WorldWideScience

Sample records for blenders

  1. Mastering Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Blender, the free alternative for professional-quality 3D animation is a complex program to learn, but once users become familiar with its power, they begin to seek more from it.  This book is the first of its kind to explore the more advanced features of Blender so that you can get the most out of the software. You'll take your Blender skills to a whole new level with the featured in-depth coverage of intricate uses for Blender's modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects tools in a professional environment.

  2. Blender For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    van Gumster, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The exciting new book on the exciting new Blender 2.5! If you want to design 3D animation, here's your chance to jump in with both feet, free software, and a friendly guide at your side! Blender For Dummies, 2nd Edition is the perfect introduction to the popular, open-source, Blender 3D animation software, specifically the revolutionary new Blender 2.5. Find out what all the buzz is about with this easy-access guide. Even if you?re just beginning, you'll learn all the Blender 2.5 ropes, get the latest tips, and soon start creating 3D animation that dazzles.Walks you through what you need to kn

  3. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  4. Blender for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    van Gumster, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Learn to: Create realistic animations with this free, open source software Build 3D objects with meshes, curves, and surfaces Take advantage of new features, including the incredibly powerful Cycles renderer Jump into Blender and start animating Is your head full of images that would be marvelous in motion? Make it happen! This plain-English guide shows you how to use Blender, the open source animation suite that lets you produce professional results. You'll learn to create 3D objects, get them moving with animation and rigging, set the scene with cameras and lighting, and maybe even go p

  5. Blender Foundations The Essential Guide to Learning Blender 26

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Blender Foundations is the definitive resource for getting started with 3D art in Blender, one of the most popular 3D/Animation tools on the market . With the expert insight and experience of Roland Hess, noted Blender expert and author, animators and artists will learn the basics starting with the revised 2.6 interface, modeling tools, sculpting, lighting and materials through rendering, compositing and video editing. Some of the new features covered include the completely re-thought interface, the character animation and keying system, and the smoke simulator. More than just a tutorial gui

  6. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  7. Blender Studio Projects Digital Movie-Making

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to get professional results from Blender. Start from scratch-the way it happens in the studio-and create fully rendered objects with Blender open-source 3D animation software and this real-world, roll-up-your-sleeves guide. No time is wasted-this book plunges straight into step-by-step instruction designed to help you build skills and create solid assets for film, video, and games. Blender is gaining clout in professional settings, and you can get a running start with this series of hands-on tutorials that encompasses multiple disciplines. The book includes a DVD with starter, interm

  8. Blender production creating short animations from start to finish

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Blender has become one of the most popular 3D animation tools on the market because it is robust and absolutely free. Blender Production is the definitive resource for anyone who wants to create short animations from scratch. With this book, and Blender, you have the ideal platform to make it happen.  Blender expert and author Roland Hess walks you through the entire process of creating a short animation including: writing, storyboarding, blocking, character creation, animation, rendering, and production. The associated web site includes the full Blender software kit and a compl

  9. The complete guide to blender graphics computer modeling and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Blain, John M

    2014-01-01

    Smoothly Leads Users into the Subject of Computer Graphics through the Blender GUIBlender, the free and open source 3D computer modeling and animation program, allows users to create and animate models and figures in scenes, compile feature movies, and interact with the models and create video games. Reflecting the latest version of Blender, The Complete Guide to Blender Graphics: Computer Modeling & Animation, 2nd Edition helps beginners learn the basics of computer animation using this versatile graphics program. This edition incorporates many new features of Blender, including developments

  10. Blender cycles lighting and rendering cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Iraci, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth guide full of step-by-step recipes to explore the concepts behind the usage of Cycles. Packed with illustrations, and lots of tips and tricks; the easy-to-understand nature of the book will help the reader understand even the most complex concepts with ease.If you are a digital artist who already knows your way around Blender, and you want to learn about the new Cycles' rendering engine, this is the book for you. Even experts will be able to pick up new tips and tricks to make the most of the rendering capabilities of Cycles.

  11. Development of Virtual Morphometric Globes Using Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Florinsky, I V

    2015-01-01

    Virtual globes - programs implementing interactive three-dimensional (3D) models of planets - are increasingly used in geosciences. Global morphometric models can be useful for tectonic and planetary studies. We describe the development of the first testing version of the system of virtual morphometric globes for the Earth, Mars, and the Moon. As the initial data, we used three 15'-gridded global digital elevation models (DEMs) extracted from SRTM30_PLUS, the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter gridded archives. For three planetary bodies, we derived global digital models and maps of several morphometric attributes (i.e., horizontal curvature, vertical curvature, minimal curvature, maximal curvature, and catchment area). To develop the system, we used Blender, the open-source software for 3D modeling and visualization. First, a 3D sphere model was generated. Second, the global morphometric maps as textures were imposed to the sphere surface. Finally, the real-time 3D graphics B...

  12. Blender 2.6 cycles, materials and textures cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, practical style this Cookbook deep-dives into a wide-array of techniques used to create realistic materials and textures.This book is perfect for you if you have used Blender before but are new to the impressive Cycles renderer. You should have some knowledge of the Blender interface, though this is not a strict requirement. If you want to create realistic, stunning materials and textures using Cycles, then this book is for you!

  13. AstroBlend: An Astrophysical Visualization Package for Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Naiman, J P

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth in scale and complexity of both computational and observational astrophysics over the past decade necessitates efficient and intuitive methods for examining and visualizing large datasets. Here, I present {\\it AstroBlend}, an open-source Python library for use within the three dimensional modeling software, {\\it Blender}. While {\\it Blender} has been a popular open-source software among animators and visual effects artists, in recent years it has also become a tool for visualizing astrophysical datasets. {\\it AstroBlend} combines the three dimensional capabilities of {\\it Blender} with the analysis tools of the widely used astrophysical toolset, {\\it yt}, to afford both computational and observational astrophysicists the ability to simultaneously analyze their data and create informative and appealing visualizations. The introduction of this package includes a description of features, work flow, and various example visualizations. A website - www.astroblend.com - has been developed which incl...

  14. Beginning Blender Open Source 3D Modeling, Animations, and Game Design

    CERN Document Server

    Flavell, L

    2010-01-01

    A new world of creative possibilities is opened by Blender, the most popular and powerful open source 3D and animation tool. Blender is not just free software; it is also an important professional tool used in animated shorts, television commercials, and shows, as well as in production for films like Spiderman 2. Lance Flavell's Beginning Blender will give you the skills to start shaping new worlds and virtual characters, and perhaps lead you down a new professional path. Beginning Blender covers the Blender 2.5 release in-depth. The book starts with the creation of simple figures using basic

  15. Voxel datacubes for 3D visualization in Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Gárate, Matías

    2016-01-01

    The growth of computational astrophysics and complexity of multidimensional datasets evidences the need for new versatile visualization tools for both analysis and presentation of the data. In this work we show how to use the open source software Blender as a 3D visualization tool to study and visualize numerical simulation results, focusing on astrophysical hydrodynamic experiments. With a datacube as input, the software can generate a volume rendering of the 3D data, show the evolution of a simulation in time, and do a fly-around camera animation to highlight the points of interest. We explain the process to import simulation outputs into Blender using the Voxel Data format, and how to set up a visualization scene in the software interface. This method allows scientists to perform a complementary visual analysis of their data, and display their results in an appealing way, both for outreach and science presentations.

  16. AstroBlend: Visualization package for use with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    AstroBlend is a visualization package for use in the three dimensional animation and modeling software, Blender. It reads data in via a text file or can use pre-fab isosurface files stored as OBJ or Wavefront files. AstroBlend supports a variety of codes such as FLASH (ascl:1010.082), Enzo (ascl:1010.072), and Athena (ascl:1010.014), and combines artistic 3D models with computational astrophysics datasets to create models and animations.

  17. AstroBlend: An astrophysical visualization package for Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    The rapid growth in scale and complexity of both computational and observational astrophysics over the past decade necessitates efficient and intuitive methods for examining and visualizing large datasets. Here, I present AstroBlend, an open-source Python library for use within the three dimensional modeling software, Blender. While Blender has been a popular open-source software among animators and visual effects artists, in recent years it has also become a tool for visualizing astrophysical datasets. AstroBlend combines the three dimensional capabilities of Blender with the analysis tools of the widely used astrophysical toolset, yt, to afford both computational and observational astrophysicists the ability to simultaneously analyze their data and create informative and appealing visualizations. The introduction of this package includes a description of features, work flow, and various example visualizations. A website - www.astroblend.com - has been developed which includes tutorials, and a gallery of example images and movies, along with links to downloadable data, three dimensional artistic models, and various other resources.

  18. Cellulose nanofiber extraction from grass by a modified kitchen blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaito, Antonio Norio; Ikenaga, Koh; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers have been used to reinforce polymers, delivering composites with strength that in some cases can be superior to that of engineering plastics. The extraction of nanofibers from plant fibers can be achieved through specialized equipment that demands high energy input, despite delivering extremely low yields. The high extraction cost confines the use of cellulose nanofibers to the laboratory and not for industrial applications. This study aims to extract nanofibers from grass by using a kitchen blender. Earlier studies have demonstrated that paper sheets made of blender-extracted nanofibers (after 5 min to 10 min of blending) have strengths on par with paper sheets made from commercially available cellulose nanofibers. By optimizing the design of the blender bottle, nanofibrillation can be achieved in shorter treatment times, reducing the energy consumption (in the present case, to half) and the overall extraction cost. The raw materials used can be extended to the residue straw of agricultural crops, as an alternative to the usual pulp fibers obtained from wood.

  19. Spherical Panorama Visualization of Astronomical Data with Blender and Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2016-06-01

    We describe methodology to generate 360 degree spherical panoramas of both 2D and 3D data. The techniques apply to a variety of astronomical data types - all sky maps, 2D and 3D catalogs as well as planetary surface maps. The results can be viewed in a desktop browser or interactively with a mobile phone or tablet. Static displays or panoramic video renderings of the data can be produced. We review the Python code and usage of the 3D Blender software for projecting maps onto 3D surfaces and the various tools for distributing visualizations.

  20. Blender master class a hands-on guide to modeling, sculpting, materials, and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Simonds, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Blender is a powerful and free 3D graphics tool used by artists and designers worldwide. But even experienced designers can find it challenging to turn an idea into a polished piece.For those who have struggled to create professional-quality projects in Blender, author Ben Simonds offers this peek inside his studio. You'll learn how to create 3D models as you explore the creative process that he uses to model three example projects: a muscular bat creature, a futuristic robotic spider, and ancient temple ruins. Along the way, you'll master the Blender interface and learn how to create and refi

  1. Blender Pump Fuel Survey: CRC Project E-95-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Alleman, T. L.

    2014-05-01

    With the increasing fuel diversity in the marketplace, the Coordinating Research Council and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a survey of mid-level ethanol blends (MLEBs) in the market. A total of 73 fuel samples were collected from 20 retail stations. To target Class 4 volatility, the fuel samples were collected primarily in the midwestern United States in the month of February. Samples included the gasoline (E0), Flex Fuel, and every MLEB that was offered from each of the 20 stations. Photographs of each station were taken at the time of sample collection, detailing the pump labeling and configuration. The style and labeling of the pump, hose, and dispenser nozzle are all important features to prevent misfueling events. The physical location of the MLEB product relative to the gasoline product can also be important to prevent misfueling. In general, there were many differences in the style and labeling of the blender pumps surveyed in this study. All samples were analyzed for volatility and ethanol content. For the MLEB samples collected, the fuels tended to be lower in ethanol content than their indicated amount; however, the samples were all within 10 vol% of their indicated blend level. One of the 20 Flex Fuel samples was outside of the allowable limits for ethanol content. Four of the 20 Flex Fuel samples had volatility below the minimum requirement for Class 4.

  2. Turbulence-assisted shear exfoliation of graphene using household detergent and a kitchen blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrla, Eswaraiah; Paton, Keith R.; Backes, Claudia; Harvey, Andrew; Smith, Ronan J.; McCauley, Joe; Coleman, Jonathan N.

    2014-09-01

    To facilitate progression from the lab to commercial applications, it will be necessary to develop simple, scalable methods to produce high quality graphene. Here we demonstrate the production of large quantities of defect-free graphene using a kitchen blender and household detergent. We have characterised the scaling of both graphene concentration and production rate with the mixing parameters: mixing time, initial graphite concentration, rotor speed and liquid volume. We find the production rate to be invariant with mixing time and to increase strongly with mixing volume, results which are important for scale-up. Even in this simple system, concentrations of up to 1 mg ml-1 and graphene masses of >500 mg can be achieved after a few hours mixing. The maximum production rate was ~0.15 g h-1, much higher than for standard sonication-based exfoliation methods. We demonstrate that graphene production occurs because the mean turbulent shear rate in the blender exceeds the critical shear rate for exfoliation.To facilitate progression from the lab to commercial applications, it will be necessary to develop simple, scalable methods to produce high quality graphene. Here we demonstrate the production of large quantities of defect-free graphene using a kitchen blender and household detergent. We have characterised the scaling of both graphene concentration and production rate with the mixing parameters: mixing time, initial graphite concentration, rotor speed and liquid volume. We find the production rate to be invariant with mixing time and to increase strongly with mixing volume, results which are important for scale-up. Even in this simple system, concentrations of up to 1 mg ml-1 and graphene masses of >500 mg can be achieved after a few hours mixing. The maximum production rate was ~0.15 g h-1, much higher than for standard sonication-based exfoliation methods. We demonstrate that graphene production occurs because the mean turbulent shear rate in the blender exceeds

  3. ILSI Task Force on enteral nutrition; estimated composition and costs of blenderized diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Borghi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Blenderized tube diets (BTD are used in some parts of Brazil and few studies have analyzed their features in comparison with industrialized preparations. Among 14 randomly collected BTD recipes 9 were poorly described or failed to standardize foodstuffs and portions and, consequently, nutrient and energy composition was difficult to define. Only five BTD allowed theoretical estimation of their nutritional properties. Macronutrient content was highly variable, often conflicting with accepted daily recommendations. According to the literature there are further disadvantages with BTD use including diet high risk of contamination, physical and chemical instability, and high osmolarity and viscosity. Nominal cost of BTD was comparatively low in relation to industrialized formulas; however we did not compute labor and indirect expenses, probably rendering final value more expensive than with the industrialized alternative. It is likely that within such circumstances, hospital and home care malnutrition will not be adequately dealt with and related complications may occur. It is concluded that the continued use of blenderized tube feeding diets requires careful assessment, prioritizing correction of potencial nutritional deficits by means of safe, balanced, chemically complete and effective nutritional prescriptions.

  4. An Analysis of the Technological Structure of Refineries and Blenders: Estimation of the Leontief Multiproduct Cost Function and Reservation Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Leontief multiproduct flexible cost function aims to give an approach to the technology used by refineries and blenders. In general, this cost function satisfies rational behavior restrictions imposed by economic theory. The estimated marginal costs are incorporated in a monopolistic competition model to calculate the virtual prices of other products provided by refineries and blenders in the hypothetical situation in which reformulated gasoline is absent in fuel markets. I have found that conventional gasoline and other product prices are greater than those in the mentioned hypothetical case. This result reflects the fact that consumers are being charged with high prices in order to have available a fuel which satisfies the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA regulations. Finally, when all the products become perfect substitutes, i.e. consumers are not interested in the quality of fuels, price differences tend to be negligibly small.

  5. BioGraphene: Direct Exfoliation of Graphite in a Kitchen Blender for Enzymology Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, C V; Pattammattel, A

    2016-01-01

    A high yielding method for the aqueous exfoliation of graphite crystals to produce high quality graphene nanosheets in a kitchen blender is described here. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), β-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, lysozyme, and hemoglobin as well as calf serum were used for the exfoliation of graphene. Among these, BSA gave the maximum exfoliation efficiency, exceeding 4mgmL(-1)h(-1) of graphene. Quality of graphene produced was examined by Raman spectroscopy, which indicated 3-5 layer graphene of very high quality and very low levels of defects. Transmission electron microscopy indicated an average size of ~0.5μm flakes. The graphene/BSA dispersions were stable over pH 3.0-11, and at 5°C or 50°C, for more than 2 months. Current approach gave higher rates of BSA/graphene (BioGraphene) in better yields than other methods. Calf serum, when used in place of BSA, also gave high yields of good quality BioGraphene and these preparations may be of direct use for cell culture studies. A simple example of BioGraphene preparation is described that can be adapted in most laboratories, and graphene-adsorbed glucose oxidase is nearly as active as the free enzyme. Current approach may facilitate large-scale production of graphene in most laboratories around the world and it may open new opportunities for biological applications of graphene.

  6. Quantification of Tribocharging of Pharmaceutical Powders in V-Blenders: Experiments, Multiscale Modeling, and Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Shivangi; Hancock, Bruno; Abramov, Yuriy; Yu, Weili; Rowland, Martin; Huang, Zhonghui; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceutical powders are very prone to electrostatic charging by colliding and sliding contacts. In pharmaceutical formulation processes, particle charging is often a nuisance and can cause problems in the manufacture of products, such as affecting powder flow, fill, and dose uniformity. For a fundamental understanding of the powder triboelectrification, it is essential to study charge transfer under well-defined conditions. Hence, all experiments in the present study were conducted in a V-blender located inside a glove box with a controlled humidity of 20%. To understand tribocharging, different contact surfaces, namely aluminum, Teflon, poly methyl methacrylate, and nylon were used along with 2 pharmaceutical excipients and 2 drug substances. For the pharmaceutical materials, the work function values were estimated using MOPAC, a semiempirical molecular orbital package which has been previously used for the solid-state studies and molecular structure predictions. For a mechanistic understanding of tribocharging, a discrete element model incorporating charge transfer and electrostatic forces was developed. An effort was made to correlate tribocharging of pharmaceutical powders to properties such as cohesive energy density and surface energy. The multiscale model used is restricted as it considers only spherical particles with smooth surfaces. It should be used judiciously for other experimental assemblies because it does not represent a full validation of a tightly integrated model.

  7. 3D for iPhone Apps with Blender and SIO2 Your Guide to Creating 3D Games and More with Open-Source Software

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Create exciting, interactive 3D apps for the iPhone and iPod Touch. What a combination-using free, open-source Blender software and the SI02 game engine to create very cool 3D characters and games for the very hot devices of the moment, the iPhone and iPod Touch. Whether you're coming to this as an iPhone developer or as a Blender artist, this book is for you. Learn how to create 3D content using Blender's WYSIWYG approach, find helpful information on Xcode and other iPhone SDK topics, master physical collisions, and acquire the skills you need to bridge both worlds with fun, compelling conten

  8. Powder and other divided solids mixing. Scale-up and parametric study of a ribbon blender used in pharmaceutical powders mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Pascal; Abatzoglou, Nicolas

    2006-02-01

    This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of ribbon blender operational parameters on mixture quality. Mix quality parameters and blend uniformity limits are enforced by regulatory bodies. These limits have served in this present work as targets for blending end-points. In a laboratory-scale model ribbon blender, built by scaling down a real industrial unit, powder mixtures composed of white and blue microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were blended. Blend uniformity was evaluated using a statistical analysis method under various operating conditions such as loading patterns, blender filling percentage, impeller rotational speeds, and mixing times. It was shown that the filling percentage is the most influential mixing parameter. At high impeller rotational speed, the blending end-point was never reached during experimentation.

  9. 现代混砂车的特点及发展趋势%The characteristics and development trend of modern sand blender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍光; 车永顺; 祁建; 李宣

    2015-01-01

    现代混砂车体现出排量大、双吸双排、双层搅拌罐、输砂量调整范围广、输砂精度更高等特点。闭式混合泵、输砂装置独立化、分布式动力装置、双混合装置成为未来混砂车发展趋势。%Modern sand blender reflects the large displacement,double suction double exhaust,double-layer mixing tank,the sediment transport amount. Wide adjustment range,high precision. The closed mixing pump,sand conveying device independent, distributed power device,double mixing device become the future development trend of sand blender.

  10. An Analytic Network Process approach for the environmental aspect selection problem — A case study for a hand blender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereketli Zafeirakopoulos, Ilke, E-mail: ibereketli@gsu.edu.tr; Erol Genevois, Mujde, E-mail: merol@gsu.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess, in a systematic way, the environmental aspects and its potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product's life cycle. It is widely accepted and considered as one of the most powerful tools to support decision-making processes used in ecodesign and sustainable production in order to learn about the most problematic parts and life cycle phases of a product and to have a projection for future improvements. However, since Life Cycle Assessment is a cost and time intensive method, companies do not intend to carry out a full version of it, except for large corporate ones. Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, which do not have enough budget for and knowledge on sustainable production and ecodesign approaches, focusing only on the most important possible environmental aspect is unavoidable. In this direction, finding the right environmental aspect to work on is crucial for the companies. In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, Analytic Network Process is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. The proposed methodology aims at providing a simplified environmental assessment to producers. It is applied for a hand blender, which is a member of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment family. The decision criteria for the environmental aspects and relations of dependence are defined. The evaluation is made by the Analytic Network Process in order to create a realistic approach to inter-dependencies among the criteria. The results are computed via the Super Decisions software. Finally, it is observed that the procedure is completed in less time, with less data, with less cost and in a less subjective way than conventional approaches. - Highlights: • We present a simplified environmental assessment methodology to support LCA. • ANP is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. • ANP deals well with the interdependencies between aspects

  11. Auto-generation of mine shaft engineering model based on Blender%基于Blender的矿山井巷模型自动生成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊绵国; 朱权洁; 刘晓云; 吕垒; 盛建龙

    2012-01-01

    以开源三维软件Blender和矿山基础信息库为资源,利用Python编程语言提出矿山井巷几何模型的计算方法,并通过Blender自带Python API调用Blender建模引擎,从而实现对矿山井巷三维模型的自动生成.运行结果表明所设计的模型简单易行,完全开源后无需软件费用.%Based on the open-source 3D software Blender and mining-based information database, this paper uses the Python programming language to arrive at the calculation method of mine geometric model. By calling Blender modeling engine through Python API, it has realized the auto-generation of 3D model of the mine shaft engineering. The model is found to be simple, feasible and what's more, costless thanks to the use of completely open-source software.

  12. A Study of 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data Based on the Blender%基于 Blender的天文数据三维可视化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱旭冉; 朱明; 蔡栩

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy is entering a new era of discovery.Employing new facilities for observation and computation will routinely generate data in large amounts.It becomes increasingly important to efficiently process and display astronomical data.While visualization and analysis tools specialized for astronomy are being developed, it is also a trend to modify and integrate software packages in other scientific disciplines to work for astronomical data.As an example of the trend, we adapt the Blender, a graphic software tool with a flexible user interface and an enhanced development environment.In this paper we present the implementation of two Python modules as plugins for the Blender to display 3D spectral-line data cube and make 3D animations of N-body simulations.%天文学是一门以观测为基础的古老学科,在不同波段的各种形式天文望远镜的观测已经积累了大量的数据,天文学领域对数据的处理与展示有着很高的要求与期望。目前有很多团队着力于开发天文数据的可视化分析工具和软件,同时,有很多其他领域的软件,通过整合和修改也可以应用到天文数据上。介绍了对三维建模软件Blender的工具包的再开发,结合其内置的Python API和BPY库,实现对常用天文数据三维数据单元( Data Cube)和N体模拟结果的实时静态和动态三维可视化。

  13. 试析利用Blender开发普通高校虚拟现实实验室%Introducing Blender for University Virtual Reality Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝振华

    2014-01-01

    作为高校教育中不可或缺的一个环节,教学实验室的建设面临着适应社会需求、积极探索进取和创新发展的问题。由于教学实验室需要考虑课程设置安排和市场前景两方面的要求,选择适合的核心软件就显得十分重要。文章试析利用Blender开发虚拟教学实验室在普通高校中的意义,阐述教学实验室要根据教学目标和技术可行性,并选择合理的开发技术以帮助学生形成学习虚拟现实的概念。%A typical workshop on virtual reality should aim to impart learning strategy in software engineering and digital media art. It is the essential part of high-education and inevitable component from the course out line. Since school workshop needs to consider both the course structure and the market outlet, it is very important to choose suitable and sustainable software as the core. This article is about to introduce Blender as the major software for an active learning workshop on regards to engage students on forming their own conceptual understanding of virtual reality.

  14. The intestine is a blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Kravets, Victoria; Hu, David

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines Contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  15. 气相色谱法测定混合型饲料添加剂薄荷素油中薄荷脑含量%Determination of menthol in feed additive blender peppermint oil by gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林章秀

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立气相色谱测定混合型饲料添加剂薄荷素油中薄荷脑含量的方法。方法样品采用乙醇提取,以毛细管色谱柱分离,采用氢火焰离子化检测器检测。结果薄荷脑在0.0356~1.780 mg/mL 范围内具有良好的线性关系,线性方程为 Y=139286×X-3452,相关系数R为0.9998,方法的定量限(LOQ)为0.1 g/kg。样品添加回收试验的平均回收率在98.2.8%~99.2%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为1.06%~1.96%(n=6)。结论本方法简便、快速,结果准确、可靠,适用于混合型饲料添加剂薄荷素油中薄荷脑含量的测定。%Objective A method for the determination of menthol in feed additive blender Peppermint oil by gas chromatography was established. Methods The sample was firstly extracted by alcohol, and then was separated by capillary chromatogram column, and fi-nally was determinate by flame ionization detector. Results The linear relation of menthol in 0.0356 to 1.780 mg/mL showed good lin-earity (R=0.9998). The linear equation was Y=139 286 ×X-3 452. The limit of quantization (LOQ) was 0.1 g/kg. The average recovery rate of recovery test was 98. 8%to 99.2%. The relative standard deviation (RSD)was 1.06%to 1.96%(n=6). Conclusion This method was simple, rapid and accurate. It can be used as a method for the determination of menthol in feed additive blender Peppermint Oil.

  16. Bacterial contamination of blenderized whole food and commercial enteral tube feedings in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M M; Sorreda-Esguerra, P; Santos, E E; Platon, B G; Castro, C G; Idrisalman, E R; Chen, N R; Shott, S; Comer, G M

    2001-12-01

    Hospital-prepared tube feedings from four Philippine acute-care hospitals were analysed for microbial contamination. Two feedings were prepared on three separate days at each hospital. The tube feedings were either blended natural whole foods or a reconstituted commercial powdered nutritional product. Samples of each feeding were collected for coliform count and standard plate count at the time of preparation and at 1, 2 and 4 h after preparation after maintenance at room temperature (26-31 degrees C). At the time of preparation, mean coliform and standard plate counts for all samples were 10.3 most probable number per gram (MPN/g) and 7.4x10(4)colony-forming units per gram (cfu/g), respectively. Nine of 24 samples (38%) had coliform counts greater than 10 MPN/g, and 22/24 (92%) samples had standard plate counts greater than 10(3) cfu/g. There were significant increases in mean coliform and standard plate counts over 4 h (P=0.0005 and P=0.008, respectively). At 4 h after preparation, the mean coliform and standard plate counts were 18.2 MPN/g and 2.1x10(5) cfu/g, respectively. At this time, 18/24 (75%) samples had coliform counts greater than 10 MPN/g and 20/24 (83%) samples had standard plate counts greater than 10(5) cfu/g. The results of this study show that the microbial quality of the majority of the hospital-prepared enteral tube feedings analysed were not within published guidelines for safety.

  17. HELP: XID+, the probabilistic de-blender for Herschel SPIRE maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, P. D.; Oliver, S.; Betancourt, M.; Clarke, C.; Cowley, W. I.; Duivenvoorden, S.; Farrah, D.; Griffin, M.; Lacey, C.; Le Floc'h, E.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sargent, M.; Scudder, J. M.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Wang, L.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a new prior-based source extraction tool, XID+, to carry out photometry in the Herschel SPIRE (Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver) maps at the positions of known sources. XID+ is developed using a probabilistic Bayesian framework that provides a natural framework in which to include prior information, and uses the Bayesian inference tool Stan to obtain the full posterior probability distribution on flux estimates. In this paper, we discuss the details of XID+ and demonstrate the basic capabilities and performance by running it on simulated SPIRE maps resembling the COSMOS field, and comparing to the current prior-based source extraction tool DESPHOT. Not only we show that XID+ performs better on metrics such as flux accuracy and flux uncertainty accuracy, but we also illustrate how obtaining the posterior probability distribution can help overcome some of the issues inherent with maximum-likelihood-based source extraction routines. We run XID+ on the COSMOS SPIRE maps from Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey using a 24-μm catalogue as a positional prior, and a uniform flux prior ranging from 0.01 to 1000 mJy. We show the marginalized SPIRE colour-colour plot and marginalized contribution to the cosmic infrared background at the SPIRE wavelengths. XID+ is a core tool arising from the Herschel Extragalactic Legacy Project (HELP) and we discuss how additional work within HELP providing prior information on fluxes can and will be utilized. The software is available at https://github.com/H-E-L-P/XID_plus. We also provide the data product for COSMOS. We believe this is the first time that the full posterior probability of galaxy photometry has been provided as a data product.

  18. HELP: XID+, The Probabilistic De-blender for Herschel SPIRE maps

    CERN Document Server

    Hurley, P D; Betancourt, M; Clarke, C; Cowley, W I; Duivenvoorden, S; Farrah, D; Griffin, M; Lacey, C; Floc'h, E Le; Papadopoulos, A; Sargent, M; Scudder, J M; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Wang, L

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new prior-based source extraction tool, XID+, to carry out photometry in the Herschel SPIRE maps at the positions of known sources. XID+ is developed using a probabilistic Bayesian framework which provides a natural framework in which to include prior information, and uses the Bayesian inference tool, Stan, to obtain the full posterior probability distribution on flux estimates. In this paper, we discuss the details of XID+ and demonstrate the basic capabilities and performance by running it on simulated SPIRE maps resembling the COSMOS field, and comparing to the current prior-based source extraction tool DESPHOT. We show that not only does XID+ perform better on metrics such as flux accuracy and flux uncertainty accuracy, we illustrate how obtaining the posterior probability distribution can help overcome some of the issues inherent with maximum likelihood based source extraction routines. We run XID+ on the COSMOS SPIRE maps from HerMES, using a 24 $\\mathrm{\\mu m}$ catalogue as a prior ...

  19. 40 CFR 80.525 - What requirements apply to kerosene blenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80... means any refiner who produces NRLM or motor vehicle diesel fuel by adding kerosene to NRLM or...

  20. HELP: XID+, The Probabilistic De-blender for Herschel SPIRE maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, P. D.; Oliver, S.; Betancourt, M.; Clarke, C.; Cowley, W. I.; Duivenvoorden, S.; Farrah, D.; Griffin, M.; Lacey, C.; Le Floc'h, E.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sargent, M.; Scudder, J. M.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Wang, L.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a new prior-based source extraction tool, XID+, to carry out photometry in the Herschel SPIRE maps at the positions of known sources. XID+ is developed using a probabilistic Bayesian framework which provides a natural framework in which to include prior information, and uses the Bayesian inference tool Stan to obtain the full posterior probability distribution on flux estimates. In this paper, we discuss the details of XID+ and demonstrate the basic capabilities and performance by running it on simulated SPIRE maps resembling the COSMOS field, and comparing to the current prior-based source extraction tool DESPHOT. We show that not only does XID+ perform better on metrics such as flux accuracy and flux uncertainty accuracy, we illustrate how obtaining the posterior probability distribution can help overcome some of the issues inherent with maximum likelihood based source extraction routines. We run XID+ on the COSMOS SPIRE maps from HerMES, using a 24 μm catalogue as a positional prior, and a uniform flux prior ranging from 0.01 to 1000 mJy. We show the marginalised SPIRE colour-colour plot and marginalised contribution to the cosmic infrared background at the SPIRE wavelengths. XID+ is a core tool arising from the Herschel Extragalactic Legacy Project (HELP) and we discuss how additional work within HELP providing prior information on fluxes can and will be utilised. The software is available at https://github.com/H-E-L-P/XID_plus. We also provide the data product for COSMOS. We believe this is the first time that the full posterior probability of galaxy photometry has been provided as a data product.

  1. The Study of SIMCA, PLS-DA, WT-ANN Models for Coconut Oil Blender Qualitative Identification%基于SIMCA、PLS-DA、WT-ANN模型的椰子油掺混定性识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹飞宇; 王兴国; 陈卫军; 王挥

    2016-01-01

    根据不同油脂的紫外特征光谱,利用SIMCA,PLS-DA,WT-ANN 3种模型对椰子油中掺混大豆油、葵花籽油和玉米油的油脂类别进行判定分析.结果显示,WT-ANN对3种掺混油脂类别的识别效果最佳,预测集R2分别达到了0.998 9(大豆油)、0.981 1(葵花籽油)、0.999 9(玉米油),且在不同浓度下识别率均达到了100%,而SIMCA和PLS-DA的识别准确度相对较低,且受掺混浓度的影响较大.WT-ANN结合紫外光谱是一种有效判定椰子油中掺混油脂类别的分析方法.

  2. 高龄卧床患者鼻饲自制匀浆膳食鼻饲量及其间隔时间%The elderly bedridden patients with nasogastric tube feeding and home-made blenderized diet time interval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄丽辉; 黄鑫

    2015-01-01

    objective:to explore-bed nasogastric homemade homogenate diet in patients with nasal feeding amount and time interval. Methods:choose from June 2013 to June 2015 treated 80 cases of senile patients in bed, is divided into two groups, using different number of nasogastric, nasal feeding amount, contrast and the incidence of adverse reactions observed two groups of patients as well as the body quality and so on. Results:the incidence of complications (15%) of patients with observation group was obviously lower than the control group (45%), significant differences (P<0.05). Conclusion:the impact of different nasogastric scheme for the patient.%目的:探析高龄卧床患者鼻饲自制匀浆膳食鼻饲量及其间隔时间。方法:选我院2013年6月至2015年6月收治的80例高龄卧床患者,分成两组,采用不同的鼻饲次数、鼻饲量,对比与观察两组患者的不良反应发生率以及体质量等。结果:观察组患者并发症发生率(15%)明显低于对照组(45%),差异性显著(P<0.05)。结论:不同的鼻饲方案对患者产生的影响不同。

  3. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE OS MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO DE METACERCÁRIAS DE ASCOCOTYLE SP (TREMATODA: DIGENEA DOS TECIDOS DE MUGIL LIZA VALENCIENNES, 1836 (TELEOSTEI: MUGILIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand and consumption of fish and their derivatives has increased considerably in recent years. However, fish are ideal hosts of numerous parasites, highlighting the need to develop new research methodologies for its detection. The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of Ascocotyle metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea extraction from visceral tissues of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 (Teleostei: Mugilidae by two methods: homogenization by blender or mixer. Twentysix samples of M. liza were collected, being 16 liver samples and 10 samples of muscle tissue. Approximately 5g of each sample were processed by blender and mixer techniques homogenization for metacercariae extraction. In liver samples, up to 46 metacercariae were found in samples homogenized in blender. The lowest amount found was 2 metacercariae for blender and mixer techniques. In samples of muscle tissue, 4 metacercariae were observed in the mixer extraction. The lowest amount was found to be 2 parasites to blender and mixer. The mean metacercariae found and extracted from muscle tissue were 0.2 (+0.357 and 1.2 (+0.963 for blender and mixer, respectively. The averages of metacercariae found and extracted from fish liver, in blender and mixer, were 24 (+15.145 and 18 (+8.246, respectively. The homogenization techniques for blender and mixer were effective for the extraction of metacercariae of mullet fish tissues, suggesting that they may be directly applicable in the field of study, especially due to the ease of testing.

  4. Design and analysis of two-layer anonymous communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-ping; WANG Jian-xin

    2007-01-01

    A new architecture for scalable anonymous communication system(SACS) was proposed. The users were divided into several subgroups managed by different sub-blenders, and all sub-blenders were managed by the main-blender using two layers management scheme. The identity information of members are distributed on different sub-blenders, which makes each member keep much less information and network overload greatly reduce. The anonymity and the overhead of the new scheme were analyzed and compared with that of Crowds, which shows the cost of storage and network overhead for the new scheme largely decreases while the anonymity is little degraded. The experiment results also show that the new system architecture is well scalable. The ratio of management cost of SACS to that of Crowds is about 1:25 while the value of P(I|H1+) only increases by 0.001-0.020, which shows that SACS keeps almost the same anonymity with Crowds.

  5. Uusika Muudised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    BBC kokkuvõttest Inglismaa raadiojaamade enimmängitavatest artistidest ; USA muusikaajakirja Blender avaldatud halvimate poplaulude pingereast ; Ansambli Cure uuest ilmuvast heliplaadist ; Ansambli Spice Girls taasühinemisplaanidest

  6. Manufacturing Methods and Technology. Project Summary Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    multiperfor- ated propellant in subscale and full-scale shipping drum containers and mocked-up full-scale drop plug buggies, dryer beds, and blenders as shown...De th 18"’ Dryer Bed~(M26El Depth 4") 0 Blender (r, z3 Figure 1 - Test Configurations for M26EI Propellant BS-NACO (Butyl Stearate Navy Cool...time. The bins were then tumbled Ill an attempt to break up the hexamine. the hexamine did not break up com- pletely and a lump about two feet in

  7. Comment on "Scaling of atmosphere and ocean temperature correlations in observations and climate models"

    CERN Document Server

    Bunde, A; Havlin, S; Koscielny-Bunde, E; Schellnhuber, H J; Vjushin, D; Bunde, Armin; Eichner, Jan F.; Havlin, Shlomo; Koscielny-Bunde, Eva; Schellnhuber, Hans J.; Vjushin, Dmitry

    2003-01-01

    In a recent letter [K. Fraedrich and R. Blender, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 108501 (2003)], Fraedrich and Blender studied the scaling of atmosphere and ocean temperature. They analyzed monthly temperature records by using the detrended fluctuation analysis and claim that the scaling exponent alpha over the inner continents is equal to 0.5, being characteristic of uncorrelated random sequences. Here we show that also for the inner continents, the exponent is between 0.6 and 0.7, similar as for the coastline-stations.

  8. Man--Society--Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxis, Linda A., Ed.

    The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…

  9. 40 CFR 80.140 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as corrosion inhibitors, antioxidants, metal deactivators, and handling solvents. Detergent blender... in 40 CFR part 80, subpart A, or, if not defined in 40 CFR part 80, subpart A, shall have the meaning given them in 40 CFR part 79, subpart A. Additization means the addition of detergent to gasoline...

  10. Preformulation and Formulation Investigational New Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    pyridostigmine. Formulation Strate~y Since hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and hydrogenated castor oil (Castorwax@)/polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP) had been used... hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (MethocelO K4M CR) for 10 minutes in a V-blender. Povidone was added to this mixture and blended for a further 10 minutes. The

  11. 78 FR 14667 - New Animal Drug Applications; Alfaprostol; Bicyclohexylammonium Fumagillin; N

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ...; Dichlorophene and Toluene; Flurogestone Acetate; Isoflurane; Pyrantel; Tylosin; Tylosin and Sulfamethazine..., 558.625 (tylosin phosphate). P.O. Box 224, Waterloo, IA 50704 NADA 098-639 TYLAN Sulfa-G (tylosin...). 2435 NADA 106-507 TYLAN 10 (tylosin Custom Feed Blenders Corp., 540 558.625 phosphate). Hawkeye...

  12. 78 FR 14803 - Ag-Mark, Inc., et al.; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ...-T Premix J. C. Feed Mills, (tylosin 1050 Sheffield, phosphate). P.O. Box 224, Waterloo, IA 50704. NADA 098-639 TYLAN Sulfa-G Bioproducts, Inc., (tylosin phosphate 320 Springside and Dr., suite 300, sulfamethazine). Fairlawn, OH 44333- 2435. NADA 106-507 TYLAN 10 (tylosin Custom Feed phosphate). Blenders...

  13. 77 FR 74672 - Ag-Mark, Incorporated, et al.; Proposal To Withdraw Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    .... Pharmacal, Inc., 8345 520.260 chloride). Melrose Dr., Lenexa, KS 66214. 098-429 Medic-Meal-T Premix (tylosin... TYLAN Sulfa-G (tylosin Bioproducts, Inc., 320 558.630 phosphate and Springside Dr., Suite 300, sulfamethazine). Fairlawn, OH 44333-2435. 106-507 TYLAN 10 (tylosin phosphate) Custom Feed Blenders Corp.,...

  14. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (Fifth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, Teresa L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Earl D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fioroni, Gina [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moriarty., Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [EcoEngineering, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-11-08

    This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in engines and boilers, and is intended to help fleets, individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel fuels.

  15. Selecting Toys and Gifts for Severely Mentally and Physically Handicapped People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Learning Resources System/Child Serve, Scottdale.

    Suggestions are given regarding selection of gifts and toys for severely handicapped persons. General principles (such as safety and durability) are followed by specific suggestions about clothes, food, toys (including musical instruments and balls), books and records, and various types of equipment (such as blenders for food preparation, tape…

  16. Effect of resination technique on mechanical properties of medium density fiberboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Ayrilmis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different resination techniques relative to the mechanical properties of commercially produced thick medium density fiberboard (MDF were investigated. The amount of urea-formaldehyde resin (11 wt% applied to the wood fibers was gradually decreased in the blowline (11, 10.5, 10, and 9.5 wt%, while it was gradually increased in the short-retention blender (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5. wt%. The internal bond strength of the MDF boards considerably improved as the amount of the resin applied to the fibers in the short-retention blender was increased to 1.5 wt%. In particular, the increase in the IB strength was most pronounced as the resin content increased from 1 to 1.5%. The edge and face screw withdrawal resistances increased by 7.7 and 7.9% as the amount of the resin applied to the fibers in the blender was increased. Similar values were also observed for the flexural properties. Overall, the total resin content in the production of thick MDF can be decreased as blender resination, a means of post-dryer resin addition, is incorporated into the blowline resination technique.

  17. The Sustainable Coffee Conundrum: A study into the effects, cost and benefits of implementation modalities of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuit, M.; Rijn, van F.; Thi Minh Tu, V.; Anh, Van P.

    2013-01-01

    This research was initiated and co-financed by D.E Master Blenders 1753. This report is one of the outputs of the research project ‘Enhanced sustainability of the imports of cocoa and coffee to the Netherlands: synergy between practice, policy, strategy and knowledge (BO-10-030-001). This research p

  18. 40 CFR 80.104 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produced or imported; (vii) The product transfer documents for any conventional gasoline received; (viii... or importer, including the contract with the oxygenate blender and records relating to the audits... that the gasoline was produced or imported for use in Alaska, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  19. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-17

    This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

  20. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

  1. Lead exposure reduction in workers using stabilizers in PVC manufacture: effects of a new encapsulated stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY); Thornton, J.C.; Berube, L.; Villa, F.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1982-09-01

    The handling of lead-containing powdered stabilizers may be associated with excessive lead exposure and occupational lead poisoning. An encapsulated stabilizer has been designed, which is shown to result in a marked reduction in air lead levels and a concommitant decrease in blood lead concentrations in a group of blender operators manufacturing PVC electrical cable coating.

  2. Particle physics and polyedra proximity calculation for hazard simulations in large-scale industrial plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebe, Alice; Grasso, Giorgio

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes a system developed for the simulation of flames inside an open-source 3D computer graphic software, Blender, with the aim of analyzing in virtual reality scenarios of hazards in large-scale industrial plants. The advantages of Blender are of rendering at high resolution the very complex structure of large industrial plants, and of embedding a physical engine based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics. This particle system is used to evolve a simulated fire. The interaction of this fire with the components of the plant is computed using polyhedron separation distance, adopting a Voronoi-based strategy that optimizes the number of feature distance computations. Results on a real oil and gas refining industry are presented.

  3. FRELLED : A Realtime Volumetric Data Viewer For Astronomers

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Rhys

    2015-01-01

    I present a new FITS viewer designed to explore 3D spectral line data (in particular HI) and assist with visual source extraction and analysis. Using the artistic software Blender, FRELLED can visualise even large (~600^3 voxels) data sets at high frame rates (10 f.p.s.) in 3D. Blender's interface enables easy navigation within the 3D environment, and the FRELLED scripts support world coordinate systems. A variety of tools are included to aid source extraction and analysis, including interactively masking data (using 3D polyhedra of arbitrary complexity), querying NED, calculating the flux in specified volumes, generating contour plots and overlaying optical data. It includes tools to overlay n-body particle data, and multi-volume rendering is supported. The interface is designed to make cataloguing sources as easy as possible and I show that this can be as much as a factor of 50 times faster than using other viewers.

  4. Methodological proposal for the volumetric study of archaeological ceramics through 3D edition free-software programs: the case of the celtiberians cemeteries of the meseta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez Climent

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the free-software programs have been converted into the ideal tools for the archaeological researches, reaching the same level as other commercial programs. For that reason, the 3D modeling tool Blender has reached in the last years a great popularity offering similar characteristics like other commercial 3D editing programs such as 3D Studio Max or AutoCAD. Recently, it has been developed the necessary script for the volumetric calculations of three-dimnesional objects, offering great possibilities to calculate the volume of the archaeological ceramics. In this paper, we present a methodological approach for the volumetric studies with Blender and a study case of funerary urns from several celtiberians cemeteries of the Spanish Meseta. The goal is to demonstrate the great possibilities that the 3D editing free-software tools have in the volumetric studies at the present time.

  5. Mii School: New 3D Technologies Applied in Education to Detect Drug Abuses and Bullying in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, José Alberto; Espínola, Moisés; Cangas, Adolfo J.; Iribarne, Luis

    Mii School is a 3D school simulator developed with Blender and used by psychology researchers for the detection of drugs abuses, bullying and mental disorders in adolescents. The school simulator created is an interactive video game where the players, in this case the students, have to choose, along 17 scenes simulated, the options that better define their personalities. In this paper we present a technical characteristics description and the first results obtained in a real school.

  6. High Temperature Magnetics for Power Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    complex zig zag cutout shown earlier. On the secondary, 3 layers at a time were folded. Folds alternated in direction to even out overall foil...ingredients were mixed in a high-shear blender, calcined at 900°C in air, and ground in a stirred ball mill for 2 hours to an average particle size of...approximately 1 micron. Various organic binders and dispersants were added at the milling step to enhance particle size reduction and improve pressing

  7. Scale-up model describing the impact of lubrication on tablet tensile strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Joseph; Moore, Francis

    2010-10-31

    Lubrication of 2:1 and 1:1 blends of microcrystalline cellulose and spray-dried lactose or dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) with 0.33% or 1% magnesium stearate, as model free-flowing pharmaceutical formulations, was performed in rotary drum blenders. Blender process parameters examined in this study included type (Bin, V, and Turbula), volume (0.75-Quart to 200-L), fraction of headspace in the blender after the blend is loaded (30-70%), speed (6-202 rpm), and time (up to 225 min). Based on analysis of the experimental data, the following model for the impact of the lubrication process on tablet tensile strength at 0.85 solid fraction, TS(SF=0.85), was obtained, TS(SF=0.85)=TS(SF=0.85,0) [βexp(-γ×V(1/3)×F(headspace)×r)+(1-β)], where V is blender volume, F(headspace) is the headspace fraction, r is the number of revolutions (i.e. speed × time), TS(SF=0.85,0) is the initial tensile strength of the blend, β is the sensitivity of the blend to lubrication, and γ is the lubrication rate constant of the formulation. This model can be used to maintain tensile strength during scale-up, by ensuring that (V(1/3)F(headspace)r)(1)=(V(1/3)F(headspace)r)(2). The model also suggests that formulations with DCP are less sensitive to lubrication and more slowly lubricated than formulations with spray-dried lactose (i.e. smaller β and γ values).

  8. Short-Run Price and Welfare Impacts of Federal Ethanol Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Lihong Lu McPhail; Bruce A. Babcock

    2008-01-01

    High commodity prices have increased interest in the impacts of federal ethanol policies. We present a stochastic, short-run structural model of U.S. corn, ethanol, and gasoline markets to estimate the price and welfare impacts of alternative policies on producers and consumers of corn, ethanol, and gasoline. The three federal policies that we consider are the Renewable Fuels Standard, the blenders tax credit, and the tariff on imported ethanol. Our model examines the impact of these policies...

  9. A comparison of maximal bioenergetic enzyme activities obtained with commonly used homogenization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, M; Fletcher, L; Powers, S K; Hughes, M; Coombes, J

    1996-12-01

    Homogenization of tissue for analysis of bioenergetic enzyme activities is a common practice in studies examining metabolic properties of skeletal muscle adaptation to disease, aging, inactivity or exercise. While numerous homogenization techniques are in use today, limited information exists concerning the efficacy of specific homogenization protocols. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of four commonly used approaches to homogenizing skeletal muscle for analysis of bioenergetic enzyme activity. The maximal enzyme activity (Vmax) of citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured from homogenous muscle samples (N = 48 per homogenization technique) and used as indicators to determine which protocol had the highest efficacy. The homogenization techniques were: (1) glass-on-glass pestle; (2) a combination of a mechanical blender and a teflon pestle (Potter-Elvehjem); (3) a combination of the mechanical blender and a biological detergent; and (4) the combined use of a mechanical blender and a sonicator. The glass-on-glass pestle homogenization protocol produced significantly higher (P < 0.05) enzyme activities compared to all other protocols for both enzymes. Of the four protocols examined, the data demonstrate that the glass-on-glass pestle homogenization protocol is the technique of choice for studying bioenergetic enzyme activity in skeletal muscle.

  10. Modeling the Air Flow in the 3410 Building Filtered Exhaust Stack System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Suffield, Sarah R.

    2013-01-23

    Additional ventilation capacity has been designed for the 3410 Building filtered exhaust stack system. The updated system will increase the number of fans from two to three and will include ductwork to incorporate the new fan into the existing stack. Stack operations will involve running various two-fan combinations at any given time. The air monitoring system of the existing two-fan stack was previously found to be in compliance with the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard, however it is not known if the modified (three-fan) system will comply. Subsequently, a full-scale three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the modified stack system has been created to examine the sampling location for compliance with the standard. The CFD modeling results show good agreement with testing data collected from the existing 3410 Building stack and suggest that velocity uniformity and flow angles will remain well within acceptance criteria when the third fan and associated ductwork is installed. This includes two-fan flow rates up to 31,840 cfm for any of the two-fan combinations. For simulation cases in which tracer gas and particles are introduced in the main duct, the model predicts that both particle and tracer gas coefficients of variance (COVs) may be larger than the acceptable 20 percent criterion of the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard for each of the two-fan, 31,840 cfm combinations. Simulations in which the tracers are introduced near the fans result in improved, though marginally acceptable, COV values for the tracers. Due to the remaining uncertainty that the stack will qualify with the addition of the third fan and high flow rates, a stationary air blender from Blender Products, Inc. is considered for inclusion in the stack system. A model of the air blender has been developed and incorporated into the CFD model. Simulation results from the CFD model that includes the air blender show striking improvements in tracer gas mixing and tracer particle

  11. Modeling Kepler Transit Light Curves as False Positives: Rejection of Blend Scenarios for Kepler-9, and Validation of Kepler-9 d, a Super-Earth-Size Planet in a Multiple System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Brown, Timothy M.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Charbonneau, David; Ciardi, David R.; Dunham, Edward W.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Gauthier, Thomas N., III; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Holman, Matthew J.; Howell, Steve B.; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M.; Koch, David G.; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Monet, David G.; Prsa, Andrej; Quinn, Samuel N.

    2011-01-01

    Light curves from the Kepler Mission contain valuable information on the nature of the phenomena producing the transit-like signals. To assist in exploring the possibility that they are due to an astrophysical false positive we describe a procedure (BLENDER) to model the photometry in terms of a blend rather than a planet orbiting a star. A blend may consist of a background or foreground eclipsing binary (or star-planet pair) whose eclipses are attenuated by the light of the candidate and possibly other stars within the photometric aperture. We apply BLENDER to the case of Kepler-9 (KIC 3323887), a target harboring two previously confirmed Saturn-size planets (Kepler-9 b and Kepler-9 c) showing transit timing variations, and an additional shallower signal with a 1.59 day period suggesting the presence of a super-Earth-size planet. Using BLENDER together with constraints from other follow-up observations we are able to rule out all blends for the two deeper signals and provide independent validation of their planetary nature. For the shallower signal, we rule out a large fraction of the false positives that might mimic the transits. The false alarm rate for remaining blends depends in part (and inversely) on the unknown frequency of small-size planets. Based on several realistic estimates of this frequency, we conclude with very high confidence that this small signal is due to a super-Earth-size planet (Kepler-9 d) in a multiple system, rather than a false positive. The radius is determined to be 1.64(exp)(sub-14),R, and current spectroscopic observations are as yet insufficient to establish its mass.

  12. Mixing Study in a Multi-dimensional Motion Mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R.; Manickam, S. S.; Tomei, J.; Bergman, T. L.; Chaudhuri, B.

    2009-06-01

    Mixing is an important but poorly understood aspect in petrochemical, food, ceramics, fertilizer and pharmaceutical processing and manufacturing. Deliberate mixing of granular solids is an essential operation in the production of industrial powder products usually constituted from different ingredients. The knowledge of particle flow and mixing in a blender is critical to optimize the design and operation. Since performance of the product depends on blend homogeneity, the consequence of variability can be detrimental. A common approach to powder mixing is to use a tumbling blender, which is essentially a hollow vessel horizontally attached to a rotating shaft. This single axis rotary blender is one of the most common batch mixers among in industry, and also finds use in myriad of application as dryers, kilns, coaters, mills and granulators. In most of the rotary mixers the radial convection is faster than axial dispersion transport. This slow dispersive process hinders mixing performance in many blending, drying and coating applications. A double cone mixer is designed and fabricated which rotates around two axes, causing axial mixing competitive to its radial counterpart. Discrete Element Method (DEM) based numerical model is developed to simulate the granular flow within the mixer. Digitally recorded mixing states from experiments are used to fine tune the numerical model. Discrete pocket samplers are also used in the experiments to quantify the characteristics of mixing. A parametric study of the effect of vessel speeds, relative rotational speed (between two axes of rotation), on the granular mixing is investigated by experiments and numerical simulation. Incorporation of dual axis rotation enhances axial mixing by 60 to 85% in comparison to single axis rotation.

  13. Design of an interactive game-based application for improving the resolution of common Computer Network issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ciau Uitzil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The need to find new ways to help students in the learning process makes us more involved with technology which evolves every day. This background leads us to find new methods and forms of teaching that help students accelerate their learning skills in a different way from the traditional, as in the case of learning through play, a concept that has been used in many games which have had great impact recently, becoming an innovative tool for learning. This paper shows the design of an interactive game-based application developed with Blender 2.49b tool to be implemented in the area of computer networks.

  14. PCs The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, David

    2005-01-01

    Your vacuum comes with one. Even your blender comes with one. But your PC--something that costs a whole lot more and is likely to be used daily and for tasks of far greater importance and complexity--doesn't come with a printed manual. Thankfully, that's not a problem any longer: PCs: The Missing Manual explains everything you need to know about PCs, both inside and out, and how to keep them running smoothly and working the way you want them to work. A complete PC manual for both beginners and power users, PCs: The Missing Manual has something for everyone. PC novices will appreciate the una

  15. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  16. Running Test and Optimization of Bamboo OSB Medium Experimental Line%竹质OSB中试线的运行试验及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅万四; 周建波

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo OSB ( BOSB) medium experimental line and key equipments are presented for the first time based on the analysis of BOSB production technologies and processes requirements. Component of BOSB medium experimental line and key equipments stated. The paper illustrated BOSB flaker, glue blender, orienting former. Then medium experimental line is given to a great deal of test run and optimization. The tests indicated that the medium experimental line operated smoothly for producing BOSB. Tested BOSB key performance indicators were higher than the LY/T 1580-2000 (OSB/4).

  17. MakerBot projects blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    MakerBot Projects Blueprints is a project-based book, with each chapter taking you through the creation of an awesome stand-alone project. MakerBot Project Blueprints is for anyone with an interest in the 3D printing revolution and the slightest bit of computer skills. Whether you own a 3D printer or not you can design for them. All it takes is Blender, a free 3D modeling tool, this book and a little creativity and someday you'll be able to hold something you designed in the computer in your hands.

  18. Biofuels and Vertical Price Transmission: The Case of the U.S. Corn, Ethanol, and Food Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Drabik, D.; Ciaian, P.; Pokrivcak, J.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first paper to analyze the impact of biofuels on the price transmission along the food chain. We analyze the U.S. corn sector and its vertical links with food and ethanol (energy) markets. We find that biofuels affect the price transmission elasticity in the food chain compared to a no biofuel production situation but the effect depends on the source of the market shock and the policy regime: the price transmission elasticity declines under a binding blender's tax credit and a foo...

  19. Načrtovanje elektronskega vezja za baterijsko napajan kuhinjski mešalnik

    OpenAIRE

    TANŠEK, TADEJ

    2016-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je predstavljeno načrtovanje vezij za delovanje prenosne polnilne baterijske mešalne naprave (blender − električni mešalnik). V začetnem delu naloge pregledamo zgodovino razvoja Li-ion baterij, lastnosti tehnologije in z njo povezane omejitve. Pri polnjenju Li-ion baterij je zelo pomembno omejevanje toka in napetosti, ki morata biti pravilno izvedena, da ne pride do poškodb ali uničenja baterij. Celotni sistem mešalnika sestavlja pet sklopov: zunanji stikalni napajaln...

  20. An Experimental Study on Gravity Blending Silo with an Inner Downcomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel gravity blender with an inner downcomer was experimentallystudied in this work. The flow characteristics of solid through thedowncomer with branch pipes and the influence of the number of intakeopenings and their axial position along the downcomer on blendingefficiency were investigated. The results of tracer experiments showthat better blending quality can be obtained if the intake openingsalong the downcomer are designated according to the equal time intervalprinciple. More intake openings are beneficial for blending efficiency,and the solids flow rate through the branch pipes along the downcomercan be predicted by the Beverloo equation.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly with data for June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Data presented in this publication describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the U.S. The report includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Both summary and detailed statistics are presented. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  4. 3D Visualization of Machine Learning Algorithms with Astronomical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    We present innovative machine learning (ML) methods using unsupervised clustering with minimum spanning trees (MSTs) to study 3D astronomical catalogs. Utilizing Python code to build trees based on galaxy catalogs, we can render the results with the visualization suite Blender to produce interactive 360 degree panoramic videos. The catalogs and their ML results can be explored in a 3D space using mobile devices, tablets or desktop browsers. We compare the statistics of the MST results to a number of machine learning methods relating to optimization and efficiency.

  5. An Experimental Study on Gravity Blending Silo with an Inner Downcomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易江林; 景山; 陈银飞; 郭艳; 金涌

    2000-01-01

    A novel gravity blender with an inner downcomer was experimentally studied in this work. The flow characteristics of solid through the downcomer with branch pipes and the influence of the number of intake openings and their axial position along the downcomer on blending efficiency were investigated. The results of tracer experi-ments show that better blending quality can be obtained if the intake openings along the downcomer are designated according to the equal time interval principle. More intake openings are beneficial for blending efficiency, and the solids flow rate through the branch pipes along the downcomer can be predicted by the Beverloo equation.

  6. A ROOM-TEMPERATURE, RAPID METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PROTEIN IN WHEAT AND OTHER GRAINS BY THE BIURET REACTION

    OpenAIRE

    STRONG, FC; DUARTE, AMA

    1992-01-01

    A rapid, room-temperature, biuret method for determining protein in grains was developed. Samples of wheat ground to pass a 0.105-mm screen were mixed for 5 min in a blender with 2 ml of isopropanol, 700 mg of basic cupric carbonate (bright green), and 100 ml of 0.500 M NaOH in 30% isopropanol. After filtering with suction through a glass fiber filter, absorbance was measured at 550 nm. A calibration curve for wheat of absorbance vs. protein concentration gave a slope of 0.350 cm-1 g-1 L, com...

  7. Google SketchUp for Game Design Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    de Jongh, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The book takes a clear, step-by-step approach to building a complete game level using SketchUp with many props and textures. This book is designed for anyone who wants to create entire 3D worlds in freely available game engines such as Unity 3D, CryEngine, Ogre, Panda3D, Unreal Engine, and Blender Game Engine. It also targets all those who wish to create new levels and assets to sell in game asset stores or use in visualization or animation.

  8. Modeling Kepler transit light curves as false positives: Rejection of blend scenarios for KOI-377, and strong evidence for a super-Earth-size planet in a multiple system

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Guillermo; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Brown, Timothy M; Bryson, Stephen T; Buchhave, Lars A; Charbonneau, David; Ciardi, David R; Dunham, Edward W; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Ford, Eric B; Gautier, Thomas N; Gilliland, Ronald L; Holman, Matthew J; Howell, Steve B; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David G; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Monet, David G; Prsa, Andrej; Ragozzine, Darin; Rowe, Jason F; Sasselov, Dimitar D

    2010-01-01

    The high-precision light curves from the Kepler mission contain valuable information on the nature of the phenomena producing the transit-like signals. To assist in exploring the possibility that they are the result of an astrophysical false positive, we describe a procedure we refer to as BLENDER to model the photometry not in terms of a planet orbiting a star, but instead as a "blend". A blend may consist of a background or foreground eclipsing binary (or star-planet pair) whose eclipses are attenuated by the light of the candidate and possibly other stars within the photometric aperture. We apply the technique to the case of KOI-377, a particularly interesting Kepler target harboring two previously confirmed Saturn-size planets (Kepler-9 b and Kepler-9 c) showing transit timing variations, and an additional shallower signal with a 1.6-day period that would correspond to a super-Earth with a radius of 1.4 R(Earth), the smallest yet discovered. Using BLENDER together with constraints from high-resolution ima...

  9. A desktop system of virtual morphometric globes for Mars and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florinsky, I. V.; Filippov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    Global morphometric models can be useful for earth and planetary studies. Virtual globes - programs implementing interactive three-dimensional (3D) models of planets - are increasingly used in geo- and planetary sciences. We describe the development of a desktop system of virtual morphometric globes for Mars and the Moon. As the initial data, we used 15'-gridded global digital elevation models (DEMs) extracted from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) gridded archives. For two celestial bodies, we derived global digital models of several morphometric attributes, such as horizontal curvature, vertical curvature, minimal curvature, maximal curvature, and catchment area. To develop the system, we used Blender, the free open-source software for 3D modeling and visualization. First, a 3D sphere model was generated. Second, the global morphometric maps were imposed to the sphere surface as textures. Finally, the real-time 3D graphics Blender engine was used to implement rotation and zooming of the globes. The testing of the developed system demonstrated its good performance. Morphometric globes clearly represent peculiarities of planetary topography, according to the physical and mathematical sense of a particular morphometric variable.

  10. TECHNICAL MEANS FOR OBTAINING INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS OF THE CASING AND TOPPINGS FOR EXTRUDED FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pal’chikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article is devoted to the new technical facilities for food production, which technological chain of production process includes computer hardware as a part of the equipment used for body of semi-processed food preparation, blancher for hydrobionts and abrasive blender. For the whole group of the necessary equipment the principal schemes are designed, and the abrasive blender was tested during the experimental approbation to reveal the optimal design. The culinary fish pastes have already been produced in the enterprises in many countries for many years and they are particularly popular in Japan, Germany, Scandinavian and other country. In Poland the mixtures of fish pasted have become widely spread, and are used for production of portioned meals. These pastes may be blended into larger or smaller pieces. The aromatization process of such pastes is conducted with adding the liquid smoke, natural or synthetic fragrances. There is an increasing popularization of the use of flaxseed as a source of alpha-linoleic acid, high-quality protein, phenolics, fiber and minerals. Products with flax meal can be recommended for inclusion in the diet to make up for the deficit of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber. In this regard, it is appropriate to use the semi-finished product formulations for the respective housings extruded snack food. The results of the conducted research could be used in the production of domestic extruded snacks, which have the form of the cushions with vitaminized dough body and hydrobionts stuffing if setting the special extrusion modes.

  11. Evaluation of the lubrication mechanism at various rotation speeds and granule filling levels in a container mixer using a thermal effusivity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Jumpei; Aoki, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    To research the detailed mechanism of the lubrication process using the thermal effusivity sensor, the relationships of the lubrication progress with the pattern of powder flow, the rotation speed and the filling level were investigated. The thermal effusivity profile was studied as a function of the number of rotations at various rotation speeds. It was observed that at lower rotation speeds, the profiles of the lubrication progress were almost the same, regardless of the rotation speed. In this region, the highest speed was defined as the critical rotation speed (CRS), which was found to be one of the important factors. The CRS had close relations with avalanche flow in the blender. The first and the second phases were observed in the lubrication process. The first phase was influenced by the CRS and the filling level in the blender. The second phase was influenced by the rotation speed. The mechanism of two-phase process was proposed as a macro progression of the dispersion of the lubricant (first phase) and micro progression of the coating of the powder particles with lubricant (second phase). The accurate monitoring by the thermal effusivity sensor was able to help a better understanding in the lubrication process.

  12. Extraction and characterization of latex and natural rubber from rubber-bearing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranov, Anvar U; Elmuradov, Burkhon J

    2010-01-27

    Consecutive extraction of latex and natural rubber from the roots of rubber-bearing plants such as Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TKS), Scorzonera tau-saghyz (STS), and Scorzonera Uzbekistanica (SU) were carried out. Latex extraction was carried via two methods: Blender method and Flow method. The results of latex extraction were compared. Cultivated rubber-bearing plants contained slightly higher latex contents compared to those from wild fields. Several creaming agents for latex extraction were compared. About 50% of total natural rubber was extracted as latex. The results of the comparative studies indicated that optimum latex extraction can be achieved with Flow method. The purity of latex extracted by Blender method ( approximately 75%) was significantly lower than that extracted by Flow method (99.5%). When the latex particles were stabilized with casein, the latex was concentrated significantly. Through concentrating latex by flotation, the latex concentration of 35% was obtained. Bagasse contained mostly solid natural rubber. The remaining natural rubber in the bagasse (left after the latex extraction) was extracted using sequential solvent extraction first with acetone and then with several nonpolar solvents. Solid natural rubber was analyzed for gel content and characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for molecular weight determinations. SEC of solid natural rubber has shown that the molecular weight is about 1.8E6 and they contain less gel compared to TSR20 (Grade 20 Technically Specified Rubber), a commercial natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis.

  13. In-depth survey report of Early and Daniel Co. , Inc. , Louisville, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaebst, D.D.

    1986-09-01

    An in-depth industrial hygiene survey was conducted to evaluate worker exposures to phosphine during fumigation of grain at the Early and Daniel Co. grain elevator in Louisville, Kentucky. Stored grain was fumigated using aluminum phosphide. Aluminum-phosphide pellets were also added directly to the grain by the blender as it was poured into the storage containers. Local exhaust ventilation was used at points in the grain-moving system where grain dust was generated. Air samples were taken during full-shift periods at the breathing zone of the weighmaster, two bin floormen, and the blender. Area monitoring samples were also taken. If the operators spend considerable time in the vicinity of a bin which is being filled with grain, there is a likelihood of far greater exposure levels being noted. According to the author, further studies of the use of phosphide products at other elevators should be conducted to determine the effect of environmental and process parameters on phosphine exposures.

  14. Preparation of High Density Polyethylene/Waste Polyurethane Blends Compatibilized with Polyethylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride by Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane (PU is a very popular polymer that is used in a variety of applications due to its good mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. However, PU recycling has received significant attention due to environmental issues. In this study, we developed a recycling method for waste PU that utilizes the radiation grafting technique. Grafting of waste PU was carried out using a radiation technique with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA. The PE-g-MA-grafted PU/high density polyethylene (HDPE composite was prepared by melt-blending at various concentrations (0–10 phr of PE-g-MA-grafted PU. The composites were characterized using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and their surface morphology and thermal/mechanical properties are reported. For 1 phr PU, the PU could be easily introduced to the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender after the radiation-induced grafting of PU with PE-g-MA. PE-g-MA was easily reacted with PU according to the increasing radiation dose and was located at the interface between the PU and the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender, which improved the interfacial interactions and the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. However, the elongation at break for a PU content >2 phr was drastically decreased.

  15. Comparison of Mid-latitude Cyclones in Sea Level Pressure, Gepotential Height and Vorticity Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Christoph C.; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The mid-latitudes are dominated by diurnal variability, which is related to traveling high- and low-pressure systems. The lows or cyclones are a major source of natural hazards. This has led to growing interest in the scientific community to develop Eulerian and Lagrangian measures and to analyze the atmospheric high-frequency variability. One important issue is that there is no straight forward definition of cyclones resulting in a large variety of so-called cyclone detection and tracking methods. Each of these methods relies on different input fields which are related to specific features of a cyclone, e.g., sea level pressure (SLP), which specifically focuses on the mass aspect of the velocity field. Recently, the available methods have been compared with respect to climatology and life cycles using the ERA interim data set (Neu et al. 2013). Based on this study we investigate different fields as input for one specific method. We focus on the three mostly used input data, sea level pressure (SLP), 1000-hPa gepotential height (Z1000) and 850-hPa vorticity (850VOR). The cyclone detection and tracking method developed by Blender et al. (1997) is used and we apply it to ERA interim data in the 1.5 x 1.5 resolution. The method was mainly applied for Z1000 and the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., Blender et al. 1997; Raible et al. 2008). To compare the tracks and cyclone characteristics obtained from the different input data we need to adapt critical parameters of the method in such a way that comparable numbers of cyclone centers are identified in either field. The target is set to the number of cyclone centers in northern hemispheric winter. This enables us to assess the seasonal and hemispheric dependence. Preliminary results show that the agreement between cyclones based on SLP and Z1000 varies between roughly 70 to 80% depending on the season and the hemisphere. Spatially, most of the differences are found around orographic features like Greenland. An interesting

  16. An experimental study of the corrosion and precipitation of aluminum in the presence of trisodium phosphate buffer following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Howe, Kerry J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Leavitt, Janet J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Alion Science and Technology (United States); Hammond, Kyle; Mitchell, Lana [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Kee, Ernie [South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) (United States); Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Experimental head loss testing was conducted by aggressively promoting corrosion in loss of coolant accidents. • Blender-processed debris beds have higher head loss but tend to be less reproducible than NEI-processed debris beds. • Precipitation was observed from aluminum concentration and turbidity measurements. • Precipitation results were compared to predictions from Visual MINTEQ. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment of head loss across the sump pump screen with fibrous debris bed over a non-prototypical 10-day post-LOCA incident window. The corrosion head loss experiments (CHLE) is a reduced scaled integral effects testing facility built at the University of New Mexico (UNM) to investigate potential chemical effects on head loss across prepared fibrous debris beds. The results in this paper come from two integral effect tests performed at UNM in order to determine the chemical effects on head loss induced by a zinc source effect and an aluminum precipitation effect (T3: without Zn source case, T4: with Zn source case in containment). The tests were performed with a large surface area of aluminum coupons in the testing facility for an extended period of elevated temperature to accelerate corrosion above that expected under prototypical conditions. These conditions were sufficient to force aluminum precipitation to occur and induce the onset of chemical effects on debris bed head loss. The head loss behavior on two different types of fiber debris beds (blender-processed and NEI-processed debris bed) was evaluated in this study. It was found that the blender-processed bed is much more sensitive in filtering than the NEI-processed bed and consequently had a much higher head loss value across the beds. Aluminum precipitation was observed, with aluminum concentration and turbidity measurements, to form starting on day 7 in Test T3 and on day 6 in Test T4. The onset of aluminum precipitation

  17. Architecture of a highly modular lighting simulation system

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    This talk will discuss the challenges before designing a highly modular, parallel, heterogeneous rendering system and their solutions. It will review how different lighting simulation algorithms could be combined to work together using an unified framework. We will discuss how the system can be instrumented for collecting data about the algorithms' runtime performance. The talk includes an overview of how collected data could be visualised in the computational domain of the lighting algorithms and be used for visual debugging and analysis. About the speaker Hristo Lesev has been working in the software industry for the last ten years. He has taken part in delivering a number of desktop and mobile applications. Computer Graphics programming is Hristo's main passion and he has experience writing extensions for 3D software like 3DS Max, Maya, Blender, Sketchup, and V-Ray. Since 2006 Hristo teaches Photorealistic Ray Tracing in the Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics at the Paisii Hilendarski...

  18. Authenticity analysis of citrus essential oils by HPLC-UV-MS on oxygenated heterocyclic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus essential oils are widely applied in food industry as the backbone of citrus flavors. Unfortunately, due to relatively simple chemical composition and tremendous price differences among citrus species, adulteration has been plaguing the industry since its inception. Skilled blenders are capable of making blends that are almost indistinguishable from authentic oils through conventional gas chromatography analysis. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed for compositional study of nonvolatile constituents in essential oils from major citrus species. The nonvolatile oxygenated heterocyclic components identified in citrus oils were proved to be more effective as markers in adulteration detection than the volatile components. Authors are hoping such an analysis procedure can be served as a routine quality control test for authenticity evaluation in citrus essential oils.

  19. Free Software Beyond Radical Politics: Negotiations of Creative and Craft Autonomy in Digital Visual Media Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Velkova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Free software development and the technological practices of hackers have been broadly recognised as fundamental for the formation of political cultures that foster democracy in the digital mediascape. This article explores the role of free software in the practices of digital artists, animators and technicians who work in various roles for the contemporary digital visual media industries. Rather than discussing it as a model of organising work, the study conceives free software as a production tool and shows how it becomes a locus of politics about finding material security in flexible capitalism. This politics is ultimately contradictory in that it extends creative and craft autonomy of digital artists but does not mobilise a critical project. Instead, it nurtures further precarious labour. Empirically, the article draws on ethnographically collected material from the media practices of digital artists and programmers who engage with two popular free software production tools, Blender and Synfig.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1995 with data for January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-30

    Data presented in this report for March 1995, describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Developmentally Delayed Male with Mincer Blade Obstructing the Oesophagus for a Period of Time Suspected to Be 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Grønhøj Larsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sharp, retained foreign bodies in the oesophagus are associated with severe complications. Developmentally delayed patients are especially subject to foreign objects. We describe a 37-year-old, developmentally delayed male with a mincer blade obstructing the oesophagus. Six months prior to surgical intervention, the patient was hospitalized in a condition of sepsis and pneumonia where the thoracic X-ray reveals a foreign body in the proximal oesophagus. When rehospitalized 6 months later, a mincer blade of the type used in immersion blenders was surgically removed. During these 6 months the patient’s main symptoms were dysphagia, weight loss, and diarrhoea. When developmentally delayed patients present with dysphagia, we strongly encourage the awareness of the possible presence of foreign bodies. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a mincer blade in the oesophagus.

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P. (eds.)

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  5. The Marcus Caelius Project: a transmedial approach to support cultural communication and educational activities at the Civical Archaeological Museum of Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bentini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The project “Marcus Caelius – the Value of Memory” is a 8 minute short animation movie located in the Roman Bologna at the Augustan Age. It originated with the Civical Archaeological Museum of Bologna in collaboration with Cineca VisIT-Lab. The project emploies a well known historical fact (the Battle of Teutoburg to enable a philological approach within an emotional/narrative process. New philologically accurate reconstructions (i.e archaeological finds hedged in the Museum’s collection are integrated with 3D historical sets caming form previous Cineca projects. Mixed movie-making techniques, such as Blender rendering, Chroma key and Machinima animation, implemented an ad hoc production pipeline in order to define times and costs which could be supported by a small production.

  6. Software Development: 3D Animations and Creating User Interfaces for Realistic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Orlando Enrique

    2015-01-01

    My fall 2015 semester was spent at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center working in the Integrated Graphics, Operations, and Analysis Laboratory (IGOAL). My first project was to create a video animation that could tell the story of OMICS. OMICS is a term being used in the field of biomedical science to describe the collective technologies that study biological systems, such as what makes up a cell and how it functions with other systems. In the IGOAL I used a large 23 inch Wacom monitor to draw storyboards, graphics, and line art animations. I used Blender as the 3D environment to sculpt, shape, cut or modify the several scenes and models for the video. A challenge creating this video was to take a term used in biomedical science and describe it in such a way that an 8th grade student can understand. I used a line art style because it would visually set the tone for what we thought was an educational style. In order to get a handle on the perspective and overall feel for the animation without overloading my workspace, I split up the 2 minute animation into several scenes. I used Blender's python scripting capabilities which allowed for the addition of plugins to add or modify tools. The scripts can also directly interact with the objects to create naturalistic patterns or movements. After collecting the rendered scenes, I used Blender's built-in video editing workspace to output the animation. My second project was to write software that emulates a physical system's interface. The interface was to simulate a boat, ROV, and winch system. Simulations are a time and cost effective way to test complicated data and provide training for operators without having to use expensive hardware. We created the virtual controls with 3-D Blender models and 2-D graphics, and then add functionality in C# using the Unity game engine. The Unity engine provides several essential behaviors of a simulator, such as the start and update functions. A framework for Unity, which was developed in

  7. Citrate, oxalate, sodium, and magnesium levels in fresh juices of three different types of tomatoes: evaluation in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Erdal; Batislam, Ertan; Kacmaz, Murat; Erguder, Imge

    2010-06-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices containing citrate may be recommended as an alternative in mild to moderate level hypocitraturic calcium stone formers who cannot tolerate pharmacological treatment. Tomato has been proved a citrate-rich vegetable. Tomato juice usage as citrate sources in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers were evaluated in the light of the results of studies on orange and lemon juices. Ten 100 ml samples were prepared from three different tomato types processed through a blender. These samples were examined in terms of citrate, oxalate, calcium, magnesium, and sodium contents. No difference was detected between the parameters tested in three different tomato juices. Fresh tomato juice may be useful in hypocitraturic recurrent stone formers due to its high content of citrate and magnesium, and low content of sodium and oxalate. As the three different types of tomatoes did not differ in terms of citrate, magnesium, sodium, and oxalate content, they may be useful for clinical use if also supported by clinical studies.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  10. Petroluem Supply Monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-04

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Modelling and Simulation of the Knee Joint with a Depth Sensor Camera for Prosthetics and Movement Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risto, S.; Kallergi, M.

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to model and simulate the knee joint. A computer model of the knee joint was first created, which was controlled by Microsoft's Kinect for Windows. Kinect created a depth map of the knee and lower leg motion independent of lighting conditions through an infrared sensor. A combination of open source software such as Blender, Python, Kinect SDK and NI_Mate were implemented for the creation and control of the simulated knee based on movements of a live physical model. A physical size model of the knee and lower leg was also created, the movement of which was controlled remotely by the computer model and Kinect. The real time communication of the model and the robotic knee was achieved through programming in Python and Arduino language. The result of this study showed that Kinect in the modelling of human kinematics and can play a significant role in the development of prosthetics and other assistive technologies.

  12. Novel Chemically-Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Borehole Sealants (Ceramicretes) for Arctic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Godwin A. Chukwu; Gang Chen; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramic borehole sealant, i.e. Ceramicrete, has many advantages over conventionally used permafrost cement at Alaska North Slope (ANS). However, in normal field practices when Ceramicrete is mixed with water in blenders, it has a chance of being contaminated with leftover Portland cement. In order to identify the effect of Portland cement contamination, recent tests have been conducted at BJ services in Tomball, TX as well as at the University of Alaska Fairbanks with Ceramicrete formulations proposed by the Argonne National Laboratory. The tests conducted at BJ Services with proposed Ceramicrete formulations and Portland cement contamination have shown significant drawbacks which has caused these formulations to be rejected. However, the newly developed Ceramicrete formulation at the University of Alaska Fairbanks has shown positive results with Portland cement contamination as well as without Portland cement contamination for its effective use in oil well cementing operations at ANS.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1998 with data for October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. 82 tabs.

  15. Economical and eco-friendly recycling of used dry batteries for synthesis of graphene oxide by sheer exfoliation in presence of SDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochrekar, Sachin; Agharkar, Mahesh; Salgaonkar, Manjunath; Gharge, Mrunal; Hidouri, Slah; Azeez, Musibau A.

    2015-06-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional form of graphite that has attracted great curiosity for its novel physical properties. A key challenge that has emerged is how to create large amounts of graphene at low cost. The purpose of this Paper is to explore a new method to exfoliate graphite extracted from used dry battery in a small scale blender; in presence of SDS surfactant to synthesize graphene oxide, which can be then reduced to graphene. Quantity of SDS required is extremely less (1/10th) of graphite, and it replaces several steps and chemicals such as KMnO4, H2O2, H2SO4 and NaNO3. In this paper, we present the new process and preliminary characterization of synthesized graphene oxide by Raman and UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy and ATR-IR spectroscopy.

  16. Desenvolvimento e utilização de animações em 3D no ensino de química

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreira Baptista

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: As animações deste trabalho foram desenvolvidas utilizando o software Blender®. Este software, de código aberto e gratuito, é atualmente um dos recursos computacionais mais avançados para modelagem e animação em 3D. As animações foram planejadas para serem usadas em sala de aula e, portanto, são desprovidas de narração e legenda. Os assuntos contemplados foram: Teoria do Orbital Atômico, distribuição eletrônica, hibridização, Teoria do Orbital Molecular, Teoria de Ligação de Valência,...

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1996 with data for September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products fin the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1995 with data for June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-25

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Ensayo de reconstrucción virtual de un túmulo funerario: El túmulo del Mortórum (Cabanes, Castellón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luján Valderrama

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We presents a virtual reconstruction of the megalithic tomb found near of Tossal del Mortórum (Cabanes, Castellón dated on the second millennium BC. The structure discovered in 2005 was plundered at an undetermined moment, and their conservation status is very precarious. Given the undoubted interest of the tomb, located in an area of the peninsula with little evidence of megalithism, we decided to make a essay of its virtual reconstruction. The basic software used in the modeling and rendering is Blender 2.56, so this paper can also show the capabilities of open source software for these projects.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly: September 1996, with data for July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 56 tabs.

  3. Mucilage extraction and substrates in the seedling development of yellow passion fruit plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sfeir Aguiar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to evaluate different methods of mucilage extraction and substrates on passion fruit seedling emergence and development , in a mist chamber. Five methods of mucilage extraction were used: water, water + sand, water + virgin whitewash; blender with protected blades and fermentation in water, and three different types of substrates: rice hull, vermiculite and coconut fiber. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five replications in a factorial 5 x 3 scheme (5 extraction methods of seed mucilage and 3 substrates being each parcel composed of 25 seeds. The parameters evaluated were: seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, leaf number, stem length, longest root length, weight of dry matter of roots and shoots. Water and fermentation in water are the best method for mucilage extraction and rice hull and coconut fiber are the best substrate for passionfruit seedling emergence and development.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Forum Renascens (Los Bañales de Uncastillo, Zaragoza: Archaeology of Architecture of the Roman forum in the service of the dissemination through the Virtual Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serrano Basterra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An archaeological site concerning the remains of an ancient Roman city, developed mainly from 1st BC to III AD, in the area named "Los Bañales", is located at the south of the current town of Uncastillo (Zaragoza, Spain in Comarca de las Cinco Villas. From 2008 the archaeological site is been studied in a interdisciplinar research project leaded by Fundación Uncastillo under the autorizathion of Gobierno de Aragón. Last seasons of excavation have been focused in the forum, the ancient public square of the roman town, still in process of research. It was a quite small square but following all the requeriments of those type of buildings in Roman Achitecture. Using Blender software, a model of recreation of the forum is being done. The following paper presents a brief summary of the dossier of decissions concerning this recreation result, however, of the interdisciplinar cooperation between historians, archaeologists and architects.

  6. Comparison of low shear, high shear, and fluid bed granulation during low dose tablet process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Debra S

    2004-03-01

    Three processing methods were compared to develop a low dose (0.1%) immediate release tablet. Similar formulations were used to evaluate low shear, high shear, and fluid bed granulation methods. For each granulation process, the drug was dissolved or suspended in the granulating fluid and sprayed into the granulator. Both water and methanol were evaluated as granulating fluids. The low shear granulation was performed in a Patterson-Kelley V-Blender with I-bar. The high shear granulation was performed in a GRAL (top entry impeller) and a Diosna (bottom mounted impeller). Fluid bed granulation was also performed using top-spray. Acceptable content uniformity was obtained using each technology. The type of granulator and granulating solvent affected the granulation particle size distributions and bulk/tap densities. However, the addition of extragranular microcrystalline cellulose minimized the effect of variable granulation properties and allowed similar tablets to be produced from each granulation process.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1998, with data for March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  8. Sample preparation for an optimized extraction of localized metabolites in lichens: Application to Pseudevernia furfuracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaty, Sarah; Letertre, Marine; Dang, Huyen Duong; Jungnickel, Harald; Laux, Peter; Luch, Andreas; Carrié, Daniel; Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile; Bazureau, Jean-Pierre; Gauffre, Fabienne; Tomasi, Sophie; Paquin, Ludovic

    2016-04-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms known for producing unique secondary metabolites with attractive cosmetic and pharmacological properties. In this paper, we investigated three standard methods of preparation of Pseudevernia furfuracea (blender grinding, ball milling, pestle and mortar). The materials obtained were characterized by electronic microscopy, nitrogen adsorption and compared from the point of view of extraction. Their microscopic structure is related to extraction efficiency. In addition, it is shown using thalline reactions and mass spectrometry mapping (TOF-SIMS) that these metabolites are not evenly distributed throughout the organism. Particularly, atranorin (a secondary metabolite of interest) is mainly present in the cortex of P. furfuracea. Finally, using microwave assisted extraction (MAE) we obtained evidence that an appropriate preparation can increase the extraction efficiency of atranorin by a factor of five.

  9. uPy: a ubiquitous CG Python API with biological-modeling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, Ludovic; Johnson, Graham; Hake, Johan; Olson, Arthur; Sanner, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The uPy Python extension module provides a uniform abstraction of the APIs of several 3D computer graphics programs (called hosts), including Blender, Maya, Cinema 4D, and DejaVu. A plug-in written with uPy can run in all uPy-supported hosts. Using uPy, researchers have created complex plug-ins for molecular and cellular modeling and visualization. uPy can simplify programming for many types of projects (not solely science applications) intended for multihost distribution. It's available at http://upy.scripps.edu. The first featured Web extra is a video that shows interactive analysis of a calcium dynamics simulation. YouTube URL: http://youtu.be/wvs-nWE6ypo. The second featured Web extra is a video that shows rotation of the HIV virus. YouTube URL: http://youtu.be/vEOybMaRoKc.

  10. uPy: a ubiquitous computer graphics Python API with Biological Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, L.; Johnson, G.; Hake, J.; Olson, A.; Sanner, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe uPy, an extension module for the Python programming language that provides a uniform abstraction of the APIs of several 3D computer graphics programs called hosts, including: Blender, Maya, Cinema4D, and DejaVu. A plugin written with uPy is a unique piece of code that will run in all uPy-supported hosts. We demonstrate the creation of complex plug-ins for molecular/cellular modeling and visualization and discuss how uPy can more generally simplify programming for many types of projects (not solely science applications) intended for multi-host distribution. uPy is available at http://upy.scripps.edu PMID:24806987

  11. Pigment and Lovastatin content on the Red Rice cultivar Bah Butong and BP 1804 IF 9 which Fermented by Monascus purpureus Jmba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNAWATI KASIM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the red rice fermented by Monascus purpureus had been done. The rice consisted of 2 cultivars such as Bah Butong and BP 1804 IF 9. The aim of the research was to know the content of the pigment and lovastatin of the fermentation result/ angkak. Angkak was powdered by using blender. To measure the content of pigment, the powder was extracted by methanol. By using spectrophotometer the content of the pigment could be measured with 390 nm wave lengths for yellow pigment and 500 nm for the red pigment. For lovastatin the powder was extracted by acetonitrile and H2SO4. By using HPLC the content of lovastatin could be measured. The results showed that the highest pigment content for yellow pigment was on the PB 1804 IF 9 cultivar, and red pigment was on the Bah Butong cultivar. The highest lovastatin content was on the BP 1804 IF 9.

  12. Impact of Different Fecal Processing Methods on Assessments of Bacterial Diversity in the Human Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Peterson, Courtney M.; Raggio, Anne; Keenan, Michael J.; Martin, Roy J.; Ravussin, Eric; Marco, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota are integral to understanding the relationships between nutrition and health. Therefore, fecal sampling and processing protocols for metagenomic surveys should be sufficiently robust, accurate, and reliable to identify the microorganisms present. We investigated the use of different fecal preparation methods on the bacterial community structures identified in human stools. Complete stools were collected from six healthy individuals and processed according to the following methods: (i) randomly sampled fresh stool, (ii) fresh stool homogenized in a blender for 2 min, (iii) randomly sampled frozen stool, and (iv) frozen stool homogenized in a blender for 2 min, or (v) homogenized in a pneumatic mixer for either 10, 20, or 30 min. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 regions of bacterial community DNA extracted from the stools showed that the fecal microbiota remained distinct between individuals, independent of processing method. Moreover, the different stool preparation approaches did not alter intra-individual bacterial diversity. Distinctions were found at the level of individual taxa, however. Stools that were frozen and then homogenized tended to have higher proportions of Faecalibacterium, Streptococcus, and Bifidobacterium and decreased quantities of Oscillospira, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides compared to stools that were collected in small quantities and not mixed prior to DNA extraction. These findings indicate that certain taxa are at particular risk for under or over sampling due to protocol differences. Importantly, homogenization by any method significantly reduced the intra-individual variation in bacteria detected per stool. Our results confirm the robustness of fecal homogenization for microbial analyses and underscore the value of collecting and mixing large stool sample quantities in human nutrition intervention studies. PMID:27812352

  13. Impact of Different Fecal Processing Methods on Assessments of Bacterial Diversity in the Human Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsin Hsieh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota are integral to understanding the relationships between nutrition and health. Therefore, fecal sampling and processing protocols for metagenomic surveys should be sufficiently robust, accurate, and reliable to identify the microorganisms present. We investigated the use of different fecal preparation methods on the bacterial community structures identified in human stools. Complete stools were collected from six healthy individuals and processed according to the following methods: (i randomly sampled fresh stool, (ii fresh stool homogenized in a blender for 2 min, (iii randomly sampled frozen stool, and (iv frozen stool homogenized in a blender for 2 min or (v homogenized in a pneumatic mixer for either 10, 20, or 30 min. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 regions of bacterial community DNA extracted from the stools showed that the fecal microbiota remained distinct between individuals, independent of processing method. Moreover, the different stool preparation approaches did not alter intra-individual bacterial diversity. Distinctions were found at the level of individual taxa, however. Stools that were frozen and then homogenized tended to have higher proportions of Faecalibacterium, Streptococcus, and Bifidobacterium and decreased quantities of Oscillospira, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides compared to stools that were collected in small quantities and not mixed prior to DNA extraction. These findings indicate that certain taxa are at particular risk for under or over sampling due to protocol differences. Importantly, homogenization by any method significantly reduced the intra-individual variation in bacteria detected per stool. Our results confirm the robustness of fecal homogenization for microbial analyses and underscore the value of collecting and mixing large stool sample quantities in human nutrition intervention studies.

  14. Evaluation of sugarcane laboratory ensiling and analysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Faria Pedroso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effects of laboratory-silo type and method of silage extract production, respectively, on sugarcane silage fermentation and recovery of fermentation products. Sugarcane was mechanically harvested and ensiled in three different types of laboratory silos (five replicates: 9.7 × 30 cm PVC tubes with tight lids, equipped or unequipped with Bunsen valves, and 20 L plastic buckets with tight lids and Bunsen valves. Three methods were used to produce silage extracts for pH, ethanol, acetic and lactic acids determination: extraction of silage juice by a hydraulic press and production of water extracts using a stomacher or a blender. Total dry matter loss (231 g/kg DM was not affected by silo type. No interactions between silo type and method of silage extract production were observed for ethanol and organic acids contents in the silages. Interaction between silo type and method of silage extract preparation was detected for pH. Silo type affected ethanol content but did not affect lactic and acetic acids concentration in the silages. Dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and ash were not affected by silo type. The method used to produce silage extracts affected the recovery of all fermentation products analyzed in the silages. Recovery of ethanol and acetic acid was higher when silage extracts were produced using a blender. For lactic acid recovery, the hydraulic press method was superior to the other two methods. Silage fermentation pattern is not affected by silo type, but the method used to produce silage extracts and some characteristics of silos affect the recovery of volatile fermentation products.

  15. Development and Validation of a New Reliable Method for the Diagnosis of Avian Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maréchal, Caroline; Rouxel, Sandra; Ballan, Valentine; Houard, Emmanuelle; Poezevara, Typhaine; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Souillard, Rozenn; Morvan, Hervé; Baudouard, Marie-Agnès; Woudstra, Cédric; Mazuet, Christelle; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Fach, Patrick; Popoff, Michel; Chemaly, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Liver is a reliable matrix for laboratory confirmation of avian botulism using real-time PCR. Here, we developed, optimized, and validated the analytical steps preceding PCR to maximize the detection of Clostridium botulinum group III in avian liver. These pre-PCR steps included enrichment incubation of the whole liver (maximum 25 g) at 37°C for at least 24 h in an anaerobic chamber and DNA extraction using an enzymatic digestion step followed by a DNA purification step. Conditions of sample storage before analysis appear to have a strong effect on the detection of group III C. botulinum strains and our results recommend storage at temperatures below -18°C. Short-term storage at 5°C is possible for up to 24 h, but a decrease in sensitivity was observed at 48 h of storage at this temperature. Analysis of whole livers (maximum 25 g) is required and pooling samples before enrichment culturing must be avoided. Pooling is however possible before or after DNA extraction under certain conditions. Whole livers should be 10-fold diluted in enrichment medium and homogenized using a Pulsifier® blender (Microgen, Surrey, UK) instead of a conventional paddle blender. Spiked liver samples showed a limit of detection of 5 spores/g liver for types C and D and 250 spores/g for type E. Using the method developed here, the analysis of 268 samples from 73 suspected outbreaks showed 100% specificity and 95.35% sensitivity compared with other PCR-based methods considered as reference. The mosaic type C/D was the most common neurotoxin type found in examined samples, which included both wild and domestic birds. PMID:28076405

  16. New approach for virtual surgical planning and mandibular reconstruction using a fibula free flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottini, Matthias; Seyed Jafari, S M; Shafighi, Maziar; Schaller, Benoît

    2016-08-01

    Maxillofacial reconstruction poses a major challenge to surgeons because of the associated anatomical complexity, the sensitivity of the involved systems and the need to maintain a pleasing facial appearance. Here, we present a detailed description of a new method for extensive mandibular reconstruction using open-source virtual design software and a desktop 3D printer. A surgeon segmented preoperative computed tomography angiography scans with the Amira program to create a digital model of the mandible, skull and fibula. These datasets were imported into Blender, an open-source computer-aided design software package, where arrangement of the fibula segments into aligned sections was performed. Then, a desktop 3D printer was used to produce a reconstructed mandible. After fixation of a plate onto the reconstructed mandible, cutting guides were digitally designed using Blender. Following this, the surgeon performed mandible resection using the fixed cutting guides, which were 3D-printed using biocompatible plastic (Med 610/Stratasys Inc.) and fixed to the prebent reconstructed mandible at a predetermined position. After cutting the fibula with the help of the cutting guides and aligning the fibular segments into mandibular space, the surgeon fixed the segments to the reconstruction plate. Postoperatively, multislice computed tomography scans were taken for control purposes. Our method for mandibular reconstruction offers the following benefits: shorter operation planning time, increased accuracy during osteotomy through the use of a special fibula cutting guide and low costs. In brief, this method is an easy, precise and highly flexible technique for mandibular reconstruction with a fibula flap.

  17. Assessment of noise exposure in a hospital kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achutan, Chandran

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was asked to evaluate the noise exposure of employees in the Nutrition and Food Services Department of a large hospital, because of noise concerns raised after the installation of the PowerSoak dishwashing system. Eleven employees (two cooks, eight food service workers, and a materials handler) contributed 13 full-shift and two task-based personal noise dosimetry measures over two days. The noise levels for two food service workers assigned to the pots and pans room (85.1 and 85.2dBA), a cook working in the food preparation area (85.9 dBA), and a food service worker assigned to the dishwashing room (89.5 dBA) exceeded the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL); however, none of the measures exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL). The noise level from the PowerSoak dishwashing system alone was not excessive, but additional noise from the food preparation area (primarily from blenders and utensils), and from metal-to-metal contact between stainless steel pots and pans and metal racks, may explain exposures above the NIOSH REL for employees in the pots and pans room. The cooks were exposed to many intermittent impact noise sources, such as, metal-to-metal contact between utensils and the use of industrial-size blenders. We recommended that metal-to-metal contact be reduced as much as possible throughout the Nutrition and Food Services Department, and hearing protectors be provided to employees in the dishwashing room until engineering controls were in place.

  18. Economic analysis of U.S. ethanol expansion issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Malika

    analyzed when consumers are faced with restricted choice sets. Results suggest that possible government mandates on the consumption of E-10 and E-85 diminish welfare of individuals belonging to the segment 'Conventional Gasoline Acceptor'. Similarly, individuals belonging to 'Ethanol Acceptor' segment experience welfare losses if corn grain ethanol is not available as an alternative transportation fuel. Ethanol is increasingly being used as a gasoline oxygenate and a volume extender in the refinery and blender industry in the U.S. This paper estimates refinery and blender factor demand and evaluates price responsiveness of inputs. The study also develops and tests hypotheses regarding existence of structural change in the industry's demand for inputs. It determines whether there is a common shift point and adjustment rate for structural change in all the refinery and blender inputs by using gradual switching multivariate regression techniques and maximum likelihood methods. Results suggest a structural change in factor demand for inputs in the industry that occurs at different points and rates. Results also suggest that the demand for inputs, except for capital and unfinished oil, has become more inelastic over time.

  19. The Synergetic Enhancement Foaming Properties in Mixed Zwitterionic and Anionic Surfactant Systems%两性/阴离子型表面活性剂协同增强起泡性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路传波; 张炳花; 李丙成; 郑祖业; 王汉威; 范海明; 康万利

    2015-01-01

    利用 Waring Blender 法研究了不同矿化度下两性离子表面活性剂十六烷基磺基甜菜碱(HDPS)与阴离子型表面活性剂十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)单一体系和复配体系的起泡性能,分析了两性/阴离子型表面活性剂间相互作用对起泡性能的影响。结果表明,由于两性和阴离子型表面活性剂亲水基间的静电吸引作用既增强了复配体系的表面活性,又促进了复配体系在气液表面形成更加紧密的吸附膜,因而在清水和高矿化度水质中,HDPS/SDS复配体系的泡沫综合指数均高于单一表面活性剂体系,表现出协同增强泡沫性能的作用。%The foam properties of single and mixed surfactant systems prepared by zwitterionic surfactant N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propane sulfonate (HDPS)and anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS)were investigated by Waring Blender method.And the effect of intermolecular interaction between HDPS and SDS on the foam properties was analyzed.It has been found that the electrostatic attraction between the headgroups of HDPS and SDS not only reinforces the surface activity but also promotes the formation of compacted adsorption film in the gas-liquid surface for the mixed surfactant system.Therefore the foam comprehensive exponents of mixed HDPS and SDS surfactant systems are higher than that of each single surfactant in clean water and highly mineralized water,which exhibits the synergetic enhancement foaming properties.

  20. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  1. In situ TEM visualization of superior nanomechanical flexibility of shear-exfoliated phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Ma, Hongyu; Lei, Shuangying; Sun, Jun; Chen, Jing; Ge, Binghui; Zhu, Yimei; Sun, Litao

    2016-07-01

    Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. This work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. We demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to 34% were observed. Moreover, a facile liquid-phase shear exfoliation route has been developed to produce such mono-layer and few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes in organic solvents using only a household kitchen blender. The effects of surface tensions of the applied solvents on the ratio of average length and thickness (L/T) of the nanoflakes were studied systematically. The results reported here will pave the way for potential industrial-scale applications of flexible phosphorene nanoelectronic devices.Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. This work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. We demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to

  2. TANK 50 BATCH 0 SALTSTONE FORMULATION CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.

    2006-06-05

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel were requested to confirm the Tank 50 Batch 0 grout formulation per Technical Task Request, SSF-TTR-2006-0001 (task 1 of 2) [1]. Earlier Batch 0 formulation testing used a Tank 50 sample collected in September 2005 and is described elsewhere [2]. The current testing was performed using a sample of Tank 50 waste collected in May 2006. This work was performed according to the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TT/QAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00594 [3]. The salt solution collected from Tank 50 in May 2006 contained approximately 3 weight percent more solids than the sample collected in September 2005. The insoluble solids took longer to settle in the new sample which was interpreted as indicating finer particles in the current sample. The saltstone formulation developed for the September 2005 Tank 50 Batch 0 sample was confirmed for the May 2006 sample with one minor exception. Saltstone prepared with the Tank 50 sample collected in May 2006 required 1.5 times more Daratard 17 set retarding admixture than the saltstone prepared with the September In addition, a sample prepared with lower shear mixing (stirring with a spatula) had a higher plastic viscosity (57 cP) than samples made with higher shear mixing in a blender (23cP). The static gel times of the saltstone slurries made with low shear mixing were also shorter ({approx}32 minutes) than those for comparable samples made in the blender ({approx}47 minutes). The addition of the various waste streams (ETP, HEU-HCAN, and GPE-HCAN) to Tank 50 from September 2005 to May 2006 has increased the amount of set retarder, Daratard 17, required for processing saltstone slurries through the Saltstone facility. If these streams are continued to be added to Tank 50, the quantity of admixtures required to maintain the same processing conditions for the Saltstone facility will probably change and additional testing is recommended to reconfirm the Tank 50 Saltstone formulation.

  3. Electronic structure of PCBM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Chun-Qi; Wang Peng; Shen Ying; Li Yan-Jun; Zhang Wen-Hua; Xu Fa-Qiang; Zhu Jun-Fa; Li Hong-Nian; Lai Guo-Qiao

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PCBM) using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements and first-principles calculations.The PES spectrum of the entire occupied valence band is reported,which exhibits abundant spectral features from the Fermi level to ~ 24 eV binding energy. All the spectral features are broadened as compared with the cases of C60. The reasons for the broadening are analysed by comparing the experimental data with the calculated energy levels and density of states.Special attention is paid to the analysis of the C60 highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-1 derived states,which can play a crucial role in the bonding at the interfaces of PCBM/polymer blenders or PCBM/electrodes.Besides the well-known energy level splitting of the C60 backbone caused by the lowered symmetry,C 2p states from the side chain mix or hybridize with the molecular orbitals of parent C60.The contribution of the O 2p states can substantially modify the PES spectrum.

  4. [ILCOR's new resuscitation guidelines in preterm and term infants: critical discussion and suggestions for implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, G; Humpl, T; Zimmermann, A; Bührer, C; Wauer, R; Stannigel, H; Hoehn, T

    2007-01-01

    Recommendations of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) become updated every five years with changing evidence resulting in revised recommendations for clinical practice. New data exist concerning the adequate oxygen concentration to be used in the delivery room, the management of imminent meconium aspiration, ventilation strategies and the role of body temperature during and after resuscitation of preterm and term newborn infants. Only in some cases new evidence has led to clear-cut recommendations for or against specific interventions. Therefore the present publication cites the original ILCOR-recommendations and discusses these with regard to their practical implementation. The authors of the present work suggest to commence resuscitation independendly of gestational age with room air and adjust the inspiratory oxygen concentration thereafter on clinical grounds. The authors also advocate the retention of the presently performed intranatal suction procedure in cases of meconium-stained amniotic fluid and the use of therapeutic hypothermia following perinatal asphyxia in term newborns according to the protocol of one of the published randomized, controlled trials. Standard equipment for neonatal resuscitation should include pressure gauge for monitoring of inspiratory pressures, oxygen blender, and pulse oxymeter. The predominant majority of ILCOR-recommendations have only been cited and have been commented with respect to their practical implementation within the clinical context.

  5. Imidacloprid Extraction from Citrus Leaves and Analysis by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Jorge A; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter; Borejsza-Wysocki, Wlodzimierz S; Bauder, Victor S; Morgan, Kelly T

    2016-05-01

    A procedure was developed to extract Imidacloprid (IMD) from newly-flushed and fully-expanded citrus leaves. The extraction was conducted in a bullet blender, using a small sample mass (0.5 g of fresh tissue), stainless-steel beads (24 g), and methanol as extractant (10 mL). The extracts did not require further clean-up before analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated with control samples from IMD-untreated Hamlin orange trees. The method limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.04 and 0.12 μg g(-1), respectively. IMD recoveries from fortified leaf tissue were between 92 % and 102 %, with relative standard deviations of leaves from Hamlin orange trees treated with IMD. The treated trees showed maximum concentrations of 10.8 and 21.8 µg g(-1), observed at 20 days after applying two soil-drenching rates (0.51 and 1.02 kg IMD ha(-1)), respectively. This extraction technique will generate useful data on IMD plant uptake, foliar concentration, and correlations with Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) mortality or control. The method could be used to generate baseline data to improve IMD soil-drenching applications as the main management practice to control the ACP.

  6. Parametric Deformation of Discrete Geometry for Aerodynamic Shape Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, George R.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian

    2012-01-01

    We present a versatile discrete geometry manipulation platform for aerospace vehicle shape optimization. The platform is based on the geometry kernel of an open-source modeling tool called Blender and offers access to four parametric deformation techniques: lattice, cage-based, skeletal, and direct manipulation. Custom deformation methods are implemented as plugins, and the kernel is controlled through a scripting interface. Surface sensitivities are provided to support gradient-based optimization. The platform architecture allows the use of geometry pipelines, where multiple modelers are used in sequence, enabling manipulation difficult or impossible to achieve with a constructive modeler or deformer alone. We implement an intuitive custom deformation method in which a set of surface points serve as the design variables and user-specified constraints are intrinsically satisfied. We test our geometry platform on several design examples using an aerodynamic design framework based on Cartesian grids. We examine inverse airfoil design and shape matching and perform lift-constrained drag minimization on an airfoil with thickness constraints. A transport wing-fuselage integration problem demonstrates the approach in 3D. In a final example, our platform is pipelined with a constructive modeler to parabolically sweep a wingtip while applying a 1-G loading deformation across the wingspan. This work is an important first step towards the larger goal of leveraging the investment of the graphics industry to improve the state-of-the-art in aerospace geometry tools.

  7. Variations in the contents of gingerols and chromatographic fingerprints of ginger root extracts prepared by different preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Xia, Xinhua; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Dong; Zuberi, Aamir; Ye, Jianping; Liu, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an HPLC-DAD method was optimized for the quantitative determination of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol in ginger extracts. A chromatographic fingerprinting method was also established to differentiate and evaluate the ginger extracts for bioactivity. Twenty-one extracts were prepared by methods differing in ginger type (fresh versus dried), solvent, and extraction methods. The ANOVA analysis showed the methods' influence on the mean extraction yields of gingerols increased in the order of: high pressure-high temperature (HP)>blender (BD)>low pressure (LP). The optimal solvent to extract gingerols was found to be 95% ethanol. The type of ginger used had significant effects on the content of gingerols, but its overall influence depended on the solvent used. In order to maximize the extraction efficiency of gingerols, a combination of dry ginger, 95% ethanol, and the HP extraction method should be employed. The chromatographic fingerprints were obtained to differentiate the unknown components from all ginger extracts. The similarity of the chromatographic fingerprints was used to evaluate the differences among all extracts. It can be concluded that the chromatographic fingerprints are able to ensure the stability of each extract and have some correlation with the observed bioactivity.

  8. Adequacy and verifiability of pharmaceutical mixtures and dose units by variographic analysis (Theory of Sampling) - A call for a regulatory paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Kim H; Román-Ospino, Andrés D; Sanchez, Adriluz; Romañach, Rodolfo J

    2016-02-29

    In spite of intense efforts in the last 20 years, the current state of affairs regarding evaluation of adequacy of pharmaceutical mixing is at an impressive standstill, characterized by two draft guidances, one withdrawn, and the other never approved. We here analyze the regulatory, scientific and technological situation and suggest a radical, but logical approach calling for a paradigm shift regarding sampling of pharmaceutical blends. In synergy with QbD/PAT efforts, blend uniformity testing should only be performed with properly designed sampling that can guarantee representativity-in contrast to the current deficient thief sampling. This is necessary for suitable in-process specifications and dosage units meeting desired specifications. The present exposé shows how process sampling based on the Theory of Sampling (TOS) constitutes a new asset for regulatory compliance, providing procedures that suppress hitherto adverse sampling errors. We identify that the optimal sampling location is after emptying the blender, guaranteeing complete characterisation of the residual heterogeneity. TOS includes variographic analysis that decomposes the effective total sampling and analysis error (TSE+TAE) from the variability of the manufacturing process itself. This approach provides reliable in-process characterization allowing independent approval or rejection by the Quality Control unit. The science-based sampling principles presented here will facilitate full control of blending processes, including whether post-blending segregation influences the material stream that reaches the tabletting feed-frame.

  9. Isolation and functional characterization of hydrocarbon emulsifying and solubilizing factors produced by a Pseudomonas species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, P.G.; Banuah, J.N.; Bhagat, S.D.; Pathak, M.G.; Singh, H.D.

    1983-02-01

    Pseudomonas PG-1 cultivated on pristane produced in good amount a heat-stable polymeric substance which showed strong hydrocarbon emulsifying and solubilizing properties. The substance was isolated in crude form and was found to contain 34% protein, 16% carbohydrate, and 40% lipid. The hydrocarbon solubilizing activity of the isolate was strongly inhibited by EDTA but the chelating agent had no effect on the hydrocarbon emulsifying activity. Both activities of the isolate were strongly inhibited by chymotrypsin treatment indicating the importance of the protein moiety for its activity. Hydrocarbon solubilization by the isolate showed a certain degree of specificity to pristane in modest agitation generally used in microbial cultivation, but this specificity was lost by vigorous agitation in a Waring blender. It was proposed that in the first case, solubilization was effected by a solubilizing factor specific to pristane, whereas in the latter ease, nonspecific solubilization occurred due to the action of the emulsifying factor. The rate of pristane solubilization by heat-treated culture broth under the conditions of agitation used in cultivation (rotary shaker, 120 rpm) was found to be ca. 750 mg L/sup -1/h/sup -1/ which was much larger than the maximal pristane uptake rate of 170 mg L/sup -1/h/sup -1/ observed during microbial growth on the substrate. It was concluded that hydrocarbon solubilization could satisfactorily account for the substrate uptake and growth.

  10. Applicability of the one-step DVS method for the determination of amorphous amounts for further different hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorsten; Scherließ, Regina; Schiewe, Jörg; Smal, Rüdiger; Weiler, Claudius; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-08-01

    In a former publication the authors showed that low amounts of amorphous content (LOQ of 0.5%) in a hydrophobic model API (Ciclesonide) can be measured with an individually adjusted one-step dynamic organic vapor sorption (DVS). In this investigation the applicability is tested on various APIs which differ in lipophilicity (poor water solubility) and hygroscopicity (absorption of water). The vapor sorption method proved to be applicable in almost all cases. Moisture sorption isotherms were determined for all five investigated crystalline and amorphous APIs. However, it was necessary to select the parameters individually for each API. The used solvents (water, methanol, isopropanol and methylene chloride) and the humidity-levels (0.05 p/p0 until 0.5 p/p0) were chosen carefully because otherwise the amorphous amounts switch to their crystalline counterparts and are not detectable. The production of fully amorphous samples (absence of crystalline material measured by DSC, mDSC and XRPD) was optimized over several trials. As successfully methods proved ball-milling, freeze-drying, spray-drying and/or quench cooling. In the next step these fully amorphous amounts were blended with crystalline starting material to calibration curves (Turbula blender, influence of electrostatic charge to homogeneity) for the calculation of amorphous content. In summary, the following presented methods were used to determine and quantify low amorphous amounts (between 1.5% and 17.0%) in jet-milled powders (grinding pressure of 8bar, 1-3 grinding cycles), respectively.

  11. Reinforcement of denture base PMMA with ZrO(2) nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Wang, Xixin; Tang, Qingguo; Guo, Mei; Zhao, Jianling

    2014-04-01

    In the research described, ZrO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization. The morphologies, crystal structure, etc. were characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). ZrO2 nanotubes were pre-stirred with the denture base PMMA powder by a mechanical blender and mixed with MMA liquid to fabricate reinforced composites. The composites were tested by an electromechanical universal testing machine to study the influences of contents and surface-treatment effect on the reinforcement. The ZrO2 nanoparticles were also investigated for comparative purposes. Results indicated that ZrO2 nanotubes had a better reinforcement effect than ZrO2 nanoparticles, and surface-treatment would lower the reinforcement effect of the ZrO2 nanotubes which itself was significantly different from that of the ZrO2 nanoparticles. The flexural strength of the composite was maximised when 2.0wt% untreated ZrO2 nanotubes were added.

  12. Producing a sulfamethazine quality control material under the framework of ISO/CD Guide 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A L; Silva, P F; Souza, E A; Júnior, J R A M; Santos, F A; Vargas, E A

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of antimicrobial agents such as sulfonamides by the pig industry is of concern, since residues in both pork and its by-products, when derived from animals treated improperly, can endanger human health. The aim of this study was to establish the production conditions and to evaluate the homogeneity and the stability of sulfamethazine in porcine liver quality control material, produced 'in-house' for use in ring tests of the laboratory network of residues and contaminants of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, Brazil. In the process of preparing the material, a FOSS blender was used, where the samples were ground to obtain a homogeneous mass, which was packed in polypropylene bottles. The material resulting from this process of homogenisation was sampled and analysed by LC/MS/MS. The analytical results were statistically evaluated by one-way ANOVA. According to statistical evaluation, the material produced was considered homogeneous, with 95% confidence. Stability tests were performed with the bottles stored under the specified storage conditions. They were randomly selected and analysed in duplicate by the same analytical method as the homogeneity study. The analytical results were statistically evaluated by the procedures for a stability check described in ISO 13528:2005, indicating that the material was unstable under the conditions of storage.

  13. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Cali, Corrado

    2015-07-14

    Advances for application of electron microscopy to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions (3D). From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here, we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room where we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of electron microscopy (EM) preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to observe a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly: April 1996, with data from February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the report present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD districts, and 12 Refining Districts. A future article gives a summer 1996 gasoline assessment. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1997 with data for November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Passive millimeter-wave cross polarization imaging and phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. Lee, Jr.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Samluk, Jesse P.; Wilson, John P.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Murakowski, Janusz A.; Murakowski, Maciej; Prather, Dennis W.

    2009-05-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (mmW) imaging has many specific defense, security and safety applications, due to the fact that all terrestrial bodies above absolute zero are emissive, and these wavelengths are not scattered by normal obscurants such as haze, fog, smoke, dust, sandstorms, clouds, or fabrics. We have previously demonstrated results from the construction of a 94 GHz passive mmW far-field imaging system utilizing optical upconversion, which imaged in only horizontal polarization. The effective radiometric temperature of an object is a combination of the object's surface and scattered radiometric temperatures. The surface radiometric temperature is a function of the object's emissivity, which is polarization dependent. Imaging with radiometric temperature data from both polarizations will allow a greater identification of the scene being imaged, and allow the recognition of subtle features which were not previously observable. This additional functionality is accomplished through the installation of added equipment and programming on our system, thus allowing the simultaneous data collection of imagery in both polarizations. Herein, we present our experimental procedures, results and passive mmW images obtained by using our far-field imaging system, a brief discussion of the phenomenology observed through the application of these techniques, as well as the preliminary details regarding our work on a 3-D passive mmW simulator capable of true physical polarization dependent effective emissivity and reflectivity rendering, based on the open-source Blender engine.

  19. Validation of the coupling of mesh models to GEANT4 Monte Carlo code for simulation of internal sources of photons; Validacao do acoplamento de modelos mesh ao codigo Monte Carlo GEANT4 para simulacao de fontes de fotons internas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caribe, Paulo Rauli Rafeson Vasconcelos, E-mail: raulycaribe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Fisica; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Kramer, Richard; Khoury, Helen Jamil [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The use of three-dimensional models described by polygonal meshes in numerical dosimetry enables more accurate modeling of complex objects than the use of simple solid. The objectives of this work were validate the coupling of mesh models to the Monte Carlo code GEANT4 and evaluate the influence of the number of vertices in the simulations to obtain absorbed fractions of energy (AFEs). Validation of the coupling was performed to internal sources of photons with energies between 10 keV and 1 MeV for spherical geometries described by the GEANT4 and three-dimensional models with different number of vertices and triangular or quadrilateral faces modeled using Blender program. As a result it was found that there were no significant differences between AFEs for objects described by mesh models and objects described using solid volumes of GEANT4. Since that maintained the shape and the volume the decrease in the number of vertices to describe an object does not influence so meant dosimetric data, but significantly decreases the time required to achieve the dosimetric calculations, especially for energies less than 100 keV.

  20. Kepler-22b: A 2.4 Earth-radius Planet in the Habitable Zone of a Sun-like Star

    CERN Document Server

    Borucki, William J; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T; Caldwell, Douglas A; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Cochran, William D; DeVore, Edna; Gautier, Thomas N; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Rowe, Jason; Sasselov, Dimitar; Boss, Alan; Charbonneau, David; Ciardi, David; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Doyle, Laurance; Dupree, Andrea K; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan; Holman, Matthew J; Steffen, Jason A; Mullally, Fergal; Still, Martin; Tarter, Jill; Ballard, Sarah; Buchhave, Lars A; Carter, Josh; Christiansen, Jessie L; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Désert, Jean-Michel; Dressing, Courtney; Endl, Michael; Fabrycky, Daniel; Fischer, Debra; Haas, Michael R; Henze, Christopher; Horch, Elliott; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard; Kjeldsen, Hans; Johnson, John Asher; Klaus, Todd; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Barclay, Thomas; Li, Jie; Meibom, Søren; Prsa, Andrej; Quinn, Samuel N; Quintana, Elisa V; Robertson, Paul; Sherry, William; Shporer, Avi; Tenenbaum, Peter; Thompson, Susan E; Twicken, Joseph D; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Welsh, William F; Basu, Sarbani; Chaplin, Bill; Miglio, Andrea; Kawaler, Steve; Arentoft, Torben; Stello, Dennis; Metcalfe, Travis S; Verner, Graham; Karoff, Christoffer; Lundkvist, Mia; Lund, Mikkel; Handberg, Rasmus; Elsworth, Yvonne; Hekker, Saskia; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R

    2011-01-01

    A search of the time-series photometry from NASA's Kepler spacecraft reveals a transiting planet candidate orbiting the 11th magnitude G5 dwarf KIC 10593626 with a period of 290 days. The characteristics of the host star are well constrained by high-resolution spectroscopy combined with an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry, leading to an estimated mass and radius of 0.970 +/- 0.060 MSun and 0.979 +/- 0.020 RSun. The depth of 492 +/- 10ppm for the three observed transits yields a radius of 2.38 +/- 0.13 REarth for the planet. The system passes a battery of tests for false positives, including reconnaissance spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and centroid motion. A full BLENDER analysis provides further validation of the planet interpretation by showing that contamination of the target by an eclipsing system would rarely mimic the observed shape of the transits. The final validation of the planet is provided by 16 radial velocities obtained with HIRES on Keck 1 over a one year span. Although t...

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  2. Cameleon language Part 1: Processor

    CERN Document Server

    de Sevricourt, O Cugnon

    2011-01-01

    Emergence is the way complex systems arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions between primitives. Since programming problems become more and more complexes and transverses, our vision is that application development should be process at two scales: micro- and macro-programming where at the micro-level the paradigm is step-by-step and at macro-level the paradigm is emergence. For micro-programming, which focuses on how things happen, popular languages, Java, C++, Python, are imperative writing languages where the code is a sequence of sentences executed by the computer. For macro-programming, which focuses on how things connect, popular languages, labVIEW, Blender, Simulink, are graphical data flow languages such that the program is a composition of operators, a unit-process consuming input data and producing output data, and connectors, a data-flow between an output data and an input data of two operators. However, despite their fruitful applications, these macro-languages are not transve...

  3. Nutrition and metabolism in sepsis and multisystem organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baue, A E

    1991-06-01

    Sepsis and organ failure produce profound metabolic changes that contribute to hepatic and musculoskeletal failure. When multiple organ failure develops, the mortality rate is high, and therapy is unlikely to be effective unless the causative process (e.g., infection, low cardiac output) can be eliminated. Thus, the prevention of multiple organ failure and the prevention or early treatment of infection are paramount. Organ and nutritional support to prevent complications is necessary. The gastrointestinal tract should be used for nutrition whenever possible with a blenderized regular diet with fiber, glutamine, and short-chain fatty acids to protect and preserve the gut. If parenteral nutrition is necessary, special solutions may be necessary for the liver, kidneys, or lungs. If not, protein with 45% branched-chain amino acid, medium- and short-chain triglycerides, glutamine supplementation, and carbohydrates seem best. Other substances are being evaluated that may be helpful in nutrition and organ support, including arginine, xylitol, growth hormone, and anabolic steroids. Multiple organ failure should be prevented, if at all possible, by stopping or controlling the injury, removing as much necrotic tissue as possible, improving blood flow and oxygen consumption, supporting metabolism, and preventing infection or treating it early and adequately. Nutritional support plays a key role in preventing metabolic failure.

  4. Discovery of a transiting planet near the snow-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipping, D. M.; Torres, G.; Buchhave, L. A.; Kenyon, S. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Henze, C.; Bryson, S. T. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Isaacson, H.; Kolbl, R.; Marcy, G. W. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stassun, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Bastien, F., E-mail: dkipping@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics Department, Fisk University, 1000 17th Ave. N, Nashville, TN 37208 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    In most theories of planet formation, the snow-line represents a boundary between the emergence of the interior rocky planets and the exterior ice giants. The wide separation of the snow-line makes the discovery of transiting worlds challenging, yet transits would allow for detailed subsequent characterization. We present the discovery of Kepler-421b, a Uranus-sized exoplanet transiting a G9/K0 dwarf once every 704.2 days in a near-circular orbit. Using public Kepler photometry, we demonstrate that the two observed transits can be uniquely attributed to the 704.2 day period. Detailed light curve analysis with BLENDER validates the planetary nature of Kepler-421b to >4σ confidence. Kepler-421b receives the same insolation as a body at ∼2 AU in the solar system, as well as a Uranian albedo, which would have an effective temperature of ∼180 K. Using a time-dependent model for the protoplanetary disk, we estimate that Kepler-421b's present semi-major axis was beyond the snow-line after ∼3 Myr, indicating that Kepler-421b may have formed at its observed location.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, with data for August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  6. Research on Pump Primers for Friction Reduction of Wet-Mix Shotcrete Based on Precreating Lubricating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoming Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wet-mix shotcrete has lower water content even though looking wet which is generally less than 8% of total content. The inner surface of pipes will absorb water from fresh concrete to wet itself if concrete pump primers is not pumped early; meanwhile, the saturated concrete is transformed into the unsaturated concrete, and pipe blockage often occurs. In order to minimize the loss of water and wet pipes, a new type of pump primers was developed to precreate the lubricating layer that is one of the most dominant factors in determining the pumping capability, which would provide a cost-effective replacement for premium priced cement-based primers. Experiments were conducted to measure the viscosity, stability, and strength of mix solution during development stage. The optimal formula was obtained by orthogonal matching tests with 0.5% sodium stearate, 0.75% xanthan gum, 0.3% polyacrylamide, and 0.4% blender (mass ratio related to mix water. The pressure drop reduction of new primers was larger than that of common primers.

  7. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle size, and total dissolved solids analysis. Standard recipe for barley milk was used without added additives. Barley grain was ground and mixed in a blender for 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The samples were filtered and particle size of the grains was determined by laser diffraction particle sizing. The plant milk was also analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, in the range from 904 to 1699 nm. Furthermore, conductivity of each sample was determined and microphotographs were taken in order to identify the structure of fat globules and particles in the barley milk. NIR spectra, particle size distribution, and conductivity results all point to 45 seconds as the optimal blending time, since further blending results in the saturation of the samples.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1995 with data for May 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1996 with data from March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1995 with data for April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly, March 1996 (with data for January 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-04

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  12. [U.S. renewable fuel standard implementation mechanism and market tracking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Liping; Earley, Robert; An, Feng; Zhang, Yu

    2013-03-01

    U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is a mandatory policy for promoting the utilization of biofuels in road transpiration sector in order to reduce the country's dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas emissions. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines the proportion of renewable fuels according to RFS annual target, and requests obligated parties such like fossil fuel refiner, blenders and importer in the U.S. to complete Renewable Volume Obligation (RVO) every year. Obligated parties prove they have achieved their RVO through a renewable fuels certification system, which generates Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) for every gallon of qualified renewable fuels produced or imported into U.S., RINs is a key for tracking renewable fuel consumption, which in turn is a key for implementing the RFS in the U.S., separated RINs can be freely traded in market and obligated parties could fulfill their RVO through buying RINs from other stakeholders. This briefing paper highlights RFS policy implementing mechanism and marketing tracking, mainly describes importance of RINs, and the method for generating and tracking RINs by both government and fuels industry participants.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1998, with data for August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. A feature article, Accuracy of petroleum supply data, is also included. 72 tabs.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1998 with data from December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1998 with data for April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1998, with data for June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 fig., 66 tabs.

  17. AdapTube: Adaptive Optics animations for tutorial purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Marco; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Bergomi, Maria; Farinato, Jacopo; Magrin, Demetrio; Marafatto, Luca; Viotto, Valentina

    2013-12-01

    As it happens in most scientific fields, many Adaptive Optics concepts and instrumental layouts are not easily understandable. Both in outreach and in the framework of addressing experts, computer graphics (CG) and, in particular, animation can aid the speaker and the auditor to simplify concept description, translating them into a more direct message. This paper presents a few examples of how some instruments, as Shack-Hartmann and Pyramid wavefront sensors, or concepts, like MCAO and MOAO, have been depicted and sometimes compared in a more intuitive way, emphasizing differences, pros and cons. Some example linking animation to the real world are also outlined, pushing the boundaries of the way a complicated concept can be illustrated embedding complex drawings into the explanation of a human. The used CG software, which is completely open source and will be presented and briefly described, turns out to be a valid communication tool to highlight what, on a piece of paper, could seem obscure. This poster aims at showing how concepts, such as Pyramid WFS, GLAO, MCAO and GMCAO, sometimes very difficult to explain on paper, can be much more easily outlined by means of dedicated animation SW. Blender is a very powerful freeware SW, used by our group since years to make tutorial videos and explanatory movies, a few examples of which are presented here.

  18. Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Menlove, H.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology Group] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce purified plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate from irradiated reactor spent fuels, and the co-denitration process area to combine and convert the plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate into mixed oxide (MOX). The selected NDA instruments for conceptual design studies are the MOX-product canister counter, holdup measurement systems for calcination and reduction furnaces and for blenders in the co-denitration process, the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometer for the spent fuel dissolver solution, and unattended verification systems. For more effective and practical safeguards and material control and accounting at RRP, the authors are also studying the conceptual design for the UO{sub 3} large-barrel counter. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art NDA conceptual design and research and development activities for the above instruments.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1999 with data for November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 82 tabs.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1999, with data for February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1999, with data for March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary supplies of petroleum products in the US (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1999, with data for December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1999, with data for April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1999, with data for January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Ethanol production from waste processing tomato dry; Producao de etanol a partir de residuo do processamento de tomate seco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Carla A.P.; Dal Sotto, Jessica; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], emails: carlaschmidt@utfpr.edu.br, jeh.dalsotto@hotmail.com, fabianaschutz@utfpr.edu.br

    2011-07-01

    The generation of waste increases with the development of a region and increases the power consumption. Research about the reuse of waste for energy generation favors solving these two problems. This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of tomato seeds discarded from the production process of tomato pulp dried in ethanol production. Any product that has sugar or other carbohydrate constituted a feedstock for ethanol production, in this study was observed that approximately 26% by weight of 2kg of tomatoes assessed were represented by seeds. We obtained the juice of tomato seeds by use a blender to grind the product to facilitate the process of fermentation. Added to the fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing a pre inoculum with Brix and pH adjusted, sterilized at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, which was subsequently incubated at 28-30 deg C until the end of process. Mixed up to follow this pre inoculum to the rest of the must was sterilized and incubated again at 28-30 deg C until the end of the process. The acquisition of ethanol was carried through a distillation. It was concluded that the seed discarded in the process of the product can be used for this purpose. (author)

  6. Exploring the Dynamics of Cell Processes through Simulations of Fluorescence Microscopy Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolini, Juan; Plachta, Nicolas; Mocskos, Esteban; Levi, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) methods are powerful tools for unveiling the dynamical organization of cells. For simple cases, such as molecules passively moving in a homogeneous media, FCS analysis yields analytical functions that can be fitted to the experimental data to recover the phenomenological rate parameters. Unfortunately, many dynamical processes in cells do not follow these simple models, and in many instances it is not possible to obtain an analytical function through a theoretical analysis of a more complex model. In such cases, experimental analysis can be combined with Monte Carlo simulations to aid in interpretation of the data. In response to this need, we developed a method called FERNET (Fluorescence Emission Recipes and Numerical routines Toolkit) based on Monte Carlo simulations and the MCell-Blender platform, which was designed to treat the reaction-diffusion problem under realistic scenarios. This method enables us to set complex geometries of the simulation space, distribute molecules among different compartments, and define interspecies reactions with selected kinetic constants, diffusion coefficients, and species brightness. We apply this method to simulate single- and multiple-point FCS, photon-counting histogram analysis, raster image correlation spectroscopy, and two-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy. We believe that this new program could be very useful for predicting and understanding the output of fluorescence microscopy experiments. PMID:26039162

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1997 with data from May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  8. APLIKASI VIRTUAL TOUR 3D PABRIK PT. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Nugraha Utomo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Company X is a reputable company that has more than 1000 people employees. One of the routines that performed by company X is orientation for new employees, and there is an event that invites them to visit the factory. The location of the main office and the factory is far, so this activity lacks time efficiency. This application aims to facilitate company X in conducting new employee orientation so that the location can be seen in the virtual world. The first thing in the process of making the application is visiting the factory to determine the shape and position of the object, so that the expected results are shown to resemble its original condition. 3d object and its texture are created using Blender application that can be imported into the made application. Collision feature aims to prevent users from penetrating the objects.The position, shape and location of objects contained in the application already resemble the original plant site. The main obstacle in making this application is the creation time, so the detailed map of the plant cannot be completed. The main building, the production building and the warehouse have been made, only small objects contained in the main building have not been contained.

  9. The organic agricultural waste as a basic source of biohydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwuryandari, Lies; Priantoro, E. Agung; Sintawardani, Neni; Astuti, J. Tri; Nilawati, Dewi; Putri, A. Mauliva Hada; Mamat, Sentana, Suharwadji; Sembiring, T.

    2016-02-01

    Biohydrogen production research was carried out using raw materials of agricultural organic waste that was obtained from markets around the Bandung city. The organic part, which consisted of agricultural waste material, mainly fruit and vegetable waste, was crushed and milled using blender. The sludge that produced from milling process was then used as a substrate for mixed culture microorganism as a raw material to produce biohydrogen. As much as 1.2 kg.day-1 of sludge (4% of total solid) was fed into bioreactor that had a capacity of 30L. Experiment was done under anaerobic fermentation using bacteria mixture culture that maintained at pH in the range of 5.6-6.5 and temperature of 25-30oC on semi-continuous mode. Parameters of analysis include pH, temperature, total solid (TS), organic total solid (OTS), total gas production, and hydrogen gas production. The results showed that from 4% of substrate resulted 897.86 L of total gas, which contained 660.74 L (73.59%) of hydrogen gas. The rate of hydrogen production in this study was 11,063 mol.L-1.h-1.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly with data from April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Effect of the Additives on the Desulphurization Rate of Flash Hydrated and Agglomerated CFB Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. X.; Li, H. L.; Xu, M.; Lu, J. F.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, J. S.; Yue, G. X.

    CFB fly ash from separators was mixed with water or the mixture of water and additives under the temperature of 363K by use of a blender. Then, this compound of fly ash and water or additives was pumped into a CFB combustion chamber by a sludge pump. Because the temperature of flue gas was high in CFB, the fly ash was hydrated fast and agglomerated in the same time. Through this process, the size of agglomerating fly ash is larger than the original particle and the relative residence time of agglomerated fly ash in CFB becomes longer. Therefore, the rate of utility of calcium in fly ash improves and the content of carbon in fly ash decreases. This results in a low Ca/S and low operational cost for CFB boiler. The additive is one key factor, which affects the rate of desulfurization of agglomerated fly ash. Effect of different additives on rate of desulfurization is not same. Cement and limestone are beneficiated to sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash, but sodium silicate does not devote to the rate of sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash.

  15. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Viburnum opulus: Could it be a new alternative, such as lemon juice, to pharmacological therapy in hypocitraturic stone patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim Tuglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Citrate, potassium, and calcium levels in Viburnum opulus (V. opulus and lemon juice were compared to evaluate the usability of V. opulus in mild to moderate level hypocitraturic stone disease. Materials and Methods: V. opulus and lemon fruits were squeezed in a blender and 10 samples of each of 100 ml were prepared. Citrate, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and pH levels in these samples were examined. Results: Potassium was found to be statistically significantly higher in V. opulus than that in lemon juice (p = 0.006 whereas sodium (p = 0.004 and calcium (p = 0.008 were found to be lower. There was no difference between them in terms of the amount of magnesium and citrate. Concusions: Because V. opulus contains citrate as high as lemon juice does and it is a potassium-rich and calciumand sodium-poor fluid, it can be an alternative to pharmaceutical treatment in mild-to-moderate degree hypocitraturic stone patients. These findings should be supported with clinical studies.

  18. New Approaches to Exciting Exergame-Experiences for People with Motor Function Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Eckert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here suggests new ways to tackle exergames for physical rehabilitation and to improve the players’ immersion and involvement. The primary (but not exclusive purpose is to increase the motivation of children and adolescents with severe physical impairments, for doing their required exercises while playing. The proposed gaming environment is based on the Kinect sensor and the Blender Game Engine. A middleware has been implemented that efficiently transmits the data from the sensor to the game. Inside the game, different newly proposed mechanisms have been developed to distinguish pure exercise-gestures from other movements used to control the game (e.g., opening a menu. The main contribution is the amplification of weak movements, which allows the physically impaired to have similar gaming experiences as the average population. To test the feasibility of the proposed methods, four mini-games were implemented and tested by a group of 11 volunteers with different disabilities, most of them bound to a wheelchair. Their performance has also been compared to that of a healthy control group. Results are generally positive and motivating, although there is much to do to improve the functionalities. There is a major demand for applications that help to include disabled people in society and to improve their life conditions. This work will contribute towards providing them with more fun during exercise.

  19. New Approaches to Exciting Exergame-Experiences for People with Motor Function Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Martina; Gómez-Martinho, Ignacio; Meneses, Juan; Martínez, José-Fernán

    2017-01-01

    The work presented here suggests new ways to tackle exergames for physical rehabilitation and to improve the players’ immersion and involvement. The primary (but not exclusive) purpose is to increase the motivation of children and adolescents with severe physical impairments, for doing their required exercises while playing. The proposed gaming environment is based on the Kinect sensor and the Blender Game Engine. A middleware has been implemented that efficiently transmits the data from the sensor to the game. Inside the game, different newly proposed mechanisms have been developed to distinguish pure exercise-gestures from other movements used to control the game (e.g., opening a menu). The main contribution is the amplification of weak movements, which allows the physically impaired to have similar gaming experiences as the average population. To test the feasibility of the proposed methods, four mini-games were implemented and tested by a group of 11 volunteers with different disabilities, most of them bound to a wheelchair. Their performance has also been compared to that of a healthy control group. Results are generally positive and motivating, although there is much to do to improve the functionalities. There is a major demand for applications that help to include disabled people in society and to improve their life conditions. This work will contribute towards providing them with more fun during exercise. PMID:28208682

  20. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1998, with data for July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the suppiy and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics

  1. Petroleum supply monthly: July 1998, with data for May 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1997 with data from October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregates, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1998, with data for September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the Unites States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  4. Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate Monomer onto Starch and Natural Rubber Latex Initiated by Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iskandar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To obtain the degradable plastic, the graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto starch and natural rubber latex was conducted by a simultaneous irradiation technique. Gamma-ray from cobalt-60 source was used as the initiator. The grafted copolymer of starch-polymethyl methacrylate and the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate were mixed in the blender, and dried it in the oven. The dried grafted copolymer mixture was then molded using hydraulic press machine. The effect of irradiation dose, composition of the grafted copolymer mixture, film forming condition and recycle effect was evaluated. The parameters observed were tensile strength, gel fraction and soil burial degradability of grafted copolymer mixture. It was found that the tensile strength of grafted copolymer mixture increased by -ray irradiation. Increasing of the grafted copolymer of natural rubber-polymethyl methacrylate content, the gel fraction and tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture increased. The tensile strength of the grafted copolymer mixture was increased from 18 MPa to 23 MPa after recycled (film forming reprocessed 3 times. The grafted copolymer mixture was degraded completely after soil buried for 6 months

  5. Research And Design Of Automatic Rice Cooker%自动淘米式电饭煲设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传海; 余昌雄; 王李; 袁作彬

    2013-01-01

    Presents the design and research of a timing and automatic rice cooker,it can achieve the function of washing rice and pot by equipped with a motor drive and blender and a automatic device of contraction.Magnetic valve and connect contribute to water inflowing and outflowing and the function of its tightness is quite ensured. The whole device is controlled by the single-chip of STC12C5A60S2.%  设计了一种可定时、自动淘米的新型电饭煲,它是在普通电饭煲上加装电机、搅拌板和快速转换装置,此新型电饭煲可在STC12C5A60S2单片机及电磁阀控制下自动实现进水、淘米、煮饭、洗锅、排水等功能,且密封性良好。

  6. Arquitectura Clúster de Alto Rendimiento Utilizando Herramientas de Software Libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Chuquiguanca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta la implementación de una arquitectura clúster que convierte un laboratorio inicialmente concebido para la eseñanza de la comunidad estudiantil, en una sala de altas prestaciones mediante el uso de herramientas de software libre como: MPICH, Mosix, Blender, Hadoop, Ganglia Monitoring System. Con el clúster se obtiene un rendimiento similar al de un supercomputador, optimizando el tiempo de procesamiento en: simulación de procesos, reconocimiento de patrones, renderizado de imagen y video, análisis de grandes volúmenes de datos Big Data, cifrado de códigos, evaluación de algoritmos, etc. Además, con esta arquitectura se puede procesar millones de operaciones por segundo en los procesos antes mencionados. Este importante avance facilita la investigación académica en otros campos donde se requiera procesar grandes volúmenes de información y obtener resultados en un corto tiempo lo cual permitirá una adecuada toma de decisiones.

  7. openPSTD: The open source pseudospectral time-domain method for acoustic propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornikx, Maarten; Krijnen, Thomas; van Harten, Louis

    2016-06-01

    An open source implementation of the Fourier pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) method for computing the propagation of sound is presented, which is geared towards applications in the built environment. Being a wave-based method, PSTD captures phenomena like diffraction, but maintains efficiency in processing time and memory usage as it allows to spatially sample close to the Nyquist criterion, thus keeping both the required spatial and temporal resolution coarse. In the implementation it has been opted to model the physical geometry as a composition of rectangular two-dimensional subdomains, hence initially restricting the implementation to orthogonal and two-dimensional situations. The strategy of using subdomains divides the problem domain into local subsets, which enables the simulation software to be built according to Object-Oriented Programming best practices and allows room for further computational parallelization. The software is built using the open source components, Blender, Numpy and Python, and has been published under an open source license itself as well. For accelerating the software, an option has been included to accelerate the calculations by a partial implementation of the code on the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), which increases the throughput by up to fifteen times. The details of the implementation are reported, as well as the accuracy of the code.

  8. Antifungal activity of Terminalia superba (combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIAKA Sohro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to optimize the anticandidosic activities of Terminalia superba (TEKAM4 and the identification of major compounds present in the most active chromatographic fraction. The hydroethanolic extract TEKAM4-X0 was prepared by homogenization employing a blender. Two derivatives extracts of TEKAM4-X0 (X1-1 and X1-2 were obtained by a liquid/liquid partition of TEKAM4-X0 in a mixture of hexane and water (v/v. Three chromatographic fractions (F1, F2 and F3 from X1-2 were separated by means of Sephadex-LH20 gel filtration chromatography. All the extracts were incorporated to Sabouraud according to the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for antifungal assay. The entire fractions were tested on the previously prepared medium culture containing 1000 cells of C. albicans. Antifungal activity was determined by evaluating antifungal parameters values (MFC and IC50. Lastly, the structures of 2 isolated compounds were elucidated by combination of Flash chromatography and spectroscopic methods, including MS, and multiple stage RMN experiments.

  9. Impacts of renewable fuel regulation and production on agriculture, energy, and welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Lihong Lu

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study the impact of U.S. federal renewable fuel regulations on energy and agriculture commodity markets and welfare. We consider two federal ethanol policies: the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) contained in the Energy Security and Independence Act of 2007 and tax credits to ethanol blenders contained in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008. My first essay estimates the distribution of short-run impacts of changing federal ethanol policies on U.S. energy prices, agricultural commodity prices, and welfare through a stochastic partial equilibrium model of U.S. corn, ethanol, and gasoline markets. My second essay focuses on studying the price behavior of the renewable fuel credit (RFC) market, which is the mechanism developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet the RFS. RFCs are a tradable, bankable, and borrowable accounting mechanism to ensure that all obligated parties use a mandated level of renewable fuel. I first develop a conceptual framework to understand how the market works and then apply stochastic dynamic programming to simulate prices for RFCs, examine the sensitivity of prices to relevant shocks, and estimate RFC option premiums. My third essay assesses the impact of policy led U.S. ethanol on the markets of global crude oil and U.S. gasoline using a structural Vector Auto Regression model of global crude oil, U.S. gasoline and ethanol markets.

  10. Efficacy of the liquid formulation of some nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, F; D'Addabbo, T; Greco, P; Carella, A

    2002-01-01

    Bunches of 25 g of tomato galled roots containing ca. 270 eggs and juveniles/g of Meloidogyne incognita were buried on 29 September 2001 in gauze bags at the depth of 15, 30 and 45 cm in a sandy loam. The liquid formulation of the nematicides 1,3 dichloropropene (at the rate of 100, 200 and 300 l/ha), metam sodium (at the rate of 500, 1000, and 1500 l/ha), oxamyl (at the rate of 50, 100 and 150 l/ha) and fenamiphos (at the rate of 30, 60, and 90 l/ha) were then applied in 10, 20 or 40 l/m2 of water. Control plots received only plain water. One month later all bags were recovered and the roots mixed with steamed soil and filled in plastic pots in which two tomato seeds were planted. Fifty days later plants were uprooted and aliquots of roots were macerated in blender to determine the number of eggs and juveniles. 1,3 dichloropropene, metam sodium and oxamyl were equally effective in controlling root-knot nematodes; fenamiphos was less effective. For all chemicals degree of control increased with the increase of rate of application and the volume of water of application, but decreased in the increase of depth of nematode burial.

  11. Dry Sliding Wear behaviour of Aluminium-Red mud- Tungsten Carbide Hybrid metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi Chinta, Neelima; Selvaraj, N.; Mahesh, V.

    2016-09-01

    Red mud is an industrial waste obtained during the processing of alumina by Bayer's process. An attempt has been made to utilize the solid waste by using it as the reinforcement material in metal matrix composites. Red mud received from NALCO has been subjected for sieve analysis and milled to 42 nanometers using high energy ball mill. Red mud is used as a reinforcement material in Pure Aluminium matrix composite at 2%, 4%, and 6% weight at 100 microns level as well as 42 nano meters along with 4%Tungsten carbide by weight. Micro and Nano structured red mud powders, Tungsten carbide powder and Aluminium is mixed in a V-Blender, compacted at a pressure of 40 bar and samples are prepared by conventional sintering with vacuum as medium. In this current work, dry sliding wear characteristics at normal and heat treatment conditions are investigated with optimal combination of Aluminium, Tungsten carbide and different weight fractions of micro and nano structured red mud powder.

  12. Discovery of a Transiting Planet Near the Snow-Line

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Buchhave, Lars A; Kenyon, Scott J; Henze, Christopher E; Isaacson, Howard; Kolbl, Rea; Marcy, Geoff W; Bryson, Stephen T; Stassun, Keivan G; Bastien, Fabienne A

    2014-01-01

    In most theories of planet formation, the snow-line represents a boundary between the emergence of the interior rocky planets and the exterior ice giants. The wide separation of the snow-line makes the discovery of transiting worlds challenging, yet transits would allow for detailed subsequent characterization. We present the discovery of Kepler-421b, a Uranus-sized exoplanet transiting a G9/K0 dwarf once every 704.2 days in a near-circular orbit. Using public Kepler photometry, we demonstrate that the two observed transits can be uniquely attributed to the 704.2 day period. Detailed light curve analysis with BLENDER validates the planetary nature of Kepler-421b to >4 sigmas confidence. Kepler-421b receives the same insolation as a body at ~2AU in the Solar System and for a Uranian albedo would have an effective temperature of ~180K. Using a time-dependent model for the protoplanetary disk, we estimate that Kepler-421b's present semi-major axis was beyond the snow-line after ~3Myr, indicating that Kepler-421b...

  13. Validation of Twelve Small Kepler Transiting Planets in the Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Caldwell, Douglas A; Twicken, Joseph D; Ballard, Sarah; Batalha, Natalie M; Bryson, Stephen T; Ciardi, David R; Henze, Christopher E; Howell, Steve B; Isaacson, Howard T; Jenkins, Jon M; Muirhead, Philip S; Newton, Elisabeth R; Petigura, Erik A; Barclay, Thomas; Borucki, William J; Crepp, Justin R; Everett, Mark E; Horch, Elliott P; Howard, Andrew W; Kolbl, Rea; Marcy, Geoffrey W; McCauliff, Sean; Quintana, Elisa V

    2015-01-01

    We present an investigation of twelve candidate transiting planets from Kepler with orbital periods ranging from 34 to 207 days, selected from initial indications that they are small and potentially in the habitable zone (HZ) of their parent stars. The expected Doppler signals are too small to confirm them by demonstrating that their masses are in the planetary regime. Here we verify their planetary nature by validating them statistically using the BLENDER technique, which simulates large numbers of false positives and compares the resulting light curves with the Kepler photometry. This analysis was supplemented with new follow-up observations (high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, adaptive optics imaging, and speckle interferometry), as well as an analysis of the flux centroids. For eleven of them (KOI-0571.05, 1422.04, 1422.05, 2529.02, 3255.01, 3284.01, 4005.01, 4087.01, 4622.01, 4742.01, and 4745.01) we show that the likelihood they are true planets is far greater than that of a false po...

  14. Flat-pressed wood plastic composites from sawdust and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET): physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Khandkar-Siddikur; Islam, Md Nazrul; Rahman, Md Mushfiqur; Hannan, Md Obaidullah; Dungani, Rudi; Khalil, Hps Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the fabrication of composite matrix from saw dust (SD) and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) at different ratio (w/w) by flat-pressed method. The wood plastic composites (WPCs) were made with a thickness of 6 mm after mixing the saw dust and PET in a rotary type blender followed by flat press process. Physical i.e., density, moisture content (MC), water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS), and mechanical properties i.e., Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) were assessed as a function of mixing ratios according to the ASTM D-1037 standard. WA and TS were measured after 24 hours of immersion in water at 25, 50 and 75°C temperature. It was found that density decreased 18.3% when SD content increased from 40% to 70% into the matix. WA and TS increased when the PET content decreased in the matrix and the testing water temperature increased. MOE and MOR were reached to maximum for the fabricated composites (2008.34 and 27.08 N/mm(2), respectively) when the SD content were only 40%. The results indicated that the fabrication of WPCs from sawdust and PET would technically feasible; however, the use of additives like coupling agents could further enhance the properties of WPCs.

  15. Introducing Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation into Olfactory Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    An olfactory display is a device that delivers various odors to the user's nose. It can be used to add special effects to movies and games by releasing odors relevant to the scenes shown on the screen. In order to provide high-presence olfactory stimuli to the users, the display must be able to generate realistic odors with appropriate concentrations in a timely manner together with visual and audio playbacks. In this paper, we propose to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in conjunction with the olfactory display. Odor molecules released from their source are transported mainly by turbulent flow, and their behavior can be extremely complicated even in a simple indoor environment. In the proposed system, a CFD solver is employed to calculate the airflow field and the odor dispersal in the given environment. An odor blender is used to generate the odor with the concentration determined based on the calculated odor distribution. Experimental results on presenting odor stimuli synchronously with movie clips show the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  16. War in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegowina, and Kosovo, and PCBs hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picer, M.; Kovac, T.; Picer, N.; Calic, V. [Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia); Miosic, N. [Geological Survey, Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Kodba, Z.C. [Maribor Environmental Protection Inst., Maribor (Slovenia); Rugova, A. [Pristina Univ., Pristina (Serbia)

    2005-07-01

    Recent warfare in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegowina, and Kosovo has increased hazardous waste levels in the involved regions. Data on contaminant levels from water and soil samples collected before 1995 did not demonstrate significant levels of contamination. This paper provided the results of a study which showed that significant levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exist in many of the areas worst affected by the war. During the study, soil and sediment samples were extracted with n-hexane. Fish extracts were extracted using a high revolution blender. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were then separated from organochlorine insecticides on a silica gel column. Electron capture detection gas chromatography (ECD-GC) was used to quantify the POPs. Results showed that levels of PCBs in soil samples from Bosnia and Herzegowina sampled during 2003 showed significantly high levels of total PCBs. Levels of contamination exceeded tolerance levels accepted in Netherlands. Fish samples did not demonstrate high levels of contaminants. Sediment samples from Bosnian rivers showed significant levels of PCBs. It was concluded that levels of PCBs in Bosnia and Herzegowina in 2003 were lower than levels observed in fish sampled in Dalmatia and Croatia. 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. Scalable shear-exfoliation of high-quality phosphorene nanoflakes with reliable electrochemical cycleability in nano batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Ge, Binghui; Chen, Jing; Nathan, Arokia; Xin, Linhuo L.; Ma, Hongyu; Min, Huihua; Zhu, Chongyang; Xia, Weiwei; Li, Zhengrui; Li, Shengli; Yu, Kaihao; Wu, Lijun; Cui, Yiping; Sun, Litao; Zhu, Yimei

    2016-06-01

    Atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise as an alternative to graphene and other two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, bulk black phosphorus (BP) suffers from rapid capacity fading and poor rechargeable performance. This work reports for the first time the use of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to construct nanoscale phosphorene LIBs. This enables direct visualization of the mechanisms underlying capacity fading in thick multilayer phosphorene through real-time capture of delithiation-induced structural decomposition, which serves to reduce electrical conductivity thus causing irreversibility of the lithiated phases. We further demonstrate that few-layer-thick phosphorene successfully circumvents the structural decomposition and holds superior structural restorability, even when subject to multi-cycle lithiation/delithiation processes and concomitant huge volume expansion. This finding provides breakthrough insights into thickness-dependent lithium diffusion kinetics in phosphorene. More importantly, a scalable liquid-phase shear exfoliation route has been developed to produce high-quality ultrathin phosphorene using simple means such as a high-speed shear mixer or even a household kitchen blender with the shear rate threshold of ˜1.25 × 104 s-1. The results reported here will pave the way for industrial-scale applications of rechargeable phosphorene LIBs.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1995 with data for March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-25

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1995, with data for December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-27

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  20. Processamento de sementes de Moringa oleifera utilizando-se diferentes equipamentos para obtenção de solução coagulante Processing of Moringa oleifera seeds using different equipments to obtain coagulant solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila C. Arantes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho para avaliar o uso de quatro equipamentos no processamento das sementes de Moringa oleifera, visando à produção de solução coagulante a ser empregada no tratamento de água com turbidez obtida sinteticamente. Seis soluções coagulantes com diferentes tipos de processamento foram utilizadas em ensaios de coagulação, floculação e sedimentação em equipamento Jar-Test. A dosagem da solução coagulante utilizada foi 500 mg L-1 e os parâmetros avaliados foram turbidez e cor aparente; verificou-se, após 30 min de sedimentação, que para redução de turbidez e cor aparente os melhores processamentos foram com pilão e máquina de moer, respectivamente, sendo que em ambos os casos o peneiramento do pó foi essencial para a redução dos parâmetros em questão. Através de liquidificador e mixer, os índices de redução de turbidez e cor aparente foram os menores encontrados e a trituração das sementes durante o processamento na máquina de moer e no pilão remove parte do óleo neles presente, o que não ocorre com o uso do liquidificador e mixer, evidenciando que a retirada do óleo presente nas sementes resulta em solução coagulante com maior eficiência.This work was condcted to assess four different equipments used in processing seeds of Moringa oleifera to produce a coagulant solution to be used in water treatment with the turbidity obtained synthetically. Six coagulant solutions with different types of processing were used in assays of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation in Jar-Test equipment. The dose of coagulant solution was 500 mg L-1 and the evaluated parameters were turbidity and apparent color. After 30 min of sedimentation, it was clear that the best processes to reduce turbidity and apparent color were the pestle and grinder, respectively, however, in both cases the sieving of the powder was essential in reducing the parameters in question. Using a blender and a mixer the

  1. Optimized Blanching Reduces the Host Cell Protein Content and Substantially Enhances the Recovery and Stability of Two Plant-Derived Malaria Vaccine Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Stephan; Holland, Tanja; Boes, Alexander; Spiegel, Holger; Bolzenius, Johanna; Fischer, Rainer; Buyel, Johannes F

    2016-01-01

    Plants provide an advantageous expression platform for biopharmaceutical proteins because of their low pathogen burden and potential for inexpensive, large-scale production. However, the purification of target proteins can be challenging due to issues with extraction, the removal of host cell proteins (HCPs), and low expression levels. The heat treatment of crude extracts can reduce the quantity of HCPs by precipitation thus increasing the purity of the target protein and streamlining downstream purification. In the overall context of downstream process (DSP) development for plant-derived malaria vaccine candidates, we applied a design-of-experiments approach to enhance HCP precipitation from Nicotiana benthamiana extracts generated after transient expression, using temperatures in the 20-80°C range, pH values of 3.0-8.0 and incubation times of 0-60 min. We also investigated the recovery of two protein-based malaria vaccine candidates under these conditions and determined their stability in the heat-treated extract while it was maintained at room temperature for 24 h. The heat precipitation of HCPs was also carried out by blanching intact plants in water or buffer prior to extraction in a blender. Our data show that all the heat precipitation methods reduced the amount of HCP in the crude plant extracts by more than 80%, simplifying the subsequent DSP steps. Furthermore, when the heat treatment was performed at 80°C rather than 65°C, both malaria vaccine candidates were more stable after extraction and the recovery of both proteins increased by more than 30%.

  2. Meselect - A Rapid and Effective Method for the Separation of the Main Leaf Tissue Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svozil, Julia; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baerenfaller, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Individual tissues of complex eukaryotic organisms have specific gene expression programs that control their functions. Therefore, tissue-specific molecular information is required to increase our understanding of tissue-specific processes. Established methods in plants to obtain specific tissues or cell types from their organ or tissue context typically require the enzymatic degradation of cell walls followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using plants engineered for localized expression of green fluorescent protein. This has facilitated the acquisition of valuable data, mainly on root cell type-specific transcript and protein expression. However, FACS of different leaf cell types is difficult because of chlorophyll autofluorescence that interferes with the sorting process. Furthermore, the cell wall composition is different in each cell type. This results in long incubation times for refractory cell types, and cell sorting itself can take several hours. To overcome these limitations, we developed Meselect (mechanical separation of leaf compound tissues), a rapid and effective method for the separation of leaf epidermal, vascular and mesophyll tissues. Meselect is a novel combination of mechanical separation and rapid protoplasting, which benefits from the unique cell wall composition of the different tissue types. Meselect has several advantages over cell sorting: it does not require expensive equipment such as a cell sorter and does not depend on specific fluorescent reporter lines, the use of blenders as well as the inherent mixing of different cell types and of intact and damaged cells can be avoided, and the time between wounding of the leaf and freezing of the sample is short. The efficacy and specificity of the method to enrich the different leaf tissue types has been confirmed using Arabidopsis leaves, but it has also been successfully used for leaves of other plants such as tomato or cassava. The method is therefore useful for plant

  3. Larvicidal and repellent potential ofMoringa oleiferaagainst malarial vector,Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta:Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhu K; Murugan K; Nareshkumar A; Ramasubramanian N; Bragadeeswaran S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vectorAnopheles stephensi(A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20,40,60,80 and100 ppm).Methods:M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample,100 g of the plant material were extracted with300 mL of methanol for8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield122 mg and110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) fromArcang amara andOcimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e.,20,40,60,80 and100 ppm were prepared.Results: Larvicidal activity ofM.oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of theA. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were57.79 ppm and125.93 ppm for the first instar,63.90 ppm and133.07 ppm for the second instar,72.45 ppm and139.82 ppm for the third instar,78.93 ppm and143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract ofM.oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were67.77 ppm and141.00 ppm, respectively.Conclusions:The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived fromM. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs.

  4. ARMAZENAMENTO DE TOMATES REVESTIDOS COM PECTINA: AVALIAÇÃO COLORIMÉTRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMANUEL NETO ALVES DE OLIVEIRA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the color of tomatoes coated with different concentrations of pectin during storage at room temperature. Were used tomatoes with color greenish-pink divided into four lots: uncoated tomatoes (CT and covered with biofilms with 2% (P2, 5% (P5 and 8% (P8 of solution of pectin. Initially it was evaluated the rind of tomatoes, then these were cut in half and it was evaluated the pulp (fleshy part, subsequently the two parts of tomatoes were processed in a blender to yield the processed pulp, which also was evaluated. Evaluations were done at 0, 2, 4, 7, 11 and 16 days storage with analysis of luminosity (L*, intensity of red (+a* and intensity of yellow (+b* in portable spectrophotometer. It was observed in all treatments that the rind and the fleshy and processed pulp showed a reduction in the values of L*. At the end of the storage, the treatment CT showed the highest values +a* for the rind and the fleshy and processed pulp, followed of the treatments P2, P5 and P8, respectively. The values of +b* decreased in the rind and in processed pulp of the CT and P2 treatments, but increased in the P5 and P8 treatments. It is concluded that the use of edible coatings pectin is effective to retard development of coloration typical of ripe tomato, results to be associated with the evaluation of physical and chemical parameters for a respect to retardation of the ripening.

  5. FIELD TESTING & OPTIMIZATION OF CO2/SAND FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond L. Mazza

    2004-11-30

    These contract efforts involved the demonstration of a unique liquid free stimulation technology which was, at the beginning of these efforts, in 1993 unavailable in the US. The process had been developed, and patented in Canada in 1981, and held promise for stimulating liquid sensitive reservoirs in the US. The technology differs from that conventionally used in that liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), instead of water is the base fluid. The CO{sub 2} is pumped as a liquid and then vaporizes at reservoir conditions, and because no other liquids or chemicals are used, a liquid free fracture is created. The process requires a specialized closed system blender to mix the liquid CO{sub 2} with proppant under pressure. These efforts were funded to consist of up to 21 cost-shared stimulation events. Because of the vagaries of CO{sub 2} supplies, service company support and operator interest only 19 stimulation events were performed in Montana, New Mexico, and Texas. Final reports have been prepared for each of the four demonstration groups, and the specifics of those demonstrations are summarized. A summary of the demonstrations of a novel liquid-free stimulation process which was performed in four groups of ''Candidate Wells'' situated in Crockett Co., TX; San Juan Co., NM; Phillips Co., MT; and Blaine Co., MT. The stimulation process which employs CO{sub 2} as the working fluid and the production responses were compared with those from wells treated with conventional stimulation technologies, primarily N{sub 2} foam, excepting those in Blaine Co., MT where the reservoir pressure is too low to clean up spent stimulation liquids. A total of 19 liquid-free CO{sub 2}/sand stimulations were performed in 16 wells and the production improvements were generally uneconomic.

  6. Approaches to brain stress testing: BOLD magnetic resonance imaging with computer-controlled delivery of carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alan C Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An impaired vascular response in the brain regionally may indicate reduced vascular reserve and vulnerability to ischemic injury. Changing the carbon dioxide (CO(2 tension in arterial blood is commonly used as a cerebral vasoactive stimulus to assess the cerebral vascular response, changing cerebral blood flow (CBF by up to 5-11 percent/mmHg in normal adults. Here we describe two approaches to generating the CO(2 challenge using a computer-controlled gas blender to administer: i a square wave change in CO(2 and, ii a ramp stimulus, consisting of a continuously graded change in CO(2 over a range. Responses were assessed regionally by blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 8 patients with known cerebrovascular disease (carotid stenosis or occlusion and 2 healthy subjects. The square wave stimulus was used to study the dynamics of the vascular response, while the ramp stimulus assessed the steady-state response to CO(2. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR maps were registered by color coding and overlaid on the anatomical scans generated with 3 Tesla MRI to assess the corresponding BOLD signal change/mmHg change in CO(2, voxel-by-voxel. Using a fractal temporal approach, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA maps of the processed raw BOLD signal per voxel over the same CO(2 range were generated. Regions of BOLD signal decrease with increased CO(2 (coded blue were seen in all of these high-risk patients, indicating regions of impaired CVR. All patients also demonstrated regions of altered signal structure on DFA maps (Hurst exponents less than 0.5; coded blue indicative of anti-persistent noise. While 'blue' CVR maps remained essentially stable over the time of analysis, 'blue' DFA maps improved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This combined dual stimulus and dual analysis approach may be complementary in identifying vulnerable brain regions and thus constitute a regional as

  7. Preparation and characterization for mineral elements and total dietary fiber and testing for stability of {beta}-carotene of an ARC/CL carrot powder multipurpose candidate reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, J.T. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Hyvaerinen, H. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Haegg, M. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Plaami, S. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry; Tahvonen, R. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland (Finland). Lab. of Food Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    As part of the analytical assurance system of the FAO European Cooperative Research Network on Trace Elements programme an ARC/CL-coded carrot flakes powder (CFP) candidate reference material (RM) has been prepared from a lot of commercial carrot flakes. The candidate RM has been homogenized using a Robot Coupe blender fitted with titanium blades, carefully homogenized in large teflon/polypropylene containers, bottled in 1000 numbered polyethylene containers (20 g samples) and tested for homogeneity. Interlaboratory comparison studies for 9 essential elements, cadmium and total dietary fiber (TDF) based on the AOAC-method resulted in the characterization of the contents of those compounds in the above material. After exclusion of outliers, mean values from at least nine different laboratories based altogether on three independent analytical principles have been used to calculate the recommended concentration ranges for mineral elements. Testing of homogeneity and stability for {beta}-carotene over a period of one year has been additionally carried out. The mean water content in the material amounted to 4.97% and remained stable over a one-year period. Homogeneity of the RM was within 3.0% for almost all included mineral elements as tested for a sample size of 0.5 g. The 95% confidence limits for the mean values of the established recommended concentrations of mineral elements in the present ARC/CL Carrot Powder candidate RM fell within 5% for all the other elements and TDF except for Fe (6.3%) and B (5.7%). The stability of {beta}-carotene in the present candidate RM stored in darkness over a one-year period at room temperature was within 6.3%. (orig.)

  8. An inexpensive underwater mine countermeasures simulator with real-time 3D after action review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Stone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a concept capability demonstration pilot study, the aim of which was to investigate how inexpensive gaming software and hardware technologies could be exploited in the development and evaluation of a simulator prototype for training Royal Navy mine clearance divers, specifically focusing on the detection and accurate reporting of the location and condition of underwater ordnance. The simulator was constructed using the Blender open source 3D modelling toolkit and game engine, and featured not only an interactive 3D editor for underwater scenario generation by instructors, but also a real-time, 3D After Action Review (AAR system for formative assessment and feedback. The simulated scenarios and AAR architecture were based on early human factors observations and briefings conducted at the UK's Defence Diving School (DDS, an organisation that provides basic military diving training for all Royal Navy and Army (Royal Engineers divers. An experimental pilot study was undertaken to determine whether or not basic navigational and mine detection components of diver performance could be improved as a result of exposing participants to the AAR system, delivered between simulated diving scenarios. The results suggest that the provision of AAR was accompanied by significant performance improvements in the positive identification of simulated underwater ordnance (in contrast to non-ordnance objects and on participants' description of their location, their immediate in-water or seabed context and their structural condition. Only marginal improvements were found with participants' navigational performance in terms of their deviation accuracies from a pre-programmed expert search path. Overall, this project contributes to the growing corpus of evidence supporting the development of simulators that demonstrate the value of exploiting open source gaming software and the significance of adopting established games design

  9. Bacterial contamination of hospital-prepared enteral tube feeding formulas in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Hospital-prepared tube feedings from three intensive care units of two hospitals in Isfahan, Iran were analyzed for microbial contamination.
    • METHODS: A total number of 152 samples (76 samples each at the time of preparation and 18 hours following preparation were collected. Standard plate count, coliform count and Staphylococcus aureus count for all samples were conducted. Samples were analyzed also for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp.
    • RESULTS: At the time of food preparation, out of 76 samples, 53 samples (70% had coliform contamination and 87% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 101 cfu/g. Also, 68  amples (90% had S. aureus contamination greater than 101 cfu/g. In standard plate count, 74 samples (97% had counts greater than 103 cfu/g, while 54 samples (71% had counts greater than 104 cfu/g. In second sampling occasion, out of 76 samples, 68 samples (90% had coliform contamination and 84% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 101 cfu/g. Also, 72 samples (95% had S. aureus contamination, 98.6% of these contaminated samples had counts greater than 102 cfu/g. In standard plate count, 74 samples (97% had counts greater than 104 cfu/g. No Salmonella or Listeria was detected from samples.
    • CONCLUSION: The results indicated that a majority of the blenderized enteral tube feedings in those hospitals are not safe. In comparison to the standard limits, these enteral tube feedings are highly  ontaminated and posed substantial risk for developing a foodborne disease or nosocomial infection.
    • KEYWORDS: Enteral Feeding, Microbial Contamination, Nosocomial Infection, Standard Plate Count, Coliform.

  10. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  11. Influence of small amorphous amounts in hydrophilic and hydrophobic APIs on storage stability of dry powder inhalation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorsten; Krehl, Regina; Schiewe, Jörg; Weiler, Claudius; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different manufacturing methods to induce formation of amorphous content, changes of physico-chemical characteristics of powder blends and changes of aerodynamic properties over storage time (6months) analyzed with the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) are investigated. Earlier studies have shown that standard pharmaceutical operations lead to structural disorders which may influence drug delivery and product stability. In this investigation, fully amorphous drug samples produced by spray-drying (SD) and ball-milling (BM) as well as semi-crystalline samples (produced by blending and micronization) are studied and compared to fully crystalline starting material. The amorphous content of these hydrophilic and hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was determined using a validated one-step DVS-method. For the conducted blending and micronization tests, amorphous amounts up to a maximum of 5.1% for salbutamol sulfate (SBS) and 17.0% for ciclesonide (CS) were measured. In order to investigate the impact of small amorphous amounts, inhalable homogenous powder mixtures with very high and low amorphous content and a defined particle size were prepared with a Turbula blender for each API. These blends were stored (6months, 45% RH, room temperature) to evaluate the influence of amorphous amounts on storage stability. The fine particle fraction (FPF: % of emitted dosehydrophobic CS a constantly increasing FPF (from 6% to >15%) over storage time for both types of blends was determined. Therefore, prolonged stability of amorphous parts and an incalculable behavior for CS blends are supposed, in contrast, SBS showed a controllable FPF after conditioning.

  12. Research and practice of the impulse sand fracturing technology

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    Bin Qian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the deep development of tight sand gas reservoirs, problems such as short stable production period and quick production decline of gas wells after fracturing have become increasingly prominent. Consequently, there is an increasing demand for the effective penetration and conductivity of artificial fractures. Impulse sand fracturing technology introduces a concept of discrete multilayer sanding inside fractures; joint application of pulse blender which can be switched at high frequency, intensive multi-cluster perforation and special fibrous material made it possible to ensure the flow stability of proppant slug, and placement of nonuniformly-laid sand pinnacles and grooves, which markedly upgraded the capacity of the fracture conductivity to several orders of magnitude more than the conventional method. Laboratory engineering simulation evaluation and field test show that pre-fracturing reservoir evaluation, pulse time design and the optimization of degradable fiber and support equipment are the keys to the success of impulse sand fracturing. Compared with the conventional fracturing, this technique can effectively increase well production, decrease the volume of fracturing proppant, and lower sand plugging risks. An independent sand fracturing pilot test has been conducted in 6 layers of 3 wells for the first time in Block Tao 7 of the Sulige Gasfield, Ordos Basin, as a result, the average volume of fracturing proppant dropped by 28.3%, the average sand intensity dropped by 21.88%, and the post-fracturing average daily gas output increased by 26.8%. This technology provides an efficient and environmentally friendly reservoir stimulation option for tight sand gas reservoirs in China.

  13. Potential reuse of small household waste electrical and electronic equipment: Methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a general methodology for assessing and estimating the potential reuse of small waste electrical and electronic equipment (sWEEE), focusing on devices classified as domestic appliances. Specific tests for visual inspection, function and safety have been defined for ten different types of household appliances (vacuum cleaner, iron, microwave, toaster, sandwich maker, hand blender, juicer, boiler, heater and hair dryer). After applying the tests, reuse protocols have been defined in the form of easy-to-apply checklists for each of the ten types of appliance evaluated. This methodology could be useful for reuse enterprises, since there is a lack of specific protocols, adapted to each type of appliance, to test its potential of reuse. After applying the methodology, electrical and electronic appliances (used or waste) can be segregated into three categories: the appliance works properly and can be classified as direct reuse (items can be used by a second consumer without prior repair operations), the appliance requires a later evaluation of its potential refurbishment and repair (restoration of products to working order, although with possible loss of quality) or the appliance needs to be finally discarded from the reuse process and goes directly to a recycling process. Results after applying the methodology to a sample of 87.7kg (96 units) show that 30.2% of the appliances have no potential for reuse and should be diverted for recycling, while 67.7% require a subsequent evaluation of their potential refurbishment and repair, and only 2.1% of them could be directly reused with minor cleaning operations. This study represents a first approach to the "preparation for reuse" strategy that the European Directive related to Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment encourages to be applied. However, more research needs to be done as an extension of this study, mainly related to the identification of the feasibility of repair or refurbishment operations.

  14. A STUDY OF THE NUCLEOSIDE TRI- AND DIPHOSPHATE ACTIVITIES OF RAT LIVER MICROSOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernster, Lars; Jones, Lois C.

    1962-01-01

    Rat liver microsomes catalyze the hydrolysis of the triphosphates of adenosine, guanosine, uridine, cytidine, and inosine into the corresponding diphosphates and inorganic orthophosphate. The activities are stimulated by Na2S2O4, and inhibited by atebrin, chlorpromazine, sodium azide, and deaminothyroxine. Sodium deoxycholate inhibits the ATPase activity in a progressive manner; the release of orthophosphate from GTP and UTP is stimulated by low, and inhibited by high, concentrations of deoxycholate, and that from CTP and ITP is unaffected by low, and inhibited by high, concentrations of deoxycholate. Subfractionation of microsomes with deoxycholate into ribosomal, membrane, and soluble fractions reveals a concentration of the triphosphatase activity in the membrane fraction. Rat liver microsomes also catalyze the hydrolysis of the diphosphates of the above nucleosides into the corresponding monophosphates and inorganic orthophosphate. Deoxycholate strongly enhances the GDPase, UDPase, and IDPase activities while causing no activation or even inhibition of the ADPase and CDPase activities. The diphosphatase is unaffected by Na2S2O4 and is inhibited by azide and deaminothyroxine but not by atebrin or chlorpromazine. Upon fractionation of the microsomes with deoxycholate, a large part of the GDPase, UDPase, and IDPase activities is recovered in the soluble fraction. Mechanical disruption of the microsomes with an Ultra Turrax Blender both activates and releases the GDPase, UDPase, and IDPase activities, and the former effect occurs more readily than the latter. The GDPase, UDPase, and IDPase activities of the rat liver cell reside almost exclusively in the microsomal fraction, as revealed by comparative assays of the mitochondrial, microsomal, and final supernatant fractions of the homogenate. The microsomes exhibit relatively low nucleoside monophosphatase and inorganic pyrophosphatase activities, and these are unaffected by deoxycholate or mechanical treatment

  15. Chitin nanofibers: preparations, modifications, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    Chitin nanofibers are prepared from the exoskeletons of crabs and prawns by a simple mechanical treatment after the removal of proteins and minerals. The obtained nanofibers have fine nanofiber networks with a uniform width of approximately 10-20 nm and a high aspect ratio. The method used for chitin-nanofiber isolation is also successfully applied to the cell walls of mushrooms. They form a complex with glucans on the fiber surface. A grinder, a Star Burst atomization system, and a high speed blender are all used in the mechanical treatment to convert chitin to nanofibers. Mechanical treatment under acidic conditions is the key to facilitate fibrillation. At pH 3-4, the cationization of amino groups on the fiber surface assists nano-fibrillation by electrostatic repulsive force. By applying this finding, we also prepared chitin nanofibers from dry chitin powder. Chitin nanofibers are acetylated to modify their surfaces. The acetyl DS can be controlled from 1 to 3 by changing the reaction time. An acetyl group is introduced heterogeneously from the surface to the core. Nanofiber morphology is maintained even in the case of high acetyl DS. Optically transparent chitin nanofiber composites are prepared with 11 different types of acrylic resins. Due to the nano-sized structure, all of the composites are highly transparent. Chitin nanofibers significantly increase the Young's moduli and the tensile strengths and decrease the thermal expansion of all acrylic resins due to the reinforcement effect of chitin nanofibers. Chitin nanofibers show chiral separation ability. The chitin nanofiber membrane transports the d-isomer of glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and lysine from the corresponding racemic amino acid mixtures faster than the corresponding l-isomer. The chitin nanofibers improve clinical symptoms and suppress ulcerative colitis in a DSS-induced mouse model of acute ulcerative colitis. Moreover, chitin nanofibers suppress myeloperoxidase activation in the colon and

  16. Design and implementation of a virtual laboratory of radiation measurement; Diseno e implementacion de un laboratorio virtual de medicion de radiaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez T, J. R.; Morales S, J. B. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: jms0620@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-10-15

    The work involves the implementation of a virtual laboratory, this project is conducted in the Faculty of Engineering of National Autonomous University of Mexico with the name of LANUVI. It is intended that the laboratory can be used by students who have interest in the nuclear radiation knowledge as well as in its detection and attenuation, in addition serve as and introduction to nuclear systems. In the first part of project will conduct a source that can simulate the particle radiation of Alfa, beta, neutrons and gamma rays. The project will take sources used in class laboratories and elements that are dangerous but are used in different practical applications. After taking the source analyzing the particles behaviour in different media like air, animal tissue, aluminium, lead, etc. The analysis is done in different ways in order to know with which material can stop or mitigate the different types of radiation. Finally shall be measure radioactivity with different types of detectors. At this point, has the behaviour of ionization chamber but in the future is expected to make the simulation of some other radiation detectors. The mathematical models we represent the behaviour of these cases were implemented in free software. The program will be used to implement the virtual laboratory with radiation sources, detectors and different types of shields will be Blender which is a free software that is used by many users for the embodiment of games but try to use as a tool to help visualize the different equipment that is widely used in a radioactive materials laboratory. (Author)

  17. The Effect of Freezing and Hydrocolloids on the Physical Parameters of Strawberry Mass-Based Desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boča Sigita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of freezing, thickening and storage on the physical properties of the strawberry desserts made with addition of various hydrocolloids. The strawberry cultivars ‘Polka’, ‘Honeoye’, and ‘Senga Sengana’ harvested in Latvia were used in the study. The strawberries were processed in a blender for obtaining a homogenous mass. The strawberry mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at -18 °C. Both fresh and frozen strawberry mass samples with added gelatine, xanthan gum, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose were whisked until obtaining dessert. For determination of the optimum hydrocolloid amount, sensory evaluation was done using a five-point hedonic scale. Moisture, soluble solids content, density, and pH of the product were determined. Apparent viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer DV–III Ultra. Consistency of the dessert during its storage was evaluated using a texture analyser TA.XT.plus. The results of sensory evaluation allow concluding that in order to provide the most acceptable consistency, colour, and taste of strawberry dessert, the optimum quantity of carboxymethyl cellulose and xanthan gum to be added is 0.6% and that of gelatine is 6%. During freezing, the soluble solids content and pH level decreased in the strawberry mass, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased these values. The moisture content in strawberry puree, in its turn, as a result of freezing increased under the influence of syneresis, but added hydrocolloids, on the contrary, decreased this influence. Also the viscosity and consistency of the strawberry puree prepared from the researched cultivars decreased under the influence of freezing, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased both the values, making the strawberry dessert firmer. The research suggests that strawberry dessert with gelatine had the most pronounced changes during storage, but strawberry dessert with added xanthan

  18. A deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of Monogenean.

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    Bee Guan Teo

    Full Text Available In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation.

  19. STUDY THE POSSIBILITY OF MODELING OF THE CUTTING PROCESS IN THE CHAMBER FOR CRUSHING FRUIT AND VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Alekseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grinding process of fruits and vegetables in the preparation of juice with pulp, usually carried out by means juicers, blenders or grinders with a relatively slowly rotating blades and stationary gratings with a continuous flow of raw materials. Intensification of processes of division of the products of the conversion will asunder allow sharply duration and raise the uniformity of the processing cheese that will say on quality ready drink as a whole. The interaction of the blade and material is characterized effort of the cutting moreover the general power, acting on blade on the part of material, is not found in planes of the cutting in consequence of which on blade of the knife, alongside with vertical, acts and horizontal forming power. Horizontal form to deform (change sidebar cut-ting edge of the knife in consequence of which in general event provision to necessary acerbity in flat material requires increase of his(its thickness and using the additional relationships (the jumper. It is installed that values of magnitude of deformation and speed of its extending are connected among themselves through the parameters characterizing pressure and plasticity of medium of installation of machining. Hence, speed depends on properties of a body in which the pulse is passed round. In the majority of materials speed of extending of a pulse appears an order of 5 103 km/s. Accounting of received data in the determination of rational cutting speeds for different materials with elastoplastic properties (approximation cutting speed for the propagation velocity of deformation will allow to reduce pre-separation deformation and, respectively, spent on her work, localization stress under cutting edge, and, as consequence will lead to higher product yield and improve the purity of the slices. Improving the quality cutting may be associated with an increase of inertia of the structural elements of the material (fibers by increasing the speed of the process.

  20. Validation of transting planet candidates: a Bayesian view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Rodrigo Fernando; Almenara, Jose Manuel; Santerne, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Transiting candidate validation is essentially a Bayesian model comparison problem: different models, all explaining the observations comparably well, compete for the support of the available data. It has, however, two particularities that render it very complex and difficult to tackle: i) the relevant data sets are of diverse nature (transit light curves, broad band photometry, high angular resolution images, radial velocity observations, etc.), and ii) the models representing each hypothesis are highly non-linear and in some cases make the computation of the likelihood very time consuming.Despite its clear Bayesian nature, the planet validation problem has received in the past mainly a frequentist treatment (BLENDER). Other techniques exist, but they employ unrealistic models that increase speed but only partially exploit the available datasets (ValFast).The Planet Analysis and Small Transit Investigation Software (PASTIS) was developped keeping these issues and the characteristics of the problem in mind. It aims at computing the Bayesian evidence for a full set of false positive scenarios and the planet hypothesis, modelling in all cases the available data self-consistently, thus producing robust and rigorous Bayes factor for all models of interest. Its object-oriented architecture also permits constructing a vast set of false positive models easily.I will review some key results of the planet validation technique, showing the limitations and dangers of some approaches and of the validation technique in general. I will also describe the PASTIS tool and present out results on CoRoT-22 b, Kepler-22 b, and other transiting candidates.

  1. NASA Tech Briefs, May 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Topics include: Test Waveform Applications for JPL STRS Operating Environment; Pneumatic Proboscis Heat-Flow Probe; Method to Measure Total Noise Temperature of a Wireless Receiver During Operation; Cursor Control Device Test Battery; Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals Measure Neuronal Activity in the Cortex; ESD Test Apparatus for Soldering Irons; FPGA-Based X-Ray Detection and Measurement for an X-Ray Polarimeter; Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions; Silicon/Carbon Nanotube Photocathode for Splitting Water; Advanced Materials and Fabrication Techniques for the Orion Attitude Control Motor; Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements; RF Reference Switch for Spaceflight Radiometer Calibration; An Offload NIC for NASA, NLR, and Grid Computing; Multi-Scale CNT-Based Reinforcing Polymer Matrix Composites for Lightweight Structures; Ceramic Adhesive and Methods for On-Orbit Repair of Re-Entry Vehicles; Self-Healing Nanocomposites for Reusable Composite Cryotanks; Pt-Ni and Pt-Co Catalyst Synthesis Route for Fuel Cell Applications; Aerogel-Based Multilayer Insulation with Micrometeoroid Protection; Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders; Optimized Radiator Geometries for Hot Lunar Thermal Environments; A Mission Concept: Re-Entry Hopper-Aero-Space-Craft System on-Mars (REARM-Mars); New Class of Flow Batteries for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications; Reliability of CCGA 1152 and CCGA 1272 Interconnect Packages for Extreme Thermal Environments; Using a Blender to Assess the Microbial Density of Encapsulated Organisms; Mixed Integer Programming and Heuristic Scheduling for Space Communication; Video Altimeter and Obstruction Detector for an Aircraft; Control Software for Piezo Stepping Actuators; Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-Based Risk Model (GERM) Code; Sasquatch Footprint Tool; and Multi-User Space Link Extension (SLE) System.

  2. Role of aqueous extract of morinda citrifolia (Indian noni ripe fruits in inhibiting dental caries-causing streptococcus mutans and streptococcus mitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barani Kumarasamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Use of alternative medicine to control oral streptococci is a new topic worthy of further investigation. This study aimed to elucidate the dose-dependent anti-bacterial activity of crude aqueous extract of ripe Morinda citrifolia L. (Family: Rubiaceae fruits against oral streptococci i.e. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis, that cause dental caries in humans.Fresh ripe M. citrifolia fruits (750g were ground in an electronic blender with sterile water (500ml. The crude aqueous extract was lyophilized to yield a brown colored powder. Various concentrations (1000-100μg/ ml of the extract were tested for its antibacterial activity (Kirby and Bauer method against whole cells of S. mutans and S. mitis. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined by micro-dilution method, using serially diluted (2 folds fruit extract, according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS.Crude aqueous extract (1000μg/ ml of ripe M. citrifolia fruits effectively inhibited the growth of S. mutans (19±0.5 mm and S. mitis (18.6±0.3 mm compared to the streptomycin control (21.6±0.3 mm. The growth inhibition was clearly evident with "nil" bacteriostasis, even after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. The MIC of the extract for S. mutans and S. mitis was 125 μg and 62.5 μg, respectively.Our results suggest that phytochemicals naturally synthesized by M. citrifolia have an inhibitory effect on oral streptococci. Furthermore, purification and molecular characterization of the "bioactive principle" would enable us to formulate a sustainable oral hygiene product.

  3. Microbiological evaluation of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines from the Army barracks of Brigata Meccanizzata Aosta located in Messina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Beninati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines (VMs. The study was carried out on 203 samples from 15 VMs located in 5 Army barracks in Messina. The samples included: water used for preparation of beverages, swab of water tank, swab of blender machine, chocolate powder, milk powder, cappuccino and chocolate drink (29 samples for each types. All samples were examined for total bacterial count (TBC, coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostri - dium perfringens, Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For the water samples the colony count (CC at 22°C and at 37°C was made. The average values of CC at 22°C and at 37°C were of 10.86x10²±8.72x10² CFU/mL and of 21.72x10²±16.44x10² CFU/mL, respectively. P. aeruginosa, coliform bacteria, S. aureus, E. coli and molds were detected from water. The TBC ranged from 176 CFU/g (±275.2 for chocolate powder to 294.8±69.4 CFU/g for milk powder. S. aureus and molds were isolated from milk powder, while coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus were observed in chocolate powder. The average TBC for hot beverages ranged from 34.32x10³±97.77x10³ CFU/mL for cappuccino to 36.59x10³±10.47x104 CFU/mL for chocolate drink. Coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and molds were detected from cappuccino, while enterococci and molds were observed in chocolate drink. The microbiological characteristics of the water and powders, hygiene, and the periodic cleaning of machines, influenced the microbiological quality of the hot beverages dispensed by VMs.

  4. Disassembly properties and material characterisation of household small waste electric and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, María D; Pérez-Belis, Victoria; Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Quemades-Beltrán, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    This paper is focused on characterising small waste electric and electronic equipment, specifically small household appliances, from two different points of views: disassembly properties and material identification. The sample for this characterisation was obtained from a selective collection campaign organised in Castellón de la Plana (Spain). A total amount of 833.7kg (749 units) of small waste electric and electronic equipment was collected, of which 23.3% by weight and 22.4% by units belonged to the subcategory household equipment. This subcategory, composed of appliances such as vacuum cleaners, toasters, sandwich makers, hand blenders, juicers, coffee makers, hairdryers, scales, irons and heaters, was first disassembled in order to analyse different aspects of the disassembly process for each equipment type: type of joints, ease of identification of materials, ease of access to joints for extracting components, ease of separation of components from the whole, uniformity of tools needed for the disassembly process and possibility of reassembly after disassembly. Results show that the most common joints used in these equipment types are snap-fits and screws, although some permanent joints have also been identified. Next, the material composition of each component of each appliance belonging to each equipment type was identified visually and with additional mechanical trials and testing. It can be observed that plastic and electric/electronic components are present in all the equipment types analysed and are also the material fractions that appear with higher percentages in the material composition: 41.1wt% and 39.1wt% for the plastic fraction and electric/electronic components, respectively. The most common plastics are: polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC), while the most common electric/electronic components are: cable, plug and printed circuit boards. Results also show that disassembly properties and material

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1999, with data for May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The Detail Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  6. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (phens.

  7. A novel educational tool for teaching ocular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ms; Montgomery, J; Atta, Hr

    2011-01-01

    Ocular ultrasound is now in increasing demand in routine ophthalmic clinical practice not only because it is noninvasive but also because of ever-advancing technology providing higher resolution imaging. It is however a difficult branch of ophthalmic investigations to grasp, as it requires a high skill level to interface with the technology and provide accurate interpretation of images for ophthalmic diagnosis and management. It is even more labor intensive to teach ocular ultrasound to another fellow clinician. One of the fundamental skills that proved difficult to learn and teach is the need for the examiner to "mentally convert" 2-dimensional B-scan images into 3-dimensional (3D) interpretations. An additional challenge is the requirement to carry out this task in real time. We have developed a novel approach to teach ocular ultrasound by using a novel 3D ocular model. A 3D virtual model is built using widely available, open source, software. The model is then used to generate movie clips simulating different movements and orientations of the scanner head. Using Blender, Quicktime motion clips are choreographed and collated into interactive quizzes and other pertinent pedagogical media. The process involves scripting motion vectors, rotation, and tracking of both the virtual stereo camera and the model. The resulting sequence is then rendered for twinned right- and left-eye views. Finally, the twinned views are synchronized and combined in a format compatible with the stereo projection apparatus. This new model will help the student with spatial awareness and allow for assimilation of this awareness into clinical practice. It will also help with grasping the nomenclature used in ocular ultrasound as well as helping with localization of lesions and obtaining the best possible images for echographic diagnosis, accurate measurements, and reporting.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  9. A Flexible Method for Producing F.E.M. Analysis of Bone Using Open-Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppana, Abhishektha; Sefcik, Ryan; Meyers, Jerry G.; Lewandowski, Beth E.

    2016-01-01

    This project, performed in support of the NASA GRC Space Academy summer program, sought to develop an open-source workflow methodology that segmented medical image data, created a 3D model from the segmented data, and prepared the model for finite-element analysis. In an initial step, a technological survey evaluated the performance of various existing open-source software that claim to perform these tasks. However, the survey concluded that no single software exhibited the wide array of functionality required for the potential NASA application in the area of bone, muscle and bio fluidic studies. As a result, development of a series of Python scripts provided the bridging mechanism to address the shortcomings of the available open source tools. The implementation of the VTK library provided the most quick and effective means of segmenting regions of interest from the medical images; it allowed for the export of a 3D model by using the marching cubes algorithm to build a surface mesh. To facilitate the development of the model domain from this extracted information required a surface mesh to be processed in the open-source software packages Blender and Gmsh. The Preview program of the FEBio suite proved to be sufficient for volume filling the model with an unstructured mesh and preparing boundaries specifications for finite element analysis. To fully allow FEM modeling, an in house developed Python script allowed assignment of material properties on an element by element basis by performing a weighted interpolation of voxel intensity of the parent medical image correlated to published information of image intensity to material properties, such as ash density. A graphical user interface combined the Python scripts and other software into a user friendly interface. The work using Python scripts provides a potential alternative to expensive commercial software and inadequate, limited open-source freeware programs for the creation of 3D computational models. More work

  10. INTERACTIVE 3D LANDSCAPES ON LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fanini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  11. The design and evaluation of a peripheral device for use with a computer game intended for children with motor disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardovelli, Terigi Augusto; Frère, Annie France

    2015-01-01

    Many children with motor impairments cannot participate in games and jokes that contribute to their formation. Currently, commercial computer games there are few options of software and sufficiently flexible access devices to meet the needs of this group of children. In this study, a peripheral access device and a 3D computerized game that do not require the actions of dragging, clicking, or activating various keys at the same time were developed. The peripheral access device consists of a webcam and a supervisory system that processes the images. This method provides a field of action that can be adjusted to various types of motor impairments. To analyze the sensitivity of the commands, a virtual course was developed using the scenario of a path of straight lines and curves. A volunteer with good ability in virtual games performed a short training with the virtual course and, after 15min of training, obtained similar results with a standard keyboard and the adapted peripheral device. A 3D game in the Amazon forest was developed using the Blender 3D tool. This free software was used to model the characters and scenarios. To evaluate the usability of the 3D game, the game was tested by 20 volunteers without motor impairments (group A) and 13 volunteers with severe motor limitations of the upper limbs (group B). All the volunteers (group A and B) could easily execute all the actions of the game using the adapted peripheral device. The majority positively evaluated the questions of usability and expressed their satisfaction. The computerized game coupled to the adapted device will offer the option of leisure and learning to people with severe motor impairments who previously lacked this possibility. It also provided equality in this activity to all the users.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1998, with data for February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and District of Columbia), 5 PAD Districts and 12 Refining Districts. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  13. Versatile morphometric analysis and visualization of the three-dimensional structure of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Paulo; Sousa, Mafalda; Szucs, Peter

    2013-10-01

    The computational properties of a neuron are intimately related to its morphology. However, unlike electrophysiological properties, it is not straightforward to collapse the complexity of the three-dimensional (3D) structure into a small set of measurements accurately describing the structural properties. This strong limitation leads to the fact that many studies involving morphology related questions often rely solely on empirical analysis and qualitative description. It is possible however to acquire hierarchical lists of positions and diameters of points describing the spatial structure of the neuron. While there is a number of both commercially and freely available solutions to import and analyze this data, few are extendable in the sense of providing the possibility to define novel morphometric measurements in an easy to use programming environment. Fewer are capable of performing morphometric analysis where the output is defined over the topology of the neuron, which naturally requires powerful visualization tools. The computer application presented here, Py3DN, is an open-source solution providing novel tools to analyze and visualize 3D data collected with the widely used Neurolucida (MBF) system. It allows the construction of mathematical representations of neuronal topology, detailed visualization and the possibility to define non-standard morphometric analysis on the neuronal structures. Above all, it provides a flexible and extendable environment where new types of analyses can be easily set up allowing a high degree of freedom to formulate and test new hypotheses. The application was developed in Python and uses Blender (open-source software) to produce detailed 3D data representations.

  14. Draft regulatory analysis: Notice of proposed rulemaking for the allocation and pricing of gasohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The three principal problem areas addressed are: how to price unleaded blend stock and gasohol; how blenders are to obtain unleaded blend stock to blend with ethanol to produce gasohol; and how gasohol suppliers may distribute gasohol to purchasers. The proposed pricing and allocation rules, if adopted as final rules, would be in effect for about a year, because the statutory authority for gasoline price and allocation controls has an expiration date of September 30, 1981. The principal issues addressed are: what volume of ethanol and gasohol production can be expected between now and the end of 1981; what prices these products are likely to reach, independent of the rule and its alternative; what effect the rule and its alternative may have on the price and distribution of ethanol and gasohol; and what effect the rule and its alternative may have on motor vehicle misfueling and competition in the motor gasoline industry. On supply issues, it is concluded that by December, 1981, ethanol and gasohol production should increase by a factor of 3 or 4 above present levels, enough to meet the President's goals, without requiring additional corn acreage or adversely affecting food production. Ethanol production should increase from its present level of about 92 million gallons per year (6062 B/D) to the 3, 4, and 7 hundred million gallons per year levels (20,000, 30,000, and 45,000 B/D) necessaryto produce gasohol at year-end rates of 200,000 B/D in 1980, 300,000 B/D in 1981 and 450,000 B/D in 1982. In 1980 gasohol will represent about 3.2 percent of the total gasoline market, and 7.9 percent of the total unleaded market. Gasohol should help extend, rather than adversely affect, unleaded supplies. 30 references, 8 tables.

  15. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, CEP 50670-901, Recife (Brazil)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI{sub A}M and female RPI{sub A}F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  16. Parametric Anatomical Modeling: a method for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Martin; Klatt, Sebastian; Cheng, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Computational models of neural networks can be based on a variety of different parameters. These parameters include, for example, the 3d shape of neuron layers, the neurons' spatial projection patterns, spiking dynamics and neurotransmitter systems. While many well-developed approaches are available to model, for example, the spiking dynamics, there is a lack of approaches for modeling the anatomical layout of neurons and their projections. We present a new method, called Parametric Anatomical Modeling (PAM), to fill this gap. PAM can be used to derive network connectivities and conduction delays from anatomical data, such as the position and shape of the neuronal layers and the dendritic and axonal projection patterns. Within the PAM framework, several mapping techniques between layers can account for a large variety of connection properties between pre- and post-synaptic neuron layers. PAM is implemented as a Python tool and integrated in the 3d modeling software Blender. We demonstrate on a 3d model of the hippocampal formation how PAM can help reveal complex properties of the synaptic connectivity and conduction delays, properties that might be relevant to uncover the function of the hippocampus. Based on these analyses, two experimentally testable predictions arose: (i) the number of neurons and the spread of connections is heterogeneously distributed across the main anatomical axes, (ii) the distribution of connection lengths in CA3-CA1 differ qualitatively from those between DG-CA3 and CA3-CA3. Models created by PAM can also serve as an educational tool to visualize the 3d connectivity of brain regions. The low-dimensional, but yet biologically plausible, parameter space renders PAM suitable to analyse allometric and evolutionary factors in networks and to model the complexity of real networks with comparatively little effort.

  17. SU-E-T-64: CG-Based Radiation Therapy Simulator with Physical Modeling for Avoidance of Collisions Between Gantry and Couch Or Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanouchi, M; Arimura, H; Yuda, I [Kokura Memorial Hospital, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is time-consuming and might cause re-planning to check couch-gantry and patient-gantry collisions on a radiotherapy machine when using couch rotations for non-coplanar beam angles. The aim of this study was to develop a computer-graphics (CG)-based radiation therapy simulator with physical modeling for avoidance of collisions between gantry and couch or patient on a radiotherapy machine. Methods: The radiation therapy simulator was three-dimensionally constructed including a radiotherapy machine (Clinac iX, Varian Medical Systems), couch, and radiation treatment room according to their designs by using a physical-modeling-based computer graphics software (Blender, free and open-source). Each patient was modeled by applying a surface rendering technique to their planning computed tomography (CT) images acquired from 16-slice CT scanner (BrightSpeed, GE Healthcare). Immobilization devices for patients were scanned by the CT equipment, and were rendered as the patient planning CT images. The errors in the collision angle of the gantry with the couch or patient between gold standards and the estimated values were obtained by fixing the gantry angle for the evaluation of the proposed simulator. Results: The average error of estimated collision angles to the couch head side was -8.5% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and -5.5% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Moreover, the average error of estimated collision angles to the couch foot side was -1.1% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and 1.4% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Conclusion: The CG-based radiation therapy simulator could make it possible to estimate the collision angle between gantry and couch or patient on the radiotherapy machine without verifying the collision angles in the radiation treatment room.

  18. Investigation of structure and properties of novel multi-layer clay nanocomposite films produced controllably by continuous chaotic advection blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesha, Chaitra

    A unique processing technique based on chaotic advection developed at Clemson University and shown to controllably produce structured materials in the past was employed to produce structured nanocomposites with a high degree of clay orientation as well as localization of platelets within layers of nanoscale thicknesses. Continuous lengths of nanocomposites with different clay contents were extruded in the form of films by feeding separately melts of virgin polyamide-6 polymer and polyamide 6-clay masterbatch into a continuous chaotic advection blender. A variety of composite structures were producible at fixed clay compositions. The internal structure was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Nanocomposites with novel in-situ multi-layered structures and a high degree of platelet orientation were formed by the recursive stretching and folding of the melt domains due to chaotic advection. Clay platelets were localized within discrete regions to form alternating virgin and platelet-rich layers leading to a hierarchical structure with multiple nano-scales. The thicknesses of the layers reduced with prolonged chaotic advection, eventually leading to nanocomposites in which the multi-layering was no longer discernible. The oriented platelets appeared to be homogenously dispersed through the bulk of the nanocomposite. Investigation of the morphology of the matrix by XRD showed that the homogeneity of the crystalline phase and the orientation of polymer chains parallel to the film surface increased with increased chaotic advection. Also, as the layer thickness reduced, the number of polymer chains restricted by clay platelets increased causing the gamma-crystalline fraction to increase. While XRD results suggested a change in total crystallinity with chaotic advection and clay content but without a specific trend, no change in crystallinity was measured by DSC. Such contradictions are

  19. Influence Factors of the Formation and Stability of Fire-fighting Three-phase Foam%防灭火三相泡沫形成和稳定的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋新生; 翟琰; 冯军; 吕科宗

    2016-01-01

    为研究含超细粉体的防灭火三相泡沫的形成和稳定过程及其影响因素,在实验室中通过机械搅拌的方式制备三相泡沫,重点研究不同泡沫液、不同粉体类型以及泡沫液质量分数、粉体添加量和粉体粒径对三相泡沫发泡、稳泡性能的影响。结果表明,表面活性剂有利于三相泡沫的形成,且泡沫发泡性能随泡沫液质量分数的增大而提高。轻质、亲水性颗粒与非离子表面活性剂共存有利于三相泡沫的生成和稳定,粉体添加量增大会增强泡沫稳定性,但添加量过大则会影响泡沫的发泡性能。搅拌强度和发泡倍数对泡沫稳定性也有影响,发泡倍数过高会影响泡沫的稳定性。%To explore the formation and stability process and the influence factors of the fire⁃fighting three⁃phase foams with ultra⁃fine powders incorporated, different kinds of foams were prepared by waring blender, and the factors such as foaming agent, powder type, mass fraction of foaming agent and adding quantity powders, and particle size were extremely focused in this work. The results show that the surfactant is favorable for the formation of three⁃phase foam, and foam foaming performance increase by the in⁃creases with mass fraction of foaming agent. Lightweight, hydrophilic particles coexisting with non⁃ionic surfactant help the forma⁃tion and stability of three⁃phase foam. The foam stability increases by the increases of the powders additiue amount, but excessive powders impair the foaming performance. Mixing strength and expansion ratio also has an effect on the stability of foam, when the foaming ratio is too high, it will influence the stability of foam.

  20. Respiratory and allergic symptoms in wool textile workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R G; Smith, T A; Gurr, D; Soutar, C A; Scarisbrick, D A; Seaton, A

    1988-11-01

    An epidemiological study of 2153 workers in 15 West Yorkshire wool textile mills was conducted to determine relations between respiratory symptoms and exposure to inspirable wool mill dust. A questionnaire designed to elicit all the common respiratory symptoms was developed and tested, and administered to all workers willing to participate (85%). It was translated and administered in Urdu for the 385 workers from Pakistan whose English was not fluent. Symptoms investigated included cough and phlegm, wheezing and chest tightness, breathlessness and its variability, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, chills, nosebleeds, and chest illnesses. Additional questions were asked, where appropriate, about the times of day, days of the week, seasons, and places that the symptoms were worse or better than normal. An environmental survey was carried out at each mill, which included 629 measurements of inspirable dust, enabling estimates to be made of the airborne concentrations of inspirable dust usually experienced by each member of the workforce under current conditions. Overall symptom prevalences were: persistent cough and phlegm, 9%; wheeze, 31%; breathlessness on walking with others on level ground, 10%; persistent rhinitis, 18%; persistent conjunctivitis, 10%; persistent chills, 2%; ten or more nosebleeds a year, 2%; and three or more chest illnesses in past three years, 5%. After allowing for the effects of age, sex, smoking habit, and ethnic group, cough and phlegm, wheeze, breathlessness, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and nosebleeds were found to be more frequent in those exposed to higher than to lower concentrations of dust. In some experiencing high concentrations (blenders and carpet yarn backwinders) cough and phlegm, wheeze, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis were related to the years worked in such jobs. Relative risks of each symptom in relation to inspirable dust concentrations were calculated by means of a logistic regression analysis. At concentrations of 10 mg/m3, the

  1. Virtual environment to quantify the influence of colour stimuli on the performance of tasks requiring attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frère Annie F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies indicate that the blue-yellow colour discrimination is impaired in ADHD individuals. However, the relationship between colour and performance has not been investigated. This paper describes the development and the testing of a virtual environment that is capable to quantify the influence of red-green versus blue-yellow colour stimuli on the performance of people in a fun and interactive way, being appropriate for the target audience. Methods An interactive computer game based on virtual reality was developed to evaluate the performance of the players. The game's storyline was based on the story of an old pirate who runs across islands and dangerous seas in search of a lost treasure. Within the game, the player must find and interpret the hints scattered in different scenarios. Two versions of this game were implemented. In the first, hints and information boards were painted using red and green colours. In the second version, these objects were painted using blue and yellow colours. For modelling, texturing, and animating virtual characters and objects the three-dimensional computer graphics tool Blender 3D was used. The textures were created with the GIMP editor to provide visual effects increasing the realism and immersion of the players. The games were tested on 20 non-ADHD volunteers who were divided into two subgroups (A1 and A2 and 20 volunteers with ADHD who were divided into subgroups B1 and B2. Subgroups A1 and B1 used the first version of the game with the hints painted in green-red colors, and subgroups A2 and B2 the second version using the same hints now painted in blue-yellow. The time spent to complete each task of the game was measured. Results Data analyzed with ANOVA two-way and posthoc TUKEY LSD showed that the use of blue/yellow instead of green/red colors decreased the game performance of all participants. However, a greater decrease in performance could be observed with ADHD participants

  2. A Study of CO2 Injection Parameter for Gas Channeling Prevention in Fractured Reservoir with Ultra -Low Permeability%超低渗裂缝性油藏 CO2驱防气窜注入参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勤; 张永刚

    2015-01-01

    Gas channeling prevention is the key factor for improving CO 2 -injection-aided development effect of frac‐tured reservoir with ultra -low permeability .The root cause of gas channeling is that the crack will open when bot‐tom hole pressure of injection well surpasses its re -open pressure .Through analyzing shaft heat transfer process , establishing coupling model of CO 2 injected shaft temperature pressure and optimizing injection parameter ,its bottom hole pressure is guaranteed to be under crack re -open pressure .In addition ,indoor measures are taken such as u‐sing Waring -Blender method ,selecting suitable foaming system ,improving gas liquid ratio and other parameters and plugging re-open cracks .All this controls gas channeling and ensures increase of CO 2 -injection-aided oil re‐covery in Honghe Oilfield .%防止气窜是提高超低渗裂缝性油藏注 CO2开发效果的关键因素,气窜发生的根本原因是注入井井底压力超过裂缝重张压力导致裂缝开启。通过分析井筒传热过程,利用传热学理论等理论,建立注CO2井筒温度压力耦合模型,对注入参数进行合理优化,保证注入井井底压力低于裂缝重张压力;同时室内采用 Waring-Blender法,优选合适的起泡剂体系,优化气液比等参数,对重张裂缝进行封堵,有效控制了气窜,保证了红河油田注 CO2提高采收率的开发效果,对应油井在注 CO2后含水率下降明显,日均产油由注 CO2前的1.5 t/d增加到2.4 t/d。

  3. Mobile Augmented Reality enhances indoor navigation for wheelchair users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Chagas de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with mobility impairments associated with lower limb disabilities often face enormous challenges to participate in routine activities and to move around various environments. For many, the use of wheelchairs is paramount to provide mobility and social inclusion. Nevertheless, they still face a number of challenges to properly function in our society. Among the many difficulties, one in particular stands out: navigating in complex internal environments (indoors. The main objective of this work is to propose an architecture based on Mobile Augmented Reality to support the development of indoor navigation systems dedicated to wheelchair users, that is also capable of recording CAD drawings of the buildings and dealing with accessibility issues for that population. Methods Overall, five main functional requirements are proposed: the ability to allow for indoor navigation by means of Mobile Augmented Reality techniques; the capacity to register and configure building CAD drawings and the position of fiducial markers, points of interest and obstacles to be avoided by the wheelchair user; the capacity to find the best route for wheelchair indoor navigation, taking stairs and other obstacles into account; allow for the visualization of virtual directional arrows in the smartphone displays; and incorporate touch or voice commands to interact with the application. The architecture is proposed as a combination of four layers: User interface; Control; Service; and Infrastructure. A proof-of-concept application was developed and tests were performed with disable volunteers operating manual and electric wheelchairs. Results The application was implemented in Java for the Android operational system. A local database was used to store the test building CAD drawings and the position of fiducial markers and points of interest. The Android Augmented Reality library was used to implement Augmented Reality and the Blender open source

  4. Condições higiênico-sanitárias de cozinhas de escolas públicas de Itaqui, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Sanitary-hygienic conditions of kitchens of public schools in Itaqui city, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vanez Dias Vila

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi conhecer as condições higiênico-sanitárias de cozinhas de escolas públicas e a percepção das cozinheiras sobre higiene de alimentos. Utilizou-se uma análise descritiva, a partir da aplicação de uma lista de verificação sobre boas práticas e a técnica do esfregaço com swab para a avaliação microbiológica das superfícies de manipulação, equipamentos e utensílios. Foram entrevistadas todas as cozinheiras e auxiliares responsáveis pela manipulação de alimentos que concordaram em participar. A média de regularidades na lista de verificação foi de 58,3%, sendo os itens com maiores índices de inadequações Documentação e registro, Preparação do alimento e Exposição ao consumo do alimento preparado. Dentre as superfícies, o liquidificador foi o equipamento que apresentou maiores contagens de micro-organismos. As entrevistas demonstraram as limitações impostas pela falta de orientação e supervisão. Fica clara a necessidade de que sejam realizadas ações e orientações sobre o cuidado sanitário dos alimentos, a fim de garantir e promover a saúde entre os escolares. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- The aim of this study was to investigate the sanitary conditions of public school kitchens and cooks perception about food hygiene. We used a descriptive analysis from the application of a checklist of good practice and technique of smear swab surfaces to micro-biological evaluation the manipulation surfaces, equipment and utensils. Interviews of all cooks and assistants responsible for handling foods that agreed to participate. The average regularities in the checklist was 58.3%, and the items with higher inadequacies were Documentation and registration, Food preparation and Exposure to the consumption of prepared food. Among the surfaces, the blender is equipment which showed higher counts of microorganisms. The interviews showed the

  5. Study on the release behavior of allyl isothiocyanate in antimicrobial packaging%抗菌包装膜对异硫氰酸烯丙酯的释放规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟秀超; 王金鹏; 焦爱权; 金征宇

    2013-01-01

    缓释型抗菌包装是具有缓慢释放抗菌成分性能的一种活性包装.利用β~环糊精包埋异硫氰酸烯丙酯制备抗菌复合物,并将复合物与聚乳酸、聚乙二醇共混挤压吹塑制备了抗菌包装膜,研究了抗菌包装材料中异硫氰酸烯丙酯在不同环境条件下的释放规律和对常见食品微生物的抑制作用.结果表明,挥发性抗菌剂经过环糊精包埋,其耐热性得到明显提高,热加工损失率从98.77%降低到75.56%;抗菌包装控制抗菌剂释放的速率随着环境湿度和温度的升高而增大;同时,此抗菌包装对常见食品微生物具有较强的抑制作用,其中对酵母、霉菌的抑制作用强于细菌.%The sustained-release antimicrobial packaging is a kind of material that has the special property of releasing active antibacterial component slowly.In this study,antibacterial complex was firstly prepared by forming inculsions between allyl isothiocyanate(AITC)and β-CD.And then β-CD-AITC complex,was mixed together with PLA and PEG.These blenders were then extruded and blown for making the antimicrobial packaging.The release of AITC and its antibacterial effect were mainly investigated.The obtained data suggested that,firstly,the heatresistant ability of volatile antimicrobials had been improved markedly,as can be seen from the less loss rate of AITC about 75.56% when processing in extruder,compared with that of 98.77% before forming inclusions.Secondly,the release rate of AITC increased with the environmental temperature and humidity rising.Thirdly,the prepared antimicrobial packaging showed quite strong inhibitory effect on the main microorganism in food,especially on yeast and mould.

  6. 日工NBD240型沥青拌合站的维护与保养%The Maintenance of NIKKO NBD240 Asphalt Mixing Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建斌

    2013-01-01

    Asphalt concrete mixing station is the key equipment which can guarantee the constructing quality and improve the efficiency of the pavement engineering.NIKKO NBD240 asphalt mixing station is commonly used in highgrade pavement construction.During the use process,some parts of the station are needed to be maintenance,including cab and electrical wiring in the electrical part,cold aggregate feeder system,the main burner,dying drum,dedusting system in the mechanical part,aggregate elevator,mineral powder hoist,vibrating screen,hot aggregate bin,weighing system and blender,asphalt pump screen and heat conduction oil monitoring in the asphalt feeding system,the main air compressor,and gas supply line gas path system.The key methods and precautions for the machine maintenance were reviewed in this paper in order to provide a reference for daily use of the station.%沥青混凝土拌合站是沥青路面施工中保证施工质量、提高路面工程效益的关键设备.日工NBD240型沥青拌合站是高等级路面施工的常用设备,使用过程中,需要对其电气部分的操作室和电器线路,机械部位的冷料供给系统及主燃烧器、烘干滚筒、除尘系统,骨料提升机、矿粉提升机、振动筛、热料仓、称量系统及搅拌机,沥青供给系统中的沥青泵滤网、导热油炉,气路系统的主楼空压机、供气管道等进行保养和维护.本文分析和总结了该设备在日常工作中的保养和维护注意事项,旨在为其使用提供参考依据.

  7. Extraction and concentration of biogenic calcium oxalate from plant leaves Extração e concentração de oxalato de cálcio biogênico de folhas de plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liovando Marciano da Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to extract and concentrate calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals from plant leaves that form the above mentioned crystals. The chemical and physical studies of CaOx from plant to be performed depend on an adequate amount of the crystals. The plant used in this study was croton (Codiaeum variegatum. The leaves were ground in a heavy duty blender and sieved through a 0.20 mm sieve. The suspension obtained was suspended in distilled water. The crystals were concentrated at the bottom of a test tube. The supernatant must be washed until it is free of plant pigments and other organic substances. Biogenic CaOx crystals have well-defined and sharp peaks, indicating very high crystallinity. Moreover, the CaOx crystals were not damaged during the extraction procedure, as can be seen on the scanning electron microscope images. The porposed method can be considered efficient to extract and concentrate biogenic calcium oxalate.O objetivo deste estudo foi extrair e concentrar cristais de oxalato de cálcio (CaOx a partir de folhas de plantas que formam os cristais mencionados. Os estudos químicos e físicos de CaOx de plantas a serem realizados demandam uma massa adequada dos cristais. A planta usada neste estudo foi o cróton (Codiaeum variegatum. As folhas foram trituradas por um liquidificador industrial e peneiradas em peneira de 0,20 mm. Ao suco obtido foi adicionada água destilada. Os cristais foram concentrados no fundo da proveta. É necessário manter a lavagem dos cristais até que o sobrenadante fique livre de pigmentos de plantas e outras substâncias orgânicas. Os cristais de CaOx apresentaram picos bem formados e estreitos, indicando que sua cristalinidade é muito alta; além disso, esses cristais não foram danificados durante o procedimento de extração, o que pode ser visto observando-se as fotos obtidas pelo microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O método apresentado pode ser considerado eficiente para extrair

  8. Development of a pilot system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silayo, Valerian C K.; Lu, John Y.; Aglan, Heshmat A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Sweet potato has been chosen as one of NASA's crops to support human beings in future space missions. One of the possible uses is to make syrup that can be used as a general sweetener. In this work a simple engineering system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup was studied on a laboratory scale. The system comprises the following main units: a blender, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), centrifugal and vacuum filters, deionization column and vacuum evaporator. The system was tested by carrying out conversion processes from fresh sweet potato roots. The roots were pealed, sliced, homogenized, heated and hydrolyzed by diastase of malt and Dextrozyme C (Novo Nordisk BioChem, North America, Inc.) enzymes in the CSTR. After hydrolysis the slurry was filtered, de-ionized and concentrated to get glucose syrup. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the quality of the conversion. The main factor was the level of reducing sugars except for the deionization where ash content and color were the main factors. Through careful control of the system units, good heating performance in the CSTR was obtained and the hydrolysis process attained sufficient conversion. The filtration process that incorporated the centrifuge was faster than when it was by-passed to the vacuum filter but losses in sugars were higher. Deionization removed more than 90% of the ash and reduced pigmentation, with probable insignificant losses in sugars during the deionization process. Recovery levels when the centrifuge was used and when it was by-passed could reach about 65% and 78%, respectively. These correspond to reducing sugar concentration of 259 and 310 mg/ml in 150-ml syrups from 300 g of sweet potatoes in each process. However, from concentration trials, syrups with volumes of 100 and 70 ml with the respective dextrose equivalence of 281 and 213 mg/ml were obtained. The syrups obtained were brownish in color and the process that employed centrifugal filtration

  9. Bacterial flora of processed broiler chicken skin after successive washings in mixtures of potassium hydroxide and lauric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Arthur; Cason, John A

    2008-08-01

    Changes in the size of populations of different groups of bacteria composing the normal flora of processed broiler skin were examined after each of five consecutive washings in mixtures of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and lauric acid (LA). Portions of skin from commercially processed broiler carcasses were washed in distilled water (control) or in mixtures of 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA or 0.5% KOH-1% LA by using a stomacher laboratory blender to agitate the skin in the solutions. After each wash, skin was transferred to fresh solutions, and washing was repeated to provide samples washed one to five times in each solution. Bacteria in rinsates of the washed skin were enumerated on plate count (PC) agar, Staphylococcus (STA) agar, Levine eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) agar, and Perfringens (PER) agar with TSC supplement. Selected isolates recovered on each medium were identified. Overall, no significant differences were observed in numbers of bacteria recovered on PC, STA, or EMB agars from skin after repeated washing in water, but there were significant reductions in the number of bacteria recovered on LAB and PER agars. Repeated washing of skin in 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA or 0.5% KOH-1% LA generally produced significant reductions in the number of bacteria recovered on all media. Furthermore, no bacteria were recovered on PER agar from skin washed five times in 0.25% KOH-0.5% LA. Likewise, no bacteria were recovered on EMB or LAB agars from skin washed three or more times in 0.5% KOH-1% LA or on PER agar from skin washed four or five times in this solution. Staphylococcus spp. were identified as the skin isolates with the highest degree of resistance to the bactericidal activity of KOH-LA. Findings indicate that although bacteria may be continually shed from poultry skin after repeated washings, bactericidal surfactants can be used to remove and kill several types of bacteria found on the surface of the skin of processed broilers.

  10. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogodo, Alloysius Chibuike; Ugbogu, Ositadinma Chinyere; Ugbogu, Amadike Eziuche; Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406 g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30 min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656 kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21 days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 %) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 %) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27 °C to 29 °C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.50 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and banana), 18.50 ± 0.02 % (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.5 ± 0.01 to 3.8 ± 0.01 (p > 0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.35 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.01 % (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation (P > 0.05) rated the wines acceptability as 'pawpaw and banana wine' > 'pawpaw and watermelon' > 'pawpaw, watermelon and banana' > 'banana and watermelon wine'. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be

  11. Tratamentos físicos e químicos na emergência e no crescimento de plântulas de pinheira Physical and chemical treatments on emergency and growth of sweetsop plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nietsche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar o efeito do armazenamento e a influência de tratamentos físicos e químicos sobre a emergência e o crescimento de plântulas de pinheira. Frutos de pinheiras foram coletados em um pomar comercial no município de Nova Porteirinha, Minas Gerais. Os frutos colhidos maduros foram despolpados e suas sementes, lavadas em água corrente. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em um esquema fatorial, com cinco tratamentos (testemunha, imersão em vinagre, escarificação com lixa, escarificação em liquidificador e desponte com alicate e quatro épocas de armazenamento em geladeira (0, 2, 4 e 6 meses. Trinta dias após o plantio de cada época, foi avaliada a porcentagem de plântulas emergidas, tempo médio para emergência, número de folhas, diâmetro, altura das plantas, matéria fresca e matéria seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular. Dentre os principais resultados pode-se destacar que não foram observados efeitos significativos dos tratamentos na quebra de dormência das sementes de pinheira e o armazenamento em geladeira por seis meses não prejudicou a emergência e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de pinheira.This study aimed verifying the effect of the storage and the influence of physical and chemical treatments on emergency and growth of sweetsop plantlets. Sweetsop fruits were collected in a commercial orchard in Nova Porteirinha District, Minas Gerais. Fruits were picked when ripe, the pulp was extracted and the seeds washed. The design was in blocks at random, in a factorial system with five treatments (control, immersion in vinegar, sandpaper scarification, scarification in blender and cutting with pliers and four periods of storage at 4 ºC (0, 2, 4 e 6 months. Percentage of surfaced plantlets, average time to emergency, number of leaves, diameter, plant height, shoot root fresh and dry matter were evaluated thirty days after the planting of each period. Among

  12. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices.

  13. A novel educational tool for teaching ocular ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa MS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available MS Mustafa1, J Montgomery2, HR Atta11Department of Ophthalmology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, UK; 2Medi-CAL, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UKAbstract: Ocular ultrasound is now in increasing demand in routine ophthalmic clinical practice not only because it is noninvasive but also because of ever-advancing technology providing higher resolution imaging. It is however a difficult branch of ophthalmic investigations to grasp, as it requires a high skill level to interface with the technology and provide accurate interpretation of images for ophthalmic diagnosis and management. It is even more labor intensive to teach ocular ultrasound to another fellow clinician. One of the fundamental skills that proved difficult to learn and teach is the need for the examiner to “mentally convert” 2-dimensional B-scan images into 3-dimensional (3D interpretations. An additional challenge is the requirement to carry out this task in real time. We have developed a novel approach to teach ocular ultrasound by using a novel 3D ocular model. A 3D virtual model is built using widely available, open source, software. The model is then used to generate movie clips simulating different movements and orientations of the scanner head. Using Blender, Quicktime motion clips are choreographed and collated into interactive quizzes and other pertinent pedagogical media. The process involves scripting motion vectors, rotation, and tracking of both the virtual stereo camera and the model. The resulting sequence is then rendered for twinned right- and left-eye views. Finally, the twinned views are synchronized and combined in a format compatible with the stereo projection apparatus. This new model will help the student with spatial awareness and allow for assimilation of this awareness into clinical practice. It will also help with grasping the nomenclature used in ocular ultrasound as well as helping with localization of

  14. Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Naresh Kumar, Arjunan; Vincent, Savariar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-02-01

    The present study was carried out to establish the properties of Carica papaya leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad on larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered the dried plant materials (leaves). The powder (500 g) of the leaf was extracted with 1.5 l of organic solvents of methanol for 8 h using a Soxhlet apparatus and then filtered. The crude leaf extracts were evaporated to dryness in a rotary vacuum evaporator. The plant extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval and pupal mortality was found in the leaf extract of methanol C. papaya against the first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 440.65 ppm, respectively, and bacterial insecticide, spinosad against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 93.44 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values of LC(50) = I instar was 55.77 ppm, II instar was 65.77 ppm, III instar was 76.36 ppm, and IV instar was 92.78 ppm, and pupae was 107.62 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. The results that the leaves extract of C. papaya and bacterial insecticide, Spinosad is promising as good larvicidal and pupicidal properties of against chikungunya vector, A. aegypti. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of chikungunya vector, A. aegypti as target species of vector control programs.

  15. U.S.Renewable Fuel Standard implementation mechanism and market tracking%美国可再生燃料标准实施机制与市场跟踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康利平; Robert Earley; 安锋; 张宇

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is a mandatory policy for promoting the utilization of biofuels in road transpiration sector in order to reduce the country's dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas emissions. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines the proportion of renewable fuels according to RFS annual target, and requests obligated parties such like fossil fuel refiner, blenders and importer in the U.S. to complete Renewable Volume Obligation (RVO) every year. Obligated parties prove they have achieved their RVO through a renewable fuels certification system, which generates Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) for every gallon of qualified renewable fuels produced or imported into U.S., RINs is a key for tracking renewable fuel consumption, which in turn is a key for implementing the RFS in the U.S., separated RINs can be freely traded in market and obligated parties could fulfill their RVO through buying RINs from other stakeholders. This briefing paper highlights RFS policy implementing mechanism and marketing tracking, mainly describes importance of RINs, and the method for generating and tracking RINs by both government and fuels industry participants.%可再生燃料标准(RFS)是美国政府为提高生物燃料利用量,减少石油对外依存度与温室气体排放而制定的强制执行指令.美国环保署(EPA)根据RFS目标确定可再生燃料在道路交通燃料中的混配比例,并强制要求美国汽柴油炼制、混配与进口等责任商完成当年可再生燃料配比责任量(RVO);责任商需在年末向EPA提交足够多的可再生燃料身份码(RINs)以示完成任务.RINs跟随可再生燃料的生产或进口而获取,是跟踪可再生燃料利用与监测RFS目标是否完成的主要依据.独立的RINs可自由交易并形成市场,责任商可选择购买RINs来完成年度RVO.文中介绍了美国RFS的管理机制、实施进展与影响评价,重点介绍了RINs的产生、跟踪与交易.

  16. Case report of 5 siblings: malnutrition? Rickets? DiGeorge syndrome? Developmental delay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris William

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of six children are facing a trial on charges of aggravated manslaughter in the care a 5 1/2 month old infant who died suddenly and neglect of their four older children for causing them to be malnourished by feeding them all an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. Both parents declined plea bargains and plan to defend themselves in court. Case presentation The fifth child born to a married couple was breast-fed until 2 1/2 months. Subsequently, the parents fed the baby an exclusively raw foods diet prepared in a blender at home. The four older children, ages 18 months – 6 1/2 years also ate an exclusively raw foods vegan diet. None of the four older children had significant previous injuries or serious illnesses. At autopsy, the infant weighed 3180 mg (6.99 pounds and appeared emaciated. The thymus gland was absent and parathyroid glands were not located. The lungs were "congested." DiGeorge anomaly cannot be ruled out from these findings. Although, the coroner ruled that "malnutrition" was the sole cause of death, malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization definition, cannot be diagnosed in this infant. Compared with standard growth charts, the older children fell 2.1–4.1 standard deviations below the mean for North American children in height and weight. Labs were normal except for a low cholesterol level in all and a low prealbumin in one of three children tested. Therefore, malnutrition cannot be diagnosed in these children. The pediatrician diagnosed rickets in the four-year-old. However, chest x-rays were normal in all and long bone x-rays showed minimal changes in one child – no sign of rickets. The clinical diagnosis of rickets was not confirmed by the Center for Disease Control's criteria. A psychologist diagnosed the 18-month-old as developmentally delayed to the level of a 15-month-old, but this diagnosis is questionable. Conclusion The raw foods vegan diet and possibly inherited small

  17. Atividade alelopática de extrato de sementes de juazeiro Allelopatic activity of juazeiro seed extract

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    MFB Coelho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Alelopatia é a liberação de substâncias vegetais inibidoras ou estimulantes no ambiente, podendo estar presente nas sementes de algumas espécies. O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alelopático do extrato de sementes de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. na germinação de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de concentração do extrato bruto. O extrato bruto foi obtido após a extração de 50 g de sementes e agitação em liquidificador com 500 mL de água. Os resultados mostraram efeito alelopático do extrato dependendo da concentração. As maiores concentrações do extrato de sementes de juazeiro afetaram a percentagem e velocidade de germinação e as menores proporcionaram plântulas anormais. Portanto, o extrato apresentou efeito alelopático desfavorável à germinação de sementes de alface.Allelopathy is the release of plant substances that inhibit or act as stimulants in the environment, and may be present in the seeds of some species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the allelopatic activity of the extract of juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. seeds on the germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seeds. We utilized the randomized design with four replications and five treatments (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of concentration of the crude extract. The crude extract was obtained after the extraction of 50 g of seeds, shaking them with 500 mL of water in a blender. The results showed allelopatic effect, proportional to the increase of the concentration of the extract. The highest concentrations of seed extract of juazeiro affected the percentage and speed of germination and the lowest concentrations caused abnormal seedlings on lettuce seed germination. Therefore, the extract presented an allelopatic effect, unfavorable to the germination of lettuce seeds.

  18. Alelopatia em extratos de frutos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae Allelopathy caused by fruit extract of juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. - Rhamnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alelopático do extrato de frutos de juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. sobre as sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 4 repetições e cinco tratamentos (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% de concentração do extrato bruto. O extrato bruto foi obtido após a extração manual da polpa do fruto e agitação com água em liquidificador utilizando-se 50g de polpa para 500ml de água, e o mesmo foi feito com a casca do fruto. Os resultados mostraram efeito do extrato dependendo da concentração. As maiores concentrações do extrato (100%, 75% e 50% da polpa dos frutos Z. joazeiro apresentaram efeito alelopático desfavorável sobre a germinação de alface, reduzindo-a em 100%, 98,75% e 82,5% respectivamente. O extrato das cascas dos frutos nas concentrações de 75% e 100% reduziu a germinação da alface em 28,75% e 78,75%.This study aimed to identify the allelopathic activity of extracts obtained from Ziziphus joazeiro fruits on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. A randomized design was used with four replications and five treatments (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentration of the crude extract. The crude extract was obtained after manual extration of the fruit pulp and agitation with water in a blender using 50g of pulp in 500ml of water. The same was done with the fruit rind. The results showed the effect of the extract depending on concentration. The greatest extract concentrations (100%, 75% and 50% of Z. joazeiro fruit pulp had an unfavorable allelopathic effect on lettuce germination, having reduced it by 100%, 98.75% and 82.5% respectively. The extract of the fruits rinds in concentrations of 75% and 100% reduced lettuce germination by 28.75% and 78.75%.

  19. The existence of an insoluble Z disc scaffold in chicken skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, B L; Lazarides, E

    1978-12-01

    Extraction of glycerinated chicken skeletal muscle with 0.6 M potassium iodide leaves a framework of insoluble components within each muscle fiber. This framework is composed primarily of planes of in-register Z discs that have been thickened by the accumulation of material on both sides of each disc during extraction. Membrane vesicles, presumably remnants of the T system, remain surrounding the Z discs. When the framework is sheared in a blender, it is preferentially cleaved between Z planes, resulting in the formation of large sheets of interconnected, closely packed Z discs in a honeycomb-like array. Cleavage occurs in regions formerly occupied by the A bands, which have been weakened by the removal of myosin. The existence and stability of these planar Z disc arrays demonstrate the presence and strength of connections between adjacent myofibrils. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that this framework consists primarily of actin and desmin, with lesser amounts of a few proteins including alpha-actinin, myosin and tropomyosin. Z disc sheets and KI-extracted myofibrils provide a distinct face-on view and side view, respectively, of the Z disc. In indirect immunofluorescence, these two views have revealed that desmin is present at the periphery of each Z disc, forming a network of proteinaceous collars within the Z plane. alpha-Actinin is localized within each disc, giving a face-on fluorescence pattern that is complementary to that of desmin. Actin is present throughout the thickened Z plane, while myosin and tropomyosin exist only in the insoluble residue that coalesces on both faces of each disc. We conclude that desmin, perhaps in conjunction with actin, is responsible for interlinking Z discs of adjacent myofibrils, and may thus serve as a mechanical and structural integrator of muscle fibers. Its hydrophobic nature and coincident distribution with the T system suggest that it may also be responsible for mediating filament-membrane interactions

  20. Teores do óleo essencial de cidrão [Aloysia triphylla (L'Hérit Britton (Verbenaceae] em diferentes horários de colheita e processamentos pós-colheita Lemon verbena's [Aloysia triphylla (L'Hérit Britton (Verbenaceae] essential oil content in different harvest periods and post-harvesting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Brant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o teor do óleo essencial de cidrão [Aloysia triphylla (L´Hérit Britton] em diferentes horários de colheita e processamentos pós-colheita. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado. As colheitas foram realizadas em três horários distintos (8 h, 12 h e 16 h, com três repetições. Os processamentos pós-colheita foram cinco: T1- folhas frescas fragmentadas em 1cm; T2- folhas frescas processadas em liquidificador; T3- folhas frescas inteiras; T4- folhas secas inteiras; T5- folhas secas pulverizadas em moinho, com três repetições. O óleo essencial de cada tratamento foi extraído pela técnica de hidrodestilação, utilizando o aparelho modificado de Clevenger, por uma hora e trinta minutos. Os horários de colheita quando se detectou maior teor de óleo foram 8 h e 16 h. Os maiores teores de óleo essencial foram encontrados em folhas frescas fragmentadas em 1cm, folhas frescas processadas em liquidificador, folhas frescas inteiras e folhas secas inteiras.This study was carried out in order to evaluate the essential oil content of lemon verbena at different harvest times and post-harvest processings. The experimental design used was completely randomized. The harvested material was collected at three different hours (8:00, 12:00 and 16:00 pm, and it was taken three times. In post-harvest processings, three replications and five treatments were us do: 1 cm fresh leaf fragments, blended fresh leaves, whole fresh leaves, whole dry leaves and dry leaves ground in mill. The essential oil was determined in Clevenger's modified apparatus for 1 hour and 30 minutes. The periods of the day that detected high essential oil content were at 8:00 am and 16:00 pm. The high essential oil level was in 1 cm fresh leaf fragments, blender processed fresh leaves, whole fresh leaves and whole dry leaves.

  1. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  2. Hipercapnia acentuada durante circulação extracorpórea em cirurgia para revascularização do miocárdio: relato de caso Hipercapnia acentuada durante circulación extracorpórea en cirugía para revascularización del miocárdio: relato de caso Marked hypercapnia during cardiopulmonary bypass for myocardial revascularization: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Serrano Nascimento

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A função primordial de desviar o sangue do coração e retorná-lo oxigenado à circulação sistêmica é conseguida às custas de importantes alterações na fisiologia cardiopulmonar. O objetivo deste relato é apresentar uma complicação anestésica que ocorreu durante a CEC e alertar para a necessidade da interação de toda a equipe anestésico-cirúrgica na prevenção de eventos adversos per-operatórios. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente feminina, parda, 56 anos, 95 kg, altura 1,65 m, estado físico ASA IV, portadora de insuficiência renal crônica em hemodiálise, foi admitida para realização de revascularização do miocárdio. A monitorização constou de eletrocardiograma (ECG, medida invasiva da pressão arterial, oximetria de pulso, capnografia, temperatura esofágica, pressão venosa central e análise dos gases anestésicos. A paciente recebeu como medicação pré-anestésica, midazolam (0,05 mg.kg-1, por via venosa. Iniciou-se indução venosa com fentanil (16 µg.kg-1, etomidato (0,3 mg.kg-1 e pancurônio (0,1 mg.kg-1. A manutenção foi feita com oxigênio, isoflurano (0,5 - 1 CAM e infusão contínua de fentanil. A gasometria arterial colhida após a indução demonstrou: pH: 7,41; PaO2: 288 mmHg; PaCO2: 38 mmHg; HCO3: 24 mmol.L-1; BE: 0 mmol.L-1; SatO2: 100%. A segunda gasometria arterial, colhida logo após o início da CEC, chegou em 30 minutos e apresentou: pH 7,15; PaO2: 86 mmHg; PaCO2 224 mmHg; HCO3: 29 mmol.L-1; BE: -3 mmol.L-1; SatO2: 99%. Foi feita verificação completa e urgente dos equipamentos anestésicos e de perfusão. Foi constatada conexão do misturador de gases de perfusão (blender à rede de O2 e a um cilindro de dióxido de carbono (CO2, quando deveria estar conectado ao cilindro de ar comprimido. CONCLUSÕES: Falhas mecânicas dos componentes do circuito de extracorpórea podem ocorrer no per-operatório e exigem correções rápidas. Os avanços tecnológicos nos equipamentos

  3. Value-added products from chicken feather fiber and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiuling

    Worldwide poultry consumption has generated a huge amount of feather "waste" annually. Currently, the feather has a low value-being used for animal feed in the world. The quality of fibrous air filters depend on their main component, fibers. The main physical structure of chicken feathers is barbs which can be used directly as fibers. They have small diameter, which makes them a good choice for air filtration. The main chemical structure of chicken feathers is structural fibrous protein, keratin. Therefore, chicken feathers could potentially be used for protein fiber production. To obtain chicken feather fibers, barbs were stripped from the quills by a stripping device and separated with a blender. Some feather fibers were entangled with polyester staple fibers, and needlepunched to form a nonwoven fabric. Some feather fibers were blended with CelBond(TM) bi-component polyester as binder fibers, and pressed between two hot plates to produce thermobonded nonwovens. Whole chicken feathers were ground into powder and their keratin was reduced in water. The reduced keratin was salt precipitated, dried and dissolved in ionic liquid with/without bleach cotton. The reduced chicken feather keratin ionic liquid solutions were spun into regenerated fibers through dry-jet wet spinning. The needlepunched and thermobonded nonwovens were tested for filtration and other properties. With an increase of areal density and feather fiber composition, the air permeability of the needlepunched nonwovens decreased, and their filtration efficiency and pressure drop both increased. The case can be made that feather fibers gave fabrics better filtration at the same fabric weight, but at the expense of air permeability and pressure drop. The scrim and needlepunching process improved the filtration efficiency. Their strength depended on scrim. The hot-press process was very simple. The thermobonded nonwovens had very high air permeability. In them, there was also an inverse relation between

  4. Uso de oxigênio puro e shunt veno-arterial nos oxigenadores de membrana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAES Domingos Junqueira de

    1997-01-01

    semana. Concluímos que o emprego do shunt veno-arterial e oxigênio puro nos oxigenadores de membrana mostrou ser método adequado para abolir o uso de ar comprimindo e blenders nesses oxigenadores, ao mesmo tempo que, teoricamente, reduz em 40% a 50% os efeitos deletérios ou inflamatórios causados pelos oxigenadores artificiais. Na hipotermia, o método pode ser usado com mais liberdade, conforme trabalho por nós publicado, utilizando oxigenadores de bolhas.

  5. Leucaena allelopathy on weeds and soybean seed germination / Alelopatia de Leucena sobre soja e plantas invasoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leszczynski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of agriculture, there was consequent rising in environment degradation. Therefore, It is interesting the use of plants which have in their chemical composition substances capable of helping in the control of weeds to minimize the use of pesticides. Hence, the objective of this paper was to evaluate solutions of leucena extract on weeds that are frequent on soybean crop. The treatments were leucena extracts at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% at room temperature water and water heated to 80°C. The extracts were obtained by crushing 200g of leucena leaves and mixing them with one liter of distilled water with the help of a blender. Seeds were kept in B.O.D. at a temperature of 25°C, with a photoperiod of 12 hours of light. Evaluations were done on a daily basis, from the first to the last day of the experiment, varying according to the species. Results show a negative interference of the extracts, both hot and cold, in the root length of Ipomoea grandifolia, in the percentage of germination and in the root length of Arrowleaf sida and Hair beggarticks. There was no negative interference in the analyzed parameters for soybean seeds. Thus, the results indicate allelopatic potential of Leucaena leuucocephala as an alternative for the management of weeds without interfering on the development of the soybean crop.Com o desenvolvimento da agricultura surgiram os conseqüentes aumentos na degradação ambiental. Assim, estuda-se a utilização de plantas que possuam em sua composição química substâncias capazes de auxiliar no controle de plantas invasoras, amenizando o uso de agrotóxicos. Desta forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar soluções de extratos de leucena sobre plantas invasoras que freqüentemente ocorrem na cultura da soja. Foram utilizados como tratamentos os seguintes extratos de leucena nas proporções de: 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% com água à temperatura ambiente e com água aquecida à 80°C. Os extratos foram

  6. Mobile Advertising System Based on Augmented Reality and Location-Based Services%基于增强现实和位置服务的手机广告系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶小榕; 邵晴

    2013-01-01

    当前国内移动互联网发展极其迅速,但平面广告进入手机广告市场时遇到了一些困难,广告效果并不理想.针对这个现状,本文提出新的解决思路:利用现实增强和位置服务等技术,借鉴和运用ARToolKit、Hadoop、Blender、min3D等多个开源软件模块化设计开发了基于安卓(Android)平台的手机广告系统.系统包括手机客户端和服务器端两大部分,手机客户端负责从平面广告中识别二维码,定位当前手机的位置坐标,然后将用户信息、二维码和位置坐标发送给服务器端;服务器端接收后,通过范围搜索算法检索地图数据库和虚拟影像文件库,根据地域的不同得到对应的3D虚拟影像广告文件,将其回传给手机,手机客户端就能显示出3D虚拟影像广告了.此系统使平面广告通过二维码在手机中显示出3D虚拟影像效果,还能根据手机所在地域动态投放不同广告,增加了广告的吸引力,使手机广告更具有针对性、点击率更高、更有效果.%The mobile internet in China is under very rapid development, but the print advertisement encounters some difficulties to enter the mobile advertising market, lack of desirable effects. This paper proposes a new solution. Based on the Android platform, a mobile advertising system is designed, which takes advantage of technologies such as the augmented reality and the location based services, with the adoption of the ARToolKit, Hadoop, Blender, min3D and other open source software modularization designs. This system consists of two parts: the mobile client side and the server side. In the first step, the mobile client is responsible to recognize the two-dimensional codes from the print advertisement, and to locate the coordinates of the current location of the phone. Then these data are sent to the server. In the second step, the server using the scope of the search algorithm obtains the corresponding 3D virtual image advertisement

  7. Cinética de inativação da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase de abacate (Persea americana Mill. Kinetic of inactivation of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase of avocado (Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Caroline Luíz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos enzimáticos foram preparados a partir da polpa de abacate (Persea americana Mill. dos cultivares Quintal, Fortuna e Choquete, em dois estádios de maturação (verde e maduro. A polpa de abacate (150,00g foi homogeneizada em liquidificador, com 300 mL de solução tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM em pH 7,4 para polifenoloxidase (PPO e pH 6,0 para peroxidase (POD. A peroxidase ionicamente ligada foi extraída usando solução de NaCl 1,0M, em tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM pH 6,0. Para o estudo da estabilidade térmica, os extratos foram submetidos a temperaturas de 60, 65, 70, 75 e 80ºC e por períodos que variaram de 1 à 10 minutos e a atividade enzimática foi determinada por espectrofotometria (lambda= 395nm para PPO e lambda= 460nm para POD. Pode-se observar que o declínio rápido da atividade das enzimas era maior nos primeiros quatro minutos e após esse período, com o aumento da temperatura e do tempo, a atividade continuou diminuindo, porém de forma mais lenta. A energia de ativação na faixa de temperatura estudada para as porções termolábil e termorresistente, apresentou valores dentro da faixa 12-100 kcal/mol.Enzymatic extracts were prepared from the avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill., using the cultivars Quintal, Fortuna and Choquete, in two different maturation stages (green and mature avocados. The avocado pulp (150,00g was homogenized in blender with 300 mL of sodium phosphate buffer 100mM at pH 7.4 for polyphenoloxidase (PPO and pH 6.0 for peroxidase (POD. The peroxidase ionically bound was extracted using NaCl solution 1.0M in sodium phosphate buffer 100mM pH 6.0. For the study of the thermal stability the extracts were submitted at temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75 and 80ºC for periods that had a variation from 1 to 10 minutes and the enzymatic activity was determined using a spectrophotometer (lambda= 395nm for PPO and lambda= 460nm for POD. It was possible to observe a fast decline of the enzyme activity in

  8. Elaboração e caracterização físico-química e microbiológica da farinha da palma (Opuntia fícusindica Mill em diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Severo

    2015-11-01

    Pombal - PB, they have been dewatered to the full withdrawal of moisture in air circulating oven at the following temperatures: 70, 80 and 90 ° C, subsequently passed through an industrial blender, then by a slicer to obtain the flour. After obtaining it was conducted microbiological analyzes and physicochemical analysis. Employment in food , the cactus is a great productive potential with the Semi-Arid alternatives sustained development.

  9. Landuse Carbon Implications of a Drawdown of Ethanol Production and an Increase in Well-Managed Pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwinckel, C. M.; Phillips, J.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, commodity grain prices have doubled, and world commodity prices have reached their highest levels in over 30 years. The rise in prices culminated in the food price spikes of 2008 and 2011, where food riots erupted in 40 countries. Although studies have pointed to a number of factors leading to the increased food prices, the ethanol industry, whether deservingly or not, is seen as the major factor behind the price spikes. Several recent studies have contributed to the poor public opinion of ethanol by concluding that ethanol is neither a net energy source nor a net reducer of carbon emissions. The impact of these research reports combined with recent spikes in commodity prices has led to fierce political efforts to reduce or eliminate subsidies for ethanol. Opponents of ethanol subsidization won a significant battle with Congress recently voting to eliminate federal blender's tax credits and ethanol import tariffs. If another sharp spike in commodity prices occurs in the near future, some have speculated that ethanol production mandates could be scaled back or eliminated. In the span of less than three years the expected role of ethanol in the agricultural sector has gone from one of rapid growth and longevity, to one of which the societal benefits are being strongly questioned. In light of the rapidly changing expectations regarding the future of ethanol, we believe it is an appropriate time to evaluate the landuse and carbon implications of a scaling down of ethanol production and investigating permanent managed pasture as an alternative land use that could provide carbon benefits. Various USDA programs to promote conservation of, or conversion to, permanent pasture or grassland exist primarily based on the value of decreasing the potential for soil erosion as well as improving water quality. Although grazing systems have long been associated with land degradation in the arid and semi-arid west, new management approaches utilizing some form

  10. Evaluación del impacto de un ensayo comunitario sobre el consumo de frutas y verduras en Colombia Evaluation of the impact of a community intervention on the consumption of fruits and vegetables in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Esperanza Prada

    2007-02-01

    evaluation was carried out on two levels: the family and the HC. The Bland-Alman method was used to determine the intra- and inter-group impact. A multiple linear regression model enabled the evaluation of the intervention's effect on consumption frequency, adjusted for economic and demographic variables. RESULTS: The frequency of consumption of fruits increased an average of 1.3 times per week (CI 0.3, 1.8, p= 0.040. This was achieved when the probability of having a blender was higher than 75% (R² for the regression 0.33; n= 26. The frequency of vegetable consumption did not increase. CONCLUSIONS: In poor populations an increase in the consumption of fruits can be achieved through educational strategies. However, the limited access to equipment for transforming and preserving alimentary products is decisive to the final result.

  11. Interferência alelopática de Raphanus raphanistrum L. sobre a germinação de Lactuca sativa L. e Solanum lycopersicon L. Allelopathic interference of Raphanus raphanistrum L. on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. and Solanum lycopersicon L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Cristina Dorneles Wandscheer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar os possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de Raphanus raphanistrum L. sobre a germinação de sementes de alface e tomate. Para isso, prepararam-se extratos aquosos de folhas e raízes de nabiça, após serem trituradas em liquidificador industrial e o extrato bruto diluído em água destilada até as concentrações de 5 e 10% (m/v. Os testes de germinação foram realizados colocando-se 25 sementes de alface e tomate em placas de Petri, umedecidas com os extratos obtidos, com quatro repetições em cada tratamento. O tratamento controle foi regado somente com água destilada. As sementes foram mantidas em câmara de germinação a 25°C por cinco dias. Após este período, observou-se que todas as concentrações de extrato de nabiça reduziram a porcentagem, a velocidade, o índice de velocidade de germinação e o comprimento radicular de sementes de alface, sendo maior o efeito nos tratamentos com folhas. Em sementes de tomate, somente o extrato de folha 10% reduziu a porcentagem de germinação e o comprimento radicular e do epicótilo. No entanto, extratos de folhas e raiz 10% causaram atraso no processo germinativo e no número de plântulas germinadas por dia, sendo o extrato de folha 10% mais ativo.This article aims at verifying the possible allelopathic effects of Raphanus raphanistrum L. on the germination of lettuce and tomato seeds. For that, we prepare aqueous extracts of nabiça leaves and roots. After the leaves and roots were triturated in industrial blender, we diluted the raw extract in distilled water, until the concentrations of five and ten percent (m/v. The germination tests were accomplished by putting twenty-five lettuce and tomato seeds in Petri plates, which were humidified with the obtained extracts, accomplishing four repetitions in each treatment. The control treatment was only watered with distilled water. The seeds were kept in germination camera at twenty-five degrees

  12. In-line monitoring of blending process of Zhongsheng pill powder using miniature near-infrared analyzer%微型近红外仪用于众生丸粉末混合过程的在线监测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金叶; 杨凯; 陈木洲; 刘雪松; 陈勇; 龙超峰; 吴永江

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To establish a simple and rapid method baaed on diffuse reflectance NIR spectra to in-line monitor the blending process of Zhongsheng pill powder. Method; Zhongsheng pill powder consisted of Zhongsheng spray powder, artificial cow-bezoar powder and bile arisaema powder. By means of a revolutionary miniature near-infrared analyzer mounted onto the blender, the powder homogeneity van determined in real lime with noninterference. The moving hlnck standard deviation ( MBSD) method was used to identify the end point of blending process, providing real-time data and instant feedback about the blending course. Evaluation of blend uniformity was carried out by stratified in-process sampling, and the content of baicalin in samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatngraphy (HPLC). Result; The results calculated through MBSD method were generally coincided with HPLC analysis. Blend homogeneity was assumed to be reached when the standard deviations beiween spectra approached 0.002, and RSD values of baicalin content in samplesfrom six positions were lower than 5%. Moreover, stratified in-process sampling has significant influence on blending process when the powder loading volume was small. Conclusion^ Based on this study, NIR speetroscopy can be possibly extended to be applied in blending process of Zliongsheng pill powder, ensuring a remarkable saving of time and manpower employed and creating.a reliable and efficient process measurement technology.%目的:建立一种众生丸粉末混合过程终点的在线判断方法.方法:将微型近红外仪直接安装于混合罐进料口上,通过移动窗标准偏差法(MBSD)在线监测混合过程中混合物的均匀度变化,实时判断混合终点.同时采用取样探针分层抽样,通过液相色谱法分析粉末样品中黄芩苷含量,用于验证MBSD的终点判断结果.结果:近红外在线监测结果与液相测定结果基本一致,当光谱偏差小于0.002时,不同取样

  13. Holodeck Testbed Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Adriel (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    objects inside the hybrid reality ISS environment. This task looked at using an Electroencephalogram (EEG) headset to collect brain state data that could be mapped to commands that a computer could execute. On this Task, I had a setback with the hardware, which stopped working and was returned to the vendor for repair. However, I was still able to collect some data, was able to process it, and started to create correlation algorithms between the electrical patterns in the brain and the commands we wanted the computer to carry out. I also carried out a test to investigate the comfort of the headset if it is worn for a long time. The knowledge gained will benefit me in my future career. I learned how to use various modeling and programming tools that included Blender, Maya, Substance Painter, Artec Studio, Github, and Unreal Engine 4. I learned how to use a professional grade 3D scanner and 3D printer. On the BCI Project I learned about data mining and how to create correlation algorithms. I also supported various demos including a live demo of the hybrid reality lab capabilities at ComicPalooza. This internship has given me a good look into engineering at NASA. I developed a more thorough understanding of engineering and my overall confidence has grown. I have also realized that any problem can be fixed, if you try hard enough, and as an engineer it is your job to not only fix problems but to embrace coming up with solutions to those problems.

  14. An optimized method for extraction and detection of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid(CCCVd) from oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, M R; Vadamalai, G; Joseph, H

    2010-01-01

    Coconut cadong-cadong viroid (CCCVd) causes the Lethal cadang-cadang disease of coconut palms in the Philippines and it is recently reported to be associated with the orange spotting disease on oil palm in Malaysia. The low concentration of the viroid RNA in oil palm as well as the high content of polyphenols and polysaccharides in this plant which interfere with the purification steps makes it difficult to extract and detect this viroid from oil palm. A previously described method was modified and optimized for extraction and detection of CCCVd from infected oil palms. Briefly, 7 g of leaf material was homogenized in a mortar or a blender using liquid nitrogen. 10 ml of extraction buffer (100 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM EDTA) along with 100 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and 10 ml water saturated phenol was added to the frozen powder. After centrifuging at 4 degrees C, 4000 g for 30 min, the aqueous phase was extracted once more with phenol then once with chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (24:1). After adding sodium acetate, pH 5.6 to 200 mM, the mixture was precipitated with 2.5 vol ethanol overnight in -20 freezer and then the pellet was washed with 70% ethanol and air-dried. One milliliter of 8 M LiCl was added to the dried pellet and after shaking overnight at 4 degrees C and another centrifugation step the supernatant was collected and precipitated again with ethanol and then the resulting pellet was washed and air-dried. To carry out northern blotting, samples equivalent to 40 g of plant tissue were mixed with formamide buffer and loaded onto a 12% polyacrylamide gel containing 7 M urea and after separation by electrophoresis, were electroblotted onto membrane and fixed by UV cross-linking. Pre-hybridization and hybridization using hybridization buffer (50% formamide, 25%SSPE, 0.1% Ficol and PVP, 0.1 % SDS, 0.02 % DNA (5mg/ml)) was carried out at 45 degrees C for 90 min and 16 h, respectively followed by two low stringency washes (0.5 X SSC, 0.1% SDS, at room

  15. Allelopathic effect of sunflower water extract on the germination of soybean and hairy beggartick / Efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas de girassol sobre a germinação de soja e picão-preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leszczynski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of water extract from sunflower fresh leaves on the germination and initial development of conventional and transgenic soybean cultivars, and of the invasive hairy beggartick (Bidens pilosa L.. Experiments were carried out at Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, in 2007. Fresh leaves from sunflower were ground in a blender at the proportion 200g/1L distilled water, resulting in crude extract (100%, in which pH was measured. Dilutions of 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% were done from the crude extract, and only distilled water was used as control. Statistical analysis (Tukey 5% probability indicated that only the highest extract concentrations (60%, 80% and 100% influenced the analyzed parameters for conventional and transgenic soybean. Beggartick seeds, however, had germination percentage completely inhibited when 40% water extract was applied, which indicates that sunflower straw could be used as a natural herbicide. Nevertheless, field studies must be carried out to prove such effect.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas frescas de girassol sobre a germinação das sementes e desenvolvimento inicial das plântulas das cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill convencional (CD232, transgênica (CD213RR e uma de suas invasoras, o picão preto (Bidens pilosa L.. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná no ano de 2007. As folhas de girassol colhidas na época da floração foram trituradas com o auxílio de um liquidificador na proporção de 200g/1L de água destilada resultando no extrato bruto (100%. A partir do extrato bruto foram feitas as diluições de 80%, 60%, 40% e 20%, sendo utilizado como testemunha apenas água destilada. Após análise estatística (Tukey 5% de probabilidade, pode-se verificar que o extrato aquoso das

  16. Circulação extracorpórea com desvio veno-arterial e baixa pressão parcial de oxigênio Extracorporeal circulation with venous-arterial shunt and low oxygen partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Coli Junqueira de MORAES

    2001-09-01

    arterial circulation and arterial blood flow was maintained high (around 100 mlkgmin. It was observed that the arterial pO2 in both groups remained between 50 and 100 mmHg and venous saturation between 50 and 70%. All animals woke up at end of the experiment. In the clinical study, the arterial pO2 was a low 60 mmHg. Comparison of the clinical results showed there was no mortality difference between both groups, but in the group B, with the low pO2 and venous-arterial shunt, the post-operative bleeding was significantly smaller, having been used three times less blood and no need to use the blender.

  17. Preparation technology for hydrogel cataplasm of Chinese materia medica in industrialization%中药水凝胶巴布剂产业化工艺技术攻关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟泽; 张光伟; 赵宁; 孔朋; 焦晓彪

    2012-01-01

    strength, flexibleness, adhesiveness, residues, cold flow, and non-woven fabrics permeation were investigated. The results were validated by the extracts from three different Chinese herbal formulas. Results The humectant (glycerine) was added in vacuum blender, followed by addition of framework material (sodium polyacrylate), bulking agent (ceramics), cross-linking agent (aluminum glycinate), and cross-linking regulator (EDTA); Then the blend was mixed for 5 min at -0.07 MPa. The aqueous solution of pH regulator (citric acid) and skin tackifier (polyvidone), as well as the extract of CMM were added into the mixture above, which was mixied for another 10 min at -0.07 MPa, and the matrix of HCCMM was obtained. The matrix was transferred to coating and cutting-off machine, after coating and cutting-off, the semi-finished products of HCCMM were made. The semi-finished products were packaged after keeping at 30 ℃ and humidity SS% for 18 h, at 20 ℃ and humidity 75% for 12 h, respectively. The HCCMM with the characteristics of better flexibleness, higher adhesive force, matrix surface temper rolling, and the non-woven fabrics without permeation was obtained, then the packaged products were placed in shady place for 96 h. Conclusion A feasible preparation technology of HCCMM for the production in industrialization is obtained, which could greatly promote the process of HCCMM development in industrialization.

  18. Effects of residual plastic film mixed in soil on water infiltration, evaporation and its uncertainty analysis%残膜对土壤水分入渗和蒸发的影响及不确定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛文全; 邹小阳; 刘晶晶; 张明智; 吕望; 古君

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of residual plastic film, a continuous pollutant and difficult to degrade, is a major limiting factor for sustainable development of agriculture in northwest China. Residual plastic film can destroy homogeneity of soil texture and seriously impede the movement of soil water and solute, and thus greatly enhance the uncertainties in soil water movement. In order to reveal the negative effects of residual plastic film on soil water infiltration, evaporation and their uncertainties, soil column simulation experiments were conducted to observe the processes of soil water infiltration and evaporation with different amounts of residual plastic film in the Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid Area (108°02′E, 34°17′N), at Northwest A&F University, in Yangling, Shaanxi Province of China, from September to October, 2015. Six amounts of residual plastic film were designed including 0, 80, 160, 320, 640, 1 280 kg/hm2 with triplicate. During the experiment, the wetting front, the cumulative infiltration and the cumulative evaporation were investigated. Meanwhile, gravimetric soil moisture was measured after the evaporation process. To mimic the actual distribution characteristic of residual plastic film in field, fragile plastic film and soil samples were mixed evenly with a blender. During infiltration, when the wetting front arrived at 40 cm, irrigation water was cut off. Soil columns were covered with waterproof plastic film to reduce atmospheric evaporation. Soil columns stood for 12 h until the infiltration process completely stopped. In the consequent process of soil water evaporation, the columns were continuously heated by infrared lamps of 275 W from morning till night. Soil columns were weighed with an electronic balance at 9:00 a.m. every day to calculate mass change and standard daily evaporation. Furthermore, an evaporation pan that had the same diameter as soil column was used to measure daily evaporation from free water

  19. 蒸汽萃取-高效液相色谱紫外/荧光法同时测定果蔬中噻苯咪唑、邻苯基苯酚、联苯及抑霉唑残留%Steam Extraction and Simultaneous Determination of Thiabendazole,O-phenyl phenol,Diphenyl and Imazalil Residues in Citrus Fruits and Vegetables by HPLC with Ultraviolet/Fluorescence Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾尔肯·依不拉音; 张辽生; 李兴

    2011-01-01

    建立了一种快速同时测定果蔬中噻苯咪唑(TBZ)、邻苯基苯酚(OPP)、联苯(DP)及抑霉唑(IMZ)残留量的高效液相色谱紫外/荧光分析方法。柑橘类水果及蔬菜样品经组织捣碎机打碎研磨均匀后,利用咖啡萃取机产生的甲醇或乙醇蒸汽进行萃取,分别采用紫外/荧光检测器同时测定上述四种或三种防腐保鲜剂。结果表明:紫外检测TBZ、OPPI、MZ、DP分别在(0.5~10)μg/ml,(0.6~10)μg/ml,(1~80)μg/ml,(0.8~20)μg/ml范围内具有良好的线性,最低检测限分别为0.4,0.4,0.5,0.8μg/ml;荧光检测TBZ、OPP、DP分别在(0.05~2.0)μg/ml,(0.06~2.0)μg/ml,(0.08~5.0)μg/ml范围内具有良好的线性;最低检测限分别为0.02,0.03,0.05μg/ml;采用甲醇蒸汽、乙醇蒸汽和乙醚溶剂萃取,得样品添加回收率分别为67%~84%,72%~83%,52%~108%;相对标准标准偏差分别为1.23%~3.57%,0.35%~2.35%,1.71%~6.29%。该方法快速、灵敏、准确,能满足果蔬中防腐保鲜剂多残留检测的要求。%A rapid reversed-phase HPLC method is developed for simultaneous determination of thiabendazole(TBZ),o-phenylphenol(OPP),dipheny(DP) and imazalil(IMZ) in citrus fruits and vegetables.The samples,blendering and pulverizing,are extracted by methanol or ethanol steam,producing by coffee machine;and subsequently assay above four or three preservatives by HPLC with ultraviolet/fluorescence detection,respectively.The study shows that TBZ、OPP、IMZ、DP have good linear response within concentration range(0.5~10)μg/ml,(0.6~10)μg/ml,(1~80)μg/ml,(0.8~20)μg/ml,lowest detection leves are 0.4,0.4,0.5,0.8μg/ml respectively,determining by ultraviolet detection;TBZ、OPP、DP,determining by ultraviolet detection,linear ranges are(0.05~2.0)μg/ml,(0.06~2.0)μg/ml,(0.08~5.0)μg/ml,lowest detection leves are 0.02,0.03,0.05g/ml.Using methanol and

  20. 含掺合料混凝土水化产物体积分数计算及其影响因素%Calculation of concrete with mineral admixture hydration products volume fraction and its influential factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴福飞; 董双快; 宫经伟; 陈亮亮; 李东生; 侍克斌

    2016-01-01

    Powers theory proposes calculation method for the pure volume of cement hydration products, which does not apply to calculate the volume of cementitious materials with mineral admixture. The formula of cementitious materials volume was proposed that based on the basic principles of cement and mineral admixture hydration, and the proposed method of reliability was verified by the results of Powers theoretical model and volume fraction of cement hydration products. On this basis, the factor such as water-cement ratio, the ratio of admixture and types was further researched for the volumes of cementitious materials hydration products. Mixture in test were designed 2 water-cement ratio (0.30 and 0.40, respectively), two content (20% and 60%, respectively) of mineral admixture, and 3 kinds of mineral admixture (lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag, respectively), forming paste that was stirred according with the designed ratio in 5 mL centrifuge tube in a blender and curing to 1, 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 d in curing room (temperature was (20±1)℃, humidity was not less than 95%), and then testing reaction extent of cement and mineral admixture (such as fly ash, steel slag. lithium slag) according with the chemical bound water and HCl dissolution method. The results showed that hydration extent of lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag at 28d decreased by 46.63%, 69.56% and 74.82% (P<0.05) when mineral admixture content varied from 20% to 60% and water-cement ratio was 0.30. Hydration extent of cement at 28 d was increased by 7.25% when water-cement ratio increased from 0.30 to 0.40. When mineral admixture content varied from 20% to 60%, hydration extent of lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag at 28 d increased by 24.14% 18.56%, 17.61% and 8.84%, 12.21%, and 29.37% (P<0.05), respectively. In contrast, the influence of the mineral admixture content was bigger than water-cement ratio for the hydration extent of composite cementitious materials. In different water-cement ratio

  1. Students Excited by Stellar Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    follow-up observations, and Thompson joined online. "Observing with the students is very exciting. It gives the students a chance to learn about radio telescopes and pulsar observing in a very hands-on way, and it is extra fun when we find a pulsar," said Rosen. Snider, on the other hand, said, "I got very, very nervous. I expected when I went there that I would just be watching other people do things, and then I actually go to sit down at the controls. I definitely didn't want to mess something up." Everything went well, and the observations confirmed that the students had found an exotic pulsar. "I learned more in the two hours in the control room than I would have in school the whole day," Mabry said. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling lighthouse beams of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its normal life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name neutron star. One tablespoon of material from a pulsar would weigh 10 million tons -- as much as a supertanker. The object that the students discovered is in a special class of pulsar that spins very fast - in this case, about 30 times per second, comparable to the speed of a kitchen blender. "The big question we need to answer first is whether this is a young pulsar or a recycled pulsar," said Maura McLaughlin, an astronomer at WVU. "A pulsar spinning that fast is very interesting as it could be newly born or it could be a very old, recycled pulsar." A recycled pulsar is one that was once in a binary system. Material from the companion star is deposited onto the pulsar, causing it to speed up, or be recycled. Mystery remains, however, about whether this pulsar has ever had a companion star. If it did, "it may be that this pulsar had a massive

  2. Star Cluster Buzzing With Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A dense globular star cluster near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy holds a buzzing beehive of rapidly-spinning millisecond pulsars, according to astronomers who discovered 21 new pulsars in the cluster using the National Science Foundation's 100-meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The cluster, called Terzan 5, now holds the record for pulsars, with 24, including three known before the GBT observations. Pulsar Diagram Pulsar Diagram: Click on image for more detail. "We hit the jackpot when we looked at this cluster," said Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, VA. "Not only does this cluster have a lot of pulsars -- and we still expect to find more in it -- but the pulsars in it are very interesting. They include at least 13 in binary systems, two of which are eclipsing, and the four fastest-rotating pulsars known in any globular cluster, with the fastest two rotating nearly 600 times per second, roughly as fast as a household blender," Ransom added. Ransom and his colleagues reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA, and in the online journal Science Express. The star cluster's numerous pulsars are expected to yield a bonanza of new information about not only the pulsars themselves, but also about the dense stellar environment in which they reside and probably even about nuclear physics, according to the scientists. For example, preliminary measurements indicate that two of the pulsars are more massive than some theoretical models would allow. "All these exotic pulsars will keep us busy for years to come," said Jason Hessels, a Ph.D student at McGill University in Montreal. Globular clusters are dense agglomerations of up to millions of stars, all of which formed at about the same time. Pulsars are spinning, superdense neutron stars that whirl "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is

  3. 以三级医院为依托的早产儿视网膜病防治管理模式可行性研究%Feasibility study of retinopathy of prematurity prevention mode based on lvevl-three hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时先锋; 杨洋; 刘元铃; 江玮; 汪雅琴; 罗先琼

    2015-01-01

    hospitals.②there are 207 (72.8%)hospitals have neonatal department,and 1 55 (54.5%)hospitals have neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).There were significant differences among different area in NICU, whether Class 3 or Class 2 and below hospital(P <0.05).③there were 213 oculist who engaged in ROP screening,of which 1 74(81.7%)oculist in Class 3,others in Class 2 and below hospitals.④For Class 2 and below hospitals,there were significant differences among different area in O2 monitoring system,air/oxygen blender,blood gas analyzer,oxygen saturation monitor,ventilator support system,CPAP system, indirect ophthalmoscope(P < 0.05 ).⑤ A total of 21 7 (76.4%) hospitals evaluated the feasibility of spreading retinopathy of prematurity prevention mode based on Class 3 hospitals.Conclusions ROP prevention is a complicated systematic project, depending on the support from health administrative departments as well as all levels of the hospitals.As long as a regional prevention network based on Class 3 hospitals is established and cooperated by all the related departments,sharing resources and conveying practicable technology to lower level hospitals,which would the general level of ROP prevention improve effectively.