. 1997; Raible et al. 2008). To compare the tracks and cyclone characteristics obtained from the different input data we need to adapt critical parameters of the method in such a way that comparable numbers of cyclone centers are identified in either field. The target is set to the number of cyclone centers in northern hemispheric winter. This enables us to assess the seasonal and hemispheric dependence. Preliminary results show that the agreement between cyclones based on SLP and Z1000 varies between roughly 70 to 80% depending on the season and the hemisphere. Spatially, most of the differences are found around orographic features like Greenland. An interesting

  16. An experimental study of the corrosion and precipitation of aluminum in the presence of trisodium phosphate buffer following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Howe, Kerry J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Leavitt, Janet J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Alion Science and Technology (United States); Hammond, Kyle; Mitchell, Lana [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Kee, Ernie [South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) (United States); Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Experimental head loss testing was conducted by aggressively promoting corrosion in loss of coolant accidents. • Blender-processed debris beds have higher head loss but tend to be less reproducible than NEI-processed debris beds. • Precipitation was observed from aluminum concentration and turbidity measurements. • Precipitation results were compared to predictions from Visual MINTEQ. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment of head loss across the sump pump screen with fibrous debris bed over a non-prototypical 10-day post-LOCA incident window. The corrosion head loss experiments (CHLE) is a reduced scaled integral effects testing facility built at the University of New Mexico (UNM) to investigate potential chemical effects on head loss across prepared fibrous debris beds. The results in this paper come from two integral effect tests performed at UNM in order to determine the chemical effects on head loss induced by a zinc source effect and an aluminum precipitation effect (T3: without Zn source case, T4: with Zn source case in containment). The tests were performed with a large surface area of aluminum coupons in the testing facility for an extended period of elevated temperature to accelerate corrosion above that expected under prototypical conditions. These conditions were sufficient to force aluminum precipitation to occur and induce the onset of chemical effects on debris bed head loss. The head loss behavior on two different types of fiber debris beds (blender-processed and NEI-processed debris bed) was evaluated in this study. It was found that the blender-processed bed is much more sensitive in filtering than the NEI-processed bed and consequently had a much higher head loss value across the beds. Aluminum precipitation was observed, with aluminum concentration and turbidity measurements, to form starting on day 7 in Test T3 and on day 6 in Test T4. The onset of aluminum precipitation

  17. 聚合物驱搅拌器的结构设计与分析%Structure Design and Analysis of Polymer Flooding Agitator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关天灏; 许雪岩; 唐亮

    2014-01-01

    在聚合物和三次采用过程中,我们需要将聚合物母液和水进行充分的混合,然后注入到地面中进行驱油,目前在现场使用的搅拌器不混合效果不是很理想,所以我们需要研发出一种搅拌器来增强混合效果,以满足三次采油和聚合物驱油的要求。在前人研究的基础上对聚合物驱搅拌器的结构进行选用、设计、计算,并且通过三维模型仿真和数值模拟进行分析装置的可靠性、安全性、以及混合效果。给出了驱油的地面工艺流程、聚合物驱搅拌器的设计思路及其工作原理和构造形态。在设计的过程当中采取了计算分析和仿真分析的方法来对聚合物驱搅拌器的构造进行设计。%During polymer flooding, polymer mother liquor and water need be thoroughly mixed and then injected into the ground to carry out flooding, currently blenders used in the field have not good mixing effect, and so new blender need be developed to enhance the mixing effect in order to meet EOR polymer flooding requirements. In this paper, based on previous studies, selection, design and calculation of the polymer flooding agitator were discussed, and the reliability, security and mixing effect of the device were analyzed through a three-dimensional simulation analysis and numerical simulation. The ground flooding process was obtained as well as design ideas, principle and structural features of the polymer flooding agitator. The calculated analysis and simulation analysis were used to design the structure of the polymer flooding blender.

  18. Hybrid photonic integrated circuits for faster and greener optical communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoulidis, L.; Kehayas, E.; Zimmermann, L.

    2011-01-01

    We present current development efforts on hybrid photonic integration for new generation "faster and greener" Tb/scapacity optical networks. On the physical layer, we present the development of a versatile, silicon-based photonic integration platform that acts as a technology "blender" bringing together different material systems including III-V and silicon-based semiconductors. The platform is also used to implement the so-called O-to-O (optical-to-optical) functionalities by patterning low-loss passive components such as MMI couplers and delay interferometers. With these passive building blocks as well as the ability for hybrid assembly of active material, we demonstrate the fabrication of key optical transport and routing devices such as optical demodulators and all-optical wavelength converters. These devices can now be used to fabricate chip-scale 100 GbE transceiver PICs and Tb/s-capacity wavelength switching platforms.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  20. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P. (eds.)

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  1. Co-created Facilitation and Perspective Plurality to Foster Mutual Understandings of Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Robb

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies a key mechanism and its constituent qualities, for facilitating mutual understandings of risk. The focus of participatory workshops has expanded towards addressing broader questions of strategy, business models and other organizational and inter-organisational issues....... To develop effective partnerships across the boundaries separating companies, it is necessary for those involved to gain mutual understandings despite the challenging paradoxical, abstract and sensitive aspects of discussing risks. A richer understanding of design facilitation practice is offered through...... drawing together the following experimentation with industrialists in innovation workshops and interactive interventions in artistic cultural venues: 1) a large revolving door sculpture – Blender. 2) a series of interventions utilising audiovisual transmissions to enable one person to act as a proxy...

  2. Software Development: 3D Animations and Creating User Interfaces for Realistic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Orlando Enrique

    2015-01-01

    My fall 2015 semester was spent at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center working in the Integrated Graphics, Operations, and Analysis Laboratory (IGOAL). My first project was to create a video animation that could tell the story of OMICS. OMICS is a term being used in the field of biomedical science to describe the collective technologies that study biological systems, such as what makes up a cell and how it functions with other systems. In the IGOAL I used a large 23 inch Wacom monitor to draw storyboards, graphics, and line art animations. I used Blender as the 3D environment to sculpt, shape, cut or modify the several scenes and models for the video. A challenge creating this video was to take a term used in biomedical science and describe it in such a way that an 8th grade student can understand. I used a line art style because it would visually set the tone for what we thought was an educational style. In order to get a handle on the perspective and overall feel for the animation without overloading my workspace, I split up the 2 minute animation into several scenes. I used Blender's python scripting capabilities which allowed for the addition of plugins to add or modify tools. The scripts can also directly interact with the objects to create naturalistic patterns or movements. After collecting the rendered scenes, I used Blender's built-in video editing workspace to output the animation. My second project was to write software that emulates a physical system's interface. The interface was to simulate a boat, ROV, and winch system. Simulations are a time and cost effective way to test complicated data and provide training for operators without having to use expensive hardware. We created the virtual controls with 3-D Blender models and 2-D graphics, and then add functionality in C# using the Unity game engine. The Unity engine provides several essential behaviors of a simulator, such as the start and update functions. A framework for Unity, which was developed in

  3. Novel Chemically-Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Borehole Sealants (Ceramicretes) for Arctic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Godwin A. Chukwu; Gang Chen; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramic borehole sealant, i.e. Ceramicrete, has many advantages over conventionally used permafrost cement at Alaska North Slope (ANS). However, in normal field practices when Ceramicrete is mixed with water in blenders, it has a chance of being contaminated with leftover Portland cement. In order to identify the effect of Portland cement contamination, recent tests have been conducted at BJ services in Tomball, TX as well as at the University of Alaska Fairbanks with Ceramicrete formulations proposed by the Argonne National Laboratory. The tests conducted at BJ Services with proposed Ceramicrete formulations and Portland cement contamination have shown significant drawbacks which has caused these formulations to be rejected. However, the newly developed Ceramicrete formulation at the University of Alaska Fairbanks has shown positive results with Portland cement contamination as well as without Portland cement contamination for its effective use in oil well cementing operations at ANS.

  4. Photoluminescence from neodymium silicide thin films formed by MEVVA ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Neodymium silicides were synthesized by Nd ion implanted into Si substrates with the aid of a metal vaporvacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. The blender of Nd5Si4 and NdSi2was formed in a neodymium-implanted silicon thinfilm during the as-implanted state, but there was only single neodymium silicide compound in the post-annealed state,and the phase changed from NdSi2 to Nd5Si4 with increasing annealing temperature. The blue-violetluminescence excited by ultra-violet was observed at the room temperature (RT), and the intensity of photoluminescence(PL) increased with increasing the neodymium ion fluence. Moreover,the photoluminescence was closely dependent onthe temperature of rapid thermal annealing (RTA). A mechanism ofphotoluminescence was discussed.

  5. Architecture of a highly modular lighting simulation system

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    This talk will discuss the challenges before designing a highly modular, parallel, heterogeneous rendering system and their solutions. It will review how different lighting simulation algorithms could be combined to work together using an unified framework. We will discuss how the system can be instrumented for collecting data about the algorithms' runtime performance. The talk includes an overview of how collected data could be visualised in the computational domain of the lighting algorithms and be used for visual debugging and analysis. About the speaker Hristo Lesev has been working in the software industry for the last ten years. He has taken part in delivering a number of desktop and mobile applications. Computer Graphics programming is Hristo's main passion and he has experience writing extensions for 3D software like 3DS Max, Maya, Blender, Sketchup, and V-Ray. Since 2006 Hristo teaches Photorealistic Ray Tracing in the Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics at the Paisii Hilendarski...

  6. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  7. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE JOGO DE COMPUTADOR PARA INTERAÇÃO ENTRE UMA PESSOA PORTADORA DE DEFICIÊNCIA VISUAL E OUTRA NÃO PORTADORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ikeda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a computer game that allows interaction between two users, one of them visually impaired, to be guided by sound alerts. According to the IBGE census of 2000, about 10% of the population has complete or partial visual impairment. There are not many tools available that allow such interaction. To develop this game we have used free tools like Audacity and Blender3D. The result of the work was very satisfactory and highlights the interest and need for entertainment programs that allow interaction between people with distinct limitations. It is noteworthy that one of the greatest challenges in implementation stems from the fact that programmers do not have auditory sensitivity, such as blind people have, making it relevant to their participation throughout the process.

  8. Forum Renascens (Los Bañales de Uncastillo, Zaragoza: Archaeology of Architecture of the Roman forum in the service of the dissemination through the Virtual Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serrano Basterra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An archaeological site concerning the remains of an ancient Roman city, developed mainly from 1st BC to III AD, in the area named "Los Bañales", is located at the south of the current town of Uncastillo (Zaragoza, Spain in Comarca de las Cinco Villas. From 2008 the archaeological site is been studied in a interdisciplinar research project leaded by Fundación Uncastillo under the autorizathion of Gobierno de Aragón. Last seasons of excavation have been focused in the forum, the ancient public square of the roman town, still in process of research. It was a quite small square but following all the requeriments of those type of buildings in Roman Achitecture. Using Blender software, a model of recreation of the forum is being done. The following paper presents a brief summary of the dossier of decissions concerning this recreation result, however, of the interdisciplinar cooperation between historians, archaeologists and architects.

  9. Analytical quality assurance procedures developed for the IAEA's Reference Asian Man Project (Phase 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical quality assurance procedures adopted for use in the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Ingestion and Organ Content of Trace Elements of Importance in Radiological Protection are designed to ensure comparability of the analytical results for Cs, I, Sr, Th, U and other elements in human tissues and diets collected and analysed in nine participating countries. The main analytical techniques are NAA and ICP-MS. For sample preparation, all participants are using identical food blenders which have been centrally supplied after testing for contamination. For quality control of the analyses, six NIST SRMs covering a range of matrices with certified and reference values for the elements of interest have been distributed. A new Japanese reference diet material has also been developed. These quality assurance procedures are summarized here and new data are presented for Cs, I, Sr, Th and U in the NIST SRMs. (author)

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1998 with data for October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. 82 tabs.

  12. Countermeasure technology for environmental pollution due to radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the progress of challenges by Maeda Corporation toward the countermeasures for the environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances that covers the whole areas of Naraha Town in Fukushima Prefecture. It also introduces in full detail the environmental pollution countermeasure technologies against radioactive substances challenged by the said company. These technologies are as follows; (1) porous block kneaded with zeolite, (2) Aqua-filter System (technique to automatically and continuously purify construction work water to the level of tap water), (3) super vacuum press (dehydration unit to realize the dehydration, volume reduction and solidification, and insolubilization at the same time), (4) mist blender (technique to manufacture bentonite-mixed soil), (5) wet-type classification washing technique for contaminated soil, (6) soil sorting technique (continuous discrimination technique to sort soil depending on radiation level), and (7) speedy construction technique for dam body using CSG (cemented sand and gravel). (A.O.)

  13. With solids handling, special is standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Handling and transporting bulk solids is one of the more challenging tasks engineers face. While bulk-solids-handling equipment must be reliable, the behavior of bulk solids often isn`t. Unlike those of most fluids, the physical properties and flow characteristics of bulk solids are not easily predictable. Only a sample of the actual material that will be conveyed can be relied on to provide suitable design data. Because the design of solids handling systems is material specific, many manufacturers customize their equipment to meet the specific needs of a particular material, application or industry. Such custom equipment frequently needs customized auxiliary components, such as hoppers and rotary valves. Following is a list of solids-handling equipment that can be used in a variety of applications. Many of the conveyors, feeders, screeners, blenders, grinders and transfer valves presented below can be customized to meet the requirements of handling specific materials.

  14. Rapid digestion process for determination of trichinellae in meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, P.M.

    1975-07-01

    This patent relates to an accelerated digestion process for releasing trichinellae from meat (usually pork) as excysted and encysted worms in transparent fluid whereby they may be easily identified and/or counted visually or automatically. This improved digestion process for the determination of trichinellae in meat comprises placing the meat in a blender, adding a digestant consisting of one of the following ingredients, namely sodium hypochlorite, hydrochloric acid and pepsin, bromelin, trypsin, or dilute papain; and blending the meat and digestant for about one minute and then pouring the solution into a receptacle, allowing particulate to settle to the bottom, extracting samples from the bottom of said receptacle, and visually or automatically identifying and/or counting any trichinellae that may be present. (auth)

  15. The Marcus Caelius Project: a transmedial approach to support cultural communication and educational activities at the Civical Archaeological Museum of Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bentini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The project “Marcus Caelius – the Value of Memory” is a 8 minute short animation movie located in the Roman Bologna at the Augustan Age. It originated with the Civical Archaeological Museum of Bologna in collaboration with Cineca VisIT-Lab. The project emploies a well known historical fact (the Battle of Teutoburg to enable a philological approach within an emotional/narrative process. New philologically accurate reconstructions (i.e archaeological finds hedged in the Museum’s collection are integrated with 3D historical sets caming form previous Cineca projects. Mixed movie-making techniques, such as Blender rendering, Chroma key and Machinima animation, implemented an ad hoc production pipeline in order to define times and costs which could be supported by a small production.

  16. Free Software Beyond Radical Politics: Negotiations of Creative and Craft Autonomy in Digital Visual Media Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Velkova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Free software development and the technological practices of hackers have been broadly recognised as fundamental for the formation of political cultures that foster democracy in the digital mediascape. This article explores the role of free software in the practices of digital artists, animators and technicians who work in various roles for the contemporary digital visual media industries. Rather than discussing it as a model of organising work, the study conceives free software as a production tool and shows how it becomes a locus of politics about finding material security in flexible capitalism. This politics is ultimately contradictory in that it extends creative and craft autonomy of digital artists but does not mobilise a critical project. Instead, it nurtures further precarious labour. Empirically, the article draws on ethnographically collected material from the media practices of digital artists and programmers who engage with two popular free software production tools, Blender and Synfig.

  17. Authenticity analysis of citrus essential oils by HPLC-UV-MS on oxygenated heterocyclic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus essential oils are widely applied in food industry as the backbone of citrus flavors. Unfortunately, due to relatively simple chemical composition and tremendous price differences among citrus species, adulteration has been plaguing the industry since its inception. Skilled blenders are capable of making blends that are almost indistinguishable from authentic oils through conventional gas chromatography analysis. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed for compositional study of nonvolatile constituents in essential oils from major citrus species. The nonvolatile oxygenated heterocyclic components identified in citrus oils were proved to be more effective as markers in adulteration detection than the volatile components. Authors are hoping such an analysis procedure can be served as a routine quality control test for authenticity evaluation in citrus essential oils.

  18. Mucilage extraction and substrates in the seedling development of yellow passion fruit plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sfeir Aguiar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to evaluate different methods of mucilage extraction and substrates on passion fruit seedling emergence and development , in a mist chamber. Five methods of mucilage extraction were used: water, water + sand, water + virgin whitewash; blender with protected blades and fermentation in water, and three different types of substrates: rice hull, vermiculite and coconut fiber. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five replications in a factorial 5 x 3 scheme (5 extraction methods of seed mucilage and 3 substrates being each parcel composed of 25 seeds. The parameters evaluated were: seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, leaf number, stem length, longest root length, weight of dry matter of roots and shoots. Water and fermentation in water are the best method for mucilage extraction and rice hull and coconut fiber are the best substrate for passionfruit seedling emergence and development.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1996 with data for September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products fin the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  20. Developmentally Delayed Male with Mincer Blade Obstructing the Oesophagus for a Period of Time Suspected to Be 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Grønhøj Larsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sharp, retained foreign bodies in the oesophagus are associated with severe complications. Developmentally delayed patients are especially subject to foreign objects. We describe a 37-year-old, developmentally delayed male with a mincer blade obstructing the oesophagus. Six months prior to surgical intervention, the patient was hospitalized in a condition of sepsis and pneumonia where the thoracic X-ray reveals a foreign body in the proximal oesophagus. When rehospitalized 6 months later, a mincer blade of the type used in immersion blenders was surgically removed. During these 6 months the patient’s main symptoms were dysphagia, weight loss, and diarrhoea. When developmentally delayed patients present with dysphagia, we strongly encourage the awareness of the possible presence of foreign bodies. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a mincer blade in the oesophagus.

  1. Modelling and Simulation of the Knee Joint with a Depth Sensor Camera for Prosthetics and Movement Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risto, S.; Kallergi, M.

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to model and simulate the knee joint. A computer model of the knee joint was first created, which was controlled by Microsoft's Kinect for Windows. Kinect created a depth map of the knee and lower leg motion independent of lighting conditions through an infrared sensor. A combination of open source software such as Blender, Python, Kinect SDK and NI_Mate were implemented for the creation and control of the simulated knee based on movements of a live physical model. A physical size model of the knee and lower leg was also created, the movement of which was controlled remotely by the computer model and Kinect. The real time communication of the model and the robotic knee was achieved through programming in Python and Arduino language. The result of this study showed that Kinect in the modelling of human kinematics and can play a significant role in the development of prosthetics and other assistive technologies.

  2. Citrate, oxalate, sodium, and magnesium levels in fresh juices of three different types of tomatoes: evaluation in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Erdal; Batislam, Ertan; Kacmaz, Murat; Erguder, Imge

    2010-06-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices containing citrate may be recommended as an alternative in mild to moderate level hypocitraturic calcium stone formers who cannot tolerate pharmacological treatment. Tomato has been proved a citrate-rich vegetable. Tomato juice usage as citrate sources in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers were evaluated in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices. Ten 100 ml samples were prepared from three different tomato types processed through a blender. These samples were examined in terms of citrate, oxalate, calcium, magnesium, and sodium contents. No difference was detected between the parameters tested in three different tomato juices. Fresh tomato juice may be useful in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers due to its high content of citrate and magnesium, and low content of sodium and oxalate. As the three different types of tomatoes did not differ in terms of citrate, magnesium, sodium, and oxalate content, they may be useful for clinical use if also supported by clinical studies.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly: September 1996, with data for July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 56 tabs.

  4. Optimized continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing via model-predictive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrl, Jakob; Kruisz, Julia; Sacher, Stephan; Khinast, Johannes; Horn, Martin

    2016-08-20

    This paper demonstrates the application of model-predictive control to a feeding blending unit used in continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing. The goal of this contribution is, on the one hand, to highlight the advantages of the proposed concept compared to conventional PI-controllers, and, on the other hand, to present a step-by-step guide for controller synthesis. The derivation of the required mathematical plant model is given in detail and all the steps required to develop a model-predictive controller are shown. Compared to conventional concepts, the proposed approach allows to conveniently consider constraints (e.g. mass hold-up in the blender) and offers a straightforward, easy to tune controller setup. The concept is implemented in a simulation environment. In order to realize it on a real system, additional aspects (e.g., state estimation, measurement equipment) will have to be investigated. PMID:27317987

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Cortometraje de animación 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Alemañ Baeza, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Usando técnicas y equipos de cine de animación 3D se realizará un cortometraje de temática libre. Se desarrollará UN CORTO DE ANIMACION en formato de animación digital en un tamaño no inferior a 640 x 480 píxeles, con un mínimo de 24 fotogramas por segundo. Tendrá una duración máxima de 10 minutos. El tema a desarrollar es libre, la temática no contendrá escenas agresivas, discriminatorias u ofensivas. Se utilizará Blender u otro programa de animación. Además se tendrá que usar un traje de ca...

  7. uPy: a ubiquitous CG Python API with biological-modeling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, Ludovic; Johnson, Graham; Hake, Johan; Olson, Arthur; Sanner, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The uPy Python extension module provides a uniform abstraction of the APIs of several 3D computer graphics programs (called hosts), including Blender, Maya, Cinema 4D, and DejaVu. A plug-in written with uPy can run in all uPy-supported hosts. Using uPy, researchers have created complex plug-ins for molecular and cellular modeling and visualization. uPy can simplify programming for many types of projects (not solely science applications) intended for multihost distribution. It's available at http://upy.scripps.edu. The first featured Web extra is a video that shows interactive analysis of a calcium dynamics simulation. YouTube URL: http://youtu.be/wvs-nWE6ypo. The second featured Web extra is a video that shows rotation of the HIV virus. YouTube URL: http://youtu.be/vEOybMaRoKc.

  8. uPy: a ubiquitous computer graphics Python API with Biological Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, L.; Johnson, G.; Hake, J.; Olson, A.; Sanner, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe uPy, an extension module for the Python programming language that provides a uniform abstraction of the APIs of several 3D computer graphics programs called hosts, including: Blender, Maya, Cinema4D, and DejaVu. A plugin written with uPy is a unique piece of code that will run in all uPy-supported hosts. We demonstrate the creation of complex plug-ins for molecular/cellular modeling and visualization and discuss how uPy can more generally simplify programming for many types of projects (not solely science applications) intended for multi-host distribution. uPy is available at http://upy.scripps.edu PMID:24806987

  9. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1998, with data for March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Sample preparation for an optimized extraction of localized metabolites in lichens: Application to Pseudevernia furfuracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaty, Sarah; Letertre, Marine; Dang, Huyen Duong; Jungnickel, Harald; Laux, Peter; Luch, Andreas; Carrié, Daniel; Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile; Bazureau, Jean-Pierre; Gauffre, Fabienne; Tomasi, Sophie; Paquin, Ludovic

    2016-04-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms known for producing unique secondary metabolites with attractive cosmetic and pharmacological properties. In this paper, we investigated three standard methods of preparation of Pseudevernia furfuracea (blender grinding, ball milling, pestle and mortar). The materials obtained were characterized by electronic microscopy, nitrogen adsorption and compared from the point of view of extraction. Their microscopic structure is related to extraction efficiency. In addition, it is shown using thalline reactions and mass spectrometry mapping (TOF-SIMS) that these metabolites are not evenly distributed throughout the organism. Particularly, atranorin (a secondary metabolite of interest) is mainly present in the cortex of P. furfuracea. Finally, using microwave assisted extraction (MAE) we obtained evidence that an appropriate preparation can increase the extraction efficiency of atranorin by a factor of five. PMID:26838439

  13. New approach for virtual surgical planning and mandibular reconstruction using a fibula free flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottini, Matthias; Seyed Jafari, S M; Shafighi, Maziar; Schaller, Benoît

    2016-08-01

    Maxillofacial reconstruction poses a major challenge to surgeons because of the associated anatomical complexity, the sensitivity of the involved systems and the need to maintain a pleasing facial appearance. Here, we present a detailed description of a new method for extensive mandibular reconstruction using open-source virtual design software and a desktop 3D printer. A surgeon segmented preoperative computed tomography angiography scans with the Amira program to create a digital model of the mandible, skull and fibula. These datasets were imported into Blender, an open-source computer-aided design software package, where arrangement of the fibula segments into aligned sections was performed. Then, a desktop 3D printer was used to produce a reconstructed mandible. After fixation of a plate onto the reconstructed mandible, cutting guides were digitally designed using Blender. Following this, the surgeon performed mandible resection using the fixed cutting guides, which were 3D-printed using biocompatible plastic (Med 610/Stratasys Inc.) and fixed to the prebent reconstructed mandible at a predetermined position. After cutting the fibula with the help of the cutting guides and aligning the fibular segments into mandibular space, the surgeon fixed the segments to the reconstruction plate. Postoperatively, multislice computed tomography scans were taken for control purposes. Our method for mandibular reconstruction offers the following benefits: shorter operation planning time, increased accuracy during osteotomy through the use of a special fibula cutting guide and low costs. In brief, this method is an easy, precise and highly flexible technique for mandibular reconstruction with a fibula flap. PMID:27344375

  14. The influence of operational parameters and feed preparation in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeow ST

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sin Tung Yeow, Asnawi Shahar, Norashikin Abdul Aziz, Mohd Shamsul Anuar, Yus Aniza Yusof, Farah Saleena TaipDepartment of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaPurpose: To investigate the effect of feed preparation characteristics and operational parameters on mixing homogeneity in a convective batch ribbon mixer.Methods: Lactose 100M, lactose 200M, ascorbic acid, and zinc oxide powders were used for the mixing study. Operational parameters studied were rotational speed and mixing time. The feed preparations studied were the use of preblending and the particle size of the feed materials. The blends of ascorbic acid, zinc oxide, and lactose were prepared with preblending and without preblending, prior to mixing at different blender rotation speeds and mixing times. Chemical tests were performed to measure the homogeneity of the ascorbic acid in the model mixture.Results: With preblending, a mixture with lactose 200M achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed.Conclusion: The results indicated that the homogeneity of the mixtures was influenced by the blender rotation speed and mixing time. Better mixing can be obtained with higher rotation speeds and longer mixing time. It was also observed that preblending and smaller feed particle size achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. These results illustrate that using binders with a smaller particle size and a preblending technique improves the mixing process in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer. However, prolonged periods of high-speed mixing will lead to mixture segregation.Keywords: powder blending, ascorbic acid, rotational speed, particle size, preblending

  15. Evaluation of sugarcane laboratory ensiling and analysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Faria Pedroso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effects of laboratory-silo type and method of silage extract production, respectively, on sugarcane silage fermentation and recovery of fermentation products. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested and ensiled in three different types of laboratory silos (five replicates: 9.7 × 30 cm PVC tubes with tight lids, equipped or unequipped with Bunsen valves, and 20 L plastic buckets with tight lids and Bunsen valves. Three methods were used to produce silage extracts for pH, ethanol, acetic and lactic acids determination: extraction of silage juice by a hydraulic press and production of water extracts using a stomacher or a blender. Total dry matter loss (231 g/kg DM was not affected by silo type. No interactions between silo type and method of silage extract production were observed for ethanol and organic acids contents in the silages. Interaction between silo type and method of silage extract preparation was detected for pH. Silo type affected ethanol content but did not affect lactic and acetic acids concentration in the silages. Dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and ash were not affected by silo type. The method used to produce silage extracts affected the recovery of all fermentation products analyzed in the silages. Recovery of ethanol and acetic acid was higher when silage extracts were produced using a blender. For lactic acid recovery, the hydraulic press method was superior to the other two methods. Silage fermentation pattern is not affected by silo type, but the method used to produce silage extracts and some characteristics of silos affect the recovery of volatile fermentation products.

  16. Impact of Different Fecal Processing Methods on Assessments of Bacterial Diversity in the Human Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Peterson, Courtney M.; Raggio, Anne; Keenan, Michael J.; Martin, Roy J.; Ravussin, Eric; Marco, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota are integral to understanding the relationships between nutrition and health. Therefore, fecal sampling and processing protocols for metagenomic surveys should be sufficiently robust, accurate, and reliable to identify the microorganisms present. We investigated the use of different fecal preparation methods on the bacterial community structures identified in human stools. Complete stools were collected from six healthy individuals and processed according to the following methods: (i) randomly sampled fresh stool, (ii) fresh stool homogenized in a blender for 2 min, (iii) randomly sampled frozen stool, and (iv) frozen stool homogenized in a blender for 2 min, or (v) homogenized in a pneumatic mixer for either 10, 20, or 30 min. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 regions of bacterial community DNA extracted from the stools showed that the fecal microbiota remained distinct between individuals, independent of processing method. Moreover, the different stool preparation approaches did not alter intra-individual bacterial diversity. Distinctions were found at the level of individual taxa, however. Stools that were frozen and then homogenized tended to have higher proportions of Faecalibacterium, Streptococcus, and Bifidobacterium and decreased quantities of Oscillospira, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides compared to stools that were collected in small quantities and not mixed prior to DNA extraction. These findings indicate that certain taxa are at particular risk for under or over sampling due to protocol differences. Importantly, homogenization by any method significantly reduced the intra-individual variation in bacteria detected per stool. Our results confirm the robustness of fecal homogenization for microbial analyses and underscore the value of collecting and mixing large stool sample quantities in human nutrition intervention studies.

  17. Molecular order, miscibility, and rheology of molten polyethylenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ibnelwaleed Ali

    New evidence of high-temperature transitions and molecular order in molten polyethylenes is presented, and its influence on the miscibility of polyethylenes is discussed. Thermal and rheological techniques were used to investigate commercial HDPE, LDPE and Ziegler-Natta and Metallocene LLDPEs. Adequate amounts of extra antioxidants were added to the polyethylenes during melt conditioning, following a separate investigation. Polystyrene was utilized to demonstrate the typical behavior of isotropic polymer melts. Temperature sweeps during torque measurements in a melt blender, and when using a rheometer and DSC, showed thermal transitions at about 208°C and 227°C. Torque in the blender over the temperature range 208°--227°C showed a flat profile or an increase in torque near 227°C, unique behavior associated with thermotropic liquid crystal polymers (LCP). Additional support for the liquid-state order that agree with theoretical predictions for a LCP is found. These include indications of an approach to a sign change in the first normal stress difference, N1( ġ ), at low values of the steady shear rate, ġ , and a kink in the non-Newtonian viscosity eta( ġ ). A rheological investigation found no evidence of the attainment of the isotropic state at high temperature and suggested the persistence of order above these transitions. However, highly branched metallocene LLDPE ( ˜ 40 CH3/1000 C) did not show transitions or any evidence of molecular order. It is suggested that polyethylenes possess different molecular conformation in the melt state ranging from the chain-folded HDPE to the amorphous highly-branched LLDPE. It is this molecular order and mismatch of the molecular conformations of different polyethylene structures that provide an explanation for the immiscibility of polyethylenes, as revealed by the dependence of their rheological properties on blend composition. The influence of molecular weight, comonomer type, and mixing temperature on the miscibility

  18. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  19. In situ TEM visualization of superior nanomechanical flexibility of shear-exfoliated phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Ma, Hongyu; Lei, Shuangying; Sun, Jun; Chen, Jing; Ge, Binghui; Zhu, Yimei; Sun, Litao

    2016-07-01

    Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. This work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. We demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to 34% were observed. Moreover, a facile liquid-phase shear exfoliation route has been developed to produce such mono-layer and few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes in organic solvents using only a household kitchen blender. The effects of surface tensions of the applied solvents on the ratio of average length and thickness (L/T) of the nanoflakes were studied systematically. The results reported here will pave the way for potential industrial-scale applications of flexible phosphorene nanoelectronic devices.Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. This work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. We demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to

  20. TANK 50 BATCH 0 SALTSTONE FORMULATION CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.

    2006-06-05

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel were requested to confirm the Tank 50 Batch 0 grout formulation per Technical Task Request, SSF-TTR-2006-0001 (task 1 of 2) [1]. Earlier Batch 0 formulation testing used a Tank 50 sample collected in September 2005 and is described elsewhere [2]. The current testing was performed using a sample of Tank 50 waste collected in May 2006. This work was performed according to the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TT/QAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00594 [3]. The salt solution collected from Tank 50 in May 2006 contained approximately 3 weight percent more solids than the sample collected in September 2005. The insoluble solids took longer to settle in the new sample which was interpreted as indicating finer particles in the current sample. The saltstone formulation developed for the September 2005 Tank 50 Batch 0 sample was confirmed for the May 2006 sample with one minor exception. Saltstone prepared with the Tank 50 sample collected in May 2006 required 1.5 times more Daratard 17 set retarding admixture than the saltstone prepared with the September In addition, a sample prepared with lower shear mixing (stirring with a spatula) had a higher plastic viscosity (57 cP) than samples made with higher shear mixing in a blender (23cP). The static gel times of the saltstone slurries made with low shear mixing were also shorter ({approx}32 minutes) than those for comparable samples made in the blender ({approx}47 minutes). The addition of the various waste streams (ETP, HEU-HCAN, and GPE-HCAN) to Tank 50 from September 2005 to May 2006 has increased the amount of set retarder, Daratard 17, required for processing saltstone slurries through the Saltstone facility. If these streams are continued to be added to Tank 50, the quantity of admixtures required to maintain the same processing conditions for the Saltstone facility will probably change and additional testing is recommended to reconfirm the Tank 50 Saltstone formulation.

  1. Roller Compaction for Solid Dosage Form Development and its Application - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Gawas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Roller compaction is a dry granulation innovation in which powder is densified between two counter pivoting moves by the utilization of mechanical weight as powder goes through the rolls. Dry granulation process powders comprise of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and excipients, e.g., diluents, disintegrants, and ointments, are blended in appropriate blender. The powder blends are then roller compacted and estimate diminished to shape granules. Roller compaction is generally want to overcome unfavorable physical properties of powders and APIs, for example, poor stream, low mass thickness, mix consistency, isolation of powder mixes by upgrading process parameter and choice of excipients. Roller compaction process has noteworthy impact on particles size appropriation, flowability, homogeneity, compressibility, compactability of dynamic pharmaceutical fixings and excipients and therefore can influence thusly disintegration profile, breaking down time, hardness and other post pressure parameter of tablet. Roller compaction process offers favorable as contrasted and wet granulation process, for example, basic assembling technique, less demanding scale up, high volume generation yield, and generally low operational expenses. Roller compaction process prohibits fluid dissolvable or binder solution. This procedure is additionally vitality effective and reasonable for preparing pharmaceutical agents that are sensitive to moisture and heat. Great quality granules can be gotten by upgrading roller compaction process parameter, for example, pressure power, roller speed, screw feeder speed, roll gap and milling.

  2. Open source layered sensing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovito, Todd V.; Abayowa, Bernard O.; Talbert, Michael L.

    2011-06-01

    This paper will look at using open source tools (Blender [17], LuxRender [18], and Python [19]) to build an image processing model for exploring combinations of sensors/platforms for any given image resolution. The model produces camera position, camera attitude, and synthetic camera data that can be used for exploitation purposes. We focus on electro-optical (EO) visible sensors to simplify the rendering but this work could be extended to use other rendering tools that support different modalities. Due to the computational complexity of ray tracing we employ the Amazon Elastic Cloud Computer to help speed up the generation of large ray traced scenes. The key idea of the paper is to provide an architecture for layered sensing simulation which is modular in design and constructed on open-source off-the-shelf software. This architecture shows how leveraging existing open-source software allows for practical layered sensing modeling to be rapidly assimilated and utilized in real-world applications. In this paper we demonstrate our model output is automatically exploitable by using generated data with an innovative video frame mosaic algorithm.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1999, with data for December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1995 with data for April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Co-ordinated research project: Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (CRP: E4.30.08). Reference Asian man project, phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Research Coordination Meeting for the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Ingestion and Organ Content of Trace Elements of Importance in Radiological Protection: Reference Asian Man Project, Phase 2' was held at the China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) in Taiyuan, People's Republic of China. During the first technical Session, an overview of the current status of the CRP was presented by the IAEA technical officer, Dr. Parr, and the responsible officer of the Central Reference Laboratory (NIRS, Japan), Dr. Kawamura. They drew attention to the agreed programme of work, as described in the project documentation, and the timetable foreseen for the CRP as summarized in table 1. In general, they concluded that the achievements of the CRP to-date appear to be good, particularly in relation to sample collection (in most countries) and quality control (the development of appropriate reference materials). However, some aspects of the work appear to be a little behind schedule, particularly (1) the final stages of preparation of total diet samples (because of delays in providing a suitable food blender), (2) the analysis of some of the elements of first priority (because of the non-availability, until now, of suitable analytical reference materials), and (3) in some countries, the collection of autopsy specimens. One country (Malaysia) has experienced considerable difficulties in implementing the project due to the retirement of the former Chief Scientific Investigator. For this reason it was unfortunately not possible for the Malaysian representative to be present at the RCM

  7. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Cali, Corrado

    2015-07-14

    Advances for application of electron microscopy to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions (3D). From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here, we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room where we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of electron microscopy (EM) preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to observe a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1997 with data from October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregates, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  9. Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Menlove, H.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology Group] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce purified plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate from irradiated reactor spent fuels, and the co-denitration process area to combine and convert the plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate into mixed oxide (MOX). The selected NDA instruments for conceptual design studies are the MOX-product canister counter, holdup measurement systems for calcination and reduction furnaces and for blenders in the co-denitration process, the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometer for the spent fuel dissolver solution, and unattended verification systems. For more effective and practical safeguards and material control and accounting at RRP, the authors are also studying the conceptual design for the UO{sub 3} large-barrel counter. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art NDA conceptual design and research and development activities for the above instruments.

  10. Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. Country report, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main elements of radiological importance to be studied under the CRP are Strontium, Cesium, Iodine, Uranium and Thorium. Total diets for daily intake of human consisting of eleven common food samples were collected from the local market of Dhaka, the central part of the Country. The food samples were collected on market basket basis and according to the statistical dietary survey for the people of age ranging from 20-50 years. The number of frequency for the sample collection for the total daily diets was eleven, five for man and six for women. After collection, the food items were washed, cleaned and dried at room temperature and weighed and then cooked as is normally eaten in the Bangladeshi style. The cooked samples were then homogenized using commercial blender, mortar and pestle. The samples were then dried at 100-110 deg. C in an electric oven. Before drying a pail of the cooked samples was kept separately in polyethylene bottles with screw caps for iodine determination. Percentage of moisture content of these samples was calculated which varied from max 55.5% to min 40.4%. Ile dried samples were then kept in polyethylene bottles and tight with screw caps and then stored in refrigerator for elemental analysis. (author)

  11. Dry Sliding Wear behaviour of Aluminium-Red mud- Tungsten Carbide Hybrid metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi Chinta, Neelima; Selvaraj, N.; Mahesh, V.

    2016-09-01

    Red mud is an industrial waste obtained during the processing of alumina by Bayer's process. An attempt has been made to utilize the solid waste by using it as the reinforcement material in metal matrix composites. Red mud received from NALCO has been subjected for sieve analysis and milled to 42 nanometers using high energy ball mill. Red mud is used as a reinforcement material in Pure Aluminium matrix composite at 2%, 4%, and 6% weight at 100 microns level as well as 42 nano meters along with 4%Tungsten carbide by weight. Micro and Nano structured red mud powders, Tungsten carbide powder and Aluminium is mixed in a V-Blender, compacted at a pressure of 40 bar and samples are prepared by conventional sintering with vacuum as medium. In this current work, dry sliding wear characteristics at normal and heat treatment conditions are investigated with optimal combination of Aluminium, Tungsten carbide and different weight fractions of micro and nano structured red mud powder.

  12. Passive millimeter-wave cross polarization imaging and phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Samluk, Jesse P.; Wilson, John P.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Murakowski, Janusz A.; Murakowski, Maciej; Prather, Dennis W.

    2009-05-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (mmW) imaging has many specific defense, security and safety applications, due to the fact that all terrestrial bodies above absolute zero are emissive, and these wavelengths are not scattered by normal obscurants such as haze, fog, smoke, dust, sandstorms, clouds, or fabrics. We have previously demonstrated results from the construction of a 94 GHz passive mmW far-field imaging system utilizing optical upconversion, which imaged in only horizontal polarization. The effective radiometric temperature of an object is a combination of the object's surface and scattered radiometric temperatures. The surface radiometric temperature is a function of the object's emissivity, which is polarization dependent. Imaging with radiometric temperature data from both polarizations will allow a greater identification of the scene being imaged, and allow the recognition of subtle features which were not previously observable. This additional functionality is accomplished through the installation of added equipment and programming on our system, thus allowing the simultaneous data collection of imagery in both polarizations. Herein, we present our experimental procedures, results and passive mmW images obtained by using our far-field imaging system, a brief discussion of the phenomenology observed through the application of these techniques, as well as the preliminary details regarding our work on a 3-D passive mmW simulator capable of true physical polarization dependent effective emissivity and reflectivity rendering, based on the open-source Blender engine.

  13. War in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegowina, and Kosovo, and PCBs hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picer, M.; Kovac, T.; Picer, N.; Calic, V. [Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia); Miosic, N. [Geological Survey, Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Kodba, Z.C. [Maribor Environmental Protection Inst., Maribor (Slovenia); Rugova, A. [Pristina Univ., Pristina (Serbia)

    2005-07-01

    Recent warfare in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegowina, and Kosovo has increased hazardous waste levels in the involved regions. Data on contaminant levels from water and soil samples collected before 1995 did not demonstrate significant levels of contamination. This paper provided the results of a study which showed that significant levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exist in many of the areas worst affected by the war. During the study, soil and sediment samples were extracted with n-hexane. Fish extracts were extracted using a high revolution blender. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were then separated from organochlorine insecticides on a silica gel column. Electron capture detection gas chromatography (ECD-GC) was used to quantify the POPs. Results showed that levels of PCBs in soil samples from Bosnia and Herzegowina sampled during 2003 showed significantly high levels of total PCBs. Levels of contamination exceeded tolerance levels accepted in Netherlands. Fish samples did not demonstrate high levels of contaminants. Sediment samples from Bosnian rivers showed significant levels of PCBs. It was concluded that levels of PCBs in Bosnia and Herzegowina in 2003 were lower than levels observed in fish sampled in Dalmatia and Croatia. 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  14. Enabling real time release testing by NIR prediction of dissolution of tablets made by continuous direct compression (CDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pallavi; Wang, Yifan; Keyvan, Golshid; Callegari, Gerardo; Cuitino, Alberto; Muzzio, Fernando

    2016-10-15

    A method for predicting dissolution profiles of directly compressed tablets for a fixed sustained release formulation manufactured in a continuous direct compaction (CDC) system is presented. The methodology enables real-time release testing (RTRt). Tablets were made at a target drug concentration of 9% Acetaminophen, containing 90% lactose and 1% Magnesium Stearate, and at a target compression force of 24kN. A model for predicting dissolution profiles was developed using a 3(4-1) fractional factorial experimental design built around this targeted condition. Four variables were included: API concentration (low, medium, high), blender speed (150rpm, 200rpm, 250rpm), feed frame speed (20rpm, 25rpm, 30rpm), compaction force (8KN, 16KN, 24KN). The tablets thus obtained were scanned at-line in transmission mode using Near IR spectroscopy. The dissolution profiles were described using two approaches, a model-independent "shape and level" method, and a model-dependent approach based on Weibull's model. Multivariate regression was built between the NIR scores as the predictor variables and the dissolution profile parameters as the response. The model successfully predicted the dissolution profiles of the individual tablets (similarity factor, f2 ∼72) manufactured at the targeted set point. This is a first ever published manuscript addressing RTRt for dissolution prediction in continuous manufacturing, a novel and state of art technique for tablet manufacturing. PMID:27543350

  15. Content of CYP3A4 inhibitors, naringin, naringenin and bergapten in grapefruit and grapefruit juice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, P C; Saville, D J; Coville, P F; Wanwimolruk, S

    2000-04-01

    The flavonoids, naringin and naringenin and the furanocoumarin, bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen), were detected in some fresh grapefruit and commercial grapefruit juices but were not detected in other fruit juices tested (orange; orange with apple base; dark grape; orange and mango with apple base; orange, peach, passion fruit juice). The contents of these three grapefruit constituents in commercial juice and fresh grapefruit varied from brand to brand and also from lot to lot. Juice was prepared from the fresh fruit via different methods (by hand, squeezer or blender). The naringin content, after hand-squeeze, ranged from 115 to 384 mg/l. With hand-squeeze juice production, bergapten was not detected (less than 0.5 mg/l) in two varieties of grapefruit, and naringenin was usually not in detectable levels (less than 2 mg/l) in three varieties. All three constituents were present in New Zealand grapefruit preparations (including juice by hand-squeeze) and different lots showed variation in content (1.5-, 2.3- and 4.7-fold for naringin, naringenin and bergapten, respectively). Differences in the concentrations of these three constituents, which have potential for drug interaction, may contribute to the variability in pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 drugs and some contradictory results of drug interaction studies with grapefruit juice. PMID:10812937

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1999, with data for February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  17. The Iron Horse 3-in-1 frac unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruins, M. [Iron Horse Energy Services, Dunmore, AB (Canada)

    2008-11-15

    This article described an innovative down-hole technology that reduces the environmental impacts associated with shallow gas fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing requires plenty of equipment at the wellsite. The Iron Horse 3-in-1 frac unit reduces traffic to and from the site by reducing the number of units typically required in a frac-through-coiled (FTC) tubing spread. The combination units have been designed without compromising performance or job safety. The 3-in-1 frac unit, which combines the data van, frac pumper and blender can be transported on a single 24-wheeled trailer. The 4 successful tests that have been performed with the unit have demonstrated that customers can save expenses associated with third-party support equipment. In addition, reduced manpower requirements allow for a safer and more effective job performance. Combination units are currently under development for northern-based operations. The 3-in-1 frac unit is well suited for the most advanced coil rigs on the market and can be safely used in slant well operations. 3 figs.

  18. FRELLED: FITS Realtime Explorer of Low Latency in Every Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rhys P. W.

    2015-08-01

    FRELLED (FITS Realtime Explorer of Low Latency in Every Dimension) creates 3D images in real time from 3D FITS files and is written in Python for the 3D graphics suite Blender. Users can interactively generate masks around regions of arbitrary geometry and use them to catalog sources, hide regions, and perform basic analysis (e.g., image statistics within the selected region, generate contour plots, query NED and the SDSS). World coordinates are supported and multi-volume rendering is possible. FRELLED is designed for viewing HI data cubes and provides a number of tasks to commonly-used MIRIAD (ascl:1106.007) tasks (e.g. mbspect); however, many of its features are suitable for any type of data set. It also includes an n-body particle viewer with the ability to display 3D vector information as well as the ability to render time series movies of multiple FITS files and setup simple turntable rotation movies for single files.

  19. Cameleon language Part 1: Processor

    CERN Document Server

    de Sevricourt, O Cugnon

    2011-01-01

    Emergence is the way complex systems arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions between primitives. Since programming problems become more and more complexes and transverses, our vision is that application development should be process at two scales: micro- and macro-programming where at the micro-level the paradigm is step-by-step and at macro-level the paradigm is emergence. For micro-programming, which focuses on how things happen, popular languages, Java, C++, Python, are imperative writing languages where the code is a sequence of sentences executed by the computer. For macro-programming, which focuses on how things connect, popular languages, labVIEW, Blender, Simulink, are graphical data flow languages such that the program is a composition of operators, a unit-process consuming input data and producing output data, and connectors, a data-flow between an output data and an input data of two operators. However, despite their fruitful applications, these macro-languages are not transve...

  20. Discovery of a Transiting Planet Near the Snow-Line

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Buchhave, Lars A; Kenyon, Scott J; Henze, Christopher E; Isaacson, Howard; Kolbl, Rea; Marcy, Geoff W; Bryson, Stephen T; Stassun, Keivan G; Bastien, Fabienne A

    2014-01-01

    In most theories of planet formation, the snow-line represents a boundary between the emergence of the interior rocky planets and the exterior ice giants. The wide separation of the snow-line makes the discovery of transiting worlds challenging, yet transits would allow for detailed subsequent characterization. We present the discovery of Kepler-421b, a Uranus-sized exoplanet transiting a G9/K0 dwarf once every 704.2 days in a near-circular orbit. Using public Kepler photometry, we demonstrate that the two observed transits can be uniquely attributed to the 704.2 day period. Detailed light curve analysis with BLENDER validates the planetary nature of Kepler-421b to >4 sigmas confidence. Kepler-421b receives the same insolation as a body at ~2AU in the Solar System and for a Uranian albedo would have an effective temperature of ~180K. Using a time-dependent model for the protoplanetary disk, we estimate that Kepler-421b's present semi-major axis was beyond the snow-line after ~3Myr, indicating that Kepler-421b...

  1. Virtual GEOINT Center: C2ISR through an avatar's eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Mark; Tidbal, Travis; Basil, Maureen; Muryn, Tyler; Scupski, Joseph; Williams, Robert

    2013-05-01

    As the number of devices collecting and sending data in the world are increasing, finding ways to visualize and understand that data is becoming more and more of a problem. This has often been coined as the problem of "Big Data." The Virtual Geoint Center (VGC) aims to aid in solving that problem by providing a way to combine the use of the virtual world with outside tools. Using open-source software such as OpenSim and Blender, the VGC uses a visually stunning 3D environment to display the data sent to it. The VGC is broken up into two major components: The Kinect Minimap, and the Geoint Map. The Kinect Minimap uses the Microsoft Kinect and its open-source software to make a miniature display of people the Kinect detects in front of it. The Geoint Map collect smartphone sensor information from online databases and displays them in real time onto a map generated by Google Maps. By combining outside tools and the virtual world, the VGC can help a user "visualize" data, and provide additional tools to "understand" the data.

  2. Electronic structure of PCBM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Chun-Qi; Wang Peng; Shen Ying; Li Yan-Jun; Zhang Wen-Hua; Xu Fa-Qiang; Zhu Jun-Fa; Li Hong-Nian; Lai Guo-Qiao

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PCBM) using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements and first-principles calculations.The PES spectrum of the entire occupied valence band is reported,which exhibits abundant spectral features from the Fermi level to ~ 24 eV binding energy. All the spectral features are broadened as compared with the cases of C60. The reasons for the broadening are analysed by comparing the experimental data with the calculated energy levels and density of states.Special attention is paid to the analysis of the C60 highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-1 derived states,which can play a crucial role in the bonding at the interfaces of PCBM/polymer blenders or PCBM/electrodes.Besides the well-known energy level splitting of the C60 backbone caused by the lowered symmetry,C 2p states from the side chain mix or hybridize with the molecular orbitals of parent C60.The contribution of the O 2p states can substantially modify the PES spectrum.

  3. Numerical study of natural convection in a horizontal cylinder filled with water-based alumina nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangyin; Li, Yan

    2015-03-01

    Natural heat convection of water-based alumina (Al2O3/water) nanofluids (with volume fraction 1% and 4%) in a horizontal cylinder is numerically investigated. The whole three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedure is performed in a completely open-source way. Blender, enGrid, OpenFOAM and ParaView are employed for geometry creation, mesh generation, case simulation and post process, respectively. Original solver `buoyantBoussinesqSimpleFoam' is selected for the present study, and a temperature-dependent solver `buoyantBoussinesqSimpleTDFoam' is developed to ensure the simulation is more realistic. The two solvers are used for same cases and compared to corresponding experimental results. The flow regime in these cases is laminar (Reynolds number is 150) and the Rayleigh number range is 0.7 × 107 ~ 5 × 107. By comparison, the average natural Nusselt numbers of water and Al2O3/water nanofluids are found to increase with the Rayleigh number. At the same Rayleigh number, the Nusselt number is found to decrease with nanofluid volume fraction. The temperature-dependent solver is found better for water and 1% Al2O3/water nanofluid cases, while the original solver is better for 4% Al2O3/water nanofluid cases. Furthermore, due to strong three-dimensional flow features in the horizontal cylinder, three-dimensional CFD simulation is recommended instead of two-dimensional simplifications.

  4. Ethanol production from waste processing tomato dry; Producao de etanol a partir de residuo do processamento de tomate seco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Carla A.P.; Dal Sotto, Jessica; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], emails: carlaschmidt@utfpr.edu.br, jeh.dalsotto@hotmail.com, fabianaschutz@utfpr.edu.br

    2011-07-01

    The generation of waste increases with the development of a region and increases the power consumption. Research about the reuse of waste for energy generation favors solving these two problems. This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of tomato seeds discarded from the production process of tomato pulp dried in ethanol production. Any product that has sugar or other carbohydrate constituted a feedstock for ethanol production, in this study was observed that approximately 26% by weight of 2kg of tomatoes assessed were represented by seeds. We obtained the juice of tomato seeds by use a blender to grind the product to facilitate the process of fermentation. Added to the fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing a pre inoculum with Brix and pH adjusted, sterilized at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, which was subsequently incubated at 28-30 deg C until the end of process. Mixed up to follow this pre inoculum to the rest of the must was sterilized and incubated again at 28-30 deg C until the end of the process. The acquisition of ethanol was carried through a distillation. It was concluded that the seed discarded in the process of the product can be used for this purpose. (author)

  5. The Girl Talk Dilemma: Can Copyright Law Accomodate New Forms of Sample-Based Music?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mongillo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available On Gregg Gillis’ laptop computer are thousands of files representing a vast slice of 20th and 21st century popular music.1 His digital music collection is similar to that of many music consumers: it spans a wide variety of genres and runs from the obscure to the mainstream. But Gillis is different from most music consumers in that he uses computer software to cut his digital music files into audio snippets, or samples, and then piece them together into song collages.2 Gregg Gillis is Girl Talk, a recording artist on the Illegal Art label whose music has made yearend best music lists in Time Magazine,3 Rolling Stone,4 Blender5 and Pitchforkmedia.com.6 Girl Talk has developed a strong following throughout the United States and has toured throughout Europe and Australia.7 A PC user, he was recently featured in one of the “I’m a PC” ads for Microsoft.8 But while Girl Talk has been successful, Gillis adds almost no original musical content to his recordings. Although he often alters the speed or pitch of his samples, or loops them in a continuous pattern, he does not sing or rap over his creations. Furthermore, Gillis has never sought licenses or authorization for any of the samples he uses.9 For instance, his latest album, “Feed the Animals,” includes over 300 unauthorized samples10 of artists ranging from Lil Wayne to Radiohead to Metallica to Kenny Loggins.

  6. Kepler-22b: A 2.4 Earth-radius Planet in the Habitable Zone of a Sun-like Star

    CERN Document Server

    Borucki, William J; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T; Caldwell, Douglas A; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Cochran, William D; DeVore, Edna; Gautier, Thomas N; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Rowe, Jason; Sasselov, Dimitar; Boss, Alan; Charbonneau, David; Ciardi, David; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Doyle, Laurance; Dupree, Andrea K; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan; Holman, Matthew J; Steffen, Jason A; Mullally, Fergal; Still, Martin; Tarter, Jill; Ballard, Sarah; Buchhave, Lars A; Carter, Josh; Christiansen, Jessie L; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Désert, Jean-Michel; Dressing, Courtney; Endl, Michael; Fabrycky, Daniel; Fischer, Debra; Haas, Michael R; Henze, Christopher; Horch, Elliott; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard; Kjeldsen, Hans; Johnson, John Asher; Klaus, Todd; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Barclay, Thomas; Li, Jie; Meibom, Søren; Prsa, Andrej; Quinn, Samuel N; Quintana, Elisa V; Robertson, Paul; Sherry, William; Shporer, Avi; Tenenbaum, Peter; Thompson, Susan E; Twicken, Joseph D; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Welsh, William F; Basu, Sarbani; Chaplin, Bill; Miglio, Andrea; Kawaler, Steve; Arentoft, Torben; Stello, Dennis; Metcalfe, Travis S; Verner, Graham; Karoff, Christoffer; Lundkvist, Mia; Lund, Mikkel; Handberg, Rasmus; Elsworth, Yvonne; Hekker, Saskia; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R

    2011-01-01

    A search of the time-series photometry from NASA's Kepler spacecraft reveals a transiting planet candidate orbiting the 11th magnitude G5 dwarf KIC 10593626 with a period of 290 days. The characteristics of the host star are well constrained by high-resolution spectroscopy combined with an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry, leading to an estimated mass and radius of 0.970 +/- 0.060 MSun and 0.979 +/- 0.020 RSun. The depth of 492 +/- 10ppm for the three observed transits yields a radius of 2.38 +/- 0.13 REarth for the planet. The system passes a battery of tests for false positives, including reconnaissance spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and centroid motion. A full BLENDER analysis provides further validation of the planet interpretation by showing that contamination of the target by an eclipsing system would rarely mimic the observed shape of the transits. The final validation of the planet is provided by 16 radial velocities obtained with HIRES on Keck 1 over a one year span. Although t...

  7. openPSTD: The open source pseudospectral time-domain method for acoustic propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornikx, Maarten; Krijnen, Thomas; van Harten, Louis

    2016-06-01

    An open source implementation of the Fourier pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method for computing the propagation of sound is presented, which is geared towards applications in the built environment. Being a wave-based method, PSTD captures phenomena like diffraction, but maintains efficiency in processing time and memory usage as it allows to spatially sample close to the Nyquist criterion, thus keeping both the required spatial and temporal resolution coarse. In the implementation it has been opted to model the physical geometry as a composition of rectangular two-dimensional subdomains, hence initially restricting the implementation to orthogonal and two-dimensional situations. The strategy of using subdomains divides the problem domain into local subsets, which enables the simulation software to be built according to Object-Oriented Programming best practices and allows room for further computational parallelization. The software is built using the open source components, Blender, Numpy and Python, and has been published under an open source license itself as well. For accelerating the software, an option has been included to accelerate the calculations by a partial implementation of the code on the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), which increases the throughput by up to fifteen times. The details of the implementation are reported, as well as the accuracy of the code.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1995, with data for December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-27

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1995 with data for March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-25

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Validation of the coupling of mesh models to GEANT4 Monte Carlo code for simulation of internal sources of photons; Validacao do acoplamento de modelos mesh ao codigo Monte Carlo GEANT4 para simulacao de fontes de fotons internas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caribe, Paulo Rauli Rafeson Vasconcelos, E-mail: raulycaribe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Fisica; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Kramer, Richard; Khoury, Helen Jamil [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The use of three-dimensional models described by polygonal meshes in numerical dosimetry enables more accurate modeling of complex objects than the use of simple solid. The objectives of this work were validate the coupling of mesh models to the Monte Carlo code GEANT4 and evaluate the influence of the number of vertices in the simulations to obtain absorbed fractions of energy (AFEs). Validation of the coupling was performed to internal sources of photons with energies between 10 keV and 1 MeV for spherical geometries described by the GEANT4 and three-dimensional models with different number of vertices and triangular or quadrilateral faces modeled using Blender program. As a result it was found that there were no significant differences between AFEs for objects described by mesh models and objects described using solid volumes of GEANT4. Since that maintained the shape and the volume the decrease in the number of vertices to describe an object does not influence so meant dosimetric data, but significantly decreases the time required to achieve the dosimetric calculations, especially for energies less than 100 keV.

  11. 湛江电厂2号炉风粉混合器的优化设计%The Optimal Design of Wind-Pulverized Coal Mixer for Boiler #2 of Zhanjiang Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚明; 陈元霸; 沈跃良; 潘硕裕

    2011-01-01

    由于燃用煤质的下降,湛江电厂2号锅炉一直存在给粉机下粉不畅的问题,严重影响机组运行的安全性和带负荷能力.对其下粉不畅的原因进行了分析,并通过使用Fluent软件对风粉混合器中的静态压力和速度分布进行数值计算,对其风粉混合器的结构进行了优化改进.优化后,锅炉的下粉性能明显改善.相关设计思想对解决类似问题具有很好的指导意义.%Zhanjiang Power Plant No. 2 boiler has been bothered by the problem of discontinuity of pulverized coal falling into the primary air tube due to the decline of coal quality, and the safe operation and load capacity of the unit was seriously affected. The reasons of discontinuous falling are analyzed, and numerical simulations of static pressure and velocity distributions in the wind-powder blender were carried out by use of Fluent software. Based on the simulation results, the structure had been optimized. After optimization, the continuity of falling has been improved significantly.

  12. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy in Adults: Physiological Benefits, Indication, Clinical Benefits, and Adverse Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masaji

    2016-04-01

    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is carried out using an air/oxygen blender, active humidifier, single heated tube, and nasal cannula. Able to deliver adequately heated and humidified medical gas at flows up to 60 L/min, it is considered to have a number of physiological advantages compared with other standard oxygen therapies, including reduced anatomical dead space, PEEP, constant F(IO2), and good humidification. Although few large randomized clinical trials have been performed, HFNC has been gaining attention as an alternative respiratory support for critically ill patients. Published data are mostly available for neonates. For critically ill adults, however, evidence is uneven because the reports cover various subjects with diverse underlying conditions, such as hypoxemic respiratory failure, exacerbation of COPD, postextubation, preintubation oxygenation, sleep apnea, acute heart failure, and conditions entailing do-not-intubate orders. Even so, across the diversity, many published reports suggest that HFNC decreases breathing frequency and work of breathing and reduces the need for respiratory support escalation. Some important issues remain to be resolved, such as definitive indications for HFNC and criteria for timing the starting and stopping of HFNC and for escalating treatment. Despite these issues, HFNC has emerged as an innovative and effective modality for early treatment of adults with respiratory failure with diverse underlying diseases. PMID:27016353

  13. [U.S. renewable fuel standard implementation mechanism and market tracking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Liping; Earley, Robert; An, Feng; Zhang, Yu

    2013-03-01

    U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is a mandatory policy for promoting the utilization of biofuels in road transpiration sector in order to reduce the country's dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas emissions. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines the proportion of renewable fuels according to RFS annual target, and requests obligated parties such like fossil fuel refiner, blenders and importer in the U.S. to complete Renewable Volume Obligation (RVO) every year. Obligated parties prove they have achieved their RVO through a renewable fuels certification system, which generates Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) for every gallon of qualified renewable fuels produced or imported into U.S., RINs is a key for tracking renewable fuel consumption, which in turn is a key for implementing the RFS in the U.S., separated RINs can be freely traded in market and obligated parties could fulfill their RVO through buying RINs from other stakeholders. This briefing paper highlights RFS policy implementing mechanism and marketing tracking, mainly describes importance of RINs, and the method for generating and tracking RINs by both government and fuels industry participants.

  14. Effect of Different Amounts of Graphite on the Sintering and Transverse Rupture Properties of Powder Metal Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Boz; Adem Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Iron powders were mixed with graphite powders by 1~15 wt pct to produce block samples using powder metallurgy technique. The powders were blended in a three dimensional blender for 20 min and compacted in a die under 500 MPa by using a one directional press. Sinterability and mechanical properties of the samples with different carbon content were investigated. Sintering process was carried out on a belt furnace with flame curtain in dissociated ammonia atmosphere. Block samples produced were suitable for ASTM B-312 transverse rupture strength test apparatus and were tested with 0.050 kN/s velocity in a press under 100 g load. It was found that graphite amount up to 2 wt pct increased the contact area of particles and acted as a lubricant to affect the sintering behaviour positively. The results indicated that the samples containing up to 5 wt pct showed good sintering behaviour and also good hardness due to an increase in pearlite amount. However, the samples containing higher amount of graphite (more than 5 wt pct) affected the sintering behaviour negatively due to the settlement of free graphite around the Fe powders, which resulted in a decrease in the hardness and transverse rupture strength.

  15. Antifungal activity of Terminalia superba (combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIAKA Sohro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to optimize the anticandidosic activities of Terminalia superba (TEKAM4 and the identification of major compounds present in the most active chromatographic fraction. The hydroethanolic extract TEKAM4-X0 was prepared by homogenization employing a blender. Two derivatives extracts of TEKAM4-X0 (X1-1 and X1-2 were obtained by a liquid/liquid partition of TEKAM4-X0 in a mixture of hexane and water (v/v. Three chromatographic fractions (F1, F2 and F3 from X1-2 were separated by means of Sephadex-LH20 gel filtration chromatography. All the extracts were incorporated to Sabouraud according to the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for antifungal assay. The entire fractions were tested on the previously prepared medium culture containing 1000 cells of C. albicans. Antifungal activity was determined by evaluating antifungal parameters values (MFC and IC50. Lastly, the structures of 2 isolated compounds were elucidated by combination of Flash chromatography and spectroscopic methods, including MS, and multiple stage RMN experiments.

  16. Discovery of a transiting planet near the snow-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipping, D. M.; Torres, G.; Buchhave, L. A.; Kenyon, S. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Henze, C.; Bryson, S. T. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Isaacson, H.; Kolbl, R.; Marcy, G. W. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stassun, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Bastien, F., E-mail: dkipping@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics Department, Fisk University, 1000 17th Ave. N, Nashville, TN 37208 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    In most theories of planet formation, the snow-line represents a boundary between the emergence of the interior rocky planets and the exterior ice giants. The wide separation of the snow-line makes the discovery of transiting worlds challenging, yet transits would allow for detailed subsequent characterization. We present the discovery of Kepler-421b, a Uranus-sized exoplanet transiting a G9/K0 dwarf once every 704.2 days in a near-circular orbit. Using public Kepler photometry, we demonstrate that the two observed transits can be uniquely attributed to the 704.2 day period. Detailed light curve analysis with BLENDER validates the planetary nature of Kepler-421b to >4σ confidence. Kepler-421b receives the same insolation as a body at ∼2 AU in the solar system, as well as a Uranian albedo, which would have an effective temperature of ∼180 K. Using a time-dependent model for the protoplanetary disk, we estimate that Kepler-421b's present semi-major axis was beyond the snow-line after ∼3 Myr, indicating that Kepler-421b may have formed at its observed location.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, with data for September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  18. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, with data for August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  20. Petroleum Supply Monthly, March 1996 (with data for January 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-04

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1999 with data for November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 82 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1999, with data for March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary supplies of petroleum products in the US (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1999, with data for April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1999, with data for January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Exploring modality switching effects in negated sentences: Further evidence for grounded representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea eHald

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition (e.g., Perceptual Symbol Systems Theory; Barsalou, 1999, 2009 suggest that modality-specific simulations underlie the representation of concepts. Supporting evidence comes from modality switch costs: Participants are slower to verify a property in one modality (e.g., auditory, BLENDER-loud after verifying a property in a different modality (e.g., gustatory, CRANBERRIES-tart compared to the same modality (e.g., LEAVES-rustling, Pecher, Zeelenberg, & Barsalou, 2003. Similarly, modality switching costs lead to a modulation of the N400 effect in event related potentials (ERPs (Collins, Pecher, Zeelenberg, & Coulson, 2011; Hald, Marshall, Janssen, & Garnham, 2011. This effect of modality switching has also been shown to interact with the veracity of the sentence (Hald, et al., 2011. The current event-related potentials study (ERPs further explores the role of modality match/mismatch on the processing of veracity as well as negation (sentences containing not. Our results indicate a modulation in the ERP based on modality and veracity, plus an interaction. The evidence supports the idea that modality-specific simulations occur during language processing, and furthermore suggest that these simulations alter the processing of negation.

  6. Experience with a LiveCD in an education process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Růžička

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes how can be LiveCD (Bootable CD used for geoinformatics distance learning. We have prepared one LiveCD with basic software for learning geoinformatics and we have some feedback from users and teachers. The paper should evaluate this feedback. LiveCD is a CD-ROM, that can be used as a bootable device. After booting from the CD, the user can access all resources compiled to the CD. There are operating system (usually based on GNU/Linux and (user, desktop software installed and configured to be used directly after boot. Our CD named GIS´ ak LiveCD contains basic GIS software such as UMN MapServer, GRASS, Quantum GIS, Thuban, JUMP, GPS Drive, Blender and we work on other software packages such as MapLab for UMN MapServer, PostGIS, GeoNetwork Open Source, CatMDEdit, gvSIG, uDIG. GIS´ ak LiveCD contains set of spatial data from the Czech Republic. Main part of the CD are tutorials for GIS software. CD is open for other e-learning materials. Now we have about 20 students using our LiveCD and few other users that are not curently our students. The paper should show Pros & Cons of the LiveCD usage for a distance learning.

  7. Applicability of the one-step DVS method for the determination of amorphous amounts for further different hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorsten; Scherließ, Regina; Schiewe, Jörg; Smal, Rüdiger; Weiler, Claudius; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-08-01

    In a former publication the authors showed that low amounts of amorphous content (LOQ of 0.5%) in a hydrophobic model API (Ciclesonide) can be measured with an individually adjusted one-step dynamic organic vapor sorption (DVS). In this investigation the applicability is tested on various APIs which differ in lipophilicity (poor water solubility) and hygroscopicity (absorption of water). The vapor sorption method proved to be applicable in almost all cases. Moisture sorption isotherms were determined for all five investigated crystalline and amorphous APIs. However, it was necessary to select the parameters individually for each API. The used solvents (water, methanol, isopropanol and methylene chloride) and the humidity-levels (0.05 p/p0 until 0.5 p/p0) were chosen carefully because otherwise the amorphous amounts switch to their crystalline counterparts and are not detectable. The production of fully amorphous samples (absence of crystalline material measured by DSC, mDSC and XRPD) was optimized over several trials. As successfully methods proved ball-milling, freeze-drying, spray-drying and/or quench cooling. In the next step these fully amorphous amounts were blended with crystalline starting material to calibration curves (Turbula blender, influence of electrostatic charge to homogeneity) for the calculation of amorphous content. In summary, the following presented methods were used to determine and quantify low amorphous amounts (between 1.5% and 17.0%) in jet-milled powders (grinding pressure of 8bar, 1-3 grinding cycles), respectively.

  8. Three‐dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghabra, Jumana; Boges, Daniya J.; Holst, Glendon R.; Kreshuk, Anna; Hamprecht, Fred A.; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Lehväslaiho, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Advances in the application of electron microscopy (EM) to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow us to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three‐dimensions. From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room in which we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug‐ins for visualization and analysis of EM preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to the observation of a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:23–38, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26179415

  9. Pervasion degree of convective mixing and investigations of mantle mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongshan Fu; Jianhua Huang; Jun Liu; Xiaohua Chang

    2009-01-01

    Geodynamic studies have shown that mantle convection is like a giant blender to make the original heteroge-neous mantle mixing and homogenizing. However, some models, especially from geochemical data show that the modem mantle may still contain a number of reservoir bodies with different chemical composition. Then, the modem mantle is ho-mogeneous? Authors have defined a box replacement degree of convective mantle mixing and pervasion degree of convee-five mantle mixing (that equals to initial density of tracing elements divided by final density of tracing elements) to investi-gate the mantle mixing. The previous results have shown that after four billion years the mantle is basic uniform and the box replacement of the convective mantle is more than 80% in steady-state convection models. This paper calculates and dis-cusses the pervasion degree of convective mantle mixing in detail. For the initial state we will set some 10°×10°(spacing 0.25°) tracing boxes, which includes 1 681 tracer, at the top and bottom of the mantle, and then track the motions of these tracers, and investigate the convective mixed pervasions. The results show that at the initial stage though the convective mixing pervasions are very different from mode to mode, after running for some time, the convective mixing pervasions for most modes are going to be a constant and the tracers are more evenly distributed in the whole mantle.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1996 with data from March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly: April 1996, with data from February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the report present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD districts, and 12 Refining Districts. A future article gives a summer 1996 gasoline assessment. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  12. Nutrition and metabolism in sepsis and multisystem organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baue, A E

    1991-06-01

    Sepsis and organ failure produce profound metabolic changes that contribute to hepatic and musculoskeletal failure. When multiple organ failure develops, the mortality rate is high, and therapy is unlikely to be effective unless the causative process (e.g., infection, low cardiac output) can be eliminated. Thus, the prevention of multiple organ failure and the prevention or early treatment of infection are paramount. Organ and nutritional support to prevent complications is necessary. The gastrointestinal tract should be used for nutrition whenever possible with a blenderized regular diet with fiber, glutamine, and short-chain fatty acids to protect and preserve the gut. If parenteral nutrition is necessary, special solutions may be necessary for the liver, kidneys, or lungs. If not, protein with 45% branched-chain amino acid, medium- and short-chain triglycerides, glutamine supplementation, and carbohydrates seem best. Other substances are being evaluated that may be helpful in nutrition and organ support, including arginine, xylitol, growth hormone, and anabolic steroids. Multiple organ failure should be prevented, if at all possible, by stopping or controlling the injury, removing as much necrotic tissue as possible, improving blood flow and oxygen consumption, supporting metabolism, and preventing infection or treating it early and adequately. Nutritional support plays a key role in preventing metabolic failure.

  13. Reinforcement of denture base PMMA with ZrO(2) nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Wang, Xixin; Tang, Qingguo; Guo, Mei; Zhao, Jianling

    2014-04-01

    In the research described, ZrO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization. The morphologies, crystal structure, etc. were characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). ZrO2 nanotubes were pre-stirred with the denture base PMMA powder by a mechanical blender and mixed with MMA liquid to fabricate reinforced composites. The composites were tested by an electromechanical universal testing machine to study the influences of contents and surface-treatment effect on the reinforcement. The ZrO2 nanoparticles were also investigated for comparative purposes. Results indicated that ZrO2 nanotubes had a better reinforcement effect than ZrO2 nanoparticles, and surface-treatment would lower the reinforcement effect of the ZrO2 nanotubes which itself was significantly different from that of the ZrO2 nanoparticles. The flexural strength of the composite was maximised when 2.0wt% untreated ZrO2 nanotubes were added.

  14. Adequacy and verifiability of pharmaceutical mixtures and dose units by variographic analysis (Theory of Sampling) - A call for a regulatory paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Kim H; Román-Ospino, Andrés D; Sanchez, Adriluz; Romañach, Rodolfo J

    2016-02-29

    In spite of intense efforts in the last 20 years, the current state of affairs regarding evaluation of adequacy of pharmaceutical mixing is at an impressive standstill, characterized by two draft guidances, one withdrawn, and the other never approved. We here analyze the regulatory, scientific and technological situation and suggest a radical, but logical approach calling for a paradigm shift regarding sampling of pharmaceutical blends. In synergy with QbD/PAT efforts, blend uniformity testing should only be performed with properly designed sampling that can guarantee representativity-in contrast to the current deficient thief sampling. This is necessary for suitable in-process specifications and dosage units meeting desired specifications. The present exposé shows how process sampling based on the Theory of Sampling (TOS) constitutes a new asset for regulatory compliance, providing procedures that suppress hitherto adverse sampling errors. We identify that the optimal sampling location is after emptying the blender, guaranteeing complete characterisation of the residual heterogeneity. TOS includes variographic analysis that decomposes the effective total sampling and analysis error (TSE+TAE) from the variability of the manufacturing process itself. This approach provides reliable in-process characterization allowing independent approval or rejection by the Quality Control unit. The science-based sampling principles presented here will facilitate full control of blending processes, including whether post-blending segregation influences the material stream that reaches the tabletting feed-frame.

  15. Viburnum opulus: Could it be a new alternative, such as lemon juice, to pharmacological therapy in hypocitraturic stone patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim Tuglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Citrate, potassium, and calcium levels in Viburnum opulus (V. opulus and lemon juice were compared to evaluate the usability of V. opulus in mild to moderate level hypocitraturic stone disease. Materials and Methods: V. opulus and lemon fruits were squeezed in a blender and 10 samples of each of 100 ml were prepared. Citrate, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and pH levels in these samples were examined. Results: Potassium was found to be statistically significantly higher in V. opulus than that in lemon juice (p = 0.006 whereas sodium (p = 0.004 and calcium (p = 0.008 were found to be lower. There was no difference between them in terms of the amount of magnesium and citrate. Concusions: Because V. opulus contains citrate as high as lemon juice does and it is a potassium-rich and calciumand sodium-poor fluid, it can be an alternative to pharmaceutical treatment in mild-to-moderate degree hypocitraturic stone patients. These findings should be supported with clinical studies.

  16. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, Corrado; Baghabra, Jumana; Boges, Daniya J; Holst, Glendon R; Kreshuk, Anna; Hamprecht, Fred A; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Lehväslaiho, Heikki; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the application of electron microscopy (EM) to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow us to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions. From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room in which we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of EM preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to the observation of a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. PMID:26179415

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1997 with data from May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  18. Parametric Deformation of Discrete Geometry for Aerodynamic Shape Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George R.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian

    2012-01-01

    We present a versatile discrete geometry manipulation platform for aerospace vehicle shape optimization. The platform is based on the geometry kernel of an open-source modeling tool called Blender and offers access to four parametric deformation techniques: lattice, cage-based, skeletal, and direct manipulation. Custom deformation methods are implemented as plugins, and the kernel is controlled through a scripting interface. Surface sensitivities are provided to support gradient-based optimization. The platform architecture allows the use of geometry pipelines, where multiple modelers are used in sequence, enabling manipulation difficult or impossible to achieve with a constructive modeler or deformer alone. We implement an intuitive custom deformation method in which a set of surface points serve as the design variables and user-specified constraints are intrinsically satisfied. We test our geometry platform on several design examples using an aerodynamic design framework based on Cartesian grids. We examine inverse airfoil design and shape matching and perform lift-constrained drag minimization on an airfoil with thickness constraints. A transport wing-fuselage integration problem demonstrates the approach in 3D. In a final example, our platform is pipelined with a constructive modeler to parabolically sweep a wingtip while applying a 1-G loading deformation across the wingspan. This work is an important first step towards the larger goal of leveraging the investment of the graphics industry to improve the state-of-the-art in aerospace geometry tools.

  19. Advances in Solar Power Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, S. E.; Kosovic, B.; Drobot, S.

    2014-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research and partners are building a blended SunCast Solar Power Forecasting system. This system includes several short-range nowcasting models and improves upon longer range numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as part of the "Public-Private-Academic Partnership to Advance Solar Power Forecasting." The nowcasting models being built include statistical learning models that include cloud regime prediction, multiple sky imager-based advection models, satellite image-based advection models, and rapid update NWP models with cloud assimilation. The team has also integrated new modules into the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to better predict clouds, aerosols, and irradiance. The modules include a new shallow convection scheme; upgraded physics parameterizations of clouds; new radiative transfer modules that specify GHI, DNI, and DIF prediction; better satellite assimilation methods; and new aerosol estimation methods. These new physical models are incorporated into WRF-Solar, which is then integrated with publically available NWP models via the Dynamic Integrated Forecast (DICast) system as well as the Nowcast Blender to provide seamless forecasts at partner utility and balancing authority commercial solar farms. The improvements will be described and results to date discussed.

  20. Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate Monomer onto Starch and Natural Rubber Latex Initiated by Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iskandar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To obtain the degradable plastic, the graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto starch and natural rubber latex was conducted by a simultaneous irradiation technique. Gamma-ray from cobalt-60 source was used as the initiator. The grafted copolymer of starch-polymethyl methacrylate and the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate were mixed in the blender, and dried it in the oven. The dried grafted copolymer mixture was then molded using hydraulic press machine. The effect of irradiation dose, composition of the grafted copolymer mixture, film forming condition and recycle effect was evaluated. The parameters observed were tensile strength, gel fraction and soil burial degradability of grafted copolymer mixture. It was found that the tensile strength of grafted copolymer mixture increased by -ray irradiation. Increasing of the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate content, the gel fraction and tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture increased. The tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture was increased from 18 MPa to 23 MPa after recycled (film forming reprocessed 3 times. The grafted copolymer mixture was degraded completely after soil buried for 6 months

  1. Simultaneous determination of melamine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in milk by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Yan, Xiaomei

    2009-10-14

    This article describes the development of a simple analytical approach for the simultaneous determination of melamine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in milk samples using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection (DAD) for the first time. Ultraviolet absorption at wavelengths of 214 and 280 nm was applied for the detection of melamine and HMF, respectively. Milk samples were extracted with 1% trichloroacetic acid using a high-speed blender and ultrasonication. After centrifugation and filtration, the extract was analyzed by CE-DAD directly. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was employed as the separation mode by adding sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to the electrolyte. Under optimal separation conditions, melamine, HMF, and interferents were well resolved. The linear dynamic ranges were 0.05-100 microg/mL for melamine (R(2) = 0.9996) and 0.1-100 microg/mL for HMF (R(2) = 0.9997). The assay detection limits were 0.047 microg/mL and 0.067 microg/mL for melamine and HMF, respectively. Satisfactory results were obtained for the assay recovery rate and repeatability. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of melamine and HMF in real milk samples, and the results of melamine were comparable to those obtained using HPLC-UV reference method. PMID:19761188

  2. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: A comparative study with four different fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  3. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle size, and total dissolved solids analysis. Standard recipe for barley milk was used without added additives. Barley grain was ground and mixed in a blender for 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The samples were filtered and particle size of the grains was determined by laser diffraction particle sizing. The plant milk was also analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, in the range from 904 to 1699 nm. Furthermore, conductivity of each sample was determined and microphotographs were taken in order to identify the structure of fat globules and particles in the barley milk. NIR spectra, particle size distribution, and conductivity results all point to 45 seconds as the optimal blending time, since further blending results in the saturation of the samples.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1995 with data for May 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. [ILCOR's new resuscitation guidelines in preterm and term infants: critical discussion and suggestions for implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, G; Humpl, T; Zimmermann, A; Bührer, C; Wauer, R; Stannigel, H; Hoehn, T

    2007-01-01

    Recommendations of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) become updated every five years with changing evidence resulting in revised recommendations for clinical practice. New data exist concerning the adequate oxygen concentration to be used in the delivery room, the management of imminent meconium aspiration, ventilation strategies and the role of body temperature during and after resuscitation of preterm and term newborn infants. Only in some cases new evidence has led to clear-cut recommendations for or against specific interventions. Therefore the present publication cites the original ILCOR-recommendations and discusses these with regard to their practical implementation. The authors of the present work suggest to commence resuscitation independendly of gestational age with room air and adjust the inspiratory oxygen concentration thereafter on clinical grounds. The authors also advocate the retention of the presently performed intranatal suction procedure in cases of meconium-stained amniotic fluid and the use of therapeutic hypothermia following perinatal asphyxia in term newborns according to the protocol of one of the published randomized, controlled trials. Standard equipment for neonatal resuscitation should include pressure gauge for monitoring of inspiratory pressures, oxygen blender, and pulse oxymeter. The predominant majority of ILCOR-recommendations have only been cited and have been commented with respect to their practical implementation within the clinical context.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1998 with data from December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1998, with data for July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the suppiy and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1998, with data for August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. A feature article, Accuracy of petroleum supply data, is also included. 72 tabs.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1998, with data for June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 fig., 66 tabs.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1998 with data for April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly: July 1998, with data for May 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1998, with data for September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the Unites States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly with data from April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly - with data for May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. This document contains a glossary.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1995: With data for October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1995 with data for July 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Molecular Gastronomy: Transforming Diets for Dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Edelstein

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research is to utilize molecular gastronomy to improve food textures for dysphagia diets, using techniques such as spherification, gelification, and emulsification. It is important for individuals with dysphagia to continue to consume the necessary vitamins and minerals to ensure good health. Molecular gastronomy can be used to enhance pureed diets as more palatable and aesthetically appealing. Medical nutrition therapy for dysphagia calls for foods and beverages to be thickened at prescribed textures and consistencies to prevent choking and aspiration. There is quite a range of unpalatable purees that are currently served to patients, inclusive of baby food and whole meals blenderized together and served in one large bowl. Molecular cuisine allows more variety for many with dysphagia, as food taste is one of few pleasures afforded these patients as a result of their condition and should replace undesirable one bowl meals still served in elder and healthcare facilities. The results of this research suggest that the use of molecular gastronomy in the preparation of pureed foods is favorable and rated highly. The implications of this research can be extended to nursing home facilities, hospitals and long-term care facilities, where patient’s are often on pureed diets for dysphagia.

  20. The organic agricultural waste as a basic source of biohydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwuryandari, Lies; Priantoro, E. Agung; Sintawardani, Neni; Astuti, J. Tri; Nilawati, Dewi; Putri, A. Mauliva Hada; Mamat, Sentana, Suharwadji; Sembiring, T.

    2016-02-01

    Biohydrogen production research was carried out using raw materials of agricultural organic waste that was obtained from markets around the Bandung city. The organic part, which consisted of agricultural waste material, mainly fruit and vegetable waste, was crushed and milled using blender. The sludge that produced from milling process was then used as a substrate for mixed culture microorganism as a raw material to produce biohydrogen. As much as 1.2 kg.day-1 of sludge (4% of total solid) was fed into bioreactor that had a capacity of 30L. Experiment was done under anaerobic fermentation using bacteria mixture culture that maintained at pH in the range of 5.6-6.5 and temperature of 25-30oC on semi-continuous mode. Parameters of analysis include pH, temperature, total solid (TS), organic total solid (OTS), total gas production, and hydrogen gas production. The results showed that from 4% of substrate resulted 897.86 L of total gas, which contained 660.74 L (73.59%) of hydrogen gas. The rate of hydrogen production in this study was 11,063 mol.L-1.h-1.

  1. Kepler-10c, a 2.2-Earth radius transiting planet in a multiple system

    CERN Document Server

    Fressin, Francois; Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, David; Batalha, Natalie M; Fortney, Jonathan J; Rowe, Jason F; Allen, Christopher; Borucki, William J; Brown, Timothy M; Bryson, Stephen T; Ciardi, David R; Cochran, William D; Deming, Drake; Dunham, Edward W; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Gautier, Thomas N; Gilliland, Ronald L; Henze, Christopher E; Holman, Matthew J; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Kinemuchi, Karen; Knutson, Heather; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Ragozzine, Darin; Sasselov, Dimitar D; Still, Martin; Tenenbaum, Peter; Uddin, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has recently announced the discovery of Kepler-10 b, the smallest exoplanet discovered to date and the first rocky planet found by the spacecraft. A second, 45-day period transit-like signal present in the photometry from the first eight months of data could not be confirmed as being caused by a planet at the time of that announcement. Here we apply the light-curve modeling technique known as BLENDER to explore the possibility that the signal might be due to an astrophysical false positive (blend). To aid in this analysis we report the observation of two transits with the Spitzer Space Telescope at 4.5 {\\mu}m. When combined they yield a transit depth of 344 \\pm 85 ppm that is consistent with the depth in the Kepler passband (376 \\pm 9 ppm, ignoring limb darkening), which rules out blends with an eclipsing binary of a significantly different color than the target. Using these observations along with other constraints from high resolution imaging and spectroscopy we are able to exclude the va...

  2. Scalable shear-exfoliation of high-quality phosphorene nanoflakes with reliable electrochemical cycleability in nano batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Ge, Binghui; Chen, Jing; Nathan, Arokia; Xin, Linhuo L.; Ma, Hongyu; Min, Huihua; Zhu, Chongyang; Xia, Weiwei; Li, Zhengrui; Li, Shengli; Yu, Kaihao; Wu, Lijun; Cui, Yiping; Sun, Litao; Zhu, Yimei

    2016-06-01

    Atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise as an alternative to graphene and other two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, bulk black phosphorus (BP) suffers from rapid capacity fading and poor rechargeable performance. This work reports for the first time the use of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to construct nanoscale phosphorene LIBs. This enables direct visualization of the mechanisms underlying capacity fading in thick multilayer phosphorene through real-time capture of delithiation-induced structural decomposition, which serves to reduce electrical conductivity thus causing irreversibility of the lithiated phases. We further demonstrate that few-layer-thick phosphorene successfully circumvents the structural decomposition and holds superior structural restorability, even when subject to multi-cycle lithiation/delithiation processes and concomitant huge volume expansion. This finding provides breakthrough insights into thickness-dependent lithium diffusion kinetics in phosphorene. More importantly, a scalable liquid-phase shear exfoliation route has been developed to produce high-quality ultrathin phosphorene using simple means such as a high-speed shear mixer or even a household kitchen blender with the shear rate threshold of ˜1.25 × 104 s-1. The results reported here will pave the way for industrial-scale applications of rechargeable phosphorene LIBs.

  3. Introducing Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation into Olfactory Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    An olfactory display is a device that delivers various odors to the user's nose. It can be used to add special effects to movies and games by releasing odors relevant to the scenes shown on the screen. In order to provide high-presence olfactory stimuli to the users, the display must be able to generate realistic odors with appropriate concentrations in a timely manner together with visual and audio playbacks. In this paper, we propose to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in conjunction with the olfactory display. Odor molecules released from their source are transported mainly by turbulent flow, and their behavior can be extremely complicated even in a simple indoor environment. In the proposed system, a CFD solver is employed to calculate the airflow field and the odor dispersal in the given environment. An odor blender is used to generate the odor with the concentration determined based on the calculated odor distribution. Experimental results on presenting odor stimuli synchronously with movie clips show the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles. PMID:26716007

  6. Research And Design Of Automatic Rice Cooker%自动淘米式电饭煲设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传海; 余昌雄; 王李; 袁作彬

    2013-01-01

    Presents the design and research of a timing and automatic rice cooker,it can achieve the function of washing rice and pot by equipped with a motor drive and blender and a automatic device of contraction.Magnetic valve and connect contribute to water inflowing and outflowing and the function of its tightness is quite ensured. The whole device is controlled by the single-chip of STC12C5A60S2.%  设计了一种可定时、自动淘米的新型电饭煲,它是在普通电饭煲上加装电机、搅拌板和快速转换装置,此新型电饭煲可在STC12C5A60S2单片机及电磁阀控制下自动实现进水、淘米、煮饭、洗锅、排水等功能,且密封性良好。

  7. Impacts of renewable fuel regulation and production on agriculture, energy, and welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Lihong Lu

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study the impact of U.S. federal renewable fuel regulations on energy and agriculture commodity markets and welfare. We consider two federal ethanol policies: the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) contained in the Energy Security and Independence Act of 2007 and tax credits to ethanol blenders contained in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008. My first essay estimates the distribution of short-run impacts of changing federal ethanol policies on U.S. energy prices, agricultural commodity prices, and welfare through a stochastic partial equilibrium model of U.S. corn, ethanol, and gasoline markets. My second essay focuses on studying the price behavior of the renewable fuel credit (RFC) market, which is the mechanism developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet the RFS. RFCs are a tradable, bankable, and borrowable accounting mechanism to ensure that all obligated parties use a mandated level of renewable fuel. I first develop a conceptual framework to understand how the market works and then apply stochastic dynamic programming to simulate prices for RFCs, examine the sensitivity of prices to relevant shocks, and estimate RFC option premiums. My third essay assesses the impact of policy led U.S. ethanol on the markets of global crude oil and U.S. gasoline using a structural Vector Auto Regression model of global crude oil, U.S. gasoline and ethanol markets.

  8. Mathematical Methods of Modelling the Morphology of Spruce Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Růžena; Novotný, Jan; Pivovarník, Marek; Zemek, František

    2014-05-01

    Radiative transfer (RT) models are simulation tools which can be used to quantify relationships between vegetation canopy properties and observed remotely sensed data. This study aims at creating a spruce tree growth model as a key input for use in RT models. The spruce tree model is built on data obtained from terrestrial laser scanning of spruce trees. Each tree model is unique. This uniqueness is achieved by using L-systems which are able to simulate natural randomness while complying with the given tree parameters. L-systems are established on a theory of grammar that enables rewriting a string of symbols according to specified rewriting rules. In practice, our tree models are generated in Blender visualization software, implementing an algorithm written in Python. The algorithm generates the basic parameters of the whole tree and then creates the parameters of the spruce trunk and initial branches. The parameters are generated randomly within a range that is calculated from measured data. Then each branch is grown on the basis of annual increments defined by field measurements. Tree needles are distributed with respect to the age of individual branches; therefore, the needles have different colors according to their age. Cones and faces are graphical representations of the spruce model. Branches are represented by cones and needles are represented by faces around the branches. The faces are transparent, thus simulating light transmittance in-between the needles. The whole model is highly computationally demanding, especially with respect to computer memory.

  9. Processamento de sementes de Moringa oleifera utilizando-se diferentes equipamentos para obtenção de solução coagulante Processing of Moringa oleifera seeds using different equipments to obtain coagulant solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila C. Arantes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho para avaliar o uso de quatro equipamentos no processamento das sementes de Moringa oleifera, visando à produção de solução coagulante a ser empregada no tratamento de água com turbidez obtida sinteticamente. Seis soluções coagulantes com diferentes tipos de processamento foram utilizadas em ensaios de coagulação, floculação e sedimentação em equipamento Jar-Test. A dosagem da solução coagulante utilizada foi 500 mg L-1 e os parâmetros avaliados foram turbidez e cor aparente; verificou-se, após 30 min de sedimentação, que para redução de turbidez e cor aparente os melhores processamentos foram com pilão e máquina de moer, respectivamente, sendo que em ambos os casos o peneiramento do pó foi essencial para a redução dos parâmetros em questão. Através de liquidificador e mixer, os índices de redução de turbidez e cor aparente foram os menores encontrados e a trituração das sementes durante o processamento na máquina de moer e no pilão remove parte do óleo neles presente, o que não ocorre com o uso do liquidificador e mixer, evidenciando que a retirada do óleo presente nas sementes resulta em solução coagulante com maior eficiência.This work was condcted to assess four different equipments used in processing seeds of Moringa oleifera to produce a coagulant solution to be used in water treatment with the turbidity obtained synthetically. Six coagulant solutions with different types of processing were used in assays of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation in Jar-Test equipment. The dose of coagulant solution was 500 mg L-1 and the evaluated parameters were turbidity and apparent color. After 30 min of sedimentation, it was clear that the best processes to reduce turbidity and apparent color were the pestle and grinder, respectively, however, in both cases the sieving of the powder was essential in reducing the parameters in question. Using a blender and a mixer the

  10. Microbiological evaluation of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines from the Army barracks of Brigata Meccanizzata Aosta located in Messina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Beninati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines (VMs. The study was carried out on 203 samples from 15 VMs located in 5 Army barracks in Messina. The samples included: water used for preparation of beverages, swab of water tank, swab of blender machine, chocolate powder, milk powder, cappuccino and chocolate drink (29 samples for each types. All samples were examined for total bacterial count (TBC, coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostri - dium perfringens, Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For the water samples the colony count (CC at 22°C and at 37°C was made. The average values of CC at 22°C and at 37°C were of 10.86x10²±8.72x10² CFU/mL and of 21.72x10²±16.44x10² CFU/mL, respectively. P. aeruginosa, coliform bacteria, S. aureus, E. coli and molds were detected from water. The TBC ranged from 176 CFU/g (±275.2 for chocolate powder to 294.8±69.4 CFU/g for milk powder. S. aureus and molds were isolated from milk powder, while coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus were observed in chocolate powder. The average TBC for hot beverages ranged from 34.32x10³±97.77x10³ CFU/mL for cappuccino to 36.59x10³±10.47x104 CFU/mL for chocolate drink. Coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and molds were detected from cappuccino, while enterococci and molds were observed in chocolate drink. The microbiological characteristics of the water and powders, hygiene, and the periodic cleaning of machines, influenced the microbiological quality of the hot beverages dispensed by VMs.

  11. A deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of Monogenean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Guan Teo

    Full Text Available In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation.

  12. Potential reuse of small household waste electrical and electronic equipment: Methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a general methodology for assessing and estimating the potential reuse of small waste electrical and electronic equipment (sWEEE), focusing on devices classified as domestic appliances. Specific tests for visual inspection, function and safety have been defined for ten different types of household appliances (vacuum cleaner, iron, microwave, toaster, sandwich maker, hand blender, juicer, boiler, heater and hair dryer). After applying the tests, reuse protocols have been defined in the form of easy-to-apply checklists for each of the ten types of appliance evaluated. This methodology could be useful for reuse enterprises, since there is a lack of specific protocols, adapted to each type of appliance, to test its potential of reuse. After applying the methodology, electrical and electronic appliances (used or waste) can be segregated into three categories: the appliance works properly and can be classified as direct reuse (items can be used by a second consumer without prior repair operations), the appliance requires a later evaluation of its potential refurbishment and repair (restoration of products to working order, although with possible loss of quality) or the appliance needs to be finally discarded from the reuse process and goes directly to a recycling process. Results after applying the methodology to a sample of 87.7kg (96 units) show that 30.2% of the appliances have no potential for reuse and should be diverted for recycling, while 67.7% require a subsequent evaluation of their potential refurbishment and repair, and only 2.1% of them could be directly reused with minor cleaning operations. This study represents a first approach to the "preparation for reuse" strategy that the European Directive related to Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment encourages to be applied. However, more research needs to be done as an extension of this study, mainly related to the identification of the feasibility of repair or refurbishment operations.

  13. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Vincent, Savariar; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-06-01

    The present study explored the effects of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera tested against third instar larvae of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 500 g powder was macerated with 1.5 L of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol 8h, using Soxhlet apparatus, and filtered. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The yield of crude extract was 11.4, 12.2, 10.6, and 13.5 g in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol, respectively. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extract of J. curcas with LC(50) values of 230.32, 212.85, 192.07, and 113.23 ppm; H. suaveolens with LC(50) values of 213.09, 217.64, 167.59, and 86.93 ppm; A. indicum with LC(50) values of 204.18, 155.53, 166.32, and 111.58 ppm; and L. aspera with LC(50) values of 152.18, 118.29, 111.43, and 107.73 ppm, respectively, against third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanolic extract followed by ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extract. No mortality was observed in the control. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. L. aspera showed the highest mortality rate against the mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The larval density was decreased after the treatment of plant extracts at the breeding sites (sewage water), and hence, these plant extracts of the suitable alternatives of synthetic insecticides for the mosquito vector management. The present results suggest that the medicinal plants extract was an excellent potential for controlling filarial vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:22146997

  14. Disassembly properties and material characterisation of household small waste electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This paper is focused on characterising small waste electric and electronic equipment, specifically small household appliances, from two different points of views: disassembly properties and material identification. The sample for this characterisation was obtained from a selective collection campaign organised in Castellón de la Plana (Spain). A total amount of 833.7kg (749 units) of small waste electric and electronic equipment was collected, of which 23.3% by weight and 22.4% by units belonged to the subcategory household equipment. This subcategory, composed of appliances such as vacuum cleaners, toasters, sandwich makers, hand blenders, juicers, coffee makers, hairdryers, scales, irons and heaters, was first disassembled in order to analyse different aspects of the disassembly process for each equipment type: type of joints, ease of identification of materials, ease of access to joints for extracting components, ease of separation of components from the whole, uniformity of tools needed for the disassembly process and possibility of reassembly after disassembly. Results show that the most common joints used in these equipment types are snap-fits and screws, although some permanent joints have also been identified. Next, the material composition of each component of each appliance belonging to each equipment type was identified visually and with additional mechanical trials and testing. It can be observed that plastic and electric/electronic components are present in all the equipment types analysed and are also the material fractions that appear with higher percentages in the material composition: 41.1wt% and 39.1wt% for the plastic fraction and electric/electronic components, respectively. The most common plastics are: polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC), while the most common electric/electronic components are: cable, plug and printed circuit boards. Results also show that disassembly properties and material

  15. Chitin nanofibers: preparations, modifications, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    Chitin nanofibers are prepared from the exoskeletons of crabs and prawns by a simple mechanical treatment after the removal of proteins and minerals. The obtained nanofibers have fine nanofiber networks with a uniform width of approximately 10-20 nm and a high aspect ratio. The method used for chitin-nanofiber isolation is also successfully applied to the cell walls of mushrooms. They form a complex with glucans on the fiber surface. A grinder, a Star Burst atomization system, and a high speed blender are all used in the mechanical treatment to convert chitin to nanofibers. Mechanical treatment under acidic conditions is the key to facilitate fibrillation. At pH 3-4, the cationization of amino groups on the fiber surface assists nano-fibrillation by electrostatic repulsive force. By applying this finding, we also prepared chitin nanofibers from dry chitin powder. Chitin nanofibers are acetylated to modify their surfaces. The acetyl DS can be controlled from 1 to 3 by changing the reaction time. An acetyl group is introduced heterogeneously from the surface to the core. Nanofiber morphology is maintained even in the case of high acetyl DS. Optically transparent chitin nanofiber composites are prepared with 11 different types of acrylic resins. Due to the nano-sized structure, all of the composites are highly transparent. Chitin nanofibers significantly increase the Young's moduli and the tensile strengths and decrease the thermal expansion of all acrylic resins due to the reinforcement effect of chitin nanofibers. Chitin nanofibers show chiral separation ability. The chitin nanofiber membrane transports the d-isomer of glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and lysine from the corresponding racemic amino acid mixtures faster than the corresponding l-isomer. The chitin nanofibers improve clinical symptoms and suppress ulcerative colitis in a DSS-induced mouse model of acute ulcerative colitis. Moreover, chitin nanofibers suppress myeloperoxidase activation in the colon and

  16. The Effect of Freezing and Hydrocolloids on the Physical Parameters of Strawberry Mass-Based Desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boča Sigita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of freezing, thickening and storage on the physical properties of the strawberry desserts made with addition of various hydrocolloids. The strawberry cultivars ‘Polka’, ‘Honeoye’, and ‘Senga Sengana’ harvested in Latvia were used in the study. The strawberries were processed in a blender for obtaining a homogenous mass. The strawberry mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at -18 °C. Both fresh and frozen strawberry mass samples with added gelatine, xanthan gum, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose were whisked until obtaining dessert. For determination of the optimum hydrocolloid amount, sensory evaluation was done using a five-point hedonic scale. Moisture, soluble solids content, density, and pH of the product were determined. Apparent viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer DV–III Ultra. Consistency of the dessert during its storage was evaluated using a texture analyser TA.XT.plus. The results of sensory evaluation allow concluding that in order to provide the most acceptable consistency, colour, and taste of strawberry dessert, the optimum quantity of carboxymethyl cellulose and xanthan gum to be added is 0.6% and that of gelatine is 6%. During freezing, the soluble solids content and pH level decreased in the strawberry mass, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased these values. The moisture content in strawberry puree, in its turn, as a result of freezing increased under the influence of syneresis, but added hydrocolloids, on the contrary, decreased this influence. Also the viscosity and consistency of the strawberry puree prepared from the researched cultivars decreased under the influence of freezing, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased both the values, making the strawberry dessert firmer. The research suggests that strawberry dessert with gelatine had the most pronounced changes during storage, but strawberry dessert with added xanthan

  17. Role of aqueous extract of morinda citrifolia (Indian noni ripe fruits in inhibiting dental caries-causing streptococcus mutans and streptococcus mitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barani Kumarasamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Use of alternative medicine to control oral streptococci is a new topic worthy of further investigation. This study aimed to elucidate the dose-dependent anti-bacterial activity of crude aqueous extract of ripe Morinda citrifolia L. (Family: Rubiaceae fruits against oral streptococci i.e. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis, that cause dental caries in humans.Fresh ripe M. citrifolia fruits (750g were ground in an electronic blender with sterile water (500ml. The crude aqueous extract was lyophilized to yield a brown colored powder. Various concentrations (1000-100μg/ ml of the extract were tested for its antibacterial activity (Kirby and Bauer method against whole cells of S. mutans and S. mitis. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined by micro-dilution method, using serially diluted (2 folds fruit extract, according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS.Crude aqueous extract (1000μg/ ml of ripe M. citrifolia fruits effectively inhibited the growth of S. mutans (19±0.5 mm and S. mitis (18.6±0.3 mm compared to the streptomycin control (21.6±0.3 mm. The growth inhibition was clearly evident with "nil" bacteriostasis, even after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. The MIC of the extract for S. mutans and S. mitis was 125 μg and 62.5 μg, respectively.Our results suggest that phytochemicals naturally synthesized by M. citrifolia have an inhibitory effect on oral streptococci. Furthermore, purification and molecular characterization of the "bioactive principle" would enable us to formulate a sustainable oral hygiene product.

  18. Preparation and characterization for mineral elements and total dietary fiber and testing for stability of {beta}-carotene of an ARC/CL carrot powder multipurpose candidate reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, J.T. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Hyvaerinen, H. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Haegg, M. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Plaami, S. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Tahvonen, R. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    As part of the analytical assurance system of the FAO European Cooperative Research Network on Trace Elements programme an ARC/CL-coded carrot flakes powder (CFP) candidate reference material (RM) has been prepared from a lot of commercial carrot flakes. The candidate RM has been homogenized using a Robot Coupe blender fitted with titanium blades, carefully homogenized in large teflon/polypropylene containers, bottled in 1000 numbered polyethylene containers (20 g samples) and tested for homogeneity. Interlaboratory comparison studies for 9 essential elements, cadmium and total dietary fiber (TDF) based on the AOAC-method resulted in the characterization of the contents of those compounds in the above material. After exclusion of outliers, mean values from at least nine different laboratories based altogether on three independent analytical principles have been used to calculate the recommended concentration ranges for mineral elements. Testing of homogeneity and stability for {beta}-carotene over a period of one year has been additionally carried out. The mean water content in the material amounted to 4.97% and remained stable over a one-year period. Homogeneity of the RM was within 3.0% for almost all included mineral elements as tested for a sample size of 0.5 g. The 95% confidence limits for the mean values of the established recommended concentrations of mineral elements in the present ARC/CL Carrot Powder candidate RM fell within 5% for all the other elements and TDF except for Fe (6.3%) and B (5.7%). The stability of {beta}-carotene in the present candidate RM stored in darkness over a one-year period at room temperature was within 6.3%. (orig.)

  19. Uptake and distribution of technetium-99 by channel catfish Ictalarus punctatus (Rafinesque)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was undertaken to study the uptake and distribution of Tc-99 by channel catfish Ictalarus punctatus (Rafinesque) under laboratory conditions. The major source of the radionuclide was water and not food. Fifty-four small fish (18--21 grams) were exposed to the radionuclide in groups of six in each one of nine to 20 gallon glass tanks containing a Tc-99 concentration of 0.00645 +- 0.0002 μCi/ml. The water temperature remained relatively constant at a value of 19.62 +- 0.270C. The exposure times were 2 hours, 8 hours, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 20 days for the nine groups of fish. Three fish from each tank were separated to be processed as whole body specimens and three were dissected for muscle, skin, gills, gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidney. All samples were homogenized using a laboratory blender and digested in preparation for analysis, using perchloric acid (70%) and hydrogen peroxide (30%), at a temperature of 700C for 30 minutes. Water samples were also collected for radioassay. The analytical technique used in this study was internal liquid scintillation spectrometry. The uptake data were expressed as dpm/g and also as a concentration factor. Statistical analysis indicated significant increase in the radionuclide concentration in fish tissue with time. Statistically significant differences were also observed in the uptake among the different organs at a given time. The lowest concentration factor was achieved by the muscle followed by the skin, gills, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and liver with the highest

  20. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: A method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin ePyka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM, to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: i the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, ii the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  1. Disassembly properties and material characterisation of household small waste electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This paper is focused on characterising small waste electric and electronic equipment, specifically small household appliances, from two different points of views: disassembly properties and material identification. The sample for this characterisation was obtained from a selective collection campaign organised in Castellón de la Plana (Spain). A total amount of 833.7kg (749 units) of small waste electric and electronic equipment was collected, of which 23.3% by weight and 22.4% by units belonged to the subcategory household equipment. This subcategory, composed of appliances such as vacuum cleaners, toasters, sandwich makers, hand blenders, juicers, coffee makers, hairdryers, scales, irons and heaters, was first disassembled in order to analyse different aspects of the disassembly process for each equipment type: type of joints, ease of identification of materials, ease of access to joints for extracting components, ease of separation of components from the whole, uniformity of tools needed for the disassembly process and possibility of reassembly after disassembly. Results show that the most common joints used in these equipment types are snap-fits and screws, although some permanent joints have also been identified. Next, the material composition of each component of each appliance belonging to each equipment type was identified visually and with additional mechanical trials and testing. It can be observed that plastic and electric/electronic components are present in all the equipment types analysed and are also the material fractions that appear with higher percentages in the material composition: 41.1wt% and 39.1wt% for the plastic fraction and electric/electronic components, respectively. The most common plastics are: polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC), while the most common electric/electronic components are: cable, plug and printed circuit boards. Results also show that disassembly properties and material

  2. In vitro Propagation of Adiantum raddianum Fritz-Luethii%密叶铁线蕨的离体快繁研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范俊强; 郑贵朝

    2011-01-01

    The sporophyllary leaves of Adiantum raddianum Fritz-Luethii were used as explants to study the process of rapid propagation in vitro. The results showed that the rate of the spore germination was 95.6% in 1/2 MS culture medium with 3 mg/L GA and the prothallus propagated at a speed of over 4 times in 1/2 MS culture medium without plant growth hormone. Sporophyte formation was almost impossible in tissue culture, but when prothallia were mixed with different solution and comminuted in a waring blender, and applied to soil, every group of prothallia produced over 1 000 sporophytes.%利用密叶铁线蕨(A diantum raddianum Fritz-Luethii)孢子叶为外植体进行离体快繁研究.结果表明,密叶铁线蕨的成熟孢子在附加GA 3 mg/L的1/2 MS培养基上培养,其萌发率可达95.6%,产生的原叶体在不含激素的1/2 MS培养基上继代,繁殖倍数达4倍以上,但孢子体难以在组培过程中直接获得;将组培过程产生的原叶体从培养瓶内取出后与1/2 MS改良盐溶液混合搅碎,播于基质上,在温室大棚中培养,每团原叶体可产生孢子体超过1 000个.

  3. INTERACTIVE 3D LANDSCAPES ON LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fanini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  4. Interactive 3d Landscapes on Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanini, B.; Calori, L.; Ferdani, D.; Pescarin, S.

    2011-09-01

    The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  5. Optimized Blanching Reduces the Host Cell Protein Content and Substantially Enhances the Recovery and Stability of Two Plant-Derived Malaria Vaccine Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Stephan; Holland, Tanja; Boes, Alexander; Spiegel, Holger; Bolzenius, Johanna; Fischer, Rainer; Buyel, Johannes F

    2016-01-01

    Plants provide an advantageous expression platform for biopharmaceutical proteins because of their low pathogen burden and potential for inexpensive, large-scale production. However, the purification of target proteins can be challenging due to issues with extraction, the removal of host cell proteins (HCPs), and low expression levels. The heat treatment of crude extracts can reduce the quantity of HCPs by precipitation thus increasing the purity of the target protein and streamlining downstream purification. In the overall context of downstream process (DSP) development for plant-derived malaria vaccine candidates, we applied a design-of-experiments approach to enhance HCP precipitation from Nicotiana benthamiana extracts generated after transient expression, using temperatures in the 20-80°C range, pH values of 3.0-8.0 and incubation times of 0-60 min. We also investigated the recovery of two protein-based malaria vaccine candidates under these conditions and determined their stability in the heat-treated extract while it was maintained at room temperature for 24 h. The heat precipitation of HCPs was also carried out by blanching intact plants in water or buffer prior to extraction in a blender. Our data show that all the heat precipitation methods reduced the amount of HCP in the crude plant extracts by more than 80%, simplifying the subsequent DSP steps. Furthermore, when the heat treatment was performed at 80°C rather than 65°C, both malaria vaccine candidates were more stable after extraction and the recovery of both proteins increased by more than 30%.

  6. A novel educational tool for teaching ocular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ms; Montgomery, J; Atta, Hr

    2011-01-01

    Ocular ultrasound is now in increasing demand in routine ophthalmic clinical practice not only because it is noninvasive but also because of ever-advancing technology providing higher resolution imaging. It is however a difficult branch of ophthalmic investigations to grasp, as it requires a high skill level to interface with the technology and provide accurate interpretation of images for ophthalmic diagnosis and management. It is even more labor intensive to teach ocular ultrasound to another fellow clinician. One of the fundamental skills that proved difficult to learn and teach is the need for the examiner to "mentally convert" 2-dimensional B-scan images into 3-dimensional (3D) interpretations. An additional challenge is the requirement to carry out this task in real time. We have developed a novel approach to teach ocular ultrasound by using a novel 3D ocular model. A 3D virtual model is built using widely available, open source, software. The model is then used to generate movie clips simulating different movements and orientations of the scanner head. Using Blender, Quicktime motion clips are choreographed and collated into interactive quizzes and other pertinent pedagogical media. The process involves scripting motion vectors, rotation, and tracking of both the virtual stereo camera and the model. The resulting sequence is then rendered for twinned right- and left-eye views. Finally, the twinned views are synchronized and combined in a format compatible with the stereo projection apparatus. This new model will help the student with spatial awareness and allow for assimilation of this awareness into clinical practice. It will also help with grasping the nomenclature used in ocular ultrasound as well as helping with localization of lesions and obtaining the best possible images for echographic diagnosis, accurate measurements, and reporting. PMID:21760711

  7. Design and implementation of a virtual laboratory of radiation measurement; Diseno e implementacion de un laboratorio virtual de medicion de radiaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez T, J. R.; Morales S, J. B. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: jms0620@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-10-15

    The work involves the implementation of a virtual laboratory, this project is conducted in the Faculty of Engineering of National Autonomous University of Mexico with the name of LANUVI. It is intended that the laboratory can be used by students who have interest in the nuclear radiation knowledge as well as in its detection and attenuation, in addition serve as and introduction to nuclear systems. In the first part of project will conduct a source that can simulate the particle radiation of Alfa, beta, neutrons and gamma rays. The project will take sources used in class laboratories and elements that are dangerous but are used in different practical applications. After taking the source analyzing the particles behaviour in different media like air, animal tissue, aluminium, lead, etc. The analysis is done in different ways in order to know with which material can stop or mitigate the different types of radiation. Finally shall be measure radioactivity with different types of detectors. At this point, has the behaviour of ionization chamber but in the future is expected to make the simulation of some other radiation detectors. The mathematical models we represent the behaviour of these cases were implemented in free software. The program will be used to implement the virtual laboratory with radiation sources, detectors and different types of shields will be Blender which is a free software that is used by many users for the embodiment of games but try to use as a tool to help visualize the different equipment that is widely used in a radioactive materials laboratory. (Author)

  8. Larvicidal and repellent potential ofMoringa oleiferaagainst malarial vector,Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta:Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhu K; Murugan K; Nareshkumar A; Ramasubramanian N; Bragadeeswaran S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vectorAnopheles stephensi(A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20,40,60,80 and100 ppm).Methods:M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample,100 g of the plant material were extracted with300 mL of methanol for8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield122 mg and110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) fromArcang amara andOcimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e.,20,40,60,80 and100 ppm were prepared.Results: Larvicidal activity ofM.oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of theA. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were57.79 ppm and125.93 ppm for the first instar,63.90 ppm and133.07 ppm for the second instar,72.45 ppm and139.82 ppm for the third instar,78.93 ppm and143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract ofM.oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were67.77 ppm and141.00 ppm, respectively.Conclusions:The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived fromM. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs.

  9. Influence of droplet size on the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract loaded oil-in-water emulsions in mixed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Martin E; Zeeb, Benjamin; Salminen, Hanna; Gibis, Monika; Lautenschlaeger, Ralf; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    The influence of droplet size on the antioxidant activity of oil-in-water emulsions loaded with rosemary extract in mixed emulsion systems was investigated. Firstly, differently sized hexadecane-in-water model emulsions (10% (w/w) hexadecane, 2% (w/w) Tween 80, pH 5 or 7) containing 4000 ppm rosemary extract in the oil phase or without added antioxidant were prepared using a high shear blender and/or high-pressure homogenizer. Secondly, emulsions were mixed with fish oil-in-water emulsions (10% (w/w) fish oil, 2% (w/w) Tween 80, pH 5 or 7) at a mixing ratio of 1 : 1. Optical microscopy and static light scattering measurements indicated that emulsions were physically stable for 21 days, except for the slight aggregation of emulsions with a mean droplet size d₄₃ of 4500 nm. The droplet size of hexadecane-in-water emulsions containing rosemary extract had no influence on the formation of lipid hydroperoxides at pH 5 and 7. Significantly lower concentrations of propanal were observed for the emulsions loaded with rosemary extract with a mean droplet size d₄₃ of 4500 nm from day 12 to 16 at pH 7. Finally, hexadecane-in-water emulsions containing rosemary extract significantly retarded lipid oxidation of fish oil-in-water emulsions in mixed systems, but no differences in antioxidant efficacy between the differently sized emulsions were observed at pH 5. PMID:25586114

  10. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPIAM and female RPIAF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  11. Numerical study of natural convection in a horizontal cylinder filled with water-based alumina nanofluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangyin; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Natural heat convection of water-based alumina (Al2O3/water) nanofluids (with volume fraction 1% and 4%) in a horizontal cylinder is numerically investigated. The whole three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedure is performed in a completely open-source way. Blender, enGrid, OpenFOAM and ParaView are employed for geometry creation, mesh generation, case simulation and post process, respectively. Original solver 'buoyantBoussinesqSimpleFoam' is selected for the present study, and a temperature-dependent solver 'buoyantBoussinesqSimpleTDFoam' is developed to ensure the simulation is more realistic. The two solvers are used for same cases and compared to corresponding experimental results. The flow regime in these cases is laminar (Reynolds number is 150) and the Rayleigh number range is 0.7 × 10(7) ~ 5 × 10(7). By comparison, the average natural Nusselt numbers of water and Al2O3/water nanofluids are found to increase with the Rayleigh number. At the same Rayleigh number, the Nusselt number is found to decrease with nanofluid volume fraction. The temperature-dependent solver is found better for water and 1% Al2O3/water nanofluid cases, while the original solver is better for 4% Al2O3/water nanofluid cases. Furthermore, due to strong three-dimensional flow features in the horizontal cylinder, three-dimensional CFD simulation is recommended instead of two-dimensional simplifications. PMID:25852431

  12. Design and implementation of a virtual laboratory of radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work involves the implementation of a virtual laboratory, this project is conducted in the Faculty of Engineering of National Autonomous University of Mexico with the name of LANUVI. It is intended that the laboratory can be used by students who have interest in the nuclear radiation knowledge as well as in its detection and attenuation, in addition serve as and introduction to nuclear systems. In the first part of project will conduct a source that can simulate the particle radiation of Alfa, beta, neutrons and gamma rays. The project will take sources used in class laboratories and elements that are dangerous but are used in different practical applications. After taking the source analyzing the particles behaviour in different media like air, animal tissue, aluminium, lead, etc. The analysis is done in different ways in order to know with which material can stop or mitigate the different types of radiation. Finally shall be measure radioactivity with different types of detectors. At this point, has the behaviour of ionization chamber but in the future is expected to make the simulation of some other radiation detectors. The mathematical models we represent the behaviour of these cases were implemented in free software. The program will be used to implement the virtual laboratory with radiation sources, detectors and different types of shields will be Blender which is a free software that is used by many users for the embodiment of games but try to use as a tool to help visualize the different equipment that is widely used in a radioactive materials laboratory. (Author)

  13. FIELD TESTING & OPTIMIZATION OF CO2/SAND FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond L. Mazza

    2004-11-30

    These contract efforts involved the demonstration of a unique liquid free stimulation technology which was, at the beginning of these efforts, in 1993 unavailable in the US. The process had been developed, and patented in Canada in 1981, and held promise for stimulating liquid sensitive reservoirs in the US. The technology differs from that conventionally used in that liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), instead of water is the base fluid. The CO{sub 2} is pumped as a liquid and then vaporizes at reservoir conditions, and because no other liquids or chemicals are used, a liquid free fracture is created. The process requires a specialized closed system blender to mix the liquid CO{sub 2} with proppant under pressure. These efforts were funded to consist of up to 21 cost-shared stimulation events. Because of the vagaries of CO{sub 2} supplies, service company support and operator interest only 19 stimulation events were performed in Montana, New Mexico, and Texas. Final reports have been prepared for each of the four demonstration groups, and the specifics of those demonstrations are summarized. A summary of the demonstrations of a novel liquid-free stimulation process which was performed in four groups of ''Candidate Wells'' situated in Crockett Co., TX; San Juan Co., NM; Phillips Co., MT; and Blaine Co., MT. The stimulation process which employs CO{sub 2} as the working fluid and the production responses were compared with those from wells treated with conventional stimulation technologies, primarily N{sub 2} foam, excepting those in Blaine Co., MT where the reservoir pressure is too low to clean up spent stimulation liquids. A total of 19 liquid-free CO{sub 2}/sand stimulations were performed in 16 wells and the production improvements were generally uneconomic.

  14. Caring for Tube-Fed Children: A Review of Management, Tube Weaning, and Emotional Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sarah; Davis, Ann M; Bruce, Amanda; Mousa, Hayat; Lyman, Beth; Cocjin, Jose; Dean, Kelsey; Ernst, Linda; Almadhoun, Osama; Hyman, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Enteral nutrition is the practice of delivering nutrition to the gut either orally or through a tube or other device. Many children are reliant on enteral feedings to either supplement their nutrition or as a complete source of their nutrition. Managing children on tube feedings requires a team of providers to work through such dilemmas as feeding schedules, weaning from tube feeding, sensory implications of tube feeding, treatment of pain or nausea associated with eating, oral-motor issues, and behavioral issues in the child and family. The purpose of the current review is to summarize the multidisciplinary aspects of enteral feeding. The multidisciplinary team consists of a variable combination of an occupational therapist, speech-language pathologist, gastroenterologist, psychologist, nurse, pharmacist, and dietitian. Children who have minimal oral feeding experience and are fed via a nasogastric or gastrostomy tube often develop oral aversions. Limited data support that children with feeding disorders are more likely to have sensory impairment and that early life pain experiences contribute to feeding refusal. There are inpatient and outpatient programs for weaning patients from tube feeding to eating. The parent-child interaction is an important part of the assessment and treatment of the tube-fed child. This review also points out many information gaps, including data on feeding schedules, blenderized tube feedings, the best methods for weaning children off enteral feedings, the efficacy of chronic pain medications with tube-fed children, and, finally, the necessity of the assessment of parental stress among all parents of children who are tube fed. PMID:25791833

  15. Approaches to brain stress testing: BOLD magnetic resonance imaging with computer-controlled delivery of carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alan C Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An impaired vascular response in the brain regionally may indicate reduced vascular reserve and vulnerability to ischemic injury. Changing the carbon dioxide (CO(2 tension in arterial blood is commonly used as a cerebral vasoactive stimulus to assess the cerebral vascular response, changing cerebral blood flow (CBF by up to 5-11 percent/mmHg in normal adults. Here we describe two approaches to generating the CO(2 challenge using a computer-controlled gas blender to administer: i a square wave change in CO(2 and, ii a ramp stimulus, consisting of a continuously graded change in CO(2 over a range. Responses were assessed regionally by blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 8 patients with known cerebrovascular disease (carotid stenosis or occlusion and 2 healthy subjects. The square wave stimulus was used to study the dynamics of the vascular response, while the ramp stimulus assessed the steady-state response to CO(2. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR maps were registered by color coding and overlaid on the anatomical scans generated with 3 Tesla MRI to assess the corresponding BOLD signal change/mmHg change in CO(2, voxel-by-voxel. Using a fractal temporal approach, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA maps of the processed raw BOLD signal per voxel over the same CO(2 range were generated. Regions of BOLD signal decrease with increased CO(2 (coded blue were seen in all of these high-risk patients, indicating regions of impaired CVR. All patients also demonstrated regions of altered signal structure on DFA maps (Hurst exponents less than 0.5; coded blue indicative of anti-persistent noise. While 'blue' CVR maps remained essentially stable over the time of analysis, 'blue' DFA maps improved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This combined dual stimulus and dual analysis approach may be complementary in identifying vulnerable brain regions and thus constitute a regional as

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1999, with data for May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The Detail Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  17. NASA Tech Briefs, May 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Topics include: Test Waveform Applications for JPL STRS Operating Environment; Pneumatic Proboscis Heat-Flow Probe; Method to Measure Total Noise Temperature of a Wireless Receiver During Operation; Cursor Control Device Test Battery; Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals Measure Neuronal Activity in the Cortex; ESD Test Apparatus for Soldering Irons; FPGA-Based X-Ray Detection and Measurement for an X-Ray Polarimeter; Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions; Silicon/Carbon Nanotube Photocathode for Splitting Water; Advanced Materials and Fabrication Techniques for the Orion Attitude Control Motor; Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements; RF Reference Switch for Spaceflight Radiometer Calibration; An Offload NIC for NASA, NLR, and Grid Computing; Multi-Scale CNT-Based Reinforcing Polymer Matrix Composites for Lightweight Structures; Ceramic Adhesive and Methods for On-Orbit Repair of Re-Entry Vehicles; Self-Healing Nanocomposites for Reusable Composite Cryotanks; Pt-Ni and Pt-Co Catalyst Synthesis Route for Fuel Cell Applications; Aerogel-Based Multilayer Insulation with Micrometeoroid Protection; Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders; Optimized Radiator Geometries for Hot Lunar Thermal Environments; A Mission Concept: Re-Entry Hopper-Aero-Space-Craft System on-Mars (REARM-Mars); New Class of Flow Batteries for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications; Reliability of CCGA 1152 and CCGA 1272 Interconnect Packages for Extreme Thermal Environments; Using a Blender to Assess the Microbial Density of Encapsulated Organisms; Mixed Integer Programming and Heuristic Scheduling for Space Communication; Video Altimeter and Obstruction Detector for an Aircraft; Control Software for Piezo Stepping Actuators; Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-Based Risk Model (GERM) Code; Sasquatch Footprint Tool; and Multi-User Space Link Extension (SLE) System.

  18. SU-E-T-64: CG-Based Radiation Therapy Simulator with Physical Modeling for Avoidance of Collisions Between Gantry and Couch Or Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanouchi, M; Arimura, H; Yuda, I [Kokura Memorial Hospital, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is time-consuming and might cause re-planning to check couch-gantry and patient-gantry collisions on a radiotherapy machine when using couch rotations for non-coplanar beam angles. The aim of this study was to develop a computer-graphics (CG)-based radiation therapy simulator with physical modeling for avoidance of collisions between gantry and couch or patient on a radiotherapy machine. Methods: The radiation therapy simulator was three-dimensionally constructed including a radiotherapy machine (Clinac iX, Varian Medical Systems), couch, and radiation treatment room according to their designs by using a physical-modeling-based computer graphics software (Blender, free and open-source). Each patient was modeled by applying a surface rendering technique to their planning computed tomography (CT) images acquired from 16-slice CT scanner (BrightSpeed, GE Healthcare). Immobilization devices for patients were scanned by the CT equipment, and were rendered as the patient planning CT images. The errors in the collision angle of the gantry with the couch or patient between gold standards and the estimated values were obtained by fixing the gantry angle for the evaluation of the proposed simulator. Results: The average error of estimated collision angles to the couch head side was -8.5% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and -5.5% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Moreover, the average error of estimated collision angles to the couch foot side was -1.1% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and 1.4% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Conclusion: The CG-based radiation therapy simulator could make it possible to estimate the collision angle between gantry and couch or patient on the radiotherapy machine without verifying the collision angles in the radiation treatment room.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  20. Does Litter Impart A Detectable Chemical Signal on Soil DOC? DOC Fluorescence Signatures in Soils Undergoing Long-Term Litter Manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajtha, K.; Strid, A.; Lee, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a small but crucial part of the forest carbon cycle. Characterizing the relationship between organic matter inputs to soil and DOC chemistry is crucial to understanding the ultimate fate of root carbon, fallen wood and needles. Chemical differences in the DOC pool may help to explain whether fractions are sorbed to mineral surfaces and contribute to accumulation of soil organic carbon, respired as CO2, or exported. Soil solution DOC was sampled from the detrital input and removal treatment (DIRT) plots located in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, OR to determine whether detrital inputs impart a detectable signal on DOC in mineral soil. Multiple types of fresh litter extracts, along with lysimeter and soil extracts from DIRT treatment plots were characterized using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with the Cory and McKnight (2005) parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model. Principal component analysis of 13 unique fluorophores distinguished using PARAFAC show that litter and soil extracts (needles, wood of decomposition Class 1, Class 3 and Class 5, O-horizon, and A-horizon) each have distinct fluorescence signatures. However, while litter-leached DOC chemistry varies by litter type, neither lysimeter-collected DOC or soil extracts show statistically significant differences in fluorescence signatures among treatments, even after 17 years of litter manipulations. The lack of observed differences among DIRT treatments suggests a "Soil Blender" hypothesis whereby both abiotic and biotic mechanisms effectively homogenize organic carbon constituents within the dissolved pool. The results of this work emphasize the ability of sorption and biodegradation to homogenize soil DOC and demonstrate that fluorescence can be an effective fingerprinting technique for soil DOC composition.

  1. Influence of small amorphous amounts in hydrophilic and hydrophobic APIs on storage stability of dry powder inhalation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorsten; Krehl, Regina; Schiewe, Jörg; Weiler, Claudius; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different manufacturing methods to induce formation of amorphous content, changes of physico-chemical characteristics of powder blends and changes of aerodynamic properties over storage time (6months) analyzed with the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) are investigated. Earlier studies have shown that standard pharmaceutical operations lead to structural disorders which may influence drug delivery and product stability. In this investigation, fully amorphous drug samples produced by spray-drying (SD) and ball-milling (BM) as well as semi-crystalline samples (produced by blending and micronization) are studied and compared to fully crystalline starting material. The amorphous content of these hydrophilic and hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was determined using a validated one-step DVS-method. For the conducted blending and micronization tests, amorphous amounts up to a maximum of 5.1% for salbutamol sulfate (SBS) and 17.0% for ciclesonide (CS) were measured. In order to investigate the impact of small amorphous amounts, inhalable homogenous powder mixtures with very high and low amorphous content and a defined particle size were prepared with a Turbula blender for each API. These blends were stored (6months, 45% RH, room temperature) to evaluate the influence of amorphous amounts on storage stability. The fine particle fraction (FPF: % of emitted dosehydrophobic CS a constantly increasing FPF (from 6% to >15%) over storage time for both types of blends was determined. Therefore, prolonged stability of amorphous parts and an incalculable behavior for CS blends are supposed, in contrast, SBS showed a controllable FPF after conditioning.

  2. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-901, Recife (Brazil)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI{sub A}M and female RPI{sub A}F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  3. Research and practice of the impulse sand fracturing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Qian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the deep development of tight sand gas reservoirs, problems such as short stable production period and quick production decline of gas wells after fracturing have become increasingly prominent. Consequently, there is an increasing demand for the effective penetration and conductivity of artificial fractures. Impulse sand fracturing technology introduces a concept of discrete multilayer sanding inside fractures; joint application of pulse blender which can be switched at high frequency, intensive multi-cluster perforation and special fibrous material made it possible to ensure the flow stability of proppant slug, and placement of nonuniformly-laid sand pinnacles and grooves, which markedly upgraded the capacity of the fracture conductivity to several orders of magnitude more than the conventional method. Laboratory engineering simulation evaluation and field test show that pre-fracturing reservoir evaluation, pulse time design and the optimization of degradable fiber and support equipment are the keys to the success of impulse sand fracturing. Compared with the conventional fracturing, this technique can effectively increase well production, decrease the volume of fracturing proppant, and lower sand plugging risks. An independent sand fracturing pilot test has been conducted in 6 layers of 3 wells for the first time in Block Tao 7 of the Sulige Gasfield, Ordos Basin, as a result, the average volume of fracturing proppant dropped by 28.3%, the average sand intensity dropped by 21.88%, and the post-fracturing average daily gas output increased by 26.8%. This technology provides an efficient and environmentally friendly reservoir stimulation option for tight sand gas reservoirs in China.

  4. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (phens.

  5. A novel educational tool for teaching ocular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ms; Montgomery, J; Atta, Hr

    2011-01-01

    Ocular ultrasound is now in increasing demand in routine ophthalmic clinical practice not only because it is noninvasive but also because of ever-advancing technology providing higher resolution imaging. It is however a difficult branch of ophthalmic investigations to grasp, as it requires a high skill level to interface with the technology and provide accurate interpretation of images for ophthalmic diagnosis and management. It is even more labor intensive to teach ocular ultrasound to another fellow clinician. One of the fundamental skills that proved difficult to learn and teach is the need for the examiner to "mentally convert" 2-dimensional B-scan images into 3-dimensional (3D) interpretations. An additional challenge is the requirement to carry out this task in real time. We have developed a novel approach to teach ocular ultrasound by using a novel 3D ocular model. A 3D virtual model is built using widely available, open source, software. The model is then used to generate movie clips simulating different movements and orientations of the scanner head. Using Blender, Quicktime motion clips are choreographed and collated into interactive quizzes and other pertinent pedagogical media. The process involves scripting motion vectors, rotation, and tracking of both the virtual stereo camera and the model. The resulting sequence is then rendered for twinned right- and left-eye views. Finally, the twinned views are synchronized and combined in a format compatible with the stereo projection apparatus. This new model will help the student with spatial awareness and allow for assimilation of this awareness into clinical practice. It will also help with grasping the nomenclature used in ocular ultrasound as well as helping with localization of lesions and obtaining the best possible images for echographic diagnosis, accurate measurements, and reporting.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1998, with data for February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and District of Columbia), 5 PAD Districts and 12 Refining Districts. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  7. Potential reuse of small household waste electrical and electronic equipment: Methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a general methodology for assessing and estimating the potential reuse of small waste electrical and electronic equipment (sWEEE), focusing on devices classified as domestic appliances. Specific tests for visual inspection, function and safety have been defined for ten different types of household appliances (vacuum cleaner, iron, microwave, toaster, sandwich maker, hand blender, juicer, boiler, heater and hair dryer). After applying the tests, reuse protocols have been defined in the form of easy-to-apply checklists for each of the ten types of appliance evaluated. This methodology could be useful for reuse enterprises, since there is a lack of specific protocols, adapted to each type of appliance, to test its potential of reuse. After applying the methodology, electrical and electronic appliances (used or waste) can be segregated into three categories: the appliance works properly and can be classified as direct reuse (items can be used by a second consumer without prior repair operations), the appliance requires a later evaluation of its potential refurbishment and repair (restoration of products to working order, although with possible loss of quality) or the appliance needs to be finally discarded from the reuse process and goes directly to a recycling process. Results after applying the methodology to a sample of 87.7kg (96 units) show that 30.2% of the appliances have no potential for reuse and should be diverted for recycling, while 67.7% require a subsequent evaluation of their potential refurbishment and repair, and only 2.1% of them could be directly reused with minor cleaning operations. This study represents a first approach to the "preparation for reuse" strategy that the European Directive related to Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment encourages to be applied. However, more research needs to be done as an extension of this study, mainly related to the identification of the feasibility of repair or refurbishment operations

  8. Bacterial contamination of hospital-prepared enteral tube feeding formulas in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Hospital-prepared tube feedings from three intensive care units of two hospitals in Isfahan, Iran were analyzed for microbial contamination.
    • METHODS: A total number of 152 samples (76 samples each at the time of preparation and 18 hours following preparation were collected. Standard plate count, coliform count and Staphylococcus aureus count for all samples were conducted. Samples were analyzed also for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp.
    • RESULTS: At the time of food preparation, out of 76 samples, 53 samples (70% had coliform contamination and 87% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 101 cfu/g. Also, 68  amples (90% had S. aureus contamination greater than 101 cfu/g. In standard plate count, 74 samples (97% had counts greater than 103 cfu/g, while 54 samples (71% had counts greater than 104 cfu/g. In second sampling occasion, out of 76 samples, 68 samples (90% had coliform contamination and 84% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 101 cfu/g. Also, 72 samples (95% had S. aureus contamination, 98.6% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 102 cfu/g. In standard plate count, 74 samples (97% had counts greater than 104 cfu/g. No Salmonella or Listeria was detected from samples.
    • CONCLUSION: The results indicated that a majority of the blenderized enteral tube feedings in those hospitals are not safe. In comparison to the standard limits, these enteral tube feedings are highly  ontaminated and posed substantial risk for developing a foodborne disease or nosocomial infection.
    • KEYWORDS: Enteral Feeding, Microbial Contamination, Nosocomial Infection, Standard Plate Count, Coliform.

  9. Processamento e estudo da estabilidade de pasta de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Processing and stability study of pequi paste (Caryocar brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroldo Arévalo-Pinedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho de pesquisa teve como objetivo desenvolver um processo de obtenção de pasta de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense para uso culinário e avaliar a sua estabilidade quando acondicionada em embalagens de plástico e de vidro durante 180 dias de armazenamento. O processamento da pasta envolveu: descascamento, retirada da polpa em forma de lascas, obtenção da pasta em liquidificador, acidificação do produto com ácido cítrico até um pH The aim of this paper was to develop a process to obtain a salted and unsalted pequi paste for culinary use and to evaluate its stability when packed in plastic or in glass jars during 180 days of storage. The process included peeling of pequi fruit, pulp cutting, obtain the paste with the use of a blender, acidification of the product with citric acid at a pH < 4,5, addition 10% of NaCl (to avoid the development of deteriorating microorganisms and enzymatic darkening, thermal treatment at 80 ºC during 10 minutes, and hot filling in plastic and glass jars. The final product was submitted to microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the pH values and acidity and color evaluation. The results showed what the acidification with citric acid and hot filling process was effective to establish commercial sterility to the pequi paste in glass jars during a four-month period. The paste was more stable when packed in glass jars than in plastic jars with respect to microbiological and physicochemical analysis and color degradation during the four-month period.

  10. A Flexible Method for Producing F.E.M. Analysis of Bone Using Open-Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppana, Abhishektha; Sefcik, Ryan; Meyers, Jerry G.; Lewandowski, Beth E.

    2016-01-01

    This project, performed in support of the NASA GRC Space Academy summer program, sought to develop an open-source workflow methodology that segmented medical image data, created a 3D model from the segmented data, and prepared the model for finite-element analysis. In an initial step, a technological survey evaluated the performance of various existing open-source software that claim to perform these tasks. However, the survey concluded that no single software exhibited the wide array of functionality required for the potential NASA application in the area of bone, muscle and bio fluidic studies. As a result, development of a series of Python scripts provided the bridging mechanism to address the shortcomings of the available open source tools. The implementation of the VTK library provided the most quick and effective means of segmenting regions of interest from the medical images; it allowed for the export of a 3D model by using the marching cubes algorithm to build a surface mesh. To facilitate the development of the model domain from this extracted information required a surface mesh to be processed in the open-source software packages Blender and Gmsh. The Preview program of the FEBio suite proved to be sufficient for volume filling the model with an unstructured mesh and preparing boundaries specifications for finite element analysis. To fully allow FEM modeling, an in house developed Python script allowed assignment of material properties on an element by element basis by performing a weighted interpolation of voxel intensity of the parent medical image correlated to published information of image intensity to material properties, such as ash density. A graphical user interface combined the Python scripts and other software into a user friendly interface. The work using Python scripts provides a potential alternative to expensive commercial software and inadequate, limited open-source freeware programs for the creation of 3D computational models. More work

  11. How visual attention is modified by disparities and textures changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustova, Dar'ya; Fournier, Jérome; Wyckens, Emmanuel; Le Meur, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    The 3D image/video quality of experience is a multidimensional concept that depends on 2D image quality, depth quantity and visual comfort. The relationship between these parameters is not yet clearly defined. From this perspective, we aim to understand how texture complexity, depth quantity and visual comfort influence the way people observe 3D content in comparison with 2D. Six scenes with different structural parameters were generated using Blender software. For these six scenes, the following parameters were modified: texture complexity and the amount of depth changing the camera baseline and the convergence distance at the shooting side. Our study was conducted using an eye-tracker and a 3DTV display. During the eye-tracking experiment, each observer freely examined images with different depth levels and texture complexities. To avoid memory bias, we ensured that each observer had only seen scene content once. Collected fixation data were used to build saliency maps and to analyze differences between 2D and 3D conditions. Our results show that the introduction of disparity shortened saccade length; however fixation durations remained unaffected. An analysis of the saliency maps did not reveal any differences between 2D and 3D conditions for the viewing duration of 20 s. When the whole period was divided into smaller intervals, we found that for the first 4 s the introduced disparity was conducive to the section of saliency regions. However, this contribution is quite minimal if the correlation between saliency maps is analyzed. Nevertheless, we did not find that discomfort (comfort) had any influence on visual attention. We believe that existing metrics and methods are depth insensitive and do not reveal such differences. Based on the analysis of heat maps and paired t-tests of inter-observer visual congruency values we deduced that the selected areas of interest depend on texture complexities.

  12. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: a method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Martin; Klatt, Sebastian; Cheng, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM), to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: (i) the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, (ii) the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  13. Investigation of structure and properties of novel multi-layer clay nanocomposite films produced controllably by continuous chaotic advection blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesha, Chaitra

    A unique processing technique based on chaotic advection developed at Clemson University and shown to controllably produce structured materials in the past was employed to produce structured nanocomposites with a high degree of clay orientation as well as localization of platelets within layers of nanoscale thicknesses. Continuous lengths of nanocomposites with different clay contents were extruded in the form of films by feeding separately melts of virgin polyamide-6 polymer and polyamide 6-clay masterbatch into a continuous chaotic advection blender. A variety of composite structures were producible at fixed clay compositions. The internal structure was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Nanocomposites with novel in-situ multi-layered structures and a high degree of platelet orientation were formed by the recursive stretching and folding of the melt domains due to chaotic advection. Clay platelets were localized within discrete regions to form alternating virgin and platelet-rich layers leading to a hierarchical structure with multiple nano-scales. The thicknesses of the layers reduced with prolonged chaotic advection, eventually leading to nanocomposites in which the multi-layering was no longer discernible. The oriented platelets appeared to be homogenously dispersed through the bulk of the nanocomposite. Investigation of the morphology of the matrix by XRD showed that the homogeneity of the crystalline phase and the orientation of polymer chains parallel to the film surface increased with increased chaotic advection. Also, as the layer thickness reduced, the number of polymer chains restricted by clay platelets increased causing the gamma-crystalline fraction to increase. While XRD results suggested a change in total crystallinity with chaotic advection and clay content but without a specific trend, no change in crystallinity was measured by DSC. Such contradictions are

  14. Case report of 5 siblings: malnutrition? Rickets? DiGeorge syndrome? Developmental delay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris William

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of six children are facing a trial on charges of aggravated manslaughter in the care a 5 1/2 month old infant who died suddenly and neglect of their four older children for causing them to be malnourished by feeding them all an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. Both parents declined plea bargains and plan to defend themselves in court. Case presentation The fifth child born to a married couple was breast-fed until 2 1/2 months. Subsequently, the parents fed the baby an exclusively raw foods diet prepared in a blender at home. The four older children, ages 18 months – 6 1/2 years also ate an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. None of the four older children had significant previous injuries or serious illnesses. At autopsy, the infant weighed 3180 mg (6.99 pounds and appeared emaciated. The thymus gland was absent and parathyroid glands were not located. The lungs were "congested." DiGeorge anomaly cannot be ruled out from these findings. Although, the coroner ruled that "malnutrition" was the sole cause of death, malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization definition, cannot be diagnosed in this infant. Compared with standard growth charts, the older children fell 2.1–4.1 standard deviations below the mean for North American children in height and weight. Labs were normal except for a low cholesterol level in all and a low prealbumin in one of three children tested. Therefore, malnutrition cannot be diagnosed in these children. The pediatrician diagnosed rickets in the four-year-old. However, chest x-rays were normal in all and long bone x-rays showed minimal changes in one child – no sign of rickets. The clinical diagnosis of rickets was not confirmed by the Center for Disease Control's criteria. A psychologist diagnosed the 18-month-old as developmentally delayed to the level of a 15-month-old, but this diagnosis is questionable. Conclusion The raw foods vegan diet and possibly inherited small

  15. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogodo, Alloysius Chibuike; Ugbogu, Ositadinma Chinyere; Ugbogu, Amadike Eziuche; Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406 g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30 min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656 kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21 days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 %) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 %) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27 °C to 29 °C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.50 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and banana), 18.50 ± 0.02 % (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.5 ± 0.01 to 3.8 ± 0.01 (p > 0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.35 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.01 % (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation (P > 0.05) rated the wines acceptability as 'pawpaw and banana wine' > 'pawpaw and watermelon' > 'pawpaw, watermelon and banana' > 'banana and watermelon wine'. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be

  16. Development of a pilot system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silayo, Valerian C K.; Lu, John Y.; Aglan, Heshmat A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Sweet potato has been chosen as one of NASA's crops to support human beings in future space missions. One of the possible uses is to make syrup that can be used as a general sweetener. In this work a simple engineering system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup was studied on a laboratory scale. The system comprises the following main units: a blender, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), centrifugal and vacuum filters, deionization column and vacuum evaporator. The system was tested by carrying out conversion processes from fresh sweet potato roots. The roots were pealed, sliced, homogenized, heated and hydrolyzed by diastase of malt and Dextrozyme C (Novo Nordisk BioChem, North America, Inc.) enzymes in the CSTR. After hydrolysis the slurry was filtered, de-ionized and concentrated to get glucose syrup. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the quality of the conversion. The main factor was the level of reducing sugars except for the deionization where ash content and color were the main factors. Through careful control of the system units, good heating performance in the CSTR was obtained and the hydrolysis process attained sufficient conversion. The filtration process that incorporated the centrifuge was faster than when it was by-passed to the vacuum filter but losses in sugars were higher. Deionization removed more than 90% of the ash and reduced pigmentation, with probable insignificant losses in sugars during the deionization process. Recovery levels when the centrifuge was used and when it was by-passed could reach about 65% and 78%, respectively. These correspond to reducing sugar concentration of 259 and 310 mg/ml in 150-ml syrups from 300 g of sweet potatoes in each process. However, from concentration trials, syrups with volumes of 100 and 70 ml with the respective dextrose equivalence of 281 and 213 mg/ml were obtained. The syrups obtained were brownish in color and the process that employed centrifugal filtration

  17. Virtual environment to quantify the influence of colour stimuli on the performance of tasks requiring attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frère Annie F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies indicate that the blue-yellow colour discrimination is impaired in ADHD individuals. However, the relationship between colour and performance has not been investigated. This paper describes the development and the testing of a virtual environment that is capable to quantify the influence of red-green versus blue-yellow colour stimuli on the performance of people in a fun and interactive way, being appropriate for the target audience. Methods An interactive computer game based on virtual reality was developed to evaluate the performance of the players. The game's storyline was based on the story of an old pirate who runs across islands and dangerous seas in search of a lost treasure. Within the game, the player must find and interpret the hints scattered in different scenarios. Two versions of this game were implemented. In the first, hints and information boards were painted using red and green colours. In the second version, these objects were painted using blue and yellow colours. For modelling, texturing, and animating virtual characters and objects the three-dimensional computer graphics tool Blender 3D was used. The textures were created with the GIMP editor to provide visual effects increasing the realism and immersion of the players. The games were tested on 20 non-ADHD volunteers who were divided into two subgroups (A1 and A2 and 20 volunteers with ADHD who were divided into subgroups B1 and B2. Subgroups A1 and B1 used the first version of the game with the hints painted in green-red colors, and subgroups A2 and B2 the second version using the same hints now painted in blue-yellow. The time spent to complete each task of the game was measured. Results Data analyzed with ANOVA two-way and posthoc TUKEY LSD showed that the use of blue/yellow instead of green/red colors decreased the game performance of all participants. However, a greater decrease in performance could be observed with ADHD participants

  18. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices. PMID:26891516

  19. U.S.Renewable Fuel Standard implementation mechanism and market tracking%美国可再生燃料标准实施机制与市场跟踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康利平; Robert Earley; 安锋; 张宇

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is a mandatory policy for promoting the utilization of biofuels in road transpiration sector in order to reduce the country's dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas emissions. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines the proportion of renewable fuels according to RFS annual target, and requests obligated parties such like fossil fuel refiner, blenders and importer in the U.S. to complete Renewable Volume Obligation (RVO) every year. Obligated parties prove they have achieved their RVO through a renewable fuels certification system, which generates Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) for every gallon of qualified renewable fuels produced or imported into U.S., RINs is a key for tracking renewable fuel consumption, which in turn is a key for implementing the RFS in the U.S., separated RINs can be freely traded in market and obligated parties could fulfill their RVO through buying RINs from other stakeholders. This briefing paper highlights RFS policy implementing mechanism and marketing tracking, mainly describes importance of RINs, and the method for generating and tracking RINs by both government and fuels industry participants.%可再生燃料标准(RFS)是美国政府为提高生物燃料利用量,减少石油对外依存度与温室气体排放而制定的强制执行指令.美国环保署(EPA)根据RFS目标确定可再生燃料在道路交通燃料中的混配比例,并强制要求美国汽柴油炼制、混配与进口等责任商完成当年可再生燃料配比责任量(RVO);责任商需在年末向EPA提交足够多的可再生燃料身份码(RINs)以示完成任务.RINs跟随可再生燃料的生产或进口而获取,是跟踪可再生燃料利用与监测RFS目标是否完成的主要依据.独立的RINs可自由交易并形成市场,责任商可选择购买RINs来完成年度RVO.文中介绍了美国RFS的管理机制、实施进展与影响评价,重点介绍了RINs的产生、跟踪与交易.

  20. China: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diet samples in China were collected according to the sampling strategy devised for the 'First Total Diet Study in China' in 1990 by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine. Based on geographic location, dietary habits and cooking style, the whole of China was divided into 4 regions and from each region one province was selected for the survey. In each of these provinces, 3 survey points (one town and two countryside) were identified, from where 30 families were randomly chosen. The diet composition and the consumption of various food items were recorded by means of weight record for three successive days. Some of these details are given in second total diet study, carried out in China in 1992 [48]. The total diet composition as well as the average daily consumption of each food for Chinese adults, engaged in light physical activity was calculated for each region. Based on the composition of diet and individual food materials, all foods and the products derived from them were classified into the following 13 types: (1) Grain; (2). Beans and nuts; (3) Yam; (4) Meat (including poultry); (5) Egg; (6) Aquatic foods; (7) Milk; (8) Vegetable; (9) Fruits and its salads, etc.; (10) Sugar; (11) Soft beverages and drinking water; (12) Alcoholic beverages; (13) Spices and cooking oil. These foods were collected in 1997 from nearby vegetable markets, subsidiary food stores and farmer markets within the three-survey points in each region. Various foods thus collected were treated and cooked according to the local dietary habit in assigned restaurants and kitchens. Cooked foods were then ground and mixed in the blender. In all, 48 individual food samples were obtained representing the four regions. Samples under frozen condition were shipped to the analytical laboratory for further processing and analysis. All possible precautions already stated in the sampling and quality control chapter were taken to avoid contamination of samples

  1. Tratamentos físicos e químicos na emergência e no crescimento de plântulas de pinheira Physical and chemical treatments on emergency and growth of sweetsop plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nietsche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar o efeito do armazenamento e a influência de tratamentos físicos e químicos sobre a emergência e o crescimento de plântulas de pinheira. Frutos de pinheiras foram coletados em um pomar comercial no município de Nova Porteirinha, Minas Gerais. Os frutos colhidos maduros foram despolpados e suas sementes, lavadas em água corrente. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em um esquema fatorial, com cinco tratamentos (testemunha, imersão em vinagre, escarificação com lixa, escarificação em liquidificador e desponte com alicate e quatro épocas de armazenamento em geladeira (0, 2, 4 e 6 meses. Trinta dias após o plantio de cada época, foi avaliada a porcentagem de plântulas emergidas, tempo médio para emergência, número de folhas, diâmetro, altura das plantas, matéria fresca e matéria seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. Dentre os principais resultados pode-se destacar que não foram observados efeitos significativos dos tratamentos na quebra de dormência das sementes de pinheira e o armazenamento em geladeira por seis meses não prejudicou a emergência e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de pinheira.This study aimed verifying the effect of the storage and the influence of physical and chemical treatments on emergency and growth of sweetsop plantlets. Sweetsop fruits were collected in a commercial orchard in Nova Porteirinha District, Minas Gerais. Fruits were picked when ripe, the pulp was extracted and the seeds washed. The design was in blocks at random, in a factorial system with five treatments (control, immersion in vinegar, sandpaper scarification, scarification in blender and cutting with pliers and four periods of storage at 4 ºC (0, 2, 4 e 6 months. Percentage of surfaced plantlets, average time to emergency, number of leaves, diameter, plant height, shoot root fresh and dry matter were evaluated thirty days after the planting of each period. Among

  2. Designed Simulation System of 7-DOF Robot based on MRDS%基于MRDS七自由度机器人仿真系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立平; 王殿君; 徐小龙; 曹宇; 刘淑晶; 李强

    2014-01-01

    According to VA1400 7-DOF robot,the robot simulation system was built based on Microsoft Robotics Stu-dio (MRDS).The link coordinate system was built by using D-H method.The forward kinematics equations of robot were deduced from the link parameters.The 7-DOF robot model was built by blender.The simulation software of the 7-DOF ro-bot was designed by using the runtime library of MRDS,and the results were verified in MATLAB toolbox.By comparison of the two simulation results,the maximum deviation was 1 .1 5 mm.It was in reasonable limits.The system simulated the motion state of the 7-DOF robot realistically.It was a basis for robotics researchers to develop offline programming and sim-ulation software.%针对VA1400七自由度机器人建立了基于微软机器人工作室(MRDS)的仿真系统。通过运用D-H 法,建立了机器人连杆坐标系,并由连杆参数推导出机器人正运动学方程;采用Blender三维建模软件,对七自由度机器人进行建模;使用C#语言调用MRDS提供的运行库,设计了七自由度机器人仿真软件,并用MATLAB软件中的机器人工具箱对仿真结果进行了验证。通过对比2种仿真结果,得到最大偏差为1.15 mm,在合理的偏差范围内。该仿真系统逼真地模拟了七自由度机器人的运动状态,为机器人研究人员开发离线编程和仿真软件奠定了基础。

  3. Alelopatia em extratos de frutos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae Allelopathy caused by fruit extract of juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alelopático do extrato de frutos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. sobre as sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 4 repetições e cinco tratamentos (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% de concentração do extrato bruto. O extrato bruto foi obtido após a extração manual da polpa do fruto e agitação com água em liquidificador utilizando-se 50g de polpa para 500ml de água, e o mesmo foi feito com a casca do fruto. Os resultados mostraram efeito do extrato dependendo da concentração. As maiores concentrações do extrato (100%, 75% e 50% da polpa dos frutos Z. joazeiro apresentaram efeito alelopático desfavorável sobre a germinação de alface, reduzindo-a em 100%, 98,75% e 82,5% respectivamente. O extrato das cascas dos frutos nas concentrações de 75% e 100% reduziu a germinação da alface em 28,75% e 78,75%.This study aimed to identify the allelopathic activity of extracts obtained from Ziziphus joazeiro fruits on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. A randomized design was used with four replications and five treatments (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentration of the crude extract. The crude extract was obtained after manual extration of the fruit pulp and agitation with water in a blender using 50g of pulp in 500ml of water. The same was done with the fruit rind. The results showed the effect of the extract depending on concentration. The greatest extract concentrations (100%, 75% and 50% of Z. joazeiro fruit pulp had an unfavorable allelopathic effect on lettuce germination, having reduced it by 100%, 98.75% and 82.5% respectively. The extract of the fruits rinds in concentrations of 75% and 100% reduced lettuce germination by 28.75% and 78.75%.

  4. A novel educational tool for teaching ocular ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa MS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available MS Mustafa1, J Montgomery2, HR Atta11Department of Ophthalmology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, UK; 2Medi-CAL, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UKAbstract: Ocular ultrasound is now in increasing demand in routine ophthalmic clinical practice not only because it is noninvasive but also because of ever-advancing technology providing higher resolution imaging. It is however a difficult branch of ophthalmic investigations to grasp, as it requires a high skill level to interface with the technology and provide accurate interpretation of images for ophthalmic diagnosis and management. It is even more labor intensive to teach ocular ultrasound to another fellow clinician. One of the fundamental skills that proved difficult to learn and teach is the need for the examiner to “mentally convert” 2-dimensional B-scan images into 3-dimensional (3D interpretations. An additional challenge is the requirement to carry out this task in real time. We have developed a novel approach to teach ocular ultrasound by using a novel 3D ocular model. A 3D virtual model is built using widely available, open source, software. The model is then used to generate movie clips simulating different movements and orientations of the scanner head. Using Blender, Quicktime motion clips are choreographed and collated into interactive quizzes and other pertinent pedagogical media. The process involves scripting motion vectors, rotation, and tracking of both the virtual stereo camera and the model. The resulting sequence is then rendered for twinned right- and left-eye views. Finally, the twinned views are synchronized and combined in a format compatible with the stereo projection apparatus. This new model will help the student with spatial awareness and allow for assimilation of this awareness into clinical practice. It will also help with grasping the nomenclature used in ocular ultrasound as well as helping with localization of

  5. Preparation of High-Quality Paving Asphalt of Liaoshu and Analysis of Its Road Performance%辽曙高等级道路沥青的制备及其路用性能的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 杨鹏; 等

    2001-01-01

    辽曙高粘度原油属低硫环烷基原油,密度大(ρ=0.997 79 g/ cm-3),运动粘度大(υ100=1 223.9 mm2*s-1),其性质类似于一般原油的渣油馏分。以该原油的减压渣油为原料,采用调合法制取沥青,并对其路用性能进行了评价,建立了Frass脆点和5 ℃针入度的关联方程。结果表明:采用调合方法可以制备出符合Q/SHR004-1998要求的AH-70、AH-90高等级道路沥青。该沥青的感温性能优良,粘弹区间(ΔT)大,超过了同类沥青的相应指标。利用所建立的Frass脆点和5 ℃针入度的关联方程,用5 ℃针入度可以预测Frass脆点。%The crude oil of No.1 zone of Liaoshu with high density (ρ=0.997 79 g*cm-3)and high viscidity(υ100=1 223.9 mm2*s-1) belongs in the low sulfur cycloparaffin group oil, and its property is familiar to that of residues of the general crude oil. In this paper, the paving asphalt was prepared by blending the vacuum residue from the crude oil and waste oil used as blender. The road performance of the paving asphalt was analyzed at the same time. The results showed that the property of paving asphalt could conform with the standard of Sinopec Q/SHR004-1998 very well. The temperature sensibility and viscoelastic behavior of Liaoshu asphalt excelled that of the others compared in this paper. A correlative equation between Frass brittle point and penetration at 5 ℃ was set up,with the equation and penetration at 5 ℃ Frass brittle point can be forecasted.

  6. Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Naresh Kumar, Arjunan; Vincent, Savariar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-02-01

    The present study was carried out to establish the properties of Carica papaya leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad on larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered the dried plant materials (leaves). The powder (500 g) of the leaf was extracted with 1.5 l of organic solvents of methanol for 8 h using a Soxhlet apparatus and then filtered. The crude leaf extracts were evaporated to dryness in a rotary vacuum evaporator. The plant extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval and pupal mortality was found in the leaf extract of methanol C. papaya against the first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 440.65 ppm, respectively, and bacterial insecticide, spinosad against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 93.44 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values of LC(50) = I instar was 55.77 ppm, II instar was 65.77 ppm, III instar was 76.36 ppm, and IV instar was 92.78 ppm, and pupae was 107.62 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. The results that the leaves extract of C. papaya and bacterial insecticide, Spinosad is promising as good larvicidal and pupicidal properties of against chikungunya vector, A. aegypti. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of chikungunya vector, A. aegypti as target species of vector control programs.

  7. Teores do óleo essencial de cidrão [Aloysia triphylla (L'Hérit Britton (Verbenaceae] em diferentes horários de colheita e processamentos pós-colheita Lemon verbena's [Aloysia triphylla (L'Hérit Britton (Verbenaceae] essential oil content in different harvest periods and post-harvesting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Brant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o teor do óleo essencial de cidrão [Aloysia triphylla (L´Hérit Britton] em diferentes horários de colheita e processamentos pós-colheita. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado. As colheitas foram realizadas em três horários distintos (8 h, 12 h e 16 h, com três repetições. Os processamentos pós-colheita foram cinco: T1- folhas frescas fragmentadas em 1cm; T2- folhas frescas processadas em liquidificador; T3- folhas frescas inteiras; T4- folhas secas inteiras; T5- folhas secas pulverizadas em moinho, com três repetições. O óleo essencial de cada tratamento foi extraído pela técnica de hidrodestilação, utilizando o aparelho modificado de Clevenger, por uma hora e trinta minutos. Os horários de colheita quando se detectou maior teor de óleo foram 8 h e 16 h. Os maiores teores de óleo essencial foram encontrados em folhas frescas fragmentadas em 1cm, folhas frescas processadas em liquidificador, folhas frescas inteiras e folhas secas inteiras.This study was carried out in order to evaluate the essential oil content of lemon verbena at different harvest times and post-harvest processings. The experimental design used was completely randomized. The harvested material was collected at three different hours (8:00, 12:00 and 16:00 pm, and it was taken three times. In post-harvest processings, three replications and five treatments were us do: 1 cm fresh leaf fragments, blended fresh leaves, whole fresh leaves, whole dry leaves and dry leaves ground in mill. The essential oil was determined in Clevenger's modified apparatus for 1 hour and 30 minutes. The periods of the day that detected high essential oil content were at 8:00 am and 16:00 pm. The high essential oil level was in 1 cm fresh leaf fragments, blender processed fresh leaves, whole fresh leaves and whole dry leaves.

  8. Condições higiênico-sanitárias de cozinhas de escolas públicas de Itaqui, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Sanitary-hygienic conditions of kitchens of public schools in Itaqui city, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vanez Dias Vila

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi conhecer as condições higiênico-sanitárias de cozinhas de escolas públicas e a percepção das cozinheiras sobre higiene de alimentos. Utilizou-se uma análise descritiva, a partir da aplicação de uma lista de verificação sobre boas práticas e a técnica do esfregaço com swab para a avaliação microbiológica das superfícies de manipulação, equipamentos e utensílios. Foram entrevistadas todas as cozinheiras e auxiliares responsáveis pela manipulação de alimentos que concordaram em participar. A média de regularidades na lista de verificação foi de 58,3%, sendo os itens com maiores índices de inadequações Documentação e registro, Preparação do alimento e Exposição ao consumo do alimento preparado. Dentre as superfícies, o liquidificador foi o equipamento que apresentou maiores contagens de micro-organismos. As entrevistas demonstraram as limitações impostas pela falta de orientação e supervisão. Fica clara a necessidade de que sejam realizadas ações e orientações sobre o cuidado sanitário dos alimentos, a fim de garantir e promover a saúde entre os escolares. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- The aim of this study was to investigate the sanitary conditions of public school kitchens and cooks perception about food hygiene. We used a descriptive analysis from the application of a checklist of good practice and technique of smear swab surfaces to micro-biological evaluation the manipulation surfaces, equipment and utensils. Interviews of all cooks and assistants responsible for handling foods that agreed to participate. The average regularities in the checklist was 58.3%, and the items with higher inadequacies were Documentation and registration, Food preparation and Exposure to the consumption of prepared food. Among the surfaces, the blender is equipment which showed higher counts of microorganisms. The interviews showed the

  9. Plant Measurement, Sampling and Analysis for Accountancy Purposes with Particular Reference to Separation Plants at Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All figures for special materials accountancy purposes contain one or more of three parameters, namely plant measurement, sampling and analysis. For plant measurements it is best to use weighings wherever possible, e.g. the plutonium in the feed to the New Separation Plant is based on the weight of uranium rods fed. Methods used for measuring volumes are discussed, e.g. (a) pneumercator, and (b) tracer method using radioactive caesium. Judged accuracies and precisions of each method are given. The sampling of solutions in a batch process is done by using evacuated tubes after thorough homogenization of the solution. For ''flowing'' streams, where high accuracy is required, a continuous sampler has been devised and is used on the feed to the New Separation Plant. Drilling of metal ingots is the normal sampling method at Windscale, whereas for other solids the method is to homogenize as far as possible (e.g. a Y cone blender is used for plutonium oxide) and then sample. For the chemical analysis, the precision required of the method depends on the number of determinations in each accounting period. Thus a large number of analyses are required for an accurate but imprecise method. It may be more economical to use fewer determinations with a more precise method. Methods for determining plutonium are discussed in detail, e.g. (a) radiochemistry, (b) colorimetrically using thoronol, (c) plutonium separation, complexing with EDTA and back titration of the excess EDTA, (d) titrimetry (e) isotope dilution followed by mass spectrometry and (f) differential spectrometry. Methods for determining uranium are outlined, e.g. (a) gravimetry as U3O8, (b) ether extraction followed by gravimetry or colorimetry, (c) titrimetry, (d) isotope dilution followed by mass spectrometry and (e) enrichment determination by mass spectrometry or line shift emission spectrography. With all accounting methods standards are used to give quality control and to show any inaccuracy which requires to be

  10. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  11. Hipercapnia acentuada durante circulação extracorpórea em cirurgia para revascularização do miocárdio: relato de caso Hipercapnia acentuada durante circulación extracorpórea en cirugía para revascularización del miocárdio: relato de caso Marked hypercapnia during cardiopulmonary bypass for myocardial revascularization: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Serrano Nascimento

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A função primordial de desviar o sangue do coração e retorná-lo oxigenado à circulação sistêmica é conseguida às custas de importantes alterações na fisiologia cardiopulmonar. O objetivo deste relato é apresentar uma complicação anestésica que ocorreu durante a CEC e alertar para a necessidade da interação de toda a equipe anestésico-cirúrgica na prevenção de eventos adversos per-operatórios. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente feminina, parda, 56 anos, 95 kg, altura 1,65 m, estado físico ASA IV, portadora de insuficiência renal crônica em hemodiálise, foi admitida para realização de revascularização do miocárdio. A monitorização constou de eletrocardiograma (ECG, medida invasiva da pressão arterial, oximetria de pulso, capnografia, temperatura esofágica, pressão venosa central e análise dos gases anestésicos. A paciente recebeu como medicação pré-anestésica, midazolam (0,05 mg.kg-1, por via venosa. Iniciou-se indução venosa com fentanil (16 µg.kg-1, etomidato (0,3 mg.kg-1 e pancurônio (0,1 mg.kg-1. A manutenção foi feita com oxigênio, isoflurano (0,5 - 1 CAM e infusão contínua de fentanil. A gasometria arterial colhida após a indução demonstrou: pH: 7,41; PaO2: 288 mmHg; PaCO2: 38 mmHg; HCO3: 24 mmol.L-1; BE: 0 mmol.L-1; SatO2: 100%. A segunda gasometria arterial, colhida logo após o início da CEC, chegou em 30 minutos e apresentou: pH 7,15; PaO2: 86 mmHg; PaCO2 224 mmHg; HCO3: 29 mmol.L-1; BE: -3 mmol.L-1; SatO2: 99%. Foi feita verificação completa e urgente dos equipamentos anestésicos e de perfusão. Foi constatada conexão do misturador de gases de perfusão (blender à rede de O2 e a um cilindro de dióxido de carbono (CO2, quando deveria estar conectado ao cilindro de ar comprimido. CONCLUSÕES: Falhas mecânicas dos componentes do circuito de extracorpórea podem ocorrer no per-operatório e exigem correções rápidas. Os avanços tecnológicos nos equipamentos

  12. Effect of pH value on foaming properties of oleate and recirculating utilization mechanism of foam%pH值对油酸盐发泡性能影响及泡沫循环利用机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利; 万里平; 辜思曼; 舒小波; 翟立团; 陶杰

    2014-01-01

    油酸盐中含有酸碱敏感性羧酸官能团,因而可实现泡沫的酸碱循环利用。通过Wa-ring-Blender法、酸碱滴定测试、表面与界面张力测试、微观分析等研究手段,分析了pH值变化对油酸盐水溶液性质、油酸盐羧酸官能团电离度以及油酸盐发泡性能的影响。同时,开展了6次泡沫循环实验,并从微观现象解释以及“铺展与架桥”理论对其消泡机理进行了深入分析。研究结果表明,油酸盐中的羧酸官能团通过失去或得到质子来实现活性与非活性之间的可逆转换,从而实现泡沫的循环利用。此外,通过消泡机理分析可以看出,氢离子的侵入可以促进油酸盐泡沫结构中非水溶性油酸的形成,并进入泡沫液膜结构,通过铺展或架桥作用使得液膜破裂,从而达到消泡的作用。%The acid and alkali circulation utilization of foam can be realize due to the exist of pH-sensitivity carboxyl groups in oleate .With methods of Warning-blender ,acid-base titration test ,surface tension and interfacial tension test and microscopic analysis ,etc .,the effects of pH values change on aqueous solution properties of oleate ,ionization degree of carboxyl group of ole-ate ,and foaming properties of oleate were analyzed .Meanwhile ,six foam circulation experi-ments have been carried out ,and defoaming mechanism was discussed through explanation of mi-croscopic phenomena ,spreading and bridging mechanisms .The results show that carboxyl group of oleate can easily lose or receive protons to realize the reversible interconversions between active and inactive ,further to realize circulation utilization of foam .Also ,the defoaming mechanism a-nalysis suggests that the invasion of hydrogen ions can lead to form water insoluble oleic acid of foam structure of oleate ,and into the foam liquid films structure ,facilitate liquid films rupture through spreading or bridging action ,so as to achieve the effect

  13. Volume de iogurte light e sensações subjetivas do apetite de homens eutróficos e com excesso de peso Volume of light yogurt and subjective appetite sensations in normal-weight and overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Neri Nobre

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar, independentemente de outras variáveis, o efeito do volume de iogurte light sobre os parâmetros de ingestão alimentar de homens saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Foi feita incorporação de ar ao iogurte por adição de um produto comercialmente disponível -Emustab® - (6g/300ml com posterior homogeneização em liqüidificador semi-industrial. Utilizaram-se três volumes de iogurte: 300, 450 e 600ml. Trabalhou-se com 20 participantes saudáveis, sendo 10 eutróficos, com índice de massa corporal entre 19 e 24,9kg/m² e 10 com excesso de peso, índice de massa corporal >25kg/m². Cada um deles recebeu um volume de iogurte em três diferentes dias, pela manhã, em jejum de 12 horas. Uma escala de analogia visual foi utilizada, num período de 4 horas e 30 minutos após ingestão de cada volume do iogurte, para avaliar sensações subjetivas de saciedade, fome e desejo por alimentos específicos. RESULTADOS: Os volumes do iogurte light afetaram a saciedade dos dois grupos estudados, sendo que o maior volume exerceu melhor essa ação (pOBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of light yogurt volume on the food intake of healthy men regardless of other variables. METHODS: Air was added to the yogurt by mixing it with a commercially available product, Emustab®, (6g/300ml and homogenized in a semi-industrial blender. Three volumes of yogurt were used: 300, 450 and 600ml. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the study, 10 with normal weight, Body Mass Index from 19 to 24.9kg/m² and 10 with excess weight, Body Mass Index >25kg/m². Each one of them was given a yogurt volume in three different days in the morning, after a 12 hour fast. After the intake of each yogurt volume, a visual analog scale was used to assess the subjective sensations of satiety, hunger and desire for specific foods. RESULTS: Light yogurt volumes affected the satiety of both studied groups and the greater volume was more effective (p<0.01. The highest

  14. Value-added products from chicken feather fiber and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiuling

    Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between

  15. Holodeck Testbed Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Adriel (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    objects inside the hybrid reality ISS environment. This task looked at using an Electroencephalogram (EEG) headset to collect brain state data that could be mapped to commands that a computer could execute. On this Task, I had a setback with the hardware, which stopped working and was returned to the vendor for repair. However, I was still able to collect some data, was able to process it, and started to create correlation algorithms between the electrical patterns in the brain and the commands we wanted the computer to carry out. I also carried out a test to investigate the comfort of the headset if it is worn for a long time. The knowledge gained will benefit me in my future career. I learned how to use various modeling and programming tools that included Blender, Maya, Substance Painter, Artec Studio, Github, and Unreal Engine 4. I learned how to use a professional grade 3D scanner and 3D printer. On the BCI Project I learned about data mining and how to create correlation algorithms. I also supported various demos including a live demo of the hybrid reality lab capabilities at ComicPalooza. This internship has given me a good look into engineering at NASA. I developed a more thorough understanding of engineering and my overall confidence has grown. I have also realized that any problem can be fixed, if you try hard enough, and as an engineer it is your job to not only fix problems but to embrace coming up with solutions to those problems.

  16. Landuse Carbon Implications of a Drawdown of Ethanol Production and an Increase in Well-Managed Pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwinckel, C. M.; Phillips, J.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, commodity grain prices have doubled, and world commodity prices have reached their highest levels in over 30 years. The rise in prices culminated in the food price spikes of 2008 and 2011, where food riots erupted in 40 countries. Although studies have pointed to a number of factors leading to the increased food prices, the ethanol industry, whether deservingly or not, is seen as the major factor behind the price spikes. Several recent studies have contributed to the poor public opinion of ethanol by concluding that ethanol is neither a net energy source nor a net reducer of carbon emissions. The impact of these research reports combined with recent spikes in commodity prices has led to fierce political efforts to reduce or eliminate subsidies for ethanol. Opponents of ethanol subsidization won a significant battle with Congress recently voting to eliminate federal blender's tax credits and ethanol import tariffs. If another sharp spike in commodity prices occurs in the near future, some have speculated that ethanol production mandates could be scaled back or eliminated. In the span of less than three years the expected role of ethanol in the agricultural sector has gone from one of rapid growth and longevity, to one of which the societal benefits are being strongly questioned. In light of the rapidly changing expectations regarding the future of ethanol, we believe it is an appropriate time to evaluate the landuse and carbon implications of a scaling down of ethanol production and investigating permanent managed pasture as an alternative land use that could provide carbon benefits. Various USDA programs to promote conservation of, or conversion to, permanent pasture or grassland exist primarily based on the value of decreasing the potential for soil erosion as well as improving water quality. Although grazing systems have long been associated with land degradation in the arid and semi-arid west, new management approaches utilizing some form

  17. SPITZER INFRARED OBSERVATIONS AND INDEPENDENT VALIDATION OF THE TRANSITING SUPER-EARTH CoRoT-7 b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection and characterization of the first transiting super-Earth, CoRoT-7 b, has required an unprecedented effort in terms of telescope time and analysis. Although the star does display a radial-velocity signal at the period of the planet, this has been difficult to disentangle from the intrinsic stellar variability and pinning down the velocity amplitude has been very challenging. As a result, the precise value of the mass of the planet—and even the extent to which it can be considered to be confirmed—has been debated in the recent literature, with six mass measurements published so far based on the same spectroscopic observations, ranging from about 2 to 8 Earth masses. Here we report on an independent validation of the planet discovery using one of the fundamental properties of a transit signal: its achromaticity. We observed four transits of CoRoT-7 b at 4.5 μm and 8.0 μm with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope in order to determine whether the depth of the transit signal in the near-infrared is consistent with that observed in the CoRoT bandpass, as expected for a planet. We detected the transit and found an average depth of 0.426 ± 0.115 mmag at 4.5 μm, which is in good agreement with the depth of 0.350 ± 0.011 mmag (ignoring limb darkening) found by CoRoT. The observations at 8.0 μm did not yield a significant detection. The 4.5 μm observations place important constraints on the kinds of astrophysical false positives that could mimic the signal. Combining this with additional constraints reported earlier, we performed an exhaustive exploration of possible blend scenarios for CoRoT-7 b using the BLENDER technique. We are able to rule out the vast majority of false positives, and the remaining ones are found to be much less likely than a true transiting planet. We thus validate CoRoT-7 b as a bona fide planet with a very high degree of confidence, independently of any radial-velocity information. Our Spitzer

  18. An optimized method for extraction and detection of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid(CCCVd) from oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, M R; Vadamalai, G; Joseph, H

    2010-01-01

    Coconut cadong-cadong viroid (CCCVd) causes the Lethal cadang-cadang disease of coconut palms in the Philippines and it is recently reported to be associated with the orange spotting disease on oil palm in Malaysia. The low concentration of the viroid RNA in oil palm as well as the high content of polyphenols and polysaccharides in this plant which interfere with the purification steps makes it difficult to extract and detect this viroid from oil palm. A previously described method was modified and optimized for extraction and detection of CCCVd from infected oil palms. Briefly, 7 g of leaf material was homogenized in a mortar or a blender using liquid nitrogen. 10 ml of extraction buffer (100 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM EDTA) along with 100 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and 10 ml water saturated phenol was added to the frozen powder. After centrifuging at 4 degrees C, 4000 g for 30 min, the aqueous phase was extracted once more with phenol then once with chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (24:1). After adding sodium acetate, pH 5.6 to 200 mM, the mixture was precipitated with 2.5 vol ethanol overnight in -20 freezer and then the pellet was washed with 70% ethanol and air-dried. One milliliter of 8 M LiCl was added to the dried pellet and after shaking overnight at 4 degrees C and another centrifugation step the supernatant was collected and precipitated again with ethanol and then the resulting pellet was washed and air-dried. To carry out northern blotting, samples equivalent to 40 g of plant tissue were mixed with formamide buffer and loaded onto a 12% polyacrylamide gel containing 7 M urea and after separation by electrophoresis, were electroblotted onto membrane and fixed by UV cross-linking. Pre-hybridization and hybridization using hybridization buffer (50% formamide, 25%SSPE, 0.1% Ficol and PVP, 0.1 % SDS, 0.02 % DNA (5mg/ml)) was carried out at 45 degrees C for 90 min and 16 h, respectively followed by two low stringency washes (0.5 X SSC, 0.1% SDS, at room

  19. Leucaena allelopathy on weeds and soybean seed germination / Alelopatia de Leucena sobre soja e plantas invasoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leszczynski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of agriculture, there was consequent rising in environment degradation. Therefore, It is interesting the use of plants which have in their chemical composition substances capable of helping in the control of weeds to minimize the use of pesticides. Hence, the objective of this paper was to evaluate solutions of leucena extract on weeds that are frequent on soybean crop. The treatments were leucena extracts at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% at room temperature water and water heated to 80°C. The extracts were obtained by crushing 200g of leucena leaves and mixing them with one liter of distilled water with the help of a blender. Seeds were kept in B.O.D. at a temperature of 25°C, with a photoperiod of 12 hours of light. Evaluations were done on a daily basis, from the first to the last day of the experiment, varying according to the species. Results show a negative interference of the extracts, both hot and cold, in the root length of Ipomoea grandifolia, in the percentage of germination and in the root length of Arrowleaf sida and Hair beggarticks. There was no negative interference in the analyzed parameters for soybean seeds. Thus, the results indicate allelopatic potential of Leucaena leuucocephala as an alternative for the management of weeds without interfering on the development of the soybean crop.Com o desenvolvimento da agricultura surgiram os conseqüentes aumentos na degradação ambiental. Assim, estuda-se a utilização de plantas que possuam em sua composição química substâncias capazes de auxiliar no controle de plantas invasoras, amenizando o uso de agrotóxicos. Desta forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar soluções de extratos de leucena sobre plantas invasoras que freqüentemente ocorrem na cultura da soja. Foram utilizados como tratamentos os seguintes extratos de leucena nas proporções de: 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% com água à temperatura ambiente e com água aquecida à 80°C. Os extratos foram

  20. Evaluación del impacto de un ensayo comunitario sobre el consumo de frutas y verduras en Colombia Evaluation of the impact of a community intervention on the consumption of fruits and vegetables in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Esperanza Prada

    2007-02-01

    evaluation was carried out on two levels: the family and the HC. The Bland-Alman method was used to determine the intra- and inter-group impact. A multiple linear regression model enabled the evaluation of the intervention's effect on consumption frequency, adjusted for economic and demographic variables. RESULTS: The frequency of consumption of fruits increased an average of 1.3 times per week (CI 0.3, 1.8, p= 0.040. This was achieved when the probability of having a blender was higher than 75% (R² for the regression 0.33; n= 26. The frequency of vegetable consumption did not increase. CONCLUSIONS: In poor populations an increase in the consumption of fruits can be achieved through educational strategies. However, the limited access to equipment for transforming and preserving alimentary products is decisive to the final result.

  1. Anti-bacterial studies on Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) H.G. Hallier and Elephantopus scaber L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vimala Thankappan Anitha; Johnson MarimuthuAntonisamy; Solomon Jeeva

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the ethanol, aqueous, chloroform, benzene, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Hemigraphis colorata (H. colorata) leaves and stem and Elephantopus scaber (E. scaber) leaves, root and flower for the presence of phyto-constituents and screened the anti-bacterial activity against the selected pathogens. Methods:The fresh materials were shade dried and powdered using the tissue blender. The dried and powered materials (50 g) were extracted successively with 200 mL of aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether by using Soxhlet extractor for 8 h at a temperature not exceeding the boiling point of the solvent. Aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts were prepared from powdered materials were used for preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial studies using standard methods. Results:The crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts E. scaber leaves, flower and root and H. colorata leaves and stem demonstrated that out of (5×6×12 = 360) tests for the presence or absence of the above compounds, 188 tests gave positive results and the remaining 172 gave negative results. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed that phenol (12/12), carbohydrates (9/12), steroids (8/12), saponins and coumarins (7/12), tannins (6/12), proteins (5/12), carboxylic acid and flavonoids (4/12), xanthoproteins (3/12) and alkaloids (2/12) presence in the crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts of H. colorata leaves and stem. The crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts E. scaber leaves, flower and root displayed the presence of phenol (18/18), tannin (17/18), carbohydrates (16/18), steroids (14/18), carboxylic acid and coumarins (12/18), saponins (10/18), xanthoprotein (9/18), flavonoids (7/18), protein (4/18) and alkaloids (2/18). The root ethanolic extracts of E. scaber

  2. La2O3/γ-Al2O3复合产物的浸渍-燃烧法制备及表征%Preparation and characterization of La_2O_3/γ-Al_2O_3 compounds by immersion and combustion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储刚; 曾莉瑛; 郭琴; 王亚娇; 张辉

    2012-01-01

    La2O3/γ-Al2O3 compounds were synthesized by immersion and combustion method,raw materials were La(NO3)3·6H2O(A.R),Citric acid monohydrate and commercial boehmite.Citric acid monohydrate as the complexing agent and La(NO3)3·6H2O(A.R) as the lanthanum source,stirred to dissolve and obtained the citric acid-lanthanum nitrate solution,formed the complexes of the citric acid and lanthanum nitrate,and the ratio of the citric acid and the lanthanum nitrate was about 5∶ 6.Grinded the boehmite into power,then took the power dissolved in the complexes of the citric acid and lanthanum nitrate,stirring made full contact.Using magnetic blender mixed to gel,110 ℃ dried 2 h,then took the gel into muffle furnace in 2 h roasting and got products.The final products were characterized by XRD,BET,XPS.It studied the surface areas and the pore size distributions of the compounds in the different treatment temperatures by the comparison study.It resulted that the La3+ was effective on the thermal stability of the γ-Al2O3 compounds.While the sample roasting temperature increased,specific surface area would decrease,the pore volume and pore size all get bigger.Along with the increase of the quantity of La3+,the specific surface area of the sample increased and the distribution of pore diameter would be wider.We can control the specific surface area,pore volume,pore size and the distribution of pore diameter of the porous γ-alumina powder through the control of the quantity of La3+ and the calcination temperature.%采用浸渍-燃烧法制备了La2O3/γ-Al2O3复合产物,原料为La(NO3)3.6H2O(A.R)、一水合柠檬酸和工业级的拟薄水铝石.以六水合硝酸镧和一水合柠檬酸分别为镧源和燃烧剂,柠檬酸与六水硝酸镧的摩尔比为5∶6左右.将拟薄水铝石研磨成粉末并溶于柠檬酸和镧的配合物溶液中,搅拌至凝胶状,110℃干燥2h,再放入马弗炉中焙烧2 h得到产物.采用XRD、BET、XPS进行

  3. An optimized method for extraction and detection of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid(CCCVd) from oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, M R; Vadamalai, G; Joseph, H

    2010-01-01

    Coconut cadong-cadong viroid (CCCVd) causes the Lethal cadang-cadang disease of coconut palms in the Philippines and it is recently reported to be associated with the orange spotting disease on oil palm in Malaysia. The low concentration of the viroid RNA in oil palm as well as the high content of polyphenols and polysaccharides in this plant which interfere with the purification steps makes it difficult to extract and detect this viroid from oil palm. A previously described method was modified and optimized for extraction and detection of CCCVd from infected oil palms. Briefly, 7 g of leaf material was homogenized in a mortar or a blender using liquid nitrogen. 10 ml of extraction buffer (100 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM EDTA) along with 100 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and 10 ml water saturated phenol was added to the frozen powder. After centrifuging at 4 degrees C, 4000 g for 30 min, the aqueous phase was extracted once more with phenol then once with chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (24:1). After adding sodium acetate, pH 5.6 to 200 mM, the mixture was precipitated with 2.5 vol ethanol overnight in -20 freezer and then the pellet was washed with 70% ethanol and air-dried. One milliliter of 8 M LiCl was added to the dried pellet and after shaking overnight at 4 degrees C and another centrifugation step the supernatant was collected and precipitated again with ethanol and then the resulting pellet was washed and air-dried. To carry out northern blotting, samples equivalent to 40 g of plant tissue were mixed with formamide buffer and loaded onto a 12% polyacrylamide gel containing 7 M urea and after separation by electrophoresis, were electroblotted onto membrane and fixed by UV cross-linking. Pre-hybridization and hybridization using hybridization buffer (50% formamide, 25%SSPE, 0.1% Ficol and PVP, 0.1 % SDS, 0.02 % DNA (5mg/ml)) was carried out at 45 degrees C for 90 min and 16 h, respectively followed by two low stringency washes (0.5 X SSC, 0.1% SDS, at room

  4. Mobile Advertising System Based on Augmented Reality and Location-Based Services%基于增强现实和位置服务的手机广告系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶小榕; 邵晴

    2013-01-01

    当前国内移动互联网发展极其迅速,但平面广告进入手机广告市场时遇到了一些困难,广告效果并不理想.针对这个现状,本文提出新的解决思路:利用现实增强和位置服务等技术,借鉴和运用ARToolKit、Hadoop、Blender、min3D等多个开源软件模块化设计开发了基于安卓(Android)平台的手机广告系统.系统包括手机客户端和服务器端两大部分,手机客户端负责从平面广告中识别二维码,定位当前手机的位置坐标,然后将用户信息、二维码和位置坐标发送给服务器端;服务器端接收后,通过范围搜索算法检索地图数据库和虚拟影像文件库,根据地域的不同得到对应的3D虚拟影像广告文件,将其回传给手机,手机客户端就能显示出3D虚拟影像广告了.此系统使平面广告通过二维码在手机中显示出3D虚拟影像效果,还能根据手机所在地域动态投放不同广告,增加了广告的吸引力,使手机广告更具有针对性、点击率更高、更有效果.%The mobile internet in China is under very rapid development, but the print advertisement encounters some difficulties to enter the mobile advertising market, lack of desirable effects. This paper proposes a new solution. Based on the Android platform, a mobile advertising system is designed, which takes advantage of technologies such as the augmented reality and the location based services, with the adoption of the ARToolKit, Hadoop, Blender, min3D and other open source software modularization designs. This system consists of two parts: the mobile client side and the server side. In the first step, the mobile client is responsible to recognize the two-dimensional codes from the print advertisement, and to locate the coordinates of the current location of the phone. Then these data are sent to the server. In the second step, the server using the scope of the search algorithm obtains the corresponding 3D virtual image advertisement

  5. Organic Geochemistry of Sediments in Nearshore Areas of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers: I. General Organic Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, William H.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Lerch, Harry E.; Corum, Margo D.; Bates, Anne L.

    2007-01-01

    sites with oxic water columns, and thus atomic C/S values may be useful as a proxy for identifying sites impacted by hypoxic conditions in the water column and for examining historical trends in hypoxia. At one site examined in this study, maximum hypoxic conditions were observed in the mid 1960's. The organic elemental composition (C, N, P, and S) of sediments was also used to guide sample selection for contaminant analysis, and to normalize the contaminant data to organic C content of the sediments. Dissolved hydrocarbon gases in sediments showed a dominance of methane, but identifiable concentrations of ethane and hexane, and trace concentrations of propane, butane, and pentane were also detected. All dissolved gases except hexane were dominated by 'bound' gas, gas released only after agitation of the sediment in a blender. Hexane, in contrast was observed mostly as free gas, determined by headspace analysis.

  6. In-line monitoring of blending process of Zhongsheng pill powder using miniature near-infrared analyzer%微型近红外仪用于众生丸粉末混合过程的在线监测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金叶; 杨凯; 陈木洲; 刘雪松; 陈勇; 龙超峰; 吴永江

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To establish a simple and rapid method baaed on diffuse reflectance NIR spectra to in-line monitor the blending process of Zhongsheng pill powder. Method; Zhongsheng pill powder consisted of Zhongsheng spray powder, artificial cow-bezoar powder and bile arisaema powder. By means of a revolutionary miniature near-infrared analyzer mounted onto the blender, the powder homogeneity van determined in real lime with noninterference. The moving hlnck standard deviation ( MBSD) method was used to identify the end point of blending process, providing real-time data and instant feedback about the blending course. Evaluation of blend uniformity was carried out by stratified in-process sampling, and the content of baicalin in samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatngraphy (HPLC). Result; The results calculated through MBSD method were generally coincided with HPLC analysis. Blend homogeneity was assumed to be reached when the standard deviations beiween spectra approached 0.002, and RSD values of baicalin content in samplesfrom six positions were lower than 5%. Moreover, stratified in-process sampling has significant influence on blending process when the powder loading volume was small. Conclusion^ Based on this study, NIR speetroscopy can be possibly extended to be applied in blending process of Zliongsheng pill powder, ensuring a remarkable saving of time and manpower employed and creating.a reliable and efficient process measurement technology.%目的:建立一种众生丸粉末混合过程终点的在线判断方法.方法:将微型近红外仪直接安装于混合罐进料口上,通过移动窗标准偏差法(MBSD)在线监测混合过程中混合物的均匀度变化,实时判断混合终点.同时采用取样探针分层抽样,通过液相色谱法分析粉末样品中黄芩苷含量,用于验证MBSD的终点判断结果.结果:近红外在线监测结果与液相测定结果基本一致,当光谱偏差小于0.002时,不同取样

  7. Cinética de inativação da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase de abacate (Persea americana Mill. Kinetic of inactivation of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase of avocado (Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Caroline Luíz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos enzimáticos foram preparados a partir da polpa de abacate (Persea americana Mill. dos cultivares Quintal, Fortuna e Choquete, em dois estádios de maturação (verde e maduro. A polpa de abacate (150,00g foi homogeneizada em liquidificador, com 300 mL de solução tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM em pH 7,4 para polifenoloxidase (PPO e pH 6,0 para peroxidase (POD. A peroxidase ionicamente ligada foi extraída usando solução de NaCl 1,0M, em tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM pH 6,0. Para o estudo da estabilidade térmica, os extratos foram submetidos a temperaturas de 60, 65, 70, 75 e 80ºC e por períodos que variaram de 1 à 10 minutos e a atividade enzimática foi determinada por espectrofotometria (lambda= 395nm para PPO e lambda= 460nm para POD. Pode-se observar que o declínio rápido da atividade das enzimas era maior nos primeiros quatro minutos e após esse período, com o aumento da temperatura e do tempo, a atividade continuou diminuindo, porém de forma mais lenta. A energia de ativação na faixa de temperatura estudada para as porções termolábil e termorresistente, apresentou valores dentro da faixa 12-100 kcal/mol.Enzymatic extracts were prepared from the avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill., using the cultivars Quintal, Fortuna and Choquete, in two different maturation stages (green and mature avocados. The avocado pulp (150,00g was homogenized in blender with 300 mL of sodium phosphate buffer 100mM at pH 7.4 for polyphenoloxidase (PPO and pH 6.0 for peroxidase (POD. The peroxidase ionically bound was extracted using NaCl solution 1.0M in sodium phosphate buffer 100mM pH 6.0. For the study of the thermal stability the extracts were submitted at temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75 and 80ºC for periods that had a variation from 1 to 10 minutes and the enzymatic activity was determined using a spectrophotometer (lambda= 395nm for PPO and lambda= 460nm for POD. It was possible to observe a fast decline of the enzyme activity in

  8. Allelopathic effect of sunflower water extract on the germination of soybean and hairy beggartick / Efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas de girassol sobre a germinação de soja e picão-preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leszczynski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of water extract from sunflower fresh leaves on the germination and initial development of conventional and transgenic soybean cultivars, and of the invasive hairy beggartick (Bidens pilosa L.. Experiments were carried out at Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, in 2007. Fresh leaves from sunflower were ground in a blender at the proportion 200g/1L distilled water, resulting in crude extract (100%, in which pH was measured. Dilutions of 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% were done from the crude extract, and only distilled water was used as control. Statistical analysis (Tukey 5% probability indicated that only the highest extract concentrations (60%, 80% and 100% influenced the analyzed parameters for conventional and transgenic soybean. Beggartick seeds, however, had germination percentage completely inhibited when 40% water extract was applied, which indicates that sunflower straw could be used as a natural herbicide. Nevertheless, field studies must be carried out to prove such effect.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas frescas de girassol sobre a germinação das sementes e desenvolvimento inicial das plântulas das cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill convencional (CD232, transgênica (CD213RR e uma de suas invasoras, o picão preto (Bidens pilosa L.. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná no ano de 2007. As folhas de girassol colhidas na época da floração foram trituradas com o auxílio de um liquidificador na proporção de 200g/1L de água destilada resultando no extrato bruto (100%. A partir do extrato bruto foram feitas as diluições de 80%, 60%, 40% e 20%, sendo utilizado como testemunha apenas água destilada. Após análise estatística (Tukey 5% de probabilidade, pode-se verificar que o extrato aquoso das

  9. 蒸汽萃取-高效液相色谱紫外/荧光法同时测定果蔬中噻苯咪唑、邻苯基苯酚、联苯及抑霉唑残留%Steam Extraction and Simultaneous Determination of Thiabendazole,O-phenyl phenol,Diphenyl and Imazalil Residues in Citrus Fruits and Vegetables by HPLC with Ultraviolet/Fluorescence Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾尔肯·依不拉音; 张辽生; 李兴

    2011-01-01

    建立了一种快速同时测定果蔬中噻苯咪唑(TBZ)、邻苯基苯酚(OPP)、联苯(DP)及抑霉唑(IMZ)残留量的高效液相色谱紫外/荧光分析方法。柑橘类水果及蔬菜样品经组织捣碎机打碎研磨均匀后,利用咖啡萃取机产生的甲醇或乙醇蒸汽进行萃取,分别采用紫外/荧光检测器同时测定上述四种或三种防腐保鲜剂。结果表明:紫外检测TBZ、OPPI、MZ、DP分别在(0.5~10)μg/ml,(0.6~10)μg/ml,(1~80)μg/ml,(0.8~20)μg/ml范围内具有良好的线性,最低检测限分别为0.4,0.4,0.5,0.8μg/ml;荧光检测TBZ、OPP、DP分别在(0.05~2.0)μg/ml,(0.06~2.0)μg/ml,(0.08~5.0)μg/ml范围内具有良好的线性;最低检测限分别为0.02,0.03,0.05μg/ml;采用甲醇蒸汽、乙醇蒸汽和乙醚溶剂萃取,得样品添加回收率分别为67%~84%,72%~83%,52%~108%;相对标准标准偏差分别为1.23%~3.57%,0.35%~2.35%,1.71%~6.29%。该方法快速、灵敏、准确,能满足果蔬中防腐保鲜剂多残留检测的要求。%A rapid reversed-phase HPLC method is developed for simultaneous determination of thiabendazole(TBZ),o-phenylphenol(OPP),dipheny(DP) and imazalil(IMZ) in citrus fruits and vegetables.The samples,blendering and pulverizing,are extracted by methanol or ethanol steam,producing by coffee machine;and subsequently assay above four or three preservatives by HPLC with ultraviolet/fluorescence detection,respectively.The study shows that TBZ、OPP、IMZ、DP have good linear response within concentration range(0.5~10)μg/ml,(0.6~10)μg/ml,(1~80)μg/ml,(0.8~20)μg/ml,lowest detection leves are 0.4,0.4,0.5,0.8μg/ml respectively,determining by ultraviolet detection;TBZ、OPP、DP,determining by ultraviolet detection,linear ranges are(0.05~2.0)μg/ml,(0.06~2.0)μg/ml,(0.08~5.0)μg/ml,lowest detection leves are 0.02,0.03,0.05g/ml.Using methanol and

  10. 含掺合料混凝土水化产物体积分数计算及其影响因素%Calculation of concrete with mineral admixture hydration products volume fraction and its influential factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴福飞; 董双快; 宫经伟; 陈亮亮; 李东生; 侍克斌

    2016-01-01

    Powers theory proposes calculation method for the pure volume of cement hydration products, which does not apply to calculate the volume of cementitious materials with mineral admixture. The formula of cementitious materials volume was proposed that based on the basic principles of cement and mineral admixture hydration, and the proposed method of reliability was verified by the results of Powers theoretical model and volume fraction of cement hydration products. On this basis, the factor such as water-cement ratio, the ratio of admixture and types was further researched for the volumes of cementitious materials hydration products. Mixture in test were designed 2 water-cement ratio (0.30 and 0.40, respectively), two content (20% and 60%, respectively) of mineral admixture, and 3 kinds of mineral admixture (lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag, respectively), forming paste that was stirred according with the designed ratio in 5 mL centrifuge tube in a blender and curing to 1, 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 d in curing room (temperature was (20±1)℃, humidity was not less than 95%), and then testing reaction extent of cement and mineral admixture (such as fly ash, steel slag. lithium slag) according with the chemical bound water and HCl dissolution method. The results showed that hydration extent of lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag at 28d decreased by 46.63%, 69.56% and 74.82% (P<0.05) when mineral admixture content varied from 20% to 60% and water-cement ratio was 0.30. Hydration extent of cement at 28 d was increased by 7.25% when water-cement ratio increased from 0.30 to 0.40. When mineral admixture content varied from 20% to 60%, hydration extent of lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag at 28 d increased by 24.14% 18.56%, 17.61% and 8.84%, 12.21%, and 29.37% (P<0.05), respectively. In contrast, the influence of the mineral admixture content was bigger than water-cement ratio for the hydration extent of composite cementitious materials. In different water-cement ratio

  11. Circulação extracorpórea com desvio veno-arterial e baixa pressão parcial de oxigênio Extracorporeal circulation with venous-arterial shunt and low oxygen partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Coli Junqueira de MORAES

    2001-09-01

    arterial circulation and arterial blood flow was maintained high (around 100 mlkgmin. It was observed that the arterial pO2 in both groups remained between 50 and 100 mmHg and venous saturation between 50 and 70%. All animals woke up at end of the experiment. In the clinical study, the arterial pO2 was a low 60 mmHg. Comparison of the clinical results showed there was no mortality difference between both groups, but in the group B, with the low pO2 and venous-arterial shunt, the post-operative bleeding was significantly smaller, having been used three times less blood and no need to use the blender.

  12. Effects of residual plastic film mixed in soil on water infiltration, evaporation and its uncertainty analysis%残膜对土壤水分入渗和蒸发的影响及不确定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛文全; 邹小阳; 刘晶晶; 张明智; 吕望; 古君

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of residual plastic film, a continuous pollutant and difficult to degrade, is a major limiting factor for sustainable development of agriculture in northwest China. Residual plastic film can destroy homogeneity of soil texture and seriously impede the movement of soil water and solute, and thus greatly enhance the uncertainties in soil water movement. In order to reveal the negative effects of residual plastic film on soil water infiltration, evaporation and their uncertainties, soil column simulation experiments were conducted to observe the processes of soil water infiltration and evaporation with different amounts of residual plastic film in the Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid Area (108°02′E, 34°17′N), at Northwest A&F University, in Yangling, Shaanxi Province of China, from September to October, 2015. Six amounts of residual plastic film were designed including 0, 80, 160, 320, 640, 1 280 kg/hm2 with triplicate. During the experiment, the wetting front, the cumulative infiltration and the cumulative evaporation were investigated. Meanwhile, gravimetric soil moisture was measured after the evaporation process. To mimic the actual distribution characteristic of residual plastic film in field, fragile plastic film and soil samples were mixed evenly with a blender. During infiltration, when the wetting front arrived at 40 cm, irrigation water was cut off. Soil columns were covered with waterproof plastic film to reduce atmospheric evaporation. Soil columns stood for 12 h until the infiltration process completely stopped. In the consequent process of soil water evaporation, the columns were continuously heated by infrared lamps of 275 W from morning till night. Soil columns were weighed with an electronic balance at 9:00 a.m. every day to calculate mass change and standard daily evaporation. Furthermore, an evaporation pan that had the same diameter as soil column was used to measure daily evaporation from free water

  13. Students Excited by Stellar Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    follow-up observations, and Thompson joined online. "Observing with the students is very exciting. It gives the students a chance to learn about radio telescopes and pulsar observing in a very hands-on way, and it is extra fun when we find a pulsar," said Rosen. Snider, on the other hand, said, "I got very, very nervous. I expected when I went there that I would just be watching other people do things, and then I actually go to sit down at the controls. I definitely didn't want to mess something up." Everything went well, and the observations confirmed that the students had found an exotic pulsar. "I learned more in the two hours in the control room than I would have in school the whole day," Mabry said. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling lighthouse beams of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its normal life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name neutron star. One tablespoon of material from a pulsar would weigh 10 million tons -- as much as a supertanker. The object that the students discovered is in a special class of pulsar that spins very fast - in this case, about 30 times per second, comparable to the speed of a kitchen blender. "The big question we need to answer first is whether this is a young pulsar or a recycled pulsar," said Maura McLaughlin, an astronomer at WVU. "A pulsar spinning that fast is very interesting as it could be newly born or it could be a very old, recycled pulsar." A recycled pulsar is one that was once in a binary system. Material from the companion star is deposited onto the pulsar, causing it to speed up, or be recycled. Mystery remains, however, about whether this pulsar has ever had a companion star. If it did, "it may be that this pulsar had a massive

  14. Star Cluster Buzzing With Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A dense globular star cluster near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy holds a buzzing beehive of rapidly-spinning millisecond pulsars, according to astronomers who discovered 21 new pulsars in the cluster using the National Science Foundation's 100-meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The cluster, called Terzan 5, now holds the record for pulsars, with 24, including three known before the GBT observations. Pulsar Diagram Pulsar Diagram: Click on image for more detail. "We hit the jackpot when we looked at this cluster," said Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, VA. "Not only does this cluster have a lot of pulsars -- and we still expect to find more in it -- but the pulsars in it are very interesting. They include at least 13 in binary systems, two of which are eclipsing, and the four fastest-rotating pulsars known in any globular cluster, with the fastest two rotating nearly 600 times per second, roughly as fast as a household blender," Ransom added. Ransom and his colleagues reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA, and in the online journal Science Express. The star cluster's numerous pulsars are expected to yield a bonanza of new information about not only the pulsars themselves, but also about the dense stellar environment in which they reside and probably even about nuclear physics, according to the scientists. For example, preliminary measurements indicate that two of the pulsars are more massive than some theoretical models would allow. "All these exotic pulsars will keep us busy for years to come," said Jason Hessels, a Ph.D student at McGill University in Montreal. Globular clusters are dense agglomerations of up to millions of stars, all of which formed at about the same time. Pulsars are spinning, superdense neutron stars that whirl "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is