WorldWideScience

Sample records for blenders

  1. Blenders

    CERN Document Server

    Reznick, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    A blender is a closed convex cone of real homogeneous polynomials that is also closed under linear changes of variable. Non-trivial blenders only occur in even degree. Examples include the cones of psd forms, sos forms, convex forms and sums of $2u$-th powers of forms of degree $v$. We present some general properties of blenders and analyze the extremal elements of some specific blenders.

  2. Mastering Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Blender, the free alternative for professional-quality 3D animation is a complex program to learn, but once users become familiar with its power, they begin to seek more from it.  This book is the first of its kind to explore the more advanced features of Blender so that you can get the most out of the software. You'll take your Blender skills to a whole new level with the featured in-depth coverage of intricate uses for Blender's modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects tools in a professional environment.

  3. Tradigital Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit with foundational animation techniques, software expertise, professional best-practices, proven and time-tested work flows. Roland Hess, a leading Blender artist and instructor, expertly navigates you through Blender's character animation systems and controls, with a focus on each of the classical principles of animation like timing, anticipation, appeal, staging, exaggeration, squash and stretch and much more. Unique from other software titles, the Tradigital series offers a specific tool-set of practical instruction and foundational knowledge that all great anim

  4. Particle blender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An infinite blender that achieves a homogeneous mixture of fuel microspheres is provided. Blending is accomplished by directing respective groups of desired particles onto the apex of a stationary coaxial cone. The particles progress downward over the cone surface and deposit in a space at the base of the cone that is described by a flexible band provided with a wide portion traversing and in continuous contact with the circumference of the cone base and extending upwardly therefrom. The band, being attached to the cone at a narrow inner end thereof, causes the cone to rotate on its arbor when the band is subsequently pulled onto a take-up spool. As a point at the end of the wide portion of the band passes the point where it is tangent to the cone, the blended particles are released into a delivery tube leading directly into a mold, and a plate mounted on the lower portion of the cone and positioned between the end of the wide portion of the band and the cone assures release of the particles only at the tangent point

  5. Foundation Blender Compositing

    CERN Document Server

    Wickes, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Anyone who uses Blender needs this book. Blender users know that it can be used for modeling, animation, and rendering, but it can also be used as a fully functional compositing and post-production application. This book explores Blender's use as a compositing and post-production tool in the video and film production pipeline. In this book, you will learn how to: *Create and apply masks and special effects in Blender*Composite images using Blender's Node-based Compositor*Sequence and overlay video and audio using Blender's Non-Linear EditorWhat you'll learn This book provides concise yet step-

  6. Low temperature fluid blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repas, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Blender supplies hydrogen at temperatures from 289 deg K to 367 deg K. Hydrogen temperature is controlled by using blender to combine flow from liquid hydrogen tank /276 deg K/ and gaseous hydrogen cylinder /550 deg K/. Blenders are applicable where flow of controlled low-temperature fluid is desired.

  7. Blender For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    van Gumster, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The exciting new book on the exciting new Blender 2.5! If you want to design 3D animation, here's your chance to jump in with both feet, free software, and a friendly guide at your side! Blender For Dummies, 2nd Edition is the perfect introduction to the popular, open-source, Blender 3D animation software, specifically the revolutionary new Blender 2.5. Find out what all the buzz is about with this easy-access guide. Even if you?re just beginning, you'll learn all the Blender 2.5 ropes, get the latest tips, and soon start creating 3D animation that dazzles.Walks you through what you need to kn

  8. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  9. Blender for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    van Gumster, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Learn to: Create realistic animations with this free, open source software Build 3D objects with meshes, curves, and surfaces Take advantage of new features, including the incredibly powerful Cycles renderer Jump into Blender and start animating Is your head full of images that would be marvelous in motion? Make it happen! This plain-English guide shows you how to use Blender, the open source animation suite that lets you produce professional results. You'll learn to create 3D objects, get them moving with animation and rigging, set the scene with cameras and lighting, and maybe even go p

  10. Blender for Antimisting Kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Pradip G.; Sarohia, Virendra; Yavrouian, Andre H.

    1987-01-01

    Blender continuously disperses controlled amount of flammability-reducing additive into stream of jet fuel. Resulting mixture consists of homogeneous suspension of additive polymer particles in fuel. Particles dissolve within 15 to 30 min, without agitation, forming airplane fuel known as antimisting kerosene which promises to reduce danger from fire in crashes.

  11. BTF Rendering in Blender

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hatka, Martin; Haindl, Michal

    New York, USA: The Association for Computing Machinery, Inc, 2011, s. 265-272. ISBN 978-1-4503-1060-4. [International Conference on Virtual Reality Continuum and Its Applications in Industry 2011 /10./. Hong Kong (CN), 11.12.2011-12.12.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GAP103/11/0335; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: CESNET(CZ) 387/2010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : rendering * biderectional texture function * Blender Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/RO/hatka-btf rendering in blender.pdf

  12. Blender Foundations The Essential Guide to Learning Blender 26

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Blender Foundations is the definitive resource for getting started with 3D art in Blender, one of the most popular 3D/Animation tools on the market . With the expert insight and experience of Roland Hess, noted Blender expert and author, animators and artists will learn the basics starting with the revised 2.6 interface, modeling tools, sculpting, lighting and materials through rendering, compositing and video editing. Some of the new features covered include the completely re-thought interface, the character animation and keying system, and the smoke simulator. More than just a tutorial gui

  13. Advanced Material Rendering in Blender

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hatka, Martin; Haindl, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2012), s. 15-23. ISSN 1081-1451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0335; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: CESNET(CZ) 387/2010; CESNET(CZ) 409/2011 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : realistic material rendering * bidirectional texture function * Blender Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/haindl-advanced material rendering in blender.pdf

  14. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  15. Visualizing Astronomical Data with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    Astronomical data take on a multitude of forms -- catalogs, data cubes, images, and simulations. The availability of software for rendering high-quality three-dimensional graphics lends itself to the paradigm of exploring the incredible parameter space afforded by the astronomical sciences. The software program Blender gives astronomers a useful tool for displaying data in a manner used by three-dimensional (3D) graphics specialists and animators. The interface to this popular software package is introduced with attention to features of interest in astronomy. An overview of the steps for generating models, textures, animations, camera work, and renders is outlined. An introduction is presented on the methodology for producing animations and graphics with a variety of astronomical data. Examples from sub-fields of astronomy with different kinds of data are shown with resources provided to members of the astronomical community. An example video showcasing the outlined principles and features is provided along w...

  16. Blender Studio Projects Digital Movie-Making

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to get professional results from Blender. Start from scratch-the way it happens in the studio-and create fully rendered objects with Blender open-source 3D animation software and this real-world, roll-up-your-sleeves guide. No time is wasted-this book plunges straight into step-by-step instruction designed to help you build skills and create solid assets for film, video, and games. Blender is gaining clout in professional settings, and you can get a running start with this series of hands-on tutorials that encompasses multiple disciplines. The book includes a DVD with starter, interm

  17. Symbolic blender-horseshoes and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study partially hyperbolic skew-product maps over the Bernoulli shift with Hölder dependence on the base points. In the case of contracting fibre maps, symbolic blender-horseshoe is defined as an invariant set which meets any almost horizontal disc in a robust sense. These invariant sets are understood as blenders with a centre stable bundle of any dimension. We then give necessary conditions (covering property) on an iterated function system such that the relevant skew-product has a symbolic blender-horseshoe. We use this local plug to yield robustly non-hyperbolic transitive diffeomorphisms and robust heterodimensional cycles of co-index equal to the dimension of the central direction. (paper)

  18. Symbolic blender-horseshoes and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos, Pablo G.; Ki, Yuri; Raibekas, Artem

    2012-01-01

    We study partially-hyperbolic skew-product maps over the Bernoulli shift with H\\"older dependence on the base points. In the case of contracting fiber maps, symbolic blender-horseshoe is defined as an invariant set which meets any almost horizontal disk in a robust sense. These invariant sets are understood as blenders with center stable bundle of any dimension. We then give necessary conditions (covering property) on an iterated function system such that the relevant skew-product has a symbo...

  19. Introducción a Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Rodríguez, Ana; Valdaracete Peinado, Javier

    2012-01-01

    El mundo de la animación 3D está en plena actualidad en este momento. Salas de cine, programas de televisión y la publicidad nos muestran constantemente personajes y objetos animados creados por ordenador. Son muchos los programas que pueden usarse para la realización de animación en 3D. En este proyecto vamos a centrarnos en Blender. Blender es un programa de animación y modelado que se puede obtener de manera gratuita por internet. Se trata de un programa de software libre, por lo ...

  20. Geometric objects in Blender 2.32

    OpenAIRE

    Vigo Anglada, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this document is to explore the way that Blender 2.32 stores the information for modeling static scenes. First, the conceptual model the system uses to store geometric objects is explained, guiding the user to inspect it using the OOPS Schematic view. The data structures Blender uses for generic objects, geometric elements, materials and different kind of links between these entities are reviewed. Special emphasis is made for the case of meshes, and the main features of the mesh ed...

  1. BioBlender: Fast and Efficient All Atom Morphing of Proteins Using Blender Game Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Zini, Maria Francesca; Porozov, Yuri; Andrei, Raluca Mihaela; Loni, Tiziana; Caudai, Claudia; Zoppè, Monica

    2010-01-01

    In this and the associated article 'BioBlender: A Software for Intuitive Representation of Surface Properties of Biomolecules', (Andrei et al) we present BioBlender as a complete instrument for the elaboration of motion (here) and the visualization (Andrei et al) of proteins and other macromolecules, using instruments of computer graphics. A vast number of protein (if not most) exert their function through some extent of motion. Despite recent advances in higly performant methods, it is very ...

  2. Blender production creating short animations from start to finish

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Blender has become one of the most popular 3D animation tools on the market because it is robust and absolutely free. Blender Production is the definitive resource for anyone who wants to create short animations from scratch. With this book, and Blender, you have the ideal platform to make it happen.  Blender expert and author Roland Hess walks you through the entire process of creating a short animation including: writing, storyboarding, blocking, character creation, animation, rendering, and production. The associated web site includes the full Blender software kit and a compl

  3. Development of automated blender and dispensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes automated blender and dispensing system designed and developed in Nuclear Recycle Board for its reprocessing plant. Obtaining sinterable grade oxide powder from the product solution received in the heavy metal product line involves skilled manpower and time consuming, laborious manual operations. Entire treatment is carried out in a train of closed containments called as glove boxes. In view of this Automated blender and dispensing system has been developed to reduce tedious manual operations. System consists of PLC based control system to drive motorised charging mechanism, a conical ribbon blender which homogenises the product and load cell triggered, indexing dispensing mechanism. Schematic design of the system has been done in-house, while fabrication was outsourced. System has been built, tested and installed at component test facility (CTF) at Tarapur. Actual blending tests were carried out by using dummy material like calcium carbonate and barium carbonate powder, with different sets of parameter. Blended product was chemically analysed for its homogeneity. System has now been put to trial runs by operating staff. This development has circumvented tedious operations of Scooping and increased the throughput. This paper describes challenges in undertaking this developmental work. (author)

  4. Automatic Deployment of Services in the Cloud with Aeolus Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cosmo, Roberto; Eiche, Antoine; Mauro, Jacopo; Zacchiroli, Stefano; Zavattaro, Gianluigi; Zwolakowski, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    International audience We present Aeolus Blender (Blender in the following), a software product for the automatic deployment and configuration of complex service-based, distributed software systems in the " cloud ". By relying on a configuration optimiser and a deployment planner, Blender fully automates the deployment of real-life applications on OpenStack cloud deployments , by exploiting a knowledge base of software services provided by the Mandriva Armonic tool suite. The final deploym...

  5. The complete guide to blender graphics computer modeling and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Blain, John M

    2014-01-01

    Smoothly Leads Users into the Subject of Computer Graphics through the Blender GUIBlender, the free and open source 3D computer modeling and animation program, allows users to create and animate models and figures in scenes, compile feature movies, and interact with the models and create video games. Reflecting the latest version of Blender, The Complete Guide to Blender Graphics: Computer Modeling & Animation, 2nd Edition helps beginners learn the basics of computer animation using this versatile graphics program. This edition incorporates many new features of Blender, including developments

  6. Blender cycles lighting and rendering cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Iraci, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth guide full of step-by-step recipes to explore the concepts behind the usage of Cycles. Packed with illustrations, and lots of tips and tricks; the easy-to-understand nature of the book will help the reader understand even the most complex concepts with ease.If you are a digital artist who already knows your way around Blender, and you want to learn about the new Cycles' rendering engine, this is the book for you. Even experts will be able to pick up new tips and tricks to make the most of the rendering capabilities of Cycles.

  7. Granja de renderitzat per a Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra da Costa, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    El projecte tracta de veure com muntar i accedir a una granja de renderitzat pel programa de disseny en 3D Blender. Aquest programa és lliure i gratuït, lo que redueix el cost de la granja. El projecte busca la millor opció per muntar una granja no permanent en una empresa o escola que no tingui la opció de comprar més ordinadors que només estiguin dedicats al sistema de renderitzat. Així per exemple, ordinadors que no s'utilitzin a la nit podran convertir-se a nodes de la granja. L'únic o...

  8. 40 CFR 80.525 - What requirements apply to kerosene blenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... blenders? 80.525 Section 80.525 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....525 What requirements apply to kerosene blenders? (a) For purposes of this subpart, a kerosene blender...) Kerosene blenders are not subject to the requirements of this subpart applicable to refiners of diesel...

  9. Development of Virtual Morphometric Globes Using Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Florinsky, I V

    2015-01-01

    Virtual globes - programs implementing interactive three-dimensional (3D) models of planets - are increasingly used in geosciences. Global morphometric models can be useful for tectonic and planetary studies. We describe the development of the first testing version of the system of virtual morphometric globes for the Earth, Mars, and the Moon. As the initial data, we used three 15'-gridded global digital elevation models (DEMs) extracted from SRTM30_PLUS, the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter gridded archives. For three planetary bodies, we derived global digital models and maps of several morphometric attributes (i.e., horizontal curvature, vertical curvature, minimal curvature, maximal curvature, and catchment area). To develop the system, we used Blender, the open-source software for 3D modeling and visualization. First, a 3D sphere model was generated. Second, the global morphometric maps as textures were imposed to the sphere surface. Finally, the real-time 3D graphics B...

  10. Modelovací plugin pro Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Černák, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá automatizovaným generováním modelů stromů v prostředí open-source 3D modelovacího a animačního nástroje Blender. Program byl vytvořen v rozhraní pro programování aplikací Blenderu v jazyce Python. Práce rozebírá nejběžnější techniky generování rostlin a stromů a postup, který byl použit v programu.

  11. Blender aplinkos naudojimo garsinio signalo modeliavimui galimybių tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanauskas, Ginas

    2010-01-01

    Šiame darbe tiriamos trimatės Blender aplinkos panaudojamumo garsinių signalų modeliavimui galimybės. Darbe aprašyta programos vartotojo sąsaja, vidinė architektūra, ištirtos vidinio programavimo galimybės ir pateikti tyrimų rezultatai. Naudojant Python programavimo kalbą buvo sukurta garsinių signalų analizės ir vizualizavimo programa SigBlender, veikianti Blender aplinkoje. Programa naudoja beveik periodinių garso signalų periodų išskyrimo algoritmą, kuris buvo sukurtas ir realizuotas darbo...

  12. Blender 2.6 cycles, materials and textures cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, practical style this Cookbook deep-dives into a wide-array of techniques used to create realistic materials and textures.This book is perfect for you if you have used Blender before but are new to the impressive Cycles renderer. You should have some knowledge of the Blender interface, though this is not a strict requirement. If you want to create realistic, stunning materials and textures using Cycles, then this book is for you!

  13. 3D VIZUALNO MODELIRANJE Z UPORABO ODPRTOKODNEGA ORODJA BLENDER

    OpenAIRE

    Černe, Jernej

    2011-01-01

    V diplomskem delu obravnavamo izgradnjo enostavnih modelov strežnih sistemov po principu dogodkovne simulacije z odprtokodnim orodjem Blender. Uvodoma je predstavljeno orodje Blender ter izvedena primerjava različnih orodij, ki omogočajo 3D modeliranje. Podan je postopek izgradnje simulacijskega modela z grafičnim vmesnikom ter s pomočjo jezika Python. Realizirana je programska koda, ki omogoča izpis ustrezne statistike v tekstovno datoteko, kar zagotavlja pridobitev standardnih rezultatov si...

  14. AstroBlend: An Astrophysical Visualization Package for Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Naiman, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth in scale and complexity of both computational and observational astrophysics over the past decade necessitates efficient and intuitive methods for examining and visualizing large datasets. Here, I present {\\it AstroBlend}, an open-source Python library for use within the three dimensional modeling software, {\\it Blender}. While {\\it Blender} has been a popular open-source software among animators and visual effects artists, in recent years it has also become a tool for visual...

  15. Passive millimeter wave simulation in blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakowski, Maciej

    Imaging in the millimeter wave (mmW) frequency range is being explored for applications where visible or infrared (IR) imaging fails, such as through atmospheric obscurants. However, mmW imaging is still in its infancy and imager systems are still bulky, expensive, and fragile, so experiments on imaging in real-world scenarios are difficult or impossible to perform. Therefore, a simulation system capable of predicting mmW phenomenology would be valuable in determining the requirements (e.g. resolution or noise floor) of an imaging system for a particular scenario and aid in the design of such an imager. Producing simulation software for this purpose is the objective of the work described in this thesis. The 3D software package Blender was modified to simulate the images produced by a passive mmW imager, based on a Geometrical Optics approach. Simulated imagery was validated against experimental data and the software was applied to novel imaging scenarios. Additionally, a database of material properties for use in the simulation was collected.

  16. AstroBlend: An Astrophysical Visualization Package for Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Naiman, J P

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth in scale and complexity of both computational and observational astrophysics over the past decade necessitates efficient and intuitive methods for examining and visualizing large datasets. Here, I present {\\it AstroBlend}, an open-source Python library for use within the three dimensional modeling software, {\\it Blender}. While {\\it Blender} has been a popular open-source software among animators and visual effects artists, in recent years it has also become a tool for visualizing astrophysical datasets. {\\it AstroBlend} combines the three dimensional capabilities of {\\it Blender} with the analysis tools of the widely used astrophysical toolset, {\\it yt}, to afford both computational and observational astrophysicists the ability to simultaneously analyze their data and create informative and appealing visualizations. The introduction of this package includes a description of features, work flow, and various example visualizations. A website - www.astroblend.com - has been developed which incl...

  17. Blenders for a non-normally Henon-like family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Kiriki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A blender is an indispensable concept presented by Bonatti and Diaz [3] to study high-dimensional $C^1$-robust transitive dynamics around heterodimensional cycles. In this paper, we present a certain Henon-like family of real quadratic diffeomorphisms on $\\mathbb{R}^3$, which exhibits an phase transition from non-normal horseshoes to blenders. It can be observable from a rapidly jump of topological dimension for some projected stable segments in some characteristic region of $\\mathbb{R}^3$.

  18. Interactividad programada en el Game Engine de Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez García, Guzmán

    2013-01-01

    Con este proyecto se ha desarrollado una guía introductoria a uno de los aspectos más complejos y especializados de Blender, que es el control de su motor de videojuegos mediante programas escritos en Python. Está orientado a lectores que tienen un conocimiento amplio sobre el manejo de Blender, su interfaz y el funcionamiento de sus diferentes elementos, así como una mínima experiencia en cuanto a programación. Se ha organizado en una parte descriptiva, centrada en el lenguaje Pytho...

  19. 40 CFR 80.76 - Registration of refiners, importers or oxygenate blenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oxygenate blenders. 80.76 Section 80.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Registration of refiners, importers or oxygenate blenders. (a) Registration with the Administrator of EPA is... oxygenate blender that blends oxygenate into RBOB. (b) Any person required to register shall do so...

  20. 40 CFR 80.212 - What requirements apply to oxygenate blenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements apply to oxygenate blenders? 80.212 Section 80.212 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....212 What requirements apply to oxygenate blenders? Effective January 1, 2004, oxygenate blenders...

  1. 40 CFR 80.830 - What requirements apply to oxygenate blenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements apply to oxygenate blenders? 80.830 Section 80.830 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Requirements § 80.830 What requirements apply to oxygenate blenders? Oxygenate blenders who blend...

  2. 40 CFR 80.835 - What requirements apply to butane blenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements apply to butane blenders? 80.835 Section 80.835 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Requirements § 80.835 What requirements apply to butane blenders? Butane blenders who blend butane...

  3. Beginning Blender Open Source 3D Modeling, Animations, and Game Design

    CERN Document Server

    Flavell, L

    2010-01-01

    A new world of creative possibilities is opened by Blender, the most popular and powerful open source 3D and animation tool. Blender is not just free software; it is also an important professional tool used in animated shorts, television commercials, and shows, as well as in production for films like Spiderman 2. Lance Flavell's Beginning Blender will give you the skills to start shaping new worlds and virtual characters, and perhaps lead you down a new professional path. Beginning Blender covers the Blender 2.5 release in-depth. The book starts with the creation of simple figures using basic

  4. Förnyande av styrsystem till Wolfking blender

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöblom, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Målet med detta examensarbete var att förnya styrsystemet till en Wolfking blender vid Oy Snellman Ab i Jakobstad. Maskinen har som uppgift att blanda och kyla olika köttmassor för att erhålla rätt konsistens och temperatur, som ett delmoment i hela köttförädlingsprocessen. Till produkter som blandas i denna blender hör bland annat kotlett- korv- och påläggsmassa. Orsaken till att maskinen var i behov av nytt styrsystem var främst för att få bort driftstörningar som uppstått samt att reservde...

  5. Safe-geometry pneumatic nuclear fuel powder blender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safe geometry nuclear fuel powder is claimed blender of a pneumatic type having a plurality of narrow flat-walled blending chambers or ''slab tanks'' extending radially outward from a pneumatic spouting tube having an inlet and an outlet at bottom and top, respectively, open to each slab tank or blending chamber and contained within a cylindrical cone-bottomed shell filled with neutron-absorbing material between the blending chambers

  6. Blender Pump Fuel Survey: CRC Project E-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.

    2011-07-01

    To increase the number of ethanol blends available in the United States, several states have 'blender pumps' that blend gasoline with flex-fuel vehicle (FFV) fuel. No specification governs the properties of these blended fuels, and little information is available about the fuels sold at blender pumps. No labeling conventions exist, and labeling on the blender pumps surveyed was inconsistent.; The survey samples, collected across the Midwestern United States, included the base gasoline and FFV fuel used in the blends as well as the two lowest blends offered at each station. The samples were tested against the applicable ASTM specifications and for critical operability parameters. Conventional gasoline fuels are limited to 10 vol% ethanol by the U.S. EPA. The ethanol content varied greatly in the samples. Half the gasoline samples contained some ethanol, while the other half contained none. The FFV fuel samples were all within the specification limits. No pattern was observed for the blend content of the higher ethanol content samples at the same station. Other properties tested were specific to higher-ethanol blends. This survey also tested the properties of fuels containing ethanol levels above conventional gasoline but below FFV fuels.

  7. Cellulose nanofiber extraction from grass by a modified kitchen blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaito, Antonio Norio; Ikenaga, Koh; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers have been used to reinforce polymers, delivering composites with strength that in some cases can be superior to that of engineering plastics. The extraction of nanofibers from plant fibers can be achieved through specialized equipment that demands high energy input, despite delivering extremely low yields. The high extraction cost confines the use of cellulose nanofibers to the laboratory and not for industrial applications. This study aims to extract nanofibers from grass by using a kitchen blender. Earlier studies have demonstrated that paper sheets made of blender-extracted nanofibers (after 5 min to 10 min of blending) have strengths on par with paper sheets made from commercially available cellulose nanofibers. By optimizing the design of the blender bottle, nanofibrillation can be achieved in shorter treatment times, reducing the energy consumption (in the present case, to half) and the overall extraction cost. The raw materials used can be extended to the residue straw of agricultural crops, as an alternative to the usual pulp fibers obtained from wood.

  8. AstroBlend: An astrophysical visualization package for Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    The rapid growth in scale and complexity of both computational and observational astrophysics over the past decade necessitates efficient and intuitive methods for examining and visualizing large datasets. Here, I present AstroBlend, an open-source Python library for use within the three dimensional modeling software, Blender. While Blender has been a popular open-source software among animators and visual effects artists, in recent years it has also become a tool for visualizing astrophysical datasets. AstroBlend combines the three dimensional capabilities of Blender with the analysis tools of the widely used astrophysical toolset, yt, to afford both computational and observational astrophysicists the ability to simultaneously analyze their data and create informative and appealing visualizations. The introduction of this package includes a description of features, work flow, and various example visualizations. A website - www.astroblend.com - has been developed which includes tutorials, and a gallery of example images and movies, along with links to downloadable data, three dimensional artistic models, and various other resources.

  9. Blenders in centre unstable Hénon-like families: with an application to heterodimensional bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give an explicit family of polynomial maps called centre unstable Hénon-like maps and prove that they exhibit blenders for some parameter values. Using this family, we also prove the occurrence of blenders near certain non-transverse heterodimensional cycles under high regularity assumptions. The proof involves a renormalization scheme along heteroclinic orbits. We also investigate the connection between the blender and the original heterodimensional cycle. (paper)

  10. BlenderCAVE: A multimodal scene graph editor for Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Poirier-Quinot, David; Touraine, Damien; Katz, Brian,

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the BlenderCAVE project, which extends the 3D creation content software Blender and its Game Engine (BGE) to Virtual Reality (VR) applications. Based on a multi-screen non-stereoscopic adaptation of the BGE [Gascon et al., 2010], BlenderCAVE now integrates a complete framework dedicated to Virtual Reality (VR), compatible with the three main Operating Systems for any given VR architecture configuration. It has been developed by audio and VR researchers with support from th...

  11. Blenders in center unstable H\\'enon-like families: with an application to heterodimensional bifurcations

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, Lorenzo J.; Kiriki, Shin; Shinohara, Katsutoshi

    2013-01-01

    We give an explicit family of polynomial maps called center unstable H\\'enon-like maps and prove that they exhibits blenders for some parametervalues. Using this family, we also prove the occurrence of blenders near certain non-transverse heterodimensional cycles under high regularity assumptions. The proof involves a renormalization scheme along heteroclinic orbits. We also investigate the connection between the blender and the original heterodimensional cycle.

  12. 3D - mallinnus, työnkulku Blender - ohjelmalla

    OpenAIRE

    Paukkonen, Eemeli

    2015-01-01

    Työn tarkoitus on oppia lisää 3D-mallinnuksesta ja Blenderin toiminnasta. Lisäksi tavoite on innostaa 3D-mallinnuksesta kiinnostuneita luomaan omia projekteja. Lyhyesti 3D-mallinnus tarkoittaa tietokoneohjelmalla luotavaa mallia, joka esitetään kolmiulot-teisesti. Malleja käytetään viihdeteollisuudessa, lääketieteessä, arkkitehtuurissa sekä 3D-tulostuksessa, joka on viime vuosien aikana saanut enemmän huomiota. Opinnäytetyössä tutustutaan 3D-mallinnukseen käyttäen Blender-ilmaisohjelmaa...

  13. Spherical Panorama Visualization of Astronomical Data with Blender and Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2016-06-01

    We describe methodology to generate 360 degree spherical panoramas of both 2D and 3D data. The techniques apply to a variety of astronomical data types - all sky maps, 2D and 3D catalogs as well as planetary surface maps. The results can be viewed in a desktop browser or interactively with a mobile phone or tablet. Static displays or panoramic video renderings of the data can be produced. We review the Python code and usage of the 3D Blender software for projecting maps onto 3D surfaces and the various tools for distributing visualizations.

  14. Manual de introducción a Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Córcoles Briongos, César

    2009-01-01

    En aquest tutorial es presenta Blender, un potent programa de creació, renderitzat i animació de gràfics tridimensionals, de codi obert. Treballar un món tridimensional en una pantalla bidimensional, desplaçant un ratolí sobre una taula, de nou, en dues dimensions, exigeix un esforç d'abstracció considerable. És per això que en els primers passos d'aquesta guia ens dedicarem, senzillament, a passejar per la interfície del programa, i tot allò que creiem no passarà del mer bodegó, en un intent...

  15. A summer blender camp: modeling, rendering, and animation for high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Mike; Law, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    At Camp Blender, high-school students of varying backgrounds learned how to use the Blender software package to create computer graphics content. In a postclass survey, most of them indicated that the camp affected how they thought about their career path. PMID:24808169

  16. Blender master class a hands-on guide to modeling, sculpting, materials, and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Simonds, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Blender is a powerful and free 3D graphics tool used by artists and designers worldwide. But even experienced designers can find it challenging to turn an idea into a polished piece.For those who have struggled to create professional-quality projects in Blender, author Ben Simonds offers this peek inside his studio. You'll learn how to create 3D models as you explore the creative process that he uses to model three example projects: a muscular bat creature, a futuristic robotic spider, and ancient temple ruins. Along the way, you'll master the Blender interface and learn how to create and refi

  17. Rakennuspiirustuksista valokuvamaiseen mainoskuvaan : Visuaaliset ratkaisut Blender 3D-mallinnusohjelman avulla toteutetussa pientalon visualisoinnissa

    OpenAIRE

    Tiitto, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Toiminnallinen opinnäytetyö käsittelee arkkitehtuurivisualisoinnin toteuttamista pientalosta Blender 3D-mallinnusohjelman avulla. Työ keskittyy 3D-mallinnuksen avulla toteutetun teoksen, visualisointikuvan ja siihen liittyvän viitekehyksen tarkasteluun. Työssä esitellään 3D arkkitehtuurivisualisoinnin keinoja ja tarkastellaan visuaalisia ratkaisuja visualisointikuvissa. Työssä kuvataan lisäksi tapauskohtainen visualisointikuvan toteutusprosessi työvaiheittain. Blender 3D-mallinnusohjelma on t...

  18. Blender Pump Fuel Survey: CRC Project E-95-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Alleman, T. L.

    2014-05-01

    With the increasing fuel diversity in the marketplace, the Coordinating Research Council and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a survey of mid-level ethanol blends (MLEBs) in the market. A total of 73 fuel samples were collected from 20 retail stations. To target Class 4 volatility, the fuel samples were collected primarily in the midwestern United States in the month of February. Samples included the gasoline (E0), Flex Fuel, and every MLEB that was offered from each of the 20 stations. Photographs of each station were taken at the time of sample collection, detailing the pump labeling and configuration. The style and labeling of the pump, hose, and dispenser nozzle are all important features to prevent misfueling events. The physical location of the MLEB product relative to the gasoline product can also be important to prevent misfueling. In general, there were many differences in the style and labeling of the blender pumps surveyed in this study. All samples were analyzed for volatility and ethanol content. For the MLEB samples collected, the fuels tended to be lower in ethanol content than their indicated amount; however, the samples were all within 10 vol% of their indicated blend level. One of the 20 Flex Fuel samples was outside of the allowable limits for ethanol content. Four of the 20 Flex Fuel samples had volatility below the minimum requirement for Class 4.

  19. 3D modelování v programu Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Kubenka, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá 3D modelováním. Zejména se soustředí na volně dostupný program Blender. Zaobírá se možnostmi importu souborů do této aplikace. Z tohoto důvodu bylo využito programu Autodesk Inventor Professional 2008 k vytvoření trojrozměrného modelu a jeho následnému přenosu do Blenderu. Dále je na tomto modelu z oblasti silnoproudé elektrotechniky ukázána možnost vytvoření animace. V poslední části této práce je rozebírán vytvořený model axiálního diskového motoru z teoretic...

  20. 3D-hahmon mallinnus : Ihmishahmon suunnittelu ja toteuttaminen Blender-ohjelmalla

    OpenAIRE

    Viitapohja, Liisa

    2010-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli suunnitella ja mallintaa 3D-ihmishahmo mallin rakenteen tutkimista varten. Lähtökohtana oli pyrkiä dokumentoimaan kaikki työvaiheet mahdollisimman seikkaperäisesti, tutkia ja verrata erilaisia toteutusmenetelmiä, etsien aina käyttötarkoitukseen nähden toimivinta ratkaisua. Tekijän osuus työstä koskee koko tuotantoa. Työ tehtiin ilmaisella, avoimen lähdekoodin Blender-ohjelmalla. Tutkimuksen kohteena oli myös ilmaisen Blender-ohjelman ominaisuudet, ja se...

  1. 40 CFR 80.1440 - What are the provisions for blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the provisions for blenders... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1440 What are the provisions for blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year? (a) Renewable fuel blenders...

  2. 27 CFR 1.21 - Domestic producers, rectifiers, blenders, and warehousemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic producers, rectifiers, blenders, and warehousemen. 1.21 Section 1.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Basic Permits When Required § 1.21 Domestic producers, rectifiers,...

  3. Using a Blender to Assess the Microbial Density of Encapsulated Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N.; Koukol, Robert C.; Kazarians, Gayane A.; Schubert, Wayne W.; Morales, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    There are specific NASA requirements for source-specific encapsulated microbial density for encapsulated organisms in non-metallic materials. Projects such as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that use large volumes of non-metallic materials of planetary protection concern pose a challenge to their bioburden budget. An optimized and adapted destructive hardware technology employing a commercial blender was developed to assess the embedded bioburden of thermal paint for the MSL project. The main objective of this optimization was to blend the painted foil pieces in the smallest sizes possible without excessive heating. The small size increased the surface area of the paint and enabled the release of the maximum number of encapsulated microbes. During a trial run, a piece of foil was placed into a blender for 10 minutes. The outside of the blender was very hot to the touch. Thus, the grinding was reduced to five 2-minute periods with 2-minute cooling periods between cycles. However, almost 20% of the foil fraction was larger (>2 mm). Thus, the largest fractions were then put into the blender and reground, resulting in a 71% increase in particles less than 1 mm in size, and a 76% decrease in particles greater than 2 mm in size. Because a repeatable process had been developed, a painted sample was processed with over 80% of the particles being Blender. Samples were processed on low speed. The ground-up samples were then transferred to a 500-mL bottle using a sterile 1-in. (.2.5-cm) trim brush. To each of the bottles sterile planetary protection rinse solution was added and a modified NASA Standard Assay (NASA HBK 6022) was performed. Both vegetative and spore plates were analyzed.

  4. THE USE OF DOMESTIC MICROWAVE OVEN AND BLENDER IN BIODIESEL SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOSO, Claudia Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose in this study the use of household appliances, microwave oven and household blender without adaptation, in fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis from the transesterification of waste frying oil for use in chemistry lessons at different levels of education. The advantage in using the microwave oven, in particular, is in reducing reaction time by almost 10 times compared to traditional experiments. Furthermore, the use of such appliances without adjustments, both of the oven as the blender, eliminates the need for sophisticated equipment and glassware high cost. The success of the reaction, even in these conditions, can be noticed by CCD analysis and 1H NMR spectrum. The realization of biodiesel synthesis in the classroom with the aforementioned tools allows relating chemical concepts such as transesterification reactions, saponification, combustion, stoichiometry and catalysis with environmental issues surrounding sustainable development, recycling and biofuel.

  5. UPORABA ORODIJ UNITY3D IN BLENDER ZA RAZVOJ IGER NA ANDROIDU

    OpenAIRE

    Čeh, David

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu spoznavamo industrijo videoiger in kaj nas motivira da igramo igre. Osnujemo načrt za razvoj igre, ki ga razdelimo na dva konceptuelno različna načina in se po tem principu poskusimo lotiti lastnega projekta. Spoznavamo delovanje orodij Unity3D in Blender ter osnovne tehnike modeliranja, teksturiranja in pisanja skript, katerih končni produkt je igra za Android napravo.

  6. Weaning from ventilator and effect of Blender-Humidifier on outcome of it

    OpenAIRE

    Nemat Bilan; Shalaleh Ganji

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: the weaning procedure of mechanical ventilation in many patients is a difficult and long process and increases the time of mechanical ventilation. There are numerous ways to achieve this goal. One common way is using CPAP-ventilator. Considering the lower price of Blender-Humidifier compared to CPAPof ventilator and the limited number of studies in this field, this study was aimed to compare these two procedures.Methods: 102 patients in pediatric Intensive Care Unit...

  7. THE USE OF DOMESTIC MICROWAVE OVEN AND BLENDER IN BIODIESEL SYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    CARDOSO, Claudia Cristina; CARVALHO, Marcela Albino; COSTA, Joicy Bianca de Souza; AMORIM, Cézar Augusto da Cruz; SILVA, Ricardo Oliveira; CAMPOS, Angela Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    We propose in this study the use of household appliances, microwave oven and household blender without adaptation, in fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis from the transesterification of waste frying oil for use in chemistry lessons at different levels of education. The advantage in using the microwave oven, in particular, is in reducing reaction time by almost 10 times compared to traditional experiments. Furthermore, the use of such appliances without adjustments, both of the ov...

  8. Weaning from ventilator and effect of Blender-Humidifier on outcome of it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Bilan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: the weaning procedure of mechanical ventilation in many patients is a difficult and long process and increases the time of mechanical ventilation. There are numerous ways to achieve this goal. One common way is using CPAP-ventilator. Considering the lower price of Blender-Humidifier compared to CPAPof ventilator and the limited number of studies in this field, this study was aimed to compare these two procedures.Methods: 102 patients in pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU were allocated randomly in one group: CPAP-ventilator and Blender-Humidifier. Duration of hospital and PICU stay, the number of days of mechanichal ventilation, the frequency of re-intubation, and the mortality of the patients were recorded. Results: the study was conducted on 66 male and 36 female patients (64.7% and 35.3% respectively. The average age was 22.5 ± 4.5 months. The most frequent complaint of the patients at the time of visit was coughing (35%, hyperventilation and respiratory distress (21.6%. Hospital stay was 23±14 and 20±12days in humidifier and cpap groups respectively (p=0/52.PICU stay was 15± 11and 20±11 days in humidifier and cpap groups respectively (p=0/18.Re- intubation rate was 16/2% and 33/5% in humidifier and cpap groups respectively (p=0/15.Mortality rate 8/4% and 21.5% in humidifier and cpap groups respectively (p=0/06. Conclusion: Although there was no statistically significant difference between two groups, considering the differences in mortality rate, the need for re-intubation, rate of hospital and PICU stay, and at the same time, with easy availability and low prices, using Blender- Humidifier is recommended.

  9. 3D-grafiikan ja visuaalisten efektien lisääminen videoihin Blender-ohjelmalla

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Nykyään monet ihmiset ottavat kameroilla videoita omiin tarkoituksiin ja mahdollisesti mai-nostamiseen. Olisi hyödyllistä, jos ihmiset osaisivat myös liittää tietokoneella tuotettuja liikku-via hahmoja videoihin. Opinnäytetyö antaa myös apua 3D-mallinnusten tuottamiseen. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on luoda ilmaisella avoimen lähdekoodin Blender 3D-grafiikan mallinnus-ohjelmalla hahmo, joka liikkuu kolmiulotteisesti videossa. Tässä työssä on doku-mentoitu eri työkalujen käyttötapoja ja ty...

  10. Fire simulation for a 3D character with particles and motion capture data in Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Hoikkala, Ville

    2016-01-01

    The object of this thesis was to study particle based simulations in 3D and how they can be applied to motion capture data. The theoretical part examines the history of 3D and computer graphics concisely and finally particles and simulations. The practical part consists of the case-work involving a fire emitting particle simulation. The study examines two methods of creating a fire simulation in Blender and how they influence the outlook of the particles. It was found that the fire si...

  11. Vývoj 3D aplikací v prostředí Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Opletal, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Práce se zabývá srovnáním a hodnocením dostupných nástrojů pro tvorbu 3D aplikací. Ve zvoleném nástroji (Blender) je vytvořena počítačová hra, která demonstruje jeho možnosti. Postup tvorby je zaznamenán v případové studii pro možné účely vlastní tvorby komplexní hry.

  12. PRETVORBA 3D MODELOV IZ PROGRAMA BLENDER V BINARNI ZAPIS IGRALNEGA POGONA PRISM3D

    OpenAIRE

    Lušenc, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Magistrsko delo predstavi binarni zapis 3D modelov, uporabljenih v igralnem pogonu Prism3D in razvoj dodatka za pretvorbo 3D modelov s programskim orodjem Blender, ki ga tudi najprej na kratko opišemo. V nadaljevanju analiziramo zapise uporabljenih datotek, kar nam omogoči razvoj dodatka za uvoz in izvoz 3D modela, uporabljenega v igralnem pogonu Prism3D. Po predstavljeni izdelavi dodatka z vizualno primerjavo ocenimo njegovo uspešnosti in podamo možne izboljšave.

  13. Simulación de sensores de fibra óptica con Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Terrazas, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Tras un minucioso estudio de las capacidades de Blender y observar hasta qué punto era capaz de trabajar, se diseñó y modeló una fibra óptica multimodo de cristal con el deseo de que llegase a comportarse de la misma forma que lo haría una fibra real. Tras varios diseños, se logró gracias al modelado en un renderizado avanzado, cycles, que se viesen fenómenos tales como la reflexión total interna, la atenuación producida por incrementos en el radio de curvatura de algunos tramos o la influ...

  14. ILSI Task Force on enteral nutrition; estimated composition and costs of blenderized diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Roseli; Dutra Araujo, Thalita; Airoldi Vieira, Roberta Ianni; Theodoro de Souza, Telma; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2013-01-01

    Blenderized tube diets (BTD) are used in some parts of Brazil and few studies have analyzed their features in comparison with industrialized preparations. Among 14 randomly collected BTD recipes 9 were poorly described or failed to standardize foodstuffs and portions and, consequently, nutrient and energy composition was difficult to define. Only five BTD allowed theoretical estimation of their nutritional properties. Macronutrient content was highly variable, often conflicting with accepted daily recommendations. According to the literature there are further disadvantages with BTD use including diet high risk of contamination, physical and chemical instability, and high osmolarity and viscosity. Nominal cost of BTD was comparatively low in relation to industrialized formulas; however we did not compute labor and indirect expenses, probably rendering final value more expensive than with the industrialized alternative. It is likely that within such circumstances, hospital and home care malnutrition will not be adequately dealt with and related complications may occur. It is concluded that the continued use of blenderized tube feeding diets requires careful assessment, prioritizing correction of potencial nutritional deficits by means of safe, balanced, chemically complete and effective nutritional prescriptions. PMID:24506385

  15. Quantitative characterization of agglomerate abrasion in a tumbling blender by using the Stokes number approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsz, Tofan A; Nguyen, Tien Thanh; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Frijlink, Henderik W; Vromans, Herman; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2013-03-01

    Removal of microcrystalline cellulose agglomerates in a dry-mixing system (lactose, 100 M) predominantly occurs via abrasion. The agglomerate abrasion rate potential is estimated by the Stokes abrasion (StAbr) number of the system. The StAbr number equals the ratio between the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed and the work of fracture of the agglomerate. Basically, the StAbr number concept describes the blending condition of the dry-mixing system. The concept has been applied to investigate the relevance of process parameters on agglomerate abrasion in tumbling blenders. Here, process parameters such as blender rotational speed and relative fill volumes were investigated. In this study, the StAbr approach revealed a transition point between abrasion rate behaviors. Below this transition point, a blending condition exists where agglomerate abrasion is dominated by the kinetic energy density of the powder blend. Above this transition point, a blending condition exists where agglomerates show (undesirable) slow abrasion rates. In this situation, the blending condition is mainly determined by the high fill volume of the filler. PMID:23250711

  16. Turbulence-assisted shear exfoliation of graphene using household detergent and a kitchen blender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrla, Eswaraiah; Paton, Keith R; Backes, Claudia; Harvey, Andrew; Smith, Ronan J; McCauley, Joe; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2014-10-21

    To facilitate progression from the lab to commercial applications, it will be necessary to develop simple, scalable methods to produce high quality graphene. Here we demonstrate the production of large quantities of defect-free graphene using a kitchen blender and household detergent. We have characterised the scaling of both graphene concentration and production rate with the mixing parameters: mixing time, initial graphite concentration, rotor speed and liquid volume. We find the production rate to be invariant with mixing time and to increase strongly with mixing volume, results which are important for scale-up. Even in this simple system, concentrations of up to 1 mg ml(-1) and graphene masses of >500 mg can be achieved after a few hours mixing. The maximum production rate was ∼0.15 g h(-1), much higher than for standard sonication-based exfoliation methods. We demonstrate that graphene production occurs because the mean turbulent shear rate in the blender exceeds the critical shear rate for exfoliation. PMID:25164103

  17. Automatická tvorba 3D modelů v programu Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Jablonský, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    Tento text vznikl jako součást diplomové práce a popisuje proces vytváření automatického generátoru 3D objektů pro program Blender. Součástí je stručné seznámení s aplikací Blender, dále jsou v dokumentu prezentovány některé existující skripty pro tvorbu 3D modelů, které byly v rámci teoretického studia problematiky otestovány. Po rozboru požadavků na automatický generátor jsou jako vhodná třída vytvářených objektů vybrány různé druhy mečů. V poslední části teoretického úvodu jsou vysvětleny ...

  18. ILSI Task Force on enteral nutrition; estimated composition and costs of blenderized diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Borghi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Blenderized tube diets (BTD are used in some parts of Brazil and few studies have analyzed their features in comparison with industrialized preparations. Among 14 randomly collected BTD recipes 9 were poorly described or failed to standardize foodstuffs and portions and, consequently, nutrient and energy composition was difficult to define. Only five BTD allowed theoretical estimation of their nutritional properties. Macronutrient content was highly variable, often conflicting with accepted daily recommendations. According to the literature there are further disadvantages with BTD use including diet high risk of contamination, physical and chemical instability, and high osmolarity and viscosity. Nominal cost of BTD was comparatively low in relation to industrialized formulas; however we did not compute labor and indirect expenses, probably rendering final value more expensive than with the industrialized alternative. It is likely that within such circumstances, hospital and home care malnutrition will not be adequately dealt with and related complications may occur. It is concluded that the continued use of blenderized tube feeding diets requires careful assessment, prioritizing correction of potencial nutritional deficits by means of safe, balanced, chemically complete and effective nutritional prescriptions.

  19. Diseño y fase de testing de un videojuego en Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Román Rodríguez, Ana

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto es diseñar y desarrollar la versión beta de un videojuego con la herramienta Blender en su versión 2.49b. Se trata de un videojuego, en el que el jugador se encontrará con tres niveles, que irán incrementando en dificultad según los vaya superando. Para ello contará con diversas habilidades que le ayudarán a la hora de conseguir el objetivo final y retos que tendrá que ir superando, y que le harán más complicado el camino hasta dicho objetivo. A su ve...

  20. An Analysis of the Technological Structure of Refineries and Blenders: Estimation of the Leontief Multiproduct Cost Function and Reservation Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Leontief multiproduct flexible cost function aims to give an approach to the technology used by refineries and blenders. In general, this cost function satisfies rational behavior restrictions imposed by economic theory. The estimated marginal costs are incorporated in a monopolistic competition model to calculate the virtual prices of other products provided by refineries and blenders in the hypothetical situation in which reformulated gasoline is absent in fuel markets. I have found that conventional gasoline and other product prices are greater than those in the mentioned hypothetical case. This result reflects the fact that consumers are being charged with high prices in order to have available a fuel which satisfies the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA regulations. Finally, when all the products become perfect substitutes, i.e. consumers are not interested in the quality of fuels, price differences tend to be negligibly small.

  1. MeshLab e Blender: software open source in supporto allo studio e alla ricostruzione virtuale della policromia antica

    OpenAIRE

    Siotto, Eliana; Callieri, Marco; Dellepiane, Matteo; Scopigno, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes our experience with the reconstruction of the ancient polychromy of the Roman sarcophagus dedicated to Ulpia Domnina (MNR-TD inv. no. 125891) through the use of open source digital technologies. In particular, MeshLab (an open source mesh processing tool) was used to better understand the styles and techniques used to apply the colour on the sarcophagus, and to create its virtual reconstruction; while Blender (an open source modelling and rendering tool) was used to render ...

  2. Comparison of CPAP with Humidifie, Blender, and T-piece on the Outcome of Weaning in Patients with Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat BILAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Bilan N, Ganji Sh. Comparison of CPAP with Humidifie, Blender, and T-piece on the Outcome of Weaning in Patients with Neurological Disorders. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015;9(2:42-45. AbstractObjective The procedure for weaning from mechanical ventilation in many patients is a difficult and long process and increases the time of mechanical ventilation. There are numerous ways to achieve weaning. One common method is the use of CPAP. Considering the lower price of a humidifier, blender, and T-piece compared with CPAP and in light of the limited number of studies in this field the current study purposed to compare these two procedures.Materials & MethodsFifty-one patients with neurological disorders who were under mechanical ventilation and ready to wean were allocated randomly into two groups: the CPAP group and the humidifier, blender, and T-piece group. Duration of hospital and PICU stay, number of days under mechanical ventilation, frequency of re-intubation, and mortality rate among patients were documented.ResultsThe patients were 33 males and 18 females (64.7% and 35.3%, respectively with an average age of 22.5 ± 4.5 months.The main indication for intubation was impending respiratory failure.Hospital stay was 22±15 and 21±13 days for the humidifier and CPAP groups, respectively.PICU stay was 13±11 and 21±13 days for the humidifier and CPAP groups, respectively. Re-intubation rates were 17.2% and 45.5% for the humidifier and CPAP groups, respectively.Mortality rates were 3.4% and 22.5% for the humidifier and CPAP groups, respectively.ConclusionConsidering no statistically significant difference between the two groups, using the humidifier, blender, and T-piece is recommended. 

  3. Quantification of Tribocharging of Pharmaceutical Powders in V-Blenders: Experiments, Multiscale Modeling, and Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Shivangi; Hancock, Bruno; Abramov, Yuriy; Yu, Weili; Rowland, Martin; Huang, Zhonghui; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceutical powders are very prone to electrostatic charging by colliding and sliding contacts. In pharmaceutical formulation processes, particle charging is often a nuisance and can cause problems in the manufacture of products, such as affecting powder flow, fill, and dose uniformity. For a fundamental understanding of the powder triboelectrification, it is essential to study charge transfer under well-defined conditions. Hence, all experiments in the present study were conducted in a V-blender located inside a glove box with a controlled humidity of 20%. To understand tribocharging, different contact surfaces, namely aluminum, Teflon, poly methyl methacrylate, and nylon were used along with 2 pharmaceutical excipients and 2 drug substances. For the pharmaceutical materials, the work function values were estimated using MOPAC, a semiempirical molecular orbital package which has been previously used for the solid-state studies and molecular structure predictions. For a mechanistic understanding of tribocharging, a discrete element model incorporating charge transfer and electrostatic forces was developed. An effort was made to correlate tribocharging of pharmaceutical powders to properties such as cohesive energy density and surface energy. The multiscale model used is restricted as it considers only spherical particles with smooth surfaces. It should be used judiciously for other experimental assemblies because it does not represent a full validation of a tightly integrated model. PMID:26921122

  4. BioGraphene: Direct Exfoliation of Graphite in a Kitchen Blender for Enzymology Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, C V; Pattammattel, A

    2016-01-01

    A high yielding method for the aqueous exfoliation of graphite crystals to produce high quality graphene nanosheets in a kitchen blender is described here. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), β-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, lysozyme, and hemoglobin as well as calf serum were used for the exfoliation of graphene. Among these, BSA gave the maximum exfoliation efficiency, exceeding 4mgmL(-1)h(-1) of graphene. Quality of graphene produced was examined by Raman spectroscopy, which indicated 3-5 layer graphene of very high quality and very low levels of defects. Transmission electron microscopy indicated an average size of ~0.5μm flakes. The graphene/BSA dispersions were stable over pH 3.0-11, and at 5°C or 50°C, for more than 2 months. Current approach gave higher rates of BSA/graphene (BioGraphene) in better yields than other methods. Calf serum, when used in place of BSA, also gave high yields of good quality BioGraphene and these preparations may be of direct use for cell culture studies. A simple example of BioGraphene preparation is described that can be adapted in most laboratories, and graphene-adsorbed glucose oxidase is nearly as active as the free enzyme. Current approach may facilitate large-scale production of graphene in most laboratories around the world and it may open new opportunities for biological applications of graphene. PMID:27112402

  5. A closed cabinet system with water flushers and a blender for breeding small animal administered 3HHO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A closed cabinet system was developed for breeding small animals administered 3HHO. 3HHO vapor released from the animals in the chamber was absorbed with water in a water bubbler. Feces and urine which were washed out with water were ground in a blender, diluted, and then released. With this cabinet system we were successful in safely breeding mice even given a total single injection of 15.5 GBq (420 mCi) of 3HHO without storing the 3H-slops for a long time and without any significant leakage of 3H from the cabinet. (author)

  6. Karvainen 3D-hahmo Blenderillä : Blender 2.72 ja tulevaisuuden näkymiä

    OpenAIRE

    Wallenius, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni tavoitteena on tutkia, miten hyvin avoimen lähdekoodin 3D-ohjelmisto Blender soveltuu karvaisen, suhteellisen realistisen hahmon luomiseen tällä hetkellä. Suunnittelen ja toteutan antropomorfisen rottahahmon ja selvitän kahden lyhyen animaation avulla, miten uskottavan lopputuloksen pystyn saamaan aikaan ja millaisia haasteita kohtaan matkalla. Ensimmäinen animaatio on yksinkertainen kävelyanimaatio ja toisessa animaatiossa hahmo haukottelee. Käytän renderöintiin Blenderin Cycl...

  7. Comparison of CPAP with Humidifier, Blender, and T-piece on the Outcome of Weaning in Patients with Neurological Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    BILAN, Nemat; GANJI, Shalaleh

    2015-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Bilan N, Ganji Sh. Comparison of CPAP with Humidifie, Blender, and T-piece on the Outcome of Weaning in Patients with Neurological Disorders. Iran J Child Neurol. Spring 2015;9(2):42-45. AbstractObjective The procedure for weaning from mechanical ventilation in many patients is a difficult and long process and increases the time of mechanical ventilation. There are numerous ways to achieve weaning. One common method is the use of CPAP. Considering the lower price of ...

  8. 3D for iPhone Apps with Blender and SIO2 Your Guide to Creating 3D Games and More with Open-Source Software

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Create exciting, interactive 3D apps for the iPhone and iPod Touch. What a combination-using free, open-source Blender software and the SI02 game engine to create very cool 3D characters and games for the very hot devices of the moment, the iPhone and iPod Touch. Whether you're coming to this as an iPhone developer or as a Blender artist, this book is for you. Learn how to create 3D content using Blender's WYSIWYG approach, find helpful information on Xcode and other iPhone SDK topics, master physical collisions, and acquire the skills you need to bridge both worlds with fun, compelling conten

  9. Kansainvälisten yhteistyöverkostojen kehittäminen ja hiljaisten signaalien löytäminen : Blender!-tulevaisuustyöpaja ja kysely

    OpenAIRE

    Khelif, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Blender!-tulevaisuustyöpaja oli Diges ry:n järjestämä päivä. Blender!-päivän tarkoitus oli kerätä yhteen eurooppalaisia luovan alan nousevia yrityksiä haistelemaan tulevaisuuden kehitystä verkostoitumisen sekä hiljaisten signaalien osalta. Opinnäytetyö käsittelee kansainvälisten yhteistyöverkostojen kehittämistä sekä hiljaisten signaalien löytämistä. Opinnäytetyö tehtiin siten, että teoriaosion lisäksi se koostuu Blender!-päivän raportoinnista sekä verkostoitumisen ja hiljaisten signaali...

  10. Anastilosis Virtual con Blender: Las Termas del Yacimiento Villa Romana De L’albir (L’alfàs Del Pì, Alicante)

    OpenAIRE

    Laia Fabregat Bolufer; Daniel Tejerina Antón; Jaime Molina Vidal; Carolina Frías

    2012-01-01

    As part of the the site musealization "Villa Romana de l'Albir (L'Alfas del Pi, Alicante), a digital reconstruction of the thermal complex of the villa has been produced. The software chosen to create the virtual model is Blender, a powerful set of tools, able to develop all phases of design (modeling, animation, lighting, rendering and video editing). Here we show the results of the thermal complex reconstruction and describe the specific workflow of Blender for virtual reconstruction of ...

  11. Application of fault-tree methodology to design of administrative and engineered controls for unfavorable geometry uranium oxide blenders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-technology nuclear fuel fabrication, such as that conducted in the state-of-the-art Westinghouse manufacturing automation process (MAP) line, depends on increasingly innovative techniques to evaluate, demonstrate, and realize nuclear criticality safety. For the uranium oxide blending portion of the MAP line, one such application of creativity involved the use of fault-tree analysis methodology to evaluate the salient elements for maintaining moderation control over accidental chain reaction. The challenge addressed evaluation for control of a three-unit orbital blending array - with each 5,000-kg capacity blender containing up to 120 potential critical masses of low-enriched uranium oxide if accidentally moderated. Further elements compounding the analysis included a process specification that requires blending a dry hydrogenous material into the uranium for ultimate fuel pellet porosity control and a lubricated gear-box internal to each blender. Fault-tree methodology was chosen for the analysis, since it provides a rigorously structured means of documentation and evaluation of such a multifaceted problem

  12. NPCS91/11: Resoluci??n del Presidente del Consejo Social de la Universidad de Granada, de 15 de diciembre de 2014, en materia de aprobaci??n de los precios p??blicos de ense??anzas propias, cursos de especializaci??n y otras actividades (Curso de modelado y animaci??n 3D en blender, Curso avanzado de blender)

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad de Granada

    2015-01-01

    Resoluci??n del Presidente del Consejo Social de la Universidad de Granada, de 15 de diciembre de 2014, en materia de aprobaci??n de los precios p??blicos de ense??anzas propias, cursos de especializaci??n y otras actividades (Curso de modelado y animaci??n 3D en blender, Curso avanzado de blender). Se aprueban los precios p??blicos, n??mero de becarios y aportaciones econ??micas a la Universidad de Granada de los cursos de ense??anzas propias que figuran relacionados en el Anexo ...

  13. El uso del programa Blender con alumnos de 4º de la E.S.O. en la asignatura de informática

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara-Gracenea, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar la viabilidad y las ventajas que puede tener la inclusión del modelado y la animación 3D en la asignatura de informática en una clase de 4º de la E.S.O. Se realizará un estudio sobre el trabajo que se ha hecho hasta ahora en este sentido; para después llevar a cabo el diseño de una unidad didáctica. Para realizar el trabajo se ha optado por el programa Blender 3D (www.blender.org) por razones que más adelante se explican detalladamente. Se tratará ...

  14. Finger injuries by fast rotating blades: A case report of an accident with a blender and the intervention of the fire brigade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillenbrand, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available [english] We present a case report of a 27-year-old female who had an accident with a blender. She was brought to the Emergency Department having pinched her left forefinger between the blades. Previous attempts by the local fire brigade to free the finger initially failed. After several attempts it finally succeeded by turning it carefully away from the blade. Although first impressions of the accident might have expected a worse injury, fortunately it just showed a nail bed cut. Most accidents of this type cause serious injuries with the involvement of vessels, nerves, tendons, muscles or bones.

  15. Anastilosis virtual con Blender: las termas del yacimiento Villa Romana de l’Albir (l’Alfàs del Pi, Alicante)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabregat Bolufer, Laia; TEJERINA ANTÓN, DANIEL; Molina Vidal, Jaime; Frías Castillejo, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Como parte del proceso de musealización del yacimiento “Villa Romana de l’Albir” (l’Alfàs del Pi, Alicante), se ha realizado una reconstrucción digital del conjunto termal de la villa. La aplicación elegida para crear el modelo virtual es el software de código abierto Blender, potente conjunto de herramientas que permite desarrollar todas las fases que intervienen en este tipo de proyectos (modelado, aplicación de materiales y texturas, iluminación, renderizado, animación y edición de video)....

  16. Finger injuries by fast rotating blades: A case report of an accident with a blender and the intervention of the fire brigade

    OpenAIRE

    Hillenbrand, Matthias; Horch, Raymund E.

    2014-01-01

    [english] We present a case report of a 27-year-old female who had an accident with a blender. She was brought to the Emergency Department having pinched her left forefinger between the blades. Previous attempts by the local fire brigade to free the finger initially failed. After several attempts it finally succeeded by turning it carefully away from the blade. Although first impressions of the accident might have expected a worse injury, fortunately it just showed a nail bed cut. Most accide...

  17. An Analytic Network Process approach for the environmental aspect selection problem — A case study for a hand blender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereketli Zafeirakopoulos, Ilke, E-mail: ibereketli@gsu.edu.tr; Erol Genevois, Mujde, E-mail: merol@gsu.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess, in a systematic way, the environmental aspects and its potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product's life cycle. It is widely accepted and considered as one of the most powerful tools to support decision-making processes used in ecodesign and sustainable production in order to learn about the most problematic parts and life cycle phases of a product and to have a projection for future improvements. However, since Life Cycle Assessment is a cost and time intensive method, companies do not intend to carry out a full version of it, except for large corporate ones. Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, which do not have enough budget for and knowledge on sustainable production and ecodesign approaches, focusing only on the most important possible environmental aspect is unavoidable. In this direction, finding the right environmental aspect to work on is crucial for the companies. In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, Analytic Network Process is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. The proposed methodology aims at providing a simplified environmental assessment to producers. It is applied for a hand blender, which is a member of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment family. The decision criteria for the environmental aspects and relations of dependence are defined. The evaluation is made by the Analytic Network Process in order to create a realistic approach to inter-dependencies among the criteria. The results are computed via the Super Decisions software. Finally, it is observed that the procedure is completed in less time, with less data, with less cost and in a less subjective way than conventional approaches. - Highlights: • We present a simplified environmental assessment methodology to support LCA. • ANP is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. • ANP deals well with the interdependencies between aspects

  18. An Analytic Network Process approach for the environmental aspect selection problem — A case study for a hand blender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess, in a systematic way, the environmental aspects and its potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product's life cycle. It is widely accepted and considered as one of the most powerful tools to support decision-making processes used in ecodesign and sustainable production in order to learn about the most problematic parts and life cycle phases of a product and to have a projection for future improvements. However, since Life Cycle Assessment is a cost and time intensive method, companies do not intend to carry out a full version of it, except for large corporate ones. Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, which do not have enough budget for and knowledge on sustainable production and ecodesign approaches, focusing only on the most important possible environmental aspect is unavoidable. In this direction, finding the right environmental aspect to work on is crucial for the companies. In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, Analytic Network Process is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. The proposed methodology aims at providing a simplified environmental assessment to producers. It is applied for a hand blender, which is a member of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment family. The decision criteria for the environmental aspects and relations of dependence are defined. The evaluation is made by the Analytic Network Process in order to create a realistic approach to inter-dependencies among the criteria. The results are computed via the Super Decisions software. Finally, it is observed that the procedure is completed in less time, with less data, with less cost and in a less subjective way than conventional approaches. - Highlights: • We present a simplified environmental assessment methodology to support LCA. • ANP is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. • ANP deals well with the interdependencies between aspects

  19. Creación de un manual para el diseño e implementación de videojuegos en Blender 2.49b

    OpenAIRE

    Peral Castro, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto, es crear un manual de referencia rápida, que enseñe a diseñar un videojuego del modo más sencillo y guiado posible, con la herramienta Blender en su versión 2.49b. No se pretende que sea un manual teórico que explique las propiedades físicas de los objetos, los distintos tipos de texturas, o los métodos de programación aplicables a los videojuegos. Con las herramientas de diseño que existen hoy en día, y haciendo una medición basada en la experiencia...

  20. Modelo virtual 3D del edificio de la Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Geodésica, Cartográfica y Topográfica con BLENDER.

    OpenAIRE

    IULIAN, ANDREI

    2015-01-01

    [ES] En este proyecto se realizará un Modelo Virtual 3D del edificio de la Escuela técnica Superior de ingeniería Geodésica, Cartográfica y Topografía con Blender. Blender es un programa informático multiplataforma, dedicado especialmente al modelado, iluminación, renderizado, animación y creación de gráficos tridimensionales. También de composición digital utilizando la técnica procesal de nodos, edición de vídeo, escultura (incluye topología dinámica) y pintura digital. Se trata de un softw...

  1. The intestine is a blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Kravets, Victoria; Hu, David

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines Contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  2. Development of virtual morphometric globes using Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Florinsky, I. V.; Filippov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Virtual globes - programs implementing interactive three-dimensional (3D) models of planets - are increasingly used in geosciences. Global morphometric models can be useful for tectonic and planetary studies. We describe the development of the first testing version of the system of virtual morphometric globes for the Earth, Mars, and the Moon. As the initial data, we used three 15'-gridded global digital elevation models (DEMs) extracted from SRTM30_PLUS, the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and...

  3. Supermassive Black Hole Binaries as Galactic Blenders

    CERN Document Server

    Kandrup, H E; Terzic, B; Bohn, C L; Kandrup, Henry E.; Sideris, Ioannis V.; Terzic, Balsa; Bohn, Courtlandt L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamical implications of close supermassive black hole binaries both as an example of resonant phase mixing and as a potential explanation of inversions and other anomalous features observed in the luminosity profiles of some elliptical galaxies. The presence of a binary comprised of black holes executing nearly periodic orbits leads to the possibility of a broad resonant coupling between the black holes and various stars in the galaxy. This can result in efficient chaotic phase mixing and, in many cases, systematic increases in the energies of stars and their consequent transport towards larger radii. Allowing for the presence of a supermassive black hole binary with plausible parameter values near the center of a spherical, or nearly spherical, galaxy characterised initially by a Nuker density profile enables one to reproduce in considerable detail the central surface brightness distributions of such galaxies as NGC 3706.

  4. Do RIN Mandates and Blender's Tax Credit Affect Blenders' Hedging Strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmedov, Zafarbek; Woodard, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study stylized gasoline blender’s optimal hedging strategy in the presence of ethanol mandates is analyzed. In particular, the main objective of this study is to investigate whether the ability to purchase RINs and the presence of tax incentives would affect blenders’ optimal hedging strategies. Multicommodity hedging method with Lower Partial Moments hedging criterion as a measure of downside risk is utilized in obtaining the optimal hedge ratios. Based on the obtained results, the R...

  5. Nuclear blenders: blended learning from Rensselaer's Reactor Critical Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensselaer's senior level undergraduate nuclear engineering course 'Critical Reactor Laboratory' is highly regarded and much loved. If you can get in, that is. But now it's a required course, nuclear engineering enrollment is up, and others are knocking on our door to get in. How might one offer such a unique course to the masses, without losing the whole point of a laboratory experience? This presentation looks at the costs and benefits of the transition to a 'blended learning' mode -- the merging of traditional, face-to-face instruction and web-based instruction as a solution. As part of the presentation, the course and the facility will be highlighted by short excepts from the 50 minute movie 'Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Neutron Chain Reactions (but were afraid to ask)'.

  6. Hybrid Acoustic Modelling of Historic Spaces Using Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Van Mourik, Jelle; Oxnard, Stephen; Foteinou, Aglaia; Murphy, Damian Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historic spaces provide a challenge in terms of achieving accurate acoustic modelling and auralisation due to the large volumes typically involved, implying significant computational overhead, uncertainty in terms of the construction materials’ properties, and translating this into appropriate physically based boundary conditions. Hybrid acoustic modeling approaches seek to solve the computational problem through complementary assimilation of various modeling paradigms. SonicRender is such a ...

  7. API Blender: A Uniform Interface to Social Platform APIs

    OpenAIRE

    Gouriten, Georges; Senellart, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    With the growing success of the social Web, most Web developers have to interact with at least one social Web platform, which implies studying the related API specifications. These are often only informally described, may contain errors, lack harmonization, and generally speaking make the developer's work difficult. Most attempts to solve this problem, proposing formal description languages for Web service APIs, have had limited success outside of B2B applications; we believe it is due to the...

  8. Blender 3D Open Source: potencialidades aplicadas ao ensino

    OpenAIRE

    Borislav, João

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Educação e Comunicação Multimédia . Orientador: Professor Especialista José Manuel Soares Coorientadora: Professora Doutora Maria Potes Barbas

  9. Avoimen lähdekoodin Blender vs. kaupallinen 3ds Max

    OpenAIRE

    Siira, Jarmo

    2007-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan avoimen ja suljetun lähdekoodin eroja. Avoimen lähdekoodin ohjelmissa lähdekoodi on kaikkien nähtävissä ja muokattavissa. Avoimia ohjelmia saa kopioida, muokata ja myydä vapaasti, kunhan lähdekoodi pysyy avoimena. Suljetun lähdekoodin ohjelmia ei yleensä saa levittää vapaasti, eikä lähdekoodi ole nähtävillä. Työssä perehdytään avoimen ja suljetun lähdekoodin ohjelmistokehityksen hyviin ja huonoihin puoliin sekä tuloksiin. Tärkein osio työstä on kuitenkin kahde...

  10. BLENDER VS. 3DS MAX : Case Panssarivaunun 3D-mallinnus

    OpenAIRE

    Kaistila, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Tässä toiminnallisessa opinnäytetyössä käsitellään 3D-mallinnuksen työnkulkua ja oppimiskäyrää kaupallisen ja avoimen lähdekoodin ohjelmistossa. Juuri nämä vertailukohteet valittiin, koska näiden ohjelmistojen kohdalla kyetään hyödyntämään henkilökohtaista kokemusta opintojen ajalta. Työn tarkoituksena on tuoda esiin ohjelmien vahvuudet ja heikkoudet käyttäjän näkökulmasta. Tutkimusmenetelmäksi valittiin kvalitatiivinen menetelmä. Vertailu opinnäytteessä kohdistuu käyttöliittymään, ohjelmi...

  11. HELP: XID+, The Probabilistic De-blender for Herschel SPIRE maps

    CERN Document Server

    Hurley, P D; Betancourt, M; Clarke, C; Cowley, W I; Duivenvoorden, S; Farrah, D; Griffin, M; Lacey, C; Floc'h, E Le; Papadopoulos, A; Sargent, M; Scudder, J M; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Wang, L

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new prior-based source extraction tool, XID+, to carry out photometry in the Herschel SPIRE maps at the positions of known sources. XID+ is developed using a probabilistic Bayesian framework which provides a natural framework in which to include prior information, and uses the Bayesian inference tool, Stan, to obtain the full posterior probability distribution on flux estimates. In this paper, we discuss the details of XID+ and demonstrate the basic capabilities and performance by running it on simulated SPIRE maps resembling the COSMOS field, and comparing to the current prior-based source extraction tool DESPHOT. We show that not only does XID+ perform better on metrics such as flux accuracy and flux uncertainty accuracy, we illustrate how obtaining the posterior probability distribution can help overcome some of the issues inherent with maximum likelihood based source extraction routines. We run XID+ on the COSMOS SPIRE maps from HerMES, using a 24 $\\mathrm{\\mu m}$ catalogue as a prior ...

  12. Intuitive representation of surface properties of biomolecules using BioBlender

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: In living cells, proteins are in continuous motion and interaction with the surrounding medium and/ or other proteins and ligands. These interactions are mediated by protein features such as electrostatic and lipophilic potentials. The availability of protein structures enables the study of their surfaces and surface characteristics, based on atomic contribution. Traditionally, these properties are calculated by physico-chemical programs and visualized as range of colors that vary...

  13. Object-based representation and analysis of light and electron microscopic volume data using Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Asadulina, Albina; Conzelmann, Markus; Williams, Elizabeth A; Panzera, Aurora; Jékely, Gáspár

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid improvements in light and electron microscopy imaging techniques and the development of 3D anatomical atlases necessitate new approaches for the visualization and analysis of image data. Pixel-based representations of raw light microscopy data suffer from limitations in the number of channels that can be visualized simultaneously. Complex electron microscopic reconstructions from large tissue volumes are also challenging to visualize and analyze. Results Here we exploit the a...

  14. Automatic Deployment of Software Components in the Cloud with the Aeolus Blender

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cosmo, Roberto; Eiche, Antoine; Mauro, Jacopo; Zavattaro, Gianluigi; Zacchiroli, Stefano; Zwolakowski, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing allows to build sophisticated software sys-tems on virtualized infrastructures at a fraction of the cost that was necessary just a few years ago. The deployment of such complex systems, though, is still a serious issue due to the need of deploying a large number of packages and services, their elaborated interdependencies, and the need to define the (ideally optimal) allocation of software compo-nents onto available computing resources. In this paper we present the Aeolus Blen...

  15. Nestesimulaatio 3D-artistin käytössä : Vertailussa Blender ja Autodesk Maya

    OpenAIRE

    Raami, Pertti

    2016-01-01

    Nestesimulaatiolla, eli numeerisella virtausmallinnuksella tarkoitetaan tietokoneella generoitua virtausmallinnusta. Monissa 3D-ohjelmistoissa on mukana nestesimulaattori ja markkinoilla on useita nestesimulaatioihin keskittyviä ohjelmistoja. Näillä simulaattoreilla voi yleisesti simuloida nesteiden, kaasujen ja kaasun kaltaisten aineiden liikkeitä, joita muuten olisi vaikea mallintaa tai animoida. Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tutkia neljää simulaatioaikaan vaikuttavaa tek...

  16. 78 FR 79391 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 22-Chicago, Illinois, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ...; wheel/bushing packages; rear wheels; blade assemblies; blender collars; blender jars; blender pour lids... clamps; gaskets; locks; belts; blender sealing gaskets; ] bushings; O-rings; boot seals; caps; rubber... assemblies; water tank assemblies; wheels; blender replacements; ceramic tanks; coffee carafes;...

  17. 40 CFR 80.79 - Liability for violations of the prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., importer, oxygenate blender, carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, or wholesale purchaser-consumer is... violation: (1) Each refiner, importer, oxygenate blender, carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, or... refiner, importer, oxygenate blender, distributor, and reseller who manufactured, imported, sold,...

  18. Submarine Blender's Blade 3D Model Parametric Design%搅拌器转轮三维造型的参数化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪红云; 吴春笃; 储金宇

    2007-01-01

    搅拌器转轮的性能好坏关系到污水处理的效果,目前设计主要是依靠二维平面的CAD设计.为了能够更直观地表达出所设计转轮实际的形状,便于生产加工,利用Pro/ENGINEER软件的二次开发功能,基于参数化的设计,通过编制程序,实现了转轮的三维自动造型,为以后的批量设计生产打下一定的基础.

  19. Development of a multivariate light-induced fluorescence (LIF) PAT tool for in-line quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical granules in a V-blender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Jean-Maxime; Lapointe-Garant, Pierre-Philippe; Gosselin, Ryan; Simard, Jean-Sébastien; Abatzoglou, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    Process analytical technologies (PAT) enable process insight, process control and real-time testing. Light-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy is especially well suited for low-concentration ingredients as, in many cases, it is the most sensitive probe of the in-line PAT toolbox. This study is aimed at verifying the applicability of a multivariate LIF analyzer to monitor granulated powder blends in industrial settings. Its targets are to: (1) evaluate the critical parameters of powders to obtain robust, precise and accurate concentration predictions and (2) assess technology performance for in-line monitoring of blending operations. Varying dye properties, moisture levels and particle sizes have been shown to have the most significant impact on fluorescence emission. Reliable quantitative models can be obtained by controlling and/or mitigating these factors. PMID:24373731

  20. 77 FR 69620 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... renewable fuels and any party who own/intend to own RINs which include blenders, brokers and marketers... RINs which include blenders, brokers and marketers dropped from 3000 responses to 1650 thus...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1338-84 - Emission measurement accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... percent of the range of concentrations provided by the gas divider). If a gas divider or blender is being... a gas divider or blender is being used to calibrate the analyzer, input the value of a...

  2. 40 CFR 89.310 - Analyzer accuracy and specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the range of concentrations provided by the gas divider). If a gas divider or blender is being... its certified concentration. (iii) If a gas divider or blender is being used to calibrate the...

  3. 6 Easy Steps toward healthier eating | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat yogurt and the orange juice in a blender and blend. Slowly add the frozen berries while ... juice, vanilla frozen yogurt, and orange in a blender and blend. Slowly add ice until your Creamsicle ...

  4. 40 CFR 98.390 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquids as listed in Table MM-1 of this subpart. Any blender or refiner of refined or semi-refined... products or natural gas liquids as listed in Table MM-1 of this subpart. Any blender or refiner of...

  5. 27 CFR 24.106 - Basic permit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this requirement. The issuance of a basic permit under the Act is governed by regulations in 27 CFR... Producer's and Blender's Basic Permit or Wine Blender's Basic Permit is required for a bonded wine...

  6. 40 CFR 167.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... distributed. Custom blender means any establishment which provides the service of mixing pesticides to a... by the blender; (2) the blend is to be used on the customer's property (including leased or...

  7. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... units). However, if the blender's equipment cannot accurately measure to the nearest tenth of a gallon... blender creates and maintains documentation establishing the date and adjustments of the correction; and... on the document. (e) Automated detergent blenders must calibrate their detergent equipment once...

  8. 40 CFR 80.73 - Inability to produce conforming gasoline in extraordinary circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control of the refiner, importer, or oxygenate blender and which could not have been avoided by the exercise of prudence, diligence, and due care, EPA may permit a refiner, importer, or oxygenate blender..., or oxygenate blender exercised prudent planning and was not able to avoid the violation and has...

  9. 40 CFR 80.126 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reports of product storage; and product transfer documents. (d) Oxygenate blender records shall include laboratory analysis reports; refiner, importer and oxygenate blender contracts; quality assurance program... means copies of documents represented by the refiner/importer/oxygenate blender as having been...

  10. 40 CFR 80.74 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., oxygenate blender, carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, or wholesale-purchaser who sells, offers for... standards; and (ii) Each contract with each oxygenate blender to whom the refiner or importer transfers RBOB....84(b)(1); (ii) Transmix processors and transmix blenders must keep records showing that...

  11. 40 CFR 80.614 - What are the alternative defense requirements in lieu of § 80.613(a)(1)(vi)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternative to the defense element under § 80.613(a)(1)(vi): (a)(1) The blender of the additive package has a... additization contains multiple fuel batches, the blender of the additive package must have sulfur test results... gallon (or smaller units). However, if the blender's equipment cannot accurately measure to the...

  12. 40 CFR 80.104 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or importer, including the contract with the oxygenate blender and records relating to the audits, sampling and testing, and inspections of the oxygenate blender operation. (xi) In the case of blendstocks... blenders must keep records showing that their transmix meets the definition in § 80.84(a)(2), or...

  13. 40 CFR 80.83 - Renewable oxygenate requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oxygenate blender who uses the oxygenate is able to establish in the form of documentation that the... under § 80.41; except that (ii) The renewable oxygenate added by a downstream oxygenate blender shall... (3). (f) Recordkeeping. Any refiner or importer, or any oxygenate blender who blends oxygenate...

  14. 40 CFR 80.157 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (“VAR”), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (or smaller units). However, if the blender's equipment cannot accurately measure to the nearest tenth... concentration that fulfills the requirements of paragraphs (a)(5) and (6) of this section; and (iii) The blender... blenders must calibrate their detergent equipment once in each calendar half year, with the...

  15. 40 CFR 80.171 - Product transfer documents (PTDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., carrier, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, detergent manufacturer, distributor, carrier, or blender, transfers custody or title to any gasoline, detergent, or detergent-additized PRC... not the product's detergent blender; and (2) The recipient is a wholesale purchaser-consumer (WPC)...

  16. 40 CFR 80.128 - Alternative agreed upon procedures for refiners and importers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... blender designating the required blending procedures, or that the refiner or importer accounted for the... importer's downstream oxygenated blender quality assurance program with the sampling and testing rates as...: (i) Determine if the refiner or importer had a contract in place with the downstream blender...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4081-3 - Taxable fuel; taxable events other than removal at the terminal rack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section does not apply to the transfer. (g) Tax on removal or sale of blended taxable fuel by the blender—(1) Imposition of tax. A tax is imposed on the removal or sale of blended taxable fuel by the blender...) Liability for tax—(i) Liability of the blender. The blender is liable for the tax imposed under paragraph...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4101-1 - Taxable fuel; registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the gasohol production tax rate by the gasohol blender during a representative 6-month period (as... registered under section 4101 if the person is— (i) A blender; (ii) An enterer; (iii) A pipeline operator... person is— (1) A feedstock user; (2) A gasohol blender; (3) An industrial user; (4) A throughputter...

  19. 40 CFR 80.1107 - How is the Renewable Volume Obligation calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or the transmix blended into gasoline by a transmix blender, under 40 CFR 80.84. ... gasoline volume for a refiner, blender, or importer for a given year, GVi, specified in paragraph (a) of... the RFS program under § 80.1143. (6) For blenders, the volume of finished gasoline, RBOB, or CBOB...

  20. 40 CFR 80.158 - Product transfer documents (PTDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., carrier, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, detergent manufacturer, distributor, carrier, or blender, transfers custody or title to any gasoline, detergent, or detergent-additized PRC... transferred by a distributor who is not the product's detergent blender; and (2) The recipient is a...

  1. 40 CFR 80.133 - Agreed-upon procedures for refiners and importers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copy of the executed contract with the downstream oxygenate blender (or with an intermediate owner... (B) Allowed the company to sample and test the reformulated gasoline made by the blender. (ii) Obtain a listing of RBOB blended by downstream oxygenate blenders and the refinery's or...

  2. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE OS MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO DE METACERCÁRIAS DE ASCOCOTYLE SP (TREMATODA: DIGENEA DOS TECIDOS DE MUGIL LIZA VALENCIENNES, 1836 (TELEOSTEI: MUGILIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand and consumption of fish and their derivatives has increased considerably in recent years. However, fish are ideal hosts of numerous parasites, highlighting the need to develop new research methodologies for its detection. The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of Ascocotyle metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea extraction from visceral tissues of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 (Teleostei: Mugilidae by two methods: homogenization by blender or mixer. Twentysix samples of M. liza were collected, being 16 liver samples and 10 samples of muscle tissue. Approximately 5g of each sample were processed by blender and mixer techniques homogenization for metacercariae extraction. In liver samples, up to 46 metacercariae were found in samples homogenized in blender. The lowest amount found was 2 metacercariae for blender and mixer techniques. In samples of muscle tissue, 4 metacercariae were observed in the mixer extraction. The lowest amount was found to be 2 parasites to blender and mixer. The mean metacercariae found and extracted from muscle tissue were 0.2 (+0.357 and 1.2 (+0.963 for blender and mixer, respectively. The averages of metacercariae found and extracted from fish liver, in blender and mixer, were 24 (+15.145 and 18 (+8.246, respectively. The homogenization techniques for blender and mixer were effective for the extraction of metacercariae of mullet fish tissues, suggesting that they may be directly applicable in the field of study, especially due to the ease of testing.

  3. 76 FR 7935 - Advanced Biofuel Payment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Federal Register on April 16, 2010 (75 FR 20085), with a 60-day comment period that ended June 15, 2010... production and new producers. 6. Allowing the blender to issue a certificate of analysis (see Sec. 4288.105(a)(3)), and adding a definition of the term ``blender'' to Sec. 4288.102. 7. Changing the approach...

  4. Goldfish Thread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløff, Anne Katrine

    2008-01-01

    Indlæg i debat om Marco Evarisstas kunstværk "Helena" der bestod af 10 blendere med guldfisk på Trapholt galleri.......Indlæg i debat om Marco Evarisstas kunstværk "Helena" der bestod af 10 blendere med guldfisk på Trapholt galleri....

  5. 77 FR 34368 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... 11, 2012 at 77 FR 21756 regarding the extension of the collection of information for the Petroleum... Crude Oil Report'' Form EIA-804 ``Weekly Import Report'' Form EIA-805 ``Weekly Bulk Terminal and Blender... Blender Report'' Form EIA-816 ``Monthly Natural Gas Plant Liquids Report'' Form EIA-817 ``Monthly...

  6. Controlling 3D holographic contents by personal devices

    OpenAIRE

    Barroso Laguna, Axel

    2014-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Foremost, this project explains the different sensors of a personal device (e.g. smartphone). After that, this study shows how to interact with holographic scenes. These scenes have been created by Blender. Blender is a powerful three-dimensional graphic software.

  7. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 79 registration, and must also accurately identify if the detergent, at that concentration..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or detergent blender, is found in violation of any of the prohibitions specified in § 80.155(a), the following...

  8. Uusika Muudised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    BBC kokkuvõttest Inglismaa raadiojaamade enimmängitavatest artistidest ; USA muusikaajakirja Blender avaldatud halvimate poplaulude pingereast ; Ansambli Cure uuest ilmuvast heliplaadist ; Ansambli Spice Girls taasühinemisplaanidest

  9. Method and apparatus for blending fine and cohesive powders in a fluidized bed with gas injection through ball valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluidized bed blender is described, suitable for blending powders including a mixture of fine and cohesive powders and in particular for converting a heterogeneous mixture of fine and cohesive UO2 into a homogeneous mixture. (U.K.)

  10. Methods for improved recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from cheese.

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef, A. E.; Ryser, E T; Marth, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    Method of homogenization (Waring blender versus stomacher), type of diluent (tryptose broth [TB] versus aqueous 2% trisodium citrate), and temperature of diluent (20 versus 40 degrees C) were compared for recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from freshly made and ripened Colby cheese. By using direct plating on McBride listeria agar, significantly higher numbers of L. monocytogenes were recovered when cheese samples were (i) homogenized for 2 min with the blender rather than the stomacher (P le...

  11. 3D modelování v Blenderu

    OpenAIRE

    Matiášek, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work is to create a comprehensive manual for program Blender. The work will guide a beginner user through the process of modelling. Blender is a free software used for creating animations and 3D visualizations which can then be used in the television industry, game industry, movies or commercials. This work in it's introduction mentions benefits and disadvantages of this product and lists similar products available worldwide. The rest of the work is dedicated to creating 3D m...

  12. SIMULACIJA VILIČARJA

    OpenAIRE

    Lušenc, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Diplomska naloga predstavi delovanje in razvoj simulacije viličarja. Najprej se seznanimo z viličarjem na splošno. Predstavimo njegovo zgradbo in opišemo osnovni princip delovanja. Pred razvojem opišemo programsko orodje Blender in zakaj smo ga izbrali. Seznanimo se tudi z igralnim pogonom Blender Game Engine in uporabo programa. Nato opišemo celoten razvoj simulacije od izgradnje modelov do končne implementacije.

  13. Mechanical Separation of Metallic Copper from Polymer-Insulated Copper Wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very important to recycling of polymer-insulated copper wire to remove copper from the wire without any contamination. A rolling machine and a blender were used to separate and recover the copper wires from a polymer coated cable. In the experiment using a rolling machine, the recovery of copper was improved by an increase in the number of rolling times and by lowering the cable temperature. All of the copper was recovered from a cable of 115 K in temperature. In the other experiment using a blender, the weight of the recovery of copper was increased by shortening the cable length and by increasing the rotary speed of the blender and the treating time. All the copper in a cut cable of 3mm long was recovered from a cable.

  14. Comment on "Scaling of atmosphere and ocean temperature correlations in observations and climate models"

    CERN Document Server

    Bunde, A; Havlin, S; Koscielny-Bunde, E; Schellnhuber, H J; Vjushin, D; Bunde, Armin; Eichner, Jan F.; Havlin, Shlomo; Koscielny-Bunde, Eva; Schellnhuber, Hans J.; Vjushin, Dmitry

    2003-01-01

    In a recent letter [K. Fraedrich and R. Blender, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 108501 (2003)], Fraedrich and Blender studied the scaling of atmosphere and ocean temperature. They analyzed monthly temperature records by using the detrended fluctuation analysis and claim that the scaling exponent alpha over the inner continents is equal to 0.5, being characteristic of uncorrelated random sequences. Here we show that also for the inner continents, the exponent is between 0.6 and 0.7, similar as for the coastline-stations.

  15. 3D objektų eksportavimas į M3G formatą, naudojamą 3D grafikai mobiliuosiuose telefonuose

    OpenAIRE

    Pragarauskaitė, Julija

    2009-01-01

    Šiame magistro darbe nagrinėjamas M3G standartas, skirtas 3D grafikai mobiliuose telefonuose, tiriamos 3D modelių eksportavimo į M3G formatą galimybės bei M3G standarto suderinamumas. Apžvelgiamos 3D modeliavimo bei eksportavimo priemonės bei pasirinkta modeliavimo priemonė Blender, įgalinanti pasiekti 3D modelio duomenis naudojant Python skriptus. Sukurta eksportavimo iš Blender modeliavimo priemonės į M3G formatą schema. Schema realizuojama suprogramavus eksportavimo priemonę vartojant Pyth...

  16. Unityn ja Blenderin yhteiskäyttö pelinteossa

    OpenAIRE

    Åke, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on selvittää pelinkehitysympäristö Unityn ja 3D-mallinnusohjelma Blenderin yhteiskäyttöä. Erityisesti tarkastellaan sitä, miten nämä kaksi ohjelmistoa soveltuvat pienen mittakaavan pelien toteuttamiseen. Unity ja Blender ovat vaihtoehto pienille yrityksille, koska niiden käyttöönotto ei vaadi suuria investointeja. Blender on täysin ilmainen ja Unitystäkin on olemassa ilmainen versio, jota voi käyttää kaupallisiin tarkoituksiin tietyin edellytyksin. Työssä ver...

  17. 40 CFR 80.69 - Requirements for downstream oxygenate blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for downstream oxygenate... downstream oxygenate blending. The requirements of this section apply to all reformulated gasoline blendstock... annual compliance period; (D) A process for notifying oxygenate blenders and other downstream parties...

  18. Nutrition After Fifty: Tips and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eggs 4 egg whites ½-1 Tbsp. canola oil 2-3 cloves garlic (or to taste), minced 3 cups finely ... 2 Tbsp. flour ⅛ tsp. nutmeg Pinch of cloves Vanilla nonfat frozen yogurt ... running blender, drizzle oil and blend 30 seconds. Transfer to bowl and ...

  19. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

  20. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-17

    This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

  1. 27 CFR 5.42 - Prohibited practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 5.42 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... mislead the consumer. Money-back guarantees are not prohibited. (6) A trade or brand name that is the name... business as a distiller, rectifier, blender, or other producer, or as an importer, wholesaler,...

  2. 40 CFR 80.68 - Compliance surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of collection, and the classification of the sample as simple model or complex model; and (C) At any... of collection, and the classification of the sample as simple model or complex model; (G) The results... responsible corporate officer of the refiner, importer, or oxygenate blender, or in the case of...

  3. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 6, 2000). This action applies to gasoline refiners, blenders and importers... rulemaking (Docket ID Number EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0558). \\2\\ See Air Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0558-0002. \\3\\ 73 FR 74350, December 8, 2008. \\4\\ 73 FR 74403, December 8, 2008. \\5\\ See Air Docket...

  4. Kepler-22b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borucki, W.J.; Koch, D.G.; Batalha, N.;

    2012-01-01

    reconnaissance spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and centroid motion. A full BLENDER analysis provides further validation of the planet interpretation by showing that contamination of the target by an eclipsing system would rarely mimic the observed shape of the transits. The final validation of the planet...

  5. Pasos para subir nuestra animación a wikimedia commons

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Madroñal, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Documento en el que se describen los pasos a dar para subir una animación realizada con el software Blender a Wikimedia Commons. Estas aportaciones se enlazan con el Proyecto UCAc2, que está dentro de la iniciativa WikiArS.

  6. Development of Technology for Immobilization of Waste Salt from Electrorefining Spent Nuclear Fuel in Zeolite-A for Eventual Disposition in a Ceramic Waste Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of process development for the blending of waste salt from the electrorefining of spent fuel with zeolite-A are presented. This blending is a key step in the ceramic waste process being used for treatment of EBR-II spent fuel and is accomplished using a high-temperature v-blender. A labscale system was used with non-radioactive surrogate salts to determine optimal particle size distributions and time at temperature. An engineering-scale system was then installed in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility hot cell and used to demonstrate blending of actual electrorefiner salt with zeolite. In those tests, it was shown that the results are still favorable with actinide-loaded salt and that batch size of this v-blender could be increased to a level consistent with efficient production operations for EBR-II spent fuel treatment. One technical challenge that remains for this technology is to mitigate the problem of material retention in the v-blender due to formation of caked patches of salt/zeolite on the inner v-blender walls

  7. Developmentally Delayed Male with Mincer Blade Obstructing the Oesophagus for a Period of Time Suspected to Be 6 Months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Charabi, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    prior to surgical intervention, the patient was hospitalized in a condition of sepsis and pneumonia where the thoracic X-ray reveals a foreign body in the proximal oesophagus. When rehospitalized 6 months later, a mincer blade of the type used in immersion blenders was surgically removed. During these 6...

  8. Optimization of the agar-gel method for isolation of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Roepstorff, A.; Rasmussen, T.;

    2001-01-01

    clean suspension which reduced the sample counting time. Blending the liver for 60 sec in a commercial blender showed significantly higher larvae recovery than blending for 30 sec. Addition of gentamycin to reduce bacterial growth during incubation, glucose to increase larval motility during migration...

  9. Co-created Facilitation and Perspective Plurality to Foster Mutual Understandings of Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Robb

    2014-01-01

    drawing together the following experimentation with industrialists in innovation workshops and interactive interventions in artistic cultural venues: 1) a large revolving door sculpture – Blender. 2) a series of interventions utilising audiovisual transmissions to enable one person to act as a proxy for...

  10. Effect of resination technique on mechanical properties of medium density fiberboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Ayrilmis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different resination techniques relative to the mechanical properties of commercially produced thick medium density fiberboard (MDF were investigated. The amount of urea-formaldehyde resin (11 wt% applied to the wood fibers was gradually decreased in the blowline (11, 10.5, 10, and 9.5 wt%, while it was gradually increased in the short-retention blender (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5. wt%. The internal bond strength of the MDF boards considerably improved as the amount of the resin applied to the fibers in the short-retention blender was increased to 1.5 wt%. In particular, the increase in the IB strength was most pronounced as the resin content increased from 1 to 1.5%. The edge and face screw withdrawal resistances increased by 7.7 and 7.9% as the amount of the resin applied to the fibers in the blender was increased. Similar values were also observed for the flexural properties. Overall, the total resin content in the production of thick MDF can be decreased as blender resination, a means of post-dryer resin addition, is incorporated into the blowline resination technique.

  11. Open 3D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many professionals and 3D artists consider Blender as being the best open source solution for 3D computer graphics. The main features are related to modeling, rendering, shading, imaging, compositing, animation, physics and particles and realtime 3D/game creation.

  12. 3D-grafiikka ja pelimoottorit

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan miten 3D-mallit saadaan sellaiseen muotoon, että ne olisivat käytettävissä eri pelimoottoreissa. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten luodaan 3D-malleja pelimoottoreihin, sekä miten 3D-mallinnusohjelmat ja pelimoottorit eroavat toisistaan, kun käsitellään 3D-malleja. Tässä työssä pelimoottoreina toimivat Valven Source sekä Epic Gamesin Unreal Engine 3. 3D-mallinnusohjelmista käytössä olivat Autodeskin 3ds Max 2014 ja Blender Foundationin Blender 2.7...

  13. Methodological proposal for the volumetric study of archaeological ceramics through 3D edition free-software programs: the case of the celtiberians cemeteries of the meseta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez Climent

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the free-software programs have been converted into the ideal tools for the archaeological researches, reaching the same level as other commercial programs. For that reason, the 3D modeling tool Blender has reached in the last years a great popularity offering similar characteristics like other commercial 3D editing programs such as 3D Studio Max or AutoCAD. Recently, it has been developed the necessary script for the volumetric calculations of three-dimnesional objects, offering great possibilities to calculate the volume of the archaeological ceramics. In this paper, we present a methodological approach for the volumetric studies with Blender and a study case of funerary urns from several celtiberians cemeteries of the Spanish Meseta. The goal is to demonstrate the great possibilities that the 3D editing free-software tools have in the volumetric studies at the present time.

  14. Abundance of $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatti, C

    2009-01-01

    A diffeomorphism $f$ has a $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangency if there is a $C^1$-neighbourhood $\\cU$ of $f$ such that every diffeomorphism in $g\\in \\cU$ has a hyperbolic set $\\La_g$, depending continuously on $g$, such that the stable and unstable manifolds of $\\La_g$ have some non-transverse intersection. For every manifold of dimension greater than or equal to three, we exhibit a local mechanism (blender-horseshoes) generating diffeomorphisms with $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies. Using blender-horseshoes, we prove that homoclinic classes of $C^1$-generic diffeomorphisms containing saddles with different indices and that do not admit dominated splittings (of appropriate dimensions) display $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies.

  15. FRELLED: A realtime volumetric data viewer for astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R.

    2015-11-01

    I present a new FITS viewer designed to explore 3D spectral line data (in particular H I) and assist with visual source extraction and analysis. Using the artistic software Blender, FRELLED can visualize even large (∼6003 voxels) data sets at high frame rates (≳ 10 f.p.s.) in 3D. Blender's interface enables easy navigation within the 3D environment, and the FRELLED scripts support world coordinate systems. A variety of tools are included to aid source extraction and analysis, including interactively masking data (using 3D polyhedra of arbitrary complexity), querying NED, calculating the flux in specified volumes, generating contour plots and overlaying optical data. It includes tools to overlay n-body particle data, and multi-volume rendering is supported. The interface is designed to make cataloguing sources as easy as possible and I show that this can be as much as a factor of 50 times faster than using other viewers.

  16. FRELLED : A Realtime Volumetric Data Viewer For Astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    I present a new FITS viewer designed to explore 3D spectral line data (in particular HI) and assist with visual source extraction and analysis. Using the artistic software Blender, FRELLED can visualise even large (~600^3 voxels) data sets at high frame rates (10 f.p.s.) in 3D. Blender's interface enables easy navigation within the 3D environment, and the FRELLED scripts support world coordinate systems. A variety of tools are included to aid source extraction and analysis, including interactively masking data (using 3D polyhedra of arbitrary complexity), querying NED, calculating the flux in specified volumes, generating contour plots and overlaying optical data. It includes tools to overlay n-body particle data, and multi-volume rendering is supported. The interface is designed to make cataloguing sources as easy as possible and I show that this can be as much as a factor of 50 times faster than using other viewers.

  17. Pressurized hopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Secure Automated Fuel Fabrication Line is being developed to reduce personnel exposure and to improve safeguards. Fertile and fissile fuel powders are blended in the line for making fuel pellets. A pressurized hopper was developed for use not only as a blender, but also as a storage and feeding device. It works with or without injection tubes to produce a well-blended powder with reduced agglomerate population. Results of blending experiments using dry Kaolin clay and Tempra pigment are given

  18. Mucilage extraction and substrates in the seedling development of yellow passion fruit plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Sfeir de Aguiar; Lilian Yukari Yamamoto; Edilene Aparecida Preti; Gilberto Rostirolla Batista de Souza; Cesar Augusto Gasparetto Sbrussi; Eliege Aparecida de Paiva Oliveira; Adriane Marinho de Assis; Sergio Ruffo Roberto; Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves

    2014-01-01

    The object of this work was to evaluate different methods of mucilage extraction and substrates on passion fruit seedling emergence and development , in a mist chamber. Five methods of mucilage extraction were used: water, water + sand, water + virgin whitewash; blender with protected blades and fermentation in water, and three different types of substrates: rice hull, vermiculite and coconut fiber. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five replications in a factorial 5 x 3 ...

  19. Role of aqueous extract of morinda citrifolia (Indian noni) ripe fruits in inhibiting dental caries-causing streptococcus mutans and streptococcus mitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Barani Kumarasamy; Sunayana Manipal; Prabu Duraisamy; Adil Ahmed; Sp Mohanaganesh; C Jeevika

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Use of alternative medicine to control oral streptococci is a new topic worthy of further investigation. This study aimed to elucidate the dose-dependent anti-bacterial activity of crude aqueous extract of ripe Morinda citrifolia L. (Family: Rubiaceae) fruits against oral streptococci i.e. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis, that cause dental caries in humans. Methods: Fresh ripe M. citrifolia fruits (750g) were ground in an electronic blender with sterile water (500ml)....

  20. Roles for evolving markets, policies, and technology improvements in U.S. corn ethanol industry development

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews changes in markets, technologies, and policies that affect corn ethanol profit-ability and industry expansion. Historically, the corn ethanol industry was stimulated by high petro-fuel prices, successful corn and processing technology improvements, and government incentives, such as a blenders' tax credit and mandated markets defined by the leaded fuel ban and reformulated fuel. Presently, the corn ethanol industry has expanded slightly beyond the point of a normal capita...

  1. Study of 3D-modelling software environments

    OpenAIRE

    Егорова, Ирина Николаевна; Гайдамащук, Алиса Владимировна

    2013-01-01

    The study of three-dimensional modeling software packages such as Autodesk Maya, Autodesk 3Ds Studio Max, Lightwave 3D, Maxon Cinema 4D, Blender, ZBrush was conducted in the paper. The analysis of software packages allowed to identify the most effective ones. These were Autodesk Maya, Autodesk 3Ds Studio Max and ZBrush packages. The selected software packages were used for the creation of a computer scene, the main elements of which are interior, character and animation. Practical research al...

  2. Simulating complex robotic scenarios with MORSE

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverria, Gilberto; Lemaignan, Séverin; Degroote, Arnaud; Lacroix, Simon; Karg, Michael; Koch, Pierrick; Lesire, Charles; Stinckwich, Serge

    2012-01-01

    MORSE is a robotic simulation software developed by roboticists from several research laboratories. It is a framework to evaluate robotic algorithms and their integration in complex environments, modeled with the Blender 3D real-time engine which brings realistic rendering and physics simulation. The simulations can be specified at various levels of abstraction. This enables researchers to focus on their field of interest, that can range from processing low-level sensor data to the integratio...

  3. Mii School: New 3D Technologies Applied in Education to Detect Drug Abuses and Bullying in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, José Alberto; Espínola, Moisés; Cangas, Adolfo J.; Iribarne, Luis

    Mii School is a 3D school simulator developed with Blender and used by psychology researchers for the detection of drugs abuses, bullying and mental disorders in adolescents. The school simulator created is an interactive video game where the players, in this case the students, have to choose, along 17 scenes simulated, the options that better define their personalities. In this paper we present a technical characteristics description and the first results obtained in a real school.

  4. Demonstration of protocol for computer-aided forensic facial reconstruction with free software and photogrammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Cícero André da Costa Moraes; Paulo Eduardo Miamoto Dias; Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Forensic facial reconstruction (FFR) is an auxiliary technique that approximates a face in order to generate identifications. Technological development allows access to open software that can be applied to FFR. The demonstrated protocol has features from creating 3D replicas of the skull to finishing and displaying the reconstruction. PPT GUI is used for 3D scanning, and the resulting point cloud is converted into a 3D mesh in MeshLab. The sculpture is made in Blender, according to t...

  5. The story of global patent inventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces the global patent inventions, which are soap floating on the water, computer, radar, zipper, fuel cell, a raincoat, a pencil, a ball point pen, vitamin, an ice saw, a subway, post it, endoscope, ultrasonic detector, machine to pierce the hall, hair-restorer, a refrigerator, tricycle tractor of Benz steam engine of watt, carburettor, aluminum smelting process, video game, ice cream freezer, lead powder, piling system, burner using infrared rays, small projector, blender for recycling of resource, and artificial silk.

  6. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  7. Pemanfaatan Limbah Kulit Jeruk Keprok (Citrus Reticulata Blanco syn) Sebagai Bahan Penguat Nanokertas Selulosa Bakteri Dari Air Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Ichwani, Reisya

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibres combined with cellulose of orange peels organic waste (OP) have been used for the providing nanopaper. BC pellicle that has been crushed by home blender and combined with cellulose of orange peels in various concentration. The content of cellulose in bacterial cellulose pellicle is 4,53 % in nanosized and the cellulose content in the orange peels is 5,63 % in microsized. After preparing in sheet, the characterization has been done including m...

  8. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate...

  9. Ultrafast Preparation of Black Phosphorus Quantum Dots for Efficient Humidity Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chongyang; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Ling; Li, Minli; Chen, Jing; Xu, Shuhong; Huang, Guangguang; Chen, Wenhao; Sun, Litao

    2016-05-23

    Black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) have been prepared by a high turbulent shear rate generated from a household kitchen blender. A layer-by-layer disintegration mechanism of bulk BP crystals is suggested. As-synthesized BPQDs have shown excellent humidity sensing and photothermal converting properties. Importantly, this work not only explores potential applications for the BPQDs but also provides a successful paradigm for preparing the QDs of other layered materials. PMID:27037648

  10. TiGL Entwicklungen 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Siggel, Martin; Stollenwerk, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In diesem Vortrag präsentieren wir eine kleine Zusammenfassung über die Entwicklungen in der TiGL Geometriebibliothek in 2014. Insbesondere gehen wir auf die folgenden Punkte ein: Erweiterung der Flügel- und Rumpfmodellierung mittels Führungskurven; Status der Landeklappenmodellierung; CST Flügelprofile; Exporte in die STEP und IGES Dateiformate; Blender Unterstützung; Neue Features in der TiGL API; Weiterentwicklungen im TiGL Viewer

  11. Government Policy and Ethanol: What Does the Future Hold?

    OpenAIRE

    Staley, Daniel; Saghaian, Sayed H.

    2011-01-01

    The worlds of government and agribusiness have become intertwined with the increase in ethanol production that has occurred over the last decade. With tariffs and subsidies, the question regarding ethanolbecomes whether these initiatives are needed. This paper investigates whether the government policies of the $0.54 per gallon tax on imported ethanol and the $0.45 ethanol blender tax credit are still needed.

  12. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE OS MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO DE METACERCÁRIAS DE ASCOCOTYLE SP (TREMATODA: DIGENEA) DOS TECIDOS DE MUGIL LIZA VALENCIENNES, 1836 (TELEOSTEI: MUGILIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz; Thales Kodi Namba; Carolina Alencar Nigro; Francisco Sandro Menezes Rodrigues; João Victor Fornari; Anderson Sena Barnabé

    2014-01-01

    The demand and consumption of fish and their derivatives has increased considerably in recent years. However, fish are ideal hosts of numerous parasites, highlighting the need to develop new research methodologies for its detection. The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of Ascocotyle metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea) extraction from visceral tissues of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 (Teleostei: Mugilidae) by two methods: homogenization by blender or mixe...

  13. Monitoring Blending of Pharmaceutical Powders with Multipoint NIR Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    SCHEIBELHOFER, OTTO; Balak, Nikolaus; Wahl, Patrick R.; Koller, Daniel M.; Glasser, Benjamin J; Khinast, Johannes G.

    2012-01-01

    Blending of powders is a crucial step in the production of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is often a powder that is blended with other powders (excipients) in order to produce tablets. The blending efficiency is influenced by several external factors, such as the desired degree of homogeneity and the required blending time, which mainly depend on the properties of the blended materials and on the geometry of the blender. This experimental study i...

  14. Authenticity analysis of citrus essential oils by HPLC-UV-MS on oxygenated heterocyclic components

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Fan; Qingli Wu; Simon, James E.; Shyi-Neng Lou; Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-01-01

    Citrus essential oils are widely applied in food industry as the backbone of citrus flavors. Unfortunately, due to relatively simple chemical composition and tremendous price differences among citrus species, adulteration has been plaguing the industry since its inception. Skilled blenders are capable of making blends that are almost indistinguishable from authentic oils through conventional gas chromatography analysis. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was...

  15. Analysis of a hypothetical criticality accident involving damp, low-enriched UO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powder blenders are used in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities to blend dry low-enriched uranium (LEU) oxide powder to achieve uniform physical and chemical characteristics as required by product and process specifications. Blenders rely principally on moderation control for nuclear criticality safety and are, therefore, subject to criticality reviews since an inadvertent ingress of water could lead to a criticality accident. For any hypothetical accident scenario, an estimate of the total number of fissions is needed to determine the on-site and off-site effects of such accidents. Fission history information for criticality accidents involving solutions and metal assemblies has been well established from both actual accidents and experimentally induced excursion data. However, previous knowledge on the excursion characteristics of damp LEU powder systems is very limited. Recent work by the Commissariat a l'Engergie Atomique/U.K. Atomic Energy Authority considers a wet UO2 system, which includes both model development (i.e., POWDER code) and some experimental studies. In this paper, the authors report on the development of a computer model for predicting the excursion characteristics of a postulated, hypothetical, crticality accident involving a homogeneous mixture of low-enriched UO2 powder and water contained in a cylindrical blender

  16. MODELING KEPLER TRANSIT LIGHT CURVES AS FALSE POSITIVES: REJECTION OF BLEND SCENARIOS FOR KEPLER-9, AND VALIDATION OF KEPLER-9 d, A SUPER-EARTH-SIZE PLANET IN A MULTIPLE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light curves from the Kepler Mission contain valuable information on the nature of the phenomena producing the transit-like signals. To assist in exploring the possibility that they are due to an astrophysical false positive, we describe a procedure (BLENDER) to model the photometry in terms of a 'blend' rather than a planet orbiting a star. A blend may consist of a background or foreground eclipsing binary (or star-planet pair) whose eclipses are attenuated by the light of the candidate and possibly other stars within the photometric aperture. We apply BLENDER to the case of Kepler-9 (KIC 3323887), a target harboring two previously confirmed Saturn-size planets (Kepler-9 b and Kepler-9 c) showing transit timing variations, and an additional shallower signal with a 1.59 day period suggesting the presence of a super-Earth-size planet. Using BLENDER together with constraints from other follow-up observations we are able to rule out all blends for the two deeper signals and provide independent validation of their planetary nature. For the shallower signal, we rule out a large fraction of the false positives that might mimic the transits. The false alarm rate for remaining blends depends in part (and inversely) on the unknown frequency of small-size planets. Based on several realistic estimates of this frequency, we conclude with very high confidence that this small signal is due to a super-Earth-size planet (Kepler-9 d) in a multiple system, rather than a false positive. The radius is determined to be 1.64+0.19-0.14 R+, and current spectroscopic observations are as yet insufficient to establish its mass.

  17. Izdelava spletnega učbenika za 3D modeliranje v Blenderju

    OpenAIRE

    Čuk, Marjeta

    2016-01-01

    V teoretičnem delu diplomskega dela smo opisali e–izobraževanje in sisteme za upravljanje vsebin in izobraževanja. V empiričnem delu smo izdelali prototip interaktivnega spletnega učbenika za 3D modeliranje v programu Blender za vaje pri predmetu Digitalno 3d oblikovanje 1 dodiplomskega študija Oblikovanja tekstilij in oblačil. V prvem sklopu empiričnega dela smo opisali pripravo vsebine spletnega učbenika in programskih orodij, s katerimi smo vsebino pripravili. Sledi opis namestitve l...

  18. Automated system for the on-line monitoring of powder blending processes using near-infrared spectroscopy. Part I. System development and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, P A; Doherty, P; Tapsell, P; Oliver, T; Aldridge, P K

    1996-03-01

    An automated system for the on-line monitoring of powder blending processes is described. The system employs near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy using fibre-optics and a graphical user interface (GUI) developed in the LabVIEW environment. The complete supervisory control and data analysis (SCADA) software controls blender and spectrophotometer operation and performs statistical spectral data analysis in real time. A data analysis routine using standard deviation is described to demonstrate an approach to the real-time determination of blend homogeneity. PMID:8738184

  19. Abundance of $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonatti, C.; Diaz, L. J.

    2009-01-01

    A diffeomorphism $f$ has a $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangency if there is a $C^1$-neighbourhood $\\cU$ of $f$ such that every diffeomorphism in $g\\in \\cU$ has a hyperbolic set $\\La_g$, depending continuously on $g$, such that the stable and unstable manifolds of $\\La_g$ have some non-transverse intersection. For every manifold of dimension greater than or equal to three, we exhibit a local mechanism (blender-horseshoes) generating diffeomorphisms with $C^1$-robust homoclinic tangencies. Using bl...

  20. PCs The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, David

    2005-01-01

    Your vacuum comes with one. Even your blender comes with one. But your PC--something that costs a whole lot more and is likely to be used daily and for tasks of far greater importance and complexity--doesn't come with a printed manual. Thankfully, that's not a problem any longer: PCs: The Missing Manual explains everything you need to know about PCs, both inside and out, and how to keep them running smoothly and working the way you want them to work. A complete PC manual for both beginners and power users, PCs: The Missing Manual has something for everyone. PC novices will appreciate the una

  1. The RIN Market as a New Stage in the Development of Environmentally Friendly Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Kakorina; Timerkhan Bakhautdinov; Elias Dmitriev

    2014-01-01

    Since the signing of the US Energy Policy Act of 2005 by US President G.W.Bush a new market has been organized for trading a specific financial asset called Renewable Identification Numbers (RIN). RIN is a security, whose price is a tax stimulating fuel blenders and consumers in the USA to use more ecological fuels. The aim of this working paper is to introduce Russian readers to the basics of the RIN market, as information about the market is still scarce in Russian. In particular, we discus...

  2. 3D-mallinnuksen ja visualisoinnin hyödyntäminen asennusohjeessa

    OpenAIRE

    Tumelius, Hanne-Mari

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tilaajana oli oululainen mekaniikkasuunnitteluyritys Conseptas Oy. Työn tavoitteena oli tehdä kuvallinen ohjeistus ja animaatio samasta asennuksesta ja vertailla niitä keskenään. Tavoitteena oli myös käyttää ilmaista Blender-ohjelmaa animaation tekemiseen. Työn aikana paneuduttiin mallinnusteoriaan ja visualisointiin. CAD-ohjelmilla kappale mallinnetaan parametrisesti. Mallinnuksessa voidaan käyttää Bottom-up- tai Top-Down-suunnittelua. Suunnittelutöissä käytetään usein eri...

  3. DISCOVERY OF A TRANSITING PLANET NEAR THE SNOW-LINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, D. M.; Torres, G.; Buchhave, L. A.;

    2014-01-01

    analysis with BLENDER validates the planetary nature of Kepler-421b to >4σ confidence. Kepler-421b receives the same insolation as a body at ~2 AU in the solar system, as well as a Uranian albedo, which would have an effective temperature of ~180 K. Using a time-dependent model for the protoplanetary disk......In most theories of planet formation, the snow-line represents a boundary between the emergence of the interior rocky planets and the exterior ice giants. The wide separation of the snow-line makes the discovery of transiting worlds challenging, yet transits would allow for detailed subsequent...

  4. An Experimental Study on Gravity Blending Silo with an Inner Downcomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易江林; 景山; 陈银飞; 郭艳; 金涌

    2000-01-01

    A novel gravity blender with an inner downcomer was experimentally studied in this work. The flow characteristics of solid through the downcomer with branch pipes and the influence of the number of intake openings and their axial position along the downcomer on blending efficiency were investigated. The results of tracer experi-ments show that better blending quality can be obtained if the intake openings along the downcomer are designated according to the equal time interval principle. More intake openings are beneficial for blending efficiency, and the solids flow rate through the branch pipes along the downcomer can be predicted by the Beverloo equation.

  5. An Experimental Study on Gravity Blending Silo with an Inner Downcomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel gravity blender with an inner downcomer was experimentallystudied in this work. The flow characteristics of solid through thedowncomer with branch pipes and the influence of the number of intakeopenings and their axial position along the downcomer on blendingefficiency were investigated. The results of tracer experiments showthat better blending quality can be obtained if the intake openingsalong the downcomer are designated according to the equal time intervalprinciple. More intake openings are beneficial for blending efficiency,and the solids flow rate through the branch pipes along the downcomercan be predicted by the Beverloo equation.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly with data for June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Data presented in this publication describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the U.S. The report includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Both summary and detailed statistics are presented. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  7. Google SketchUp for Game Design Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    de Jongh, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The book takes a clear, step-by-step approach to building a complete game level using SketchUp with many props and textures. This book is designed for anyone who wants to create entire 3D worlds in freely available game engines such as Unity 3D, CryEngine, Ogre, Panda3D, Unreal Engine, and Blender Game Engine. It also targets all those who wish to create new levels and assets to sell in game asset stores or use in visualization or animation.

  8. MakerBot projects blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    MakerBot Projects Blueprints is a project-based book, with each chapter taking you through the creation of an awesome stand-alone project. MakerBot Project Blueprints is for anyone with an interest in the 3D printing revolution and the slightest bit of computer skills. Whether you own a 3D printer or not you can design for them. All it takes is Blender, a free 3D modeling tool, this book and a little creativity and someday you'll be able to hold something you designed in the computer in your hands.

  9. Mechanical Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Parman, Julian; Juuti, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä luotiin tornipuolustuspeli Unityllä käyttäen 3D-malleja. Opinnäytetyön peli on demoversio. Peli on suunniteltu käyttäen suppeaa pelisuunnitelmaa. Pelin 3D-mallit on luotu käyttäen Blender 3D-mallinnusohjelmaa. Pelin grafiikat on tuotettu GIMP2-kuvankäsittelyohjelmalla. Pelin viholliset ja tornit on toteutettu 3D-malleina. Pelissä on tarkoituksena puolustaa omaa tukikohtaa vihollisaalloilta, jotka tulevat tietä pitkin. Lopputuloksena saatiin aikaan toimiva demoversio Mech...

  10. 3D-hahmojen toteutus mobiilipeliin

    OpenAIRE

    Kemppainen, Matti

    2012-01-01

    Mobiilipelien suosio on kasvanut räjähdysmäisesti viime vuosina älypuhelinten kehittymisen myötä. Tässä opinnäytetyössä selvitetään kolmiulotteisen pelihahmon toteutusprosessi mobiilipeliin. Lisäksi pohditaan maksullisten ja ilmaisten ohjelmien eroja toteutuksessa. Pelihahmojen toteutus perustuu mobiilipeliprojektiin peliyrityksessä, jossa työskentelin graafikkona. Ohjelmien vertailussa on mukana 3D Studio Max, Blender 3D, Photoshop ja GIMP. Käytännön osuudessa käydään läpi 3D-pelihahmon...

  11. Biosteel

    OpenAIRE

    Remelin, Rickard

    2008-01-01

    This is the reflection of a graduation work done by Rickard Remelin. The work was made to create a proof of concept for a complex 3D computer game. All common elements such as creating Design document, story, programming, 3D modeling, texturing, animation, sound, etc, has been developed singlehandedly. Software used are Gimp, Blender, Gameblender and Audacity. The code was partly written in Python. Detta är reflektionen av ett kandidatarbete gjort av Rickard Remelin. Arbetet har gått ut p...

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. Desenvolupament d'un videojoc en 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Ricart López, Eduard

    2009-01-01

    La industria de los videojuegos crece exponencialmente y está ya superando a otras industrias punteras del ocio. En este proyecto, nos hemos planteado la realización de un videojuego con visualización en el espacio real 3D. Para la realización del videojuego se ha usado el siguiente software: Blender para diseñar los modelos 3D, C++ como lenguaje de programación para desarrollar el código y un conjunto de librerías básicas para desarrollar un videojuego llamadas Ogre3d (Motor Gráfico). La lóg...

  14. 3D Visualization of Machine Learning Algorithms with Astronomical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    We present innovative machine learning (ML) methods using unsupervised clustering with minimum spanning trees (MSTs) to study 3D astronomical catalogs. Utilizing Python code to build trees based on galaxy catalogs, we can render the results with the visualization suite Blender to produce interactive 360 degree panoramic videos. The catalogs and their ML results can be explored in a 3D space using mobile devices, tablets or desktop browsers. We compare the statistics of the MST results to a number of machine learning methods relating to optimization and efficiency.

  15. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE JOGO DE COMPUTADOR PARA INTERAÇÃO ENTRE UMA PESSOA PORTADORA DE DEFICIÊNCIA VISUAL E OUTRA NÃO PORTADORA

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Ikeda; Mário Augusto Pazoti

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a computer game that allows interaction between two users, one of them visually impaired, to be guided by sound alerts. According to the IBGE census of 2000, about 10% of the population has complete or partial visual impairment. There are not many tools available that allow such interaction. To develop this game we have used free tools like Audacity and Blender3D. The result of the work was very satisfactory and highlights the interest and need for enter...

  16. Densification and crystalization kinetics of mullite diphasic gels from non_isothermal dilatometry experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Orgaz, F.

    2008-01-01

    [EN] Mullite (3 AI2O3_2 SiO2) was processed by mixing silica and alumina colloids at pH below 3 in a high shear blender. The gels were sieved to ‹ 125 microns and cold isostatically pressed to form rods. The various processes involved during the sintering process such as condensation-polymerization and the competition between mullite crystallization and densification were analysed from constant heating rate equations and rate controlled sintering dilatometer experiments. Changes in t...

  17. uPy: a ubiquitous computer graphics Python API with Biological Modeling Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Autin, L.; Johnson, G.; Hake, J.; Olson, A.; Sanner, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe uPy, an extension module for the Python programming language that provides a uniform abstraction of the APIs of several 3D computer graphics programs called hosts, including: Blender, Maya, Cinema4D, and DejaVu. A plugin written with uPy is a unique piece of code that will run in all uPy-supported hosts. We demonstrate the creation of complex plug-ins for molecular/cellular modeling and visualization and discuss how uPy can more generally simplify programming for man...

  18. Kajian Potensi Pelet Biomassa dari Pemanfaatan Limbah Serbuk Kayu dan Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Menjadi Bahan Bakar

    OpenAIRE

    Roynaldo

    2016-01-01

    Fossil fuels are not renewable energy that the numbers will be thinning so that use as alternative energy . Potential of sawdust waste and waste palm oil industry is large enough can be used as raw material for biomass pellets. The purpose of this research was to use the potential of waste that can be recycled into fuel, especially oil palm which thrives in North Sumatera. The method used to smooth the wood powder and oil palm empty fruit bunches using a blender and then printe...

  19. Modeling Kepler Transit Light Curves as False Positives: Rejection of Blend Scenarios for Kepler-9, and Validation of Kepler-9 d, A Super-earth-size Planet in a Multiple System

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Guillermo; Ciardi, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Light curves from the Kepler Mission contain valuable information on the nature of the phenomena producing the transit-like signals. To assist in exploring the possibility that they are due to an astrophysical false positive, we describe a procedure (BLENDER) to model the photometry in terms of a "blend" rather than a planet orbiting a star. A blend may consist of a background or foreground eclipsing binary (or star-planet pair) whose eclipses are attenuated by the light of the candidate and ...

  20. New criteria for ergodicity and non-uniform hyperbolicity

    CERN Document Server

    Hertz, F Rodriguez; Tahzibi, A; Ures, R

    2009-01-01

    In this work we obtain a new criterion to establish ergodicity and non-uniform hyperbolicity of smooth measures of diffeomorphisms. This method allows us to give a more accurate description of certain ergodic components. The use of this criterion in combination with topological devices such as blenders lets us obtain global ergodicity and abundance of non-zero Lyapunov exponents in some contexts. In the partial hyperbolicity context, we obtain that stably ergodic diffeomorphisms are C^1-dense among volume preserving partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms with two-dimensional center bundle. This is motivated by a well known conjecture of C. Pugh and M. Shub.

  1. Effect of resination technique on mechanical properties of medium density fiberboard

    OpenAIRE

    Nadir Ayrilmis; M. Erdal Kara

    2013-01-01

    Effects of different resination techniques relative to the mechanical properties of commercially produced thick medium density fiberboard (MDF) were investigated. The amount of urea-formaldehyde resin (11 wt%) applied to the wood fibers was gradually decreased in the blowline (11, 10.5, 10, and 9.5 wt%), while it was gradually increased in the short-retention blender (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5. wt%). The internal bond strength of the MDF boards considerably improved as the amount of the resin applie...

  2. Lyhytanimaation toteutus lapsille

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaramoorthy, Doney

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäyteyön päämääränä on käydä läpi lyhytanimaation tekoprosessia Blender 3D-mallinnus ohjelmalla. Lyhytanimaatio-osuudessa keskitytään lapsille suunnattuun animaatioon. Toisena tavoitteena on tutustuminen Blenderin työkaluihin ja opetella käyttämään ohjelmaa monipuolisemmin ja tehokkaammin. Opinnäytetyössä käydään läpi suunnittelu, mallinnus ja animaatio vaiheet. Teoriaosuus sisältää teoriaa Blenderistä, hahmosuunnittelun perusteita ja lyhytanimaation ja animaation perusteet. Lapsille...

  3. Three-dimensional modeling and highly refined mesh generation of the aorta artery and its tunics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes strategies and techniques to perform modeling and automatic mesh generation of the aorta artery and its tunics (adventitia, media and intima walls), using open source codes. The models were constructed in the Blender package and Python scripts were used to export the data necessary for the mesh generation in TetGen. The strategies proposed are able to provide meshes of complicated and irregular volumes, with a large number of mesh elements involved (12,000,000 tetrahedrons approximately). These meshes can be used to perform computational simulations by Finite Element Method (FEM).

  4. Social Volunteer Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Mcmahon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available While both volunteer computing and social networks have proved successful, the merging of these two models is a new field: Social Volunteer Computing. A Social Volunteer Computing system utilizes the relationships within a social network to determine how computational resources flow towards tasks that need to be completed, and the results of these computations are added back into the social network as content. Such a system will provide scientists and artists a new facility to obtain computational resources and disseminate their work. RenderWeb 2.0, a prototype Social Volunteer Computing system, is introduced that allows animations created in Blender to be distributed and rendered within Facebook.

  5. Design of an interactive game-based application for improving the resolution of common Computer Network issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ciau Uitzil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The need to find new ways to help students in the learning process makes us more involved with technology which evolves every day. This background leads us to find new methods and forms of teaching that help students accelerate their learning skills in a different way from the traditional, as in the case of learning through play, a concept that has been used in many games which have had great impact recently, becoming an innovative tool for learning. This paper shows the design of an interactive game-based application developed with Blender 2.49b tool to be implemented in the area of computer networks.

  6. Clan Battleground : Joc d'estratègia

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Navas, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Clan Battleground es un projecte que tracta de la creació d'un videojoc de rol inspirat en multijugador que permet als jugadors realitzar equips per derrotar al equip contrari. El projecte està realitzat en 3D i s'ha simplificat per poder realitzar-lo en el temps previst pel projecte. Consta de la inserció d'un personatge en 3D modelat amb Blender, animació del personatge per augmentar el realisme del moviment i desenvolupat el nucli del videojoc junt als test y validació.

  7. Apa l’Etrusco sbarca a Roma e passa il testimone ad Ati. Un cortometraggio tridimensionale per raccontare il santuario di Portonaccio a Veio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsina Russo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Computer graphics movies are a favourite media for edutainment. The 3D stereoscopic short movie “Ati at the discovery of Veii” is an interesting example of philologically accurate reconstructions coupled with a communication aimed at a wide audience.  Developed by Cineca for a joint project involving the National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia and Genus Bononiae – Museum of the History of Bologna, the movie is grounded on the software Blender and a strong open source commitment.

  8. Open Source e transmedialità. L'esperienza del Cineca nel campo del Virtual Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele De Luca

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available CINECA experience in virtual archaeological reconstructions has led towards the creation of philological and communicative realizations such as «Apa the Etruscan and 2700 years of Bolognese History» – for the Museum of the History of Bologna – and «Marcus Caelius – the value of memory», for the Archaeological Museum of Bologna. The aim of both projects is communicating culture in a narrative way with a philological care and implementing a modelling methodology suitable for a transmedial reuse. The open source approach, mainly trough the adoption of the Blender sw, has provided the right tools.

  9. Extraction and concentration of biogenic calcium oxalate from plant leaves Extração e concentração de oxalato de cálcio biogênico de folhas de plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Liovando Marciano da Costa; Jairo Tronto; Vera Regina Leopoldo Constantino; Marilane Kalyetta Almeida Fonseca; Alessandra Pacobahyba de Oliveira; Marcelo Rocha da Costa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to extract and concentrate calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals from plant leaves that form the above mentioned crystals. The chemical and physical studies of CaOx from plant to be performed depend on an adequate amount of the crystals. The plant used in this study was croton (Codiaeum variegatum). The leaves were ground in a heavy duty blender and sieved through a 0.20 mm sieve. The suspension obtained was suspended in distilled water. The crystals were concentrate...

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  11. Modeling Kepler transit light curves as false positives: Rejection of blend scenarios for KOI-377, and strong evidence for a super-Earth-size planet in a multiple system

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Guillermo; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Brown, Timothy M; Bryson, Stephen T; Buchhave, Lars A; Charbonneau, David; Ciardi, David R; Dunham, Edward W; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Ford, Eric B; Gautier, Thomas N; Gilliland, Ronald L; Holman, Matthew J; Howell, Steve B; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Monet, David G; Prsa, Andrej; Ragozzine, Darin; Rowe, Jason F; Sasselov, Dimitar D

    2010-01-01

    The high-precision light curves from the Kepler mission contain valuable information on the nature of the phenomena producing the transit-like signals. To assist in exploring the possibility that they are the result of an astrophysical false positive, we describe a procedure we refer to as BLENDER to model the photometry not in terms of a planet orbiting a star, but instead as a "blend". A blend may consist of a background or foreground eclipsing binary (or star-planet pair) whose eclipses are attenuated by the light of the candidate and possibly other stars within the photometric aperture. We apply the technique to the case of KOI-377, a particularly interesting Kepler target harboring two previously confirmed Saturn-size planets (Kepler-9 b and Kepler-9 c) showing transit timing variations, and an additional shallower signal with a 1.6-day period that would correspond to a super-Earth with a radius of 1.4 R(Earth), the smallest yet discovered. Using BLENDER together with constraints from high-resolution ima...

  12. Preparation of High Density Polyethylene/Waste Polyurethane Blends Compatibilized with Polyethylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride by Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane (PU is a very popular polymer that is used in a variety of applications due to its good mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. However, PU recycling has received significant attention due to environmental issues. In this study, we developed a recycling method for waste PU that utilizes the radiation grafting technique. Grafting of waste PU was carried out using a radiation technique with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA. The PE-g-MA-grafted PU/high density polyethylene (HDPE composite was prepared by melt-blending at various concentrations (0–10 phr of PE-g-MA-grafted PU. The composites were characterized using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and their surface morphology and thermal/mechanical properties are reported. For 1 phr PU, the PU could be easily introduced to the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender after the radiation-induced grafting of PU with PE-g-MA. PE-g-MA was easily reacted with PU according to the increasing radiation dose and was located at the interface between the PU and the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender, which improved the interfacial interactions and the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. However, the elongation at break for a PU content >2 phr was drastically decreased.

  13. Simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents involving homogeneous damp low-enriched UO2 powder systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of a computer model for predicting the excursion characteristics of a postulated, hypothetical, critically accident involving a homogeneous mixture of low-enriched UO2 powder and water contained in a cylindrical blender. The model uses point neutronics coupled with simple lumped-parameter thermal-hydraulic feedback. The temperature of the system is calculated using a simple time-dependent energy balance where two extreme conditions for the thermal behavior of the system are considered, which bound the real life situation. Using these extremes, three different models are developed. To evaluate the models, the authors compared the results with the results of the POWDER code, which was developed by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique/United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (CEA/UKAEA) for damp powder systems. The agreement in these comparisons is satisfactory. Results of the excursion studies in this work show that approximately 1019 fissions occur as a result of accidental water ingress into powder blenders containing 5,000 kg of low-enriched (5%) UO2 powder

  14. Moisture measurement in UO2 powder by neutron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the conversion process in ASEA-ATOM's Fuel Factory, UO2 powder is taken from geometrically safe vessels to blenders which are not. For this procedure the moisture content of the powder must be less than 1% if these blenders are to be used. A feasibility study was carried out by Science Application Inc. (SAI) (USA). In the first phase of the work, the count rates of the epithermal and total neutrons were correlated with the moisture content in the UO2 powder samples (about 5 kg of material). (Epithermal neutrons can be measured by covering the detector with a cadmium metal foil). A great deal of work has been done to find the optimal shielding around the detectors, the optimal geometry, etc. By placing the source in the centre of the UO2 material, a significant improvement in sensitivity was achieved. A full scale instrument was designed and built around a pipe which can easily be fitted into the process equipment. This poster presents the results of the tests that have been carried out with uranium powder at the ASEA-ATOM's Fuel Factory to demonstrate that the measuring principle and the instruments are well suited as integrated in-line equipment for measurement of UO2 powder

  15. An experimental study on the CO2/sand dry-frac process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zhenyun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The CO2/sand dry-frac process is a waterless fracturing technology in which CO2 instead of water is used as fracturing fluid. The application of the technology abroad (in the USA and Canada shows that it works well in stimulating low-pressure, low-permeability, strong water-locking/water sensitive reservoirs. Thus, a series of experimental studies were carried out on its production increase mechanism, fracturing fluid system, pressurized air-tight sand blender, and fracturing process. Some conclusions were made. First, the CO2 viscosity enhancement technology can raise the critical CO2 viscosity by 240–490 times, significantly improving the sand-carrying and fracture-making capacities of CO2 fracturing fluid, so it is a key technique in CO2/sand dry-frac process. Second, with the development of CO2 pressurized air-tight sand blender, a complete set of key devices for the CO2/sand dry-frac process can be made in China, meeting the requirements of the fracturing operation. Third, fully automatic flowback is also realized. Fourth, CO2 instead of water is used in this fracturing operation, saving a large amount of water consumed in fracturing, and lowering cost. Fifth, the CO2/sand dry-frac process is feasible and suitable for the stimulation of low-pressure, low-permeability and strong water-locking reservoirs, with substantial production increase.

  16. Design of geometrical detector arrangement for extensive holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For holdup measurement in a process glove box (GB) at MOX fuel fabrication facilities, a technique of neutron coincidence counting has been used with neutron slab detectors positioned on both sides of the GB. This technique has been applied to a MOX blending GB at a plutonium conversion facility since 1990. Although the detectors were positioned to measure only the instruments including more holdup (mainly the blender) at first, it is recently found that such detectors arrangement is insufficient for the verification because it causes the lower response for the area except the blender such as a cyclone at higher position and GB floor. To solve this problem and to improve material accountancy, it is important to design the detectors arrangement so as to flatten the response and expand measurement area over the GB. Our goal was to attain the flatness within 10% deviation We calculated numerically the Solid angle at each point in the GB with 0.1m intervals prior to Monte Carlo method in order to estimate the response over the GB and optimize the detectors arrangement

  17. Growth and opportunities in the lubricants business in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for lubricants is increasing faster in Asia than any other part of the world. This development is being propelled largely by the expansion of the transportation and manufacturing sectors. By the year 2000, lubricant consumption in Asia will exceed that of Western Europe, Africa and the Middle East combined. Aside from this growth, most of the region is shifting from very low quality to higher quality value-added products. In view of these factors, there has been an explosion of activity over the past few years as lubricant blenders and additive suppliers attempt to position themselves within the market. Over the past year, Chem Systems has undertaken an extensive study of the lubricants business in East Asia, focusing on the evolution of this complex market structure and the identification of attractive opportunities. The overview presented in this paper is a product of these efforts. Whether you are a multinational oil company, independent blender, national oil company or multinational additive suppler, the questions are the same when developing a strategy for the region: regional overview of lubricant business structure; outlook for Asian demand; profile of lube/additives businesses; and successful competition--what is required?

  18. Design of detector position and extension of measurement area for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdup measurement for the blender glove box (GB) has been carried out at PCDF (Plutonium Conversion Development Facility). Since neutron detectors were positioned to cover the blender, counting response for other area in the GB was not enough. Therefore, it was necessary to clean up the GB carefully at PIT/PIV (Physical Inventory Taking/Physical Inventory Verification). We developed the new measurement system for the purpose of achieving flat counting response over the GB. We designed detector position based on solid angle calculation and manufactured a new lifting system which allowed to set the detectors at the designed positions. Then we carried out response profile test using Cf source and evaluated performance of the new system and validity of the calculation. The results showed that the new system achieved flat response over expected area where holdup remains within 10% deviation (1σ). Solid angle calculation is useful for design of detector position if it is possible to consider neutron reflection on room floor properly. Then we carried out the calibration using MOX samples and the estimation of measurement uncertainty. This system has been used during IIV (Interim Inventory Verification) since June 2000 and sat is factory results have been obtained. (author)

  19. Good appearance of food gives an appetizing impression and increases cerebral blood flow of frontal pole in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Ken Ichiro; Amitani, Haruka; Adachi, Ryo; Morimoto, Toshiki; Kido, Megumi; Taruno, Yuka; Ogata, Keizaburo; Amitani, Marie; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of food appearance on appetite and on left-frontal pole blood flow in healthy young subjects. The iEat, a new form of foods with good appearance and greater softness was hypothesized to have the better effects to the subjects than blender-processed foods. The effect on appetite and left-frontal pole blood flow using hemoencephalography was assessed while participants were viewing the slideshows of two kinds of foods respectively. The slideshows were used to control the showing time and other variables. The pictures of iEat foods stimulated both of them more than the blender-processed ones. The measurement of cerebral blood flow could be a useful method to monitor the cognitive and emotional aspects of feeding behavior that are important for humans. Like iEat, the foods that look as good as ordinary food yet are softer can be used for people with poor appetite and eating difficulties to ordinary food. PMID:26653329

  20. Mathematical Development and Comparison of a Hybrid PBM-DEM Description of a Continuous Powder Mixing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitraye Sen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a multidimensional population balance model (PBM which can account for the dynamics of a continuous powder mixing/blending process. The PBM can incorporate the important design and process conditions and determine their effects on the various critical quality attributes (CQAs accordingly. The important parameters considered in this study are blender dimensions and presence of noise in the inlet streams. The blender dynamics have been captured in terms of composition of the ingredients, (relative standard deviation RSD, and (residence time distribution RTD. PBM interacts with discrete element modeling (DEM via one-way coupling which forms a basic framework for hybrid modeling. The results thus obtained have been compared against a full DEM simulation which is a more fundamental particle-level model that elucidates the dynamics of the mixing process. Results show good qualitative agreement which lends credence to the use of coupled PBM as an effective tool in control and optimization of mixing process due to its relatively fewer computational requirements compared to DEM.

  1. An experimental study of the corrosion and precipitation of aluminum in the presence of trisodium phosphate buffer following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Howe, Kerry J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Leavitt, Janet J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Alion Science and Technology (United States); Hammond, Kyle; Mitchell, Lana [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Kee, Ernie [South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) (United States); Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Experimental head loss testing was conducted by aggressively promoting corrosion in loss of coolant accidents. • Blender-processed debris beds have higher head loss but tend to be less reproducible than NEI-processed debris beds. • Precipitation was observed from aluminum concentration and turbidity measurements. • Precipitation results were compared to predictions from Visual MINTEQ. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment of head loss across the sump pump screen with fibrous debris bed over a non-prototypical 10-day post-LOCA incident window. The corrosion head loss experiments (CHLE) is a reduced scaled integral effects testing facility built at the University of New Mexico (UNM) to investigate potential chemical effects on head loss across prepared fibrous debris beds. The results in this paper come from two integral effect tests performed at UNM in order to determine the chemical effects on head loss induced by a zinc source effect and an aluminum precipitation effect (T3: without Zn source case, T4: with Zn source case in containment). The tests were performed with a large surface area of aluminum coupons in the testing facility for an extended period of elevated temperature to accelerate corrosion above that expected under prototypical conditions. These conditions were sufficient to force aluminum precipitation to occur and induce the onset of chemical effects on debris bed head loss. The head loss behavior on two different types of fiber debris beds (blender-processed and NEI-processed debris bed) was evaluated in this study. It was found that the blender-processed bed is much more sensitive in filtering than the NEI-processed bed and consequently had a much higher head loss value across the beds. Aluminum precipitation was observed, with aluminum concentration and turbidity measurements, to form starting on day 7 in Test T3 and on day 6 in Test T4. The onset of aluminum precipitation

  2. An experimental study of the corrosion and precipitation of aluminum in the presence of trisodium phosphate buffer following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Experimental head loss testing was conducted by aggressively promoting corrosion in loss of coolant accidents. • Blender-processed debris beds have higher head loss but tend to be less reproducible than NEI-processed debris beds. • Precipitation was observed from aluminum concentration and turbidity measurements. • Precipitation results were compared to predictions from Visual MINTEQ. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment of head loss across the sump pump screen with fibrous debris bed over a non-prototypical 10-day post-LOCA incident window. The corrosion head loss experiments (CHLE) is a reduced scaled integral effects testing facility built at the University of New Mexico (UNM) to investigate potential chemical effects on head loss across prepared fibrous debris beds. The results in this paper come from two integral effect tests performed at UNM in order to determine the chemical effects on head loss induced by a zinc source effect and an aluminum precipitation effect (T3: without Zn source case, T4: with Zn source case in containment). The tests were performed with a large surface area of aluminum coupons in the testing facility for an extended period of elevated temperature to accelerate corrosion above that expected under prototypical conditions. These conditions were sufficient to force aluminum precipitation to occur and induce the onset of chemical effects on debris bed head loss. The head loss behavior on two different types of fiber debris beds (blender-processed and NEI-processed debris bed) was evaluated in this study. It was found that the blender-processed bed is much more sensitive in filtering than the NEI-processed bed and consequently had a much higher head loss value across the beds. Aluminum precipitation was observed, with aluminum concentration and turbidity measurements, to form starting on day 7 in Test T3 and on day 6 in Test T4. The onset of aluminum precipitation

  3. Photoluminescence from neodymium silicide thin films formed by MEVVA ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Neodymium silicides were synthesized by Nd ion implanted into Si substrates with the aid of a metal vaporvacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. The blender of Nd5Si4 and NdSi2was formed in a neodymium-implanted silicon thinfilm during the as-implanted state, but there was only single neodymium silicide compound in the post-annealed state,and the phase changed from NdSi2 to Nd5Si4 with increasing annealing temperature. The blue-violetluminescence excited by ultra-violet was observed at the room temperature (RT), and the intensity of photoluminescence(PL) increased with increasing the neodymium ion fluence. Moreover,the photoluminescence was closely dependent onthe temperature of rapid thermal annealing (RTA). A mechanism ofphotoluminescence was discussed.

  4. Authenticity analysis of citrus essential oils by HPLC-UV-MS on oxygenated heterocyclic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus essential oils are widely applied in food industry as the backbone of citrus flavors. Unfortunately, due to relatively simple chemical composition and tremendous price differences among citrus species, adulteration has been plaguing the industry since its inception. Skilled blenders are capable of making blends that are almost indistinguishable from authentic oils through conventional gas chromatography analysis. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed for compositional study of nonvolatile constituents in essential oils from major citrus species. The nonvolatile oxygenated heterocyclic components identified in citrus oils were proved to be more effective as markers in adulteration detection than the volatile components. Authors are hoping such an analysis procedure can be served as a routine quality control test for authenticity evaluation in citrus essential oils.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly: September 1996, with data for July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 56 tabs.

  6. Mucilage extraction and substrates in the seedling development of yellow passion fruit plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sfeir Aguiar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to evaluate different methods of mucilage extraction and substrates on passion fruit seedling emergence and development , in a mist chamber. Five methods of mucilage extraction were used: water, water + sand, water + virgin whitewash; blender with protected blades and fermentation in water, and three different types of substrates: rice hull, vermiculite and coconut fiber. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five replications in a factorial 5 x 3 scheme (5 extraction methods of seed mucilage and 3 substrates being each parcel composed of 25 seeds. The parameters evaluated were: seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, leaf number, stem length, longest root length, weight of dry matter of roots and shoots. Water and fermentation in water are the best method for mucilage extraction and rice hull and coconut fiber are the best substrate for passionfruit seedling emergence and development.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1998, with data for March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  8. Optimized continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing via model-predictive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrl, Jakob; Kruisz, Julia; Sacher, Stephan; Khinast, Johannes; Horn, Martin

    2016-08-20

    This paper demonstrates the application of model-predictive control to a feeding blending unit used in continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing. The goal of this contribution is, on the one hand, to highlight the advantages of the proposed concept compared to conventional PI-controllers, and, on the other hand, to present a step-by-step guide for controller synthesis. The derivation of the required mathematical plant model is given in detail and all the steps required to develop a model-predictive controller are shown. Compared to conventional concepts, the proposed approach allows to conveniently consider constraints (e.g. mass hold-up in the blender) and offers a straightforward, easy to tune controller setup. The concept is implemented in a simulation environment. In order to realize it on a real system, additional aspects (e.g., state estimation, measurement equipment) will have to be investigated. PMID:27317987

  9. Analytical quality assurance procedures developed for the IAEA's Reference Asian Man Project (Phase 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical quality assurance procedures adopted for use in the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Ingestion and Organ Content of Trace Elements of Importance in Radiological Protection are designed to ensure comparability of the analytical results for Cs, I, Sr, Th, U and other elements in human tissues and diets collected and analysed in nine participating countries. The main analytical techniques are NAA and ICP-MS. For sample preparation, all participants are using identical food blenders which have been centrally supplied after testing for contamination. For quality control of the analyses, six NIST SRMs covering a range of matrices with certified and reference values for the elements of interest have been distributed. A new Japanese reference diet material has also been developed. These quality assurance procedures are summarized here and new data are presented for Cs, I, Sr, Th and U in the NIST SRMs. (author)

  10. Architecture of a highly modular lighting simulation system

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    This talk will discuss the challenges before designing a highly modular, parallel, heterogeneous rendering system and their solutions. It will review how different lighting simulation algorithms could be combined to work together using an unified framework. We will discuss how the system can be instrumented for collecting data about the algorithms' runtime performance. The talk includes an overview of how collected data could be visualised in the computational domain of the lighting algorithms and be used for visual debugging and analysis. About the speaker Hristo Lesev has been working in the software industry for the last ten years. He has taken part in delivering a number of desktop and mobile applications. Computer Graphics programming is Hristo's main passion and he has experience writing extensions for 3D software like 3DS Max, Maya, Blender, Sketchup, and V-Ray. Since 2006 Hristo teaches Photorealistic Ray Tracing in the Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics at the Paisii Hilendarski...

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P. (eds.)

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  12. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1995 with data for June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-25

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Novel Chemically-Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Borehole Sealants (Ceramicretes) for Arctic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Godwin A. Chukwu; Gang Chen; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramic borehole sealant, i.e. Ceramicrete, has many advantages over conventionally used permafrost cement at Alaska North Slope (ANS). However, in normal field practices when Ceramicrete is mixed with water in blenders, it has a chance of being contaminated with leftover Portland cement. In order to identify the effect of Portland cement contamination, recent tests have been conducted at BJ services in Tomball, TX as well as at the University of Alaska Fairbanks with Ceramicrete formulations proposed by the Argonne National Laboratory. The tests conducted at BJ Services with proposed Ceramicrete formulations and Portland cement contamination have shown significant drawbacks which has caused these formulations to be rejected. However, the newly developed Ceramicrete formulation at the University of Alaska Fairbanks has shown positive results with Portland cement contamination as well as without Portland cement contamination for its effective use in oil well cementing operations at ANS.

  16. With solids handling, special is standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Handling and transporting bulk solids is one of the more challenging tasks engineers face. While bulk-solids-handling equipment must be reliable, the behavior of bulk solids often isn`t. Unlike those of most fluids, the physical properties and flow characteristics of bulk solids are not easily predictable. Only a sample of the actual material that will be conveyed can be relied on to provide suitable design data. Because the design of solids handling systems is material specific, many manufacturers customize their equipment to meet the specific needs of a particular material, application or industry. Such custom equipment frequently needs customized auxiliary components, such as hoppers and rotary valves. Following is a list of solids-handling equipment that can be used in a variety of applications. Many of the conveyors, feeders, screeners, blenders, grinders and transfer valves presented below can be customized to meet the requirements of handling specific materials.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1996 with data for September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products fin the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  18. Advanced low-level radwaste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the present status of commercial radwaste volume reduction (VR) activity in the United States is presented. VR is defined and a set of categories for VR processes is given, namely, (1) crystallization, (2) dehydration, (3) compaction, and (4) incineration. Some examples of the effects of these processes are given and their realms of applicability illustrated. A typical economic assessment is given with methods and assumptions stated in detail, showing conditions under which VR equipment can be cost-effective. System descriptions are given for nine currently and four potentially commercially available VR systems. The types of systems treated include evaporative crystallizers, both forced circulation and thin-film types; fluidized bed dryers; bitumen dryer and solidification systems; a blender/evaporator dryer; an inert carrier evaporator-dryer; and fluidized bed incinerators, controlled air incinerators, and excess air solid bed incinerators, as well as a glass furnace used as an incinerator/calciner

  19. Countermeasure technology for environmental pollution due to radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the progress of challenges by Maeda Corporation toward the countermeasures for the environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances that covers the whole areas of Naraha Town in Fukushima Prefecture. It also introduces in full detail the environmental pollution countermeasure technologies against radioactive substances challenged by the said company. These technologies are as follows; (1) porous block kneaded with zeolite, (2) Aqua-filter System (technique to automatically and continuously purify construction work water to the level of tap water), (3) super vacuum press (dehydration unit to realize the dehydration, volume reduction and solidification, and insolubilization at the same time), (4) mist blender (technique to manufacture bentonite-mixed soil), (5) wet-type classification washing technique for contaminated soil, (6) soil sorting technique (continuous discrimination technique to sort soil depending on radiation level), and (7) speedy construction technique for dam body using CSG (cemented sand and gravel). (A.O.)

  20. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  2. Software Development: 3D Animations and Creating User Interfaces for Realistic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Orlando Enrique

    2015-01-01

    My fall 2015 semester was spent at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center working in the Integrated Graphics, Operations, and Analysis Laboratory (IGOAL). My first project was to create a video animation that could tell the story of OMICS. OMICS is a term being used in the field of biomedical science to describe the collective technologies that study biological systems, such as what makes up a cell and how it functions with other systems. In the IGOAL I used a large 23 inch Wacom monitor to draw storyboards, graphics, and line art animations. I used Blender as the 3D environment to sculpt, shape, cut or modify the several scenes and models for the video. A challenge creating this video was to take a term used in biomedical science and describe it in such a way that an 8th grade student can understand. I used a line art style because it would visually set the tone for what we thought was an educational style. In order to get a handle on the perspective and overall feel for the animation without overloading my workspace, I split up the 2 minute animation into several scenes. I used Blender's python scripting capabilities which allowed for the addition of plugins to add or modify tools. The scripts can also directly interact with the objects to create naturalistic patterns or movements. After collecting the rendered scenes, I used Blender's built-in video editing workspace to output the animation. My second project was to write software that emulates a physical system's interface. The interface was to simulate a boat, ROV, and winch system. Simulations are a time and cost effective way to test complicated data and provide training for operators without having to use expensive hardware. We created the virtual controls with 3-D Blender models and 2-D graphics, and then add functionality in C# using the Unity game engine. The Unity engine provides several essential behaviors of a simulator, such as the start and update functions. A framework for Unity, which was developed in

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. Equipments removal and renewal at Plutonium Conversion Development Facility. The Secondary removal and renewal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) periodically carried out old equipment removal / renewal work for stable operation. The First removal / renewal program was carried out from 1993 to 1994. The Secondary removal / renewal of equipment (filter casings, microwave heating denitration apparatus, blender and glove boxes) was carried out from 1998 to 1999. Two new type air-line suits (double-layered type air-line suits and water flushing-decontamination-type air-line suits) were developed. These air-line suits were used for the Secondary removal / renewal program. The results of using these air-line suits the resistance test of the greenhouse against earthquakes and the contamination behavior of the glove box, which is independent from the ventilation system, are reported in this paper. (author)

  5. Modelling and Simulation of the Knee Joint with a Depth Sensor Camera for Prosthetics and Movement Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risto, S.; Kallergi, M.

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to model and simulate the knee joint. A computer model of the knee joint was first created, which was controlled by Microsoft's Kinect for Windows. Kinect created a depth map of the knee and lower leg motion independent of lighting conditions through an infrared sensor. A combination of open source software such as Blender, Python, Kinect SDK and NI_Mate were implemented for the creation and control of the simulated knee based on movements of a live physical model. A physical size model of the knee and lower leg was also created, the movement of which was controlled remotely by the computer model and Kinect. The real time communication of the model and the robotic knee was achieved through programming in Python and Arduino language. The result of this study showed that Kinect in the modelling of human kinematics and can play a significant role in the development of prosthetics and other assistive technologies.

  6. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE JOGO DE COMPUTADOR PARA INTERAÇÃO ENTRE UMA PESSOA PORTADORA DE DEFICIÊNCIA VISUAL E OUTRA NÃO PORTADORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ikeda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a computer game that allows interaction between two users, one of them visually impaired, to be guided by sound alerts. According to the IBGE census of 2000, about 10% of the population has complete or partial visual impairment. There are not many tools available that allow such interaction. To develop this game we have used free tools like Audacity and Blender3D. The result of the work was very satisfactory and highlights the interest and need for entertainment programs that allow interaction between people with distinct limitations. It is noteworthy that one of the greatest challenges in implementation stems from the fact that programmers do not have auditory sensitivity, such as blind people have, making it relevant to their participation throughout the process.

  7. Cortometraje de animación 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Alemañ Baeza, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Usando técnicas y equipos de cine de animación 3D se realizará un cortometraje de temática libre. Se desarrollará UN CORTO DE ANIMACION en formato de animación digital en un tamaño no inferior a 640 x 480 píxeles, con un mínimo de 24 fotogramas por segundo. Tendrá una duración máxima de 10 minutos. El tema a desarrollar es libre, la temática no contendrá escenas agresivas, discriminatorias u ofensivas. Se utilizará Blender u otro programa de animación. Además se tendrá que usar un traje de ca...

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1998 with data for October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. 82 tabs.

  9. Developmentally Delayed Male with Mincer Blade Obstructing the Oesophagus for a Period of Time Suspected to Be 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Grønhøj Larsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sharp, retained foreign bodies in the oesophagus are associated with severe complications. Developmentally delayed patients are especially subject to foreign objects. We describe a 37-year-old, developmentally delayed male with a mincer blade obstructing the oesophagus. Six months prior to surgical intervention, the patient was hospitalized in a condition of sepsis and pneumonia where the thoracic X-ray reveals a foreign body in the proximal oesophagus. When rehospitalized 6 months later, a mincer blade of the type used in immersion blenders was surgically removed. During these 6 months the patient’s main symptoms were dysphagia, weight loss, and diarrhoea. When developmentally delayed patients present with dysphagia, we strongly encourage the awareness of the possible presence of foreign bodies. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a mincer blade in the oesophagus.

  10. Hybrid photonic integrated circuits for faster and greener optical communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoulidis, L.; Kehayas, E.; Zimmermann, L.

    2011-01-01

    We present current development efforts on hybrid photonic integration for new generation "faster and greener" Tb/scapacity optical networks. On the physical layer, we present the development of a versatile, silicon-based photonic integration platform that acts as a technology "blender" bringing together different material systems including III-V and silicon-based semiconductors. The platform is also used to implement the so-called O-to-O (optical-to-optical) functionalities by patterning low-loss passive components such as MMI couplers and delay interferometers. With these passive building blocks as well as the ability for hybrid assembly of active material, we demonstrate the fabrication of key optical transport and routing devices such as optical demodulators and all-optical wavelength converters. These devices can now be used to fabricate chip-scale 100 GbE transceiver PICs and Tb/s-capacity wavelength switching platforms.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. FRELLED : The FITS Realtime Explorer of Low Latency in Every Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rhys

    2013-01-01

    I present the FITS Realtime Explorer of Low Latency in Every Dimension (FRELLED). Using the graphics engine of the open-source program, "Blender", FRELLED enables users to view 3-dimensional FITS files from any angle in realtime. The user can freely rotate, pan, zoom, and toggle perspective and orthographic rendering while the image is instantaneously updated. Objects found can be easily masked and catalogued, and a 2D version is available. FRELLED was developed as part of the Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey (AGES), a neutral hydrogen survey where visual source extraction is essential. Using FRELLED, data cubes can be searched approximately 30 times faster than using existing FITS viewers, with no loss of completeness or reliability in the resulting catalogues. While it is currently designed for HI surveys, FRELLED can be adapted for use with data at other wavelengths.

  13. Ensayo de reconstrucción virtual de un túmulo funerario: El túmulo del Mortórum (Cabanes, Castellón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luján Valderrama

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We presents a virtual reconstruction of the megalithic tomb found near of Tossal del Mortórum (Cabanes, Castellón dated on the second millennium BC. The structure discovered in 2005 was plundered at an undetermined moment, and their conservation status is very precarious. Given the undoubted interest of the tomb, located in an area of the peninsula with little evidence of megalithism, we decided to make a essay of its virtual reconstruction. The basic software used in the modeling and rendering is Blender 2.56, so this paper can also show the capabilities of open source software for these projects.

  14. Sample preparation for an optimized extraction of localized metabolites in lichens: Application to Pseudevernia furfuracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaty, Sarah; Letertre, Marine; Dang, Huyen Duong; Jungnickel, Harald; Laux, Peter; Luch, Andreas; Carrié, Daniel; Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile; Bazureau, Jean-Pierre; Gauffre, Fabienne; Tomasi, Sophie; Paquin, Ludovic

    2016-04-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms known for producing unique secondary metabolites with attractive cosmetic and pharmacological properties. In this paper, we investigated three standard methods of preparation of Pseudevernia furfuracea (blender grinding, ball milling, pestle and mortar). The materials obtained were characterized by electronic microscopy, nitrogen adsorption and compared from the point of view of extraction. Their microscopic structure is related to extraction efficiency. In addition, it is shown using thalline reactions and mass spectrometry mapping (TOF-SIMS) that these metabolites are not evenly distributed throughout the organism. Particularly, atranorin (a secondary metabolite of interest) is mainly present in the cortex of P. furfuracea. Finally, using microwave assisted extraction (MAE) we obtained evidence that an appropriate preparation can increase the extraction efficiency of atranorin by a factor of five. PMID:26838439

  15. The Marcus Caelius Project: a transmedial approach to support cultural communication and educational activities at the Civical Archaeological Museum of Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bentini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The project “Marcus Caelius – the Value of Memory” is a 8 minute short animation movie located in the Roman Bologna at the Augustan Age. It originated with the Civical Archaeological Museum of Bologna in collaboration with Cineca VisIT-Lab. The project emploies a well known historical fact (the Battle of Teutoburg to enable a philological approach within an emotional/narrative process. New philologically accurate reconstructions (i.e archaeological finds hedged in the Museum’s collection are integrated with 3D historical sets caming form previous Cineca projects. Mixed movie-making techniques, such as Blender rendering, Chroma key and Machinima animation, implemented an ad hoc production pipeline in order to define times and costs which could be supported by a small production.

  16. Robust Transitivity in Hamiltonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nassiri, Meysam

    2011-01-01

    A goal of this work is to study the dynamics in the complement of KAM tori with focus on non-local robust transitivity. We introduce $C^r$ open sets ($r=1, 2, ..., \\infty$) of symplectic diffeomorphisms and Hamiltonian systems, exhibiting "large" robustly transitive sets. We show that the $C^\\infty$ closure of such open sets contains a variety of systems, including so-called a priori unstable integrable systems. In addition, the existence of ergodic measures with large support is obtained for all those systems. A main ingredient of the proof is a combination of studying minimal dynamics of symplectic iterated function systems and a new tool in Hamiltonian dynamics which we call symplectic blender.

  17. Robust Criterion for the Existence of Nonhyperbolic Ergodic Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochi, Jairo; Bonatti, Christian; Díaz, Lorenzo J.

    2016-06-01

    We give explicit C 1-open conditions that ensure that a diffeomorphism possesses a nonhyperbolic ergodic measure with positive entropy. Actually, our criterion provides the existence of a partially hyperbolic compact set with one-dimensional center and positive topological entropy on which the center Lyapunov exponent vanishes uniformly. The conditions of the criterion are met on a C 1-dense and open subset of the set of diffeomorphisms having a robust cycle. As a corollary, there exists a C 1-open and dense subset of the set of non-Anosov robustly transitive diffeomorphisms consisting of systems with nonhyperbolic ergodic measures with positive entropy. The criterion is based on a notion of a blender defined dynamically in terms of strict invariance of a family of discs.

  18. ON THE LOW FALSE POSITIVE PROBABILITIES OF KEPLER PLANET CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a framework to conservatively estimate the probability that any particular planet-like transit signal observed by the Kepler mission is in fact a planet, prior to any ground-based follow-up efforts. We use Monte Carlo methods based on stellar population synthesis and Galactic structure models, and report false positive probabilities (FPPs) for every Kepler Object of Interest, assuming a 20% intrinsic occurrence rate of close-in planets in the radius range 0.5 R+ p +. Nearly 90% of the 1235 candidates have FPP 10% to <1%. Since Kepler has detected many more planetary signals than can be positively confirmed with ground-based follow-up efforts in the near term, these calculations will be crucial to using the ensemble of Kepler data to determine population characteristics of planetary systems. We also describe how our analysis complements the Kepler team's more detailed BLENDER false positive analysis for planet validation.

  19. Postupná deformace 3D modelu

    OpenAIRE

    Zouhar, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá tvorbou nástroje pro postupnou změnu tvaru trojrozměrného polygonálního modelu. Použité metody se inspirují zejména technikou Manual Landmarks a~využívají parametrizace objektu na kouli. Výsledkem práce je zásuvný modul do volně šiřitelného modelovacího programu Blender, který automaticky vytvoří animaci změny tvaru ze dvou vstupních modelů.

  20. ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПРОЕКТНОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ СТУДЕНТОВ С ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕМ ТРЕХМЕРНОГО МОДЕЛИРОВАНИЯ

    OpenAIRE

    Ляшенко, О.; Поддубная, Н.

    2011-01-01

    Анализируются особенности организации проектной деятельности студентов, приводится пример реализации творческого проекта в среде трехмерного моделирования Blender.

  1. Komentomoduuli : 3D-sisällöntuotantoa avoimen lähdekoodin peliin

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabai-Irani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössäni tutkin pelialalla käytettäviä erilaisia 3D-mallinnus- ja teksturointitekniikoita, joita hyödynsin työprosessissani. Valitsin aiheen oppiakseni itse syvällisemmin tuntemaan pelialalla käytettävää 3D-mallinnusta ja teksturointia. Tutkimustyötäni voin myöhemmin hyödyntää tulevassa ammatissani sekä antaa kattavan pohjan sekä tuleville opiskelijoille että muille alasta kiinnostuneille. Tutkin työssäni Blender 2.71, Krita 2.8.3 ja Unity game engine -ohjelmia, mutta keski...

  2. Pigment and Lovastatin content on the Red Rice cultivar Bah Butong and BP 1804 IF 9 which Fermented by Monascus purpureus Jmba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNAWATI KASIM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the red rice fermented by Monascus purpureus had been done. The rice consisted of 2 cultivars such as Bah Butong and BP 1804 IF 9. The aim of the research was to know the content of the pigment and lovastatin of the fermentation result/ angkak. Angkak was powdered by using blender. To measure the content of pigment, the powder was extracted by methanol. By using spectrophotometer the content of the pigment could be measured with 390 nm wave lengths for yellow pigment and 500 nm for the red pigment. For lovastatin the powder was extracted by acetonitrile and H2SO4. By using HPLC the content of lovastatin could be measured. The results showed that the highest pigment content for yellow pigment was on the PB 1804 IF 9 cultivar, and red pigment was on the Bah Butong cultivar. The highest lovastatin content was on the BP 1804 IF 9.

  3. Demonstration of protocol for computer-aided forensic facial reconstruction with free software and photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero André da Costa Moraes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Forensic facial reconstruction (FFR is an auxiliary technique that approximates a face in order to generate identifications. Technological development allows access to open software that can be applied to FFR. The demonstrated protocol has features from creating 3D replicas of the skull to finishing and displaying the reconstruction. PPT GUI is used for 3D scanning, and the resulting point cloud is converted into a 3D mesh in MeshLab. The sculpture is made in Blender, according to the user’s preferred technique. The adaptation of the skin layer and finishing of the reconstruction is optimized with the use of templates. In this phase, details can also be hand-carved. Allied to basic training in the software featured in this protocol, the open access to these tools and its independence of imaging hardware other than digital cameras is an advantage to its application in forensic and research contexts.

  4. How policies affect international biofuel price linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining which country is the price leader in world biofuel markets using a cointegration analysis and a Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. Weekly prices are analyzed for the EU, US, and Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel markets in the 2002–2010 and 2005–2010 time periods, respectively. The US blender's tax credit and Brazil's consumer tax exemption are found to play a role in determining the ethanol prices in other countries. For biodiesel, our results demonstrate that EU policies – the consumer tax exemption and blending target – tend to determine the world biodiesel price. - Highlights: • We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining biofuel prices. • We use a cointegration analysis and the Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. • The biofuel policies in US and Brazil determine the world ethanol prices. • EU biofuel policies tend to form the world biodiesel price

  5. Method of manufacturing nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide a nuclear fuel pellet, which has low water content and adequate density of sintering and is less liable to shrinkage of sintering. Constitution: To manufacture an uranium dioxide fuel pellet for the nuclear reactor, uranium dioxide powder and 1 to 10 weight % of uranium oxide powder of coarser grain size than the uranium dioxide powder and with U3O8 or O/U ratio of 2.3 to 2.7 are mixed together and uniformly blended by a blender. This mixture is press molded with a high pressure above 0.5 t/cm2. This molding is sintered in a reducing atmosphere of hydrogen gas or cracking ammonia gas at a high temperature above 1,5000C to obtain a uranium dioxide pellet. This pellet has comparatively large pores which are uniformly distributed, low water content and adequate density of sintering and is less liable to shrinkage. (Aizawa, K.)

  6. Forum Renascens (Los Bañales de Uncastillo, Zaragoza: Archaeology of Architecture of the Roman forum in the service of the dissemination through the Virtual Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serrano Basterra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An archaeological site concerning the remains of an ancient Roman city, developed mainly from 1st BC to III AD, in the area named "Los Bañales", is located at the south of the current town of Uncastillo (Zaragoza, Spain in Comarca de las Cinco Villas. From 2008 the archaeological site is been studied in a interdisciplinar research project leaded by Fundación Uncastillo under the autorizathion of Gobierno de Aragón. Last seasons of excavation have been focused in the forum, the ancient public square of the roman town, still in process of research. It was a quite small square but following all the requeriments of those type of buildings in Roman Achitecture. Using Blender software, a model of recreation of the forum is being done. The following paper presents a brief summary of the dossier of decissions concerning this recreation result, however, of the interdisciplinar cooperation between historians, archaeologists and architects.

  7. Evaluation of sugarcane laboratory ensiling and analysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Faria Pedroso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effects of laboratory-silo type and method of silage extract production, respectively, on sugarcane silage fermentation and recovery of fermentation products. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested and ensiled in three different types of laboratory silos (five replicates: 9.7 × 30 cm PVC tubes with tight lids, equipped or unequipped with Bunsen valves, and 20 L plastic buckets with tight lids and Bunsen valves. Three methods were used to produce silage extracts for pH, ethanol, acetic and lactic acids determination: extraction of silage juice by a hydraulic press and production of water extracts using a stomacher or a blender. Total dry matter loss (231 g/kg DM was not affected by silo type. No interactions between silo type and method of silage extract production were observed for ethanol and organic acids contents in the silages. Interaction between silo type and method of silage extract preparation was detected for pH. Silo type affected ethanol content but did not affect lactic and acetic acids concentration in the silages. Dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and ash were not affected by silo type. The method used to produce silage extracts affected the recovery of all fermentation products analyzed in the silages. Recovery of ethanol and acetic acid was higher when silage extracts were produced using a blender. For lactic acid recovery, the hydraulic press method was superior to the other two methods. Silage fermentation pattern is not affected by silo type, but the method used to produce silage extracts and some characteristics of silos affect the recovery of volatile fermentation products.

  8. The influence of operational parameters and feed preparation in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeow ST

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sin Tung Yeow, Asnawi Shahar, Norashikin Abdul Aziz, Mohd Shamsul Anuar, Yus Aniza Yusof, Farah Saleena TaipDepartment of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaPurpose: To investigate the effect of feed preparation characteristics and operational parameters on mixing homogeneity in a convective batch ribbon mixer.Methods: Lactose 100M, lactose 200M, ascorbic acid, and zinc oxide powders were used for the mixing study. Operational parameters studied were rotational speed and mixing time. The feed preparations studied were the use of preblending and the particle size of the feed materials. The blends of ascorbic acid, zinc oxide, and lactose were prepared with preblending and without preblending, prior to mixing at different blender rotation speeds and mixing times. Chemical tests were performed to measure the homogeneity of the ascorbic acid in the model mixture.Results: With preblending, a mixture with lactose 200M achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed.Conclusion: The results indicated that the homogeneity of the mixtures was influenced by the blender rotation speed and mixing time. Better mixing can be obtained with higher rotation speeds and longer mixing time. It was also observed that preblending and smaller feed particle size achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. These results illustrate that using binders with a smaller particle size and a preblending technique improves the mixing process in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer. However, prolonged periods of high-speed mixing will lead to mixture segregation.Keywords: powder blending, ascorbic acid, rotational speed, particle size, preblending

  9. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of a mixture of MOX, UO2 and additive in the most conservative concentration distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear criticality safety evaluation of blenders that are used at a mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel plant must take into account the nonuniform distribution of powders in three principal components, i.e., MOX, uranium dioxide (UO2) and zinc stearate, which is a fuel additive. The model blender considered in this article contained a mixture of 33 wt% PuO2-enriched MOX, depleted UO2 and zinc stearate in the form of an upside-down truncated cone that was surrounded by 30-cm-thick polyethylene. To limit the number of calculation cases, the fissile plutonium mass of the mixture was fixed at 98 kg, and the total concentration of MOX and UO2 was fixed at 4.0g/cm3. The most conservative fuel distribution with respect to nuclear criticality safety under these constraints was calculated with a two-dimensional optimum fuel distribution code OPT-TWO, so that the importance distribution of MOX and that of zinc stearate could be individually flattened by conserving the mass of each component. The OPT-TWO calculation was followed by a criticality calculation performed with the MCNP code to obtain the neutron multi-plication factor of the fuel system in the optimum fuel distribution. The most conservative fuel distribution obtained in this research was typically depicted as a layer of zinc stearate embedded within the central MOX region that was surrounded by the peripheral UO2 region. An increase of up to 25% in the neutron multiplication factor was found; two factors with comparable but independent contributions were the nonuniform concentrations of plutonium enrichment and zinc stearate. (author)

  10. Conditions for ingestion and organ content studies: Summary of data submitted by questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, food materials are blended locally and frozen for transport. Most participants will food materials in polyethylene containers by land or by air under refrigeration without any preservative such as formaldehyde. In most centres, a 'conventional' laboratory is used for sample preparation, but with additional facilities to prevent contamination of samples. A constant temperature electric oven, or vacuum drier if available, and blender (or mortar and pestle for some limited purposes) are being used. A blender with titanium blades is felt preferable by participants. In India, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan and Vietnam (and probably in Bangladesh), NAA is used for most of the first priority elements, and PIXE for some elements. In China, Japan, Malaysia and Philippines, atomic absorption spectrometry, and ICP emission and mass spectrometry are to be employed. However, INAA or RNAA for iodine determination as well as PIXE are also used. For the latter case, samples are generally ashed in a muffle furnace with special care against inclusion of foreign materials; acid decomposition is accomplished with a borosilicate glass beaker and watch glass on a hot plate, and mostly using analytical grade acids. A PTF crucible or pressure vessel with an electric or microwave oven and high purity acids will be useful for ICP-MS determination of Th and U. Standardization procedures should be clearly described, such as the use of standard solutions or the preparation of laboratory standards for neutron irradiation or PIXE measurements. In general, natural matrix reference materials should not be used as calibration standards. Water used, partly in sample preparation, and in chemical analysis is mostly distilled and/or deionized water. Doubly distilled or doubly deionized water is also used. A laminar-flow clean bench (preferably with exhaust function for protection against acid fumes and biological hazard) was previously recommended. However, as also stated before, a conventional

  11. Economic analysis of U.S. ethanol expansion issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Malika

    analyzed when consumers are faced with restricted choice sets. Results suggest that possible government mandates on the consumption of E-10 and E-85 diminish welfare of individuals belonging to the segment 'Conventional Gasoline Acceptor'. Similarly, individuals belonging to 'Ethanol Acceptor' segment experience welfare losses if corn grain ethanol is not available as an alternative transportation fuel. Ethanol is increasingly being used as a gasoline oxygenate and a volume extender in the refinery and blender industry in the U.S. This paper estimates refinery and blender factor demand and evaluates price responsiveness of inputs. The study also develops and tests hypotheses regarding existence of structural change in the industry's demand for inputs. It determines whether there is a common shift point and adjustment rate for structural change in all the refinery and blender inputs by using gradual switching multivariate regression techniques and maximum likelihood methods. Results suggest a structural change in factor demand for inputs in the industry that occurs at different points and rates. Results also suggest that the demand for inputs, except for capital and unfinished oil, has become more inelastic over time.

  12. Molecular order, miscibility, and rheology of molten polyethylenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ibnelwaleed Ali

    New evidence of high-temperature transitions and molecular order in molten polyethylenes is presented, and its influence on the miscibility of polyethylenes is discussed. Thermal and rheological techniques were used to investigate commercial HDPE, LDPE and Ziegler-Natta and Metallocene LLDPEs. Adequate amounts of extra antioxidants were added to the polyethylenes during melt conditioning, following a separate investigation. Polystyrene was utilized to demonstrate the typical behavior of isotropic polymer melts. Temperature sweeps during torque measurements in a melt blender, and when using a rheometer and DSC, showed thermal transitions at about 208°C and 227°C. Torque in the blender over the temperature range 208°--227°C showed a flat profile or an increase in torque near 227°C, unique behavior associated with thermotropic liquid crystal polymers (LCP). Additional support for the liquid-state order that agree with theoretical predictions for a LCP is found. These include indications of an approach to a sign change in the first normal stress difference, N1( ġ ), at low values of the steady shear rate, ġ , and a kink in the non-Newtonian viscosity eta( ġ ). A rheological investigation found no evidence of the attainment of the isotropic state at high temperature and suggested the persistence of order above these transitions. However, highly branched metallocene LLDPE ( ˜ 40 CH3/1000 C) did not show transitions or any evidence of molecular order. It is suggested that polyethylenes possess different molecular conformation in the melt state ranging from the chain-folded HDPE to the amorphous highly-branched LLDPE. It is this molecular order and mismatch of the molecular conformations of different polyethylene structures that provide an explanation for the immiscibility of polyethylenes, as revealed by the dependence of their rheological properties on blend composition. The influence of molecular weight, comonomer type, and mixing temperature on the miscibility

  13. TANK 50 BATCH 0 SALTSTONE FORMULATION CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.

    2006-06-05

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel were requested to confirm the Tank 50 Batch 0 grout formulation per Technical Task Request, SSF-TTR-2006-0001 (task 1 of 2) [1]. Earlier Batch 0 formulation testing used a Tank 50 sample collected in September 2005 and is described elsewhere [2]. The current testing was performed using a sample of Tank 50 waste collected in May 2006. This work was performed according to the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TT/QAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00594 [3]. The salt solution collected from Tank 50 in May 2006 contained approximately 3 weight percent more solids than the sample collected in September 2005. The insoluble solids took longer to settle in the new sample which was interpreted as indicating finer particles in the current sample. The saltstone formulation developed for the September 2005 Tank 50 Batch 0 sample was confirmed for the May 2006 sample with one minor exception. Saltstone prepared with the Tank 50 sample collected in May 2006 required 1.5 times more Daratard 17 set retarding admixture than the saltstone prepared with the September In addition, a sample prepared with lower shear mixing (stirring with a spatula) had a higher plastic viscosity (57 cP) than samples made with higher shear mixing in a blender (23cP). The static gel times of the saltstone slurries made with low shear mixing were also shorter ({approx}32 minutes) than those for comparable samples made in the blender ({approx}47 minutes). The addition of the various waste streams (ETP, HEU-HCAN, and GPE-HCAN) to Tank 50 from September 2005 to May 2006 has increased the amount of set retarder, Daratard 17, required for processing saltstone slurries through the Saltstone facility. If these streams are continued to be added to Tank 50, the quantity of admixtures required to maintain the same processing conditions for the Saltstone facility will probably change and additional testing is recommended to reconfirm the Tank 50 Saltstone formulation.

  14. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  15. In situ TEM visualization of superior nanomechanical flexibility of shear-exfoliated phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Ma, Hongyu; Lei, Shuangying; Sun, Jun; Chen, Jing; Ge, Binghui; Zhu, Yimei; Sun, Litao

    2016-07-01

    Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. This work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. We demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to 34% were observed. Moreover, a facile liquid-phase shear exfoliation route has been developed to produce such mono-layer and few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes in organic solvents using only a household kitchen blender. The effects of surface tensions of the applied solvents on the ratio of average length and thickness (L/T) of the nanoflakes were studied systematically. The results reported here will pave the way for potential industrial-scale applications of flexible phosphorene nanoelectronic devices.Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. This work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. We demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to

  16. TANK 50 BATCH 0 SALTSTONE FORMULATION CONFIRMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel were requested to confirm the Tank 50 Batch 0 grout formulation per Technical Task Request, SSF-TTR-2006-0001 (task 1 of 2) [1]. Earlier Batch 0 formulation testing used a Tank 50 sample collected in September 2005 and is described elsewhere [2]. The current testing was performed using a sample of Tank 50 waste collected in May 2006. This work was performed according to the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TT/QAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00594 [3]. The salt solution collected from Tank 50 in May 2006 contained approximately 3 weight percent more solids than the sample collected in September 2005. The insoluble solids took longer to settle in the new sample which was interpreted as indicating finer particles in the current sample. The saltstone formulation developed for the September 2005 Tank 50 Batch 0 sample was confirmed for the May 2006 sample with one minor exception. Saltstone prepared with the Tank 50 sample collected in May 2006 required 1.5 times more Daratard 17 set retarding admixture than the saltstone prepared with the September In addition, a sample prepared with lower shear mixing (stirring with a spatula) had a higher plastic viscosity (57 cP) than samples made with higher shear mixing in a blender (23cP). The static gel times of the saltstone slurries made with low shear mixing were also shorter (∼32 minutes) than those for comparable samples made in the blender (∼47 minutes). The addition of the various waste streams (ETP, HEU-HCAN, and GPE-HCAN) to Tank 50 from September 2005 to May 2006 has increased the amount of set retarder, Daratard 17, required for processing saltstone slurries through the Saltstone facility. If these streams are continued to be added to Tank 50, the quantity of admixtures required to maintain the same processing conditions for the Saltstone facility will probably change and additional testing is recommended to reconfirm the Tank 50 Saltstone formulation

  17. Roller Compaction for Solid Dosage Form Development and its Application - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Gawas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Roller compaction is a dry granulation innovation in which powder is densified between two counter pivoting moves by the utilization of mechanical weight as powder goes through the rolls. Dry granulation process powders comprise of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and excipients, e.g., diluents, disintegrants, and ointments, are blended in appropriate blender. The powder blends are then roller compacted and estimate diminished to shape granules. Roller compaction is generally want to overcome unfavorable physical properties of powders and APIs, for example, poor stream, low mass thickness, mix consistency, isolation of powder mixes by upgrading process parameter and choice of excipients. Roller compaction process has noteworthy impact on particles size appropriation, flowability, homogeneity, compressibility, compactability of dynamic pharmaceutical fixings and excipients and therefore can influence thusly disintegration profile, breaking down time, hardness and other post pressure parameter of tablet. Roller compaction process offers favorable as contrasted and wet granulation process, for example, basic assembling technique, less demanding scale up, high volume generation yield, and generally low operational expenses. Roller compaction process prohibits fluid dissolvable or binder solution. This procedure is additionally vitality effective and reasonable for preparing pharmaceutical agents that are sensitive to moisture and heat. Great quality granules can be gotten by upgrading roller compaction process parameter, for example, pressure power, roller speed, screw feeder speed, roll gap and milling.

  18. Open source layered sensing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovito, Todd V.; Abayowa, Bernard O.; Talbert, Michael L.

    2011-06-01

    This paper will look at using open source tools (Blender [17], LuxRender [18], and Python [19]) to build an image processing model for exploring combinations of sensors/platforms for any given image resolution. The model produces camera position, camera attitude, and synthetic camera data that can be used for exploitation purposes. We focus on electro-optical (EO) visible sensors to simplify the rendering but this work could be extended to use other rendering tools that support different modalities. Due to the computational complexity of ray tracing we employ the Amazon Elastic Cloud Computer to help speed up the generation of large ray traced scenes. The key idea of the paper is to provide an architecture for layered sensing simulation which is modular in design and constructed on open-source off-the-shelf software. This architecture shows how leveraging existing open-source software allows for practical layered sensing modeling to be rapidly assimilated and utilized in real-world applications. In this paper we demonstrate our model output is automatically exploitable by using generated data with an innovative video frame mosaic algorithm.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, with data for September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  20. Co-ordinated research project: Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (CRP: E4.30.08). Reference Asian man project, phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Research Coordination Meeting for the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Ingestion and Organ Content of Trace Elements of Importance in Radiological Protection: Reference Asian Man Project, Phase 2' was held at the China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) in Taiyuan, People's Republic of China. During the first technical Session, an overview of the current status of the CRP was presented by the IAEA technical officer, Dr. Parr, and the responsible officer of the Central Reference Laboratory (NIRS, Japan), Dr. Kawamura. They drew attention to the agreed programme of work, as described in the project documentation, and the timetable foreseen for the CRP as summarized in table 1. In general, they concluded that the achievements of the CRP to-date appear to be good, particularly in relation to sample collection (in most countries) and quality control (the development of appropriate reference materials). However, some aspects of the work appear to be a little behind schedule, particularly (1) the final stages of preparation of total diet samples (because of delays in providing a suitable food blender), (2) the analysis of some of the elements of first priority (because of the non-availability, until now, of suitable analytical reference materials), and (3) in some countries, the collection of autopsy specimens. One country (Malaysia) has experienced considerable difficulties in implementing the project due to the retirement of the former Chief Scientific Investigator. For this reason it was unfortunately not possible for the Malaysian representative to be present at the RCM

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1999 with data for November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 82 tabs.

  2. Detection and measurement of organic lampricide residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stacy L.; Kempe, Lloyd L.; Billy, Thomas J.; Beeton, Alfred M.

    1965-01-01

    The selective lampricide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), and its synergist, 5,2'-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (DCN), are separable from natural waters by anion exchange. The adsorbed compounds can then be recovered from the resin as concentrates by elution with selective solvent mixtures. Measurements of the amounts of lampricides in the final concentrates can be made colorimetrically at 395 mI? for TFM and at 530 mI? for the safranin complex of DCN. TFM has also been separated for quantitative determination from homogenates of whole fish. The fish is first macerated in a blender and then hydrolyzed in hot, 3 N hydrochloric acid. The amount of background color, due to certain components of the fish in the hydrolysate, is reduced by one or a combination of three methods: (1) a series of three extractions with ether, methylene chloride, and benzene; (2) cation exchange followed by methylene chloride extraction; or (3) ether extraction followed by anion exchange and subsequent desorption with amyl acetate-acetic acid.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1997 with data from May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  4. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, Corrado; Baghabra, Jumana; Boges, Daniya J; Holst, Glendon R; Kreshuk, Anna; Hamprecht, Fred A; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Lehväslaiho, Heikki; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the application of electron microscopy (EM) to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow us to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions. From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room in which we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of EM preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to the observation of a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. PMID:26179415

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1995, with data for December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-27

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1995 with data for March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-25

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1998 with data for April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1996 with data from March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  9. Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Menlove, H.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology Group] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce purified plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate from irradiated reactor spent fuels, and the co-denitration process area to combine and convert the plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate into mixed oxide (MOX). The selected NDA instruments for conceptual design studies are the MOX-product canister counter, holdup measurement systems for calcination and reduction furnaces and for blenders in the co-denitration process, the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometer for the spent fuel dissolver solution, and unattended verification systems. For more effective and practical safeguards and material control and accounting at RRP, the authors are also studying the conceptual design for the UO{sub 3} large-barrel counter. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art NDA conceptual design and research and development activities for the above instruments.

  10. The Girl Talk Dilemma: Can Copyright Law Accomodate New Forms of Sample-Based Music?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mongillo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available On Gregg Gillis’ laptop computer are thousands of files representing a vast slice of 20th and 21st century popular music.1 His digital music collection is similar to that of many music consumers: it spans a wide variety of genres and runs from the obscure to the mainstream. But Gillis is different from most music consumers in that he uses computer software to cut his digital music files into audio snippets, or samples, and then piece them together into song collages.2 Gregg Gillis is Girl Talk, a recording artist on the Illegal Art label whose music has made yearend best music lists in Time Magazine,3 Rolling Stone,4 Blender5 and Pitchforkmedia.com.6 Girl Talk has developed a strong following throughout the United States and has toured throughout Europe and Australia.7 A PC user, he was recently featured in one of the “I’m a PC” ads for Microsoft.8 But while Girl Talk has been successful, Gillis adds almost no original musical content to his recordings. Although he often alters the speed or pitch of his samples, or loops them in a continuous pattern, he does not sing or rap over his creations. Furthermore, Gillis has never sought licenses or authorization for any of the samples he uses.9 For instance, his latest album, “Feed the Animals,” includes over 300 unauthorized samples10 of artists ranging from Lil Wayne to Radiohead to Metallica to Kenny Loggins.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1999, with data for March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary supplies of petroleum products in the US (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  12. Republic of Korea: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The samples of one day total diet of an adult Korean, based on the food intake data survey of 108 healthy subjects in the age range 20-50 a were prepared in typical Korean style for the intake study. The sampling was based on market basket concept. In all, five samples of total cooked diet were prepared. The samples were thoroughly mixed in a mixer blender fitted with Titanium coated blade and 20% of it was drawn from the lot for freeze drying. The analytical methods used for Cs, U, Th, Sr, I were a combination of INAA, RNAA as well as ICP-MS. For the determination of Ca, Cs, K, Sr and Zn, INAA/ICP-MS were employed and the rest of elements were analysed using both RNAA and ICPMS. Four most commonly consumed foodstuffs in the Republic of Korea, namely Kimchi, fish, pork and beef combination were also analysed to determine their contribution to the daily elemental intakes. However, the four commonly consumed foodstuffs from Korea did not represent the total intake in terms of the major or micronutrients. The data inputs from these food materials were therefore not considered for the Asian diet. They however represent important sources of trace element intakes in Korean diet and this information will be included in another technical document to be prepared at the IAEA with compilation of final country reports on the CRP from all the participating countries

  13. Effect of Different Amounts of Graphite on the Sintering and Transverse Rupture Properties of Powder Metal Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Boz; Adem Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Iron powders were mixed with graphite powders by 1~15 wt pct to produce block samples using powder metallurgy technique. The powders were blended in a three dimensional blender for 20 min and compacted in a die under 500 MPa by using a one directional press. Sinterability and mechanical properties of the samples with different carbon content were investigated. Sintering process was carried out on a belt furnace with flame curtain in dissociated ammonia atmosphere. Block samples produced were suitable for ASTM B-312 transverse rupture strength test apparatus and were tested with 0.050 kN/s velocity in a press under 100 g load. It was found that graphite amount up to 2 wt pct increased the contact area of particles and acted as a lubricant to affect the sintering behaviour positively. The results indicated that the samples containing up to 5 wt pct showed good sintering behaviour and also good hardness due to an increase in pearlite amount. However, the samples containing higher amount of graphite (more than 5 wt pct) affected the sintering behaviour negatively due to the settlement of free graphite around the Fe powders, which resulted in a decrease in the hardness and transverse rupture strength.

  14. Cameleon language Part 1: Processor

    CERN Document Server

    de Sevricourt, O Cugnon

    2011-01-01

    Emergence is the way complex systems arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions between primitives. Since programming problems become more and more complexes and transverses, our vision is that application development should be process at two scales: micro- and macro-programming where at the micro-level the paradigm is step-by-step and at macro-level the paradigm is emergence. For micro-programming, which focuses on how things happen, popular languages, Java, C++, Python, are imperative writing languages where the code is a sequence of sentences executed by the computer. For macro-programming, which focuses on how things connect, popular languages, labVIEW, Blender, Simulink, are graphical data flow languages such that the program is a composition of operators, a unit-process consuming input data and producing output data, and connectors, a data-flow between an output data and an input data of two operators. However, despite their fruitful applications, these macro-languages are not transve...

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1998 with data from December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1999, with data for February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  17. Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States (US) and Brazil have been the two leading producers of fuel ethanol since the 1970s. National policies have supported the production and use of ethanol from corn and sugarcane. US support in particular has included exemption from federal gasoline excise taxes, whole or partial exemption from road use (sales) taxes in nine states, a federal production tax credit, and a federal blender's credit. In the last decade the subsidization of grain-based ethanol has been increasingly criticized as economically inefficient and of questionable social benefit. In addition, much greater production of ethanol from corn may conflict with food production needs. A promising development is the acceleration of the technical readiness of cellulosic alcohol fuels, which can be produced from the woody parts of trees and plants, perennial grasses, or residues. This technology is now being commercialized and has greater long-term potential than grain ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol is projected to be much more cost-effective, environmentally beneficial, and have a greater energy output to input ratio than grain ethanol. The technology is being developed in North America, Brazil, Japan and Europe. In this paper, we will review the historical evolution of US federal and state energy policy support for and the currently attractive economics of the production and use of ethanol from biomass. The various energy and economic policies will be reviewed and assessed for their potential effects on cellulosic ethanol development relative to gasoline in the US

  18. Petroleum supply monthly: July 1998, with data for May 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, with data for August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1995 with data for April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly, March 1996 (with data for January 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-04

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  3. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle size, and total dissolved solids analysis. Standard recipe for barley milk was used without added additives. Barley grain was ground and mixed in a blender for 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The samples were filtered and particle size of the grains was determined by laser diffraction particle sizing. The plant milk was also analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, in the range from 904 to 1699 nm. Furthermore, conductivity of each sample was determined and microphotographs were taken in order to identify the structure of fat globules and particles in the barley milk. NIR spectra, particle size distribution, and conductivity results all point to 45 seconds as the optimal blending time, since further blending results in the saturation of the samples.

  4. 湛江电厂2号炉风粉混合器的优化设计%The Optimal Design of Wind-Pulverized Coal Mixer for Boiler #2 of Zhanjiang Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚明; 陈元霸; 沈跃良; 潘硕裕

    2011-01-01

    由于燃用煤质的下降,湛江电厂2号锅炉一直存在给粉机下粉不畅的问题,严重影响机组运行的安全性和带负荷能力.对其下粉不畅的原因进行了分析,并通过使用Fluent软件对风粉混合器中的静态压力和速度分布进行数值计算,对其风粉混合器的结构进行了优化改进.优化后,锅炉的下粉性能明显改善.相关设计思想对解决类似问题具有很好的指导意义.%Zhanjiang Power Plant No. 2 boiler has been bothered by the problem of discontinuity of pulverized coal falling into the primary air tube due to the decline of coal quality, and the safe operation and load capacity of the unit was seriously affected. The reasons of discontinuous falling are analyzed, and numerical simulations of static pressure and velocity distributions in the wind-powder blender were carried out by use of Fluent software. Based on the simulation results, the structure had been optimized. After optimization, the continuity of falling has been improved significantly.

  5. Discovery of a transiting planet near the snow-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipping, D. M.; Torres, G.; Buchhave, L. A.; Kenyon, S. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Henze, C.; Bryson, S. T. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Isaacson, H.; Kolbl, R.; Marcy, G. W. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stassun, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Bastien, F., E-mail: dkipping@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics Department, Fisk University, 1000 17th Ave. N, Nashville, TN 37208 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    In most theories of planet formation, the snow-line represents a boundary between the emergence of the interior rocky planets and the exterior ice giants. The wide separation of the snow-line makes the discovery of transiting worlds challenging, yet transits would allow for detailed subsequent characterization. We present the discovery of Kepler-421b, a Uranus-sized exoplanet transiting a G9/K0 dwarf once every 704.2 days in a near-circular orbit. Using public Kepler photometry, we demonstrate that the two observed transits can be uniquely attributed to the 704.2 day period. Detailed light curve analysis with BLENDER validates the planetary nature of Kepler-421b to >4σ confidence. Kepler-421b receives the same insolation as a body at ∼2 AU in the solar system, as well as a Uranian albedo, which would have an effective temperature of ∼180 K. Using a time-dependent model for the protoplanetary disk, we estimate that Kepler-421b's present semi-major axis was beyond the snow-line after ∼3 Myr, indicating that Kepler-421b may have formed at its observed location.

  6. Verification of model development technique for NIR-based real-time monitoring of ingredient concentration during blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Kano, Manabu; Hasebe, Shinji; Miyano, Takuya; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Wakiyama, Naoki

    2014-08-25

    There has been a considerable research on the process analytical technology (PAT) and real-time monitoring based on NIR, but the model development is still an important issue and persons in charge have difficulty in building good models. In this study, to realize efficient NIR-based real-time monitoring of ingredient concentration and establish a model development method, we investigated the effect of a calibration set, spectral preprocessing, wavelengths, and other factors on the prediction error through pilot and commercial scale blending experiments. The results confirmed that the small prediction error was realized by a calibration set, including dynamic measurement spectra acquired with the target blender. In addition, the results demonstrated that locally weighted partial least squares (LW-PLS) achieved the smaller prediction error than conventional PLS. The present study has also clarified that spectral preprocessing methods and wavelengths selected to build a model affect the prediction error of ingredient concentration interactively. A wide wavelength range should be selected when the spectral preprocessing does not lessen the effect of baseline variation, while a narrow wavelength range should be selected when it strongly decreases the effect. PMID:24834879

  7. Virtual GEOINT Center: C2ISR through an avatar's eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Mark; Tidbal, Travis; Basil, Maureen; Muryn, Tyler; Scupski, Joseph; Williams, Robert

    2013-05-01

    As the number of devices collecting and sending data in the world are increasing, finding ways to visualize and understand that data is becoming more and more of a problem. This has often been coined as the problem of "Big Data." The Virtual Geoint Center (VGC) aims to aid in solving that problem by providing a way to combine the use of the virtual world with outside tools. Using open-source software such as OpenSim and Blender, the VGC uses a visually stunning 3D environment to display the data sent to it. The VGC is broken up into two major components: The Kinect Minimap, and the Geoint Map. The Kinect Minimap uses the Microsoft Kinect and its open-source software to make a miniature display of people the Kinect detects in front of it. The Geoint Map collect smartphone sensor information from online databases and displays them in real time onto a map generated by Google Maps. By combining outside tools and the virtual world, the VGC can help a user "visualize" data, and provide additional tools to "understand" the data.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on bioremediation, which offers a cost-competitive, effective remediation alternative for soil contaminated with petroleum products. These technologies involve using microorganisms to biologically degrade organic constituents in contaminated soil. All bioremediation applications must mitigate various environmental rate limiting factors so that the biodegradation rates for petroleum hydrocarbons are optimized in field-relevant situations. Traditional bioremediation applications include landfarming, bioreactors, and composting. A more recent bioremediation application that has proven successful involves excavation of contaminated soil. The process involves the placement of the soils into a powerscreen, where it is screened to remove rocks and larger debris. The screened soil is then conveyed to a ribbon blender, where it is mixed in batch with nutrient solution containing nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and surfactants. Each mixed soil batch is then placed in a curing pile, where it remains undisturbed for the remainder of the treatment process, during which time biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, utilizing biochemical pathways mediated by enzymes, will occur

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1999, with data for April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  11. How do we get the medical intelligence out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Two factors are driving a new wave of medical products. The first is the use of technology to make products "intelligent"--that is, build them not only to measure a particular parameter, like blood glucose, but to help patients and caregivers manage conditions. This allows the users of these products focus less on the technical aspects of treating a condition (e.g. calculating the proper amount of insulin to treat a given level of blood glucose) and more on the overall management of the disease. The second development is the rapid movement of devices from the doctor's office to the home. Chain drug stores carry dozens of medical devices for home use by consumers. The challenge for manufacturers and designers is to present the medical device's intelligence in a way that is palatable to the consumer. One important theme is that medical product consumers are also consumers of everything else: home electronics, appliances, clothing, etc. These consumers are applying the same decision-making processes they use when buying a blender to the process of buying a medical device. It is therefore necessary for medical product manufacturers to create devices that interact with consumers in consumer-friendly ways. Putting intelligence into a product is one thing; helping the consumer utilize and appreciate it is quite another. This chapter covers some principles to keep in mind, and discusses a framework for better design of intelligent medical products that connect with consumers on emotional and functional levels beyond simple medical efficacy. PMID:16301773

  12. Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate Monomer onto Starch and Natural Rubber Latex Initiated by Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iskandar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To obtain the degradable plastic, the graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto starch and natural rubber latex was conducted by a simultaneous irradiation technique. Gamma-ray from cobalt-60 source was used as the initiator. The grafted copolymer of starch-polymethyl methacrylate and the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate were mixed in the blender, and dried it in the oven. The dried grafted copolymer mixture was then molded using hydraulic press machine. The effect of irradiation dose, composition of the grafted copolymer mixture, film forming condition and recycle effect was evaluated. The parameters observed were tensile strength, gel fraction and soil burial degradability of grafted copolymer mixture. It was found that the tensile strength of grafted copolymer mixture increased by -ray irradiation. Increasing of the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate content, the gel fraction and tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture increased. The tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture was increased from 18 MPa to 23 MPa after recycled (film forming reprocessed 3 times. The grafted copolymer mixture was degraded completely after soil buried for 6 months

  13. Viburnum opulus: Could it be a new alternative, such as lemon juice, to pharmacological therapy in hypocitraturic stone patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim Tuglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Citrate, potassium, and calcium levels in Viburnum opulus (V. opulus and lemon juice were compared to evaluate the usability of V. opulus in mild to moderate level hypocitraturic stone disease. Materials and Methods: V. opulus and lemon fruits were squeezed in a blender and 10 samples of each of 100 ml were prepared. Citrate, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and pH levels in these samples were examined. Results: Potassium was found to be statistically significantly higher in V. opulus than that in lemon juice (p = 0.006 whereas sodium (p = 0.004 and calcium (p = 0.008 were found to be lower. There was no difference between them in terms of the amount of magnesium and citrate. Concusions: Because V. opulus contains citrate as high as lemon juice does and it is a potassium-rich and calciumand sodium-poor fluid, it can be an alternative to pharmaceutical treatment in mild-to-moderate degree hypocitraturic stone patients. These findings should be supported with clinical studies.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1997 with data from October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregates, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly with data from April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly - with data for May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. This document contains a glossary.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1995: With data for October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1995 with data for July 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Molecular Gastronomy: Transforming Diets for Dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Edelstein

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research is to utilize molecular gastronomy to improve food textures for dysphagia diets, using techniques such as spherification, gelification, and emulsification. It is important for individuals with dysphagia to continue to consume the necessary vitamins and minerals to ensure good health. Molecular gastronomy can be used to enhance pureed diets as more palatable and aesthetically appealing. Medical nutrition therapy for dysphagia calls for foods and beverages to be thickened at prescribed textures and consistencies to prevent choking and aspiration. There is quite a range of unpalatable purees that are currently served to patients, inclusive of baby food and whole meals blenderized together and served in one large bowl. Molecular cuisine allows more variety for many with dysphagia, as food taste is one of few pleasures afforded these patients as a result of their condition and should replace undesirable one bowl meals still served in elder and healthcare facilities. The results of this research suggest that the use of molecular gastronomy in the preparation of pureed foods is favorable and rated highly. The implications of this research can be extended to nursing home facilities, hospitals and long-term care facilities, where patient’s are often on pureed diets for dysphagia.

  2. Discovery of a Transiting Planet Near the Snow-Line

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Buchhave, Lars A; Kenyon, Scott J; Henze, Christopher E; Isaacson, Howard; Kolbl, Rea; Marcy, Geoff W; Bryson, Stephen T; Stassun, Keivan G; Bastien, Fabienne A

    2014-01-01

    In most theories of planet formation, the snow-line represents a boundary between the emergence of the interior rocky planets and the exterior ice giants. The wide separation of the snow-line makes the discovery of transiting worlds challenging, yet transits would allow for detailed subsequent characterization. We present the discovery of Kepler-421b, a Uranus-sized exoplanet transiting a G9/K0 dwarf once every 704.2 days in a near-circular orbit. Using public Kepler photometry, we demonstrate that the two observed transits can be uniquely attributed to the 704.2 day period. Detailed light curve analysis with BLENDER validates the planetary nature of Kepler-421b to >4 sigmas confidence. Kepler-421b receives the same insolation as a body at ~2AU in the Solar System and for a Uranian albedo would have an effective temperature of ~180K. Using a time-dependent model for the protoplanetary disk, we estimate that Kepler-421b's present semi-major axis was beyond the snow-line after ~3Myr, indicating that Kepler-421b...

  3. Isolation and Purification of Water Soluble Proteins from Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale) by Two Dimensional Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandovall, A.O.; Andrews, K.; Wahab, A.; Choudhary, M.I.; Ahmed, A.

    2014-01-01

    The RI-INBRE Centralized Core Facility was established in 2003 and participates annually in Undergraduate Summer Research Program. It provides students hands on research experience in key technologies in biomedical sciences. We present here the isolation and purification of water soluble proteins from ginger, a rhizome of the plant, Zingiber officinale. It is an important ingredient of species used in traditional South Asian cuisines. In Indian, Pakistani and Chinese folk medicine, ginger is used for gastro-intestinal disorders, nausea, vomiting, inflammatory diseases, muscle and joint pain. Limited studies have been reported on the bioactive proteins from ginger extract. The water soluble proteins were extracted from ginger root and successfully purified to homogeneity by using two-dimensional liquid chromatography (FPLC/RP-HPLC) approach. The ginger root was washed with distilled water; skin removed and then emulsified using an electric blender. Sample was stirred for four days at 4°C with and without protease inhibitor. Purification of a 42kDa protein was achieved by employing gel filtration, ion-exchange and reversed phase HPLC. The homogeneity of the protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Future work will be conducted on the protein characterization using mass spectrometry and Edman protein sequencing. Supported by grant 5P20GM103430 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH, USA.

  4. FRELLED: FITS Realtime Explorer of Low Latency in Every Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rhys P. W.

    2015-08-01

    FRELLED (FITS Realtime Explorer of Low Latency in Every Dimension) creates 3D images in real time from 3D FITS files and is written in Python for the 3D graphics suite Blender. Users can interactively generate masks around regions of arbitrary geometry and use them to catalog sources, hide regions, and perform basic analysis (e.g., image statistics within the selected region, generate contour plots, query NED and the SDSS). World coordinates are supported and multi-volume rendering is possible. FRELLED is designed for viewing HI data cubes and provides a number of tasks to commonly-used MIRIAD (ascl:1106.007) tasks (e.g. mbspect); however, many of its features are suitable for any type of data set. It also includes an n-body particle viewer with the ability to display 3D vector information as well as the ability to render time series movies of multiple FITS files and setup simple turntable rotation movies for single files.

  5. openPSTD: The open source pseudospectral time-domain method for acoustic propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornikx, Maarten; Krijnen, Thomas; van Harten, Louis

    2016-06-01

    An open source implementation of the Fourier pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method for computing the propagation of sound is presented, which is geared towards applications in the built environment. Being a wave-based method, PSTD captures phenomena like diffraction, but maintains efficiency in processing time and memory usage as it allows to spatially sample close to the Nyquist criterion, thus keeping both the required spatial and temporal resolution coarse. In the implementation it has been opted to model the physical geometry as a composition of rectangular two-dimensional subdomains, hence initially restricting the implementation to orthogonal and two-dimensional situations. The strategy of using subdomains divides the problem domain into local subsets, which enables the simulation software to be built according to Object-Oriented Programming best practices and allows room for further computational parallelization. The software is built using the open source components, Blender, Numpy and Python, and has been published under an open source license itself as well. For accelerating the software, an option has been included to accelerate the calculations by a partial implementation of the code on the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), which increases the throughput by up to fifteen times. The details of the implementation are reported, as well as the accuracy of the code.

  6. Kepler-10c, a 2.2-Earth radius transiting planet in a multiple system

    CERN Document Server

    Fressin, Francois; Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, David; Batalha, Natalie M; Fortney, Jonathan J; Rowe, Jason F; Allen, Christopher; Borucki, William J; Brown, Timothy M; Bryson, Stephen T; Ciardi, David R; Cochran, William D; Deming, Drake; Dunham, Edward W; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Gautier, Thomas N; Gilliland, Ronald L; Henze, Christopher E; Holman, Matthew J; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Kinemuchi, Karen; Knutson, Heather; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Ragozzine, Darin; Sasselov, Dimitar D; Still, Martin; Tenenbaum, Peter; Uddin, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has recently announced the discovery of Kepler-10 b, the smallest exoplanet discovered to date and the first rocky planet found by the spacecraft. A second, 45-day period transit-like signal present in the photometry from the first eight months of data could not be confirmed as being caused by a planet at the time of that announcement. Here we apply the light-curve modeling technique known as BLENDER to explore the possibility that the signal might be due to an astrophysical false positive (blend). To aid in this analysis we report the observation of two transits with the Spitzer Space Telescope at 4.5 {\\mu}m. When combined they yield a transit depth of 344 \\pm 85 ppm that is consistent with the depth in the Kepler passband (376 \\pm 9 ppm, ignoring limb darkening), which rules out blends with an eclipsing binary of a significantly different color than the target. Using these observations along with other constraints from high resolution imaging and spectroscopy we are able to exclude the va...

  7. Ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection. Country report, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main elements of radiological importance to be studied under the CRP are Strontium, Cesium, Iodine, Uranium and Thorium. Total diets for daily intake of human consisting of eleven common food samples were collected from the local market of Dhaka, the central part of the Country. The food samples were collected on market basket basis and according to the statistical dietary survey for the people of age ranging from 20-50 years. The number of frequency for the sample collection for the total daily diets was eleven, five for man and six for women. After collection, the food items were washed, cleaned and dried at room temperature and weighed and then cooked as is normally eaten in the Bangladeshi style. The cooked samples were then homogenized using commercial blender, mortar and pestle. The samples were then dried at 100-110 deg. C in an electric oven. Before drying a pail of the cooked samples was kept separately in polyethylene bottles with screw caps for iodine determination. Percentage of moisture content of these samples was calculated which varied from max 55.5% to min 40.4%. Ile dried samples were then kept in polyethylene bottles and tight with screw caps and then stored in refrigerator for elemental analysis. (author)

  8. Parametric Deformation of Discrete Geometry for Aerodynamic Shape Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George R.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian

    2012-01-01

    We present a versatile discrete geometry manipulation platform for aerospace vehicle shape optimization. The platform is based on the geometry kernel of an open-source modeling tool called Blender and offers access to four parametric deformation techniques: lattice, cage-based, skeletal, and direct manipulation. Custom deformation methods are implemented as plugins, and the kernel is controlled through a scripting interface. Surface sensitivities are provided to support gradient-based optimization. The platform architecture allows the use of geometry pipelines, where multiple modelers are used in sequence, enabling manipulation difficult or impossible to achieve with a constructive modeler or deformer alone. We implement an intuitive custom deformation method in which a set of surface points serve as the design variables and user-specified constraints are intrinsically satisfied. We test our geometry platform on several design examples using an aerodynamic design framework based on Cartesian grids. We examine inverse airfoil design and shape matching and perform lift-constrained drag minimization on an airfoil with thickness constraints. A transport wing-fuselage integration problem demonstrates the approach in 3D. In a final example, our platform is pipelined with a constructive modeler to parabolically sweep a wingtip while applying a 1-G loading deformation across the wingspan. This work is an important first step towards the larger goal of leveraging the investment of the graphics industry to improve the state-of-the-art in aerospace geometry tools.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly: April 1996, with data from February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the report present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD districts, and 12 Refining Districts. A future article gives a summer 1996 gasoline assessment. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1999, with data for December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  11. Advances in Solar Power Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, S. E.; Kosovic, B.; Drobot, S.

    2014-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research and partners are building a blended SunCast Solar Power Forecasting system. This system includes several short-range nowcasting models and improves upon longer range numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as part of the "Public-Private-Academic Partnership to Advance Solar Power Forecasting." The nowcasting models being built include statistical learning models that include cloud regime prediction, multiple sky imager-based advection models, satellite image-based advection models, and rapid update NWP models with cloud assimilation. The team has also integrated new modules into the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to better predict clouds, aerosols, and irradiance. The modules include a new shallow convection scheme; upgraded physics parameterizations of clouds; new radiative transfer modules that specify GHI, DNI, and DIF prediction; better satellite assimilation methods; and new aerosol estimation methods. These new physical models are incorporated into WRF-Solar, which is then integrated with publically available NWP models via the Dynamic Integrated Forecast (DICast) system as well as the Nowcast Blender to provide seamless forecasts at partner utility and balancing authority commercial solar farms. The improvements will be described and results to date discussed.

  12. Antifungal activity of Terminalia superba (combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIAKA Sohro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to optimize the anticandidosic activities of Terminalia superba (TEKAM4 and the identification of major compounds present in the most active chromatographic fraction. The hydroethanolic extract TEKAM4-X0 was prepared by homogenization employing a blender. Two derivatives extracts of TEKAM4-X0 (X1-1 and X1-2 were obtained by a liquid/liquid partition of TEKAM4-X0 in a mixture of hexane and water (v/v. Three chromatographic fractions (F1, F2 and F3 from X1-2 were separated by means of Sephadex-LH20 gel filtration chromatography. All the extracts were incorporated to Sabouraud according to the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for antifungal assay. The entire fractions were tested on the previously prepared medium culture containing 1000 cells of C. albicans. Antifungal activity was determined by evaluating antifungal parameters values (MFC and IC50. Lastly, the structures of 2 isolated compounds were elucidated by combination of Flash chromatography and spectroscopic methods, including MS, and multiple stage RMN experiments.

  13. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: A comparative study with four different fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  15. Content of CYP3A4 inhibitors, naringin, naringenin and bergapten in grapefruit and grapefruit juice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, P C; Saville, D J; Coville, P F; Wanwimolruk, S

    2000-04-01

    The flavonoids, naringin and naringenin and the furanocoumarin, bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen), were detected in some fresh grapefruit and commercial grapefruit juices but were not detected in other fruit juices tested (orange; orange with apple base; dark grape; orange and mango with apple base; orange, peach, passion fruit juice). The contents of these three grapefruit constituents in commercial juice and fresh grapefruit varied from brand to brand and also from lot to lot. Juice was prepared from the fresh fruit via different methods (by hand, squeezer or blender). The naringin content, after hand-squeeze, ranged from 115 to 384 mg/l. With hand-squeeze juice production, bergapten was not detected (less than 0.5 mg/l) in two varieties of grapefruit, and naringenin was usually not in detectable levels (less than 2 mg/l) in three varieties. All three constituents were present in New Zealand grapefruit preparations (including juice by hand-squeeze) and different lots showed variation in content (1.5-, 2.3- and 4.7-fold for naringin, naringenin and bergapten, respectively). Differences in the concentrations of these three constituents, which have potential for drug interaction, may contribute to the variability in pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 drugs and some contradictory results of drug interaction studies with grapefruit juice. PMID:10812937

  16. War in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegowina, and Kosovo, and PCBs hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picer, M.; Kovac, T.; Picer, N.; Calic, V. [Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia); Miosic, N. [Geological Survey, Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Kodba, Z.C. [Maribor Environmental Protection Inst., Maribor (Slovenia); Rugova, A. [Pristina Univ., Pristina (Serbia)

    2005-07-01

    Recent warfare in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegowina, and Kosovo has increased hazardous waste levels in the involved regions. Data on contaminant levels from water and soil samples collected before 1995 did not demonstrate significant levels of contamination. This paper provided the results of a study which showed that significant levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exist in many of the areas worst affected by the war. During the study, soil and sediment samples were extracted with n-hexane. Fish extracts were extracted using a high revolution blender. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were then separated from organochlorine insecticides on a silica gel column. Electron capture detection gas chromatography (ECD-GC) was used to quantify the POPs. Results showed that levels of PCBs in soil samples from Bosnia and Herzegowina sampled during 2003 showed significantly high levels of total PCBs. Levels of contamination exceeded tolerance levels accepted in Netherlands. Fish samples did not demonstrate high levels of contaminants. Sediment samples from Bosnian rivers showed significant levels of PCBs. It was concluded that levels of PCBs in Bosnia and Herzegowina in 2003 were lower than levels observed in fish sampled in Dalmatia and Croatia. 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. The Iron Horse 3-in-1 frac unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruins, M. [Iron Horse Energy Services, Dunmore, AB (Canada)

    2008-11-15

    This article described an innovative down-hole technology that reduces the environmental impacts associated with shallow gas fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing requires plenty of equipment at the wellsite. The Iron Horse 3-in-1 frac unit reduces traffic to and from the site by reducing the number of units typically required in a frac-through-coiled (FTC) tubing spread. The combination units have been designed without compromising performance or job safety. The 3-in-1 frac unit, which combines the data van, frac pumper and blender can be transported on a single 24-wheeled trailer. The 4 successful tests that have been performed with the unit have demonstrated that customers can save expenses associated with third-party support equipment. In addition, reduced manpower requirements allow for a safer and more effective job performance. Combination units are currently under development for northern-based operations. The 3-in-1 frac unit is well suited for the most advanced coil rigs on the market and can be safely used in slant well operations. 3 figs.

  18. Ethanol production from waste processing tomato dry; Producao de etanol a partir de residuo do processamento de tomate seco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Carla A.P.; Dal Sotto, Jessica; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], emails: carlaschmidt@utfpr.edu.br, jeh.dalsotto@hotmail.com, fabianaschutz@utfpr.edu.br

    2011-07-01

    The generation of waste increases with the development of a region and increases the power consumption. Research about the reuse of waste for energy generation favors solving these two problems. This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of tomato seeds discarded from the production process of tomato pulp dried in ethanol production. Any product that has sugar or other carbohydrate constituted a feedstock for ethanol production, in this study was observed that approximately 26% by weight of 2kg of tomatoes assessed were represented by seeds. We obtained the juice of tomato seeds by use a blender to grind the product to facilitate the process of fermentation. Added to the fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing a pre inoculum with Brix and pH adjusted, sterilized at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, which was subsequently incubated at 28-30 deg C until the end of process. Mixed up to follow this pre inoculum to the rest of the must was sterilized and incubated again at 28-30 deg C until the end of the process. The acquisition of ethanol was carried through a distillation. It was concluded that the seed discarded in the process of the product can be used for this purpose. (author)

  19. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles. PMID:26716007

  20. Simultaneous determination of melamine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in milk by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Yan, Xiaomei

    2009-10-14

    This article describes the development of a simple analytical approach for the simultaneous determination of melamine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in milk samples using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection (DAD) for the first time. Ultraviolet absorption at wavelengths of 214 and 280 nm was applied for the detection of melamine and HMF, respectively. Milk samples were extracted with 1% trichloroacetic acid using a high-speed blender and ultrasonication. After centrifugation and filtration, the extract was analyzed by CE-DAD directly. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was employed as the separation mode by adding sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to the electrolyte. Under optimal separation conditions, melamine, HMF, and interferents were well resolved. The linear dynamic ranges were 0.05-100 microg/mL for melamine (R(2) = 0.9996) and 0.1-100 microg/mL for HMF (R(2) = 0.9997). The assay detection limits were 0.047 microg/mL and 0.067 microg/mL for melamine and HMF, respectively. Satisfactory results were obtained for the assay recovery rate and repeatability. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of melamine and HMF in real milk samples, and the results of melamine were comparable to those obtained using HPLC-UV reference method. PMID:19761188

  1. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Cali, Corrado

    2015-07-14

    Advances for application of electron microscopy to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions (3D). From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here, we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room where we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of electron microscopy (EM) preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to observe a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Passive millimeter-wave cross polarization imaging and phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Samluk, Jesse P.; Wilson, John P.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Murakowski, Janusz A.; Murakowski, Maciej; Prather, Dennis W.

    2009-05-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (mmW) imaging has many specific defense, security and safety applications, due to the fact that all terrestrial bodies above absolute zero are emissive, and these wavelengths are not scattered by normal obscurants such as haze, fog, smoke, dust, sandstorms, clouds, or fabrics. We have previously demonstrated results from the construction of a 94 GHz passive mmW far-field imaging system utilizing optical upconversion, which imaged in only horizontal polarization. The effective radiometric temperature of an object is a combination of the object's surface and scattered radiometric temperatures. The surface radiometric temperature is a function of the object's emissivity, which is polarization dependent. Imaging with radiometric temperature data from both polarizations will allow a greater identification of the scene being imaged, and allow the recognition of subtle features which were not previously observable. This additional functionality is accomplished through the installation of added equipment and programming on our system, thus allowing the simultaneous data collection of imagery in both polarizations. Herein, we present our experimental procedures, results and passive mmW images obtained by using our far-field imaging system, a brief discussion of the phenomenology observed through the application of these techniques, as well as the preliminary details regarding our work on a 3-D passive mmW simulator capable of true physical polarization dependent effective emissivity and reflectivity rendering, based on the open-source Blender engine.

  3. Production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei from dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhiyou; Liao, Wei; Chen, Shulin

    2005-03-01

    Cellulase production by the fungi Trichoderma reesei was studied using dairy manure as a substrate. Data showed that T. reesei RUT-C30 had higher cellulase production than T. reesei QM 9414 and that a homogenized manure, treated by a blender to reduce fiber size, led to higher cellulase production. The cellulase production was further optimized by growing T. reesei RUT-C30 on homogenized manure. The effects of manure concentration, pH, and temperature on cellulase production were investigated with optimal parameter values determined to be 10 g/l manure (dry basis), 25.5 degrees C, and pH 5.7, respectively. Elimination of CaCl2, MgSO4, nitrogen sources (NH4+ and urea) and trace elements (Fe2+, Zn2+, Co2+ and Mn2+) from the original salt solution had no negative influence on the cellulase production, while phosphate elimination did reduce cellulase production. Based on above results, the final medium composition was simplified with manure additives being KH2PO4, tween-80 and CoCl2 only. Using this medium composition and a reaction time of 6-8 days, a maximum cellulase production activity of 1.74 IU/ml of filter paper activity, 12.22 IU/ml of CMCase activity, and 0.0978 IU/ml of beta-glucosidase was obtained. This filter paper activity is the highest ever reported in cellulase production from agricultural wastes. PMID:15491832

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1998, with data for June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 fig., 66 tabs.

  5. Pilot study of a rapid and minimally instrumented sputum sample preparation method for molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Tanya M; Weigel, Kris M; Lakey Becker, Annie; Ontengco, Delia; Narita, Masahiro; Tolstorukov, Ilya; Doebler, Robert; Cangelosi, Gerard A; Niemz, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) enables rapid and sensitive diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), which facilitates treatment and mitigates transmission. Nucleic acid extraction from sputum constitutes the greatest technical challenge in TB NAAT for near-patient settings. This report presents preliminary data for a semi-automated sample processing method, wherein sputum is disinfected and liquefied, followed by PureLyse(®) mechanical lysis and solid-phase nucleic acid extraction in a miniaturized, battery-operated bead blender. Sputum liquefaction and disinfection enabled a >10(4) fold reduction in viable load of cultured Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) spiked into human sputum, which mitigates biohazard concerns. Sample preparation via the PureLyse(®) method and a clinically validated manual method enabled positive PCR-based detection for sputum spiked with 10(4) and 10(5) colony forming units (cfu)/mL M.tb. At 10(3) cfu/mL sputum, four of six and two of six samples amplified using the comparator and PureLyse(®) method, respectively. For clinical specimens from TB cases and controls, the two methods provided 100% concordant results for samples with 1 mL input volume (N = 41). The semi-automated PureLyse(®) method therefore performed similarly to a validated manual comparator method, but is faster, minimally instrumented, and can be integrated into TB molecular diagnostic platforms designed for near-patient low-resource settings. PMID:26785769

  6. Scalable shear-exfoliation of high-quality phosphorene nanoflakes with reliable electrochemical cycleability in nano batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Ge, Binghui; Chen, Jing; Nathan, Arokia; Xin, Linhuo L.; Ma, Hongyu; Min, Huihua; Zhu, Chongyang; Xia, Weiwei; Li, Zhengrui; Li, Shengli; Yu, Kaihao; Wu, Lijun; Cui, Yiping; Sun, Litao; Zhu, Yimei

    2016-06-01

    Atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise as an alternative to graphene and other two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, bulk black phosphorus (BP) suffers from rapid capacity fading and poor rechargeable performance. This work reports for the first time the use of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to construct nanoscale phosphorene LIBs. This enables direct visualization of the mechanisms underlying capacity fading in thick multilayer phosphorene through real-time capture of delithiation-induced structural decomposition, which serves to reduce electrical conductivity thus causing irreversibility of the lithiated phases. We further demonstrate that few-layer-thick phosphorene successfully circumvents the structural decomposition and holds superior structural restorability, even when subject to multi-cycle lithiation/delithiation processes and concomitant huge volume expansion. This finding provides breakthrough insights into thickness-dependent lithium diffusion kinetics in phosphorene. More importantly, a scalable liquid-phase shear exfoliation route has been developed to produce high-quality ultrathin phosphorene using simple means such as a high-speed shear mixer or even a household kitchen blender with the shear rate threshold of ˜1.25 × 104 s-1. The results reported here will pave the way for industrial-scale applications of rechargeable phosphorene LIBs.

  7. The use of nuclear and related analytical techniques for the determination of ingestion and organ content of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on the progress and development of the project following the First Research Co-ordination Meeting in Manila, Philippines, 1-4 July, 1996. The collection of food samples is performed by modified market basket (i.e. based on the Daily Average Per Capita Consumption of Caloric data for every food commodities, and energy values per gram of individual vegetables, fruit, meat etc.) and duplicate diet method. The food was blended using a commercially available blender, then was freeze dried. Several autopsy samples have been collected and are stored at -40 deg. C in a freezer. Preliminary experiment for quantification of potassium, calcium and strontium in 9 food samples has been performed by atomic absorption spectrometry. From the atomic absorption analysis it was estimated that the average daily intake for strontium, potassium and calcium are respectively 2.3 mg/day, 2.5 g/day and 0.36 g/day. It was found that from instrumental neutron activation analysis, the average daily intake for cesium and zinc (from 7 samples) are respectively 36 μg/day and 5.4 mg/day. Future activities to complete the project are presented at the end of this report. (author)

  8. Toxicology studies with a high-boiling lubricating oil (Esstic 46 CF) used in a hydroelectric generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spill of approximately 1,000 gallons of lubricating oil occurred at Manitoba Hydro's Great Falls generating station on the Winnipeg River. The spill prompted an investigation of the toxicity of this oil to fish. The first test of the Esstic 46 CF oil was a gas chromatographic separation of the components in order to identify hydrocarbons. Results showed that the oil did not contain low-boiling aliphatic or aromatic compounds, therefore, the toxicity was expected to be low. Several oil-in-water emulsions were prepared by mixing oil and water in a blender at different ratios of oil to water, up to a maximum of 500 ppm. Fish were fed this emulsion twice weekly. More than half the fish survived the tests. More fish died at the two highest exposure concentrations. The fish seemed healthy at the end of the exposure with only a small thickening of gills from the two highest oil/water ratios. It was concluded that Esstic 46 CF oil was not acutely toxic to fish under these exposure conditions. Some damage resulted, but the effects were mild compared to other oils. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  9. Optimization of the Agar-gel Method for Isolation of Migrating Ascaris suum Larvae From the Liver and Lungs of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Høg M

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on use of an agar-gel method for recovery of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs were conducted to obtain fast standardized methods. Subsamples of blended tissues of pig liver and lungs were mixed with agar to a final concentration of 1% agar and the larvae allowed to migrate out of the agar-gel into 0.9% NaCl at 38°C. The results showed that within 3 h more than 88% of the recoverable larvae migrated out of the liver agar-gel and more than 83% of the obtained larvae migrated out of the lung agar-gel. The larvae were subsequently available in a very clean suspension which reduced the sample counting time. Blending the liver for 60 sec in a commercial blender showed significantly higher larvae recovery than blending for 30 sec. Addition of gentamycin to reduce bacterial growth during incubation, glucose to increase larval motility during migration or ice to increase sedimentation of migrated larvae did not influence larvae recovery significantly.

  10. Comparison of methods for extracting thylakoid membranes of Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Er; Yuan, Shu; Schröder, Wolfgang P

    2016-01-01

    Robust and reproducible methods for extracting thylakoid membranes are required for the analysis of photosynthetic processes in higher plants such as Arabidopsis. Here, we compare three methods for thylakoid extraction using two different buffers. Method I involves homogenizing the plant material with a metal/glass blender; method II involves manually grinding the plant material in ice-cold grinding buffer with a mortar and method III entails snap-freezing followed by manual grinding with a mortar, after which the frozen powder is thawed in isolation buffer. Thylakoid membrane samples extracted using each method were analyzed with respect to protein and chlorophyll content, yields relative to starting material, oxygen-evolving activity, protein complex content and phosphorylation. We also examined how the use of fresh and frozen thylakoid material affected the extracts' contents of protein complexes. The use of different extraction buffers did not significantly alter the protein content of the extracts in any case. Method I yielded thylakoid membranes with the highest purity and oxygen-evolving activity. Method III used low amounts of starting material and was capable of capturing rapid phosphorylation changes in the sample at the cost of higher levels of contamination. Method II yielded thylakoid membrane extracts with properties intermediate between those obtained with the other two methods. Finally, frozen and freshly isolated thylakoid membranes performed identically in blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments conducted in order to separate multimeric protein supracomplexes. PMID:26337850

  11. Трехмерное моделирование и визуализация историко-краеведческого музея горнодобывающего региона

    OpenAIRE

    Цеханович, Ольга; Чекмарева, Вера

    2014-01-01

    Работа посвящена трехмерному моделированию и визуализации с помощью программы Blender старообрядческой церкви великомученицы Параскевы Пятницы в деревне Коломино Раменского района московской области, сожженной армией Наполеона в 1812 году.

  12. Adequacy and verifiability of pharmaceutical mixtures and dose units by variographic analysis (Theory of Sampling) - A call for a regulatory paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Kim H; Román-Ospino, Andrés D; Sanchez, Adriluz; Romañach, Rodolfo J

    2016-02-29

    In spite of intense efforts in the last 20 years, the current state of affairs regarding evaluation of adequacy of pharmaceutical mixing is at an impressive standstill, characterized by two draft guidances, one withdrawn, and the other never approved. We here analyze the regulatory, scientific and technological situation and suggest a radical, but logical approach calling for a paradigm shift regarding sampling of pharmaceutical blends. In synergy with QbD/PAT efforts, blend uniformity testing should only be performed with properly designed sampling that can guarantee representativity-in contrast to the current deficient thief sampling. This is necessary for suitable in-process specifications and dosage units meeting desired specifications. The present exposé shows how process sampling based on the Theory of Sampling (TOS) constitutes a new asset for regulatory compliance, providing procedures that suppress hitherto adverse sampling errors. We identify that the optimal sampling location is after emptying the blender, guaranteeing complete characterisation of the residual heterogeneity. TOS includes variographic analysis that decomposes the effective total sampling and analysis error (TSE+TAE) from the variability of the manufacturing process itself. This approach provides reliable in-process characterization allowing independent approval or rejection by the Quality Control unit. The science-based sampling principles presented here will facilitate full control of blending processes, including whether post-blending segregation influences the material stream that reaches the tabletting feed-frame. PMID:26707245

  13. Study on palladium determination by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents results of Pd determinations in neutron activation analysis of spiked biological tissues and CCQM-P63 automotive catalyst. Pd spiked biological tissues of bovine muscle and liver were prepared using a blender with titanium blades and Pd solutions. These materials obtained in a past form were freeze-dried and homogenized before the analysis. Thermal and epithermal neutron activation analyses were applied in these determinations. Separations of Pd from interfering elements were also carried out using solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction techniques, before the irradiations with epithermal neutrons. The irradiations were carried out at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor under thermal neutron flux of about 4 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1 during 4 and 16 h for thermal and epithermal irradiations, respectively. The gamma activities of 109Pd of the irradiated samples and Pd standard were measured using an HGe detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. Results obtained in these analyses indicated that the epithermal irradiation presented higher sensitivity, due to the reduction of interferences. The pre-separation procedure of solid-phase extraction applied also yielded low detection limit. Comparisons made between the Pd results obtained using different procedures of neutron activation analysis indicated a good agreement. The analyses carried out in replicates also indicated a good precision with relative standard deviations varying from 1.2 to 14 %. (author)

  14. Validation of the coupling of mesh models to GEANT4 Monte Carlo code for simulation of internal sources of photons; Validacao do acoplamento de modelos mesh ao codigo Monte Carlo GEANT4 para simulacao de fontes de fotons internas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caribe, Paulo Rauli Rafeson Vasconcelos, E-mail: raulycaribe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Fisica; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Kramer, Richard; Khoury, Helen Jamil [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The use of three-dimensional models described by polygonal meshes in numerical dosimetry enables more accurate modeling of complex objects than the use of simple solid. The objectives of this work were validate the coupling of mesh models to the Monte Carlo code GEANT4 and evaluate the influence of the number of vertices in the simulations to obtain absorbed fractions of energy (AFEs). Validation of the coupling was performed to internal sources of photons with energies between 10 keV and 1 MeV for spherical geometries described by the GEANT4 and three-dimensional models with different number of vertices and triangular or quadrilateral faces modeled using Blender program. As a result it was found that there were no significant differences between AFEs for objects described by mesh models and objects described using solid volumes of GEANT4. Since that maintained the shape and the volume the decrease in the number of vertices to describe an object does not influence so meant dosimetric data, but significantly decreases the time required to achieve the dosimetric calculations, especially for energies less than 100 keV.

  15. Exploring modality switching effects in negated sentences: Further evidence for grounded representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeaHald

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition (e.g., Perceptual Symbol Systems Theory; Barsalou, 1999, 2009 suggest that modality-specific simulations underlie the representation of concepts. Supporting evidence comes from modality switch costs: Participants are slower to verify a property in one modality (e.g., auditory, BLENDER-loud after verifying a property in a different modality (e.g., gustatory, CRANBERRIES-tart compared to the same modality (e.g., LEAVES-rustling, Pecher, Zeelenberg, & Barsalou, 2003. Similarly, modality switching costs lead to a modulation of the N400 effect in event related potentials (ERPs (Collins, Pecher, Zeelenberg, & Coulson, 2011; Hald, Marshall, Janssen, & Garnham, 2011. This effect of modality switching has also been shown to interact with the veracity of the sentence (Hald, et al., 2011. The current event-related potentials study (ERPs further explores the role of modality match/mismatch on the processing of veracity as well as negation (sentences containing “not”. Our results indicate a modulation in the ERP based on modality and veracity, plus an interaction. The evidence supports the idea that modality-specific simulations occur during language processing, and furthermore suggest that these simulations alter the processing of negation.

  16. Immobilization characteristics of molten LiCl salt waste by blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to treat a waste salt from Li-reduction of pyrochemical process, a simple blending process with zeolite A, which could incorporate fission products such as Cs and Sr, were used. A V-type blender, with better efficiency in long-time mixing, was used in investigation of a crystal structure of a salt-loaded zeolite(SLZ) and free salt, in characterization of the SLZ according to operating condition, reaction temperature and time. LiCl*H2O and NaCl were not shown in SLZ by direct-blending, but shown as the minor phases in that by V-type blending. And, NaA phase was transformed to Li-NaA phase at a mixing ratio of LiCl to zeolite, r=1.0, reaction time of 20 hrs, and reaction temperature of 500 .deg. C. A XRD pattern of LiCl*H2O in SLZ with reaction time of 10 hrs showed higher intensity than that of NaCl, and the free salt also increased more, which suggested that the reaction time should not be maintained less than 15 hrs

  17. APLIKASI VIRTUAL TOUR 3D PABRIK PT. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Nugraha Utomo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Company X is a reputable company that has more than 1000 people employees. One of the routines that performed by company X is orientation for new employees, and there is an event that invites them to visit the factory. The location of the main office and the factory is far, so this activity lacks time efficiency. This application aims to facilitate company X in conducting new employee orientation so that the location can be seen in the virtual world. The first thing in the process of making the application is visiting the factory to determine the shape and position of the object, so that the expected results are shown to resemble its original condition. 3d object and its texture are created using Blender application that can be imported into the made application. Collision feature aims to prevent users from penetrating the objects.The position, shape and location of objects contained in the application already resemble the original plant site. The main obstacle in making this application is the creation time, so the detailed map of the plant cannot be completed. The main building, the production building and the warehouse have been made, only small objects contained in the main building have not been contained.

  18. Kepler-22b: A 2.4 Earth-radius Planet in the Habitable Zone of a Sun-like Star

    CERN Document Server

    Borucki, William J; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T; Caldwell, Douglas A; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Cochran, William D; DeVore, Edna; Gautier, Thomas N; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Rowe, Jason; Sasselov, Dimitar; Boss, Alan; Charbonneau, David; Ciardi, David; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Doyle, Laurance; Dupree, Andrea K; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan; Holman, Matthew J; Steffen, Jason A; Mullally, Fergal; Still, Martin; Tarter, Jill; Ballard, Sarah; Buchhave, Lars A; Carter, Josh; Christiansen, Jessie L; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Désert, Jean-Michel; Dressing, Courtney; Endl, Michael; Fabrycky, Daniel; Fischer, Debra; Haas, Michael R; Henze, Christopher; Horch, Elliott; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard; Kjeldsen, Hans; Johnson, John Asher; Klaus, Todd; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Barclay, Thomas; Li, Jie; Meibom, Søren; Prsa, Andrej; Quinn, Samuel N; Quintana, Elisa V; Robertson, Paul; Sherry, William; Shporer, Avi; Tenenbaum, Peter; Thompson, Susan E; Twicken, Joseph D; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Welsh, William F; Basu, Sarbani; Chaplin, Bill; Miglio, Andrea; Kawaler, Steve; Arentoft, Torben; Stello, Dennis; Metcalfe, Travis S; Verner, Graham; Karoff, Christoffer; Lundkvist, Mia; Lund, Mikkel; Handberg, Rasmus; Elsworth, Yvonne; Hekker, Saskia; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R

    2011-01-01

    A search of the time-series photometry from NASA's Kepler spacecraft reveals a transiting planet candidate orbiting the 11th magnitude G5 dwarf KIC 10593626 with a period of 290 days. The characteristics of the host star are well constrained by high-resolution spectroscopy combined with an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry, leading to an estimated mass and radius of 0.970 +/- 0.060 MSun and 0.979 +/- 0.020 RSun. The depth of 492 +/- 10ppm for the three observed transits yields a radius of 2.38 +/- 0.13 REarth for the planet. The system passes a battery of tests for false positives, including reconnaissance spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and centroid motion. A full BLENDER analysis provides further validation of the planet interpretation by showing that contamination of the target by an eclipsing system would rarely mimic the observed shape of the transits. The final validation of the planet is provided by 16 radial velocities obtained with HIRES on Keck 1 over a one year span. Although t...

  19. Validation of the coupling of mesh models to GEANT4 Monte Carlo code for simulation of internal sources of photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of three-dimensional models described by polygonal meshes in numerical dosimetry enables more accurate modeling of complex objects than the use of simple solid. The objectives of this work were validate the coupling of mesh models to the Monte Carlo code GEANT4 and evaluate the influence of the number of vertices in the simulations to obtain absorbed fractions of energy (AFEs). Validation of the coupling was performed to internal sources of photons with energies between 10 keV and 1 MeV for spherical geometries described by the GEANT4 and three-dimensional models with different number of vertices and triangular or quadrilateral faces modeled using Blender program. As a result it was found that there were no significant differences between AFEs for objects described by mesh models and objects described using solid volumes of GEANT4. Since that maintained the shape and the volume the decrease in the number of vertices to describe an object does not influence so meant dosimetric data, but significantly decreases the time required to achieve the dosimetric calculations, especially for energies less than 100 keV

  20. A cost analysis of Colorado's 1991-92 oxygenated fuels program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the methodology used to conduct a cost analysis of Colorado's 1991-92 Oxygenated Fuels Program. This program requires the use of oxygenated fuels during the winter season in Denver and surrounding areas. The cost analysis was conducted as part of an overall cost-effectiveness study of the 1991-92 program conducted by PRC Environmental Management, Inc. (PRC). The paper, however, focuses on cost analysis and does not consider potential benefits of the program. The study analyzed costs incurred by different segments of society, including government, industry, and consumers. Because the analysis focused on a specific program year, neither past nor future costs were studied. The discussion of government costs includes the agencies interviewed and the types of costs associated with government administration and enforcement of the program. The methodology used to calculate costs to private industry is also present. The study examined the costs to fuel refineries, pipelines, and blenders, as well as fuel retailers and automobile fleet operators. Finally, the paper discusses the potential costs incurred by the consumer purchasing oxygenated fuels. Costs associated with issues such as vehicle driveability, automobile parts durability and performance, and fuel economy are also examined. A summary of all costs by category is presented along with an analysis of the major cost components. These include costs which are sensitive to specific circumstances and which may vary among programs

  1. Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States (US) and Brazil have been the two leading producers of fuel ethanol since the 1970s. National policies have supported the production and use of ethanol from corn and sugarcane. US support in particular has included exemption from federal gasoline excise taxes, whole or partial exemption from road use (sales) taxes in nine states, a federal production tax credit, and a federal blender's credit. In the last decade the subsidization of grain-based ethanol has been increasingly criticized as economically inefficient and of questionable social benefit. In addition, much greater production of ethanol from corn may conflict with food production needs. A promising development is the acceleration of the technical readiness of cellulosic alcohol fuels, which can be produced from the woody parts of trees and plants, perennial grasses, or residues. This technology is now being commercialized and has greater long-term potential than grain ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol is projected to be much more cost-effective, environmentally beneficial, and have a greater energy output to input ratio than grain ethanol. The technology is being developed in North America, Brazil, Japan and Europe. In this paper, we will review the historical evolution of US federal and state energy policy support for and the currently attractive economics of the production and use of ethanol from biomass. The various energy and economic policies will be reviewed and assessed for their potential effects on cellulosic ethanol development relative to gasoline in the US. (author)

  2. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy in Adults: Physiological Benefits, Indication, Clinical Benefits, and Adverse Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masaji

    2016-04-01

    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is carried out using an air/oxygen blender, active humidifier, single heated tube, and nasal cannula. Able to deliver adequately heated and humidified medical gas at flows up to 60 L/min, it is considered to have a number of physiological advantages compared with other standard oxygen therapies, including reduced anatomical dead space, PEEP, constant FIO2 , and good humidification. Although few large randomized clinical trials have been performed, HFNC has been gaining attention as an alternative respiratory support for critically ill patients. Published data are mostly available for neonates. For critically ill adults, however, evidence is uneven because the reports cover various subjects with diverse underlying conditions, such as hypoxemic respiratory failure, exacerbation of COPD, postextubation, preintubation oxygenation, sleep apnea, acute heart failure, and conditions entailing do-not-intubate orders. Even so, across the diversity, many published reports suggest that HFNC decreases breathing frequency and work of breathing and reduces the need for respiratory support escalation. Some important issues remain to be resolved, such as definitive indications for HFNC and criteria for timing the starting and stopping of HFNC and for escalating treatment. Despite these issues, HFNC has emerged as an innovative and effective modality for early treatment of adults with respiratory failure with diverse underlying diseases. PMID:27016353

  3. Discovery of a transiting planet near the snow-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most theories of planet formation, the snow-line represents a boundary between the emergence of the interior rocky planets and the exterior ice giants. The wide separation of the snow-line makes the discovery of transiting worlds challenging, yet transits would allow for detailed subsequent characterization. We present the discovery of Kepler-421b, a Uranus-sized exoplanet transiting a G9/K0 dwarf once every 704.2 days in a near-circular orbit. Using public Kepler photometry, we demonstrate that the two observed transits can be uniquely attributed to the 704.2 day period. Detailed light curve analysis with BLENDER validates the planetary nature of Kepler-421b to >4σ confidence. Kepler-421b receives the same insolation as a body at ∼2 AU in the solar system, as well as a Uranian albedo, which would have an effective temperature of ∼180 K. Using a time-dependent model for the protoplanetary disk, we estimate that Kepler-421b's present semi-major axis was beyond the snow-line after ∼3 Myr, indicating that Kepler-421b may have formed at its observed location.

  4. Validation of Twelve Small Kepler Transiting Planets in the Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Caldwell, Douglas A; Twicken, Joseph D; Ballard, Sarah; Batalha, Natalie M; Bryson, Stephen T; Ciardi, David R; Henze, Christopher E; Howell, Steve B; Isaacson, Howard T; Jenkins, Jon M; Muirhead, Philip S; Newton, Elisabeth R; Petigura, Erik A; Barclay, Thomas; Borucki, William J; Crepp, Justin R; Everett, Mark E; Horch, Elliott P; Howard, Andrew W; Kolbl, Rea; Marcy, Geoffrey W; McCauliff, Sean; Quintana, Elisa V

    2015-01-01

    We present an investigation of twelve candidate transiting planets from Kepler with orbital periods ranging from 34 to 207 days, selected from initial indications that they are small and potentially in the habitable zone (HZ) of their parent stars. The expected Doppler signals are too small to confirm them by demonstrating that their masses are in the planetary regime. Here we verify their planetary nature by validating them statistically using the BLENDER technique, which simulates large numbers of false positives and compares the resulting light curves with the Kepler photometry. This analysis was supplemented with new follow-up observations (high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, adaptive optics imaging, and speckle interferometry), as well as an analysis of the flux centroids. For eleven of them (KOI-0571.05, 1422.04, 1422.05, 2529.02, 3255.01, 3284.01, 4005.01, 4087.01, 4622.01, 4742.01, and 4745.01) we show that the likelihood they are true planets is far greater than that of a false po...

  5. Aplikace pro návrh a vizualizaci lezeckých stěn

    OpenAIRE

    Náplava, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Práce se zabývá návrhem a realizací programu pro modelování umělých lezeckých stěn. Aplikace, psaná v programovacím jazyku Python, je nadstavbou profesionálního grafického programu Blender. Umožňuje uživateli vytvořit model stěny v krátkém časovém intervalu, aniž by požadovala rozsáhlé znalosti ovládání Blenderu., tento model otexturovat, rozmístit na něj úchyty a doplnit scénu o další příslušenství. Jádrem programu je space handler skript, vyhodnocující události, při...

  6. Method of quantitative bacterial count in burn wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe a technique for conducting Quantitative bacteriology in burn wounds, which is a very important tool in the management of burn wound sepsis. Technique was used in 21 patients with burn wound injury. Biopsy for the bacteriology was taken with the help of punch forceps. Then it was directly put into sterilized pre weighed homogenizer bag containing 1ml normal saline. This bag was re-weighed. Weight of the tissue was obtained and bag was homogenized in homogenizer (Stomacher Lab Blender-80). Four fold dilutions were made of homogenate specimen. From each dilution tube, 0.01 ml was then inoculated on blood agar plates, incubated for 24 hours and number of colonies counted by formula. Four specimens were taken each day and repeated on alternate days for up to 6 days. Out of twenty one patients there were 10 male and 11 female with mean age of 25.95 years. Total body surface area burnt was from 9-41%. Bacterial counts obtained varied from 1.45-8.89. Quantitative bacteriology is simple by the above method and should be employed in every public and private sector burn center. (author)

  7. Experience with a LiveCD in an education process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Růžička

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes how can be LiveCD (Bootable CD used for geoinformatics distance learning. We have prepared one LiveCD with basic software for learning geoinformatics and we have some feedback from users and teachers. The paper should evaluate this feedback. LiveCD is a CD-ROM, that can be used as a bootable device. After booting from the CD, the user can access all resources compiled to the CD. There are operating system (usually based on GNU/Linux and (user, desktop software installed and configured to be used directly after boot. Our CD named GIS´ ak LiveCD contains basic GIS software such as UMN MapServer, GRASS, Quantum GIS, Thuban, JUMP, GPS Drive, Blender and we work on other software packages such as MapLab for UMN MapServer, PostGIS, GeoNetwork Open Source, CatMDEdit, gvSIG, uDIG. GIS´ ak LiveCD contains set of spatial data from the Czech Republic. Main part of the CD are tutorials for GIS software. CD is open for other e-learning materials. Now we have about 20 students using our LiveCD and few other users that are not curently our students. The paper should show Pros & Cons of the LiveCD usage for a distance learning.

  8. Conditioning of Waste LiCl Salt from Pyrochemical Process Using Zeolite A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrolytic (LiCl-Li2O) reduction process (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process; ACP) and the electrorefining process, which are being developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), are to generate two types of molten salt wastes such as a LiCl salt and a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, respectively. These waste salts must meet certain criteria for a disposal. A conditioning process composed of an immobilization and then a thermal treatment, for LiCl salt waste from the ACP has been developed using zeolite A. The immobilization of molten LiCl salt waste was conducted in a blender by mixing it with zeolite A at 923 K, producing a salt-loaded zeolite (SLZ). During the immobilization, the zeolite A was transformed to zeolite Li-A [Li2Al2Si2O80], with some minor phases such as a Li-type sodalite [Li8Cl2-Sod; Li8(AlSiO4)6Cl2] and Nepheline for some zeolite-rich condition. In order to obtain a final ceramic waste form with Na-type sodalite [Na8Cl2-Sod; Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2], the very highly leach-resistant crystal phase, the SLZ with r (=LiCl/zeolite) < 0.3 should be treated in a high temperature furnace above 1173 K, which was independent from an addition of glass frit during a mixing. (authors)

  9. Imidacloprid Extraction from Citrus Leaves and Analysis by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Jorge A; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter; Borejsza-Wysocki, Wlodzimierz S; Bauder, Victor S; Morgan, Kelly T

    2016-05-01

    A procedure was developed to extract Imidacloprid (IMD) from newly-flushed and fully-expanded citrus leaves. The extraction was conducted in a bullet blender, using a small sample mass (0.5 g of fresh tissue), stainless-steel beads (24 g), and methanol as extractant (10 mL). The extracts did not require further clean-up before analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated with control samples from IMD-untreated Hamlin orange trees. The method limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.04 and 0.12 μg g(-1), respectively. IMD recoveries from fortified leaf tissue were between 92 % and 102 %, with relative standard deviations of <8 %. The method was further evaluated by extracting leaves from Hamlin orange trees treated with IMD. The treated trees showed maximum concentrations of 10.8 and 21.8 µg g(-1), observed at 20 days after applying two soil-drenching rates (0.51 and 1.02 kg IMD ha(-1)), respectively. This extraction technique will generate useful data on IMD plant uptake, foliar concentration, and correlations with Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) mortality or control. The method could be used to generate baseline data to improve IMD soil-drenching applications as the main management practice to control the ACP. PMID:26988226

  10. Electronic structure of PCBM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Chun-Qi; Wang Peng; Shen Ying; Li Yan-Jun; Zhang Wen-Hua; Xu Fa-Qiang; Zhu Jun-Fa; Li Hong-Nian; Lai Guo-Qiao

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PCBM) using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements and first-principles calculations.The PES spectrum of the entire occupied valence band is reported,which exhibits abundant spectral features from the Fermi level to ~ 24 eV binding energy. All the spectral features are broadened as compared with the cases of C60. The reasons for the broadening are analysed by comparing the experimental data with the calculated energy levels and density of states.Special attention is paid to the analysis of the C60 highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-1 derived states,which can play a crucial role in the bonding at the interfaces of PCBM/polymer blenders or PCBM/electrodes.Besides the well-known energy level splitting of the C60 backbone caused by the lowered symmetry,C 2p states from the side chain mix or hybridize with the molecular orbitals of parent C60.The contribution of the O 2p states can substantially modify the PES spectrum.

  11. The organic agricultural waste as a basic source of biohydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwuryandari, Lies; Priantoro, E. Agung; Sintawardani, Neni; Astuti, J. Tri; Nilawati, Dewi; Putri, A. Mauliva Hada; Mamat, Sentana, Suharwadji; Sembiring, T.

    2016-02-01

    Biohydrogen production research was carried out using raw materials of agricultural organic waste that was obtained from markets around the Bandung city. The organic part, which consisted of agricultural waste material, mainly fruit and vegetable waste, was crushed and milled using blender. The sludge that produced from milling process was then used as a substrate for mixed culture microorganism as a raw material to produce biohydrogen. As much as 1.2 kg.day-1 of sludge (4% of total solid) was fed into bioreactor that had a capacity of 30L. Experiment was done under anaerobic fermentation using bacteria mixture culture that maintained at pH in the range of 5.6-6.5 and temperature of 25-30oC on semi-continuous mode. Parameters of analysis include pH, temperature, total solid (TS), organic total solid (OTS), total gas production, and hydrogen gas production. The results showed that from 4% of substrate resulted 897.86 L of total gas, which contained 660.74 L (73.59%) of hydrogen gas. The rate of hydrogen production in this study was 11,063 mol.L-1.h-1.

  12. Numerical study of natural convection in a horizontal cylinder filled with water-based alumina nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangyin; Li, Yan

    2015-03-01

    Natural heat convection of water-based alumina (Al2O3/water) nanofluids (with volume fraction 1% and 4%) in a horizontal cylinder is numerically investigated. The whole three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedure is performed in a completely open-source way. Blender, enGrid, OpenFOAM and ParaView are employed for geometry creation, mesh generation, case simulation and post process, respectively. Original solver `buoyantBoussinesqSimpleFoam' is selected for the present study, and a temperature-dependent solver `buoyantBoussinesqSimpleTDFoam' is developed to ensure the simulation is more realistic. The two solvers are used for same cases and compared to corresponding experimental results. The flow regime in these cases is laminar (Reynolds number is 150) and the Rayleigh number range is 0.7 × 107 ~ 5 × 107. By comparison, the average natural Nusselt numbers of water and Al2O3/water nanofluids are found to increase with the Rayleigh number. At the same Rayleigh number, the Nusselt number is found to decrease with nanofluid volume fraction. The temperature-dependent solver is found better for water and 1% Al2O3/water nanofluid cases, while the original solver is better for 4% Al2O3/water nanofluid cases. Furthermore, due to strong three-dimensional flow features in the horizontal cylinder, three-dimensional CFD simulation is recommended instead of two-dimensional simplifications.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1998, with data for August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. A feature article, Accuracy of petroleum supply data, is also included. 72 tabs.

  14. Processamento de sementes de Moringa oleifera utilizando-se diferentes equipamentos para obtenção de solução coagulante Processing of Moringa oleifera seeds using different equipments to obtain coagulant solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila C. Arantes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho para avaliar o uso de quatro equipamentos no processamento das sementes de Moringa oleifera, visando à produção de solução coagulante a ser empregada no tratamento de água com turbidez obtida sinteticamente. Seis soluções coagulantes com diferentes tipos de processamento foram utilizadas em ensaios de coagulação, floculação e sedimentação em equipamento Jar-Test. A dosagem da solução coagulante utilizada foi 500 mg L-1 e os parâmetros avaliados foram turbidez e cor aparente; verificou-se, após 30 min de sedimentação, que para redução de turbidez e cor aparente os melhores processamentos foram com pilão e máquina de moer, respectivamente, sendo que em ambos os casos o peneiramento do pó foi essencial para a redução dos parâmetros em questão. Através de liquidificador e mixer, os índices de redução de turbidez e cor aparente foram os menores encontrados e a trituração das sementes durante o processamento na máquina de moer e no pilão remove parte do óleo neles presente, o que não ocorre com o uso do liquidificador e mixer, evidenciando que a retirada do óleo presente nas sementes resulta em solução coagulante com maior eficiência.This work was condcted to assess four different equipments used in processing seeds of Moringa oleifera to produce a coagulant solution to be used in water treatment with the turbidity obtained synthetically. Six coagulant solutions with different types of processing were used in assays of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation in Jar-Test equipment. The dose of coagulant solution was 500 mg L-1 and the evaluated parameters were turbidity and apparent color. After 30 min of sedimentation, it was clear that the best processes to reduce turbidity and apparent color were the pestle and grinder, respectively, however, in both cases the sieving of the powder was essential in reducing the parameters in question. Using a blender and a mixer the

  15. Employing 3D Virtual Reality and the Unity Game Engine to Support Nuclear Verification Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project centres on the development of a virtual nuclear facility environment to assist non-proliferation and nuclear arms control practitioners - including researchers, negotiators, or inspectors - in developing and refining a verification system and secure chain of custody of material or equipment. The platform for creating the virtual facility environment is the Unity 3D game engine. This advanced platform offers both the robust capability and flexibility necessary to support the design goals of the facility. The project also employs Trimble SketchUp and Blender 3D for constructing the model components. The development goal of this phase of the project was to generate a virtual environment that includes basic physics in which avatars can interact with their environment through actions such as picking up objects, operating vehicles, dismantling a warhead through a spherical representation system, opening/closing doors through a custom security access system, and conducting CCTV surveillance. Initial testing of virtual radiation simulation techniques was also explored in preparation for the next phase of development. Some of the eventual utilities and applications for this platform include: 1. conducting live multi-person exercises of verification activities within a single, shared virtual environment, 2. refining procedures, individual roles, and equipment placement in the contexts of non-proliferation or arms control negotiations 3. hands on training for inspectors, and 4. a portable tool/reference for inspectors to use while carrying out inspections. This project was developed under the Multilateral Verification Project, led by the Verification Research, Training and Information Centre (VERTIC) in the United Kingdom, and financed by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The environment was constructed at the Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation (VCDNP). (author)

  16. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Vincent, Savariar; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-06-01

    The present study explored the effects of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera tested against third instar larvae of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 500 g powder was macerated with 1.5 L of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol 8h, using Soxhlet apparatus, and filtered. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The yield of crude extract was 11.4, 12.2, 10.6, and 13.5 g in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol, respectively. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extract of J. curcas with LC(50) values of 230.32, 212.85, 192.07, and 113.23 ppm; H. suaveolens with LC(50) values of 213.09, 217.64, 167.59, and 86.93 ppm; A. indicum with LC(50) values of 204.18, 155.53, 166.32, and 111.58 ppm; and L. aspera with LC(50) values of 152.18, 118.29, 111.43, and 107.73 ppm, respectively, against third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanolic extract followed by ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extract. No mortality was observed in the control. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. L. aspera showed the highest mortality rate against the mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The larval density was decreased after the treatment of plant extracts at the breeding sites (sewage water), and hence, these plant extracts of the suitable alternatives of synthetic insecticides for the mosquito vector management. The present results suggest that the medicinal plants extract was an excellent potential for controlling filarial vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:22146997

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  18. Uptake and distribution of technetium-99 by channel catfish Ictalarus punctatus (Rafinesque)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was undertaken to study the uptake and distribution of Tc-99 by channel catfish Ictalarus punctatus (Rafinesque) under laboratory conditions. The major source of the radionuclide was water and not food. Fifty-four small fish (18--21 grams) were exposed to the radionuclide in groups of six in each one of nine to 20 gallon glass tanks containing a Tc-99 concentration of 0.00645 +- 0.0002 μCi/ml. The water temperature remained relatively constant at a value of 19.62 +- 0.270C. The exposure times were 2 hours, 8 hours, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 20 days for the nine groups of fish. Three fish from each tank were separated to be processed as whole body specimens and three were dissected for muscle, skin, gills, gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidney. All samples were homogenized using a laboratory blender and digested in preparation for analysis, using perchloric acid (70%) and hydrogen peroxide (30%), at a temperature of 700C for 30 minutes. Water samples were also collected for radioassay. The analytical technique used in this study was internal liquid scintillation spectrometry. The uptake data were expressed as dpm/g and also as a concentration factor. Statistical analysis indicated significant increase in the radionuclide concentration in fish tissue with time. Statistically significant differences were also observed in the uptake among the different organs at a given time. The lowest concentration factor was achieved by the muscle followed by the skin, gills, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and liver with the highest

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1999, with data for May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The Detail Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  20. Formation of fumonisin B(1)-glucose reaction product, in vitro cytotoxicity, and lipid peroxidation on kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca, Giuseppe; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Ritieni, Alberto; Font, Guillermina; Ruiz, María José; Mañes, Jordi

    2010-01-27

    Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) content in corn products decreases during the heating process in foods containing reducing sugars, mainly because of the formation of N-(carboxymethyl)fumonisin B(1). In this study, a rapid method has been developed for the determination of both compounds in corn products using a high-speed blender, Ultra-Turrax, for solvent extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The kinetics of FB(1) degradation and the formation of the Maillard adduct were studied in a model system constituted by corn bread spiked with FB(1) and heated at 160, 180, and 200 degrees C for 3, 6, 10, 15, and 20 min. FB(1) decreased from 0.96 to 0.3 mg/kg and N-(carboxymethyl)fumonisin B(1) increased to 0.1 mg/kg. Cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation were studied in monkey kidney cells (Vero cells). After 24 h exposure, FB(1) revealed an IC(50) (median inhibitory concentration) of 55 +/- 7 microM with neutral red uptake, but no IC(50) was obtained after N-(carboxymethyl)fumonisin B(1) exposure at the studied concentrations. Lipid peroxidation was assessed using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) method for 90 min and 24 and 48 h. FB(1) significantly increased the production of malondialdehyde in Vero cells exposed to 1 microM FB(1) after 24 h, while malondialdehyde increased after 5 microM N-(carboxymethyl)fumonisin B(1) exposure. These findings showed that the transformation products exhibit lower cytotoxicity than fumonisin B(1) and lipid peroxidation may be involved in the cytotoxicity induced by both toxins. PMID:20041644

  1. Larvicidal and repellent potential ofMoringa oleiferaagainst malarial vector,Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta:Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhu K; Murugan K; Nareshkumar A; Ramasubramanian N; Bragadeeswaran S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vectorAnopheles stephensi(A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20,40,60,80 and100 ppm).Methods:M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample,100 g of the plant material were extracted with300 mL of methanol for8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield122 mg and110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) fromArcang amara andOcimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e.,20,40,60,80 and100 ppm were prepared.Results: Larvicidal activity ofM.oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of theA. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were57.79 ppm and125.93 ppm for the first instar,63.90 ppm and133.07 ppm for the second instar,72.45 ppm and139.82 ppm for the third instar,78.93 ppm and143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract ofM.oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were67.77 ppm and141.00 ppm, respectively.Conclusions:The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived fromM. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs.

  2. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: A method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin ePyka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM, to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: i the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, ii the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  3. Research and practice of the impulse sand fracturing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Qian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the deep development of tight sand gas reservoirs, problems such as short stable production period and quick production decline of gas wells after fracturing have become increasingly prominent. Consequently, there is an increasing demand for the effective penetration and conductivity of artificial fractures. Impulse sand fracturing technology introduces a concept of discrete multilayer sanding inside fractures; joint application of pulse blender which can be switched at high frequency, intensive multi-cluster perforation and special fibrous material made it possible to ensure the flow stability of proppant slug, and placement of nonuniformly-laid sand pinnacles and grooves, which markedly upgraded the capacity of the fracture conductivity to several orders of magnitude more than the conventional method. Laboratory engineering simulation evaluation and field test show that pre-fracturing reservoir evaluation, pulse time design and the optimization of degradable fiber and support equipment are the keys to the success of impulse sand fracturing. Compared with the conventional fracturing, this technique can effectively increase well production, decrease the volume of fracturing proppant, and lower sand plugging risks. An independent sand fracturing pilot test has been conducted in 6 layers of 3 wells for the first time in Block Tao 7 of the Sulige Gasfield, Ordos Basin, as a result, the average volume of fracturing proppant dropped by 28.3%, the average sand intensity dropped by 21.88%, and the post-fracturing average daily gas output increased by 26.8%. This technology provides an efficient and environmentally friendly reservoir stimulation option for tight sand gas reservoirs in China.

  4. In vitro Propagation of Adiantum raddianum Fritz-Luethii%密叶铁线蕨的离体快繁研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范俊强; 郑贵朝

    2011-01-01

    The sporophyllary leaves of Adiantum raddianum Fritz-Luethii were used as explants to study the process of rapid propagation in vitro. The results showed that the rate of the spore germination was 95.6% in 1/2 MS culture medium with 3 mg/L GA and the prothallus propagated at a speed of over 4 times in 1/2 MS culture medium without plant growth hormone. Sporophyte formation was almost impossible in tissue culture, but when prothallia were mixed with different solution and comminuted in a waring blender, and applied to soil, every group of prothallia produced over 1 000 sporophytes.%利用密叶铁线蕨(A diantum raddianum Fritz-Luethii)孢子叶为外植体进行离体快繁研究.结果表明,密叶铁线蕨的成熟孢子在附加GA 3 mg/L的1/2 MS培养基上培养,其萌发率可达95.6%,产生的原叶体在不含激素的1/2 MS培养基上继代,繁殖倍数达4倍以上,但孢子体难以在组培过程中直接获得;将组培过程产生的原叶体从培养瓶内取出后与1/2 MS改良盐溶液混合搅碎,播于基质上,在温室大棚中培养,每团原叶体可产生孢子体超过1 000个.

  5. Assessment of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry based methods for investigating 206 dioxin-like micropollutants in animal-derived food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Christelle; Ratel, Jérémy; Mercier, Frédéric; Blinet, Patrick; Debrauwer, Laurent; Engel, Erwan

    2015-05-01

    This paper evaluates different multiresidue methods based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF/MS) to analyze dioxin-related micropollutants in complex food matrices. In a first step, the column sets Rtx-PCB/BPX-50 and Rtx-Dioxin2/BPX-50 were compared in terms of peak shape (width and symmetry) and resolution for the separation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in solvent. A satisfactory separation of 206 dioxin-related micropollutants including the 17 toxic PCDD/Fs was achieved in 75 min with the column set Rtx-Dioxin2/BPX-50. In a second time, the GC×GC-TOF/MS method was spread to the analysis of dioxin-related micropollutants in complex food matrices. An extraction procedure including accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), centrifugal evaporation and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was optimized. Starting with meat as a model matrix, a micropollutant spiking method was then set up by comparing seven methods in terms of recoveries and reproducibility. The method combining immersion of the meat in a large volume of solvent containing micropollutants followed by homogenization by blender induced recoveries in the acceptable range of 70-130% and satisfactory standard deviations (≤10%) for most of the compounds studied. Limits of detection of the GC×GC-TOF/MS method ranged between 50 and 100 pg/g of spiked fresh meat for PCBs and between 65 and 227 pg/g for PCDD/Fs. Potential applications of this method are discussed. PMID:25814331

  6. SU-E-T-64: CG-Based Radiation Therapy Simulator with Physical Modeling for Avoidance of Collisions Between Gantry and Couch Or Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanouchi, M; Arimura, H; Yuda, I [Kokura Memorial Hospital, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is time-consuming and might cause re-planning to check couch-gantry and patient-gantry collisions on a radiotherapy machine when using couch rotations for non-coplanar beam angles. The aim of this study was to develop a computer-graphics (CG)-based radiation therapy simulator with physical modeling for avoidance of collisions between gantry and couch or patient on a radiotherapy machine. Methods: The radiation therapy simulator was three-dimensionally constructed including a radiotherapy machine (Clinac iX, Varian Medical Systems), couch, and radiation treatment room according to their designs by using a physical-modeling-based computer graphics software (Blender, free and open-source). Each patient was modeled by applying a surface rendering technique to their planning computed tomography (CT) images acquired from 16-slice CT scanner (BrightSpeed, GE Healthcare). Immobilization devices for patients were scanned by the CT equipment, and were rendered as the patient planning CT images. The errors in the collision angle of the gantry with the couch or patient between gold standards and the estimated values were obtained by fixing the gantry angle for the evaluation of the proposed simulator. Results: The average error of estimated collision angles to the couch head side was -8.5% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and -5.5% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Moreover, the average error of estimated collision angles to the couch foot side was -1.1% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and 1.4% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Conclusion: The CG-based radiation therapy simulator could make it possible to estimate the collision angle between gantry and couch or patient on the radiotherapy machine without verifying the collision angles in the radiation treatment room.

  7. Interactive 3d Landscapes on Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanini, B.; Calori, L.; Ferdani, D.; Pescarin, S.

    2011-09-01

    The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  8. INTERACTIVE 3D LANDSCAPES ON LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fanini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  9. NASA Tech Briefs, May 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Topics include: Test Waveform Applications for JPL STRS Operating Environment; Pneumatic Proboscis Heat-Flow Probe; Method to Measure Total Noise Temperature of a Wireless Receiver During Operation; Cursor Control Device Test Battery; Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals Measure Neuronal Activity in the Cortex; ESD Test Apparatus for Soldering Irons; FPGA-Based X-Ray Detection and Measurement for an X-Ray Polarimeter; Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions; Silicon/Carbon Nanotube Photocathode for Splitting Water; Advanced Materials and Fabrication Techniques for the Orion Attitude Control Motor; Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements; RF Reference Switch for Spaceflight Radiometer Calibration; An Offload NIC for NASA, NLR, and Grid Computing; Multi-Scale CNT-Based Reinforcing Polymer Matrix Composites for Lightweight Structures; Ceramic Adhesive and Methods for On-Orbit Repair of Re-Entry Vehicles; Self-Healing Nanocomposites for Reusable Composite Cryotanks; Pt-Ni and Pt-Co Catalyst Synthesis Route for Fuel Cell Applications; Aerogel-Based Multilayer Insulation with Micrometeoroid Protection; Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders; Optimized Radiator Geometries for Hot Lunar Thermal Environments; A Mission Concept: Re-Entry Hopper-Aero-Space-Craft System on-Mars (REARM-Mars); New Class of Flow Batteries for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications; Reliability of CCGA 1152 and CCGA 1272 Interconnect Packages for Extreme Thermal Environments; Using a Blender to Assess the Microbial Density of Encapsulated Organisms; Mixed Integer Programming and Heuristic Scheduling for Space Communication; Video Altimeter and Obstruction Detector for an Aircraft; Control Software for Piezo Stepping Actuators; Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-Based Risk Model (GERM) Code; Sasquatch Footprint Tool; and Multi-User Space Link Extension (SLE) System.

  10. Influence of droplet size on the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract loaded oil-in-water emulsions in mixed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Martin E; Zeeb, Benjamin; Salminen, Hanna; Gibis, Monika; Lautenschlaeger, Ralf; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    The influence of droplet size on the antioxidant activity of oil-in-water emulsions loaded with rosemary extract in mixed emulsion systems was investigated. Firstly, differently sized hexadecane-in-water model emulsions (10% (w/w) hexadecane, 2% (w/w) Tween 80, pH 5 or 7) containing 4000 ppm rosemary extract in the oil phase or without added antioxidant were prepared using a high shear blender and/or high-pressure homogenizer. Secondly, emulsions were mixed with fish oil-in-water emulsions (10% (w/w) fish oil, 2% (w/w) Tween 80, pH 5 or 7) at a mixing ratio of 1 : 1. Optical microscopy and static light scattering measurements indicated that emulsions were physically stable for 21 days, except for the slight aggregation of emulsions with a mean droplet size d₄₃ of 4500 nm. The droplet size of hexadecane-in-water emulsions containing rosemary extract had no influence on the formation of lipid hydroperoxides at pH 5 and 7. Significantly lower concentrations of propanal were observed for the emulsions loaded with rosemary extract with a mean droplet size d₄₃ of 4500 nm from day 12 to 16 at pH 7. Finally, hexadecane-in-water emulsions containing rosemary extract significantly retarded lipid oxidation of fish oil-in-water emulsions in mixed systems, but no differences in antioxidant efficacy between the differently sized emulsions were observed at pH 5. PMID:25586114

  11. Microbiological evaluation of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines from the Army barracks of Brigata Meccanizzata Aosta located in Messina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Beninati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines (VMs. The study was carried out on 203 samples from 15 VMs located in 5 Army barracks in Messina. The samples included: water used for preparation of beverages, swab of water tank, swab of blender machine, chocolate powder, milk powder, cappuccino and chocolate drink (29 samples for each types. All samples were examined for total bacterial count (TBC, coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostri - dium perfringens, Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For the water samples the colony count (CC at 22°C and at 37°C was made. The average values of CC at 22°C and at 37°C were of 10.86x10²±8.72x10² CFU/mL and of 21.72x10²±16.44x10² CFU/mL, respectively. P. aeruginosa, coliform bacteria, S. aureus, E. coli and molds were detected from water. The TBC ranged from 176 CFU/g (±275.2 for chocolate powder to 294.8±69.4 CFU/g for milk powder. S. aureus and molds were isolated from milk powder, while coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus were observed in chocolate powder. The average TBC for hot beverages ranged from 34.32x10³±97.77x10³ CFU/mL for cappuccino to 36.59x10³±10.47x104 CFU/mL for chocolate drink. Coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and molds were detected from cappuccino, while enterococci and molds were observed in chocolate drink. The microbiological characteristics of the water and powders, hygiene, and the periodic cleaning of machines, influenced the microbiological quality of the hot beverages dispensed by VMs.

  12. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPIAM and female RPIAF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  13. FIELD TESTING & OPTIMIZATION OF CO2/SAND FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond L. Mazza

    2004-11-30

    These contract efforts involved the demonstration of a unique liquid free stimulation technology which was, at the beginning of these efforts, in 1993 unavailable in the US. The process had been developed, and patented in Canada in 1981, and held promise for stimulating liquid sensitive reservoirs in the US. The technology differs from that conventionally used in that liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), instead of water is the base fluid. The CO{sub 2} is pumped as a liquid and then vaporizes at reservoir conditions, and because no other liquids or chemicals are used, a liquid free fracture is created. The process requires a specialized closed system blender to mix the liquid CO{sub 2} with proppant under pressure. These efforts were funded to consist of up to 21 cost-shared stimulation events. Because of the vagaries of CO{sub 2} supplies, service company support and operator interest only 19 stimulation events were performed in Montana, New Mexico, and Texas. Final reports have been prepared for each of the four demonstration groups, and the specifics of those demonstrations are summarized. A summary of the demonstrations of a novel liquid-free stimulation process which was performed in four groups of ''Candidate Wells'' situated in Crockett Co., TX; San Juan Co., NM; Phillips Co., MT; and Blaine Co., MT. The stimulation process which employs CO{sub 2} as the working fluid and the production responses were compared with those from wells treated with conventional stimulation technologies, primarily N{sub 2} foam, excepting those in Blaine Co., MT where the reservoir pressure is too low to clean up spent stimulation liquids. A total of 19 liquid-free CO{sub 2}/sand stimulations were performed in 16 wells and the production improvements were generally uneconomic.

  14. Design and implementation of a virtual laboratory of radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work involves the implementation of a virtual laboratory, this project is conducted in the Faculty of Engineering of National Autonomous University of Mexico with the name of LANUVI. It is intended that the laboratory can be used by students who have interest in the nuclear radiation knowledge as well as in its detection and attenuation, in addition serve as and introduction to nuclear systems. In the first part of project will conduct a source that can simulate the particle radiation of Alfa, beta, neutrons and gamma rays. The project will take sources used in class laboratories and elements that are dangerous but are used in different practical applications. After taking the source analyzing the particles behaviour in different media like air, animal tissue, aluminium, lead, etc. The analysis is done in different ways in order to know with which material can stop or mitigate the different types of radiation. Finally shall be measure radioactivity with different types of detectors. At this point, has the behaviour of ionization chamber but in the future is expected to make the simulation of some other radiation detectors. The mathematical models we represent the behaviour of these cases were implemented in free software. The program will be used to implement the virtual laboratory with radiation sources, detectors and different types of shields will be Blender which is a free software that is used by many users for the embodiment of games but try to use as a tool to help visualize the different equipment that is widely used in a radioactive materials laboratory. (Author)

  15. Potential reuse of small household waste electrical and electronic equipment: Methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a general methodology for assessing and estimating the potential reuse of small waste electrical and electronic equipment (sWEEE), focusing on devices classified as domestic appliances. Specific tests for visual inspection, function and safety have been defined for ten different types of household appliances (vacuum cleaner, iron, microwave, toaster, sandwich maker, hand blender, juicer, boiler, heater and hair dryer). After applying the tests, reuse protocols have been defined in the form of easy-to-apply checklists for each of the ten types of appliance evaluated. This methodology could be useful for reuse enterprises, since there is a lack of specific protocols, adapted to each type of appliance, to test its potential of reuse. After applying the methodology, electrical and electronic appliances (used or waste) can be segregated into three categories: the appliance works properly and can be classified as direct reuse (items can be used by a second consumer without prior repair operations), the appliance requires a later evaluation of its potential refurbishment and repair (restoration of products to working order, although with possible loss of quality) or the appliance needs to be finally discarded from the reuse process and goes directly to a recycling process. Results after applying the methodology to a sample of 87.7kg (96 units) show that 30.2% of the appliances have no potential for reuse and should be diverted for recycling, while 67.7% require a subsequent evaluation of their potential refurbishment and repair, and only 2.1% of them could be directly reused with minor cleaning operations. This study represents a first approach to the "preparation for reuse" strategy that the European Directive related to Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment encourages to be applied. However, more research needs to be done as an extension of this study, mainly related to the identification of the feasibility of repair or refurbishment operations

  16. Processamento e estudo da estabilidade de pasta de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Processing and stability study of pequi paste (Caryocar brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroldo Arévalo-Pinedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho de pesquisa teve como objetivo desenvolver um processo de obtenção de pasta de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense para uso culinário e avaliar a sua estabilidade quando acondicionada em embalagens de plástico e de vidro durante 180 dias de armazenamento. O processamento da pasta envolveu: descascamento, retirada da polpa em forma de lascas, obtenção da pasta em liquidificador, acidificação do produto com ácido cítrico até um pH The aim of this paper was to develop a process to obtain a salted and unsalted pequi paste for culinary use and to evaluate its stability when packed in plastic or in glass jars during 180 days of storage. The process included peeling of pequi fruit, pulp cutting, obtain the paste with the use of a blender, acidification of the product with citric acid at a pH < 4,5, addition 10% of NaCl (to avoid the development of deteriorating microorganisms and enzymatic darkening, thermal treatment at 80 ºC during 10 minutes, and hot filling in plastic and glass jars. The final product was submitted to microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the pH values and acidity and color evaluation. The results showed what the acidification with citric acid and hot filling process was effective to establish commercial sterility to the pequi paste in glass jars during a four-month period. The paste was more stable when packed in glass jars than in plastic jars with respect to microbiological and physicochemical analysis and color degradation during the four-month period.

  17. Caring for Tube-Fed Children: A Review of Management, Tube Weaning, and Emotional Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sarah; Davis, Ann M; Bruce, Amanda; Mousa, Hayat; Lyman, Beth; Cocjin, Jose; Dean, Kelsey; Ernst, Linda; Almadhoun, Osama; Hyman, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Enteral nutrition is the practice of delivering nutrition to the gut either orally or through a tube or other device. Many children are reliant on enteral feedings to either supplement their nutrition or as a complete source of their nutrition. Managing children on tube feedings requires a team of providers to work through such dilemmas as feeding schedules, weaning from tube feeding, sensory implications of tube feeding, treatment of pain or nausea associated with eating, oral-motor issues, and behavioral issues in the child and family. The purpose of the current review is to summarize the multidisciplinary aspects of enteral feeding. The multidisciplinary team consists of a variable combination of an occupational therapist, speech-language pathologist, gastroenterologist, psychologist, nurse, pharmacist, and dietitian. Children who have minimal oral feeding experience and are fed via a nasogastric or gastrostomy tube often develop oral aversions. Limited data support that children with feeding disorders are more likely to have sensory impairment and that early life pain experiences contribute to feeding refusal. There are inpatient and outpatient programs for weaning patients from tube feeding to eating. The parent-child interaction is an important part of the assessment and treatment of the tube-fed child. This review also points out many information gaps, including data on feeding schedules, blenderized tube feedings, the best methods for weaning children off enteral feedings, the efficacy of chronic pain medications with tube-fed children, and, finally, the necessity of the assessment of parental stress among all parents of children who are tube fed. PMID:25791833

  18. Approaches to brain stress testing: BOLD magnetic resonance imaging with computer-controlled delivery of carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alan C Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An impaired vascular response in the brain regionally may indicate reduced vascular reserve and vulnerability to ischemic injury. Changing the carbon dioxide (CO(2 tension in arterial blood is commonly used as a cerebral vasoactive stimulus to assess the cerebral vascular response, changing cerebral blood flow (CBF by up to 5-11 percent/mmHg in normal adults. Here we describe two approaches to generating the CO(2 challenge using a computer-controlled gas blender to administer: i a square wave change in CO(2 and, ii a ramp stimulus, consisting of a continuously graded change in CO(2 over a range. Responses were assessed regionally by blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 8 patients with known cerebrovascular disease (carotid stenosis or occlusion and 2 healthy subjects. The square wave stimulus was used to study the dynamics of the vascular response, while the ramp stimulus assessed the steady-state response to CO(2. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR maps were registered by color coding and overlaid on the anatomical scans generated with 3 Tesla MRI to assess the corresponding BOLD signal change/mmHg change in CO(2, voxel-by-voxel. Using a fractal temporal approach, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA maps of the processed raw BOLD signal per voxel over the same CO(2 range were generated. Regions of BOLD signal decrease with increased CO(2 (coded blue were seen in all of these high-risk patients, indicating regions of impaired CVR. All patients also demonstrated regions of altered signal structure on DFA maps (Hurst exponents less than 0.5; coded blue indicative of anti-persistent noise. While 'blue' CVR maps remained essentially stable over the time of analysis, 'blue' DFA maps improved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This combined dual stimulus and dual analysis approach may be complementary in identifying vulnerable brain regions and thus constitute a regional as

  19. Bacterial contamination of hospital-prepared enteral tube feeding formulas in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Hospital-prepared tube feedings from three intensive care units of two hospitals in Isfahan, Iran were analyzed for microbial contamination.
    • METHODS: A total number of 152 samples (76 samples each at the time of preparation and 18 hours following preparation were collected. Standard plate count, coliform count and Staphylococcus aureus count for all samples were conducted. Samples were analyzed also for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp.
    • RESULTS: At the time of food preparation, out of 76 samples, 53 samples (70% had coliform contamination and 87% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 101 cfu/g. Also, 68  amples (90% had S. aureus contamination greater than 101 cfu/g. In standard plate count, 74 samples (97% had counts greater than 103 cfu/g, while 54 samples (71% had counts greater than 104 cfu/g. In second sampling occasion, out of 76 samples, 68 samples (90% had coliform contamination and 84% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 101 cfu/g. Also, 72 samples (95% had S. aureus contamination, 98.6% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 102 cfu/g. In standard plate count, 74 samples (97% had counts greater than 104 cfu/g. No Salmonella or Listeria was detected from samples.
    • CONCLUSION: The results indicated that a majority of the blenderized enteral tube feedings in those hospitals are not safe. In comparison to the standard limits, these enteral tube feedings are highly  ontaminated and posed substantial risk for developing a foodborne disease or nosocomial infection.
    • KEYWORDS: Enteral Feeding, Microbial Contamination, Nosocomial Infection, Standard Plate Count, Coliform.

  20. How visual attention is modified by disparities and textures changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustova, Dar'ya; Fournier, Jérome; Wyckens, Emmanuel; Le Meur, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    The 3D image/video quality of experience is a multidimensional concept that depends on 2D image quality, depth quantity and visual comfort. The relationship between these parameters is not yet clearly defined. From this perspective, we aim to understand how texture complexity, depth quantity and visual comfort influence the way people observe 3D content in comparison with 2D. Six scenes with different structural parameters were generated using Blender software. For these six scenes, the following parameters were modified: texture complexity and the amount of depth changing the camera baseline and the convergence distance at the shooting side. Our study was conducted using an eye-tracker and a 3DTV display. During the eye-tracking experiment, each observer freely examined images with different depth levels and texture complexities. To avoid memory bias, we ensured that each observer had only seen scene content once. Collected fixation data were used to build saliency maps and to analyze differences between 2D and 3D conditions. Our results show that the introduction of disparity shortened saccade length; however fixation durations remained unaffected. An analysis of the saliency maps did not reveal any differences between 2D and 3D conditions for the viewing duration of 20 s. When the whole period was divided into smaller intervals, we found that for the first 4 s the introduced disparity was conducive to the section of saliency regions. However, this contribution is quite minimal if the correlation between saliency maps is analyzed. Nevertheless, we did not find that discomfort (comfort) had any influence on visual attention. We believe that existing metrics and methods are depth insensitive and do not reveal such differences. Based on the analysis of heat maps and paired t-tests of inter-observer visual congruency values we deduced that the selected areas of interest depend on texture complexities.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1998, with data for February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and District of Columbia), 5 PAD Districts and 12 Refining Districts. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  2. A methodology to develop computational phantoms with adjustable posture for WBC calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Whole Body Counter (WBC) is a facility to routinely assess the internal contamination of exposed workers, especially in the case of radiation release accidents. The calibration of the counting device is usually done by using anthropomorphic physical phantoms representing the human body. Due to such a challenge of constructing representative physical phantoms a virtual calibration has been introduced. The use of computational phantoms and the Monte Carlo method to simulate radiation transport have been demonstrated to be a worthy alternative. In this study we introduce a methodology developed for the creation of realistic computational voxel phantoms with adjustable posture for WBC calibration. The methodology makes use of different software packages to enable the creation and modification of computational voxel phantoms. This allows voxel phantoms to be developed on demand for the calibration of different WBC configurations. This in turn helps to study the major source of uncertainty associated with the in vivo measurement routine which is the difference between the calibration phantoms and the real persons being counted. The use of realistic computational phantoms also helps the optimization of the counting measurement. Open source codes such as MakeHuman and Blender software packages have been used for the creation and modelling of 3D humanoid characters based on polygonal mesh surfaces. Also, a home-made software was developed whose goal is to convert the binary 3D voxel grid into a MCNPX input file. This paper summarizes the development of a library of phantoms of the human body that uses two basic phantoms called MaMP and FeMP (Male and Female Mesh Phantoms) to create a set of male and female phantoms that vary both in height and in weight. Two sets of MaMP and FeMP phantoms were developed and used for efficiency calibration of two different WBC set-ups: the Doel NPP WBC laboratory and AGM laboratory of SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium. (paper)

  3. A methodology to develop computational phantoms with adjustable posture for WBC calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Fonseca, T. C.; Bogaerts, R.; Hunt, John; Vanhavere, F.

    2014-11-01

    A Whole Body Counter (WBC) is a facility to routinely assess the internal contamination of exposed workers, especially in the case of radiation release accidents. The calibration of the counting device is usually done by using anthropomorphic physical phantoms representing the human body. Due to such a challenge of constructing representative physical phantoms a virtual calibration has been introduced. The use of computational phantoms and the Monte Carlo method to simulate radiation transport have been demonstrated to be a worthy alternative. In this study we introduce a methodology developed for the creation of realistic computational voxel phantoms with adjustable posture for WBC calibration. The methodology makes use of different software packages to enable the creation and modification of computational voxel phantoms. This allows voxel phantoms to be developed on demand for the calibration of different WBC configurations. This in turn helps to study the major source of uncertainty associated with the in vivo measurement routine which is the difference between the calibration phantoms and the real persons being counted. The use of realistic computational phantoms also helps the optimization of the counting measurement. Open source codes such as MakeHuman and Blender software packages have been used for the creation and modelling of 3D humanoid characters based on polygonal mesh surfaces. Also, a home-made software was developed whose goal is to convert the binary 3D voxel grid into a MCNPX input file. This paper summarizes the development of a library of phantoms of the human body that uses two basic phantoms called MaMP and FeMP (Male and Female Mesh Phantoms) to create a set of male and female phantoms that vary both in height and in weight. Two sets of MaMP and FeMP phantoms were developed and used for efficiency calibration of two different WBC set-ups: the Doel NPP WBC laboratory and AGM laboratory of SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium.

  4. SU-E-T-64: CG-Based Radiation Therapy Simulator with Physical Modeling for Avoidance of Collisions Between Gantry and Couch Or Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: It is time-consuming and might cause re-planning to check couch-gantry and patient-gantry collisions on a radiotherapy machine when using couch rotations for non-coplanar beam angles. The aim of this study was to develop a computer-graphics (CG)-based radiation therapy simulator with physical modeling for avoidance of collisions between gantry and couch or patient on a radiotherapy machine. Methods: The radiation therapy simulator was three-dimensionally constructed including a radiotherapy machine (Clinac iX, Varian Medical Systems), couch, and radiation treatment room according to their designs by using a physical-modeling-based computer graphics software (Blender, free and open-source). Each patient was modeled by applying a surface rendering technique to their planning computed tomography (CT) images acquired from 16-slice CT scanner (BrightSpeed, GE Healthcare). Immobilization devices for patients were scanned by the CT equipment, and were rendered as the patient planning CT images. The errors in the collision angle of the gantry with the couch or patient between gold standards and the estimated values were obtained by fixing the gantry angle for the evaluation of the proposed simulator. Results: The average error of estimated collision angles to the couch head side was -8.5% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and -5.5% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Moreover, the average error of estimated collision angles to the couch foot side was -1.1% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and 1.4% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Conclusion: The CG-based radiation therapy simulator could make it possible to estimate the collision angle between gantry and couch or patient on the radiotherapy machine without verifying the collision angles in the radiation treatment room

  5. Fabrication of TiNi powder by mechanical alloying and shape memory characteristics of the sintered alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the fabrication condition of TiNi alloy powder by mechanical alloying and shape memory characteristics of the sintered alloy. The effect of mechanical alloying condition on the characteristics of mechanically alloyed powder (MA powder) was investigated. Also, the difference in sintering behavior between the MA powder and the elementally mixed powders by V-blender and the shape memory characteristics of the sintered alloys were also examined. The MA powder was fabricated by milling using a planetary ball mill in a rotational speed between 200 and 500 min-1 for various milling times in an atmosphere of Ar gas. These two of powders prepared in different processes were sintered using a pulse-current pressure sintering equipment at various sintering temperatures. The powder agglomerated and its particle size became larger with an increase in milling time. The mixture of Ti and Ni powders changed into an amorphous state by processing for 3.6 ks over 300 min-1. The sintered alloy of the MA powder showed more uniform phase of TiNi than that of the elementally mixed powders sintered in a same manner, however, the former showed a lower density than the latter due to a larger particle size of the MA powder of before-sintering. It was found from the measurement of the transformation temperature of the sintered alloy of the MA powder using DSC that the alloy has shape memory characteristics, and the transformation temperatures of the alloy are higher than those of the alloy of the elementally mixed powders due to waste of Ni powder. (author)

  6. Optimized Blanching Reduces the Host Cell Protein Content and Substantially Enhances the Recovery and Stability of Two Plant-Derived Malaria Vaccine Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Stephan; Holland, Tanja; Boes, Alexander; Spiegel, Holger; Bolzenius, Johanna; Fischer, Rainer; Buyel, Johannes F

    2016-01-01

    Plants provide an advantageous expression platform for biopharmaceutical proteins because of their low pathogen burden and potential for inexpensive, large-scale production. However, the purification of target proteins can be challenging due to issues with extraction, the removal of host cell proteins (HCPs), and low expression levels. The heat treatment of crude extracts can reduce the quantity of HCPs by precipitation thus increasing the purity of the target protein and streamlining downstream purification. In the overall context of downstream process (DSP) development for plant-derived malaria vaccine candidates, we applied a design-of-experiments approach to enhance HCP precipitation from Nicotiana benthamiana extracts generated after transient expression, using temperatures in the 20-80°C range, pH values of 3.0-8.0 and incubation times of 0-60 min. We also investigated the recovery of two protein-based malaria vaccine candidates under these conditions and determined their stability in the heat-treated extract while it was maintained at room temperature for 24 h. The heat precipitation of HCPs was also carried out by blanching intact plants in water or buffer prior to extraction in a blender. Our data show that all the heat precipitation methods reduced the amount of HCP in the crude plant extracts by more than 80%, simplifying the subsequent DSP steps. Furthermore, when the heat treatment was performed at 80°C rather than 65°C, both malaria vaccine candidates were more stable after extraction and the recovery of both proteins increased by more than 30%. PMID:26925077

  7. A deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of Monogenean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Guan Teo

    Full Text Available In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation.

  8. PENGARUH PEMANASAN DAN PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA EKSTRAK LERAK (Sapindus rarak PADA LARVA Crocidolomia pavonana (F. (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia Mediana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hama Crocidolomia pavonana merupakan salah satu kendala biotik penting pada budi daya tanaman sayuran famili Brassicaceae. Salah satu sarana pengendalian hama yang ramah lingkungan ialah insektisida nabati. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan pengaruh pemanasan dan penyimpanan terhadap aktivitas insektisida ekstrak buah lerak (Sapindus rarak pada larva C. pavonana. Irisan buah lerak digiling dalam akuades menggunakan blender. Tiga macam ekstrak lerak yang diuji ialah (1 ekstrak tanpa pemanasan dan langsung digunakan, (2 ekstrak yang disiapkan dengan pemanasan pada suhu 40 °C dan langsung digunakan, serta (3 ekstrak dengan pemanasan dan disimpan pada suhu  ruang selama 7 hari. Setiap ekstrak diuji pada enam taraf konsentrasi dengan menggunakan metode perlakuan daun pakan. Larva instar II C. pavonana diberi pakan daun kubis perlakuan selama 2 hari dan daun tanpa perlakuan pada 2 hari berikutnya. Data kematian larva uji dicatat setiap hari sampai hari ke-4 dan diolah dengan analisis probit. Secara umum mortalitas larva C. pavonana pada semua perlakuan meningkat tajam antara 24 dan 48 jam setelah perlakuan (JSP. Berdasarkan LC95 pada 96 JSP, ekstrak lerak dengan pemanasan (LC95 2,53% sekitar 1,7 kali lebih toksik terhadap larva C. pavonana daripada ekstrak lerak tanpa pemanasan (LC95 4,19%, tetapi toksisitas ekstrak tersebut menurun sekitar 2,9 kali lipat setelah disimpan pada suhu ruang selama 7 hari (LC95 7.43%. Selain mengakibatkan kematian, perlakuan dengan ekstrak lerak juga dapat menghambat perkembangan larva C. pavonana dari instar II ke instar IV.Kata kunci: insektisida nabati, ketahanan simpan, cara penyiapan, toksisitas.

  9. Determination of in Vitro Digestibility of Tropical Feeds Using Cattle Faeces as Rumen Fluid Alternative

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    R. Utomo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to compare the ability of faeces dissolved in distilled water (P1, saline solution (P2, artificial saliva (P3, and rumen fluid (RF as sources of inoculant in in vitro organic matter digestibilities (IVOMD of rice straw, corn stover, napier grass, and pangola grass. The rumen fluid was collected from two rumen fistulated Ongole Crossbred Cows of 306 and 333 kg body weight (BW. The cows were fed 3% of BW consisted of 70% napier grass and 30% concentrate. At the end of 30 days feeding, faecal solution was made out of 350 g fresh faeces dissolved in 1 l of each solvent, homogenized using blender for 30 second, while rumen liquor were collected directly from fistula. After straining with four layers of cheesecloth both faecal solution and rumen liquid were mixed with artificial saliva (1:4 v/v. Fifty ml of each inoculants was pipetted into each incubator tube (100 ml containing 500 mg sample. The tubes were then incubated at 39 oC for 48 h. Value of IVOMD of napier grass, rice straw, corn stover, and pangola grass did not differ among the faecal solvents, but significantly lower (P<0.05 compared to the RF. The value of IVOMD determined using faecal solvent inoculant highly correlated to the RF. The highest regression coefficient was shown by the relation between IVOMD of P1 solvent with RF. It is concluded that faecal dissolved in distilled water could replace rumen fluid as inoculants source in in vitro organic matter to predict digestibility of fibrous feed determination. However, the faecal solvent as inoculant produced lower in vitro digestibility than that of rumen fluid.

  10. Waste management activities at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level radioactive waste-management operations at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited began in 1946 and currently include waste processing and interim storage in engineered facilities built in unsaturated sandy overburden. In addition, an R and D program has been underway for about ten years directed at preparations for a transition from the current storage mode to one of permanent disposal for the management of about 5000 m3/a (as-generated volume) of low- and intermediate-level solid wastes generated on the CRNL site or shipped there from the nuclear industry, radioisotope producers and users across Canada. The first phase of the disposal program was the development and demonstration of selected waste processing methods for the volume reduction and immobilization of solid and liquid low-level wastes. This phase is now nearing completion with the construction, commissioning and operation of the CRNL Waste Treatment Centre. The Centre consists of a controlled-air incinerator for combustible solid and liquid wastes, ultrafiltration, reverse-osmosis, and evaporator systems for aqueous wastes, and wipe-film and ribbon-blender bituminizers for immobilizing the ash and waste concentrates. The second phase of the program is directed at further advances in waste characterization and processing, and at the development of two disposal concepts potentially suitable for the local geological situation - Intrusion-resistant shallow land burial and excavated rock cavities at shallow depth. Also included is the preparation of safety-assessment methodologies for the two concepts. The intent is to carry one or both disposal concepts through the constriction and operation of prototype facilities at CRNL as a qualified component of an evolving integrated disposal strategy for the current inventory and future arisings of wastes to be managed

  11. Kepler-22b: A 2.4 EARTH-RADIUS PLANET IN THE HABITABLE ZONE OF A SUN-LIKE STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search of the time-series photometry from NASA's Kepler spacecraft reveals a transiting planet candidate orbiting the 11th magnitude G5 dwarf KIC 10593626 with a period of 290 days. The characteristics of the host star are well constrained by high-resolution spectroscopy combined with an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry, leading to an estimated mass and radius of 0.970 ± 0.060 M☉ and 0.979 ± 0.020 R☉. The depth of 492 ± 10 ppm for the three observed transits yields a radius of 2.38 ± 0.13 Re for the planet. The system passes a battery of tests for false positives, including reconnaissance spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and centroid motion. A full BLENDER analysis provides further validation of the planet interpretation by showing that contamination of the target by an eclipsing system would rarely mimic the observed shape of the transits. The final validation of the planet is provided by 16 radial velocities (RVs) obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on Keck I over a one-year span. Although the velocities do not lead to a reliable orbit and mass determination, they are able to constrain the mass to a 3σ upper limit of 124 M⊕, safely in the regime of planetary masses, thus earning the designation Kepler-22b. The radiative equilibrium temperature is 262 K for a planet in Kepler-22b's orbit. Although there is no evidence that Kepler-22b is a rocky planet, it is the first confirmed planet with a measured radius to orbit in the habitable zone of any star other than the Sun.

  12. Role of aqueous extract of morinda citrifolia (Indian noni ripe fruits in inhibiting dental caries-causing streptococcus mutans and streptococcus mitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barani Kumarasamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Use of alternative medicine to control oral streptococci is a new topic worthy of further investigation. This study aimed to elucidate the dose-dependent anti-bacterial activity of crude aqueous extract of ripe Morinda citrifolia L. (Family: Rubiaceae fruits against oral streptococci i.e. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis, that cause dental caries in humans.Fresh ripe M. citrifolia fruits (750g were ground in an electronic blender with sterile water (500ml. The crude aqueous extract was lyophilized to yield a brown colored powder. Various concentrations (1000-100μg/ ml of the extract were tested for its antibacterial activity (Kirby and Bauer method against whole cells of S. mutans and S. mitis. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined by micro-dilution method, using serially diluted (2 folds fruit extract, according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS.Crude aqueous extract (1000μg/ ml of ripe M. citrifolia fruits effectively inhibited the growth of S. mutans (19±0.5 mm and S. mitis (18.6±0.3 mm compared to the streptomycin control (21.6±0.3 mm. The growth inhibition was clearly evident with "nil" bacteriostasis, even after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. The MIC of the extract for S. mutans and S. mitis was 125 μg and 62.5 μg, respectively.Our results suggest that phytochemicals naturally synthesized by M. citrifolia have an inhibitory effect on oral streptococci. Furthermore, purification and molecular characterization of the "bioactive principle" would enable us to formulate a sustainable oral hygiene product.

  13. Dielectric properties of RF heated ex vivo porcine liver tissue at 480 kHz: measurements and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of radio frequency thermal ablation (RFTA) is significantly affected by the tissue electrical conductivity: understanding the dielectric properties changes during heating is fundamental to suitably model the medical procedure. Dielectric measurements at 480 kHz were performed on saline, porcine ‘native’ liver tissue (NL) and ‘homogenised’ liver tissue (HL) during uniform RF heating (up to 100 °C) using a two-electrode setup that allowed proper control of the rate of heating. HL was obtained by homogenising the tissue using a blender. The accuracy of the dielectric measurement setup was preliminary assessed using numerical simulations and then validated through experimental measurements on saline solution. The electrical conductivity of liver tissue at 37 °C was 0.2851  ±  0.0215 S m−1 for NL and 0.4135  ±  0.0399 S m−1 for HL. The conductivity increased with increasing temperature: above 60 °C different trends were observed for high and low heating rate experiments (fast and slow heating). While saline and HL were purely resistive, NL showed a capacitive behaviour, progressively lost above 60 °C; the relative permittivity of NL tissue at 37 °C was 2,523  ±  423. This behaviour is connected to the irreversible structural changes of the tissue: an Arrhenius-based model was able to suitably reproduce the different trends observed for NL with a single set of parameters. Finally, the effects of different electrical conductivity models are outlined through RFTA numerical simulations. While the Arrhenius-based models are the most physically based, the performed simulations show that all tested models are suitable for the simulation of RFTA, as long as the electrical conductivity changes with temperature are taken into account. (paper)

  14. Summary of active test of uranium-plutonium co-denitration facility at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report is to explain and discuss the active test results in the uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) co-denitration facility. We had previously performed the uranium test with depleted uranium from February of 2005 to January of 2006. Then, the active test has been in progress since March of 2006 toward the start of commercial operation. Plutonium nitrate (PuN) and uranium nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) are mixed at the ratio of approximately 1:1 from the non-proliferation viewpoint. The mixed solution is supplied into the denitration dish inside the denitration oven where the solution is denitrated by microwave heating and converted to MOX powder (PuO2-UO3). After denitration, the powder is converted to the product of MOX powder (PuO2-UO2) through some heating processes and stored in temporary canisters. The powder is transferred to the blender, and then filled into powder cans. 3 powder cans are packed into a canister and transferred to storage in the co-denitrated product powder storage building. Confirmation of the denitration ability of the mixed solution and characteristics of the product powder, (1) Stable and continuous operation in the target period, (2) Characteristics of the product powder, (3) Processing ability at each process, (4) Impurities in the product powder. The test results of the last step of the active test of the U-Pu co-denitration facility are presented; (1) Average throughput in 5 days at A and B lines was more than the target value. (2) Mean particle sizes and specific surface areas in MOX powder were within the standards. (3) Each process indicated good result. (4) Impurities in product powder were less than each limitation. (author)

  15. Applicability of the one-step DVS method for the determination of amorphous amounts for further different hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorsten; Scherließ, Regina; Schiewe, Jörg; Smal, Rüdiger; Weiler, Claudius; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-08-01

    In a former publication the authors showed that low amounts of amorphous content (LOQ of 0.5%) in a hydrophobic model API (Ciclesonide) can be measured with an individually adjusted one-step dynamic organic vapor sorption (DVS). In this investigation the applicability is tested on various APIs which differ in lipophilicity (poor water solubility) and hygroscopicity (absorption of water). The vapor sorption method proved to be applicable in almost all cases. Moisture sorption isotherms were determined for all five investigated crystalline and amorphous APIs. However, it was necessary to select the parameters individually for each API. The used solvents (water, methanol, isopropanol and methylene chloride) and the humidity-levels (0.05 p/p0 until 0.5 p/p0) were chosen carefully because otherwise the amorphous amounts switch to their crystalline counterparts and are not detectable. The production of fully amorphous samples (absence of crystalline material measured by DSC, mDSC and XRPD) was optimized over several trials. As successfully methods proved ball-milling, freeze-drying, spray-drying and/or quench cooling. In the next step these fully amorphous amounts were blended with crystalline starting material to calibration curves (Turbula blender, influence of electrostatic charge to homogeneity) for the calculation of amorphous content. In summary, the following presented methods were used to determine and quantify low amorphous amounts (between 1.5% and 17.0%) in jet-milled powders (grinding pressure of 8bar, 1-3 grinding cycles), respectively. PMID:26079523

  16. Opuntia ficus indica (L. Fruit Extract as Natural Indicator in Acid-Base Titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In routine experiments synthetic indicators are the choice of acid base titrations. But there are some limitations like environmental pollution, availability and higher cost which leads to search for natural compounds as an acid base indicator was started. The present work highlights theexploit of the methanolic and aqueous extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica plants as a natural acid base indicator in acid base titrations. Opuntia ficus indica plant was identified and fruits were washed and cleaned by distilled water, grinded by a mechanical blender and soaked in 50ml methanol for 48 hours and then triturated in mortal and pestle and the resulting solution were filtered through muslin cloth. The resulted methanolic extract and aqueous extract which was prepared by heating fruits in water for half an hour and filtered used as natural indicator foracidimetry and alkalimetry. For each type of acid base titrations t-value and standard deviation were calculated from results obtained. Natural indicator is easy to prepare, easily available and have no toxic effects and promising results were obtained when it was tested against standard synthetic indicators. Titration shows sharp colour change at the equivalence point. The equivalence points (end points obtained by the fruit extract correlate with the equivalence points obtained by standard indicators. In strong acid and strong base titration, the results obtained in the fruit's extract matched with the results obtained by standard indicator. Hence, natural indicator is found to be a very useful, readily available, nonhazardous, economical, simple to prepare and accurate for the acid-base titrations.

  17. A Screening Procedure for Evaluating Cotton for Rotylenchulus reniformis Resistance in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan, NO.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotylenchulus reniformis is one of the most important nematode pests of cotton. Currently, no cotton cultivar resistant cotton cultivar to this pest is available. In the framework of a breeding program aiming at producing cotton genotype resistant to this nematode, a R. reniformis resistance evaluation protocol based on egg inoculation, extraction and counting, has been established. Two environment conditions (growth chamber and greenhouse, four sieves (75, 50, 20 and 10 µm, three doses of inoculum (1,500; 3,000 and 6,000 eggs, and five durations of infestation (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after inoculation have been tested. The growth chamber programmed to provide 12 h of light, 55%-60% relative humidity and 30-26°C day-night air temperatures revealed to be adequate. The NaOCl (sodium hypochloride-blender-sieving-centrifugation-flotation method, using 75-µm and 20-µm sieves, kaolin powder and MgSO4 (magnesium sulfate solution (specific gravity 1.18 proved to be suitable for effective R. reniformis egg extraction (from roots and counting. Inoculation of 6,000 eggs per seedling and 60 days duration of infestation seemed to be sufficient dose and period for a reliable resistance evaluation. The protocol developed has been tested on known susceptible and resistant cotton genotypes: G. hirsutum L (main cultivated species through the world, susceptible, G. thurberi Tod. (wild cotton species, moderately susceptible G. longicalyx Hutch. and Lee (wild cotton species, very resistant. The results obtained were in accordance with the response expected from the genotypes tested, proving the reliability of the evaluation procedure developed.

  18. Numerical study of natural convection in a horizontal cylinder filled with water-based alumina nanofluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangyin; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Natural heat convection of water-based alumina (Al2O3/water) nanofluids (with volume fraction 1% and 4%) in a horizontal cylinder is numerically investigated. The whole three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedure is performed in a completely open-source way. Blender, enGrid, OpenFOAM and ParaView are employed for geometry creation, mesh generation, case simulation and post process, respectively. Original solver 'buoyantBoussinesqSimpleFoam' is selected for the present study, and a temperature-dependent solver 'buoyantBoussinesqSimpleTDFoam' is developed to ensure the simulation is more realistic. The two solvers are used for same cases and compared to corresponding experimental results. The flow regime in these cases is laminar (Reynolds number is 150) and the Rayleigh number range is 0.7 × 10(7) ~ 5 × 10(7). By comparison, the average natural Nusselt numbers of water and Al2O3/water nanofluids are found to increase with the Rayleigh number. At the same Rayleigh number, the Nusselt number is found to decrease with nanofluid volume fraction. The temperature-dependent solver is found better for water and 1% Al2O3/water nanofluid cases, while the original solver is better for 4% Al2O3/water nanofluid cases. Furthermore, due to strong three-dimensional flow features in the horizontal cylinder, three-dimensional CFD simulation is recommended instead of two-dimensional simplifications. PMID:25852431

  19. The Effect of Freezing and Hydrocolloids on the Physical Parameters of Strawberry Mass-Based Desserts

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    Boča Sigita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of freezing, thickening and storage on the physical properties of the strawberry desserts made with addition of various hydrocolloids. The strawberry cultivars ‘Polka’, ‘Honeoye’, and ‘Senga Sengana’ harvested in Latvia were used in the study. The strawberries were processed in a blender for obtaining a homogenous mass. The strawberry mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at -18 °C. Both fresh and frozen strawberry mass samples with added gelatine, xanthan gum, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose were whisked until obtaining dessert. For determination of the optimum hydrocolloid amount, sensory evaluation was done using a five-point hedonic scale. Moisture, soluble solids content, density, and pH of the product were determined. Apparent viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer DV–III Ultra. Consistency of the dessert during its storage was evaluated using a texture analyser TA.XT.plus. The results of sensory evaluation allow concluding that in order to provide the most acceptable consistency, colour, and taste of strawberry dessert, the optimum quantity of carboxymethyl cellulose and xanthan gum to be added is 0.6% and that of gelatine is 6%. During freezing, the soluble solids content and pH level decreased in the strawberry mass, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased these values. The moisture content in strawberry puree, in its turn, as a result of freezing increased under the influence of syneresis, but added hydrocolloids, on the contrary, decreased this influence. Also the viscosity and consistency of the strawberry puree prepared from the researched cultivars decreased under the influence of freezing, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased both the values, making the strawberry dessert firmer. The research suggests that strawberry dessert with gelatine had the most pronounced changes during storage, but strawberry dessert with added xanthan

  20. Effects of agitation intensity on mycelial morphology and protein production in chemostat cultures of recombinant Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah; Blair; Nienow; Thomas

    1999-02-01

    The effects of agitation on fragmentation of a recombinant strain of Aspergillus oryzae and its consequential effects on protein production have been investigated. Constant mass, 5.3-L chemostat cultures at a dilution rate of 0.05 h-1 and a dissolved oxygen level of 75% air saturation, have been conducted at 550, 700, and 1000 rpm. These agitation speeds were chosen to cover a range of specific power inputs (2.2 to 12 kW m-3) from realistic industrial levels to much higher values. The use of a constant mass chemostat linked to a gas blender allowed variation of agitation speed and hence gas hold-up without affecting the dilution rate or the concentration of dissolved oxygen. The morphology of both the freely dispersed mycelia and clumps was characterized using image analysis. Statistical analysis showed that it was possible to obtain steady states with respect to morphology. The mean projected area at each steady state under growing conditions correlated well with the 'energy dissipation/circulation" function, [P/(kD3tc)], where P is the power input, D the impeller diameter, tc the mean circulation time, and k is a geometric constant for a given impeller. Rapid transients of morphological parameters in response to a speed change from 1000 to 550 rpm probably resulted from aggregation. Protein production (alpha-amylase and amyloglucosidase) was found to be independent of agitation speed in the range 550 to 1000 rpm (P/V = 2.2 and 12.6 kW m-3, respectively), although significant changes in mycelial morphology could be measured for similar changes in agitation conditions. This suggests that mycelial morphology does not directly affect protein production (at a constant dilution rate and, therefore, specific growth rate). An understanding of how agitation affects mycelial morphology and productivity would be valuable in optimizing the design and operation of large-scale fungal fermentations for the production of recombinant proteins. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons

  1. Teores do óleo essencial de cidrão [Aloysia triphylla (L'Hérit Britton (Verbenaceae] em diferentes horários de colheita e processamentos pós-colheita Lemon verbena's [Aloysia triphylla (L'Hérit Britton (Verbenaceae] essential oil content in different harvest periods and post-harvesting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Brant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o teor do óleo essencial de cidrão [Aloysia triphylla (L´Hérit Britton] em diferentes horários de colheita e processamentos pós-colheita. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado. As colheitas foram realizadas em três horários distintos (8 h, 12 h e 16 h, com três repetições. Os processamentos pós-colheita foram cinco: T1- folhas frescas fragmentadas em 1cm; T2- folhas frescas processadas em liquidificador; T3- folhas frescas inteiras; T4- folhas secas inteiras; T5- folhas secas pulverizadas em moinho, com três repetições. O óleo essencial de cada tratamento foi extraído pela técnica de hidrodestilação, utilizando o aparelho modificado de Clevenger, por uma hora e trinta minutos. Os horários de colheita quando se detectou maior teor de óleo foram 8 h e 16 h. Os maiores teores de óleo essencial foram encontrados em folhas frescas fragmentadas em 1cm, folhas frescas processadas em liquidificador, folhas frescas inteiras e folhas secas inteiras.This study was carried out in order to evaluate the essential oil content of lemon verbena at different harvest times and post-harvest processings. The experimental design used was completely randomized. The harvested material was collected at three different hours (8:00, 12:00 and 16:00 pm, and it was taken three times. In post-harvest processings, three replications and five treatments were us do: 1 cm fresh leaf fragments, blended fresh leaves, whole fresh leaves, whole dry leaves and dry leaves ground in mill. The essential oil was determined in Clevenger's modified apparatus for 1 hour and 30 minutes. The periods of the day that detected high essential oil content were at 8:00 am and 16:00 pm. The high essential oil level was in 1 cm fresh leaf fragments, blender processed fresh leaves, whole fresh leaves and whole dry leaves.

  2. Designed Simulation System of 7-DOF Robot based on MRDS%基于MRDS七自由度机器人仿真系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立平; 王殿君; 徐小龙; 曹宇; 刘淑晶; 李强

    2014-01-01

    According to VA1400 7-DOF robot,the robot simulation system was built based on Microsoft Robotics Stu-dio (MRDS).The link coordinate system was built by using D-H method.The forward kinematics equations of robot were deduced from the link parameters.The 7-DOF robot model was built by blender.The simulation software of the 7-DOF ro-bot was designed by using the runtime library of MRDS,and the results were verified in MATLAB toolbox.By comparison of the two simulation results,the maximum deviation was 1 .1 5 mm.It was in reasonable limits.The system simulated the motion state of the 7-DOF robot realistically.It was a basis for robotics researchers to develop offline programming and sim-ulation software.%针对VA1400七自由度机器人建立了基于微软机器人工作室(MRDS)的仿真系统。通过运用D-H 法,建立了机器人连杆坐标系,并由连杆参数推导出机器人正运动学方程;采用Blender三维建模软件,对七自由度机器人进行建模;使用C#语言调用MRDS提供的运行库,设计了七自由度机器人仿真软件,并用MATLAB软件中的机器人工具箱对仿真结果进行了验证。通过对比2种仿真结果,得到最大偏差为1.15 mm,在合理的偏差范围内。该仿真系统逼真地模拟了七自由度机器人的运动状态,为机器人研究人员开发离线编程和仿真软件奠定了基础。

  3. Case report of 5 siblings: malnutrition? Rickets? DiGeorge syndrome? Developmental delay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris William

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of six children are facing a trial on charges of aggravated manslaughter in the care a 5 1/2 month old infant who died suddenly and neglect of their four older children for causing them to be malnourished by feeding them all an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. Both parents declined plea bargains and plan to defend themselves in court. Case presentation The fifth child born to a married couple was breast-fed until 2 1/2 months. Subsequently, the parents fed the baby an exclusively raw foods diet prepared in a blender at home. The four older children, ages 18 months – 6 1/2 years also ate an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. None of the four older children had significant previous injuries or serious illnesses. At autopsy, the infant weighed 3180 mg (6.99 pounds and appeared emaciated. The thymus gland was absent and parathyroid glands were not located. The lungs were "congested." DiGeorge anomaly cannot be ruled out from these findings. Although, the coroner ruled that "malnutrition" was the sole cause of death, malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization definition, cannot be diagnosed in this infant. Compared with standard growth charts, the older children fell 2.1–4.1 standard deviations below the mean for North American children in height and weight. Labs were normal except for a low cholesterol level in all and a low prealbumin in one of three children tested. Therefore, malnutrition cannot be diagnosed in these children. The pediatrician diagnosed rickets in the four-year-old. However, chest x-rays were normal in all and long bone x-rays showed minimal changes in one child – no sign of rickets. The clinical diagnosis of rickets was not confirmed by the Center for Disease Control's criteria. A psychologist diagnosed the 18-month-old as developmentally delayed to the level of a 15-month-old, but this diagnosis is questionable. Conclusion The raw foods vegan diet and possibly inherited small

  4. Alelopatia em extratos de frutos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae Allelopathy caused by fruit extract of juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alelopático do extrato de frutos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. sobre as sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 4 repetições e cinco tratamentos (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% de concentração do extrato bruto. O extrato bruto foi obtido após a extração manual da polpa do fruto e agitação com água em liquidificador utilizando-se 50g de polpa para 500ml de água, e o mesmo foi feito com a casca do fruto. Os resultados mostraram efeito do extrato dependendo da concentração. As maiores concentrações do extrato (100%, 75% e 50% da polpa dos frutos Z. joazeiro apresentaram efeito alelopático desfavorável sobre a germinação de alface, reduzindo-a em 100%, 98,75% e 82,5% respectivamente. O extrato das cascas dos frutos nas concentrações de 75% e 100% reduziu a germinação da alface em 28,75% e 78,75%.This study aimed to identify the allelopathic activity of extracts obtained from Ziziphus joazeiro fruits on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. A randomized design was used with four replications and five treatments (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentration of the crude extract. The crude extract was obtained after manual extration of the fruit pulp and agitation with water in a blender using 50g of pulp in 500ml of water. The same was done with the fruit rind. The results showed the effect of the extract depending on concentration. The greatest extract concentrations (100%, 75% and 50% of Z. joazeiro fruit pulp had an unfavorable allelopathic effect on lettuce germination, having reduced it by 100%, 98.75% and 82.5% respectively. The extract of the fruits rinds in concentrations of 75% and 100% reduced lettuce germination by 28.75% and 78.75%.

  5. Tratamentos físicos e químicos na emergência e no crescimento de plântulas de pinheira Physical and chemical treatments on emergency and growth of sweetsop plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nietsche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar o efeito do armazenamento e a influência de tratamentos físicos e químicos sobre a emergência e o crescimento de plântulas de pinheira. Frutos de pinheiras foram coletados em um pomar comercial no município de Nova Porteirinha, Minas Gerais. Os frutos colhidos maduros foram despolpados e suas sementes, lavadas em água corrente. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em um esquema fatorial, com cinco tratamentos (testemunha, imersão em vinagre, escarificação com lixa, escarificação em liquidificador e desponte com alicate e quatro épocas de armazenamento em geladeira (0, 2, 4 e 6 meses. Trinta dias após o plantio de cada época, foi avaliada a porcentagem de plântulas emergidas, tempo médio para emergência, número de folhas, diâmetro, altura das plantas, matéria fresca e matéria seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. Dentre os principais resultados pode-se destacar que não foram observados efeitos significativos dos tratamentos na quebra de dormência das sementes de pinheira e o armazenamento em geladeira por seis meses não prejudicou a emergência e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de pinheira.This study aimed verifying the effect of the storage and the influence of physical and chemical treatments on emergency and growth of sweetsop plantlets. Sweetsop fruits were collected in a commercial orchard in Nova Porteirinha District, Minas Gerais. Fruits were picked when ripe, the pulp was extracted and the seeds washed. The design was in blocks at random, in a factorial system with five treatments (control, immersion in vinegar, sandpaper scarification, scarification in blender and cutting with pliers and four periods of storage at 4 ºC (0, 2, 4 e 6 months. Percentage of surfaced plantlets, average time to emergency, number of leaves, diameter, plant height, shoot root fresh and dry matter were evaluated thirty days after the planting of each period. Among

  6. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogodo, Alloysius Chibuike; Ugbogu, Ositadinma Chinyere; Ugbogu, Amadike Eziuche; Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406 g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30 min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656 kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21 days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 %) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 %) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27 °C to 29 °C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.50 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and banana), 18.50 ± 0.02 % (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.5 ± 0.01 to 3.8 ± 0.01 (p > 0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.35 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.01 % (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation (P > 0.05) rated the wines acceptability as 'pawpaw and banana wine' > 'pawpaw and watermelon' > 'pawpaw, watermelon and banana' > 'banana and watermelon wine'. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be

  7. China: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diet samples in China were collected according to the sampling strategy devised for the 'First Total Diet Study in China' in 1990 by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine. Based on geographic location, dietary habits and cooking style, the whole of China was divided into 4 regions and from each region one province was selected for the survey. In each of these provinces, 3 survey points (one town and two countryside) were identified, from where 30 families were randomly chosen. The diet composition and the consumption of various food items were recorded by means of weight record for three successive days. Some of these details are given in second total diet study, carried out in China in 1992 [48]. The total diet composition as well as the average daily consumption of each food for Chinese adults, engaged in light physical activity was calculated for each region. Based on the composition of diet and individual food materials, all foods and the products derived from them were classified into the following 13 types: (1) Grain; (2). Beans and nuts; (3) Yam; (4) Meat (including poultry); (5) Egg; (6) Aquatic foods; (7) Milk; (8) Vegetable; (9) Fruits and its salads, etc.; (10) Sugar; (11) Soft beverages and drinking water; (12) Alcoholic beverages; (13) Spices and cooking oil. These foods were collected in 1997 from nearby vegetable markets, subsidiary food stores and farmer markets within the three-survey points in each region. Various foods thus collected were treated and cooked according to the local dietary habit in assigned restaurants and kitchens. Cooked foods were then ground and mixed in the blender. In all, 48 individual food samples were obtained representing the four regions. Samples under frozen condition were shipped to the analytical laboratory for further processing and analysis. All possible precautions already stated in the sampling and quality control chapter were taken to avoid contamination of samples

  8. Development of a pilot system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silayo, Valerian C K.; Lu, John Y.; Aglan, Heshmat A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Sweet potato has been chosen as one of NASA's crops to support human beings in future space missions. One of the possible uses is to make syrup that can be used as a general sweetener. In this work a simple engineering system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup was studied on a laboratory scale. The system comprises the following main units: a blender, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), centrifugal and vacuum filters, deionization column and vacuum evaporator. The system was tested by carrying out conversion processes from fresh sweet potato roots. The roots were pealed, sliced, homogenized, heated and hydrolyzed by diastase of malt and Dextrozyme C (Novo Nordisk BioChem, North America, Inc.) enzymes in the CSTR. After hydrolysis the slurry was filtered, de-ionized and concentrated to get glucose syrup. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the quality of the conversion. The main factor was the level of reducing sugars except for the deionization where ash content and color were the main factors. Through careful control of the system units, good heating performance in the CSTR was obtained and the hydrolysis process attained sufficient conversion. The filtration process that incorporated the centrifuge was faster than when it was by-passed to the vacuum filter but losses in sugars were higher. Deionization removed more than 90% of the ash and reduced pigmentation, with probable insignificant losses in sugars during the deionization process. Recovery levels when the centrifuge was used and when it was by-passed could reach about 65% and 78%, respectively. These correspond to reducing sugar concentration of 259 and 310 mg/ml in 150-ml syrups from 300 g of sweet potatoes in each process. However, from concentration trials, syrups with volumes of 100 and 70 ml with the respective dextrose equivalence of 281 and 213 mg/ml were obtained. The syrups obtained were brownish in color and the process that employed centrifugal filtration

  9. Preparation of High-Quality Paving Asphalt of Liaoshu and Analysis of Its Road Performance%辽曙高等级道路沥青的制备及其路用性能的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 杨鹏; 等

    2001-01-01

    辽曙高粘度原油属低硫环烷基原油,密度大(ρ=0.997 79 g/ cm-3),运动粘度大(υ100=1 223.9 mm2*s-1),其性质类似于一般原油的渣油馏分。以该原油的减压渣油为原料,采用调合法制取沥青,并对其路用性能进行了评价,建立了Frass脆点和5 ℃针入度的关联方程。结果表明:采用调合方法可以制备出符合Q/SHR004-1998要求的AH-70、AH-90高等级道路沥青。该沥青的感温性能优良,粘弹区间(ΔT)大,超过了同类沥青的相应指标。利用所建立的Frass脆点和5 ℃针入度的关联方程,用5 ℃针入度可以预测Frass脆点。%The crude oil of No.1 zone of Liaoshu with high density (ρ=0.997 79 g*cm-3)and high viscidity(υ100=1 223.9 mm2*s-1) belongs in the low sulfur cycloparaffin group oil, and its property is familiar to that of residues of the general crude oil. In this paper, the paving asphalt was prepared by blending the vacuum residue from the crude oil and waste oil used as blender. The road performance of the paving asphalt was analyzed at the same time. The results showed that the property of paving asphalt could conform with the standard of Sinopec Q/SHR004-1998 very well. The temperature sensibility and viscoelastic behavior of Liaoshu asphalt excelled that of the others compared in this paper. A correlative equation between Frass brittle point and penetration at 5 ℃ was set up,with the equation and penetration at 5 ℃ Frass brittle point can be forecasted.

  10. Virtual environment to quantify the influence of colour stimuli on the performance of tasks requiring attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frère Annie F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies indicate that the blue-yellow colour discrimination is impaired in ADHD individuals. However, the relationship between colour and performance has not been investigated. This paper describes the development and the testing of a virtual environment that is capable to quantify the influence of red-green versus blue-yellow colour stimuli on the performance of people in a fun and interactive way, being appropriate for the target audience. Methods An interactive computer game based on virtual reality was developed to evaluate the performance of the players. The game's storyline was based on the story of an old pirate who runs across islands and dangerous seas in search of a lost treasure. Within the game, the player must find and interpret the hints scattered in different scenarios. Two versions of this game were implemented. In the first, hints and information boards were painted using red and green colours. In the second version, these objects were painted using blue and yellow colours. For modelling, texturing, and animating virtual characters and objects the three-dimensional computer graphics tool Blender 3D was used. The textures were created with the GIMP editor to provide visual effects increasing the realism and immersion of the players. The games were tested on 20 non-ADHD volunteers who were divided into two subgroups (A1 and A2 and 20 volunteers with ADHD who were divided into subgroups B1 and B2. Subgroups A1 and B1 used the first version of the game with the hints painted in green-red colors, and subgroups A2 and B2 the second version using the same hints now painted in blue-yellow. The time spent to complete each task of the game was measured. Results Data analyzed with ANOVA two-way and posthoc TUKEY LSD showed that the use of blue/yellow instead of green/red colors decreased the game performance of all participants. However, a greater decrease in performance could be observed with ADHD participants

  11. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices. PMID:26891516

  12. Plant Measurement, Sampling and Analysis for Accountancy Purposes with Particular Reference to Separation Plants at Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All figures for special materials accountancy purposes contain one or more of three parameters, namely plant measurement, sampling and analysis. For plant measurements it is best to use weighings wherever possible, e.g. the plutonium in the feed to the New Separation Plant is based on the weight of uranium rods fed. Methods used for measuring volumes are discussed, e.g. (a) pneumercator, and (b) tracer method using radioactive caesium. Judged accuracies and precisions of each method are given. The sampling of solutions in a batch process is done by using evacuated tubes after thorough homogenization of the solution. For ''flowing'' streams, where high accuracy is required, a continuous sampler has been devised and is used on the feed to the New Separation Plant. Drilling of metal ingots is the normal sampling method at Windscale, whereas for other solids the method is to homogenize as far as possible (e.g. a Y cone blender is used for plutonium oxide) and then sample. For the chemical analysis, the precision required of the method depends on the number of determinations in each accounting period. Thus a large number of analyses are required for an accurate but imprecise method. It may be more economical to use fewer determinations with a more precise method. Methods for determining plutonium are discussed in detail, e.g. (a) radiochemistry, (b) colorimetrically using thoronol, (c) plutonium separation, complexing with EDTA and back titration of the excess EDTA, (d) titrimetry (e) isotope dilution followed by mass spectrometry and (f) differential spectrometry. Methods for determining uranium are outlined, e.g. (a) gravimetry as U3O8, (b) ether extraction followed by gravimetry or colorimetry, (c) titrimetry, (d) isotope dilution followed by mass spectrometry and (e) enrichment determination by mass spectrometry or line shift emission spectrography. With all accounting methods standards are used to give quality control and to show any inaccuracy which requires to be

  13. TEPUNG PUPA-MULBERRY (PURY SEBAGAI BAHAN PANGAN ALTERNATIF KAYA GIZI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trina Astuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Silkworm pupae is immature stage of moth.  It is inner part of the silkworm cocoon shell which usually disposed from yarn silk production, and now has become a valuable ingredient of human food in many countries, however it is not common yet in Indonesia. The purpose of study is to develop a weaning food as nutritious basic formula of complementary food from pupae waste. A silkworm pupae was a major constituents used as materials. There are sixth  steps to get PURY properly: select a fresh, fine and clean pupae, steamed well about 10 seconds, grinded and sifted it  to get liquid, added 10% maize powder, dried in oven at 60ºC for 6 hours, and refine on blender. A fine powder, so called “PURY”, has a well balanced amount of moisture, protein, fat included PUFA, carbohydrate, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Through a simple processing, the dry product of fine PURY powder can be obtained and used as a basic formula of complementary food and snacks and has made great contribution to reduce pupae waste. Research is continued to scale up producing PURY based product for more food-technological uses in order to reduce prevalence of malnutrition in Indonesia. Keywords: silkworm, pupae waste, PURY, complementary food, malnutrition

  14. Atividade alelopática de extrato de sementes de juazeiro Allelopatic activity of juazeiro seed extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFB Coelho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Alelopatia é a liberação de substâncias vegetais inibidoras ou estimulantes no ambiente, podendo estar presente nas sementes de algumas espécies. O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alelopático do extrato de sementes de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. na germinação de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de concentração do extrato bruto. O extrato bruto foi obtido após a extração de 50 g de sementes e agitação em liquidificador com 500 mL de água. Os resultados mostraram efeito alelopático do extrato dependendo da concentração. As maiores concentrações do extrato de sementes de juazeiro afetaram a percentagem e velocidade de germinação e as menores proporcionaram plântulas anormais. Portanto, o extrato apresentou efeito alelopático desfavorável à germinação de sementes de alface.Allelopathy is the release of plant substances that inhibit or act as stimulants in the environment, and may be present in the seeds of some species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the allelopatic activity of the extract of juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. seeds on the germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seeds. We utilized the randomized design with four replications and five treatments (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of concentration of the crude extract. The crude extract was obtained after the extraction of 50 g of seeds, shaking them with 500 mL of water in a blender. The results showed allelopatic effect, proportional to the increase of the concentration of the extract. The highest concentrations of seed extract of juazeiro affected the percentage and speed of germination and the lowest concentrations caused abnormal seedlings on lettuce seed germination. Therefore, the extract presented an allelopatic effect, unfavorable to the germination of lettuce seeds.

  15. Physiochemical Characteristics and Nitrate Content in Fresh and Canned Pears Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Heidari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an increasing interest concerning determination of nitrate levels in food products has been observed, essentially due to the potential reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which is known to cause adverse effects on human and animal health. The main goal of this study was measuring nitrate content of pear and apple derived canned products samples commercially available in Iran market in comparison on fresh fruits. Series analyses were performed with 80 canned pear samples produced at a large-scale local enterprise and purchased at recognized market and simultaneously fresh and 150 untreated samples was collected by going to the chosen areas of recognized farms in region of Fouman in Giulan province, Iran. In order to conduct a comparison between the content of nitrate in the studied samples, dry matter content was determined according to the association of office analytical chemists (AOAC. A ten gram sample of the prepared pear and apple was blended with 50ml distilled water in a home blender. The mixture was filtered and was passed through a glass 39 column fitted with a tape and filled with Activated alumina, in order to separate the color of Chlorophyll and get a transparent solution. The eluted solution by water filtered using 0.45um filter paper in order to eliminate the turbidity and get a clear solution. Nitrite concentration in pear samples was determined by spectrophotometric methods at a wavelength of 538 nm, after reducing nitrate to nitrite by using cadmium column. Nitrate content in analyzed fresh pears ranges between 63.22 – 143.76 mg/kg FW with an average of 101.743 mg/kg. The highest nitrate content was found in ‘Abkhoj’ (143.76 mg/kg and the lowest content was in Amrud’ genotypes (63.22 mg/kg FW. For canned pear the nitrate level ranges between 166.11 – 374.02 mg/kg with an average of 266.08 mg/kg. All the nitrate values in canned food samples are higher than those for corresponding fresh fruits. The

  16. A novel educational tool for teaching ocular ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa MS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available MS Mustafa1, J Montgomery2, HR Atta11Department of Ophthalmology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, UK; 2Medi-CAL, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UKAbstract: Ocular ultrasound is now in increasing demand in routine ophthalmic clinical practice not only because it is noninvasive but also because of ever-advancing technology providing higher resolution imaging. It is however a difficult branch of ophthalmic investigations to grasp, as it requires a high skill level to interface with the technology and provide accurate interpretation of images for ophthalmic diagnosis and management. It is even more labor intensive to teach ocular ultrasound to another fellow clinician. One of the fundamental skills that proved difficult to learn and teach is the need for the examiner to “mentally convert” 2-dimensional B-scan images into 3-dimensional (3D interpretations. An additional challenge is the requirement to carry out this task in real time. We have developed a novel approach to teach ocular ultrasound by using a novel 3D ocular model. A 3D virtual model is built using widely available, open source, software. The model is then used to generate movie clips simulating different movements and orientations of the scanner head. Using Blender, Quicktime motion clips are choreographed and collated into interactive quizzes and other pertinent pedagogical media. The process involves scripting motion vectors, rotation, and tracking of both the virtual stereo camera and the model. The resulting sequence is then rendered for twinned right- and left-eye views. Finally, the twinned views are synchronized and combined in a format compatible with the stereo projection apparatus. This new model will help the student with spatial awareness and allow for assimilation of this awareness into clinical practice. It will also help with grasping the nomenclature used in ocular ultrasound as well as helping with localization of

  17. Проектирование компьютерной системы исследования подвижного состава подземного железнодорожного транспорта горного предприятия

    OpenAIRE

    Чередник, Павел

    2014-01-01

    Рассмотрен процесс построения компьютерной системы для исследования вертикальных колебаний вагона подземного железнодорожного транспорта горного предприятия. Процесс проектирования ведется с помощью двух программных средств Matlab Simulink и Blender. Разработка состоит из следующих этапов: математическая модель, имитационная модель, и геометрическая модель. В конце работы проводятся исследования полученной модели....

  18. Condições higiênico-sanitárias de cozinhas de escolas públicas de Itaqui, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Sanitary-hygienic conditions of kitchens of public schools in Itaqui city, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vanez Dias Vila

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi conhecer as condições higiênico-sanitárias de cozinhas de escolas públicas e a percepção das cozinheiras sobre higiene de alimentos. Utilizou-se uma análise descritiva, a partir da aplicação de uma lista de verificação sobre boas práticas e a técnica do esfregaço com swab para a avaliação microbiológica das superfícies de manipulação, equipamentos e utensílios. Foram entrevistadas todas as cozinheiras e auxiliares responsáveis pela manipulação de alimentos que concordaram em participar. A média de regularidades na lista de verificação foi de 58,3%, sendo os itens com maiores índices de inadequações Documentação e registro, Preparação do alimento e Exposição ao consumo do alimento preparado. Dentre as superfícies, o liquidificador foi o equipamento que apresentou maiores contagens de micro-organismos. As entrevistas demonstraram as limitações impostas pela falta de orientação e supervisão. Fica clara a necessidade de que sejam realizadas ações e orientações sobre o cuidado sanitário dos alimentos, a fim de garantir e promover a saúde entre os escolares. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- The aim of this study was to investigate the sanitary conditions of public school kitchens and cooks perception about food hygiene. We used a descriptive analysis from the application of a checklist of good practice and technique of smear swab surfaces to micro-biological evaluation the manipulation surfaces, equipment and utensils. Interviews of all cooks and assistants responsible for handling foods that agreed to participate. The average regularities in the checklist was 58.3%, and the items with higher inadequacies were Documentation and registration, Food preparation and Exposure to the consumption of prepared food. Among the surfaces, the blender is equipment which showed higher counts of microorganisms. The interviews showed the

  19. Extraction and concentration of biogenic calcium oxalate from plant leaves Extração e concentração de oxalato de cálcio biogênico de folhas de plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liovando Marciano da Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to extract and concentrate calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals from plant leaves that form the above mentioned crystals. The chemical and physical studies of CaOx from plant to be performed depend on an adequate amount of the crystals. The plant used in this study was croton (Codiaeum variegatum. The leaves were ground in a heavy duty blender and sieved through a 0.20 mm sieve. The suspension obtained was suspended in distilled water. The crystals were concentrated at the bottom of a test tube. The supernatant must be washed until it is free of plant pigments and other organic substances. Biogenic CaOx crystals have well-defined and sharp peaks, indicating very high crystallinity. Moreover, the CaOx crystals were not damaged during the extraction procedure, as can be seen on the scanning electron microscope images. The porposed method can be considered efficient to extract and concentrate biogenic calcium oxalate.O objetivo deste estudo foi extrair e concentrar cristais de oxalato de cálcio (CaOx a partir de folhas de plantas que formam os cristais mencionados. Os estudos químicos e físicos de CaOx de plantas a serem realizados demandam uma massa adequada dos cristais. A planta usada neste estudo foi o cróton (Codiaeum variegatum. As folhas foram trituradas por um liquidificador industrial e peneiradas em peneira de 0,20 mm. Ao suco obtido foi adicionada água destilada. Os cristais foram concentrados no fundo da proveta. É necessário manter a lavagem dos cristais até que o sobrenadante fique livre de pigmentos de plantas e outras substâncias orgânicas. Os cristais de CaOx apresentaram picos bem formados e estreitos, indicando que sua cristalinidade é muito alta; além disso, esses cristais não foram danificados durante o procedimento de extração, o que pode ser visto observando-se as fotos obtidas pelo microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O método apresentado pode ser considerado eficiente para extrair

  20. KEPLER-10 c: A 2.2 EARTH RADIUS TRANSITING PLANET IN A MULTIPLE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kepler mission has recently announced the discovery of Kepler-10 b, the smallest exoplanet discovered to date and the first rocky planet found by the spacecraft. A second, 45 day period transit-like signal present in the photometry from the first eight months of data could not be confirmed as being caused by a planet at the time of that announcement. Here we apply the light curve modeling technique known as BLENDER to explore the possibility that the signal might be due to an astrophysical false positive (blend). To aid in this analysis we report the observation of two transits with the Spitzer Space Telescope at 4.5 μm. When combined, they yield a transit depth of 344 ± 85 ppm that is consistent with the depth in the Kepler passband (376 ± 9 ppm, ignoring limb darkening), which rules out blends with an eclipsing binary of a significantly different color than the target. Using these observations along with other constraints from high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, we are able to exclude the vast majority of possible false positives. We assess the likelihood of the remaining blends, and arrive conservatively at a false alarm rate of 1.6 x 10-5 that is small enough to validate the candidate as a planet (designated Kepler-10 c) with a very high level of confidence. The radius of this object is measured to be Rp = 2.227+0.052-0.057 R+ (in which the error includes the uncertainty in the stellar properties), but currently available radial-velocity measurements only place an upper limit on its mass of about 20 M+. Kepler-10 c represents another example (with Kepler-9 d and Kepler-11 g) of statistical 'validation' of a transiting exoplanet, as opposed to the usual 'confirmation' that can take place when the Doppler signal is detected or transit timing variations are measured. It is anticipated that many of Kepler's smaller candidates will receive a similar treatment since dynamical confirmation may be difficult or impractical with the sensitivity of current

  1. Hipercapnia acentuada durante circulação extracorpórea em cirurgia para revascularização do miocárdio: relato de caso Hipercapnia acentuada durante circulación extracorpórea en cirugía para revascularización del miocárdio: relato de caso Marked hypercapnia during cardiopulmonary bypass for myocardial revascularization: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Serrano Nascimento

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A função primordial de desviar o sangue do coração e retorná-lo oxigenado à circulação sistêmica é conseguida às custas de importantes alterações na fisiologia cardiopulmonar. O objetivo deste relato é apresentar uma complicação anestésica que ocorreu durante a CEC e alertar para a necessidade da interação de toda a equipe anestésico-cirúrgica na prevenção de eventos adversos per-operatórios. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente feminina, parda, 56 anos, 95 kg, altura 1,65 m, estado físico ASA IV, portadora de insuficiência renal crônica em hemodiálise, foi admitida para realização de revascularização do miocárdio. A monitorização constou de eletrocardiograma (ECG, medida invasiva da pressão arterial, oximetria de pulso, capnografia, temperatura esofágica, pressão venosa central e análise dos gases anestésicos. A paciente recebeu como medicação pré-anestésica, midazolam (0,05 mg.kg-1, por via venosa. Iniciou-se indução venosa com fentanil (16 µg.kg-1, etomidato (0,3 mg.kg-1 e pancurônio (0,1 mg.kg-1. A manutenção foi feita com oxigênio, isoflurano (0,5 - 1 CAM e infusão contínua de fentanil. A gasometria arterial colhida após a indução demonstrou: pH: 7,41; PaO2: 288 mmHg; PaCO2: 38 mmHg; HCO3: 24 mmol.L-1; BE: 0 mmol.L-1; SatO2: 100%. A segunda gasometria arterial, colhida logo após o início da CEC, chegou em 30 minutos e apresentou: pH 7,15; PaO2: 86 mmHg; PaCO2 224 mmHg; HCO3: 29 mmol.L-1; BE: -3 mmol.L-1; SatO2: 99%. Foi feita verificação completa e urgente dos equipamentos anestésicos e de perfusão. Foi constatada conexão do misturador de gases de perfusão (blender à rede de O2 e a um cilindro de dióxido de carbono (CO2, quando deveria estar conectado ao cilindro de ar comprimido. CONCLUSÕES: Falhas mecânicas dos componentes do circuito de extracorpórea podem ocorrer no per-operatório e exigem correções rápidas. Os avanços tecnológicos nos equipamentos

  2. Effect of pH value on foaming properties of oleate and recirculating utilization mechanism of foam%pH值对油酸盐发泡性能影响及泡沫循环利用机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利; 万里平; 辜思曼; 舒小波; 翟立团; 陶杰

    2014-01-01

    油酸盐中含有酸碱敏感性羧酸官能团,因而可实现泡沫的酸碱循环利用。通过Wa-ring-Blender法、酸碱滴定测试、表面与界面张力测试、微观分析等研究手段,分析了pH值变化对油酸盐水溶液性质、油酸盐羧酸官能团电离度以及油酸盐发泡性能的影响。同时,开展了6次泡沫循环实验,并从微观现象解释以及“铺展与架桥”理论对其消泡机理进行了深入分析。研究结果表明,油酸盐中的羧酸官能团通过失去或得到质子来实现活性与非活性之间的可逆转换,从而实现泡沫的循环利用。此外,通过消泡机理分析可以看出,氢离子的侵入可以促进油酸盐泡沫结构中非水溶性油酸的形成,并进入泡沫液膜结构,通过铺展或架桥作用使得液膜破裂,从而达到消泡的作用。%The acid and alkali circulation utilization of foam can be realize due to the exist of pH-sensitivity carboxyl groups in oleate .With methods of Warning-blender ,acid-base titration test ,surface tension and interfacial tension test and microscopic analysis ,etc .,the effects of pH values change on aqueous solution properties of oleate ,ionization degree of carboxyl group of ole-ate ,and foaming properties of oleate were analyzed .Meanwhile ,six foam circulation experi-ments have been carried out ,and defoaming mechanism was discussed through explanation of mi-croscopic phenomena ,spreading and bridging mechanisms .The results show that carboxyl group of oleate can easily lose or receive protons to realize the reversible interconversions between active and inactive ,further to realize circulation utilization of foam .Also ,the defoaming mechanism a-nalysis suggests that the invasion of hydrogen ions can lead to form water insoluble oleic acid of foam structure of oleate ,and into the foam liquid films structure ,facilitate liquid films rupture through spreading or bridging action ,so as to achieve the effect

  3. Volume de iogurte light e sensações subjetivas do apetite de homens eutróficos e com excesso de peso Volume of light yogurt and subjective appetite sensations in normal-weight and overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Neri Nobre

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar, independentemente de outras variáveis, o efeito do volume de iogurte light sobre os parâmetros de ingestão alimentar de homens saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Foi feita incorporação de ar ao iogurte por adição de um produto comercialmente disponível -Emustab® - (6g/300ml com posterior homogeneização em liqüidificador semi-industrial. Utilizaram-se três volumes de iogurte: 300, 450 e 600ml. Trabalhou-se com 20 participantes saudáveis, sendo 10 eutróficos, com índice de massa corporal entre 19 e 24,9kg/m² e 10 com excesso de peso, índice de massa corporal >25kg/m². Cada um deles recebeu um volume de iogurte em três diferentes dias, pela manhã, em jejum de 12 horas. Uma escala de analogia visual foi utilizada, num período de 4 horas e 30 minutos após ingestão de cada volume do iogurte, para avaliar sensações subjetivas de saciedade, fome e desejo por alimentos específicos. RESULTADOS: Os volumes do iogurte light afetaram a saciedade dos dois grupos estudados, sendo que o maior volume exerceu melhor essa ação (pOBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of light yogurt volume on the food intake of healthy men regardless of other variables. METHODS: Air was added to the yogurt by mixing it with a commercially available product, Emustab®, (6g/300ml and homogenized in a semi-industrial blender. Three volumes of yogurt were used: 300, 450 and 600ml. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the study, 10 with normal weight, Body Mass Index from 19 to 24.9kg/m² and 10 with excess weight, Body Mass Index >25kg/m². Each one of them was given a yogurt volume in three different days in the morning, after a 12 hour fast. After the intake of each yogurt volume, a visual analog scale was used to assess the subjective sensations of satiety, hunger and desire for specific foods. RESULTS: Light yogurt volumes affected the satiety of both studied groups and the greater volume was more effective (p<0.01. The highest

  4. Evaluación del impacto de un ensayo comunitario sobre el consumo de frutas y verduras en Colombia Evaluation of the impact of a community intervention on the consumption of fruits and vegetables in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Esperanza Prada

    2007-02-01

    evaluation was carried out on two levels: the family and the HC. The Bland-Alman method was used to determine the intra- and inter-group impact. A multiple linear regression model enabled the evaluation of the intervention's effect on consumption frequency, adjusted for economic and demographic variables. RESULTS: The frequency of consumption of fruits increased an average of 1.3 times per week (CI 0.3, 1.8, p= 0.040. This was achieved when the probability of having a blender was higher than 75% (R² for the regression 0.33; n= 26. The frequency of vegetable consumption did not increase. CONCLUSIONS: In poor populations an increase in the consumption of fruits can be achieved through educational strategies. However, the limited access to equipment for transforming and preserving alimentary products is decisive to the final result.

  5. Allelopathic effect of sunflower water extract on the germination of soybean and hairy beggartick / Efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas de girassol sobre a germinação de soja e picão-preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leszczynski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of water extract from sunflower fresh leaves on the germination and initial development of conventional and transgenic soybean cultivars, and of the invasive hairy beggartick (Bidens pilosa L.. Experiments were carried out at Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, in 2007. Fresh leaves from sunflower were ground in a blender at the proportion 200g/1L distilled water, resulting in crude extract (100%, in which pH was measured. Dilutions of 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% were done from the crude extract, and only distilled water was used as control. Statistical analysis (Tukey 5% probability indicated that only the highest extract concentrations (60%, 80% and 100% influenced the analyzed parameters for conventional and transgenic soybean. Beggartick seeds, however, had germination percentage completely inhibited when 40% water extract was applied, which indicates that sunflower straw could be used as a natural herbicide. Nevertheless, field studies must be carried out to prove such effect.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas frescas de girassol sobre a germinação das sementes e desenvolvimento inicial das plântulas das cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill convencional (CD232, transgênica (CD213RR e uma de suas invasoras, o picão preto (Bidens pilosa L.. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná no ano de 2007. As folhas de girassol colhidas na época da floração foram trituradas com o auxílio de um liquidificador na proporção de 200g/1L de água destilada resultando no extrato bruto (100%. A partir do extrato bruto foram feitas as diluições de 80%, 60%, 40% e 20%, sendo utilizado como testemunha apenas água destilada. Após análise estatística (Tukey 5% de probabilidade, pode-se verificar que o extrato aquoso das

  6. Value-added products from chicken feather fiber and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiuling

    Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between

  7. Landuse Carbon Implications of a Drawdown of Ethanol Production and an Increase in Well-Managed Pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwinckel, C. M.; Phillips, J.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, commodity grain prices have doubled, and world commodity prices have reached their highest levels in over 30 years. The rise in prices culminated in the food price spikes of 2008 and 2011, where food riots erupted in 40 countries. Although studies have pointed to a number of factors leading to the increased food prices, the ethanol industry, whether deservingly or not, is seen as the major factor behind the price spikes. Several recent studies have contributed to the poor public opinion of ethanol by concluding that ethanol is neither a net energy source nor a net reducer of carbon emissions. The impact of these research reports combined with recent spikes in commodity prices has led to fierce political efforts to reduce or eliminate subsidies for ethanol. Opponents of ethanol subsidization won a significant battle with Congress recently voting to eliminate federal blender's tax credits and ethanol import tariffs. If another sharp spike in commodity prices occurs in the near future, some have speculated that ethanol production mandates could be scaled back or eliminated. In the span of less than three years the expected role of ethanol in the agricultural sector has gone from one of rapid growth and longevity, to one of which the societal benefits are being strongly questioned. In light of the rapidly changing expectations regarding the future of ethanol, we believe it is an appropriate time to evaluate the landuse and carbon implications of a scaling down of ethanol production and investigating permanent managed pasture as an alternative land use that could provide carbon benefits. Various USDA programs to promote conservation of, or conversion to, permanent pasture or grassland exist primarily based on the value of decreasing the potential for soil erosion as well as improving water quality. Although grazing systems have long been associated with land degradation in the arid and semi-arid west, new management approaches utilizing some form

  8. Measurement of 14C/12C ratios in plant samples that were affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nature, 14C is produced by cosmic ray reactions in the upper atmosphere, and its production is influenced by the flux of cosmic rays. This nuclide is also released into the atmosphere by anthropogenic sources such as nuclear weapons testing and a nuclear accident. The produced 14C immediately becomes 14CO2 and it is absorbed by plants through photosynthesis. Therefore, plants are reflected by atmospheric 14C levels at that time. Although there are many papers reporting the release of several nuclides by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident occurred in March, 2011, it is not clear whether appreciable amounts of 14C were released into the environment due to the accident. In this study, we focus on 14C levels in plant samples collected from several locations in Fukushima Prefecture (Okuma, Namie, Iitate, and Fukushima-city) and examine the possible influence on the 14C revels in plants. Since cedars and pines are evergreen, the leaves should have been contaminated at the time of the accident. We analyzed old leaves, which were grown before the accident, and new leaves, which were grown after the accident. Both old and new leaves were collected in the same branch. In order to compare delta 14C values in leaves collected from Fukushima Prefecture with background values, we have used plant samples collected from remote areas such as Chiba and Niigata Prefectures. The samples were dried, pulverized in a blender and homogenized. Then samples were placed between copper oxide wires in a quarts tube, burned and oxidized. The produced CO2 mixed gases were purified in a vacuum line. To prepare a graphite target for AMS, the purified CO2 was reduced. 14C/12C ratio in the graphite was measured by AMS at the University of Tokyo or Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Analytical results showed that delta 14C values in plant samples collected from the highly contaminated areas such as Okuma and Namie were considerably higher than the background values measured in

  9. SPITZER INFRARED OBSERVATIONS AND INDEPENDENT VALIDATION OF THE TRANSITING SUPER-EARTH CoRoT-7 b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection and characterization of the first transiting super-Earth, CoRoT-7 b, has required an unprecedented effort in terms of telescope time and analysis. Although the star does display a radial-velocity signal at the period of the planet, this has been difficult to disentangle from the intrinsic stellar variability and pinning down the velocity amplitude has been very challenging. As a result, the precise value of the mass of the planet—and even the extent to which it can be considered to be confirmed—has been debated in the recent literature, with six mass measurements published so far based on the same spectroscopic observations, ranging from about 2 to 8 Earth masses. Here we report on an independent validation of the planet discovery using one of the fundamental properties of a transit signal: its achromaticity. We observed four transits of CoRoT-7 b at 4.5 μm and 8.0 μm with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope in order to determine whether the depth of the transit signal in the near-infrared is consistent with that observed in the CoRoT bandpass, as expected for a planet. We detected the transit and found an average depth of 0.426 ± 0.115 mmag at 4.5 μm, which is in good agreement with the depth of 0.350 ± 0.011 mmag (ignoring limb darkening) found by CoRoT. The observations at 8.0 μm did not yield a significant detection. The 4.5 μm observations place important constraints on the kinds of astrophysical false positives that could mimic the signal. Combining this with additional constraints reported earlier, we performed an exhaustive exploration of possible blend scenarios for CoRoT-7 b using the BLENDER technique. We are able to rule out the vast majority of false positives, and the remaining ones are found to be much less likely than a true transiting planet. We thus validate CoRoT-7 b as a bona fide planet with a very high degree of confidence, independently of any radial-velocity information. Our Spitzer

  10. Holodeck Testbed Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Adriel (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    objects inside the hybrid reality ISS environment. This task looked at using an Electroencephalogram (EEG) headset to collect brain state data that could be mapped to commands that a computer could execute. On this Task, I had a setback with the hardware, which stopped working and was returned to the vendor for repair. However, I was still able to collect some data, was able to process it, and started to create correlation algorithms between the electrical patterns in the brain and the commands we wanted the computer to carry out. I also carried out a test to investigate the comfort of the headset if it is worn for a long time. The knowledge gained will benefit me in my future career. I learned how to use various modeling and programming tools that included Blender, Maya, Substance Painter, Artec Studio, Github, and Unreal Engine 4. I learned how to use a professional grade 3D scanner and 3D printer. On the BCI Project I learned about data mining and how to create correlation algorithms. I also supported various demos including a live demo of the hybrid reality lab capabilities at ComicPalooza. This internship has given me a good look into engineering at NASA. I developed a more thorough understanding of engineering and my overall confidence has grown. I have also realized that any problem can be fixed, if you try hard enough, and as an engineer it is your job to not only fix problems but to embrace coming up with solutions to those problems.

  11. Anti-bacterial studies on Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) H.G. Hallier and Elephantopus scaber L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vimala Thankappan Anitha; Johnson MarimuthuAntonisamy; Solomon Jeeva

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the ethanol, aqueous, chloroform, benzene, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Hemigraphis colorata (H. colorata) leaves and stem and Elephantopus scaber (E. scaber) leaves, root and flower for the presence of phyto-constituents and screened the anti-bacterial activity against the selected pathogens. Methods:The fresh materials were shade dried and powdered using the tissue blender. The dried and powered materials (50 g) were extracted successively with 200 mL of aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether by using Soxhlet extractor for 8 h at a temperature not exceeding the boiling point of the solvent. Aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts were prepared from powdered materials were used for preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial studies using standard methods. Results:The crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts E. scaber leaves, flower and root and H. colorata leaves and stem demonstrated that out of (5×6×12 = 360) tests for the presence or absence of the above compounds, 188 tests gave positive results and the remaining 172 gave negative results. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed that phenol (12/12), carbohydrates (9/12), steroids (8/12), saponins and coumarins (7/12), tannins (6/12), proteins (5/12), carboxylic acid and flavonoids (4/12), xanthoproteins (3/12) and alkaloids (2/12) presence in the crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts of H. colorata leaves and stem. The crude aqueous, acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts E. scaber leaves, flower and root displayed the presence of phenol (18/18), tannin (17/18), carbohydrates (16/18), steroids (14/18), carboxylic acid and coumarins (12/18), saponins (10/18), xanthoprotein (9/18), flavonoids (7/18), protein (4/18) and alkaloids (2/18). The root ethanolic extracts of E. scaber

  12. Flyash and sewage sludge as liner material - Preparations for a pilot test with fly-ash stabilised sewage sludge as landfill liner; Linermaterial med aska och roetslam - Underlag foer genomfoerande av pilotfoersoek med stabiliserat avloppsslam som taetskiktsmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, J.; Rogbeck, Y.; Svedberg, B.; Uhlander, O. [Scandiaconsult Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Mossakowska, A. [Stockholm Vatten AB (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a new liner material based on biofuel fly ash and sewage sludge and to plan for a pilot test with this new liner (FSA) on a landfill. The investigation shows that FSA has potential to fulfil technical and economical requirements as well as requirements of durability. This project constitutes part of a larger one, where the overall aim is to collect information/experience of FSA as a liner for presentation in a handbook. During the conducted laboratory work recipes for mixture proportions for application as landfill liner were controlled according to technical and environmental aspects. A recipe for FSA material has been prepared, which has permeability values lower than 10-9 m/s. This low permeability can assure a low percolation of precipitated water through the landfill liner, < 50 litre/m{sup 2}/year. FSA has sufficient un-drained shear strength and has an estimated slow bio-degradation, which can assure a long duration period. Based on results from tests conducted in this and other projects, where FSA materials were tested, necessary quality verifications has been conducted for the ingredients bio-fly-ash and sewage sludge and for the FSA-mixture. The FSA materials potential as liner increases with darker colour (bordering black). FSA-40 is a mixture of 40 % dry solid (DS) fly ash and 60 % DS sewage sludge, and FSA-60 is a mixture containing 60 % DS fly ash and 40 % DS sewage sludge and so on. Some important parameters of the ingredient materials are DS content (or water content) and pH and CaO content of the fly ash. A liner made of FSA should have surrounding layers of high water containing capacity in order to protect the FSA-liner from drying. The drainage and oxidation protection layers have to transport precipitated water as well as contain sufficient pore water in order to be an oxygen barrier above the liner (FSA). In addition, the investigation shows that a paddle blender should be used in order to guarantee a

  13. Cinética de inativação da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase de abacate (Persea americana Mill. Kinetic of inactivation of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase of avocado (Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Caroline Luíz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos enzimáticos foram preparados a partir da polpa de abacate (Persea americana Mill. dos cultivares Quintal, Fortuna e Choquete, em dois estádios de maturação (verde e maduro. A polpa de abacate (150,00g foi homogeneizada em liquidificador, com 300 mL de solução tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM em pH 7,4 para polifenoloxidase (PPO e pH 6,0 para peroxidase (POD. A peroxidase ionicamente ligada foi extraída usando solução de NaCl 1,0M, em tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM pH 6,0. Para o estudo da estabilidade térmica, os extratos foram submetidos a temperaturas de 60, 65, 70, 75 e 80ºC e por períodos que variaram de 1 à 10 minutos e a atividade enzimática foi determinada por espectrofotometria (lambda= 395nm para PPO e lambda= 460nm para POD. Pode-se observar que o declínio rápido da atividade das enzimas era maior nos primeiros quatro minutos e após esse período, com o aumento da temperatura e do tempo, a atividade continuou diminuindo, porém de forma mais lenta. A energia de ativação na faixa de temperatura estudada para as porções termolábil e termorresistente, apresentou valores dentro da faixa 12-100 kcal/mol.Enzymatic extracts were prepared from the avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill., using the cultivars Quintal, Fortuna and Choquete, in two different maturation stages (green and mature avocados. The avocado pulp (150,00g was homogenized in blender with 300 mL of sodium phosphate buffer 100mM at pH 7.4 for polyphenoloxidase (PPO and pH 6.0 for peroxidase (POD. The peroxidase ionically bound was extracted using NaCl solution 1.0M in sodium phosphate buffer 100mM pH 6.0. For the study of the thermal stability the extracts were submitted at temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75 and 80ºC for periods that had a variation from 1 to 10 minutes and the enzymatic activity was determined using a spectrophotometer (lambda= 395nm for PPO and lambda= 460nm for POD. It was possible to observe a fast decline of the enzyme activity in

  14. Propriedades físicas e tecnológicas de farinha de trigo tratada com terra diatomácea Technological and physical properties of wheat flour treated with diatomaceous earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Deliberali Freo

    2011-06-01

    earth. Diatomaceous earth of two commercial brands codified as DE1 and DE2, were used. Wheat flour type I was purchased at the local market. DE1 and DE2 were added in doses zero, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0g kg-1 of wheat flour, homogenized in a blender and the analysis of falling number, alveography, farinograph, color analysis and experimental baking test were carried out. The results were analyzed by Analysis of variance and comparisons of means by Tukey's test at 5% significance level. The diatomaceous earth added in doses up to 2g kg-1 directly into the flour affects the physical and functional properties. The alveograph is effective to predict changes in physical properties of wheat flour. The changes more pronounced in wheat flour physical properties are color component lightness and gluten strength (W, while in the baking test were points score and crumb color component lightness.

  15. Interferência alelopática de Raphanus raphanistrum L. sobre a germinação de Lactuca sativa L. e Solanum lycopersicon L. Allelopathic interference of Raphanus raphanistrum L. on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. and Solanum lycopersicon L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Cristina Dorneles Wandscheer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar os possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de Raphanus raphanistrum L. sobre a germinação de sementes de alface e tomate. Para isso, prepararam-se extratos aquosos de folhas e raízes de nabiça, após serem trituradas em liquidificador industrial e o extrato bruto diluído em água destilada até as concentrações de 5 e 10% (m/v. Os testes de germinação foram realizados colocando-se 25 sementes de alface e tomate em placas de Petri, umedecidas com os extratos obtidos, com quatro repetições em cada tratamento. O tratamento controle foi regado somente com água destilada. As sementes foram mantidas em câmara de germinação a 25°C por cinco dias. Após este período, observou-se que todas as concentrações de extrato de nabiça reduziram a porcentagem, a velocidade, o índice de velocidade de germinação e o comprimento radicular de sementes de alface, sendo maior o efeito nos tratamentos com folhas. Em sementes de tomate, somente o extrato de folha 10% reduziu a porcentagem de germinação e o comprimento radicular e do epicótilo. No entanto, extratos de folhas e raiz 10% causaram atraso no processo germinativo e no número de plântulas germinadas por dia, sendo o extrato de folha 10% mais ativo.This article aims at verifying the possible allelopathic effects of Raphanus raphanistrum L. on the germination of lettuce and tomato seeds. For that, we prepare aqueous extracts of nabiça leaves and roots. After the leaves and roots were triturated in industrial blender, we diluted the raw extract in distilled water, until the concentrations of five and ten percent (m/v. The germination tests were accomplished by putting twenty-five lettuce and tomato seeds in Petri plates, which were humidified with the obtained extracts, accomplishing four repetitions in each treatment. The control treatment was only watered with distilled water. The seeds were kept in germination camera at twenty-five degrees

  16. Leucaena allelopathy on weeds and soybean seed germination / Alelopatia de Leucena sobre soja e plantas invasoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leszczynski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of agriculture, there was consequent rising in environment degradation. Therefore, It is interesting the use of plants which have in their chemical composition substances capable of helping in the control of weeds to minimize the use of pesticides. Hence, the objective of this paper was to evaluate solutions of leucena extract on weeds that are frequent on soybean crop. The treatments were leucena extracts at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% at room temperature water and water heated to 80°C. The extracts were obtained by crushing 200g of leucena leaves and mixing them with one liter of distilled water with the help of a blender. Seeds were kept in B.O.D. at a temperature of 25°C, with a photoperiod of 12 hours of light. Evaluations were done on a daily basis, from the first to the last day of the experiment, varying according to the species. Results show a negative interference of the extracts, both hot and cold, in the root length of Ipomoea grandifolia, in the percentage of germination and in the root length of Arrowleaf sida and Hair beggarticks. There was no negative interference in the analyzed parameters for soybean seeds. Thus, the results indicate allelopatic potential of Leucaena leuucocephala as an alternative for the management of weeds without interfering on the development of the soybean crop.Com o desenvolvimento da agricultura surgiram os conseqüentes aumentos na degradação ambiental. Assim, estuda-se a utilização de plantas que possuam em sua composição química substâncias capazes de auxiliar no controle de plantas invasoras, amenizando o uso de agrotóxicos. Desta forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar soluções de extratos de leucena sobre plantas invasoras que freqüentemente ocorrem na cultura da soja. Foram utilizados como tratamentos os seguintes extratos de leucena nas proporções de: 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% com água à temperatura ambiente e com água aquecida à 80°C. Os extratos foram

  17. Measurement of {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratios in plant samples that were affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Risa; Inoue, Aki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki [Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo, 171-8588 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [The University of Tokyo, Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem Accelerator, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0032 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    In nature, {sup 14}C is produced by cosmic ray reactions in the upper atmosphere, and its production is influenced by the flux of cosmic rays. This nuclide is also released into the atmosphere by anthropogenic sources such as nuclear weapons testing and a nuclear accident. The produced {sup 14}C immediately becomes {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and it is absorbed by plants through photosynthesis. Therefore, plants are reflected by atmospheric {sup 14}C levels at that time. Although there are many papers reporting the release of several nuclides by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident occurred in March, 2011, it is not clear whether appreciable amounts of {sup 14}C were released into the environment due to the accident. In this study, we focus on {sup 14}C levels in plant samples collected from several locations in Fukushima Prefecture (Okuma, Namie, Iitate, and Fukushima-city) and examine the possible influence on the {sup 14}C revels in plants. Since cedars and pines are evergreen, the leaves should have been contaminated at the time of the accident. We analyzed old leaves, which were grown before the accident, and new leaves, which were grown after the accident. Both old and new leaves were collected in the same branch. In order to compare delta {sup 14}C values in leaves collected from Fukushima Prefecture with background values, we have used plant samples collected from remote areas such as Chiba and Niigata Prefectures. The samples were dried, pulverized in a blender and homogenized. Then samples were placed between copper oxide wires in a quarts tube, burned and oxidized. The produced CO{sub 2} mixed gases were purified in a vacuum line. To prepare a graphite target for AMS, the purified CO{sub 2} was reduced. {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio in the graphite was measured by AMS at the University of Tokyo or Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Analytical results showed that delta {sup 14}C values in plant samples collected from the highly contaminated areas such as

  18. Determinação da qualidade e do teor de sólidos solúveis nas diferentes partes do fruto da pinheira (Annona squamosa L. Determination of the quality and soluble solids content at different parts of custard apple (Annona squamosa L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAEVESON DA SILVA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar algumas características qualitativas e estimar o teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS nas porções basal (ligada ao pedúnculo, mediana e apical do fruto da pinheira. Para a estimação desse teor, três pinhas de cada uma de dez árvores, de pomares localizados em Mossoró-RN e Aracati-CE, com idade entre seis e oito anos, foram utilizadas. As árvores foram consideradas repetições (blocos, os frutos foram considerados parcelas e as porções dos frutos, subparcelas. Três frutos de cada árvore foram descascados e divididos em três porções aproximadamente iguais, da base para o ápice. O material foi triturado e filtrado. No suco obtido, foram feitas três leituras em um refratômetro. A média destas três leituras representou o valor de cada subparcela. A análise de variância conjunta indicou efeitos de locais, blocos em locais, porções e da interação locais x frutos x porções. O peso do fruto variou de 226 a 418 g e o rendimento de polpa, de 45 a 54 %. O TSS na porção basal (26,49 % foi inferior aos teores das porções mediana (28,02 % e apical (27,53 %, mas não diferiu significativamente daquele da porção apical.The objective of this research was evaluate some qualitative traits and estimate the soluble solids content (SSC in basal (linked to peduncle, median and apical fractions of the custard apple. Three fruits of each one of the ten trees, from 6-8 years old, orchards growing at Mossoró-RN and Aracati-CE, Brazil were utilized. The trees were considered replications (blocks, the fruits were the plots and the fruit fractions were the subplot. Three fruits of each tree were peeled and fractioned in the mentioned portions. The material was homogenized in a blender and filtered in nylon. In the juice obtained, three readings in a digital refractometer were made. The average of these values represented the value for each splitplot. The joint analysis of variance showed effects of sites, blocks whitin

  19. Circulação extracorpórea com desvio veno-arterial e baixa pressão parcial de oxigênio Extracorporeal circulation with venous-arterial shunt and low oxygen partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Coli Junqueira de MORAES

    2001-09-01

    arterial circulation and arterial blood flow was maintained high (around 100 mlkgmin. It was observed that the arterial pO2 in both groups remained between 50 and 100 mmHg and venous saturation between 50 and 70%. All animals woke up at end of the experiment. In the clinical study, the arterial pO2 was a low 60 mmHg. Comparison of the clinical results showed there was no mortality difference between both groups, but in the group B, with the low pO2 and venous-arterial shunt, the post-operative bleeding was significantly smaller, having been used three times less blood and no need to use the blender.

  20. 蒸汽萃取-高效液相色谱紫外/荧光法同时测定果蔬中噻苯咪唑、邻苯基苯酚、联苯及抑霉唑残留%Steam Extraction and Simultaneous Determination of Thiabendazole,O-phenyl phenol,Diphenyl and Imazalil Residues in Citrus Fruits and Vegetables by HPLC with Ultraviolet/Fluorescence Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾尔肯·依不拉音; 张辽生; 李兴

    2011-01-01

    建立了一种快速同时测定果蔬中噻苯咪唑(TBZ)、邻苯基苯酚(OPP)、联苯(DP)及抑霉唑(IMZ)残留量的高效液相色谱紫外/荧光分析方法。柑橘类水果及蔬菜样品经组织捣碎机打碎研磨均匀后,利用咖啡萃取机产生的甲醇或乙醇蒸汽进行萃取,分别采用紫外/荧光检测器同时测定上述四种或三种防腐保鲜剂。结果表明:紫外检测TBZ、OPPI、MZ、DP分别在(0.5~10)μg/ml,(0.6~10)μg/ml,(1~80)μg/ml,(0.8~20)μg/ml范围内具有良好的线性,最低检测限分别为0.4,0.4,0.5,0.8μg/ml;荧光检测TBZ、OPP、DP分别在(0.05~2.0)μg/ml,(0.06~2.0)μg/ml,(0.08~5.0)μg/ml范围内具有良好的线性;最低检测限分别为0.02,0.03,0.05μg/ml;采用甲醇蒸汽、乙醇蒸汽和乙醚溶剂萃取,得样品添加回收率分别为67%~84%,72%~83%,52%~108%;相对标准标准偏差分别为1.23%~3.57%,0.35%~2.35%,1.71%~6.29%。该方法快速、灵敏、准确,能满足果蔬中防腐保鲜剂多残留检测的要求。%A rapid reversed-phase HPLC method is developed for simultaneous determination of thiabendazole(TBZ),o-phenylphenol(OPP),dipheny(DP) and imazalil(IMZ) in citrus fruits and vegetables.The samples,blendering and pulverizing,are extracted by methanol or ethanol steam,producing by coffee machine;and subsequently assay above four or three preservatives by HPLC with ultraviolet/fluorescence detection,respectively.The study shows that TBZ、OPP、IMZ、DP have good linear response within concentration range(0.5~10)μg/ml,(0.6~10)μg/ml,(1~80)μg/ml,(0.8~20)μg/ml,lowest detection leves are 0.4,0.4,0.5,0.8μg/ml respectively,determining by ultraviolet detection;TBZ、OPP、DP,determining by ultraviolet detection,linear ranges are(0.05~2.0)μg/ml,(0.06~2.0)μg/ml,(0.08~5.0)μg/ml,lowest detection leves are 0.02,0.03,0.05g/ml.Using methanol and

  1. Self-Learning Statistical Short-Term Climate Predictive Model for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and radial basis functions (RBF) for PFPs as the activated units. In order to reduce the p roblem of artificial skill produced from over-fitting and thus receive a more representative estimate of real skill we used cross-validation method, in which forecast model is developed using only part of available data set and then applied to the independent data. Monthly time series (reanalysis NCEP) for 1948-1998 was split in two parts: the learning and verification samples. In contrast to the GCMs our self-learning model accumulates all past observing data in so way that after 35 years of learning process it could provide very competitive prediction results for surface temperature fields. It captured both positive and negative phases of above climate indexes as well as transition periods in their relationships with predicands fields. It is demonstrated a series of monthly observed and presented.(Author)e experience gainover Europe for last decade of twentieth century. Forecasted fields reproduce main features of analysis grids. Deviation and other proper statistics are discussed. In particularly, achieved level for explained variance of predicted fields is much higher than those accessible for linear regression (see Blender et al, 2003). Partition of Europe at the set of the homogeneous climate ranges by fuzzy regioning is discussed. Forecasted and observed temperature and precipitation time series for several climate areas are considered. Skilful magnitudes are analysed as well. (Author)

  2. 含掺合料混凝土水化产物体积分数计算及其影响因素%Calculation of concrete with mineral admixture hydration products volume fraction and its influential factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴福飞; 董双快; 宫经伟; 陈亮亮; 李东生; 侍克斌

    2016-01-01

    Powers theory proposes calculation method for the pure volume of cement hydration products, which does not apply to calculate the volume of cementitious materials with mineral admixture. The formula of cementitious materials volume was proposed that based on the basic principles of cement and mineral admixture hydration, and the proposed method of reliability was verified by the results of Powers theoretical model and volume fraction of cement hydration products. On this basis, the factor such as water-cement ratio, the ratio of admixture and types was further researched for the volumes of cementitious materials hydration products. Mixture in test were designed 2 water-cement ratio (0.30 and 0.40, respectively), two content (20% and 60%, respectively) of mineral admixture, and 3 kinds of mineral admixture (lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag, respectively), forming paste that was stirred according with the designed ratio in 5 mL centrifuge tube in a blender and curing to 1, 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 d in curing room (temperature was (20±1)℃, humidity was not less than 95%), and then testing reaction extent of cement and mineral admixture (such as fly ash, steel slag. lithium slag) according with the chemical bound water and HCl dissolution method. The results showed that hydration extent of lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag at 28d decreased by 46.63%, 69.56% and 74.82% (P<0.05) when mineral admixture content varied from 20% to 60% and water-cement ratio was 0.30. Hydration extent of cement at 28 d was increased by 7.25% when water-cement ratio increased from 0.30 to 0.40. When mineral admixture content varied from 20% to 60%, hydration extent of lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag at 28 d increased by 24.14% 18.56%, 17.61% and 8.84%, 12.21%, and 29.37% (P<0.05), respectively. In contrast, the influence of the mineral admixture content was bigger than water-cement ratio for the hydration extent of composite cementitious materials. In different water-cement ratio

  3. Students Excited by Stellar Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    follow-up observations, and Thompson joined online. "Observing with the students is very exciting. It gives the students a chance to learn about radio telescopes and pulsar observing in a very hands-on way, and it is extra fun when we find a pulsar," said Rosen. Snider, on the other hand, said, "I got very, very nervous. I expected when I went there that I would just be watching other people do things, and then I actually go to sit down at the controls. I definitely didn't want to mess something up." Everything went well, and the observations confirmed that the students had found an exotic pulsar. "I learned more in the two hours in the control room than I would have in school the whole day," Mabry said. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling lighthouse beams of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its normal life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name neutron star. One tablespoon of material from a pulsar would weigh 10 million tons -- as much as a supertanker. The object that the students discovered is in a special class of pulsar that spins very fast - in this case, about 30 times per second, comparable to the speed of a kitchen blender. "The big question we need to answer first is whether this is a young pulsar or a recycled pulsar," said Maura McLaughlin, an astronomer at WVU. "A pulsar spinning that fast is very interesting as it could be newly born or it could be a very old, recycled pulsar." A recycled pulsar is one that was once in a binary system. Material from the companion star is deposited onto the pulsar, causing it to speed up, or be recycled. Mystery remains, however, about whether this pulsar has ever had a companion star. If it did, "it may be that this pulsar had a massive

  4. Star Cluster Buzzing With Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A dense globular star cluster near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy holds a buzzing beehive of rapidly-spinning millisecond pulsars, according to astronomers who discovered 21 new pulsars in the cluster using the National Science Foundation's 100-meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The cluster, called Terzan 5, now holds the record for pulsars, with 24, including three known before the GBT observations. Pulsar Diagram Pulsar Diagram: Click on image for more detail. "We hit the jackpot when we looked at this cluster," said Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, VA. "Not only does this cluster have a lot of pulsars -- and we still expect to find more in it -- but the pulsars in it are very interesting. They include at least 13 in binary systems, two of which are eclipsing, and the four fastest-rotating pulsars known in any globular cluster, with the fastest two rotating nearly 600 times per second, roughly as fast as a household blender," Ransom added. Ransom and his colleagues reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA, and in the online journal Science Express. The star cluster's numerous pulsars are expected to yield a bonanza of new information about not only the pulsars themselves, but also about the dense stellar environment in which they reside and probably even about nuclear physics, according to the scientists. For example, preliminary measurements indicate that two of the pulsars are more massive than some theoretical models would allow. "All these exotic pulsars will keep us busy for years to come," said Jason Hessels, a Ph.D student at McGill University in Montreal. Globular clusters are dense agglomerations of up to millions of stars, all of which formed at about the same time. Pulsars are spinning, superdense neutron stars that whirl "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is