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Sample records for bleach plant effluent

  1. Biochemical methane potential of kraft bleaching effluent and codigestion with other in-mill streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Dahl, Olli; Master, Emma

    2016-01-01

    and in combination: total bleaching effluent, alkaline bleaching effluent, kraft evaporator condensate, and chemithermomechanical pulping effluent. The total bleaching effluent, consisting of the chlorine dioxide bleaching and alkaline bleaching effluents, exhibited the highest potential for organic matter...

  2. Removal of COD and color loads in bleached kraft pulp effluents by bottom ashes from boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tran, A

    2008-07-01

    The effectiveness of the bottom ashes from biomass and coal-fired boilers in removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colorloads in effluents of a kraft pulp bleachery plant is investigated. The effluents tested are those of the sulfuric acid treatment (A stage) of a hardwood kraft pulp, and of the first acidic (chlorine or chlorine dioxide) and second alkaline (extraction) stages in the chlorine and elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching lines of hardwood and softwood kraft pulps. The coal-fired boiler's bottom ashes are unable to remove either COD or color load in the bleached kraft pulp effluents. However, the bottom ashes of the biomass boiler are effective in removing COD and color loads of the acidic and alkaline effluents irrespective of the bleaching process or wood species. In particular, these ashes increase the pH of all the effluents examined.

  3. Detoxification of kraft pulp ECF bleaching effluents by catalytic hydrotreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, L; Gilarranz, M A; Casas, J A; Mohedano, A F; Rodríguez, J J

    2007-02-01

    Two different effluents from the D(1) and E(1) stages of the ECF bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp were treated by catalytic hydrogenation in a trickle bed reactor using commercial and homemade Pd/AC catalysts. The reactor was fed with the bleaching effluent and a H(2)/N(2) gas stream. The variables studied were space-time (1.4-5g(cat)min/mL), gas to liquid flow ratio (286-1000vol.), gas feed concentration (H(2):N(2), 1:1-1:7.3vol.), temperature (25-100 degrees C) and pressure (1-11bar). Hydrotreatment performance was evaluated in terms of ecotoxicity, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and colour removal. In all the runs, the ecotoxicity of the effluents decreased as a result of the treatment, achieving reductions that ranged from 70% to 98%. Simultaneously to the reduction of toxicity, the hydrotreatment led to a decrease of the colour of the effluents, being the decrease significantly higher in the case of E(1) effluent. The AOX content was reduced by 85% and 23% for E(1) and D(1) effluents, respectively. In the case of D(1) effluent the removal of ecotoxicity was significantly higher than that of AOX, which indicates that much of the toxicity of the effluent must be associated to non-chlorinated organics. In spite of the important reduction of ecotoxicity, the biodegradability of the effluents only increased slightly. The homemade catalysts, prepared from activated carbons with a high external or non-microporous surface area and mesopore volume and a convenient surface chemistry showed a higher efficiency than the commercial one.

  4. Improvement in rice straw pulp bleaching effluent quality by incorporating oxygen delignification stage prior to elemental chlorine-free bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Daljeet; Bhardwaj, Nishi K; Lohchab, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Environmental degradation by industrial and other developmental activities is alarming for imperative environmental management by process advancements of production. Pulp and paper mills are now focusing on using nonwood-based raw materials to protect forest resources. In present study, rice straw was utilized for pulp production as it is easily and abundantly available as well as rich in carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicelluloses). Soda-anthraquinone method was used for pulp production as it is widely accepted for agro residues. Bleaching process during paper production is the chief source of wastewater generation. The chlorophenolic compounds generated during bleaching are highly toxic, mutagenic, and bioaccumulative in nature. The objectives of study were to use oxygen delignification (ODL) stage prior to elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching to reduce wastewater load and to study its impact on bleached pulp characteristics. ODL stage prior to ECF bleaching improved the optical properties of pulp in comparison to only ECF bleaching. When ODL stage was incorporated prior to bleaching, the tensile index and folding endurance of the pulp were found to be 56.6 ± 1.5 Nm/g and 140, respectively, very high in comparison to ECF alone. A potential reduction of 51, 57, 43, and 53% in BOD 3 , COD, color, and AOX, respectively was observed on adding the ODL stage compared to ECF only. Generation of chlorophenolic compounds was reduced significantly. Incorporation of ODL stage prior to bleaching was found to be highly promising for reducing the toxicity of bleaching effluents and may lead to better management of nearby water resources. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  5. Membrane treatment of alkaline bleaching effluents from elementary chlorine free kraft softwood cellulose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate, Elizabeth; Rodríguez, Edgard; Bórquez, Rodrigo; Zaror, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results on the sequential use of ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to fractionate alkaline extraction bleaching effluents from kraft cellulose production. The aim was to unveil the way key pollutants are distributed when subjected to sequential UF/NF/RO membrane separation processes. Alkaline bleaching effluents were obtained from a local pinewood-based mill, featuring elementary chlorine free bleaching to produce high-brightness cellulose. The experimental system was based on a laboratory-scale membrane system, DSS LabStak® M20 Alfa Laval, using Alfa Laval UF and NF/RO membranes, operated at a constant transmembrane pressure (6 bar for UF membranes and 32 bar for NF/RO membranes), at 25°C. Results show that 78% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenols, 82% adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and 98% colour were retained by UF membranes which have molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) above 10 kDa. In all, 16% of original COD, total phenols and AOX, and the remaining 2% colour were retained by UF membranes within the 1 to 10 kDa MWCO range. Chloride ions were significantly present in all UF permeates, and RO was required to obtain a high-quality permeate with a view to water reuse. It is concluded that UF/NF/RO membranes offer a feasible option for water and chemicals recovery from alkaline bleaching effluents in kraft pulp production.

  6. Influence of bleaching technologies on the aerobic biodegradability of effluents from Eucalyptus kraft pulps factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Vidal

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic biodegradability of effluents from different Eucalyptus kraft pulp bleaching processes was studied. Bleaching effluents were obtained from: i Chlorine Bleaching (CB processes, with partial substitution of chlorine by chlorine dioxide and ii Total Chlorine Free (TCF processes. The overall biodegradability, in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD was higher for TCF effluents (96-98% than for CB ones (82-93%. Taking into account the higher organic load of CB effluents, this fact implied a much higher residual COD for them (100-180 mg/L than for TCF effluents (10-30 mg/L. Furthermore, a refractory fraction of molecular weight higher than 43,000 Da was found in CB effluent, which implied the necessity of a further specific treatment. The toxicity was completely removed after the biological treatmentA biodegradabilidade aerobica das águas residuais provenientes de diferentes procesos de branqueos de pulpa kraft foi estudada. Os efluentes são gerados no branqueo com cloro ou parcialmente sustituido com dioxido de cloro (CB ou bem em processos livres do cloro (TCF. A biodegradabilidade, quantificada como DQO foi maior para as águas do processo CB. Tendo em conta o elevado conteúdo orgânico do efluente CB obteinse uma maior concentraç&ão do DQO final neste efluente comparado com o efluente TCF. Uma fracçao recalcitrante maior a 43,000 Da no effluente BC foi encontrada, isto significa um tratamento adicional específico para sua eliminaçã o. A toxicidade foi totalmente eliminada despois do tratamento aeração.

  7. Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, R.; Sivakumar, V.; Prince Immanuel, V.; Prakash Maran, J.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments were carried out in an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The influence of electrolysis time, current density, pH, NaCl concentration, rotational speed of the stirrer and electrode distance on reduction of color, COD and BOD were studied in detail. From the experimental results, 15 mA/cm 2 current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance were found to be optimum for maximum reduction of color, COD and BOD. The reduction of color, COD and BOD under the optimum condition were found to be 94%, 90% and 87% respectively. The electrode energy consumption was calculated and found to be varied from 10.1 to 12.9 kWh/m 3 depending on the operating conditions. Under optimal operating condition such as 15 mA/cm 2 current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance, the operating cost was found to be 1.56 US $/m 3 . The experimental results proved that the electrocoagulation is a suitable method for treating bleaching plant effluents for reuse.

  8. Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar, R., E-mail: sridhar36k@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India); Sivakumar, V., E-mail: drvsivakumar@yahoo.com [Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India); Prince Immanuel, V., E-mail: princeimmanuel79@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Thudupathi, Erode 638057, TN (India); Prakash Maran, J., E-mail: prakashmaran@gmail.com [Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India)

    2011-02-28

    The experiments were carried out in an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The influence of electrolysis time, current density, pH, NaCl concentration, rotational speed of the stirrer and electrode distance on reduction of color, COD and BOD were studied in detail. From the experimental results, 15 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance were found to be optimum for maximum reduction of color, COD and BOD. The reduction of color, COD and BOD under the optimum condition were found to be 94%, 90% and 87% respectively. The electrode energy consumption was calculated and found to be varied from 10.1 to 12.9 kWh/m{sup 3} depending on the operating conditions. Under optimal operating condition such as 15 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance, the operating cost was found to be 1.56 US $/m{sup 3}. The experimental results proved that the electrocoagulation is a suitable method for treating bleaching plant effluents for reuse.

  9. Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be removed in the treatment process. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria......-independent 16SrRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for the identification and quantification of the microorganisms. In total 84 effluent samples from 14 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants were investigated over a period of 3 months. The microbial community composition was investigated by 16S r...... contain pathogenic species. One of these was Arcobacter (Campylobacteraceae) which was found in up to 16% relative abundance. This indicates that Arcobacter, and perhaps other pathogenic genera, are not being removed efficiently in full-scale plants and may pose a potential health safety problem. Further...

  10. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively.

  11. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Busse, Nadine; Kerker, Steffen; Schmitz, Oliver; Hilpert, Markus; Czermak, Peter

    2015-12-31

    Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively.

  12. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  13. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  14. Assessment of reproductive effects in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, M S; Ruessler, D S; Denslow, N D; Holm, S E; Schoeb, T R; Gross, T S

    2001-11-01

    This study evaluated the potential effects of different concentrations of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluent (B/UKME) on several reproductive endpoints in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The kraft mill studied produces a 50/50 mix of bleached/unbleached market pulp with an estimated release of 36 million gal of effluent/day. Bleaching sequences were C90d10EopHDp and CEHD for softwood (pines) and hardwoods (mainly tupelo, gums, magnolia, and water oaks), respectively. Bass were exposed to different effluent concentrations (0 [controls, exposed to well water], 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for either 28 or 56 days. At the end of each exposure period, fish were euthanized, gonads collected for histological evaluation and determination of gonadosomatic index (GSI), and plasma was analyzed for 17beta-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, and vitellogenin (VTG). Largemouth bass exposed to B/UKME responded with changes at the biochemical level (decline in sex steroids in both sexes and VTG in females) that were usually translated into tissue/organ-level responses (declines in GSI in both sexes and in ovarian development in females). Although most of these responses occurred after exposing fish to 40% B/UKME concentrations or greater, some were observed after exposures to 20% B/UKME. These threshold concentrations fall within the 60% average yearly concentration of effluent that exists in the stream near the point of discharge (Rice Creek), but are above the <10% effluent concentration present in the St. Johns River. The chemical(s) responsible for such changes as well as their mode(s) of action remain unknown at this time.

  15. Recovery of ovary size, follicle cell apoptosis, and HSP70 expression in fish exposed to bleached pulp mill effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janz, D. M.; Weber, L. P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); McMaster, M. E.; Munkittrrick, K. R. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada); Van Der Kraak, G. [Guelph Univ., Dept. of Zoology, ON (Canada)

    2001-03-01

    Apoptosis of granulosa cells that provide hormonal support for the oocyte is the normal mechanism by which atresia ( reduced ovarian size, decreased fecundity, delayed sexual maturation, alterations in plasma sex steroid levels, etc) occurs in mammals, birds and possibly fish. The objective of this study is to determine ovarian cell apoptosis, gonadosomatic index (GSI) and heat shock protein (HSP70) expression during the growth stage of ovarian development in white sucker fish in order to compare samples of fish collected upstream and downstream of a bleached kraft pulp mill in Ontario. Fish for the study were collected in two different years, before and after the pulp mill undertook a number of improvements to eliminate the release of process chemicals. Results showed a 3.4-fold increase in ovarian cell apoptosis in growing white sucker collected four km downstream of the bleached kraft pulp mill in 1996 (before the improvements) compared to fish collected from upstream sources. The elevated ovarian cell apoptosis was associated with significant reduction in gonadosomatic index in fish collected downstream. There were no differences in ovarian cell apoptosis or gonadosomatic index between fish collected upstream and four km downstream of the mill in September 1998 (after the improvements.) Based on the results, it may be concluded that chronic stimulation of ovarian cell apoptosis by certain components of bleached kraft pulp mill effluents represents an important cellular mechanism for reducing the size of ovaries and other related reproductive responses in female fish exposed to these effluents. Although the specific effluent components are not known, the improvements undertaken between 1996 and 1998 resulted in significant enough recovery of these responses to justify the belief in a cause-effect relationship. 32 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  16. Effluent treatment plant and decontamination centre, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, has a number of plants and laboratories, which generate Radioactive Liquid Waste and Protective Wears. Two facilities have been established in late 1960s to cater to this requirement. The Centre, on the average generates about 50,000 m"3 of active liquid effluents of varying specific activities. The Effluent Treatment Plant was setup to receive and process radioactive liquids generated by various facilities of BARC in Trombay. It also serves a single-point discharge facility to enable monitoring of radioactive effluents discharged from the Trombay site. About 120-150 Te of protective wears and inactive apparel are generated annually from various radioactive facilities and laboratories of BARC. In addition, contaminated fuel assembly components are generated by DHRUVA and formerly by CIRUS. These components require decontamination before its recycle to the fuel assembly process. The Decontamination Centre, setup in late 1960s, is mandated to carry out the above mentioned decontamination activities

  17. Remediation of feedlot effluents using aquatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Pedro Federico; Arreghini, Silvana; Serafini, Roberto José María; Bres, Patricia Alina; Crespo, Diana Elvira; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Feedlots have increased in several regions of Argentina, particularly in the Pampas. The absence of adequate treatments of the effluents produced in these establishments creates serious problems to the society. Phytoremediation can be defined as inexpensive and environmentally sustainable strategy used to remove pollutants by plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the remediation potential of two ...

  18. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  19. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Levien, R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F.G.; Rodrigues, N.R. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A.I.P.

    1993-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M J; Levien, R [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F G; Rodrigues, N R [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A I.P.

    1994-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Nova tecnologia de branqueamento de celulose adaptada ao fechamento do circuito de água A novel bleaching technology adapted to partial bleach plant closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moreira Costa

    2006-02-01

    (EOPD(EPD and D(EOPDP, respectively. The mill has an activated sludge effluent treatment plant comprised of two aeration tanks with 20,000 m3 and it is equipped with superficial aerators followed by four secondary clarifiers (two for each reactor. In the last decades, CENIBRA has been optimizing and changing its processes in order to improve environmental performance. Aiming at decreasing effluent volume, COD and AOX loads, the Ahot(EOPD(PO sequence has been proposed and evaluated in lab-scale trials, with partial filtrate recycling. This paper proposes a filtrate recycling scheme that reduces bleach plant effluent volume by 9 m3/adt (air dry ton, i.e., about 50% of the total. The filtrate saved is partially diverted to the recausticizing cycle and to post oxygen washers. The reutilization of the Ahot filtrate in the recausticizing cycle to replace the filtrates currently used to wash lime mud and dregs was shown suitable. The impact of NPE´s in the calcium cycle was not significant. This strategy allowed a recovery of c.a. 12 kg NaOH/adt of pulp that would otherwise be wasted. Pulp bleachability and quality was not significantly affected. The discharged effluent coming from D(PO stages (about 50% showed low color, COD and AOX loads, and good bio-treatability (DBO5/COD.

  2. French studies on the thermal effluents of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezes-Cadiere, H.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents a synthesis of studies made in France in the thermal effluent field: thermal power plant cooling systems, transfer and dispersion of thermal effluents in the receptive media, effects of thermal effluents on water physicochemistry and biochemistry, effects of thermal effluents on aquatic ecosystems, and, possibilities of waste heat recovery with the view of utilization in agriculture, aquaculture and district heating. A catalogue of French organizations working or having data on thermal effluents is presented, as also an alphabetical list of the contacted persons. A bibliography of French documents concerning the previously mentioned studies is finally given (193 refs.) [fr

  3. British Nuclear Fuels plc's effluent plant services building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    1990-01-01

    The new Effluent Plant Services building (EPSB) on the Sellafield Nine Acre Site was built by Costain Engineering Limited for British Nuclear Fuels Limited. The EPSB is dedicated to a new generation of nuclear waste treatment plants, aimed at reducing discharges into the Irish Sea and other environmental impacts by removing actinides from liquid effluents and decontaminating waste solvents. This article describes the design, construction and operation of the plant. (UK)

  4. An automation model of Effluent Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and intensification of industrial activities have increased the deterioration of natural resources. Industrial, hospital and residential wastes are dumped directly into landfills without processing, polluting soils. This action will have consequences later, because the liquid substance resulting from the putrefaction of organic material plows into the soil to reach water bodies. Cities arise without planning, industrial and household wastes are discharged into rivers, lakes and oceans without proper treatment, affecting water resources. It is well known that in the next century there will be fierce competition for fresh water on the planet, probably due to the scarcity of it. Demographic expansion has occurred without proper health planning, degrading oceans, lakes and rivers. Thus, a large percentage of world population suffers from diseases related to water pollution. Accordingly, it can be concluded that sewage treatment is essential to human survival, to preserve rivers, lakes and oceans. An Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP treats wastewater to reduce its pollution to acceptable levels before sending them to the oceans or rivers. To automate the operation of an ETP, motors, sensors and logic blocks, timers and counters are needed. These functions are achieved with programmable logic controllers (PLC and Supervisory Systems. The Ladder language is used to program controllers and is a pillar of the Automation and Control Engineering. The supervisory systems allow process information to be monitored, while the PLC are responsible for control and data acquisition. In the age we live in, process automation is used in an increasing scale in order to provide higher quality, raise productivity and improve the proposed activities. Therefore, an automatic ETP will improve performance and efficiency to handle large volumes of sewage. Considering the growing importance of environmental awareness with special emphasis

  5. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the B plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plant assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated every three years

  6. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  7. Anaerobic treatment of cellulose bleach plant wastewater: chlorinated organics and genotoxicity removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Chaparro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the removal efficiency of organic matter and how it relates to the decrease of toxic and mutagenic effects when an anaerobic reactor is used to treat the bleaching effluent from two kraft pulp mills. Parameters such as COD (chemical oxygen demand, DOC (dissolved organic carbon, AOX (adsorbable organic halogen, ASL (acid soluble lignin, color, chlorides, total phenols and absorbance values in the UV-VIS spectral region were measured. The acute and chronic toxicity and genetic toxicity assessments were performed with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia sp. and Allium cepa L, respectively. The removal efficiency of organic matter measured as COD, ranged from 45% to 55%, while AOX removal ranged from 40% to 45%. The acute toxic and chronic effects, as well as the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects, decrease as the biodegradable fraction of the organics is removed. These results, together with the organic load measurement of the effluents of the anaerobic treatment, indicate that these effluents are recalcitrant but not toxic. As expected, color increased when the anaerobic treatment was applied. However, the colored compounds are of microbial origin and do not cause an increase in genotoxic effects. To discharge the wastewater, it is necessary to apply a physico-chemical or aerobic biological post-treatment to the effluents of the anaerobic reactor.

  8. Peroxy bleaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, P.A. [Unilever Research, Port Sunlight Laboratory (United States) and Chemistry Department, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology (United States)]. E-mail: pcarson2005@aol.com; Fairclough, C.S. [Unilever Research, Port Sunlight Laboratory (United States); Mauduit, C. [Chemistry Department, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology (United States); Colsell, M. [Chemistry Department, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology (United States)

    2006-08-25

    Fabric laundering is now a sophisticated chemical process involving a variety of operations including bleaching. The chemistry of peroxy bleaches is described including the use of novel organic compounds to provide effective bleaching at the lower temperatures of modern wash cycles. The instability of peroxy compounds is illustrated using cameo case histories to relate theory and practice. Techniques available for determining their thermochemistry are summarised. A model is provided for hazard and risk assessment of development projects in general (particularly those involving new molecules, processes or formulations) from ideas phase through exploratory laboratory investigations to pilot plant scale-up and eventual manufacture and commercial exploitation. This paper is a prelude to Part 2, which describes the determination of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of peroxy bleaches and discusses the implication of the results in terms of precautions for their safe storage and incorporation into detergent formulations during processing.

  9. Peroxy bleaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, P.A.; Fairclough, C.S.; Mauduit, C.; Colsell, M.

    2006-01-01

    Fabric laundering is now a sophisticated chemical process involving a variety of operations including bleaching. The chemistry of peroxy bleaches is described including the use of novel organic compounds to provide effective bleaching at the lower temperatures of modern wash cycles. The instability of peroxy compounds is illustrated using cameo case histories to relate theory and practice. Techniques available for determining their thermochemistry are summarised. A model is provided for hazard and risk assessment of development projects in general (particularly those involving new molecules, processes or formulations) from ideas phase through exploratory laboratory investigations to pilot plant scale-up and eventual manufacture and commercial exploitation. This paper is a prelude to Part 2, which describes the determination of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of peroxy bleaches and discusses the implication of the results in terms of precautions for their safe storage and incorporation into detergent formulations during processing

  10. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  11. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document

  12. Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) implementation, Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, W.; Akers, D.W.

    1985-06-01

    A review of the Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant was performed. The principal review guidelines used were NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants,'' and Draft 7'' of NUREG-0472, Revision 3, ''Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Pressurized Water Reactors.'' Draft submittals were discussed with the Licensee by the NRC staff until all items requiring changes to the Technical Specifications were resolved. The Licensee then submitted final proposed RETS to the NRC which were evaluated and found to be in compliance with the NRC review guidelines. The proposed Offsite Dose Calculation Manual and the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Manual were reviewed and generally found to be in compliance with the NRC review guidelines

  13. Nuclear plant refurbishment calls for patience. [Construction of radioactive effluent plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henly, Anna

    1989-08-01

    All nuclear power plants produce a small quantity of liquid effluent from wash hand basins, showers and surface drains on the site. The effluent is termed low-level radioactive waste and under the 'Radioactive Substances Act' can be discharged into estuaries or the sea. Before a controlled discharge can be made the effluent has to be chemically treated and have any radioactive particulate matter removed. The replacing of the radioactive effluent plant at the Berkeley nuclear power station in the United Kingdom is described, with particular reference to the vigorous safety standards and quality assurance programme operated by the Central Electricity Generating Board. (author).

  14. Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, M K

    2002-03-01

    Naturally found coal is converted to coke which is suitable for metallurgical industries. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced contain a large amount of suspended solids, high COD, BOD, phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances which are causing serious pollution problem in the receiving water to which they are discharged. There are a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). Characteristics of the effluents have been evaluated. The present effluent treatment systems were found to be inadequate. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. Ammonia removal by synthetic zeolite, activated carbon for the removal of bacteria, viruses, refractory organics, etc. were utilized and the results are discussed. A scheme has been proposed for the complete physico-chemical treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse and safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations involved in the treatment system have been discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale at various sites.

  15. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  16. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  17. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. In-Plant Corrosion Study of Steels in Distillery Effluent Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    The present study deals with corrosion and performance of steels observed in an effluent treatment plant (ETP) of a distillery. For this purpose, the metal coupons were exposed in primary (untreated effluent) and secondary tank (anaerobic treatment effluent) of the ETP. The extent of attack has been correlated with the composition of the effluent with the help of laboratory immersion and electrochemical tests. Untreated distillery effluent found to be more corrosive than the anaerobic-treated effluents and is assigned due to chloride, phosphate, calcium, nitrate, and nitrite ions, which enhances corrosivity at acidic pH. Mild steel showed highest uniform and localized corrosion followed by stainless steels 304L and 316L and lowest in case of duplex 2205.

  19. Management of effluents and radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Management of effluents and radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, from the viewpoint of radiological protection, basically consists of three main themes: 1) developing and implementing actions that minimize, or where possible, eliminate generation. These actions ranging from simple awareness of people involved with the work on project modifications; 2) maintain a system of accounting and control that allows to know the characteristics of effluents and wastes, charting indicators that reveal the performance and trends of plant, and supplying data proving the compliance of national regulatory body standards; 3) Storing the solid waste generated in a safe manner, ensuring that the physical integrity of the packaged is maintained and that there is no impact to the population and the environment

  20. Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

  1. The effects of Niger State water treatment plant effluent on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... The effect of water treatment plant effluent on its receiving river (Kaduna) was examined. Samples were ... Agency (FEPA) limits for effluent discharge into surface water. .... municipal sewage, garbages, domestic and industrial.

  2. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent on fish reproduction utilizing the adverse outcome pathway conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are a known contributor of chemical mixture inputs into the environment. Whole effluent testing guidelines were developed to screen these complex mixtures for acute toxicity. However, efficient and cost-effective approaches for screenin...

  3. Temporal Variation in the Estrogenicity of a Sewage Treatment Plant Effluent and its Biological Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes variations in the estrogenic potency of effluent from a "model" wastewater treatment plant in Duluth, MN, and explores the significance of these variations relative to sampling approaches for monitoring effluents and their toxicity to fish.

  4. Metal Contamination In Plants Due To Tannery Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Farhad Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper analyzes the determination of heavy metals named Chromium Lead and Cadmium deposited in soil as well as in the plants and vegetables due to the tanning industries of the area of Hazaribagh Dhaka. The tanneries discharge untreated tannery effluents which get mixed with the soil water of rivers and canals in this area. The determination of metals was performed for the soil that was collected from the land adjacent to the canals which bear untreated tannery effluents. The soil is affected with the untreated effluents through the deposition of heavy metals. The metals were furthers deposited into the plants and vegetables grown on that soil. The roots stems and leaves of the plants of Jute Corchorus capsularis and Spinach Basella alba grown on that soil were analyzed for determining these metals. Extreme amount of chromium was found for plants and again Lead Cadmium were found in higher amount in these parts of the two plants. These two plants are taken as a popular vegetables extensively. In case of soil the amount of Chromium Lead and Cadmium were analyzed as 87 mgL 0.131 mgL and 0.190 mgL respectively. For the roots stems and leaves of Jute Corchorus capsularis the average values are 115.62 mgL for Chromium 11.25 mgL for Lead and 2.27 mgL for Cadmium respectively. Again in case of Spinach Basella alba 124.42 mgL was found for Chromium 7.38 mgL for lead and 2.97 mgL for Cadmium as average values for these parts of the two trees. All the observed values of metals of Chromium Lead and Cadmium are higher than the permissible and specially for Chromium the amount is extremely higher.

  5. Packaging of radioactive sludges at the Saclay effluent processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerre, Pierre; Mestre, Emile; Bourdrez, Jean; Leconnetable, Jean

    1964-10-01

    The authors describe technical and technological aspects of the packaging workshop for radioactive sludges produced by processes of co-precipitation of Saclay effluents. This facility is an achievement of studies which aimed at improving working conditions for the plant staff. This workshop implements a process of solidification of filtered sludge by mixing with a hydraulic binding agent. After some generalities on the decontamination process applied to effluents produced by the Saclay research centre, the authors present and describe the adopted process, propose a physical description of the facility: building, chemical engineering equipment (filtration, packaging, and handling). They describe facility operation: introduction of a block into the cell, block filling, output of a packaged container. They briefly discuss the first results of facility exploitation [fr

  6. Monitoring and management of tritium from the nuclear power plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoe; Liu, Ting; Yang, Lili; Meng, De; Song, Dahu

    2018-01-01

    It is important to regulate tritium nuclides from the nuclear power plant effluent, the paper briefly analyzes the main source of tritium, and the regulatory requirements associated with tritium in our country and the United States. The monitoring methods of tritium from the nuclear power plant effluent are described, and the purpose to give some advice to our national nuclear power plant about the effluent of tritium monitoring and management.

  7. Determination of nitrate in effluents from Uranium Extraction Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudwadkar, Ayushi; Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2014-01-01

    Determination of nitrate concentration in the effluent samples from Uranium Extraction Plant is required before its safe discharge. As the different streams are diluted with sea water these samples contain high concentration of chloride. The large concentration of chloride poses a challenge in the determination of nitrate; hence, matrix elimination is accomplished by adopting a sample pretreatment technique. The present study was carried out to develop a simple, accurate and rapid analytical methodology for the determination of nitrate in the above matrices. The quantitative determination of nitrate was accomplished using anion exchange chromatography with conductometric detection. (author)

  8. PFOS and PFOA in influents, effluents, and biosolids of Chinese wastewater treatment plants and effluent-receiving marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hong; Zhang Can; Han Jianbo; Yu Yixuan; Zhang Peng

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in influents, effluents and sludges were investigated by analyzing the samples from twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. The highest concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in influents were found to occur in municipal and industrial WWTPs, respectively. Relative to PFOS and PFOA concentrations in influents, elevated concentrations were observed in effluents from WWTPs applying anaerobic–anoxic–oxic wastewater treatment process. Importantly, application of previously reported organic carbon normalized partition coefficients (K OC ) derived from sediment-based sorption experiments appear to underestimate the PFOS and PFOA levels in biosolids quantified in the current study. PFOS and PFOA levels in effluents were found to be approximately 27 and 2 times higher than those detected in the effluent-receiving seawater, respectively. However, their levels in this area of seawater haven't exceeded the provisional short-term health advisories in drinking water issued by U.S. EPA yet. - Highlights: ► Levels of PFOS and PFOA in influents, effluents and sludge from Chinese WWTPs were examined. ► Municipal sewage was the main source for PFOS in Chinese WWTPs, while industrial sewage for PFOA. ► PFOS and PFOA concentrations in effluents were much higher than those in receiving seawater. - Levels of PFOS and PFOA in influent, effluent and sludge samples from Chinese WWTPs were examined and found much higher than those in receiving seawater.

  9. Use of Excel ion exchange equilibrium solver with WinGEMS to model and predict NPE distribution in the Mead/Westvaco Evandale, TX, hardwood bleach plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Litvay; Alan Rudie; Peter Hart

    2003-01-01

    An Excel spreadsheet developed to solve the ion-exchange equilibrium in wood pulps has been linked by dynamic data exchange to WinGEMS and used to model the non-process elements in the hardwood bleach plant of the Mead/Westvaco Evandale mill. Pulp and filtrate samples were collected from the diffusion washers and final wash press of the bleach plant. A WinGEMS model of...

  10. The effects of Niger State water treatment plant effluent on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of water treatment plant effluent on its receiving river (Kaduna) was examined. Samples were collected from the effluents discharge from Chanchaga water treatment plant into upstream and down stream of the receiving river monthly for six month. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for microbial counts and ...

  11. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of wastewaters from chlorine and total chlorine-free bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, G.; Soto, M.; Field, J.; Mendez-Pampin, R.; Lema, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Chlorine bleaching effluents are problematic for anaerobic wastewater treatment due to their high methanogenic toxicity and low biodegradability. Presently, alternative bleaching processes are being introduced, such as elemental chlorine-free (ECF) and total chlorine-free (TCF) bleaching. The

  12. Degradation of lignin and decolorization of paper mill bleach plant effluent (BPE) by marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Chandramohan, D.; Michel, F.C.; Reddy, C.A

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Biotechnol_Lett_18_105.pdf.txt stream_source_info Biotechnol_Lett_18_105.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  13. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRAZIER, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  14. THE MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT EFFLUENT POLISHING IN ULTRAFILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Dudziak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effluent from the municipal sewage treatment plant was comparatively treated in the ultrafiltration process using ceramic and polymer membranes. Filtration was carried out in the cross-flow system under the conditions of the transmembrane process pressure 0.1 MPa - the ceramic membrane and 0.2 MPa – the polymer membrane at a temperature of 20°C. The effectiveness of the process had been assessed by various physical and chemical analyses (pH, turbidity, color, absorbance, TOC and phenol index. There was included the toxicological assessment (by applying as an indicator organism the bioluminescence bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri and microbiological assessment of tested samples. During filtration there was studied the hydraulic efficiency of membranes. Is was specified, that the efficiency of the process depends on the conditions of membrane filtration, wherein the better effects of the removal of organic pollutants had been noted in the case of polymer membrane than ceramic membrane. However, the polymer membrane, in the comparison to the ceramic membrane, was more susceptible to pore blocking, which caused the reduction of hydraulic efficiency. Regardless of what type of membrane the permeats were not toxic and did not contain microorganisms.

  15. Pesticides from wastewater treatment plant effluents affect invertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münze, Ronald; Hannemann, Christin; Orlinskiy, Polina; Gunold, Roman; Paschke, Albrecht; Foit, Kaarina; Becker, Jeremias; Kaske, Oliver; Paulsson, Elin; Peterson, Märit; Jernstedt, Henrik; Kreuger, Jenny; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Liess, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    We quantified pesticide contamination and its ecological impact up- and downstream of seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in rural and suburban areas of central Germany. During two sampling campaigns, time-weighted average pesticide concentrations (c TWA ) were obtained using Chemcatcher® passive samplers; pesticide peak concentrations were quantified with event-driven samplers. At downstream sites, receiving waters were additionally grab sampled for five selected pharmaceuticals. Ecological effects on macroinvertebrate structure and ecosystem function were assessed using the biological indicator system SPEAR pesticides (SPEcies At Risk) and leaf litter breakdown rates, respectively. WWTP effluents substantially increased insecticide and fungicide concentrations in receiving waters; in many cases, treated wastewater was the exclusive source for the neonicotinoid insecticides acetamiprid and imidacloprid in the investigated streams. During the ten weeks of the investigation, five out of the seven WWTPs increased in-stream pesticide toxicity by a factor of three. As a consequence, at downstream sites, SPEAR values and leaf litter degradation rates were reduced by 40% and 53%, respectively. The reduced leaf litter breakdown was related to changes in the macroinvertebrate communities described by SPEAR pesticides and not to altered microbial activity. Neonicotinoids showed the highest ecological relevance for the composition of invertebrate communities, occasionally exceeding the Regulatory Acceptable Concentrations (RACs). In general, considerable ecological effects of insecticides were observed above and below regulatory thresholds. Fungicides, herbicides and pharmaceuticals contributed only marginally to acute toxicity. We conclude that pesticide retention of WWTPs needs to be improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Limitation of releases of radioactive effluents for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolksdorf, P.; Buehling, A.

    1981-01-01

    Empirical values relating to the effluents of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany are now available. These values cover a period of several years of operation. The measured emissions of radioactive substances are often very much below the maximum permissible values, based on the dose limits for the environment stipulated in the legal regulations. Extensive technical and administrative measures contribute to the reduction of radioactive effluents. Furthermore, additional possibilities for improvement are mentioned which may lead to a further reduction of radioactive effluents. These are derived from investigations into the release of radioactive substances in nuclear power plants. The licensing procedure in the Federal Republic of Germany in fixing discharge limits is outlined. Proposals are made concerning licence values which may be determined for the radioactive effluents in modern standardized nuclear power plants with light-water reactors. The resulting radiation exposures are quoted for a typical nuclear power plant site. (author)

  17. Potential impact of thermal effluents from Chongqing Fuling nuclear power plant to the Three Gorges Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Baohua; Li Jianguo; Ma Binghui; Zhang Yue; Sun Qunli; Hu Yuping

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on the hydrological data near Chongqing Fuling Nuclear Power Plant along the Yangtze River, the present situation of the ecological environment of the Three Gorges Reservoir and the predicted results of thermal effluents from Chongqing Fuling Nuclear Power Plant. The standards of cooling water and the thermal tolerances indexes of aquatic organisms were investigated. The effects of thermal effluents on aquatic organisms were analyzed. The potential impact of Chongqing Fuling nuclear power plant to the Three Gorges Reservoir was explained. The results show that in the most adverse working conditions, the surface temperature near the outfall area is not more than 1℃, the temperature of thermal effluents do not exceed the suitable thermal range of fish breeding, growth and other thermal tolerances indexes. Thermal effluents from nuclear power plant have no influence about fish, plankton and benthic organisms in the Three Gorges Reservoir. (authors)

  18. Effect of exposure to wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adult fathead minnows were exposed to dilutions of a historically estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent in a 21-d reproduction study. This dataset is...

  19. Unsupervised Analysis of the Effects of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent on the Fathead Minnow Ovarian Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain complex mixtures of chemicals, potentially including endocrine active chemicals (EACs), pharmaceuticals, and other contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Due to the complex and variable nature of effluents, biological monitori...

  20. Airborne effluent control at fuel enrichment, conversion, and fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    Uranium conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities generate gaseous wastes that must be treated prior to being discharged to the atmosphere. Since all three process and/or handle similar compounds, they also encounter similar gaseous waste disposal problems, the majority of which are treated in a similar manner. Ventilation exhausts from personnel areas and equipment off-gases that do not contain corrosive gases (such as HF) are usually passed through roughening and/or HEPA filters prior to release. Ventilation exhausts that contain larger quantities of particles, such as the conversion facilities' U 3 O 8 sampling operation, are passed through bag filters or cyclone separators, while process off-gases containing corrosive materials are normally treated by sintered metal filters or scrubbers. The effectiveness of particle removal varies from about 90 percent for a scrubber alone to more than 99.9 percent for HEPA filters or a combination of the various filters and scrubbers. The removal of nitrogen compounds (N 2 , HNO 3 , NO/sub x/, and NH 3 ) is accomplished by scrubbers in the enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities. The conversion facility utilizes a nitric acid recovery facility for both pollution control and economic recovery of raw materials. Hydrogen removal from gaseous waste streams is generally achieved with burners. Three different systems are currently utilized by the conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication plants to remove gaseous fluorides from airborne effluents. The HF-rich streams, such as those emanating from the hydrofluorination and fluorine production operations of the conversion plant, are passed through condensers to recover aqueous hydrofluoric acid

  1. Recycling of cattle dung, biogas plant-effluent and water hyacinth in vermiculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, P.R.; Bai, R.K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of recycling cattle dung, anaerobically digested cattle dung (biogas plant-effluent) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by culture of the earthworm Megascolex sp. was studied. The growth of the earthworms was increased by 156, 148 and 119% in soil supplemented with water hyacinth, cattle dung and biogas plant-effluent, respectively. The growth rate of the earthworms was increased significantly by raw cattle dung and water hyacinth over that by biodigested slurry. (author)

  2. Monitoring of released radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, M.; Keta, S.; Nagai, S.; Kano, M.; Ishihara, N.; Moriyama, T.; Ogaki, K.; Noda, K.

    2009-01-01

    Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant started its active tests with spent fuel at the end of March 2006. When spent fuels are sheared and dissolved, radioactive gaseous effluent and radioactive liquid effluent such as krypton-85, tritium, etc. are released into the environment. In order to limit the public dose as low as reasonably achievable in an efficient way, RRP removes radioactive material by evaporation, rinsing, filtering, etc., and then releases it through the main stack and the sea discharge pipeline that allow to make dispersion and dilution very efficiently. Also, concerning the radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent to be released into the environment, the target values of annual release have been defined in the Safety Rule based on the estimated annual release evaluated at the safety review of RRP. By monitoring the radioactive material in gaseous exhaust and liquid effluent RRP controls it not to exceed the target values. RRP reprocessed 430 tUpr of spent fuel during Active Test (March 2006 to October 2008). In this report, we report about: The outline of gaseous and liquid effluent monitoring. The amount of radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent during the active test. The performance of removal of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents. The impact on the public from radioactive effluents during the active test. (author)

  3. Pharmaceutical Formulation Facilities as Sources of Opioids and Other Pharmaceuticals to Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Facilities involved in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products are an under-investigated source of pharmaceuticals to the environment. Between 2004 and 2009, 35 to 38 effluent samples were collected from each of three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in New York and analyzed for seven pharmaceuticals including opioids and muscle relaxants. Two WWTPs (NY2 and NY3) receive substantial flows (>20% of plant flow) from pharmaceutical formulation facilities (PFF) and one (NY1) receives no PFF flow. Samples of effluents from 23 WWTPs across the United States were analyzed once for these pharmaceuticals as part of a national survey. Maximum pharmaceutical effluent concentrations for the national survey and NY1 effluent samples were generally effluent had median concentrations ranging from 3.4 to >400 μg/L. Maximum concentrations of oxycodone (1700 μg/L) and metaxalone (3800 μg/L) in samples from NY3 effluent exceeded 1000 μg/L. Three pharmaceuticals (butalbital, carisoprodol, and oxycodone) in samples of NY2 effluent had median concentrations ranging from 2 to 11 μg/L. These findings suggest that current manufacturing practices at these PFFs can result in pharmaceuticals concentrations from 10 to 1000 times higher than those typically found in WWTP effluents. PMID:20521847

  4. Effect of Aquatic Plants on Phosphorus Removal and Electrical Conductivity Decrease in Municipal Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Samimi Loghmani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is one of essential elements for living organisms, though its critical concentration in surface and ground waters impose a serious problem such as eutrophication. So treatment of polluted waters is required before discharging to water resources. One of effective ways to decrease water pollution is using aquatic plants. An experiment was conducted in pilots with a closed flowing system on two plants, elodea (egria densa and duck weed (lemna minor with four treatments and three replications. Data were analyzed in a factorial completely randomized design. Treatments included effluent with and without the plants, and effluent diluted (dilution grade 1/2 with and without the plants. Total dissolved P, electrical conductivity (EC and pH value were measured after 8, 16 and 24 days in effluent samples. The results showed that pH value decreased up to 0.2 units during of 24 days of the experiment, but there was found no significant difference (p≤0.05 in pH values among the treatments. Both plants decreased EC about 7 % relative to the control (without plant after 24 days. The plants were also effective in reducing total dissolved phosphorus, so that duck weed and elodea decreased total dissolved P in the effluent about 49 and 7%, respectively. It is concluded that duck weed is more effective in the P removal from the effluent than the other plant.

  5. Physico-chemical treatment of coke plant effluents for control of water pollution in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, M.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Center of Mining Environmental

    2002-01-01

    Coal carbonizing industries in India are important and are growing every year. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced in this industry contain a large amount of suspended solids, high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances, which are causing serious surface water pollution in the area. There is a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). The working principle of a coke plant and the effluents produced is described. One large coke plant was chosen to evaluate characteristics of the effluent and to suggest a proper treatment method. Present effluent treatment system was found to be inadequate and a large quantity of a very good quality coke breeze is being lost, which is also causing siltation on the riverbed in addition to surface water pollution. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. A scheme has been proposed for the treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse or safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations are discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale for various sites so as to maintain a clean environment.

  6. Occurrence of disinfection byproducts in United States wastewater treatment plant effluents

    KAUST Repository

    Krasner, Stuart W.

    2009-11-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contain disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of health concern when the water is utilized downstream as a potable water supply. The pattern of DBP formation was strongly affected by whether or not the WWTP achieved good nitrification. Chlorine addition to poorly nitrified effluents formed low levels of halogenated DBPs, except for (in some cases) dihalogenated acetic acids, but often substantial amounts of N-nitrosodimethyamine (NDMA). Chlorination of well-nitrified effluent typically resulted in substantial formation of halogenated DBPs but much less NDMA. For example, on a median basis after chlorine addition, the well-nitrified effluents had 57 μg/L of trihalomethanes [THMs] and 3 ng/L of NDMA, while the poorly nitrified effluents had 2 μg/L of THMs and 11 ng/L of NDMA. DBPs with amino acid precursors (haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes) formed at substantial levels after chlorination of well-nitrified effluent. The formation of halogenated DBPs but not that of NDMA correlated with the formation of THMs in WWTP effluents disinfected with free chlorine. However, THM formation did not correlate with the formation of other DBPs in effluents disinfected with chloramines. Because of the relatively high levels of bromide in treated wastewater, bromine incorporation was observed in various classes of DBPs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. Occurrence of disinfection byproducts in United States wastewater treatment plant effluents

    KAUST Repository

    Krasner, Stuart W.; Westerhoff, Paul K.; Chen, Baiyang; Rittmann, Bruce E.; Amy, Gary L.

    2009-01-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contain disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of health concern when the water is utilized downstream as a potable water supply. The pattern of DBP formation was strongly affected by whether or not the WWTP achieved good nitrification. Chlorine addition to poorly nitrified effluents formed low levels of halogenated DBPs, except for (in some cases) dihalogenated acetic acids, but often substantial amounts of N-nitrosodimethyamine (NDMA). Chlorination of well-nitrified effluent typically resulted in substantial formation of halogenated DBPs but much less NDMA. For example, on a median basis after chlorine addition, the well-nitrified effluents had 57 μg/L of trihalomethanes [THMs] and 3 ng/L of NDMA, while the poorly nitrified effluents had 2 μg/L of THMs and 11 ng/L of NDMA. DBPs with amino acid precursors (haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes) formed at substantial levels after chlorination of well-nitrified effluent. The formation of halogenated DBPs but not that of NDMA correlated with the formation of THMs in WWTP effluents disinfected with free chlorine. However, THM formation did not correlate with the formation of other DBPs in effluents disinfected with chloramines. Because of the relatively high levels of bromide in treated wastewater, bromine incorporation was observed in various classes of DBPs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  8. Monitoring of noble gas radioisotopes in nuclear power plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabat, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of gaseous radionuclides in the effluents of nuclear facilities is an essential requirement in effluent management programs. Since there is no practical way of removing noble gas radioisotopes from air at release pathways, their accurate monitoring is essential for providing appropriate environmental protection. Emitted γ dose-rate is the limiting factor for concentration-time integral of noble gas in gaseous effluents of reactor facilities. The external exposure to the public from a semi-infinite cloud is directly proportional to both the noble gas isotope concentration and the integrated γ energy per disintegration. Both can be directly measured in gaseous effluent pathways with a suitable detector. The capability of NaI(T1), CaF 2 (Eu) and plastic scintillation detectors to measure the γ-Ci.MeV content of noble gas releases was experimentally evaluated. The combination of CaF 2 (Eu) detector in a pressurized through-flow chamber, with a charge integrating scaler well complied with both γ energy response and detection sensitivity requirements. Noble gas source terms and effluent monitoring criteria are discussed, theoretical and experimental results are presented and a practical, on-line noble gas monitoring system is described

  9. Impact of fertilizer plant effluent on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obire, O.; Ogan, A.; Okigbo, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent on the physico chemistry and bacteriology of Okrika creek was investigated during the sampling period from May to December, 1998. The National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent, the Okrika creek water and the lkpukulubie creek (control) water samples were collected. The physico-chemical parameters analyzed for all the samples included temperature, p H, total chloride, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, free ammonia, total phosphate, urea, zinc and iron, while the bacteriological determinations were total culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria count and identification of representative isolates. The Okrika creek recorded higher concentrations for all the physicochemical parameters and bacteria load than the control creek. The higher values of p H, Free NH 3 , urea, TDS and the conductivity of the National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent above the FEPA standards reflect the poor effluent quality generated by National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria. The bacteria species isolated from the samples include Aerococcus viridans, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus. In general, the investigation revealed that there was an extremely adverse impact on the physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality characteristics of the Okrika creek as a result of the discharge of poor quality effluent from National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria operations

  10. Influent pathogenic bacteria may go straight into effluent in full scale wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    , it is assumed that the bacteria present in the effluent comprise primarily of those bacteria that thrive/grow in the plants. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria in the effluent, particularly pathogens, are based on culture-dependent methods, which may give erroneous results by underestimating...... flocs. Some of these are known as pathogens. One of these was from the genus Arcobacter (Campylobacteraceae) and it included one particularly abundant OTU found in both influent and effluent in all 14 investigated WWTPs. This single Arcobacter OTU accounted for up to 14% of all bacteria found......Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be adsorbed onto the activated sludge flocs, consumed by protozoan or to just die off. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. Thus...

  11. Flax fibers as a raw material: How to bleach efficiently a non-woody plant to obtain high-quality pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillat, Ursula; Pepio, Montserrat; Vidal, Teresa; Roncero, M. Blanca

    2010-01-01

    Fiber crops constitute a good alternative to wood fiber for manufacturing pulp and paper. In fact, fiber plants like flax surpass wood fiber in some technical respects and also in the environmental benignity of their processing. In this work, flax fiber was subjected to environmentally friendly bleaching sequences in order to obtain a high-quality pulp. The totally chlorine-free sequences (TCF) used for this purpose (LE and LRE) included an enzyme treatment with laccase in the presence of HBT as mediator (L stage), an alkaline extraction (E stage) and a reductive treatment with NaBH 4 (R stage). The operating conditions for the L stage (laccase and HBT doses, reaction time and oxygen pressure) were optimised by using a sequential statistical plan to assess their influence on pulp properties after the E stage. Mathematical models accurately predicting brightness and kappa number in terms of the previous four variables were developed based on which the most influential factors were the laccase and HBT rates, and treatment time. By contrast, oxygen pressures of 0.2-0.6 MPa in the reactor had no effect on brightness or kappa number. The flax pulp obtained contained some oxidized cellulose that was partially degraded in the alkaline extraction step and reduced viscosity as a result. The viscosity loss associated with the presence of oxidized cellulose in the control and enzyme-treated pulp samples was efficiently recovered by using a reductive stage with sodium borohydride. Effluent was also analysed in order to assess the environmental impact of the process.

  12. Airborne effluent control for LMFBR fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, O.O.; Groenier, W.S.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    A significant part of the LMFBR fuel reprocessing development program has been devoted to the development of efficient removal systems for the volatile fission products, including 131 I, krypton, tritium, 129 I, and most recently 14 C. Flowsheet studies have indicated that very significant reductions of radioactive effluents can be achieved by integrating advanced effluent control systems with new concepts of containment and ventilation; however, the feasibility of such has not yet been established, nor have the economics been examined. This paper presents a flowsheet for the application of advanced containment systems to the processing of LMFBR fuels and summarizes the status and applicability of specific fission product removal systems

  13. Palisades Nuclear Plant. Radioactive effluents and environmental monitoring sections to second annual operating report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 0.435 Ci of radioactive liquid effluent less tritium was released with 19.63 Ci of tritium. Both liquid and gaseous releases were within permissible limits. There were 8 Ci of solid wastes stored on the site as of 12/31/76. Data clearly shows there was no detectable increase in radioactivity levels in the environmental media that can be attributed to plant effluents. Monitoring reports are presented concerning fish, meteorology, noise, and cooling tower drift

  14. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 284-E and 284-W power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, D.R.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP- 0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The 284-E and 284-W Power Plants are coal-fired plants used to generate steam. Electricity is not generated at these facilities. The maximum production of steam is approximately 159 t (175 tons)/h at 101 kg (225 lb)/in 2 . Steam generated at these facilities is used in other process facilities (i. e., the B Plant, Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant, 242-A Evaporator) for heating and process operations. The functions or processes associated with these facilities do not have the potential to generate radioactive airborne effluents or radioactive liquid effluents, therefore, radiation monitoring equipment is not used on the discharge of these streams. The functions or processes associated with the production of steam result in the use, storage, management and disposal of hazardous materials

  15. Potential risks of effluent from acid mine drainage treatment plants at abandoned coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaehwan; Kang, Sung-Wook; Ji, Wonhyun; Jo, Hun-Je; Jung, Jinho

    2012-06-01

    The lethal and sublethal toxicity of effluent from three acid mine drainage treatment plants were monitored from August 2009 to April 2010 using Daphnia magna (reference species) and Moina macrocopa (indigenous species). Acute lethal toxicity was observed in Samma effluent due to incomplete neutralization of acid mine drainages by the successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS). Additionally, there was no significant difference in toxicity values (TU) between D. magna and M. macrocopa (p water bodies.

  16. Nematode suppression and growth stimulation in corn plants (Zea mays L.) irrigated with domestic effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Kenia Kelly; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Florencio, Lourdinha

    2012-01-01

    Treated wastewater has great potential for agricultural use due to its concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which are capable of improving soil characteristics. Additionally, effluents can induce suppression of plant diseases caused by soil pathogens. This study evaluates the effect of irrigation with effluent in a UASB reactor on maize (Zea mays L.) development and on suppression of the diseases caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne. Twelve lysimeters of 1 m(3) each were arranged in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and three replicates. The following treatments were used: T1 (W+I), irrigation with water and infestation with nematodes; T2 (W+I+NPK), irrigation with water, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K); T3 (E+I), irrigation with effluent and infestation with nematodes; and T4 (E+I+P), irrigation with effluent, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with phosphorus. The plants irrigated with the effluent plus the phosphorus fertilizer had better growth and productivity and were more resistant to the disease symptoms caused by the nematodes. The suppression levels may have been due to the higher levels of Zn and NO(3)(-) found in the leaf tissue of the plants irrigated with the effluent and phosphorus fertilizer.

  17. Human infective potential of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in urban wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis are important waterborne diseases. In the standard for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in China and...

  18. Design and development of effluent treatment plants for the Sellafield reprocessing factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, M.

    1989-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been carried out at Sellafield since the early 1950s. The storage of fuel in water filled ponds prior to reprocessing and the reprocessing operation itself results in the generation of a number of radioactive liquid effluents. The highly active liquors are stored in stainless steel tanks and will, with the commissioning of the Windscale Vitrification Plant, be converted into glass for long term storage and disposal. The medium and low active liquors are, after appropriate treatment, discharged to sea well below the Authorised Limits which are set by the appropriate Regulatory Bodies. Since 1960 these have been the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Even though the discharges have been well below the limits set, BNFL have for many years adopted a policy of reducing the levels of activity still further. Considerable progress has already been made, by changing reprocessing operations regimes but more importantly by the development and construction of specialised effluent treatment plants. Further reductions are, however, planned. Two major effluent treatment plants form the main basis of BNFL's policy to reduce activity discharges from Sellafield. The first, the Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant, to treat storage pond water was brought into operation in 1985. The second, the enhanced Actinide Removal Plant to treat medium and low active effluents, is programmed to operate in 1992. (author)

  19. A toxicity reduction evaluation for an oily waste treatment plant exhibiting episodic effluent toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Unal, M; Gelderloos, A B; Hughes, J S

    1998-07-30

    A Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) was conducted on the oily wastewater treatment plant (Plant) at a Naval Fuel Depot. The Plant treats ship and ballast wastes, berm water from fuel storage areas and wastes generated in the fuel reclamation plant utilizing physical/chemical treatment processes. In the first period of the project (Period I), the TRE included chemical characterization of the plant wastewaters, monitoring the final effluent for acute toxicity and a thorough evaluation of each treatment process and Plant operating procedures. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures were performed as part of the overall TRE to characterize and identify possible sources of toxicity. Several difficulties were encountered because the effluent was saline, test organisms were marine species and toxicity was sporadic and unpredictable. The treatability approach utilizing enhancements, improved housekeeping, and operational changes produced substantial reductions in the acute toxicity of the final effluent. In the second period (Period II), additional acute toxicity testing and chemical characterization were performed through the Plant to assess the long-term effects of major unit process improvements for the removal of toxicity. The TIE procedures were also modified for saline wastewaters to focus on suspected class of toxicants such as surfactants. The TRE was successful in reducing acute toxicity of the final effluent through process improvements and operational modifications. The results indicated that the cause of toxicity was most likely due to combination of pollutants (matrix effect) rather than a single pollutant.

  20. Wastewater treatment plant effluent introduces recoverable shifts in microbial community composition in urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Price, J. R.; Ryan, M. O.; Toran, L.; Sales, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    New technologies are allowing for intense scrutiny of the impact of land use on microbial communities in stream networks. We used a combination of analytical chemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and targeted amplicon sequencing for a preliminary study on the impact of wastewater treatment plant effluent discharge on urban streams. Samples were collected on two dates above and below treatment plants on the Wissahickon Creek, and its tributary, Sandy Run, in Montgomery County, PA, USA. As expected, effluent was observed to be a significant source of nutrients and human and non-specific fecal associated taxa. There was an observed increase in the alpha diversity at locations immediately below effluent outflows, which contributed many taxa involved in wastewater treatment processes and nutrient cycling to the stream's microbial community. Unexpectedly, modeling of microbial community shifts along the stream was not controlled by concentrations of measured nutrients. Furthermore, partial recovery, in the form of decreasing abundances of bacteria and nutrients associated with wastewater treatment plant processes, nutrient cycling bacteria, and taxa associated with fecal and sewage sources, was observed between effluent sources. Antecedent moisture conditions impacted overall microbial community diversity, with higher diversity occurring after rainfall. These findings hint at resilience in stream microbial communities to recover from wastewater treatment plant effluent and are vital to understanding the impacts of urbanization on microbial stream communities.

  1. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S.

    1995-01-01

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide

  2. The treatment of low level effluents by flocculation and settling at the Chooz nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petteau, J.L.; Roofthooft, R.

    1989-01-01

    At the Chooz plant, radioactive effluents were formerly treated by evaporation, but because throughput was low, another method was studied. After laboratory tests, a 500 L/h flocculation and settling pilot plant was constructed, followed later by a 5 m 3 /h installation. The main isotopes eliminated are caesium-134 and caesium-137. Flocculation with copper ferrocyanide reduces the total activity to less than 500 Bq/L. The installation described in the paper was commissioned in 1984 and has been in industrial operation since 1985, processing all types of effluent. The evaporator can be set aside for boric acid recovery. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  3. Radionuclide content of wastewater and solid waste from a low-level effluent treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Zalina Laili; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Mat Bakar Mahusin

    2010-01-01

    A study on radioactivity levels of wastewater and solid waste from a Low-level Effluent Treatment Plant has been carried out. The measurement of radionuclide concentration was carried out using gamma spectrometry. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in solid radioactive waste recovered from the treatment plant. The presence of radionuclides in waste water varies depending on activities carried out in laboratories and facilities connected to the plant. (author)

  4. XOQDOQ, Meteorological Evaluation of Atmospheric Nuclear Power Plant Effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagendorf, J.F.; Goll, J.T.; Sandusky, W.F.; Eyberger, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: XOQDOQ was designed for meteorological evaluation of continuous and anticipated intermittent releases from commercial nuclear power reactors. It calculates annual relative effluent concentrations and average relative deposition values at locations specified by the user and at various standard radial distances and segments for downwind sectors. It also calculates these values at the specified locations for anticipated intermittent (e.g. containment or purge) releases, which occur during routine operation. The program computes an effective plume height that accounts for physical release height, aerodynamic down-wash, plume rise, and terrain features. The user may optionally select additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume depletion via dry deposition, and plume radioactive decay, or specify adjustments to represent non-straight line trajectories (recirculation or stagnation). 2 - Method of solution: XOQDOQ is based on the principle that diffusion of material released to the atmosphere can be described by a Gaussian distribution within the plume with transport described by a straight-line trajectory. The horizontal and vertical dispersion coefficients are empirically determined, largely from observations at or near ground level. The program implements the assumptions outlined in Section C of NRC Regulatory Guide 1.111. Long-term average values of relative effluent concentration are calculated by assuming a long-term continuous release with effluent distributed evenly across a 22-1/2 degree sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 30 receptor locations/receptor type, 14 wind-speed classes, 10 distances of site-specific recirculation correction factors, 8 receptor types, 7 atmospheric stability categories, 5 separate release points. XOQDOQ cannot handle multiple emission sources or plume depletion via wet deposition, or evaluate the meteorological aspects of the consequences of

  5. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Zeinaly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

  6. Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shengbing; Xue Gang

    2010-01-01

    Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state.

  7. Technical feasibility of reuse of effluent generated from reverse osmosis system in a pharmaceutical plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara de A. S. de Andrade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reuse reduces the consumption of freshwater supplies and the negative environmental impact caused by the discharge of industrial effluents. Some industries have already adopted this practice; however, no studies were found in the literature regarding this subject in the pharmaceutical industry. This work investigated the potential reuse of effluent (concentrate generated from the Reverse Osmosis/Electro-deionization System (RO/EDI that is used for the production of purified water in a Brazilian pharmaceutical plant. This industrial complex consumed about 200,000 m3 of water per year between 2012 and 2013 to produce one million of doses of vaccines, i.e., 2 L of water per dose of vaccine produced. During this period, the RO/EDI produced 27,000 m3 of purified water annually and generated 24,000 m3 of effluent (concentrate. This amount of effluent could be used to supply the production of industry steam (boilers and/or cold water (cooling towers that annually consumed an average of 12,000 m3 and 40,000 m3, respectively. The reuse of this effluent would result in a gross financial savings of 96,000 USD per year, excluding the costs of installation and control. From what has been researched in the literature, this work showed for the first time the possibility of reuse of effluent from RO/EDI System in the pharmaceutical industry.

  8. Study of radiation processes for purifying liquid effluent and the design of pilot plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon'kov, N.G.; Buslaeva, S.P.; Osipov, V.B.; Panin, Yu.A.; Solodikhina, L.D.; Upadyshev, L.B.; Karpukhin, V.F.; Fajngol'd, Z.L.

    1975-01-01

    The possibilities of purifying liquid effluent containing dyestuffs and various organic and biological pollutants with an accelerated electron beam of energy up to 0.7 MeV are examined. A laboratory plant has been erected for the stationary, continuous irradiation - with bubbling of air - of artificial and natural industrial effluent containing organic pollutants in concentrations of up to 2g/litre and the 5 SKh dye in concentrations of up to 220 mg/litre. The results are discussed of the experimental irradiation of artificial mixtures consisting of distilled water, organic pollutants and dyestuffs, and also of natural industrial effluents from an enterprise where antibiotics are produced and from textile mills. The results of the studies indicate that the physicochemical characteristics of effluents are improved. On the basis of these studies pilot plants with electron accelerators are being designed for a daily throughput of 15 000 m 3 of effluent from the production of antibiotics. The electron accelerators are of the transformer type (EhLV-1) with an energy of up to 0.7 MeV and a power of up to 40 kW. In addition, units with a daily throughput of 200 m 3 are being designed for the breakdown of cyanides in effluent by 60 Co. Such a unit consists of three reactors with centro-axial irradiators and solid cast-iron biological shielding. The dose-rate can be measured over a wide range, thanks to the use of spherical source holders. The sources have a total activity of 62 kCi. Calculations of the cost of the radiation treatment of effluent demonstrate the economic feasibility of the method

  9. Estimation of radioactive effluents dispersion from the nuclear power plants in Yugoslavia surrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehauc, A.

    1997-01-01

    The computational method for atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents is applied to the nuclear power plants in Yugoslavia surrounding. On the basis of computation results, ground level concentrations and washout of radioactive nuclides on exposed Yugoslav territories during unfavourable meteorological conditions are estimated. (author)

  10. Radiological impact of airborne effluents of coal-fired and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, J.P.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Blanco, R.E.

    1977-06-01

    Radiological impact of naturally occurring radionuclides in airborne effluents of a model coal-fired steam plant is evaluated assuming a release to the atmosphere of 1 percent of the ash in the coal burned and compared with the impact of radioactive materials in the airborne effluents of model light-water reactors. The principal exposure pathway for radioactive materials released from both types of plants is ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. For nuclear plants immersion in the airborne effluents is also a significant factor in the dose commitment. Assuming that the coal burned contains 1 ppM uranium and 2 ppM thorium together with their decay products and using the same impact analysis methods used in evaluating nuclear facilities, the maximum individual dose commitments from the coal plant for the whole body and most organs (except the thyroid) are shown to be greater than those from a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and, with the exception of the bone and kidney doses, less than those from a boiling-water reactor (BWR). With the exception of the bone dose, the maximum individual dose commitments from the coal plant are less than the numerical design guideline limits listed for light-water reactors (LWRs). Population dose commitments from the coal plant are higher than those from either nuclear plant

  11. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from waste activated bleaching earth as raw material in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Enoch Y; Sato, Masayasu; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-05-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry using lipase from Candida cylindracea was investigated in a 50-L pilot plant. Diesel oil or kerosene was used as an organic solvent for the transesterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. When 1% (w/w) lipase was added to waste ABE, the FAME content reached 97% (w/w) after reaction for 12 h at 25 degrees C with an agitation rate of 30 rpm. The FAME production rate was strongly dependent upon the amount of enzyme added. Mixtures of FAME and diesel oil at ratios of 45:55 (BDF-45) and 35:65 (BDF-35) were assessed and compared with the European specifications for biodiesel as automotive diesel fuel, as defined by pr EN 14214. The biodiesel quality of BDF-45 met the EN 14214 standard. BDF-45 was used as generator fuel, and the exhaust emissions were compared with those of diesel oil. The CO and SO2 contents were reduced, but nitrogen oxide emission increased by 10%. This is the first report of a pilot plant study of lipase-catalyzed FAME production using waste ABE as a raw material. This result demonstrates a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME from industrial waste resources containing vegetable oils for use as a biodiesel fuel.

  12. MODIFICATION OF RECIPES USED IN THE BLEACHING SECTION OF THE FINISHING PLANT OF THE TEXTILE UNIT "DESEMBARCO DEL GRANMA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabrera Estada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Textile Basic Unit (BU “Desembarco del Granma” of Villa Clara is one of the most important textile industries in Cuba, it is responsible for the provision of a wide variety of fabrics, threads and surgical gauze to various sectors of the country. In the finishing plant of the BU "Desembarco del Granma" a production that meets the parameters set is achieved, but this requires the use of large volumes of costly chemicals and with negative impacts on the environment. To solve this problem an investigation was carried out to evaluate the modification of some of the recipes used in the bleaching section of the finishing plant of the BU "Desembarco del Granma". The results obtained were processed with the Statgraphics software. When the caustic soda is decreased from 60g/L to 40g/L, and it is analyzed the capillarity of warp, it was confirmed that there is no significant difference between the average of the two samples, for a 95,0 % of confidence level; but there were differences between the variances; when analyzing the fabric capillarity it was found that there is no significant difference between the average and the variance of the two samples for a 95,0 % of confidence level. With such modification it is saved 241,4 $/day, by concept of decrease of soda used. The hydrogen peroxide cannot be reduced because it affects the white degree of the fabric.

  13. The treatment of liquid effluents of reprocessing plants by a chemical process: French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, N.; Taillard, D.

    1977-01-01

    The goal of radioactive effluent processing is to obtain a liquid with a residual activity level allowing disposal and a minimum amount of slurries. Insolubilization methods used in France are described to eliminate fission products in reprocessing plants effluents i.e. strontium, cesium, ruthenium and antimony; others radioelements are generally carried away with others precipitates. Evolution of the process is expressed in terms of reprocessing needs and improvements. Decontamination factors better than 100 are now possible with concentration factors between 30 and 50 [fr

  14. Estimation of radioactive effluents concentrations in the vicinity of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsov, Lj.

    1977-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of mathematical prediction of radioactive effluent concentrations around nuclear power plants. This mathematical model which describes the behaviour of the effluent in the atmosphere here in after is expanded and adapted for radioactive effluent treatment. In this way the mathematical model includes the description of the following effects: the rise of plume caused by its vertical momentum and its heat content, wind velocity profile and vertical growth of the coefficient of diffusion, fallout under gravity, ground deposition, precipitation scavenging, and radioactive decay. The advanced computer program DIFFUS has been applied to evaluate the ground concentration of the nuclides of I, which constitute the greatest risk for population.(author)

  15. Application of reverse osmosis to the treatment of liquid effluents produced by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Y.; Poulat, B.; Menjeaud, C.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive liquid effluents generated during the operation of PWR nuclear power units are currently treated by two independent systems. The effluents from the reactor coolant system are recycled, unlike the others, which, after treatment, are released into the river or ocean that provides cooling water for the unit. The objective of the treatment of nonrecycled effluents is to separate from them as much of the radioactive particles that they contain as possible, so as to release into the environment a maximum volume of nonradioactive waste, and to be left with only a minimum volume of concentrated waste, containing most of the initial radioactivity, which must be loaded into casks for storage. Membrane-based filtration techniques, because they have excellent separation performances, can logically be used for this decontamination of the liquid effluents. Having developed its own reverse osmosis membrane, a possible application in a nuclear power plant, i.e., integration of a reverse osmosis unit into a radioactive liquid effluent treatment system is presented. (author)

  16. Study on color removal of Sewage Treatment Plant (STP effluent using granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfida Anita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of sewage treatment plant (STP effluent is one of the attractive solutions to fulfill clean water for hotels and malls in Indonesia. STP effluent has average characteristics as follow: pH 6.8; color (true color 107 PtCo; A254 (UV absorption 0.36 cm-1 and COD 35.9 mg/L. Because of high color and organics contents, STP effluent needs further treatment such as activated carbon adsorption. Batch and continuous treatment of synthetic STP effluent by a commercial granular activated carbon (Filtrasorb 300 were investigated. The results show that adsorption capacity of the Filtrasorb 300 for color body of STP effluent was 184 PCU/g of carbon. Langmuir model is appropriate to describe the isotherm adsorption process in this study, with Qm: 476.2 PCU/g of carbon. The results of isotherm adsorption model evaluation, SEM photograph and FTIR analysis show that color adsorption occurred was physical adsoption.

  17. Operational experience of gaseous effluent treatment at the Eurochemic reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenco, A.; Detilleux, E.

    1977-01-01

    The EUROCHEMIC fuel reprocessing plant applies the PUREX flow sheet. Two particular features of the plant influence gaseous and liquid effluents: chemical decanning and the ability to process a wide range of fuels, uranium metal or oxide, having an initial enrichment typical of power reactors (up to 5%) or material testing reactors (up to 93%). The ventilation circuits, treatment plant and monitoring equipment for gaseous releases are briefly described. No retention facilities for rare gases, tritium, or carbon-14 are provided. The releases are monitored for krypton-85, iodine-131, alpha and beta-gamma aerosols and tritium. Between 1966 and 1974 the plant processes about 200 tonnes of power reactor fuel, from which about 0.7 tonnes of plutonium and 1.5 tonnes of highly enriched uranium were separated. The most important points in the operation of the gas cleaning equipment are indicated: efficiency, operational reliability, incidents, etc.. Actual discharges as measured are compared with the limits set in the operation licence. Using the atmospheric diffusion coefficients, the dose commitment is estimated. The low level liquid effluents are passed, after neutralization, to the treatment plant of the Belgian nuclear center CEN/SCK. However, if the activity exceeds the limit set by the CEN/SCK, the effluents are concentrated by evaporation and stored on the EUROCHEMIC site. (orig.) [de

  18. Revision of by-laws about effluents of EdF's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In France, in application of the clean water law from January 3, 1992 and since the decree 95-540 from May 4, 1995, each basic nuclear facility receives a single permission which covers both its water takes and its radioactive and non-radioactive effluents. This decree, initially dedicated to new facilities has been enlarged to all existing installations for which the prefectorial by-laws have reached their date-line. Thus, up to now, five inter-ministerial by-laws have renewed the permissions of water takes and effluents evacuation of the power plants of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (Loir-et-Cher), Flamanville (Manche), Paluel (Seine-Maritime), Belleville (Cher) and Saint-Alban (Isere). These by-laws foresee an important abatement of the effluents and concern more particularly the tritium, 14 C, the iodine isotopes and also some other non-radioactive chemical compounds. This document is a compilation of all revised by-laws about effluents and concerning the nuclear power plants listed above. (J.S.)

  19. Radioactive effluents, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, calendar year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acox, T.A.; Hary, L.F.; Klein, L.S.

    1983-03-01

    Radioactive discharges from the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are discussed and tabulated. Tables indicate both the location of the discharge and the nuclides discharged. All discharges for 1982 are well below the Radioactive Concentration Guide limits specified in DOE Order 5480.1, Chapter XI. 1 figure

  20. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Postalli Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa and mammal (HTC cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  1. Genotoxic evaluation of an industrial effluent from an oil refinery using plant and animal bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando Postalli; Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Guedes, Carmen Luisa Barbosa; Jordão, Berenice Quinzani

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are genotoxic chemicals commonly found in effluents from oil refineries. Bioassays using plants and cells cultures can be employed for assessing environmental safety and potential genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxic potential of an oil refinery effluent was analyzed by means of micronucleus (MN) testing of Alium cepa, which revealed no effect after 24 h of treatment. On the other hand, primary lesions in the DNA of rat (Rattus norvegicus) hepatoma cells (HTC) were observed through comet assaying after only 2 h of exposure. On considering the capacity to detect DNA damage of a different nature and of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics, we suggest the association of the two bioassays with these cell types, plant (Allium cepa) and mammal (HTC) cells, for more accurately assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples.

  2. Management of regenerant effluent waste at reprocessing plant, Tarapur- a new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Munish; Bajpai, D D; Mudaiya, Avinash; Varadarajan, N [Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant, Tarapur (India)

    1994-06-01

    Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing (PREFRE) Plant, Tarapur has been processing zircaloy clad spent fuel arising from PHWR namely RAPS and MAPS. The plant has been provided with a water pool to receive and store the irradiated fuel assemblies from the reactor site for an interim period before they are taken up for chop-leach and further reprocessing by PUREX process. This paper highlights the important and innovative modifications like introduction of a cation exchanger for water polishing and using nitric acid as regenerant. The regenerant effluent (nitric acid) is recycled to the main process cells where it is mixed and further treated along with process waste stream. This is a step towards minimising effluent generation. The paper describes the advantages of modified system like operational simplification, manpower, man-rem saving and minimising release of activity to environment. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Farm effluent plant produces gas for domestic heat and power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-01-01

    A plant for treating farm waste waters, developed by Wright Rain Ltd. and based on a prototype plant invented by J. Fry which has been in continuous use for 5 years on a pig farm at Rietvlei, Johannesburg, is described. Manure is pumped into one end of the digestion tank about one-third of the way up the tank, and anaerobic decomposition occurs at a controlled temperature (optimum 35/sup 0/C); the gas rises to the top and is collected in gas holders to be utilized for domestic heat and power, while an outlet near the bottom of the tank allows decomposed matter to be drawn off for spreading. Results with pig manure suggest that a digestion tank should be planned for a 60-day cycle. Cow and pig manure can be digested without difficulty, but it would be necessary to add water to chicken manure for successful digestion.

  4. Effluent treatment plant for pharmaceutical unit at Bahipheru - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, A.

    1997-01-01

    This project has been awarded to environ (Pvt) Ltd., on turnkey basis, and is an integrated waste treatment facility for pharmaceuticals companies, manufacturing paracetamole, aspirin and various pharmaceuticals intermediates, from phenol as basic raw material. A highly toxic waste water, containing high concentrations of phenolics and sulfate ions is generated at this plant and has to be treatment before final disposal into an irrigation channel. (author)

  5. Analysis of adaptability of radioactive liquid effluent discharge under normal condition of inland nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yueping; Zhang Bing; Chen Yang; Zhu Lingqing; Tao Yunliang; Shangguan Zhihong

    2011-01-01

    The discharge of radioactive liquid effluent from inland nuclear power plant under normal operation is an important part to be considered in environmental impact assessment. Requirements of newly revised and upcoming standards GB 6249 and GB 14587 are introduced in this paper. Through an example of an inland NPP siting in the preliminary feasibility study phase, the adaptability to the relevant regulations in the site selection is analyzed. Also, the concerned problems in the design of AP1000 units are addressed. (authors)

  6. Human infective potential of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in urban wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis are important waterborne diseases. In the standard for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in China and other countries, fecal coliform is the only microbial indicator, raising concerns about the potential for pathogen t...

  7. Concentrations of prioritized pharmaceuticals in effluents from 50 large wastewater treatment plants in the US and implications for risk estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured the concentrations of 56 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and seven metabolites, including 50 prioritized APIs, in 24-hour composite effluent samples collected from 50 very large municipal wastewater treatment plants across the US. Hydrochlorothiazide was foun...

  8. Host range of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Jenni; Tamminen, Manu; Pärnänen, Katariina; Cairns, Johannes; Karkman, Antti; Virta, Marko

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) collect wastewater from various sources for a multi-step treatment process. By mixing a large variety of bacteria and promoting their proximity, WWTPs constitute potential hotspots for the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Concerns have been expressed regarding the potential of WWTPs to spread antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from environmental reservoirs to human pathogens. We utilized epicPCR (Emulsion, Paired Isolation and Concatenation PCR) to detect the bacterial hosts of ARGs in two WWTPs. We identified the host distribution of four resistance-associated genes (tetM, int1, qacEΔ1and blaOXA-58) in influent and effluent. The bacterial hosts of these resistance genes varied between the WWTP influent and effluent, with a generally decreasing host range in the effluent. Through 16S rRNA gene sequencing, it was determined that the resistance gene carrying bacteria include both abundant and rare taxa. Our results suggest that the studied WWTPs mostly succeed in decreasing the host range of the resistance genes during the treatment process. Still, there were instances where effluent contained resistance genes in bacterial groups not carrying these genes in the influent. By permitting exhaustive profiling of resistance-associated gene hosts in WWTP bacterial communities, the application of epicPCR provides a new level of precision to our resistance gene risk estimates.

  9. Detection of glucocorticoid receptor agonists in effluents from sewage treatment plants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Go; Sato, Kentaro; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takigami, Hidetaka; Brouwer, Abraham; Nakayama, Kei

    2015-09-15

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as anti-inflammatory drugs. Our previous study demonstrated that several GCs such as cortisol and dexamethasone (Dex) were frequently detected in effluents collected from Japanese sewage treatment plants (STPs) in 2012. In this study, we used the GC-Responsive Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (GR-CALUX) assay to elucidate GC receptor (GR) agonistic activities of ten pure synthetic GCs and selected STP effluents in Japan for assessment of the risks associated with the presence of GR agonists. The tested GCs demonstrated dose-dependent agonistic effects in the GR-CALUX assay and their EC50 values were calculated for estimation of relative potencies (REPs) compared to Dex. The GR agonistic potency was in the rank of: clobetasol propionate > clobetasone butyrate > betamethasone 17-valerate > difluprednate > betamethasone 17,21-dipropionate > Dex > betamethasone > 6α-methylprednisolone > prednisolone > cortisol. The GR agonistic activity in STP effluents as measured in Dex-equivalent (Dex-EQ) activities ranged from effluents in Japan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Peroxy bleaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, P.A.; Fairclough, C.S.; Mauduit, C.; Colsell, M.

    2006-01-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a series of inorganic and organic peroxy bleaches were determined using adiabatic rate calorimetry and isothermal microcalorimetry. Results are compared to calculated oxygen balance values. The decomposition of the majority of the compounds is complex. Data indicate the need for cooling during the storage and transport for some materials evaluated. Although no overall structure/activity relationship could be established because of the diversity of molecular architectures studied, a combination of decomposition and activation energy data provides a means for hazard and risk classification

  11. Acute Genotoxic Effects of Effluent Water of Thermo-Power Plant “Kosova” In Tradescantia Pallida

    OpenAIRE

    I. R. Elezaj, L.B.Millaku, R.H. Imeri-Millaku, Q.I. Selimi, and K. Rr. Letaj

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of acute genotoxic effect of effluent water of thermo-power plant by means of Tradescantia root tips micronucleus test (MN), mitotic index and cell aberrations.   Tradescantia, was experimentally treated (for 24 h), with effluent water of thermo-power plant in different dilution ratios (negative control – distilled water; primary untreated effluent water and 1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4; 1:5; 1:6 and 1:7 respectively). Number of aberrant cells, and frequency of ...

  12. OZONE BLEACHING AT NEUTRAL PH – A NEW CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Carvalho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of medium consistency ozone stage pH was evaluated for brown and oxygen delignified eucalyptus kraft pulp samples obtained from VCP - Luiz Antônio pulp mill. These samples were used as such or previously treated with the hot acid stage (A. The main objective of this study was to determine the viability of increasing the ozone stage pH aiming at decreasing bleaching variable costs. The ozone stage was studied in the pH range of 2.5-9.0, taking into account some important variables which affect ozone bleaching: (1 pulp kappa number entering the ozone stage, (2 reactivity of ozone towards lignin versus hexenuronic acids (HexA´s, (3 pulp treatments prior to ozone stage (acid hydrolysis, and (4 pulp treatments after the ozone stage (extraction or a chlorine dioxide stage.  Therefore, the impact of ozone stage pH was investigated in bleaching process such as Z/DEop vs AZ/DEop, Z/DEopD vs AZ/DEopD, Z/E vs AZ/E. The results were interpreted based on ozone stage efficiency and selectivity, and overall bleaching performance measured by the total bleaching chemical consumption required to achieve full brightness, pulp quality and environmental impact. It was concluded that the increase of ozone stage pH from 2.5 to 7.0 has a slightly negative impact on the efficiency and selectivity, measured after Z/DEop sequence, but this effect is not expressive in the end of Z/DEopD bleaching sequence. The increase of ozone stage pH from 2.5 to 7.0 in the sequence Z/DEopD is cost-effective at industrial level because it represents expressive reduction of sulphuric acid and caustic soda demand for pH control in the bleaching plant. These gain areas achieved without any significant changes in pulp quality and effluent load discharge. Nevertheless, the increase of ozone stage pH from 2.5 to 7.0 has a very high negative impact on the efficiency and selectivity for the Z/E and AZ/E processes and it is not recommended in such cases.

  13. A process to remove ammonia from PUREX plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Zirconium-clad nuclear fuel from the Hanford N-Reactor is reprocessed in the PUREX (Plutonium Uranium Extraction) Plant operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Comapny. Before dissolution, cladding is chemically removed from the fuel elements with a solution of ammonium fluoride-ammonium nitrate (AFAN). a solution batch with an ammonia equivalent of about 1,100 kg is added to each fuel batch of 10 metric tons. This paper reports on this decladding process, know as the 'Zirflex' process which produces waste streams containing ammonia and ammonium slats. Waste stream treatment, includes ammonia scrubbing, scrub solution evaporation, residual solids dissolution, and chemical neutralization. These processes produce secondary liquid and gaseous waste streams containing varying concentrations of ammonia and low-level concentrations of radionuclides. Until legislative restrictions were imposed in 1987, these secondary streams were released to the soil in a liquid disposal 'crib' and to the atmosphere

  14. Treatment and processing of the effluents and wastes (other than fuel) produced by a 900 MWe nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud

    1983-01-01

    Effluents produced by a 900 MWe power plant, are of three sorts: gaseous, liquid and solid. According to their nature, effluents are either released or stored for decaying before being released to the atmosphere. The non-contaminated reactor coolant effluents are purified (filtration, gas stripping) and treated by evaporation for reuse. Depending upon their radioactive level, liquid waste is either treated by evaporation or discharged after filtration. Solid waste issuing from previous treatments (concentrates, resins, filters) is processed in concrete drums using an encapsulation process. The concrete drum provides biological self-protection consistent with the national and international regulations pertaining to the transport of radioactive substance. Finally, the various low-level radioactive solid waste collected throughout the plant, is compacted into metal drums. Annual estimates of the quantity of effluents (gaseous, liquid) released in the environment and the number of drums (concrete, metal) produced by the plant figure in the conclusion

  15. Solar photo-degradation of a pharmaceutical wastewater effluent in a semi-industrial autonomous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito, Antonio J; Durán, Antonio; Monteagudo, José M; Acevedo, Alba

    2016-05-01

    An industrial wastewater effluent coming from a pharmaceutical laboratory has been treated in a semi-industrial autonomous solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) plant. A photo-Fenton process assisted with ferrioxalate has been used. Up to 79% of TOC can be removed in 2 h depending on initial conditions when treating an aqueous effluent containing up to 400 ppm of initial organic carbon concentration (TOC). An initial ratio of Fe(II)/TOC higher than 0.5 guarantees a high removal. It can be seen that most of TOC removal occurs early in the first hour of reaction. After this time, mineralization was very slow, although H2O2 was still present in solution. Indeed it decomposed to form oxygen in inefficient reactions. It is clear that remaining TOC was mainly due to the presence of acetates which are difficult to degrade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cross-flow filtration with different ceramic membranes for polishing wastewater treatment plant effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsi, Ali; Hammer Jensen, Sofie; Roslev, Peter

    Nowadays the need for sustainable water treatment is essential because water shortages are increasing. Depending on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent constituents, the effluent cannot be simply discharged to environment because it contains toxic ions and organic micropollutants which...... pore size is 15 nm), mesoporous γ-alumina (5 nm), microporous TiO2 (1nm) and microporous hybrid silica (used. The total ions and specified toxic ions (e. g. Cu2+) rejections were measured using conductivity measurements and atomic adsorption...... spectroscopy, respectively. The type and the molecular size of removed organic compounds were determined using pH, full spectrum UV and size exclusion HPLC. Inorganic N-compound rejections were calculated by N-autoanalyzer. The retention of humic like substances measured by UV254 (Fig.1) decreased almost...

  17. Effluent Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  18. Assessment of heavy metal tolerance in native plant species from soils contaminated with electroplating effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainger, Poonam Ahlawat; Dhankhar, Rajesh; Sainger, Manish; Kaushik, Anubha; Singh, Rana Pratap

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals concentrations of (Cr, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni) were determined in plants and soils contaminated with electroplating industrial effluent. The ranges of total soil Cr, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni concentrations were found to be 1443-3240, 1376-3112, 683-2228, 263-374 and 234-335 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Metal accumulation, along with hyperaccumulative characteristics of the screened plants was investigated. Present study highlighted that metal accumulation in different plants varied with species, tissues and metals. Only one plant (Amaranthus viridis) accumulated Fe concentrations over 1000 mg kg⁻¹. On the basis of TF, eight plant species for Zn and Fe, three plant species for Cu and two plant species for Ni, could be used in phytoextraction technology. Although BAF of all plant species was lesser than one, these species exhibited high metal adaptability and could be considered as potential hyperaccumulators. Phytoremediation potential of these plants can be used to remediate metal contaminated soils, though further investigation is still needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of radiological effluent technical specifications for nuclear power plants. a guidance manual for users of standard technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegli, J.S.; Bellamy, R.R.; Britz, W.L.; Waterfield, R.L.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe methods found acceptable to the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the calculation of certain key values required in the preparation of proposed radiological effluent Technical Specifications using the Standard Technical Specifications for light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. This manual also provides guidance to applicants for operating licenses for nuclear power plants in the preparation of proposed radiological effluent Technical Specifications or in preparing requests for changes to existing radiological effluent Technical Specifications for operating licenses. The manual additionally describes current staff positions on the methodology for estimating radiation exposure due to the release of radioactive materials in effluents and on the administrative control of radioactive waste treatment systems

  20. Prospective environmental risk assessment of mixtures in wastewater treatment plant effluents - Theoretical considerations and experimental verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Vollmar, Pia; Sacher, Frank; Polleichtner, Christian; Hassold, Enken; Gildemeister, Daniela; Kühnen, Ute

    2018-04-14

    The aquatic environment is continually exposed to a complex mixture of chemicals, whereby effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one key source. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether environmental risk assessments (ERAs) addressing individual substances are sufficiently protective for such coincidental mixtures. Based on a literature review of chemicals reported to occur in municipal WWTP effluents and mode-of-action considerations, four different types of mixtures were composed containing human pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and chemicals regulated under REACH. The experimentally determined chronic aquatic toxicity of these mixtures towards primary producers and the invertebrate Daphnia magna could be adequately predicted by the concept of concentration addition, with up to 5-fold overestimation and less than 3-fold underestimation of mixture toxicity. Effluents of a municipal WWTP had no impact on the predictability of mixture toxicity and showed no adverse effects on the test organisms. Predictive ERAs for the individual mixture components based on here derived predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and median measured concentrations in WWTP effluents (MC eff ) indicated no unacceptable risk for any of the individual chemicals, while MC eff /PNEC summation indicated a possible risk for multi-component mixtures. However, a refined mixture assessment based on the sum of toxic units at species level indicated no unacceptable risks, and allowed for a safety margin of more than factor 10, not taking into account any dilution of WWTP effluents by surface waters. Individual substances, namely climbazole, fenofibric acid and fluoxetine, were dominating the risks of the investigated mixtures, while added risk due to the mixture was found to be low with the risk quotient being increased by less than factor 2. Yet, uncertainty remains regarding chronic mixture toxicity in fish, which was not included in the present study. The number and

  1. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in the river receiving the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Taherkhani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Listeria spp. in the river water before and after discharge of the effluent of the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 samples were collected bi-weekly over 4 months from eleven discrete sampling locations in Zayandehrood River, Iran. Three sampling sites were located above the discharge point and five sites were located after the discharge point of WWTP. Samples were also collected from the influent and the effluent of WWTP. Listeria spp. were isolated using a selective enrichment procedure and a subculture onto polymyxin-acriflavine-lithium chloride-ceftazidime-esculin-mannitol Agar. All isolates were subjected to standard biochemical tests. Results: L. monocytogenes was isolated from influent (83%, effluent (50% and (18.5% river water. Listeria spp. was not found before the discharge point in river water. However, L. monocytogenes was isolated in samples collected from 200 m (33%, 500 m (33%, 2 km (16.5%, 5 km (16.5% and 10 km (16.5% downstream from the WWTP. Listeria innocua (9% and Listeria seeligeri (10% were the second most frequently isolated species. Conclusion: During the wastewater treatment, Listeria spp. is not removed completely. L. monocytogenes is widely distributed in the Zayandehrood river. L. monocytogenes released into surface water demonstrates a potential risk for public health. These results indicate the need for appropriate water management in order to reduce human and animal exposure to such pathogens.

  2. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides

  3. Factors Affecting Distribution of Estrogenicity in the Influents, Effluents, and Biosolids of Canadian Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Ben H H; Louie, Alvin; Law, Francis C P

    2016-05-01

    Canadian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) release significant amounts of estrogenic chemicals to nearby surface waters. Environmental estrogens have been implicated as the causative agents of many developmental and reproductive problems in animals, including fish. The goals of this study were to assess the estrogenic activity in the influents, effluents, and biosolids of thirteen Canadian WWTPs using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) bioassay and to investigate whether factors, such as wastewater treatment method, sample storage, extraction efficiency, population, and summer/winter temperature had any effects on the distribution of estrogenicity in the WWTPs. Results of the study showed that estrogenicity from the influent to the effluent decreased in seven WWTPs, increased in two WWTPs, and did not change in four WWTPs during the winter. Estrogenic concentrations generally decreased in the order of biosolids > influents > effluents and ranged from 1.57 to 24.6, 1.25E-02 to 3.84E-01, and 9.46E-03 to 3.90E-01 ng estradiol equivalents/g or ml, respectively. The estrogenicity in the final effluents, but not those in the influents and biosolids, was significantly higher in the summer than the winter. Among the WWTP treatment methods, advanced, biological nutrient removal appeared to be the most effective method to remove estrogenic chemicals from wastewaters in Canada. Our studies help to identify factors or mechanisms that affect the distribution of estrogenicity in WWTPs, providing a better understanding on the discharges of estrogenic chemicals from WWTPs.

  4. Questioning Conventional Wisdom Regarding the Most Suitable Sequence of Enzyme Usage in Pulp Bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdhesh Kumar Gangwar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased public scrutiny and governmental legislation towards the pulp and paper industries have motivated industrialists and researchers to seek improved bleaching sequences having the potential to minimize pollutants in bleach effluent generated during manufacturing of paper. Discovery of toxic chlorinated organics and their components in bleach effluents has focused people’s attention towards finding alternative ways of bleaching pulp. Use of enzymes at industrial scale has become well known, but still it is not clear whether the sequence of enzymatic treatment most often employed in industrial applications represents the best overall practice. The point of enzyme addition is critically important to maximize benefits. Many publications describe the use of an enzyme treatment stage before the use of chemicals in a bleaching process. Insufficient attention has been paid to the alternatives of adding an enzyme in between chemical bleaching agents (intermediate or at the end of the bleaching process.

  5. Monitoring of low-level radioactive liquid effluent in Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Tomoko; Koarashi, Jun; Takeishi, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    The Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP), the first reprocessing plant in Japan, has discharged low-level liquid wastes to the Pacific Ocean since the start of its operation in 1977. We have performed liquid effluent monitoring to realize an appropriate radioactive discharge control. Comparing simple and rapid analytical methods with labor-intensive radiochemical analyses demonstrated that the gross-alpha and gross-beta activities agreed well with the total activities of plutonium isotopes ( 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu) and major beta emitters (e.g., 90 Sr and 137 Cs), respectively. The records of the radioactive liquid discharge from the TRP showed that the normalized discharges of all nuclides, except for 3 H, were three or four orders of magnitude lower than those from the Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants. This was probably due to the installation of multistage evaporators in the liquid waste treatment process in 1980. The annual public doses for a hypothetical person were estimated to be less than 0.2 μSv y -1 from the aquatic pathway. Plutonium radioactivity ratios ( 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu) of liquid effluents were determined to be 1.3-3.7, while those of the seabed sediment samples collected around the discharge point were 0.003-0.059, indicating no remarkable accumulation of plutonium in the regional aquatic environment. Thus, we concluded that there were no significant radiological effects on the public and the aquatic environment during the past 30-year operation of the TRP. (author)

  6. Effect of biofertilizer obtained by anaerobic digestion of cassava effluent on the development of crambe plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa C. Neves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of applying increasing doses of biofertilizer obtained by the anaerobic digestion of cassava effluent on the development of crambe plants. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment at the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR, Palotina Sector, between April and August 2015. A completely randomized design was used, and five different treatments with the following doses were applied in five replicates: 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 kg ha-1 of K2O. The following parameters related to plant development were evaluated: final height, stem diameter, number of branches, dry shoot and root biomass, mass of the grains, and oil content. The 160 kg K2O ha-1 dose was found to have the best influence on the plant development, because all the measured parameters reached their highest values at this dose, except for oil content, which attained the highest percentage in the case of the control treatment (0 kg ha-1 of K2O. This study proved that the biofertilizer obtained by anaerobic digestion of cassava effluent can be used as an alternative to regular fertilizers in cultivating crambe.

  7. Treatment of liquid effluents from an ammonia/urea/sulphur plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, R.C.; Amabal, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    The effluent treatment processes planned for a new 1500 ton/day urea, 1200 ton/day ammonia plant in Brazil, based on the two-stage reaction of ammonia and carbon dioxide to form urea and on the catalytic hydrogenation of nitrogen to ammonia, will include the steps of equalization, flocculation, flotation, nitrification, sedimentation, denitrification, rapid aeration, further settlement, filtration, and discharge to a river. Sludge will be chemically conditioned as needed, and will be thickened, filtered, and disposed of by land application. There will be considerable recycling of nutrients.

  8. Radioactive airborne effluent discharged from Tokai reprocessing plant. 1998-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Akira; Miyauchi, Toru; Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Momose, Takumaro; Kozawa, Tomoyasu; Yokota, Tomokazu; Ohtomo, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-01

    This report provides the data set of atmospheric discharges from Tokai reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura, Japan over the period from 1998 to 2007. Daily and weekly data are shown for 85 Kr that is continuously monitored and for the other nuclides (alpha emitters, beta emitters, 3 H, 14 C, 129 I and 131 I) whose activities are evaluated based on weekly samplings (Weekly sampling is continuous for 1 week). The data contained in this report are expected to apply for studying the behavior of the radioactive airborne effluent in the environment. (author)

  9. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNL’s R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are

  10. Summary report of bioassays for the city of Hollywood water plant membrane reject water as it mixed with WWTP effluent in an ocean outfall environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergen, R.E.; Vinci, P.; Bloetscher, F.

    1999-07-01

    A special bioassay study was conducted to review the impact of the City of Hollywood's Membrane Softening Water Treatment Plant (WRP) reject water as it mixes with the City's Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent. Three sampling periods occurred during 1997. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of the WTP reject water, pre-chlorinated effluent, and combined effluent, and to demonstrate if the combined effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent was acceptable for ocean discharge on the basis of no potential toxicity. Effluent samples were collected at six sampling points; three were in the plant, while the other three were along the outfall pipeline. Definitive, static renewal bioassay tests were performed using Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina as indicators of potential toxicity. The bioassay tests at 30% effluent concentration indicate that there is not potential toxicity for the pre-chlorinated WTP effluent, WTP reject water, dechlorinate combined effluent at the plant, and chlorinated combined effluent at Holland Park, the riser, and the terminus. The results indicate that the WTP reject water (100%) is not toxic to Menidia beryllina but was toxic to Mysidopsis bahia. When combined with the WWRP effluent, the reject water's impact on the potential toxicity of the commingled effluent was insignificant. All of the tests indicate the combined effluents are not toxic to the species tested at the 30% effluent level. Therefore, potential toxicity concerns were not demonstrated for this outfall discharge and did not prevent FDEP from issuing a permit to the City of Hollywood for the disposal of the combined effluent. Furthermore, these results, in combination with the previous results, indicated that individual bioassay testing for the reject water for regulatory compliance is not required.

  11. Thermal effluents from nuclear power plant influences species distribution and thermal tolerance of fishes in reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, A.K.; Das, T.; Dalvi, R.S.; Bagchi, S.; Manush, S.M.; Ayyappan, S.; Chandrachoodan, P.P.; Apte, S.K.; Ravi, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    During electricity generation water bodies like reservoir act as a heat sink for thermal effluent discharges from nuclear power plant. We hypothesized that the fish fauna gets distributed according to their temperature preference in the thermal gradient. In a simulated environment using critical thermal methodology (CTM), we assessed thermal tolerance and metabolic profile of fishes (Puntius filamentosus, Parluciosoma daniconius, Ompok malabaricus, Mastacembelus armatus, Labeo calbasu, Horabragrus brachysoma, Etroplus suratensis, Danio aequipinnatus and Gonoproktopterus curmuca) collected from Kadra reservoir in Karnataka state. Results of CTM tests agrees with the species abundance as per the temperature gradient formed in the reservoir due to thermal effluent discharge. E. suratensis and H. brachysoma) appear to be adapted to high temperature (with high CTMax and CTMin values) and are in abundance at point of thermal discharge. Similarly, P. daniconius, appear to be adapted to cold (low CTM values) is in abundance in lower stretches of Kadra reservoir. Overall results indicate that discharge form nuclear power plant influences the species biodiversity in enclosed water bodies. (author)

  12. Environmental aspects and public exposure doses of airborne radioactive effluents from a PWR-power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Miaofa; Zhang Jin; Fu Rongchu; Hu Yinxiu

    1989-04-01

    It is estimated that the environmental aspects and public exposure doses of airborne radioactive effluents from a imaginary 0.3 GW PWR-power plant which sited on the site of a large coalfired power plant estimated before. The major contributor to public exposure is found to be the release of 14 C and the critical pathway is food ingestion. A maximum annual individual body effective dose equivalent of 7.112 x 10 -6 Sv · (GW · a) -1 is found at the point of 0.5 km southeast of the source. The collective dose equivalent in the area around the plant within a radius of 100 km is to be 0.5974 man-Sv · a) -1 . Both maximum individual and collective effective dose equivalents of the PWR-power plant are much lower than those of the coal-fired one. If the ash emission ratio of the latter decreases from 24.6% to 1%, public exposure doses of the two plants would be nearly equal

  13. Wastewater treatment plant effluents as source of cosmetic polyethylene microbeads to freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalčíková, G; Alič, B; Skalar, T; Bundschuh, M; Gotvajn, A Žgajnar

    2017-12-01

    Microplastics in the environment are either a product of the fractionation of larger plastic items or a consequence of the release of microbeads, which are ingredients of cosmetics, through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of microbeads that may be released by the latter pathways to surface waters using Ljubljana, Slovenia as a case study. For this purpose, microbeads contained in cosmetics were in a first step characterized for their physical properties and particle size distribution. Subsequently, daily emission of microbeads from consumers to the sewerage system, their fate in biological WWTPs and finally their release into surface waters were estimated for Ljubljana. Most of the particles found in cosmetic products were sewerage system at an average rate of 15.2 mg per person per day. Experiments using a lab-scale sequencing batch biological WWTP confirmed that on average 52% of microbeads are captured in activated sludge. Particle size analyses of the influent and effluent confirmed that smaller particles (up to 60-70 μm) are captured within activated sludge while bigger particles were detected in the effluent. Applying these data to the situation in Ljubljana indicates that about 112,500,000 particles may daily be released into the receiving river, resulting in a microbeads concentration of 21 particles/m 3 . Since polyethylene particles cannot be degraded and thus likely accumulate, the data raise concerns about potential effects in aquatic ecosystems in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduction of mercury in plant effluents data management implementation plan FY 1998 Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.N.; Forsberg, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Data Management Implementation Plan (DMIP) is to document the requirements and responsibilities for managing, using, and archiving data used for the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluents (RMPE) project. The DMIP was created for the RMPE project in accordance with the guidance given in Environmental Data Management Implementation Handbook for the Environmental Restoration Program (ES/ER/TM- 88/R 1) and in ''Developing, implementing, and Maintaining Data Management Implementation Plans'' (EMEF/ER-P2216, Rev. 0). This document reflects the state of the RMPE project and the types of environmental monitoring planned as they existed through March 16, 1998. The scope of this document is the management of the RMPE project's environmental information, which includes electronic or hard copy records describing environmental processes or conditions. The RMPE program was established as a best management practice to address sources in the Y-12 Plant that contribute mercury to plant effluents being discharged to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek. The strategy is multifaceted: reroute clean water through clean conduits; clean, reline, and/or replace mercury-contaminated water conduits; eliminate or reduce accumulations of mercury in tanks and sumps; isolate inaccessible mercury from contact with water; and install treatment capability for streams where the source(s) cannot be eliminated or mitigated to acceptable levels. The RMPE project database consists of data from surface water monitoring and sediment sampling at locations of interest within the Y-12 Plant. This DMIP describes the types and sources of RMPE data, other data systems relevant to the RMPE project, the different data management interactions and flow of information involved in processing RMPE data, and the systems used in data management

  15. Acute Genotoxic Effects of Effluent Water of Thermo-Power Plant “Kosova” In Tradescantia Pallida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Elezaj, L.B.Millaku, R.H. Imeri-Millaku, Q.I. Selimi, and K. Rr. Letaj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of acute genotoxic effect of effluent water of thermo-power plant by means of Tradescantia root tips micronucleus test (MN, mitotic index and cell aberrations.   Tradescantia, was experimentally treated (for 24 h, with effluent water of thermo-power plant in different dilution ratios (negative control – distilled water; primary untreated effluent water and 1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4; 1:5; 1:6 and 1:7 respectively. Number of aberrant cells, and frequency of micronuclei (MN, in meristematic root tip cells of treated plants (Tradescantia, were significantly increased (P<0.001; P<0.001 respectively, while the mitotic index in all treated plants was progressively decreased in comparison to the negative control. The results of present study indicate that Tradescantia root-tip micronucleus assay with direct exposure of intact plants is an appropriate method which enables to detect genotoxic effects of effluent waters.

  16. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-04-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP.

  17. The feasibility of agricultural uses of thermal effluent from Glace Bay heavy water plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, S.L.; Puttagunta, V.R.; Meek, K.D.; Chisholm, K.L.

    1978-04-01

    The costs and practicality of pumping effluent water from the GBHWP outfall channel about 500 m to a distribution point, distributing it to up to 25 acres of greenhouses, transferring the heat to the greenhouse air, returning the water to the effluent channel and providing a back-up heat supply were examined. The system described will not interfere with GBHWP operations and can provide a good environment for plant growth at a very attractive price. If a system was designed to serve a 5-acre greenhouse industry, it would cost $18 280 to heat each acre of greenhouse per year ($1.76/GJ), while a system servicing 25 acres could heat greenhouses for only $11 824 per acre per year ($1.14/GJ). This can be compared with the average of $20 000 per acre for fuel alone, paid by Nova Scotia growers in 1975, or the $25 000 per acre per year ($2.40/GJ) calculated in this study as the cost for Bunker C fuel alone at July 1977 prices. The low heating costs possible using waste heat should allow a viable greenhouse industry to be established at Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, and it is recommended that a demonstration greenhouse be constructed to verify the results of this study and demonstrate the technology to potential growers

  18. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP

  19. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF; average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  20. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  1. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  2. CO2 Outgassing from an Urbanized River System Fueled by Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Tae Kyung; Jin, Hyojin; Begum, Most Shirina; Kang, Namgoo; Park, Ji-Hyung

    2017-09-19

    Continuous underway measurements were combined with a basin-scale survey to examine human impacts on CO 2 outgassing in a highly urbanized river system in Korea. While the partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2 ) was measured at 15 sites using syringe equilibration, 3 cruises employing an equilibrator were done along a 30 km transect in the Seoul metropolitan area. The basin-scale survey revealed longitudinal increases in surface water pCO 2 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the downstream reach. Downstream increases in pCO 2 , DOC, fluorescence index, and inorganic N and P reflected disproportionately large contributions from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents carried by major urban tributaries. Cruise transects exhibited strong localized peaks of pCO 2 up to 13 000 μatm and 13 CO 2 enrichment along the confluences of tributaries at an average flow, whereas CO 2 pulses were dampened by increased flow during the monsoon period. Fluctuations in pCO 2 along the eutrophic reach downstream of the confluences reflected environmental controls on the balance between photosynthesis, biodegradation, and outgassing. The results underscore WWTP effluents as an anthropogenic source of nutrients, DOC, and CO 2 and their influences on algal blooms and associated C dynamics in eutrophic urbanized river systems, warranting further research on urbanization-induced perturbations to riverine metabolic processes and carbon fluxes.

  3. Concentrations and Toxic Equivalency of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Polish Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Magdalena; Kiedrzyńska, Edyta

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are widely recognized as important sources of toxic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An example is given in the present paper, where concentrations of 12 dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) congeners were investigated in effluents from 14 WWTPs of different sizes, using gas chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. The results obtained demonstrate that the smallest WWTPs are characterized by the highest total dl-PCB concentration of 102.69 pg/L, roughly twice those of medium-size and large WWTPs, i.e. 41.14 and 48.29 pg/L, respectively. In all cases, the concentrations obtained were generated mostly by increased contributions of PCB-77, PCB-105 and PCB-118 which constituted 48 %-59 % of the mean dl-PCB concentration. The results also reveal a predominance of mono-ortho over non-ortho PCBs. All three types of WWTP effluent were found to have similar toxic equivalency (TEQ) values, ranging from 0.31 for large to 0.37 pg TEQ/L for medium WWTPs.

  4. Behavior and removal of organic species in the Savannah River Plant effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblath, S.B.; Georgeton, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    The effluent treatment facility (ETF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is a new facility designed to treat and decontaminate low-level radioactive wastewater prior to release to the environment. The wastewater is primarily composed of evaporator overheads from the chemical separations and waste handling facilities at SRP. Primarily a 2000 mg/L NaNO 3 solution, the wastewater also contains microcurie-per-liter quantities of radionuclides and milligram-per-liter concentrations of heavy metals and organic components. This paper shows a block diagram of the major process steps. The pH adjustment, filtration, mercury removal, reverse osmosis, and cation-exchange polishing steps give a significant reduction of inorganic species and radionuclide (except trittium) concentrations. The activated carbon removal step was recently added to remove organic species to ensure that the effluent discharge permit limits for oil and grease and biochemical oxygen demand are met. The concentrates and regenerates from each of the treatment steps are further concentrated by evaporation to reduce the volume sufficiently for incorporation into and disposal as a grout

  5. Almost twenty years' search of transuranium isotopes in effluents discharged to air from nuclear power plants with VVER reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölgye, Z; Filgas, R

    2006-04-01

    Airborne effluents of 5 stacks (stacks 1-5) of three nuclear power plants, with 9 pressurized water reactors VVER of 4,520 MWe total power, were searched for transuranium isotopes in different time periods. The search started in 1985. The subject of this work is a presentation of discharge data for the period of 1998-2003 and a final evaluation. It was found that 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 244Cm can be present in airborne effluents. Transuranium isotope contents in most of the quarterly effluent samples from stacks 2, 4 and 5 were not measurable. Transuranium isotopes were present in the effluents from stack l during all 9 years of the study and from stack 3 since the 3rd quarter of 1996 as a result of a defect in the fuel cladding. A relatively high increase of transuranium isotopes in effluents from stack 3 occurred in the 3rd quarter of 1999, and a smaller increase occurred in the 3rd quarter of 2003. In each instance 242Cm prevailed in the transuranium isotope mixtures. 238Pu/239,240Pu, 241Am/239,240Pu, 242Cm/239,240Pu, and 244Cm/239,240Pu ratios in fuel for different burn-up were calculated, and comparison of these ratios in fuel and effluents was performed.

  6. Dragon Fruit Foliage Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Concentrated Latex Effluent: Comparison of Treatment with Ferric Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juferi Idris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of dragon fruit foliage as a natural coagulant for treatment of concentrated latex effluent was investigated and compared with ferric sulfate, a chemical coagulant. Dragon fruit is a round and often red-colored fruit with scales-like texture and is native to south American countries which is also cultivated and heavily marketed in southeast Asian countries. Its foliage represents a part of its overall plant system. Latex effluent is one of the main byproduct from rubber processing factories in Malaysia. Three main parameters investigated were chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SS, and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of latex effluent pH as well as coagulation dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbidity removal percentages for foliage were observed for effluent pH 10 at 94.7, 88.9, and 99.7%, respectively. It is concluded that the foliage showed tremendous potential as a natural coagulant for water treatment purposes. The foliage could be used in the pretreatment stage of Malaysian latex effluent prior to secondary treatment.

  7. Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. Draft EIR/EIS: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SERWTP) Facilities Improvement Plan and Geysers Effluent Pipeline and Effluent Injection Project are proposed as a plan to provide expanded wastewater treatment capabilities and to dispose of the effluent by injection in The Geysers geothermal field for purposes of power production. The project is located predominantly in the County of Lake, California, and also in part of Sonoma County. The plan includes various conventional facilities improvements in wastewater treatment to a secondary level of treatment at the SWERWTP. The plan includes facilities to convey the treated effluent in a 26-mile, 24-inch inside diameter pipeline to the Southeast Geysers. The wastewater from the SERWTP would be supplemented by raw lake water diverted from nearby Clear Lake. At The Geysers, the effluent would be directed into a system of distribution lines to wells. In the geothermal reservoir, the water will be converted to steam and collected in production wells that will direct the steam to six existing power plants. This document is a summary of a combined full Environmental Impact Report (EIR) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The EIR/EIS describes the environmental impacts of the various components of the project. Mitigation measures are suggested for reducing impacts to a less than significant level

  8. Atmospherical experiment in Angra I plant for characterizing the effluent transport threw in the atmospheric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Lobo, M.A. da; Kronemberger, B.M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Available as short communication only. The Environmental Safety Division of the Nuclear Safety and Fuel Department from FURNAS Electric Station S.A. joint with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), achieved a field experiment for characterizing the atmospheric transport and diffusion in the site complex of Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. The complex topography with the thick vegetation and the neighbour building bring problems for the modelling of the effluent transport and the dispersion. The actual meteorological measure system is automatic and compound with four towers. An intensive atmospheric measure with captive balloon is included, and the collected data shows that the site flux is strongly influenced by the topography and insolation. (C.G.C.). 2 figs

  9. Radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon in sewage-treatment-plant effluent and domestic sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Fumiko Watanabe; Imai, Akio; Matsushige, Kazuo; Komatsu, Kazuhiro; Kawasaki, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to better characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in several specific sources to Lake Kasumigaura, such as sewage-treatment-plant effluent (STPE), domestic sewage (DS) and forest stream (FS), we analyzed radiocarbon ( 14 C) and stable carbon isotopic compositions ( 13 C) of the DOCs. The measurements of 14 C for DOC were performed by an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES-TERRA) in Japan. The Δ 14 C and δ 13 C values of the DOCs in several sources to Lake Kasumigaura, have low carbon isotopic values, ranging from -470 per mille to -79 per mille and from -27.9 per mille to -24.2 per mille , respectively. These carbon isotopic values are substantially different from those of Lake Kasumigaura. These results imply different origins for the DOC in Lake Kasumigaura. The 14 C and 13 C analyses of DOC led to a useful classification for DOCs in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in influents, suspended particulate matter, sediments, sewage treatment plant and effluents and biota from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Wester, P.G.; Horst, van der A.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been determined in 133 samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM), sediments, sewage treatment plant (STP) influents and effluents, fish and mussels from various locations in The Netherlands, as a part of a large Dutch national study on estrogenic

  11. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 284-E and 284-W power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Herman, D.R.

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during calendar year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  12. Occurrences and fate of selected human antibiotics in influents and effluents of sewage treatment plant and effluent-receiving river Yamuna in Delhi (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiyar, Pravin K; Mittal, Atul K

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics consumption has increased worldwide, and their residues are frequently reported in aquatic environments. It is believed that antibiotics reach aquatic water bodies through sewage. Medicine consumed for healthcare practices are often released into sewage, and after sewage treatment plant, it reaches the receiving water bodies of lakes or rivers. In the present study, we determined the fate of some commonly used antibiotics in a sewage treatment plant (STP) located in Delhi and the environmental concentration of these antibiotics in the Yamuna River, which receives the sewage and industrial effluent of Delhi. There are many reports on antibiotics occurrences in STP and river water worldwide, but monitoring data from the Indian subcontinent is sparse. Samples were taken from a STP and from six sampling sites on the Yamuna River. Several antibiotics were tested for using offline solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with photodiode array analysis. Recoveries varied from 25.5-108.8 %. Ampicillin had the maximum concentration in wastewater influents (104.2 ± 98.11 μg l(-1)) and effluents (12.68 ± 8.38 μg l(-1)). The fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins had the lower concentrations. Treatment efficiencies varied between 55 and 99 %. Significant amounts of antibiotics were discharged in effluents and were detected in the receiving water body. The concentration of antibiotics in the Yamuna River varied from not detected to 13.75 μg l(-1) (ampicillin) for the compounds investigated.

  13. Effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent inputs on planktonic metabolic rates and microbial community composition in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaquer-Sunyer, Raquel; Reader, Heather E.; Muthusamy, Saraladevi

    2016-01-01

    ) contribute to eutrophication as they are important sources of nitrogen to coastal areas. Here, we evaluated the effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent inputs on Baltic Sea planktonic communities in four experiments. We tested for effects of effluent inputs on chlorophyll a content, bacterial....... An increase in BP and decrease in CR could be caused by high lability of the DOM that can support secondary bacterial production, without an increase in respiration. Increases in bacterial production and simultaneous decreases of primary production lead to more carbon being consumed in the microbial loop...

  14. Optimization of the retention of radioactive material from the airborne effluents of reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.; Horn, H.-G.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation-protection ordinance of the Federal Republic of Germany does not know the expression 'optimization in radiological protection'. In order to gain experiences with the cost-benefit analysis for the retention of radioactive material from nuclear facilities as proposed in ICRP 26, this method has been applied on the emission of radioactive material with the airborne effluents of reprocessing plants. The reference plant has an annual throughput of 1500 t of spent LWR-fuel. Basing on this plant, two smaller plants (350 t/a, 700 t/a) are also analysed. The cost-benefit-analysis is carried-out for H3, C14, Kr85, J129 and aerosols. For these nuclides as well as for the three plant-sizes, the methods of retention, the estimated annual costs of retention, the emission rates for the different retention measures and the resulting collective-dose commitments are shown. Based on an α-value of 8000 $/man-Sv (20,000 DM/Man-Sv) the cost-benefit analysis shows no optimum for H3 and Kr 85. The optimum C14 as well as iodine retention is a high-efficiency scrubber and an iodine filter, respectively for the dissolver off-gas. For aerosols the cost-benefit analysis shows an optimum for the filtration of the dissolver off-gas by means of HEPA filters. For the other aerosol-sources, condensation, scrubbing and additional droplet separation from the off-gas is optimum. Reasons differing from cost-benefit analysis require HEPA filters for all major aerosol-sources. (author)

  15. Studies on uranium recovery from inlet stream of Effluent Treatment Plant by novel 'In-House' sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangita Pal; Tewari, P.K.; Suchismita Mishra; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.; Satpati, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    'In-House' resin Polyacrylhydroxamic acid (PHOA) has been synthesized and utilized targeting ground water remediation; recovery of uranium from low concentration aqueous solution e.g., mining activities related water, flooding of excavated or deplumed areas, nuclear plant washed effluent and process generated effluents in nuclear plant during front-end as well as back-end treatment. In the present study, treatment of field effluent containing heavy metals and radio-nuclides from contaminated mining sites reflected preference for uranium with respect to manganese. The specific complexation between the extractant and metal ion especially uranium provides high distribution co-efficient (K d ) for uranium (K d,U = 1,450 mL/g from inlet of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) and K d,U = 74,950 mL/g for synthetic solution) compared to high level impurity (1,000 times higher concentration) of manganese (K d,Mn = 111 mL/g from inlet of ETP and K d,Mn = 10,588 mL/g for synthetic solution). The 'In-House' resin showed significant extractability (70-95% elution efficiency) and indicates a possibility of selective removal/recovery of the valuable metal ions even from secondary sources. As a specialty, resin can be regenerated and reused. (author)

  16. Biological effects and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in high-back crucian carp exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingliang; Wang Renmin; Huang Bin; Lin Chan; Zhou Jiali; Pan Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents have been shown to cause adverse effects, but the uptake of EDCs from effluents (measured in fish muscle) are not known. In this study, the biological effects and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic EDCs were assessed in high-back crucian carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to WWTP effluents for 141 days. Compared with fish controls caged in Dianchi Lake, a significant reduction in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and increase in hepatosomatic index (HSI) and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels were observed in effluent-exposed fish. The concentrations of steroids and phenols in effluent-exposed fish showed time-dependent increase during the exposure. In addition, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for steroids and phenols were between 17 and 59 on day 141. The results confirm that steroids and phenols bioconcentrate in fish muscle and this accumulation may account for the biological effects associated with exposures to WWTP effluents. - Highlights: ► We assess the potential risk of WWTP effluents to fish. ► We investigate the biological responses of EDCs in fish exposed to effluents. ► We estimate the uptake of EDCs originating from WWTP effluents in fish. ► The bioaccumulation of EDCs may account for the biological effects of effluents. - Bioaccumulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals in WWTP effluent-exposed fish.

  17. Deciphering the Diversities of Astroviruses and Noroviruses in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents by a High-Throughput Sequencing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, B; Lucas, F S; Ambert-Balay, K; Pothier, P; Moulin, L; Wurtzer, S

    2015-10-01

    Although clinical epidemiology lists human enteric viruses to be among the primary causes of acute gastroenteritis in the human population, their circulation in the environment remains poorly investigated. These viruses are excreted by the human population into sewers and may be released into rivers through the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In order to evaluate the viral diversity and loads in WWTP effluents of the Paris, France, urban area, which includes about 9 million inhabitants (approximately 15% of the French population), the seasonal occurrence of astroviruses and noroviruses in 100 WWTP effluent samples was investigated over 1 year. The coupling of these measurements with a high-throughput sequencing approach allowed the specific estimation of the diversity of human astroviruses (human astrovirus genotype 1 [HAstV-1], HAstV-2, HAstV-5, and HAstV-6), 7 genotypes of noroviruses (NoVs) of genogroup I (NoV GI.1 to NoV GI.6 and NoV GI.8), and 16 genotypes of NoVs of genogroup II (NoV GII.1 to NoV GII.7, NoV GII.9, NoV GII.12 to NoV GII.17, NoV GII.20, and NoV GII.21) in effluent samples. Comparison of the viral diversity in WWTP effluents to the viral diversity found by analysis of clinical data obtained throughout France underlined the consistency between the identified genotypes. However, some genotypes were locally present in effluents and were not found in the analysis of the clinical data. These findings could highlight an underestimation of the diversity of enteric viruses circulating in the human population. Consequently, analysis of WWTP effluents could allow the exploration of viral diversity not only in environmental waters but also in a human population linked to a sewerage network in order to better comprehend viral epidemiology and to forecast seasonal outbreaks. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Infrared monitoring of power-plant effluents and heat sinks to optimize plant efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzbach, Richard N.; Seith, David A.

    2000-03-01

    Infrared imaging of the discharge canal and intake pond of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station was initiated to confirm a plant staff suspicion that high water intake temperatures were being influenced by recirculation of discharge flow. To minimize the angle of incidence to the water surface, the inspection was made from the top of the cooling towers. Although there was no evidence of recirculation from the plant discharge to the intake pond, two unexpected inputs of thermal energy were discovered during the inspection. A faulty sluice gate and a damaged cross-around pipe could be seen to be dumping thermal energy into the intake pond. The result was increased temperatures at the intake which threatened plant operation, decreased plant efficiency, and resulted in fewer megawatts available to sell to customers during the critical summer months.

  19. Particulate and colloidal silver in sewage effluent and sludge discharged from British wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Lawlor, Alan J; Cisowska, Iwona; Williams, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    Differential filtration was used to measure silver (>2 nm) entering and leaving nine sewage treatment plants (STPs). The mean concentration of colloidal (2-450 nm) silver, which includes nanosilver, was found to be 12 ng L(-1) in the influent and 6 ng L(-1) in the effluent. For particulate silver (>450 nm) the mean values were 3.3 μg L(-1) for influent and 0.08 μg L(-1) for effluent. Thus, removal was around 50% and 98% for colloidal and particulate silver respectively. There was no significant difference in performance between the different types of STP investigated (three examples each of activated sludge, biological filter and biological filter with tertiary treatment located across England, UK). In addition, treated sewage sludge samples (biosolids) were taken from several STPs to measure the total silver likely to be discharged to soils. Total silver was 3-14 mg kg(-1) DW in the sludge (median 3.6), which if the sludge were added at the recommended rate to soil, would add 11 μg kg(-1) yr(-1) to the top 20 cm soil layer. Predicted concentrations using the LF2000-WQX model for all the rivers of England and Wales for nanosilver were typically in the 0-1 ng L(-1) range but levels up to 4 ng L(-1) are possible in a high discharge and low flow scenario. Predicted concentrations for the total particulate forms were mostly below 50 ng L(-1) except for a high discharge and low flow scenario where concentrations could reach 135 ng L(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bleaching Dengan Teknologi Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Eliwaty

    2008-01-01

    Penulisan tentang bleaching dengan laser dimaksudkan untuk menambah wawasan serta pengetahuan dari pembaca di bidang kedokteran gigi. Macam-macam laser yang dipergunakan dalam bleaching yaitu argon, CO2 serta dioda laser. Contoh merek produk laser yaitu Blulaze, Dentcure untuk argonlaser, Novapulse untuk C02 serta Opus 5 untuk dioda laser. Laser bleaching hasilnya dapat dicapai dalam satu kunjungan saja, cepat, efisien namun biayanya relatif mahal, dapat menimbulkan burn, sensitivitas se...

  1. Rain events and their effect on effluent quality studied at a full scale activated sludge treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilén, B M; Lumley, D; Mattsson, A; Mino, T

    2006-01-01

    The effect of rain events on effluent quality dynamics was studied at a full scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant which has a process solution incorporating pre-denitrification in activated sludge with post-nitrification in trickling filters. The incoming wastewater flow varies significantly due to a combined sewer system. Changed flow conditions have an impact on the whole treatment process since the recirculation to the trickling filters is set by the hydraulic limitations of the secondary settlers. Apart from causing different hydraulic conditions in the plant, increased flow due to rain or snow-melting, changes the properties of the incoming wastewater which affects process performance and effluent quality, especially the particle removal efficiency. A comprehensive set of on-line and laboratory data were collected and analysed to assess the impact of rain events on the plant performance.

  2. Investigation of TC and TSS Removal Efficiencies at Ahvaz West WTP Effluent Using the Land‒plant Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Takdastan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the conventional (primary and secondary treatment processes are known to remove up to 95–99% of some micro-organisms, they do not provide adequate treatment to make the effluent suitable for direct reuse, mainly due to the presence of high concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms. Obtaining reusable effluents, therefore, requires the use of processes that can be justified both technical and economic grounds. One such indigenous, low cost option is the land-plant process that can be used for advanced wastewater treatment. It is the objective of the present study to determine the efficiency of the local soil in Ahvaz and that of the vetiver plant in reducing the microbial load in the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. A pilot study was thus carried out including three Lysimeters installed in West Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant. Local soil was used in one Lysimeter, local soil with vetiver plant in the second one, and an artificial assortment of soil comprising local soil, silica sand (0.5-1mm, and sand (15-30mm in the third. In addition, the effluent from the secondary settling outlet at the WTP was transferred by pumping at the three filtration rates of 0.2, 0.6, and 1 ml/min into the system with three replications for each rate and samples were collected from both inlet and outlet flows. The average removal efficiencies of Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Total Coliform (TC in the effluent from the three Lysimeters with local soil with vetiver, local soil without vetiver, and artificial soil assortment for the filtration rate of 0.2 ml/min were: 67.75% and 99.7%, 58.33% and 99.6%, and 56.25% and 99.5%, respectively. For a filtration rate of 0.6 ml/min, these values were: 53.33% and 98.93%, 48.8 and 98.77%, and 47.68% and 98.64%. Finally, the values obtained for a filtration rate of 0.6 ml/min were: 50% and 93.96%, 46.42 and 91.34%, and 44/04% and 88/81%, respectively. The results from the study showed that the

  3. Characterization of effluents from a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel refabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, M.S.; Bradley, R.A.; Olsen, A.R.

    1975-12-01

    The types and quantities of chemical and radioactive effluents that would be released from a reference fuel refabrication facility for the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) have been determined. This information will be used to predict the impact of such a facility on the environment, to identify areas where additional development work needs to be done to further identify and quantify effluent streams, and to limit effluent release to the environment

  4. Aerobic effluent treatment with lower electric power consumption. Survey of results from questionnaire sent out to Swedish pulp and paper mills with biological effluent treatment plants; Aerob rening med laegre elfoerbrukning. Sammanstaellning av enkaetsvar fraan svenska skogsindustrier med biologisk rening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivard, Aasa; Simon, Olle

    2010-12-15

    A survey of the energy situation at 23 Swedish pulp and paper mills with aerobic effluent treatment plants has been performed. The electricity consumption for aeration equipment is about 80 % of the total electricity consumption. Proposed measures to increase energy efficiency are regular measurements of energy consumption, better control of the oxygen level in some mills and evaluation of measures to use the heat in process effluent before and after biological treatment

  5. Selection of a bioassay battery to assess toxicity in the affluents and effluents of three water-treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bohórquez-Echeverry

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of water quality includes the analysis of both physical-chemical and microbiological parameters. However,none of these evaluates the biological effect that can be generated in ecosystems or humans. In order to define the most suitable organismsto evaluate the toxicity in the affluent and effluent of three drinking-water treatment plants, five acute toxicity bioassays were used,incorporating three taxonomic groups of the food chain. Materials and methods. The bioassays used were Daphnia magna and Hydraattenuata as animal models, Lactuca sativa and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata as plant models, and Photobacterium leioghnathi asbacterial model. To meet this objective, selection criteria of the organisms evaluated and cluster analysis were used to identify the mostsensitive in the affluent and effluent of each plant. Results. All organisms are potentially useful in the assessment of water quality bymeeting four essential requirements and 17 desirable requirements equivalent to 100% acceptability, except P. leioghnathi which doesnot meet two essential requirements that are the IC50 for the toxic reference and the confidence interval. The animal, plant and bacterialmodels showed different levels of sensitivity at the entrance and exit of the water treatment systems. Conclusions. H. attenuata, P.subcapitata and P. leioghnathi were the most effective organisms in detecting toxicity levels in the affluents and D. magna, P. subcapitataand P. leioghnathi in the effluents.

  6. Analysis of chemical reaction kinetics of depredating organic pollutants from secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plant in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Jiang, Dengling; Yang, Yong; Cao, Guoping

    2013-01-01

    Four subsurface constructed wetlands were built to treat the secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Tangshan, China. The chemical pollutant indexes of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed to evaluate the removal efficiency of organic pollutants from the secondary effluent of the wastewater treatment plant. In all cases, the subsurface constructed wetlands were efficient in treating organic pollutants. Under the same hydraulic loading condition, the horizontal flow wetlands exhibited better efficiency of COD removal than vertical flow wetlands: the removal rates in horizontal flow wetlands could be maintained at 68.4 ± 2.42% to 92.2 ± 1.61%, compared with 63.8 ± 1.19% to 85.0 ± 1.25% in the vertical flow wetlands. Meanwhile, the chemical reaction kinetics of organic pollutants was analyzed, and the results showed that the degradation courses of the four subsurface wetlands all corresponded with the first order reaction kinetics to a large extent.

  7. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRAZIER, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  8. Opalescence of bleached teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Max; Maia, Hamilton Pires; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of tooth bleaching on the opalescence properties of enamel. Color of 38 specimens was determined by colorimetric analysis before and after bleaching in the reflectance and transmittance modes. The results were described as CIELab color coordinates. The Opalescent Parameter (OP) was calculated as the difference in yellow-blue color coordinate (CIE Δb*) and red-green color coordinate (CIE Δa*) between the reflected and transmitted colors. Mean OP value of the specimens was 18.9 (±1.6) before bleaching and 16.1 (±1.0) after bleaching. Bleaching decreases the OP of the specimens (p>0.001). OP decrease was correlated with differences in b* color coordinate in the transmittance mode. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Root length of aquatic plant, Lemna minor L., as an optimal toxicity endpoint for biomonitoring of mining effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalapillai, Yamini; Vigneault, Bernard; Hale, Beverley A

    2014-10-01

    Lemna minor, a free-floating macrophyte, is used for biomonitoring of mine effluent quality under the Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) of the Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program in Canada and is known to be sensitive to trace metals commonly discharged in mine effluents such as Ni. Environment Canada's standard toxicity testing protocol recommends frond count (FC) and dry weight (DW) as the 2 required toxicity endpoints-this is similar to other major protocols such as those by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-that both require frond growth or biomass endpoints. However, we suggest that similar to terrestrial plants, average root length (RL) of aquatic plants will be an optimal and relevant endpoint. As expected, results demonstrate that RL is the ideal endpoint based on the 3 criteria: accuracy (i.e., toxicological sensitivity to contaminant), precision (i.e., lowest variance), and ecological relevance (metal mining effluents). Roots are known to play a major role in nutrient uptake in conditions of low nutrient conditions-thus having ecological relevance to freshwater from mining regions. Root length was the most sensitive and precise endpoint in this study where water chemistry varied greatly (pH and varying concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, K, dissolved organic carbon, and an anthropogenic organic contaminant, sodium isopropyl xanthates) to match mining effluent ranges. Although frond count was a close second, dry weight proved to be an unreliable endpoint. We conclude that toxicity testing for the floating macrophyte should require average RL measurement as a primary endpoint. © 2014 SETAC.

  10. Radioactive effluents from nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luykx, F.; Fraser, G.

    1983-01-01

    The report covers operational nuclear power stations of capacity greater than 5C MWe and nucler fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community. Radioactive gaseous and liquid effluent discharges from these installations are given for the period 1976 to 1980, expressed both in absolute terms and normalized to net electricity production from the fuel. An assesssment is then made of exposure of members of the public consequent to the 1980 discharges. Where environmental contamination levels were detectable the results have been taken into account in the dose assessment; however, environmental contamination was in general below the limit of detection. In these circumstances the dose estimates rely entirely on theoretical models which frequently incorporate conservative assumptions; hence these estimates are likely to be greater than the doses actually received. The estimated exposures have then been compared with the dose limits set out in the Euratom Directive of 15th July, 1980. It is concluded that the exposure of members of the public always left an appreciable safety margin relative to the limits and indeed lay within the variations in exposure which result from natural background

  11. Radioactive effluents from nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The report presents the available data on radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents discharged by nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community from 1972 to 1976. Discharges are expressed both in absolute terms and relative to the net production of electricity from the fuel. On the basis of the discharges recorded for 1976 the resulting maximum exposure of members of the population is quantified and compared with the dose limits prescribed by Euratom radiological protection standards and with the exposure resulting from natural radioactivity. It is concluded that there is no case in which a discharge could have given rise to an exposure exceeding the relevant prescribed limit. Not only did the possible maximum exposures incurred by individuals leave an appreciable safety margin relative to that limit but, for the vast majority of installations, they were comparable with or were considerably lower than the geographical and temporal variations in exposures resulting from natural radioactivity. Where environmental levels have been detectable the measured results have of course been used but, with few exceptions, the levels have remained less than the very low limits of detection currently possible. In general, where theoretical models are used to evaluate exposure, they are designed to give conservative results and hence it is likely that the true exposures are even less than those calculated

  12. Toxicity Identification and Evaluation for the Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Industrial Complex using D.magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Keum, H.; Chun Sang, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the interests on the impacts of industrial wastewater on aquatic ecosystem have increased with concern about ecosystem protection and human health. Whole effluent toxicity tests are used to monitor toxicity by unknown toxic chemicals as well as conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study describes the application of TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) procedures to an acutely toxic effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in industrial complex which was toxic to Daphnia magna. In TIE phase I (characterization step), the toxic effects by heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids and ammonia were screened and revealed that the source of toxicity is far from these toxicants group. Chemical analysis (TIE phase II) on TDS showed that the concentration of chloride ion (6,900 mg/L) was substantially higher than that predicted from EC50 for D. magna. In confirmation step (TIE phase III), chloride ion was demonstrated to be main toxicant in this effluent by the spiking approach, species sensitivity approach and deletion approach. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, fluorine, sulfate ion concentration (450, 100, 80, 5,300, 0.66, 2,200mg/L) was not shown toxicity from D. magna. Finally, we concluded that chloride was the most contributing toxicant in the waste water treatment plant. Further research activities are needed for technical support of toxicity identification and evaluation on the various types of wastewater treatment plant discharge in Korea. Keywords : TIE, D. magna, Industrial waste water Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  13. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The presen...

  14. Quantitative detection of powdered activated carbon in wastewater treatment plant effluent by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahnstöver, Therese; Plattner, Julia; Wintgens, Thomas

    2016-09-15

    For the elimination of potentially harmful micropollutants, powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption is applied in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This holds the risk of PAC leakage into the WWTP effluent and desorption of contaminants into natural water bodies. In order to assess a potential PAC leakage, PAC concentrations below several mg/L have to be detected in the WWTP effluent. None of the methods that are used for water analysis today are able to differentiate between activated carbon and solid background matrix. Thus, a selective, quantitative and easily applicable method is still needed for the detection of PAC residues in wastewater. In the present study, a method was developed to quantitatively measure the PAC content in wastewater by using filtration and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which is a well-established technique for the distinction between different solid materials. For the sample filtration, quartz filters with a temperature stability up to 950 °C were used. This allowed for sensitive and well reproducible measurements, as the TGA was not affected by the presence of the filter. The sample's mass fractions were calculated by integrating the mass decrease rate obtained by TGA in specific, clearly identifiable peak areas. A two-step TGA heating method consisting of N2 and O2 atmospheres led to a good differentiation between PAC and biological background matrix, thanks to the reduction of peak overlapping. A linear correlation was found between a sample's PAC content and the corresponding peak areas under N2 and O2, the sample volume and the solid mass separated by filtration. Based on these findings, various wastewater samples from different WWTPs were then analyzed by TGA with regard to their PAC content. It was found that, compared to alternative techniques such as measurement of turbidity or total suspended solids, the newly developed TGA method allows for a quantitative and selective detection of PAC concentrations down to 0

  15. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  16. Using Combined Processes of Filtration and Ultraviolet Irradiation for Effluent Disinfection of Isfahan North Wastewater Treatment Plant in Pilot Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the secondary effluent disinfection of the Isfahannorth municipal wastewater treatment plant using filtration and UV technology in current operational condition. The combined system was used in series in pilot scale including: Pressure Sand Filter + Low Pressure (LP + Medium Pressure (MP UV Lamps. The UV dose varied according to the initial intensity of lamp, flow rate and influent transmittance. Total coliform (TC, fecal coliform (FC and fecal streptococcus (FS were analyzed as microbiological parameters in all effluent samples. TSS, BOD5, COD, VSS, pH and transmittance (UVT percentage were tested as physicochemical parameters, before and after the units. Results showed that the filtration with loading of 1050 lit/m2.hr, followed by MP lamp with dose of 230 mW.s/cm2 is an effective alternative to reduce the TC/FC and FS in the secondary effluent. The combined disinfection processes that were used in this study, could be met the standards of 1000 TC, and 400FC/100ml for effluent discharge to receiving waters or restricted reuses in the agriculture. This process can also inactivate the FS down to 6-log.Using low-pressure lamps due to low dose radiation for disinfection is not cost-effective. In this study, parasite egg counts due to lack of access to accurate identification techniques for alive cyst detection was not examined.

  17. Systematic study of the contamination of wastewater treatment plant effluents by organic priority compounds in Almeria province (SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco-Bonilla, Nieves; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, José L; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2013-03-01

    The occurrence of priority organic pollutants in wastewater (WW) effluents was evaluated in a semi-arid area, characterized by a high agricultural and tourism activity, as Almeria province (Southeastern Spain). Twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were sampled in three campaigns during 2011, obtaining a total of 33 WW samples, monitoring 226 compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Certain banned organochlorine pesticides such as aldrin, pentachlorobenzene, o,p'-DDD and endosulfan lactone were found, and the most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides (diuron, triazines). PAHs and VOCs were also detected, noting that some of these pollutants were ubiquitous. Regarding phenolic compounds, 4-tertoctylphenol was found in all the WW samples at high concentration levels (up to 89.7 μg/L). Furthermore, it was observed that WW effluent samples were less contaminated in the second and third sampling periods, which corresponded to dry season. This evaluation revealed that despite the WW was treated in the WWTP, organic contaminants are still being detected in WW effluents and therefore they are released into the environment. Finally the risk of environmental threat due to the presence of some compounds in WWTP effluents, especially concerning 4-tertoctylphenol must be indicated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple response optimization of the coagulation process for upgrading the quality of effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J.; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-05-01

    To meet the high quality standard of receiving water, the coagulation process using polyferric chloride (PFC) was used to further improve the water quality of effluent from wastewater treatment plants. Uniform design (UD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to assess the effects of the main influence factors: coagulant dosage, pH and basicity, on the removal of total organic carbon (TOC), NH4+-N and PO43--P. A desirability function approach was used to effectively optimize the coagulation process for the comprehensive removal of TOC, NH4+-N and PO43--P to upgrade the effluent quality in practical application. The optimized operating conditions were: dosage 28 mg/L, pH 8.5 and basicity 0.001. The corresponding removal efficiencies for TOC, NH4+-N and PO43--P were 77.2%, 94.6% and 20.8%, respectively. More importantly, the effluent quality could upgrade to surface water Class V of China through coagulation under optimal region. In addition, grey relational analysis (GRA) prioritized these three factors as: pH > basicity > dosage (for TOC), basicity > dosage > pH (for NH4+-N), pH > dosage > basicity (for PO43--P), which would help identify the most important factor to control the treatment efficiency of various effluent quality indexes by PFC coagulation.

  19. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator, so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents. The LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in the glass waste form, and represent a materials corrosion concern, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components will accumulate in the Melter Condensate

  20. Lagrangian sampling of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2005--Hydrological and chemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Taylor, Howard E.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents methods and data for a Lagrangian sampling investigation into chemical loading and in-stream attenuation of inorganic and organic contaminants in two wastewater treatment-plant effluent-dominated streams: Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa. Water-quality sampling was timed to coincide with low-flow conditions when dilution of the wastewater treatment-plant effluent by stream water was at a minimum. Sample-collection times corresponded to estimated travel times (based on tracer tests) to allow the same "parcel" of water to reach downstream sampling locations. The water-quality data are linked directly to stream discharge using flow- and depth-integrated composite sampling protocols. A range of chemical analyses was made for nutrients, carbon, major elements, trace elements, biological components, acidic and neutral organic wastewater compounds, antibiotic compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, steroid and steroidal-hormone compounds, and pesticide compounds. Physical measurements were made for field conditions, stream discharge, and time-of-travel studies. Two Lagrangian water samplings were conducted in each stream, one in the summer of 2003 and the other in the spring of 2005. Water samples were collected from five sites in Boulder Creek: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, and three downstream sites. Fourmile Creek had seven sampling sites: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, four downstream sites, and a tributary. At each site, stream discharge was measured, and equal width-integrated composite water samples were collected and split for subsequent chemical, physical, and biological analyses. During the summer of 2003 sampling, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant consisted of 36 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from the respective wastewater treatment plant was 81 percent effluent. During the spring of 2005

  1. Analysis of dispersion of heated effluent from power plant: a case ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikram Shah

    It is established that the thermal dispersion is influenced by wind ... effluent discharge and the excess temperature above the ambient at the ... used Generalized Environmental Modelling System for .... Cloudy day. 28/10/ ...... Earth Planet. Sci.

  2. Natural and Synthetic Estrogens in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent and the Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    isotopes (12C, 13C) is used routinely to identify synthetic steroid doping in athletics and livestock applications. 36 Chapter 4 will present...Suri (2009). "Presence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in surface water of agricultural, suburban and mixed- use areas." Environmental Monitoring...halogenated estrogens at picomolar levels in wastewater effluent and coastal seawater. The method was validated using treated effluent from the

  3. Concentrations of prioritized pharmaceuticals in effluents from 50 large wastewater treatment plants in the US and implications for risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostich, Mitchell S.; Batt, Angela L.; Lazorchak, James M.

    2014-01-01

    We measured concentrations of 56 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in effluent samples from 50 large wastewater treatment plants across the US. Hydrochlorothiazide was found in every sample. Metoprolol, atenolol, and carbamazepine were found in over 90% of the samples. Valsartan had the highest concentration (5300 ng/L), and also had the highest average concentration (1600 ng/L) across all 50 samples. Estimates of potential risks to healthy human adults were greatest for six anti-hypertensive APIs (lisinopril, hydrochlorothiazide, valsartan, atenolol, enalaprilat, and metoprolol), but nevertheless suggest risks of exposure to individual APIs as well as their mixtures are generally very low. Estimates of potential risks to aquatic life were also low for most APIs, but suggest more detailed study of potential ecological impacts from four analytes (sertraline, propranolol, desmethylsertraline, and valsartan). -- Highlights: • Report concentrations of 56 pharmaceuticals in effluents from 50 wastewater plants. • Model and measurements agree that potential risks to healthy adult humans are low. • Model and measurements agree some uncertainties remain about risks to aquatic life. -- Measurements of pharmaceuticals in municipal effluent suggest risks of exposure to healthy human adults are low, but suggest the need for study of potential impacts on aquatic life

  4. Pilot Control of Viscous Bulking in the Activated Sludge Treatment of Industrial Effluent from Soft Drink Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Esfahani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Viscous bulking is a typical problem arising in activated sludge facilities treating effluent from soft drink plants. The drawbacks associated with this phenomenon include increased effluent organic loading and undesirable sludge settlement. In order to investigate this phenomenon, a soft drink factory was selected as a pilot plant for a case study (where metal tanks were used as a biological selector, an aeration basin, and a clarifier. The study shows that the major causes of viscous bulking are high organic loading and undesirable ratio of monovalent to divalent cations. In the biological selector (with a retention time of 20 hours, while the organic load in the influent to the aeration basin decreased by about 50%, with an impact on reduced viscous bulking, pH value decreased from 12 to 6.5 due to fatty acids production. Adjustment of Na/Ca ratio improved bacterial surface hydrophobicity and prevented degradation of biological flocs. This resulted in improved sludge settleability. Application of this method improved sludge settling, made flocs stronger, and reduced effluent organic load (COD to less than 150 mg/l, indicating stability of the system.

  5. Integrated membrane and microbial fuel cell technologies for enabling energy-efficient effluent Re-use in power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Namita; Chilkoor, Govinda; Xia, Lichao; Alvarado, Catalina; Kilduff, James E; Keating, John J; Belfort, Georges; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana

    2017-06-15

    Municipal wastewater is an attractive alternative to freshwater sources to meet the cooling water needs of thermal power plants. Here we offer an energy-efficient integrated microbial fuel cell (MFC)/ultrafiltration (UF) process to purify primary clarifier effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant for use as cooling water. The microbial fuel cell was shown to significantly reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the primary settled wastewater effluent upstream of the UF module, while eliminating the energy demand required to deliver dissolved oxygen in conventional aerobic treatment. We investigated surface modification of the UF membranes to control fouling. Two promising hydrophilic monomers were identified in a high-throughput search: zwitterion (2-(Methacryloyloxy)-ethyl-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl ammoniumhydroxide, abbreviated BET SO 3 - ), and amine (2-(Methacryloyloxy) ethyl trimethylammonium chloride, abbreviated N(CH 3 ) 3 + ). Monomers were grafted using UV-induced polymerization on commercial poly (ether sulfone) membranes. Filtration of MFC effluent by membranes modified with BET SO 3 - and N(CH 3 ) 3 + exhibited a lower rate of resistance increase and lower energy consumption than the commercially available membrane. The MFC/UF process produced high quality cooling water that meets the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) recommendations for COD, a suite of metals (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Si, Mn, S, Ca and Mg), and offered extremely low corrosion rates (<0.05 mm/yr). A series of AC and DC diagnostic tests were used to evaluate the MFC performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Europe-wide survey of estrogenicity in wastewater treatment plant effluents: the need for the effect-based monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarošová, Barbora; Erseková, Anita; Hilscherová, Klára; Loos, Robert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Ludek

    2014-09-01

    A pan-European monitoring campaign of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents was conducted to obtain a concise picture on a broad range of pollutants including estrogenic compounds. Snapshot samples from 75 WWTP effluents were collected and analysed for concentrations of 150 polar organic and 20 inorganic compounds as well as estrogenicity using the MVLN reporter gene assay. The effect-based assessment determined estrogenicity in 27 of 75 samples tested with the concentrations ranging from 0.53 to 17.9 ng/L of 17-beta-estradiol equivalents (EEQ). Approximately one third of municipal WWTP effluents contained EEQ greater than 0.5 ng/L EEQ, which confirmed the importance of cities as the major contamination source. Beside municipal WWTPs, some treated industrial wastewaters also exhibited detectable EEQ, indicating the importance to investigate phytoestrogens released from plant processing factories. No steroid estrogens were detected in any of the samples by instrumental methods above their limits of quantification of 10 ng/L, and none of the other analysed classes of chemicals showed correlation with detected EEQs. The study demonstrates the need of effect-based monitoring to assess certain classes of contaminants such as estrogens, which are known to occur at low concentrations being of serious toxicological concern for aquatic biota.

  7. Rapid, single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, E. F.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    A single-step most-probable-number method for determining the number of fecal coliform bacteria present in sewage treatment plant effluents is discussed. A single growth medium based on that of Reasoner et al. (1976) and consisting of 5.0 gr. proteose peptone, 3.0 gr. yeast extract, 10.0 gr. lactose, 7.5 gr. NaCl, 0.2 gr. sodium lauryl sulfate, and 0.1 gr. sodium desoxycholate per liter is used. The pH is adjusted to 6.5, and samples are incubated at 44.5 deg C. Bacterial growth is detected either by measuring the increase with time in the electrical impedance ratio between the innoculated sample vial and an uninnoculated reference vial or by visual examination for turbidity. Results obtained by the single-step method for chlorinated and unchlorinated effluent samples are in excellent agreement with those obtained by the standard method. It is suggested that in automated treatment plants impedance ratio data could be automatically matched by computer programs with the appropriate dilution factors and most probable number tables already in the computer memory, with the corresponding result displayed as fecal coliforms per 100 ml of effluent.

  8. Distribution of effluent injected into the Boulder Zone of the Floridan aquifer system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, southeastern Florida, 1997–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.; Decker, Jeremy D.

    2018-02-09

    Nonhazardous, secondarily treated, domestic wastewater (effluent) has been injected about 1 kilometer below land surface into the Boulder Zone of the Floridan aquifer system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant in southeastern Florida. The Boulder Zone contains saline, nonpotable water. Effluent transport out of the injection zone is a risk of underground effluent injection. At the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, injected effluent was detected outside the Boulder Zone. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, investigated effluent transport from the Boulder Zone to overlying permeable zones in the Floridan aquifer system.One conceptual model is presented to explain the presence of effluent outside of the injection zone in which effluent injected into the Boulder Zone was transported to the Avon Park permeable zone, forced by buoyancy and injection pressure. In this conceptual model, effluent injected primarily into the Boulder Zone reaches a naturally occurring feature (a karst-collapse structure) near an injection well, through which the effluent is transported vertically upward to the uppermost major permeable zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer. The effluent is then transported laterally through the uppermost major permeable zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer to another naturally occurring feature northwest of the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, through which it is then transported vertically upward into the Avon Park permeable zone. In addition, a leak within a monitoring well, between monitoring zones, allowed interflow between the Avon Park permeable zone and the Upper Floridan aquifer. A groundwater flow and effluent transport simulation of the hydrogeologic system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, based on the hypothesized and non-unique conceptualization of the subsurface hydrogeology and flow system, generally replicated measured effluent constituent

  9. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  10. Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment.

  11. Calculation of risk-based detection limits for radionuclides in the liquid effluents from Korean nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Jae Hak

    2017-01-01

    In order to review if present detection limits of radionuclides in liquid effluent from nuclear power plants are effective enough to warrant compliance with regulatory discharge limits, a risk-based approach is developed to derive a new detection limit for each radionuclide based on radiological criteria. Equations and adjustment factors are also proposed to discriminate the validity of the detection limits for multiple radionuclides in the liquid effluent with or without consideration of the nuclide composition. From case studies to three nuclear power plants in Korea with actual operation data from 2006 to 2015, the present detection limits have turned out to be effective for Hanul Unit 1 but may not be sensitive enough for Kori Unit 1 (8 out of 14 radionuclides) and Wolsong Unit 1 (9 out of 42 radionuclides). However, it is shown that the present detection limits for the latter two nuclear power plants can be justified, if credit is given to the radionuclide composition. Otherwise, consideration should be given to adjustment of the present detection limits. The risk-based approach of this study can be used to determine the validity of established detection limits of a specific nuclear power plant. (author)

  12. Combinatorial effects of distillery and sugar factory effluents in crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Kamlesh; Singh, Dharam; Sharma, Yogesh Kumar

    2007-07-01

    Under the reutilization and recycling strategy of industrial effluents, treated distillery and sugar factory mixed effluent was used in petridish culture experiments to investigate its effect on seed germination and seedling growth in wheat, garden pea, black gram and mustard. The seed germination and seedling growth were significantly reduced with increase in concentration of the effluent. The fresh matter was found significantly increased in barley (1.16 g per seedling in 25% dilution level of effluents in comparison to 0.93 in control), while other higher dilution levels reduce it. Wheat, garden pea, black gram, mustard invariably showed inhibition in fresh weight. Dry weight was found consistently reduced or unchanged in different treatments. Total chlorophyll contents in barley were significantly increased in different treatments (2.351 and 2.721 mg/g fresh weight of tissue at 25, 50% dilution levels in comparison to 1.781 of control) while in other crop it was reduced alloverthe treatments. Amylase activity in wheat, garden pea, black gram and mustard was reduced in all the treatments. Only in barley its level was enhanced from 0.76 to 0.85, 0.96, 0.81 in 25, 50, 75% dilution levels of the effluent mixture respectively Based on the data of different crops barley was found to be highly tolerant as the 25 and 50% dilution levels of combined effluents. It showed no change in germination %, while seedling growth was increased in lower dilution levels of combined effluent as compared to control Barley>garden pea>wheat>black gram>mustard gradually showed increased level of sensitivity respectively Most detrimental effects were seen in mustard. This toxicity might be due to excess of nutrients, beyond the limits of tolerance. Therefore, the higher concentration of mixed effluent was not advisable for irrigation purpose, however it could be used for irrigation purpose after proper treatment and dilution (one part treated effluent and five parts of available

  13. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Jenna E.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Lee, Kathy E.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Mayasich, Joe; Eid, Evan P.; Nelson, Krysta R.; Milsk, Rebecca Y.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Berninger, Jason P.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Blanskma, Chad; Jicha, Terri M.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Johnson, Rodney C.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, which can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined reproductive effects in fathead minnows exposed for 21 d to a historically estrogenic WWTP effluent. Fathead minnow breeding pairs were held in control water or 1 of 3 effluent concentrations (5%, 20%, and 100%) in a novel onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. The authors examined molecular and biochemical endpoints representing key events along adverse outcome pathways linking estrogen receptor activation and other molecular initiating events to reproductive impairment. In addition, the authors used chemical analysis of the effluent to construct a chemical-gene interaction network to aid in targeted gene expression analyses and identifying potentially impacted biological pathways. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100% effluent but increased in those exposed to 20% effluent, the approximate dilution factor in the receiving waters. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males increased in a dose-dependent manner with effluent concentration; however, male fertility was not impacted. Although in vitro analyses, analytical chemistry, and biomarker responses confirmed the effluent was estrogenic, estrogen receptor agonists were unlikely the primary driver of impaired reproduction. The results provide insights into the significance of pathway-based effects with regard to predicting adverse reproductive outcomes.

  14. Wastewater treatment plant effluents change abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in mediterranean urban stream biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbt, Stephanie N; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Blesa, Alba; Martí, Eugènia; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2015-01-01

    Streams affected by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are hotspots of nitrification. We analyzed the influence of WWTP inputs on the abundance, distribution, and composition of epilithic ammonia-oxidizing (AO) assemblages in five Mediterranean urban streams by qPCR and amoA gene cloning and sequencing of both archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). The effluents significantly modified stream chemical parameters, and changes in longitudinal profiles of both NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) indicated stimulated nitrification activity. WWTP effluents were an allocthonous source of both AOA, essentially from the Nitrosotalea cluster, and mostly of AOB, mainly Nitrosomonas oligotropha, Nitrosomonas communis, and Nitrosospira spp. changing the relative abundance and the natural composition of AO assemblages. Under natural conditions, Nitrososphaera and Nitrosopumilus AOA dominated AO assemblages, and AOB were barely detected. After the WWTP perturbation, epilithic AOB increased by orders of magnitude whereas AOA did not show quantitative changes but a shift in population composition to dominance of Nitrosotalea spp. The foraneous AOB successfully settled in downstream biofilms and probably carried out most of the nitrification activity. Nitrosotalea were only observed downstream and only in biofilms exposed to either darkness or low irradiance. In addition to other potential environmental limitations for AOA distribution, this result suggests in situ photosensitivity as previously reported for Nitrosotalea under laboratory conditions.

  15. Treatment of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents by solar photocatalysis using low TiO2 concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto-Rodriguez, L.; Miralles-Cuevas, S.; Oller, I.; Agüera, A.; Puma, G. Li; Malato, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Low TiO 2 concentration suitable for removal of contaminants in WWTP effluents. ► The low concentration of TiO 2 limits the reaction rate due to the loss of photons. ► Contaminant degradation >85% is possible after a certain reaction time. ► New developments in CPC photoreactors with as large an O.D. are necessary. - Abstract: The optimal photocatalyst concentration for industrial wastewater treatment in current photoreactor designs is several hundreds of milligrams per liter. However, the elimination of emerging contaminants (ECs), which are present at extremely low concentrations in waste water treatment plants (WWTP) effluents might be accomplished at much lower catalyst (TiO 2 ) concentrations. One of the main drawbacks of reducing catalyst loading below the optimum is the loss of useful photons which instead are transmitted through the TiO 2 suspension without being absorbed by the catalyst. Accordingly, in this work, laboratory and solar pilot-scale experiments were performed with real WWTP effluents to evaluate the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of 52 emerging contaminants under realistic (ppb) concentrations. The analysis of the samples was accomplished by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). In view of the results, low concentrations of TiO 2 of the order of tens of milligrams per liter were found to be insufficient for the degradation of the ECs in photoreactors with a short light-path length (29 cm). However, it was established that solar reactors of diameters of several hundreds of millimetres could be used for the efficient removal of ECs from WWTP effluents. The results presented show a general methodology for selecting the most efficient reactor diameter on the basis of the desired catalyst concentration.

  16. Presence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia exhibiting high genetic similarity to clinical isolates in final effluents of pig farm wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ji; Park, Jin-Hyeong; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2018-03-01

    Although the prevalence of community-acquired Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections is sharply increasing, the sources and likely transmission routes of this bacterium are poorly understood. We studied the significance of the presence of S. maltophilia in final effluents and receiving rivers of pig farm wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The loads and antibiotic resistance profiles of S. maltophilia in final effluents were assessed. Antibiotic resistance determinants and biofilm formation genes were detected by PCR, and genetic similarity to clinical isolates was investigated using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). S. maltophilia was recovered from final effluents at two of three farms and one corresponding receiving river. Tests of resistance to antibiotics recommended for S. maltophilia infection revealed that for each agent, at least one isolate was classified as resistant or intermediate, with the exception of minocycline. Furthermore, multidrug resistant S. maltophilia susceptible to antibiotics of only two categories was isolated and found to carry the sul2 gene, conferring trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance. All isolates carried spgM, encoding a major factor in biofilm formation. MLST revealed that isolates of the same sequence type (ST; ST189) were present in both effluent and receiving river samples, and phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the STs identified in this study clustered with clinical isolates. Moreover, one isolate (ST192) recovered in this investigation demonstrated 99.61% sequence identity with a clinical isolate (ST98) associated with a fatal infection in South Korea. Thus, the pathogenicity of the isolates reported here is likely similar to that of those from clinical environments, and WWTPs may play a role as a source of S. maltophilia from which this bacterium spreads to human communities. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of S. maltophilia in pig farm WWTPs. Our results indicate that

  17. Reducing the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant treating winery effluent wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diéguez, Carlos; Bernard, Olivier; Roca, Enrique

    2013-03-01

    The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) is a complex model which is widely accepted as a common platform for anaerobic process modeling and simulation. However, it has a large number of parameters and states that hinder its calibration and use in control applications. A principal component analysis (PCA) technique was extended and applied to simplify the ADM1 using data of an industrial wastewater treatment plant processing winery effluent. The method shows that the main model features could be obtained with a minimum of two reactions. A reduced stoichiometric matrix was identified and the kinetic parameters were estimated on the basis of representative known biochemical kinetics (Monod and Haldane). The obtained reduced model takes into account the measured states in the anaerobic wastewater treatment (AWT) plant and reproduces the dynamics of the process fairly accurately. The reduced model can support on-line control, optimization and supervision strategies for AWT plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Degradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol (TNP) by Arthrobacter sp. HPC1223 Isolated from Effluent Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Asifa; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J.

    2012-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. HPC1223 (Genebank Accession No. AY948280) isolated from activated biomass of effluent treatment plant was capable of utilizing 2,4,6 trinitrophenol (TNP) under aerobic condition at 30 °C and pH 7 as nitrogen source. It was observed that the isolated bacteria utilized TNP up to 70 % (1 mM) in R2A media with nitrite release. The culture growth media changed into orange-red color hydride-meisenheimer complex at 24 h as detected by HPLC. Oxygen uptake of Arthrobacter HPC1223 towa...

  19. Retention soil filter as post-treatment step to remove micropollutants from sewage treatment plant effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunsch, Andrea F.; Laak, ter Thomas L.; Christoffels, Ekkehard; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Retention soil filters (RSFs) are a specific form of vertical flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of rain water and/or wastewater. We have tested 3 pilot RSFs to investigate removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 14 different organic micropollutants (OMPs) from the effluent of a

  20. Patterns of coral bleaching: Modeling the adaptive bleaching hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, J.R.; Fautin, D.G.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Bleaching - the loss of symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) from animals normally possessing them - can be induced by a variety of stresses, of which temperature has received the most attention. Bleaching is generally considered detrimental, but Buddemeier and Fautin have proposed that bleaching is also adaptive, providing an opportunity for recombining hosts with alternative algal types to form symbioses that might be better adapted to altered circumstances. Our mathematical model of this "adaptive bleaching hypothesis" provides insight into how animal-algae symbioses might react under various circumstances. It emulates many aspects of the coral bleaching phenomenon including: corals bleaching in response to a temperature only slightly greater than their average local maximum temperature; background bleaching; bleaching events being followed by bleaching of lesser magnitude in the subsequent one to several years; higher thermal tolerance of corals subject to environmental variability compared with those living under more constant conditions; patchiness in bleaching; and bleaching at temperatures that had not previously resulted in bleaching. ?? 1996 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrated assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent estrogenicity in the Upper Murray River, Australia, using the native Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Alan M.; Kumar, Anupama; Woods, Marianne; Williams, Mike; Doan, Hai; Tolsher, Peter; Kookana, Rai S.; Barber, Larry B.

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of major continental river systems by endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) derived from the discharge of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can affect human and ecosystem health. As part of a long-term effort to develop a native fish model organism for assessment of endocrine disruption in Australia's largest watershed, the Murray-Darling River Basin, the present study evaluated endocrine disruption in adult males of the native Australian Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) exposed to effluent from an activated sludge WWTP and water from the Murray River during a 28-d, continuous-flow, on-site experiment. Analysis of the WWTP effluent and river water detected estrone and 17β-estradiol at concentrations up to approximately 25 ng L−1. Anti-estrogenicity of effluent samples was detected in vitro using yeast-based bioassays (yeast estrogen screen) throughout the experiment, but estrogenicity was limited to the first week of the experiment. Histological evaluation of the testes indicated significant suppression of spermatogenesis by WWTP effluent after 28 d of exposure. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations and expression of vitellogenin messenger RNA in liver were not significantly affected by exposure to WWTP effluent. The combination of low contaminant concentrations in the WWTP effluent, limited endocrine disrupting effects in the Murray rainbowfish, and high in-stream dilution factors (>99%) suggest minimal endocrine disruption impacts on native Australian fish in the Murray River downstream from the WWTP outfall. 

  2. Simultaneous determination of several veterinary pharmaceuticals in effluents from urban, livestock and slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plants using a simple chromatographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenati, Simone; Carvalho, Pedro N; Almeida, C Marisa R; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2012-01-01

    Minocycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, enrofloxacin and ceftiofur, commonly used veterinary pharmaceuticals, were searched in four urban, two livestock and two slaughterhouse effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the north of Portugal. A simple method that includes solid-phase extraction followed with analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector was established and applied to the simultaneous determination of the five pharmaceuticals in WWTP effluents. This method, which is expeditious, inexpensive and available in most laboratories, showed to be useful for screening for problematic levels of drugs in WWTP effluents. It is known that several livestock and slaughterhouse effluents (pre-treated or treated) are discharged to the urban network before discharge into the environment. The presence of these drugs in such effluents can constitute a significant environmental problem that should be addressed, by the monitoring of these drugs and by implementation of methodologies that contribute to their decrease/elimination from wastewaters. Minocycline (≤6 μg L(-1)), oxytetracycline (≤7 μg L(-1)), tetracycline (≤6 μg L(-1)) and enrofloxacin (effluents. Detectable levels of enrofloxacin (effluents.

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge and effluents of sewage plants from a central region of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, S. [eurofins/GfA, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) belong to the group of bromine-containing flame retardants. They are added to materials such as plastics, resins and textiles in percent concentrations to make them flameproof. While in former times also Penta and OctaBDE formulations were used, today mainly the technical DecaBDE is applied throughout Europe. Meanwhile PBDEs have been found in partly increasing concentrations in a number of aquatic environmental compartments such as river and marine sediments, river water, fishes and mussels. Here, mostly the same PBDE components which are present in the technical mixtures are found in the environment. PBDE emissions can punctually take place during the manufacture or processing of the flame retardants and during the disposal and recycling of flame-retarded materials. This, as a rule, should lead to local contamination but cannot explain the meanwhile wide spread of these flame retardants in the aquatic environment. Therefore, we have to have a closer look at possible further sources. Thus, the sewage sludges and suspended matter from the effluents of 8 municipal sewage treatment plants from a central region of Germany were examined for their PBDE content. The analyses included the quantitation of Tri to DecaBDE under congener-specific determination of components which are typically present in technical PBDE products. This paper reports on the applied method of analysis and presents the PBDE data for the sewage sludges and the respective sewage plant effluents.

  4. Elimination of nitrate in secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plants by Fe0 and Pd-Cu/diatomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupan Yun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Because total nitrogen (TN, in which nitrate (NO3– is dominant in the effluent of most wastewater treatment plants, cannot meet the requirement of Chinese wastewater discharge standard (<15 mg/L, NO3– elimination has attracted considerable attention. In this research, the novel diatomite-supported palladium-copper catalyst (Pd-Cu/diatomite with zero-valent iron (Fe0 was tried to use for catalytic reduction of nitrate in wastewater. Firstly, specific operational conditions (such as mass ratio of Pd:Cu, catalyst amounts, reaction time and pH of solution were optimized for nitrate reduction in artificial solution. Secondly, the selected optimal conditions were further employed for nitrate elimination of real effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Beijing, China. Results showed that 67% of nitrate removal and 62% of N2 selectivity could be obtained under the following conditions: 5 g/L Fe0, 3:1 mass ratio (Pd:Cu, 4 g/L catalyst, 2 h reaction time and pH 4.3. Finally, the mechanism of catalytic nitrate reduction was also proposed.

  5. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  6. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC's program results

  7. Outfall 51 air stripping feasibility study for the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant there are a number of industrial wastewater discharge points or outfalls that empty into East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). EFPC originates within and runs continuously throughout the plant site and subsequently flows out the east end of the Y-12 Plant into the City of Oak Ridge. Mercury is present in outfall discharges due to contact of water with the soils surrounding past mercury-use buildings. As a result, the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project was developed to achieve and maintain environmental compliance with regards to mercury, and, in particular with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit for the Y-12 Plant. To achieve a reduction in mercury loading to EFPC, a number of options have already been studied and implemented as part of the RMPE project. With the successful implementation of these options, Outfall 51 remains as a significant contributor to mercury load to EFPC. The primary purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of removing mercury from contaminated spring water using air stripping. In order to accomplish this goal, a number of different areas were addressed. A pilot-scale unit was tested in the field using actual mercury-contaminated source water. Properties which impact the mercury removal via air stripping were reviewed to determine their effect. Also, enhanced testing was performed to improve removal efficiencies. Finally, the variable outfall flow was studied to size appropriate processing equipment for full-scale treatment

  8. Occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in a sewage treatment plant and its effluent-receiving river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Xu, Yan; Wang, Hongmei; Guo, Changsheng; Qiu, Huiyun; He, Yan; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xiaochen; Meng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of antibiotics has caused the contamination of both antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. In this study, the abundance and distribution of antibiotics and ARGs from a sewage treatment plant (STP) and its effluent-receiving river in Beijing China were characterized. Three classes of antibiotics including tetracycline, sulfonamide and quinolone were quantified by LC-MS/MS. In the secondary effluent they were detected at 195, 2001 and 3866 ng L(-1), respectively, which were higher than in the receiving river water. A total of 13 ARGs (6 tet genes: tetA, tetB, tetE, tetW, tetM and tetZ, 3 sulfonamide genes: sul1, sul2 and sul3, and 4 quinolone genes: gryA, parC, qnrC and qnrD) were determined by quantitative PCR. For all ARGs, sulfonamide resistance genes were present at relatively high concentrations in all samples, with the highest ARG concentration above 10(-1). ARGs remained relatively stable along each sewage treatment process. The abundances of detected ARGs from the STP were also higher than its receiving river. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that relative tet gene copies (tetB/16S-rRNA and tetW/16S-rRNA) were strongly correlated with the concentrations of tetracycline residues (r(2)>0.8, pgenes. A negative correlation between the relative abundance of quinolone resistance gene (qnrC/16S-rRNA) and the concentrations of enrofloxacin (ENR) was also determined. The difference of ARGs levels in the raw influent and secondary effluent suggested that the STP treatment process may induce to increase the abundance of resistance genes. The results showed that the sewage was an important repository of the resistance genes, which need to be effectively treated before discharge into the natural water body. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Irrigation of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L. and Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. Plant Species with Municipal Wastewater Effluent: Impacts on Soil Properties and Seed Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant species (castor bean (Ricinus communis L. versus sunflower (Helianthus annus L. and irrigation regime (freshwater versus secondary treated municipal wastewater on soil properties and on seed and biodiesel yield were studied in a three year pot trial. Plant species were irrigated at rates according to their water requirements with either freshwater or wastewater effluent. Pots irrigated with freshwater received commercial fertilizer, containing N, P, and K, applied at the beginning of each irrigation period. The results obtained in this study showed that irrigation with effluent did not result in significant changes in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and dehydrogenase activity, whereas soil available P was found to increase in the upper soil layer. Soil salinity varied slightly throughout the experiment in effluent irrigated pots but no change was detected at the end of the experiment compared to the initial value, suggesting sufficient salt leaching. Pots irrigated with effluent had higher soil salinity, P, and dehydrogenase activity but lower SOM and TKN than freshwater irrigated pots. Sunflower showed greater SOM and TKN values than castor bean suggesting differences between plant species in the microorganisms carrying out C and N mineralization in the soil. Plant species irrigated with freshwater achieved higher seed yield compared to those irrigated with effluent probably reflecting the lower level of soil salinity in freshwater irrigated pots. Castor bean achieved greater seed yield than sunflower. Biodiesel production followed the pattern of seed yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastewater effluent can constitute an important source of irrigation water and nutrients for bioenergy crop cultivations with minor adverse impacts on soil properties and seed yield. Plant species play an important role with regard to the changes in soil properties and to the related factors of

  10. Bleaching of Wool with Sodium Borohydride

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Yilmazer, MSc.; Mehmet Kanik, Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    An untreated wool fabric was bleached both with sodium borohydride (SBH) in the presence of sodium bisulphite (SBS) solution and with a commercial H2O2 bleaching method. The concentration effects of SBH and SBS, bleaching time, pH and temperature on SBH bleaching process were investigated. Whiteness, yellowness and alkali solubility results were assessed for both bleaching methods. The results showed that whiteness degrees obtained with SBH bleaching was comparable with that of H2O2 bleaching...

  11. Treatment of effluents from ammonia plants--3. Ozonation of amines in an effluent from a reforming plant serving an ammonia complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, F G.N.D.

    1977-01-01

    The use of ozone in aqueous solutions was studied in an investigation of the oxidation of methylamines in the process condensate from an ammonia plant. Good conversion of trimethylamine to the nonodorous oxidation product could be achieved with a 1:1.5 ratio of amine to ozone when ozone passed into a packed tower through which an alkaline solution of the amine was flowing. Mono- and dimethylamine did not react as readily. The importance of a high pH value is stressed.

  12. BLEACHING NEPTUNE BALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONET Maria Angeles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Posidonia Oceanic is a seaweed from Mediterranean Sea and it is more concentrated at the Balerian SEA. This implies the Valencian Community also. It forms vaste underwater meadows in the sea and are part of the Mediterranean ecosystem. It is a sea-grass specie with fruits and flowers. Leaves are ribbon-like and they grow in winter and at the end of summer some of them are separated and arrive to some sea line. Fuit is separated and can floate, it is known as “the olive of the sea” mainly in Italy, or as the Neptune Balls. As it can be used in different fields, it is is being studied in order ro have the precitice tests. Some authors have reported the manufacturing of fully bio-based comites with a gluten matrix by hot-press molding. And it has been considered as an effective insulator for building industry or even though to determine the presence of mercure in the Mediterranean sea some years ago. As many applications can be designed from that fibers, it has been considered to be bleached in order to used them in fashionable products. Consequently, its original brown color is not the most suitable one and it should be bleached as many other cellulosic fibers. The aim of this paper is to bleache neptune balls however, the inner fibers were not accessible at all and it implied not to bleach the inner fibers in the neptune ball. Further studiesd will consider bleaching the individualized fibers.

  13. Peat as Substrate for Small-Scale Constructed Wetlands Polishing Secondary Effluents from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Jin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the recent development of constructed wetland technology, it has become a mainstream treatment technology for the mitigation of a variety of wastewaters. This study reports on the treatment performance and pH attenuation capacity of three different configurations of small-scale on-site surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW: T1 (Peat + Typha latifolia, T2 (T. latifolia alone, and T3 (Peat alone treating secondary effluent from the Amherstview Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP for two treatment periods (start-up period and operational period. The aim of this study was to compare the nutrients removal efficiencies between the different treatments, as well as to evaluate the effects of substrate and vegetation on the wetland system. For a hydraulic retention time of 2.5 days, the results showed that all treatment systems could attenuate the pH level during both the start-up and operational periods, while significant nutrient removal performance could only be observed during the operational period. Peat was noted to be a better SFCW substrate in promoting the removal of nitrate (NO3-N, total nitrogen (TN, and phosphorus. The addition of T. latifolia further enhanced NO3-N and TN removal efficiencies, but employing T. latifolia alone did not yield effluents that could meet the regulatory discharge limit (1.0 mg/L for phosphorus.

  14. Determination of thephysico-chemical 131I species in the exhausts and stack effluent of a PWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    To quantify the credit that can be granted in the assessment of the 131 I ingestion doses and the improvement that can be achieved in the ventilation systems if differences of the physico-chemical 131 I species with respect to the environmental impact are taken into account, the fractions of the 131 I species were determined in the stack effluent and in various exhausts of a 1300 MW/sub e/ PWR power plant during a period of 3 months. Based on these measurements, calculations for different cases of filtration of the main exhausts for iodine were carried out. The average fractions of elemental and organic 131 I were about 70 and 30% respectively in the stack effluent during the time indicated. Elem. 131 I orginated mainly from the hoods in which samples of the primary coolant are taken and processed. Org. 131 I was mainly contributed by the equipment compartments. If the hood exhaust had been filtered, as was the case with the equipment compartment exhaust, the fractions of elem. and org. 131 I would have been on the order of 50% each and the calculated 131 I ingestion doses would have been a factor of 3 lower

  15. Occurrence and removal of antibiotics and the corresponding resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants: effluents' influence to downstream water environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Cheng, Weixiao; Xu, Like; Jiao, Yanan; Baig, Shams Ali; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the occurrence of 8 antibiotics [3 tetracyclines (TCs), 4 sulfonamides, and 1 trimethoprim (TMP)], 12 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) (10 tet, 2 sul), 4 types of bacteria [no antibiotics, anti-TC, anti-sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and anti-double], and intI1 in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were assessed and their influences in downstream lake were investigated. Both WWTPs' effluent demonstrated some similarities, but the abundance and removal rate varied significantly. Results revealed that biological treatment mainly removed antibiotics and ARGs, whereas physical techniques were found to eliminate antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARBs) abundance (about 1 log for each one). UV disinfection did not significantly enhance the removal efficiency, and the release of the abundantly available target contaminants from the excess sludge may pose threats to human and the environment. Different antibiotics showed diverse influences on the downstream lake, and the concentrations of sulfamethazine (SM2) and SMX were observed to increase enormously. The total ARG abundance ascended about 0.1 log and some ARGs (e.g., tetC, intI1, tetA) increased due to the high input of the effluent. In addition, the abundance of ARB variation in the lake also changed, but the abundance of four types of bacteria remained stable in the downstream sampling sites.

  16. Characteristics of microbial community involved in early biofilms formation under the influence of wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuke; Li, Jie; Lu, Junling; Xiao, Lin; Yang, Liuyan

    2018-04-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) containing microorganisms and residual nutrients can influence the biofilm formation. Although the process and mechanism of bacterial biofilm formation have been well characterized, little is known about the characteristics and interaction of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes in the early colonization, especially under the influence of WWTP effluent. The aim of this study was to characterize the important bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic species in the early stage of biofilm formation downstream of the WWTP outlet. Water and biofilm samples were collected 24 and 48hr after the deposition of bio-cords in the stream. Illumina Miseq sequencing of the 16S and 18S rDNA showed that, among the three domains, the bacterial biofilm community had the largest alpha and beta diversity. The early bacterial colonizers appeared to be "biofilm-specific", with only a few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between the biofilm and the ambient water environment. Alpha-proteobacteria and Ciliophora tended to dominate the bacterial and eukaryotic communities, respectively, of the early biofilm already at 24hr, whereas archaea played only a minor role during the early stage of colonization. The network analysis showed that the three domains of microbial community connected highly during the early colonization and it might be a characteristic of the microbial communities in the biofilm formation process where co-occurrence relationships could drive coexistence and diversity maintenance within the microbial communities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Evaluation of environmental stress imposed by a coal-ash effluent: Wisconsin power plant impact study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, K.E.; Forbes, A.M.; Magnuson, J.L.

    1985-06-01

    Effluent discharged from the coal-ash settling basin of the Columbia Generating Station (Wisconsin) modified water chemistry (increased trace metal concentrations, suspended solids and dissolved materials) and substrate quality (precipitation of chemical floc) in the receiving stream, the ash pit drain. To test the hypothesis that habitat avoidance could account for declines in macroinvertebrate density observed after discharge began, drift rates of two species were measured in laboratory streams containing combinations of reference and coal-ash-modified substrate and water. Contrary to the hypothesis, drift was uniformly lower in laboratory streams containing modified substrate and/or water compared to the reference condition for Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and Asellus racovitzai.

  18. Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies ...... evaluation criteria to compare and evaluate (plant-wide) control strategies in a WWTP for more informed operational decision making. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.......The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies...

  19. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  20. Chemical processing of liquid effluents in reprocessing plants: experience gained in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, N.; Pottier, P.; Taillard, D.

    1977-01-01

    The radionuclides present in radioactive liquid effluents are precipitated for two purposes, viz: 1) to reduce the radioactivity to a level at which the liquids may be discharged; 2) to concentrate the radioactive compounds in the smallest possible volume for storage. The scientific principles of the radionuclide precipitation process are reviewed in the first part, which covers the solubility product, adsorption onto the surface of the precipitates, co-precipitation by isomorphism, ion-exchange on precipitates, etc. The paper goes on to discuss flocculation techniques, flocculation monitoring (zeta potential etc.) and methods of separating the solid and liquid phases. The specific methods for precipitating the main radionuclides are then described, with special reference to Sr, Cs, Ru, Co and Sb. The synergism of certain methods of precipitation is also discussed. The main part of the paper concerns the application of chemical processes for purifying low and medium active effluents in the Marcoule and La Hague centres. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of the processes used and the improvement of performance. Lastly, the paper discusses the possibilities offered in final treatment in such a way as to determine the limits to the effectiveness of the chemical processes. (orig.) [de

  1. A new stack effluent monitoring system at the Risoe Hot Cell plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes a new stack effluent monitoring system that has been installed at the Hot Cell facility. It is an integrating iodine/particulate system consisting of a γ-shielded flow house in which a continous air sample from the ventilation channel ia sucked through coal and glass filter papers. Activity is accumulated on the filter papers and a thin plastic scintillator detects the β-radiation from the trapped iodine or particulate activity. The stack effluent monitoring system has a two-step regulating function as applied to the ventilation system, first switching it to a recirculating mode, and finally to building-seal after given releases of 131 I. The collection efficiency for iodine in form of elementary iodine (I 2 ) and methyliodide (CH 3 I) has been determined experimentally. The unwanted response from a noble gas release has also been determined from experiments. The noble gas response was determined from puff releases of the nuclide 41 Ar in the concrete cells. It is concluded that the iodine/particulate system is extremely sensitive and that it can easily detect iodine or particulate releases as low as a few MBq. A gamma monitor placed in connection with the iodine/particulate system detects Xe/Kr-releases as low as a few tens of MBq per second. (author)

  2. Avaliação do emprego de microfiltração para remoção de fibras do efluente de branqueamento de polpa celulósica Evaluation of the use of microfiltration for removal of fiber from bleaching pulp mill effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Cristina Santos Amaral

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O processo de branqueamento é o estágio em que ocorre a maior perda de fibras durante a fabricação de polpa celulósica. Além de ser uma perda de produto, estas fibras aumentam a concentração de matéria orgânica do efluente dificultando seu tratamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o emprego de microfiltração (MF na remoção de fibras de efluente de branqueamento alcalino de polpa celulósica. Foi empregada membrana de poli(éter imida com tamanho médio de poros de 0,5 µm e área de filtração de 0,05 m². O efeito das condições operacionais no fluxo permeado foi avaliado através do monitoramento do perfil de fluxo durante a operação em diferentes condições de velocidade de escoamento (Reynolds de 1.226, 1.653 e 2.043, pH da alimentação (7, 10 e 10,6, temperatura (28, 43 e 48°C e pressão de operação através da avaliação da pressão crítica. Os resultados mostraram que a MF é um processo eficiente para remoção de fibras, apresentado 99% eficiência de remoção de sólidos suspensos. O melhor desempenho da operação de MF foi obtido empregando pH 7, pressão de 1 bar e Re de 1.653. Os resultados mostram que a redução do fluxo se deve principalmente à formação de torta.The bleaching process is the stage where there is the greatest loss of fibers during the pulp production. Besides being a waste of product, these fibers increase the concentration of organic matter in the effluent and make the treatment of effluent more difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of microfiltration (MF in the removal of fiber of effluent of alkaline bleaching pulp mill. The membrane employed was hollow fiber poly (ether imide, with average pore size of 0.5 µm and filtration area of 0.05 m². The effect of operating conditions on the permeate flux was evaluated by monitoring the flux profile during operation in different conditions of flow velocity (Reynolds 1,226, 1,653 and 2,043, pH of feeding (7, 10

  3. Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. Draft EIR/EIS, Volume 2 of 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SERWTP) Facilities Improvement Plan and Geysers Effluent Pipeline and Effluent Injection Project are proposed as a plan to provide expanded wastewater treatment capabilities and to dispose of the effluent by injection in The Geysers geothermal field for purposes of power production. The project is located predominantly in the County of Lake, California, and also in part of Sonoma County. The plan includes various conventional facilities improvements in wastewater treatment to a secondary level of treatment at the SWERWTP. The plan includes facilities to convey the treated effluent in a 26-mile, 24-inch inside diameter pipeline to the Southeast Geysers. The wastewater from the SERWTP would be supplemented by raw lake water diverted from nearby Clear Lake. At The Geysers, the effluent would be directed into a system of distribution lines to wells. In the geothermal reservoir, the water will be converted to steam and collected in production wells that will direct the steam to six existing power plants. This document is a summary of a combined full Environmental Impact Report (EIR) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The EIR/EIS describes the environmental impacts of the various components of the project. Mitigation measures are suggested for reducing impacts to a less than significant level. This report contains appendices A and B. Appendix A contains notices of preparation/notices of intent and EIR/EIS scoping comments. Appendix B contains GeothermEx, Inc., analysis of Geothermal Reservoir Effects and Induced Seismicity

  4. Effect of thermal effluents from the Savannah River Plant on leaf decomposition rates in onsite creeks and the Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, P.W.; Matthews, R.A.

    1986-06-01

    Sweet gum and sycamore leaf packs were packs were placed in a thermally stressed, a post-thermal, and an ambient stream located on the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina, and in the Savannah River below the mouth of each stream. Processing rates for the leaf packs were determined over a 77-day period from December 1982 to March 1983. Due to inundation of the sampling sites by river flooding, temperatures in the stream receiving thermal effluent were reduced after day 24. Sweet gum leaves decomposed considerably faster than did sycamore leaves, particularly in the thermal creek. An exponential decay model was used to demonstrate significant differences in loss of ash-free dry weight from leaf packs in thermally stressed and nonthermal creeks. Differences in leaf processing rates between creek sites were greatest during periods of therma stress. Within each leaf species, leaf processing rates were not significantly different between nonthermal sites, nor between sites in the Savannah River

  5. Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. Final EIR/EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    On May 26, 1994, the Lake County Sanitation District and the US Bureau of Land Management released for public review a Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement (EIR/EIS) on the proposed Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. A minimum 45-day review and comment period began on that date and notices were published in the Federal Register. The public review and comment period closed on July 26, 1994. Public hearings on the Draft EIMIS were held in Lakeport, CA, on June 30 and July 14, 1994. The first part of this document contains copies of the written comments submitted on the Draft EIR/EIS. It also contains summary paraphrased comments of the public hearings. The second part of this document contains responses to the comments

  6. Characteristic numbers of granular activated carbon for the elimination of micropollutants from effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstoem, F; Pinnekamp, J

    2017-07-01

    Adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) is a promising step to extend existing treatment trains in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and, thus, to reduce the concentration of micropollutants (MPs) (e.g. pharmaceuticals) in wastewater. It is common practice to use characteristic numbers when choosing GAC for a specific application. In this study, characteristic numbers were correlated for five different GACs, with measured adsorption capacities of these carbons for three pharmaceutical MPs (carbamazepine, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole) and dissolved organic carbon of a WWTP effluent. The adsorption capacities were measured using rapid small scale column tests. Density of GAC showed the highest correlation to adsorption of MP. All other characteristic numbers (iodine number, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface and methylene blue titre) are not suitable markers for choosing an appropriate activated carbon product for the elimination of MPs from municipal wastewater.

  7. Concentrations of prioritized pharmaceuticals in effluents from 50 large wastewater treatment plants in the US and implications for risk estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostich, Mitchell S; Batt, Angela L; Lazorchak, James M

    2014-01-01

    We measured concentrations of 56 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in effluent samples from 50 large wastewater treatment plants across the US. Hydrochlorothiazide was found in every sample. Metoprolol, atenolol, and carbamazepine were found in over 90% of the samples. Valsartan had the highest concentration (5300 ng/L), and also had the highest average concentration (1600 ng/L) across all 50 samples. Estimates of potential risks to healthy human adults were greatest for six anti-hypertensive APIs (lisinopril, hydrochlorothiazide, valsartan, atenolol, enalaprilat, and metoprolol), but nevertheless suggest risks of exposure to individual APIs as well as their mixtures are generally very low. Estimates of potential risks to aquatic life were also low for most APIs, but suggest more detailed study of potential ecological impacts from four analytes (sertraline, propranolol, desmethylsertraline, and valsartan). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Use of an In Vitro, Nuclear Receptor Assay Panel to Characterize the Endocrine-Disrupting Activity Load of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of an In Vitro, Nuclear Receptor Assay Panel to Characterize the Endocrine-Disrupting Activity Load of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Extracts Katie B. Paul 1.2, Ruth Marfil-Vega 1 Marc A. Mills3, Steve 0. Simmons2, Vickie S. Wilson4, Kevin M. Crofton2 10ak Rid...

  9. Comparing removal efficiency and reaction rates of organic micro-pollutants during ozonation from different municipal waste water treatment plants effluents in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-taliawy, Haitham; Ekblad, Maja; Nilsson, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The Removal of about 50 micro-pollutants from 7 waste water treatment plant effluents –in Sweden- was tested on pilot scale. Different ozone doses and two different pilots with different reactor sizes and retention times were tested. Ozone reaction rates depended on DOC concentration in the water...

  10. Trihalomethanes formation in marine environment in front of Nuweibaa desalination plant as a result of effluents loaded by chlorine residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Trihalomethanes have been identified as the most important disinfection byproducts resulted from using chlorine in desalination plants. Nuweibaa desalination plant was chosen to study their effluents impacts on the marine environment in front of the plant in the coastal area of Gulf of Aqaba. Surface and bottom Water Samples were collected from nine locations in the outfall area of this desalination plant during spring and autumn 2014, and analyzed for water temperature, pH value, Salinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological oxygen demand, Oxidizible organic matter, Total, fixed and volatile suspended matter, residual chlorine (free and combined and trihalomethanes. High total chlorine dosage discharged from the desalination plant achieved high levels of trihalomethanes in the receiving seawater of the outfall area. It has been estimated that about 14524.65671 kg of BOD, 74123.4 kg of OOM, 166896.4375 kg of total suspended solids, 623.634 kg of free chlorine, 469.21 kg of combined chlorine, 206.64 kg of chloroform and 76.48 kg of bromoform are discharged annually from this plant into the Gulf of Aqaba affecting the marine ecosystems. The results of THMs showed that the two main forms of THMs formed in the receiving seawater were chloroform and bromoform and ranged between (5.09–156.59, (2.82–566.06 μg/L respectively. High pH and High combined chlorine concentrations favored the formation of high concentrations of chloroform.

  11. Abundance, distribution and use of power plant effluents by manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Brevard county, Florida. Final report, Jan 1978-Feb 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Brevard County, on Florida's east coast, contains one of the largest concentrations of manatees remaining in Florida. This population was studied from January 1978 through February 1980 using aerial surveys, and boat and land observations. As many as 250 manatees were counted in the county in the spring of 1979. During the warm months most manatees were observed in the Banana River, but during the winter most manatees (up to 100) were found in the warm effluent zones of two power plants on the Indian River. Declining air and water temperatures were significantly correlated with increases in the number of manatees in the power plant effluents. Manatees rely heavily upon these power plants as winter refuges, and plant shut-downs could prove disastrous for these animals.

  12. Synthesis of the IRSN report of the management of effluents in operating nuclear plants, and of associated radioactive and chemical rejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    This report discusses the various improvements proposed by the IRSN to EDF for a better management of effluents and rejections in nuclear plants. These improvements should bear on a better understanding of the production, of the behaviour and of the treatment of radioactive compounds and of associated chemical compounds. They should also bear on the design of the installations and their inspection, operation practices, the use of local good practices, the organisation, the control of rejections, the control of underground waters of nuclear sites, experience feedback, the documentation on effluents and rejections

  13. Effects of temperature, plant configuration and loading on the effluent concentration of biological sewage treatment plants; Einfluss von Temperatur, Anlagenkonfiguration und Auslastung auf die Ablaufkonzentration bei der biologischen Abwasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durth, A.

    2000-07-01

    The design of wastewater treatment plants is generally based on the maximum growth rate of the nitrifiers, which is smaller and shows a stronger dependency on temperature than the growth rate of heterotrophic bacteria. This 'kinetic temperature influence' is usually described by exponential equations with a temperature coefficient {theta}. Using these equations for the design of treatment plants results in large volumes of the aeration basin, followed by high investment cost and consumption of large space. On the other hand, long-term effluent data from various plants reveal a small or even no temperature influence on the effluent concentrations. This effect has to be attributed to other influences, which can only be taken into account by modelling the process as a whole. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to quantify the temperature influence on the effluent concentration of biological treatment by modelling the entire treatment process. (orig.)

  14. Estimation of radioactive effluents concentrations in the vicinity of nuclear power plant; Predviduvanje na koncentraciite na radioaktivni aerozagaduvaci vo okolinata na nuklearni energetski postrojni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsov, Lj [Elektrostopanstvo, Skopje (Yugoslavia)

    1977-07-01

    This paper deals with the problem of mathematical prediction of radioactive effluent concentrations around nuclear power plants. This mathematical model which describes the behaviour of the effluent in the atmosphere here in after is expanded and adapted for radioactive effluent treatment. In this way the mathematical model includes the description of the following effects: the rise of plume caused by its vertical momentum and its heat content, wind velocity profile and vertical growth of the coefficient of diffusion, fallout under gravity, ground deposition, precipitation scavenging, and radioactive decay. The advanced computer program DIFFUS has been applied to evaluate the ground concentration of the nuclides of I, which constitute the greatest risk for population.(author)

  15. The occurrence and distribution of pharmaceutical compounds in the effluents of a major sewage treatment plant in Northern Taiwan and the receiving coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Tien-Hsi; Nan, Fan-Hua; Chin, Tzong-Shean; Feng, Hui-Min

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical residues in waste water from the largest sewage treatment plant (STP) in Northern Taiwan and in seawater around the effluent discharged area were determined. An environmental risk assessment for the marine environment was conducted based on the environment risk quotient (ERQ). The concentrations of the analyzed compounds in STP influent and effluent were generally higher than those found in coastal seawater. Relatively higher values were found at the estuarine mouth and the discharged area, suggesting that the STP effluent is a point source. The removal efficiency and half life of the analyzed compounds were 6.3–46.8% and 3–18 days, respectively. The ERQ value theoretical calculation was generally greater than 1. However, when the measured concentrations replaced the predicated concentrations, the ERQ values were considerably lower than 1. Therefore, our results call for a re-evaluation of the risks posed by pharmaceuticals to coastal marine ecosystems in Northern Taiwan.

  16. Alteration in molecular markers of oocyte development and intersex condition in mullets impacted by wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Ainara; Rojo-Bartolomé, Iratxe; Bizarro, Cristina; Cancio, Ibon; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren

    2017-05-01

    Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) discharges are an important source of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) into the aquatic environment. Fish populations inhabiting downstream of WWTP effluents show alterations in gonad and gamete development such as intersex condition, together with xenoestrogenic effects such as vitellogenin up-regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms participating in the development of intersex condition in fish are not elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of two WWTPs effluents (Gernika and Bilbao-Galindo situated in the South East Bay of Biscay) with different contaminant loads, in thicklip grey mullet (Chelon labrosus) populations inhabiting downstream, examining the presence and severity of intersex condition, during two seasons. Molecular markers of xenoestrogenicity and oocyte differentiation and development (vtgAa, cyp19a1a, cyp19a1b, cyp11b, foxl2, dmrt1 and gtf3a) were also studied. Intersex mullets were identified downstream of both WWTPs and vtgAa was upregulated in intersex and non intersex males. Sex dependent differential transcription levels of target genes were detected in mullets from Galindo. However, no such pattern was observed in mullets from Gernika, suggesting an attenuating effect over studied genes caused by a higher presence of EDCs in this site, as indicated by the elevated prevalence of intersex mullets in this population. In conclusion, no direct association between xenoestrogenic responses and intersex condition was established. Mullets from Gernika showed signs of severe EDC exposure compared to those from Galindo, as demonstrated by the higher prevalence of intersex males and the reduction in transcription profile differences between sexes of gametogenic gene markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Study on Membrane Bioreactor for Water Reuse from the Effluent of Industrial Town Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hosseinzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the toxic effects of heavy metals and microbial pathogens in industrial wastewaters, it is necessary to treat metal and microbial contaminated wastewater prior to disposal in the environment. The purpose of this study is to assess the removal of heavy metals pollution and microbial contamination from a mixture of municipal and industrial wastewater using membrane bioreactor. Methods: A pilot study with a continuous stream was conducted using a 32-L-activated sludge with a flat sheet membrane. Actual wastewater from industrial wastewater treatment plant was used in this study. Membrane bioreactor was operated with a constant flow rate of 4 L/hr and chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids concentration, six heavy metals concentration, and total coliform amounts were recorded during the operation. Results: High COD, suspended solids, heavy metals, and microbial contamination removal was measured during the experiment. The average removal percentages obtained by the MBR system were 81% for Al, 53% for Fe, 94% for Pb, 91% for Cu, 59% for Ni, and 49% for Cr which indicated the presence of Cu, Ni, and Cr in both soluble and particle forms in mixed liquor while Al, Fe, and Pb were mainly in particulate form. Also, coliforms in the majority of the samples were <140 MPN/100mL that showed that more than 99.9% of total coliform was removed in MBR effluent. Conclusion: The Membrane Biological Reactor (MBR showed a good performance to remove heavy metals and microbial matters as well as COD and suspended solids. The effluent quality was suitable for reusing purposes.

  18. Preparation and evaporation of Hanford Waste treatment plant direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Howe, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream involves concentrating the condensate in a new evaporator at the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and returning it to the LAW melter. The LMOGC stream will contain components, e.g. halides and sulfates, that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in glass waste forms, and present a material corrosion concern. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components are expected to accumulate in the LMOGC stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfates in the glass and is a key objective of this program. In order to determine the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, determine the formation and distribution of key regulatoryimpacting constituents, and generate an aqueous stream that can be used in testing of the subsequent immobilization step. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of the LMOGC stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to (1) prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter Off-gas Condensate expected during DFLAW operations, (2) demonstrate evaporation in order to predict the final composition of the effluents from the EMF

  19. Wastewater treatment plant effluent as a source of microplastics: review of the fate, chemical interactions and potential risks to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-11-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent has been identified as a potential source of microplastics in the aquatic environment. Microplastics have recently been detected in wastewater effluent in Western Europe, Russia and the USA. As there are only a handful of studies on microplastics in wastewater, it is difficult to accurately determine the contribution of wastewater effluent as a source of microplastics. However, even the small amounts of microplastics detected in wastewater effluent may be a remarkable source given the large volumes of wastewater treatment effluent discharged to the aquatic environment annually. Further, there is strong evidence that microplastics can interact with wastewater-associated contaminants, which has the potential to transport chemicals to aquatic organisms after exposure to contaminated microplastics. In this review we apply lessons learned from the literature on microplastics in the aquatic environment and knowledge on current wastewater treatment technologies, with the aim of identifying the research gaps in terms of (i) the fate of microplastics in WWTPs, (ii) the potential interaction of wastewater-based microplastics with trace organic contaminants and metals, and (iii) the risk for aquatic organisms.

  20. LC-MS/MS determination of antiretroviral drugs in influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abafe, Ovokeroye A; Späth, Jana; Fick, Jerker; Jansson, Stina; Buckley, Chris; Stark, Annegret; Pietruschka, Bjoern; Martincigh, Bice S

    2018-06-01

    South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The method was validated and the detection limits fell within the range of 2-20 ng L -1 . The analytical recoveries for the ARVDs were mainly greater than 50% with acceptable relative standard deviations. The concentration values ranged from effluent) in a decentralized wastewater treatment facility (DEWATS); effluent) in Northern WWTP and 61-34000 ng L -1 (influent), effluent) in Phoenix WWTP. Whilst abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine were almost completely removed from the effluents, atazanavir, efavirenz, lopinavir and nevirapine persisted in the effluents from all three WWTPs. To estimate the ecotoxicological risks associated with the discharge of ARVDs, a countrywide survey focussing on the occurrence of ARVDs in WWTPs, surface and fresh water bodies, and aquatic organisms, is necessary. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential of Micro Hydroelectric Generator Embedded at 30,000 PE Effluent Discharge of Sewerage Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Munaaim, M. A.; Razali, N.; Ayob, A.; Hamidin, N.; Othuman Mydin, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    A micro hydroelectric generator is an energy conversion approach to generate electricity from potential (motion) energy to an electrical energy. In this research, it is desired to be implemented by using a micro hydroelectric generator which is desired to be embedded at the continuous flow of effluent discharge point of domestic sewerage treatment plant (STP). This research evaluates the potential of electricity generation from micro hydroelectric generator attached to 30,000 PE sewerage treatment plant. The power output obtained from calculation of electrical power conversion is used to identify the possibility of this system and its ability to provide electrical energy, which can minimize the cost of electric bill especially for the pumping system. The overview of this system on the practical application with the consideration of payback period is summarized. The ultimate aim of the whole application is to have a self-ecosystem electrical power generated for the internal use of STP by using its own flowing water in supporting the sustainable engineering towards renewable energy and energy efficient approach. The results shows that the output power obtained is lower than expected output power (12 kW) and fall beyond of the range of a micro hydro power (5kW - 100kW) since it is only generating 1.58 kW energy by calculation. It is also observed that the estimated payback period is longer which i.e 7 years to recoup the return of investment. A range of head from 4.5 m and above for the case where the flow shall at least have maintained at 0.05 m3/s in the selected plant in order to achieved a feasible power output. In conclusion, wastewater treatment process involves the flowing water (potential energy) especially at the effluent discharge point of STP is possibly harvested for electricity generation by embedding the micro hydroelectric generator. However, the selection of STP needs to have minimum 4.5 meter head with 0.05 m3/s of continuously flowing water to make

  2. Potential of Micro Hydroelectric Generator Embedded at 30,000 PE Effluent Discharge of Sewerage Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Munaaim M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A micro hydroelectric generator is an energy conversion approach to generate electricity from potential (motion energy to an electrical energy. In this research, it is desired to be implemented by using a micro hydroelectric generator which is desired to be embedded at the continuous flow of effluent discharge point of domestic sewerage treatment plant (STP. This research evaluates the potential of electricity generation from micro hydroelectric generator attached to 30,000 PE sewerage treatment plant. The power output obtained from calculation of electrical power conversion is used to identify the possibility of this system and its ability to provide electrical energy, which can minimize the cost of electric bill especially for the pumping system. The overview of this system on the practical application with the consideration of payback period is summarized. The ultimate aim of the whole application is to have a self-ecosystem electrical power generated for the internal use of STP by using its own flowing water in supporting the sustainable engineering towards renewable energy and energy efficient approach. The results shows that the output power obtained is lower than expected output power (12 kW and fall beyond of the range of a micro hydro power (5kW - 100kW since it is only generating 1.58 kW energy by calculation. It is also observed that the estimated payback period is longer which i.e 7 years to recoup the return of investment. A range of head from 4.5 m and above for the case where the flow shall at least have maintained at 0.05 m3/s in the selected plant in order to achieved a feasible power output. In conclusion, wastewater treatment process involves the flowing water (potential energy especially at the effluent discharge point of STP is possibly harvested for electricity generation by embedding the micro hydroelectric generator. However, the selection of STP needs to have minimum 4.5 meter head with 0.05 m3/s of continuously flowing

  3. Computerized effluent control and evaluation of environmental impact for an industrial plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez de Angulo, L.F.; Garcia Gutierrez, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    Growing public interest and concern for the environment is translated at official level into regulatory standards to limit, control and evaluate the environmental impact produced by polluting facilities. This paper seeks to demonstrate the convenience of automatizing all these computerized systems. This philosophy has been put into practice to computerize processes in the industry with the most complex standards: the nuclear industry. The application used has the capacity to store and manage data on all the discharges, evaluate the effect produced by them and generate information to be sent periodically to the competent authority. The conceptual definition of the application can be adapted to any industrial or public utility facility releasing polluting effluents which must undergo control, monitoring and analysis of the environmental impact by the relevant regulatory body, bearing in mind the environmental standard applicable to the category of the facility and the type of polluting substance released. The application can be run interactively in a personal computer on the basis of menus and screens, under a relational Data Base Management System (DBMS). Its implementation is independent of the DBMS used and the hardware with supports it. (author)

  4. Upgrading secondary wastewater plant effluent by modified coagulation and flocculation, for water reuse in irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the feasibility of using coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation (CF-S for advanced treatment of secondary effluent released from the Yazd Intermittent Cycle Extended Aeration System was investigated. Four coagulants including ferric chloride (FeCl3, polyaluminum chloride (PAC, ferrous sulfate (FeSo4, and potassium ferrate (K2FeSo4 along with Gflog C-150 as flocculant polymer were used. In this study, returned chemical sludge was considered as a modification. Preliminary CF-S processes showed that FeSO4 and K2FeO4 had low removal efficiencies. Thus, these two coagulants were abandoned and CF-S processes were continued only with PAC and FeCl3 coagulants which had higher efficiencies in the removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, and turbidity. Removal efficiency was higher when half of the chemical producing sludge was returned as compared with using both coagulants simultaneously along with 2 mg L−1 of C-150 as flocculant. In the optimum dosage, when half of PAC and FeCl3 sludge were returned, the volume of produced sludge was reduced by 40% and 28%, respectively, as compared without returned sludge. For the PAC coagulant in the optimum dosage with half of the sludge returned, all 2012 EPA standards of irrigation were met for both ‘processed and non-processed type’ agricultural crops.

  5. Atmospheric dispersion and the radiological consequences of normal airborne effluents from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, D.; Yang, L.; Sun, C.Z.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between the consequences of the normal exhaust of radioactive materials in air from nuclear power plants and atmospheric dispersion is studied. Because the source terms of the exhaust from a nuclear power plant are relatively low and their radiological consequences are far less than the corresponding authoritative limits, the atmospheric dispersion models, their various modifications, and selections of relevant parameters have few effects on those consequences. In the environmental assessment and siting, the emphasis should not be placed on the consequence evaluation of routine exhaust of nuclear power plants, and the calculation of consequences of the exhaust and atmospheric field measurements should be appropriately, simplified. 12 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Simulation of temperature distribution, BOD, and DO by thermal effluents of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.

    1977-01-01

    A transient one, two, or three dimensional numerical model for simulation of heat load by power plants is presented. Water quality is determined by three parameters: temperature, biological oxygen demand (BOD), and disolved oxygen (DO). (orig.) [de

  7. Effect of Aquatic Plants on Phosphorus Removal and Electrical Conductivity Decrease in Municipal Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Samimi Loghmani; Ali Abbaspour

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of essential elements for living organisms, though its critical concentration in surface and ground waters impose a serious problem such as eutrophication. So treatment of polluted waters is required before discharging to water resources. One of effective ways to decrease water pollution is using aquatic plants. An experiment was conducted in pilots with a closed flowing system on two plants, elodea (egria densa) and duck weed (lemna minor) with four treatments and three...

  8. Arsenic, Zinc, and Aluminium Removal from Gold Mine Wastewater Effluents and Accumulation by Submerged Aquatic Plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farid Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2% and zinc (93.7% and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8% compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5% and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water.

  9. Arsenic, Zinc, and Aluminium Removal from Gold Mine Wastewater Effluents and Accumulation by Submerged Aquatic Plants (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Ismail; Fatt, Ng Tham; Othman, Faridah; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-01-01

    The potential of three submerged aquatic plant species (Cabomba piauhyensis, Egeria densa, and Hydrilla verticillata) to be used for As, Al, and Zn phytoremediation was tested. The plants were exposed for 14 days under hydroponic conditions to mine waste water effluents in order to assess the suitability of the aquatic plants to remediate elevated multi-metals concentrations in mine waste water. The results show that the E. densa and H. verticillata are able to accumulate high amount of arsenic (95.2%) and zinc (93.7%) and resulted in a decrease of arsenic and zinc in the ambient water. On the other hand, C. piauhyensis shows remarkable aluminium accumulation in plant biomass (83.8%) compared to the other tested plants. The ability of these plants to accumulate the studied metals and survive throughout the experiment demonstrates the potential of these plants to remediate metal enriched water especially for mine drainage effluent. Among the three tested aquatic plants, H. verticillata was found to be the most applicable (84.5%) and suitable plant species to phytoremediate elevated metals and metalloid in mine related waste water. PMID:24102060

  10. Revision of by-laws about effluents of EdF's nuclear power plants; Revision des arretes de rejets des centrales nucleaires d'EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    In France, in application of the clean water law from January 3, 1992 and since the decree 95-540 from May 4, 1995, each basic nuclear facility receives a single permission which covers both its water takes and its radioactive and non-radioactive effluents. This decree, initially dedicated to new facilities has been enlarged to all existing installations for which the prefectorial by-laws have reached their date-line. Thus, up to now, five inter-ministerial by-laws have renewed the permissions of water takes and effluents evacuation of the power plants of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (Loir-et-Cher), Flamanville (Manche), Paluel (Seine-Maritime), Belleville (Cher) and Saint-Alban (Isere). These by-laws foresee an important abatement of the effluents and concern more particularly the tritium, {sup 14}C, the iodine isotopes and also some other non-radioactive chemical compounds. This document is a compilation of all revised by-laws about effluents and concerning the nuclear power plants listed above. (J.S.)

  11. 3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine-like activity in effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants detected by in vitro and in vivo bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents from municipal domestic sewage treatment plants was detected using three in vitro assays and one in vivo assay. Contaminants in the effluents were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and eluted stepwise with different organic solvents. The majority of the thyroid system-disrupting activity was detected in the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction after SPE in all three in vitro assays: competitive assays of 3,3',5-[ 125 I]triiodo-L-thyronine ([ 125 I]T 3 ) binding to the plasma protein transthyretin (TTR assay) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR assay) and T 3 -dependent luciferase assay (Luc assay). Subsequent reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction separated contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays from those potent in the TTR assay. The contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays were also potent in an in vivo short-term gene expression assay in Xenopus laevis (Tadpole assay). The present study demonstrated that the effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants contain contaminants with T 3 -like activity of ∼ 10 -10 M T 3 -equivalent concentration (T 3 EQ) and that the TR and Luc assays are powerful in vitro bioassays for detecting thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents. The availability and applicability of these bioassays for screening contaminants with thyroid system-disrupting activity in the water environment are discussed

  12. Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals in natural plants thriving on wastewater effluent at Hattar industrial estate, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad; Pervez, Arshid; Inoue, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the potential of native plants for the phytoaccumulation of heavy metals (HM). Thirteen predominant plant species (including trees, bushes and grasses) namely Ricinus communis, Ipomoea carnea, Cannabis sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Acacia nilotica, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia modesta, Solanum nigrum, Xanthium stromarium, Chenopodium album, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, and Dactyloctenium aegyptium were collected from the wastewater originated from Hattar industrial estate of Pakistan, Plants shoots and roots were analyzed for heavy metals/metalloid: Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Fe, Ni, and As. Among plant species, the accumulation potential for HM varied depending on the type of element. Regardless of the plant species, HM concentrations varied in the order of Fe>Zn>Cr>Pb>Ni>Cd>As. Tree species of R. communis, A. nilotica, A. modesta, and D. sissoo exhibited an enhanced concentrations of metals. Accumulation pattern of Fe, Pb, Cd, and As in plants could be related to the HM composition of soil and wastewater. Most of the species exhibited higher HM composition in the root as compared to shoot. The species that found with greater ability to absorb HM in the root, got higher HM concentrations in its shoot. Shoot tissue concentrations of HM were attained by the species as D. sissoo>A. modesta>A. nilotica>R. communis>I. carnea>C. album>E. indica>P. hysterophorus>S. nigrum>C. sativa>D. aegyptium>X. strumarium>C. dactylon. Based on results, tree plants were noticed as higher accumulators of HM in polluted soils.

  13. Spatial and temporal shifts in gross primary productivity, respiration, and nutrient concentrations in urban streams impacted by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Toran, L.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of wastewater treatment plant effluent on nutrient retention and stream productivity are highly varied. The working theory has been that large pulses of nutrients from plants may hinder in-stream nutrient retention. We evaluated nitrate, total dissolved phosphorus, and dissolved oxygen in Wissahickon Creek, an urban third-order stream in Montgomery and Philadelphia counties, PA, that receives effluent from four wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater treatment plant effluent had nitrate concentrations of 15-30 mg N/L and total dissolved phosphorus of 0.3 to 1.8 mg/L. Seasonal longitudinal water quality samples showed nitrate concentrations were highest in the fall, peaking at 22 mg N/L, due to low baseflow, but total dissolved phosphorous concentrations were highest in the spring, reaching 0.6 mg/L. Diurnal dissolved oxygen patterns above and below one of the treatment plants provided estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER). A site 1 km below effluent discharge had higher GPP in April (80 g O2 m-2 d-1) than the site above the plant (28 g O2 m-2 d-1). The pulse in productivity did not continue downstream, as the site 3 km below the plant had GPP of only 12 g O2 m-2 d-1. Productivity fell in June to 1-2 g O2 m-2 d-1 and the differences in productivity above and below plants were minimal. Ecosystem respiration followed a similar pattern in April, increasing from -17 g O2 m-2 d-1 above the plant to -47 g O2 m-2 d-1 1 km below the plant, then decreasing to -8 g O2 m-2 d-1 3 km below the plant. Respiration dropped to -3 g O2 m-2 d-1 above the plant in June but only fell to -9 to -10 g O2 m-2 d-1 at the two downstream sites. These findings indicate that large nutrient pulses from wastewater treatment plants spur productivity and respiration, but that these increases may be strongly seasonally dependent. Examining in-stream productivity and respiration is critical in wastewater impacted streams to understanding the seasonal and

  14. Two synthetic progestins and natural progesterone are responsible for most of the progestagenic activities in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents in the Czech and Slovak republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šauer, Pavel; Stará, Alžběta; Golovko, Oksana; Valentová, Olga; Bořík, Adam; Grabic, Roman; Kroupová, Hana Kocour

    2018-06-15

    Vast numbers of xenobiotics are known still to be present in treated municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Some of these possess endocrine-disrupting potency and pose risks for exposed aquatic animals. We searched for 17 potential environmental contaminants having affinity to the progesterone receptor. Relative potency values of these progesterone receptor-active chemicals were obtained. On the basis of relative potencies and measured environmental concentrations, the contribution of progestins to measured progestagenic activities was evaluated. Wastewaters (influent and effluent) and surrounding surface waters (upstream and downstream) at six municipal WWTPs were screened using instrumental chemical analysis and in vitro reporter gene bioassay. We showed the presence of target compounds and (anti-)progestagenic activities in municipal wastewater and surface water. Nine and seven progestins were identified in influent and effluent wastewaters, respectively. Only two compounds, progesterone and medroxyprogesterone were found in surface waters. Progestagenic agonistic activities in influents were partially masked by strong anti-progestagenic activities that were detected in all influents and ranged from 2.63 to 83 ng/L of mifepristone equivalents (EQs). Progestagenic activities were detected in all effluents and ranged from 0.06 to 0.47 ng/L of reference compound ORG 2058 EQs (a synthetic progestin equivalents), thus indicating incomplete removal of progestins during wastewater treatment processing. This activity poses a continuing risk for the aquatic environment. By contrast, anti-progestagenic activities showed better removal efficiency in WWTPs compared to progestagenic agonistic activities. Anti-progestagenic activities were found in only three of six effluents and ranged from 0.26 to 2.1 ng/L mifepristone EQs. We explained most of the progestagenic activity in municipal WWTP effluents by the presence of synthetic progestins and

  15. Centrifugation of low-level radioactive effluents from a PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roofthooft, R.; Calay, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The major aim of this study, subsidized by the Commission of the European Communities, was the development of a process enabling treatment of non-recoverable waste from the Tihange power plant, in order to reduce both the rejected activity and the final product to be disposed in barrels. A flocculation procedure has been worked out for each waste type, i.e. residual, service, laundry, decontamination, pool and regeneration wastes. The influence of products that might disturb this flocculation and the method enabling their elimination have been investigated. In order to reduce the waste amount, a centrifugation pilot plant with a rated flow of 800 l/h has been developed. It has been operated jointly with an industrial batch flocculation (35 m 3 ) located in Tihange. Finally comparative tests have been performed in the Tihange power plant, using both the UKAEA and LABORELEC processes on the same waste product

  16. Analysis of radionuclides in airborne effluents from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Chatterjee, B.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the level of radioactivity emitted by coal-fired power plants in detail, specific activities of several radionuclides have been measured in samples from a coal-fired and a brown coal-fired plant in the Federal Republic of Germany. Samples measured included coal, brown coal, bottom ash, collected fly ash from the various electrostatic precipitator stages and sieve fractions of collected fly ash as well as samples of escaping fly ash taken from the exhaust stream, all taken simultaneously on three operating days. Nuclides measured were U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226, Pb-210, Po-210 and K-40. Methods applied included (i) direct gamma spectrometry, (ii) radiochemical separation with subsequent alpha spectrometry and (iii) direct alpha spectrometry. Methods are described and discussed. Finally, annual emission rates of airborne radionuclides are calculated for both plants.

  17. Analysis of radionuclides in airborne effluents from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Chatterjee, B.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the level of radioactivity emitted by coal-fired power plants in detail, specific activities of several radionuclides have been measured in samples from a coal-fired and a brown coal-fired plant in the Federal Republic of Germany. Samples measured included coal, brown coal, bottom ash, collected fly ash from the various electrostatic precipitator stages and sieve fractions of collected fly ash as well as samples of escaping fly ash taken from the exhaust stream, all taken simultaneously on three operating days. Nuclides measured were U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226, Pb-210, Po-210 and K-40. Methods applied included (i) direct gamma spectrometry, (ii) radiochemical separation with subsequent alpha spectrometry and (iii) direct alpha spectrometry. Methods are described and discussed. Finally, annual emission rates of airborne radionuclides are calculated for both plants. (orig.)

  18. Aerial and liquid effluent treatment in BNFL's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, P.I.; Buckley, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) completed construction of its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield in 1992, at a cost of pound 1,850M. After Government and Regulatory approval, active commissioning was initiated in January 1994. Since then, the whole of the plant has been progressively commissioned and moved towards full operational status. From the outset, the need to protect the workforce, the public and the environment in general from the plant's discharges was clearly recognised. The design intent was to limit radiation exposure of members of the general public to 'As Low as Reasonably Practicable' (ALARP). Furthermore no member of the most highly exposed (critical) group should receive an annual dose exceeding 50 microsieverts from either the aerial or marine discharge routes. This paper describes how the design intent has been met, concentrating mainly on aerial discharges. It describes the sub-division of the plant's ventilation system into a number of separate systems, according to the volume and source of the arising and the complexity of the treatment process. The dissolver off-gas, central off-gas, cell and building ventilation systems are described, together with the development programme which was undertaken to address the more demanding aspects of the performance specification. This ranged from small-scale experiments with irradiated fuel to inactive pilot plant trials and full-scale plant measurements. In addition wind tunnel tests were employed to assist dispersion modelling of the gases as they are discharged from the THORP stack. All the resulting information was then used, with the aid of mathematical models, in the design of an off-gas treatment system which could achieve the overall goal. (J.P.N.)

  19. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Rice, Clifford P.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Oskouie, Ali K.

    2015-01-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  20. Removal of bacterial cells, antibiotic resistance genes and integrase genes by on-site hospital wastewater treatment plants: surveillance of treated hospital effluent quality

    KAUST Repository

    Timraz, Kenda Hussain Hassan

    2016-12-15

    This study aims to evaluate the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants, including total cell counts, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs, e.g. tetO, tetZ, sul1 and sul2) and integrase genes (e.g. intl1 and intl2), by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operated on-site of two hospitals (i.e., SH WWTP and IH WWTP). Both SH and IH WWTPs utilize the conventional activated sludge process but differences in the removal efficiencies were observed. Over the 2 week sampling period, IH WWTP outperformed SH WWTP, and achieved an approximate 0.388 to 2.49-log log removal values (LRVs) for total cell counts compared to the 0.010 to 0.162-log removal in SH WWTP. Although ARB were present in the hospital influent, the treatment process of both hospitals effectively removed ARB from most of the effluent samples. In instances where ARB were recovered in the effluent, none of the viable isolates were identified to be opportunistic pathogenic species based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. However, sul1 and intl1 genes remained detectable at up to 105 copies per mL or 8 x 10(-1) copies per 16S rRNA gene in the treated effluent, with an LRV of less than 1.2. When the treated effluent is discharged from hospital WWTPs into the public sewer for further treatment as per requirement in many countries, the detected amount of ARGs and integrase genes in the hospital effluent can become a potential source of horizontal gene dissemination in the municipal WWTP. Proper on-site wastewater treatment and surveillance of the effluent quality for emerging contaminants are therefore highly recommended.

  1. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; Rice, Clifford P; Minarik, Thomas A; Oskouie, Ali K

    2015-06-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  2. Start-up of a UASB effluent treatment plant on distillery wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on the seasonal operation of a UASB treatment plant treating a distillery wastewater stream with particular focus on seasonal start-up conditions after the first process commissioning. The start-up period was typically one week before process stability could be achieved. It is recommended that the loading ...

  3. Regular control of monitors for effluents from nuclear power plant stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, L.

    1979-01-01

    The report describes a test procedure for emission monitoring devices for nuclear power plants. The follosing procedures are described, inspection, determination of the air flow through the stack, measurement and adjustment of the flow in the stack loop, measurement and adjustment of flow and density in the measuring loop, calibration of the gas detector, efficiency of sampling of methyliodide and aerosol. (K.K.)

  4. Secondary aerosols from power plant effluents: delivery and in vivo detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, N.J.; Raabe, O.G.; Bradley, E.; Raub, J.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental system is described for the generation of radiolabeled monodisperse aerosols, which are physico-chemically analogous to aerosols produced as secondary products of gaseous fossil fuel power plant emissions of SO 2 and NO 2 . The experimental system for inhalation exposure of non-human primates to these particles and the in vivo determination of systemic distribution and target organs is discussed

  5. ASSESSMENT OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN EFFLUENTS FROM SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newly developed molecular biology methods have been used for the measurement of estrogenic activity in source-biased studies of sewage treatment plants. Studies in Texas and New Mexico have shown the utility of the measurement of changes in vitellogenin gene expression in fathea...

  6. STUDIES ON XYLANASE AND LACCASE ENZYMATIC PREBLEACHING TO REDUCE CHLORINE-BASED CHEMICALS DURING CEH AND ECF BLEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanta V. Thakur,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The biobleaching efficiency of xylanase and laccase enzymes was studied on kraft pulps from wood and nonwood based raw materials employed in the Indian paper industry. Treatment of these pulps with xylanase enzyme could result in improved properties, showing 2.0% ISO gain in pulp brightness and/or reducing the demand of chlorine-based bleach chemicals by up to 15% with simultaneous reduction of 20 to 25% in AOX generation in bleach effluents. Further, mill-scale trial results revealed that enzymatic prebleaching can be successfully employed with xylanases to reach the same bleach boosting efficacy. Laccase bleaching was also studied on hardwood pulp at a pH around 8.0, where most of the pulp mills in India are operating, in contrast to earlier studies on laccase enzyme bleaching, which were conducted at acidic pHs, i.e. 4.0 to 5.0. In case of laccase bleaching, interesting results were found wherein a bleach-boosting effect was observed even at pH 8.0. Further studies carried out with HOBT as mediator in comparison to the commonly used and expensive ABTS laccase mediator system (LMS resulted in improvement of the bleaching efficiency with reduction in demand of chlorine dioxide by more than 35%. Potential for further reduction was indicated by the brightness gain, when compared with a control using the DE(pD bleach sequence.

  7. Treatment of municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents with modified photo-Fenton as a tertiary treatment for the degradation of micro pollutants and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerth, Nikolaus; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo; Mailhot, Gilles

    2012-03-06

    The goal of this paper was to develop a modified photo-Fenton treatment able to degrade micro pollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluents at a neutral pH with minimal iron and H(2)O(2) concentrations. Complexation of Fe by ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) leads to stabilization and solubilization of Fe at natural pH. Photo-Fenton experiments were performed in a pilot compound parabolic collector (CPC) solar plant. Samples were treated with solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by HPLC-Qtrap-MS. The rapid degradation of contaminants within the first minutes of illumination and the low detrimental impact on degradation of bicarbonates present in the water suggested that radical species other than HO(•) are responsible for the efficiency of such photo-Fenton process. Disinfection of MWTP effluents by the same process showed promising results, although disinfection was not complete.

  8. Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

    2009-09-01

    In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields.

  9. Catalytic thermal treatment (catalytic thermolysis) of a rice grain-based biodigester effluent of an alcohol distillery plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Abhinesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Parmesh Kumar; Mazumdar, Bidyut; Choudhary, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic thermolysis (CT) process is an effective and novel approach to treat rice grain-based biodigester effluent (BDE) of the distillery plant. CT treatment of rice grain-based distillery wastewater was carried out in a 0.5 dm(3) thermolytic batch reactor using different catalysts such as CuO, copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate. With the CuO catalyst, a temperature of 95°C, catalyst loading of 4 g/dm(3) and pH 5 were found to be optimal, obtaining a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal of 80.4% and 72%, respectively. The initial pH (pHi) was an important parameter to remove COD and colour from BDE. At higher pHi (pH 9.5), less COD and colour reduction were observed. The settling characteristics of CT-treated sludge were also analysed at different temperatures. It was noted that the treated slurry at a temperature of 80°C gave best settling characteristics. Characteristics of residues are also analysed at different pH.

  10. Nitrogen removal on recycling water process of wastewater treatment plant effluent using subsurface horizontal wetland with continuous feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazkiaturrizki, T.; Soewondo, P.; Handajani, M.

    2018-01-01

    Recycling water is a generic term for water reclamation and reuse to solve the scarcity of water. Constructed wetlands have been recognized as providing many benefits for wastewater treatment including water supply and control by recycling water. This research aims to find the best condition to significantly remove nitrogen using constructed wetland for recycling water of Bojongsoang Waste Water Treatment Plan (WWTP) effluent. Using media of soil, sand, gravel, and vegetation (Typha latifolia and Scirpus grossus) with an aeration system, BOD and COD parameters have been remarkably reduced. On the contrary, the removal efficiency for nitrogen is only between 50-60%. Modifications were then conducted by three step of treatment, i.e., Step I is to remove BOD/COD using Typha latifolia with an aeration system, Step II is todecrease nitrogen using Scirpus grossus with/without aeration, and Step III isto complete the nitrogen removal with denitrification process by Glycine max without aeration. Results of the research show that the nitrogen removal has been successfully increased to a high efficiency between 80-99%. The combination of aeration system and vegetation greatly affects the nitrogen removal. The vegetation acts as the organic nitrogen consumer (plant uptake) for amino acids, nitrate, and ammonium as nutrition, as well as theoxygen supplier to the roots so that aerobic microsites are formed for ammonification microorganisms.

  11. Accumulation, mobility and plant availability of heavy metals in soils irrigated with untreated sewage effluent in Central Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebe-Grabach, C.

    1994-01-01

    In Irrigation District 03, Tula, Mexico, wastewater from Mexico City has been used for irrigating agricultural land since the beginning of this century. Today, approximately 85 000 ha are irrigated, alfalfa and maize being the main crops. The sewage effluent does not receive any treatment previous to its evacuation to this irrigation district, and only a part of the water is stored in the Endho Dam before being used, receiving in this way a kind or primary treatment through the sedimentation processes taking place. The reuse of wastewater for agricultural purposes represents an economic source of water and nutrients and has become an important disposal alternative for Mexico City. Nevertheless the contaminants and pathogens contained in the water represent a potential public health hazard and the production capacity of the soils. The aim of the present investigation is to determine the actual contamination levels of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn) in soils, analysing the accumulation tendencies in time and space, and also to characterize their mobility and plant availability and thus their ecotoxicity. (orig.) [de

  12. A prototype for actinide alpha monitoring in liquid effluents of reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardone, G.; Mattia, B.; Durante, R.; Frazzoli, F.V.

    1983-01-01

    The report deals with the design criteria of prototype measuring device, based on the alpha spectrometry, aimed to the determination of actinides solutions in reprocessing plants. The described instrument is considered as the result of a preliminary stage of development. Taking into account the experimental results obtained with Pu bearing solutions the performances achievable are evaluated; in particular, it turns out that the minimum detectable activity is about 10 -5 Ci/l

  13. Removal of helminth eggs by centralized and decentralized wastewater treatment plants in South Africa and Lesotho: health implications for direct and indirect exposure to the effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Isaac Dennis; Reddy, Poovendhree; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2018-05-01

    Wastewater may contain contaminants harmful to human health; hence, there is the need for treatment before discharge. Centralized wastewater treatment systems are the favored treatment options globally, but these are not necessarily superior in reduction of pathogens as compared to decentralized wastewater treatment systems (collectively called DEWATS). This study was therefore undertaken to assess the soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and Taenia sp. egg reduction efficiency of selected anaerobic baffled reactors and planted gravel filters compared to centralized wastewater treatment plants in South Africa and Lesotho. The risk of ascariasis with exposure to effluents from the centralized wastewater treatment plants was also assessed using the quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) approach. Eggs of Ascaris spp., hookworm, Trichuris spp., Taenia spp., and Toxocara spp. were commonly detected in the untreated wastewater. The DEWATS plants removed between 95 and 100% of the STH and Taenia sp. eggs, with centralized plants removing between 67 and 100%. Helminth egg concentrations in the final effluents from the centralized wastewater treatment plants were consistently higher than those in the WHO recommended guideline (≤ 1 helminth egg/L) for agricultural use resulting in higher risk of ascariasis. Therefore, in conclusion, DEWATS plants may be more efficient in reducing the concentration of helminth eggs in wastewater, resulting in lower risks of STH infections upon exposure.

  14. Reconnaissance of contaminants in selected wastewater-treatment-plant effluent and stormwater runoff entering the Columbia River, Columbia River Basin, Washington and Oregon, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morace, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic contamination is a significant concern in the Columbia River Basin in Washington and Oregon. To help water managers and policy makers in decision making about future sampling efforts and toxic-reduction activities, a reconnaissance was done to assess contaminant concentrations directly contributed to the Columbia River through wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent and stormwater runoff from adjacent urban environments and to evaluate instantaneous loadings to the Columbia River Basin from these inputs.

  15. Coral reef bleaching: ecological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. W.

    1993-03-01

    Coral reef bleaching, the whitening of diverse invertebrate taxa, results from the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or a reduction in photosynthetic pigment concentrations in zooxanthellae residing within the gastrodermal tissues of host animals. Of particular concern are the consequences of bleaching of large numbers of reef-building scleractinian corals and hydrocorals. Published records of coral reef bleaching events from 1870 to the present suggest that the frequency (60 major events from 1979 to 1990), scale (co-occurrence in many coral reef regions and often over the bathymetric depth range of corals) and severity (>95% mortality in some areas) of recent bleaching disturbances are unprecedented in the scientific literature. The causes of small scale, isolated bleaching events can often be explained by particular stressors (e.g., temperature, salinity, light, sedimentation, aerial exposure and pollutants), but attempts to explain large scale bleaching events in terms of possible global change (e.g., greenhouse warming, increased UV radiation flux, deteriorating ecosystem health, or some combination of the above) have not been convincing. Attempts to relate the severity and extent of large scale coral reef bleaching events to particular causes have been hampered by a lack of (a) standardized methods to assess bleaching and (b) continuous, long-term data bases of environmental conditions over the periods of interest. An effort must be made to understand the impact of bleaching on the remainder of the reef community and the long-term effects on competition, predation, symbioses, bioerosion and substrate condition, all factors that can influence coral recruitment and reef recovery. If projected rates of sea warming are realized by mid to late AD 2000, i.e. a 2°C increase in high latitude coral seas, the upper thermal tolerance limits of many reef-building corals could be exceeded. Present evidence suggests that many corals would be unable to adapt

  16. Kinetics of Adsorbable Organic Halides (AOX Reduction in Laccase-Aided Chlorine Dioxide Bleaching of Bagasse Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kinetic model of the laccase-aided chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp. The kinetic model was based on the rate of reduction of adsorbed organic halogen (AOX. The effects of the laccase enzyme dosage, the mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT dosage, and the reaction temperature on the AOX content of the bleaching effluent are discussed. Good fits were obtained for the experimental data obtained from the different laccase enzyme dosages, HBT dosages, and reaction temperatures, indicating the feasibility of the kinetic model as a means of predicting the optimal operation conditions for the laccase-aided chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp in the future.

  17. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  18. Phase 2 focused feasibility study report for the reduction of mercury in plant effluent project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this focused feasibility study (FS) is to review the alternatives that have been evaluated under the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent scoping efforts and provide justification for the recommended alternative. The chosen option from this study will be executed to meet the mercury-specific requirements of the recently negotiated National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Four previous ''mercury use'' buildings at the Y-12 Plant have been identified as primary contributors to these discharges and are scheduled to undergo upgrades to mitigate them as sources. They are 9201-2, 9201-4, 9201-5, and 9204-4. These buildings contain mercury-contaminated pipes and sumps that discharge to EFPC. The current requirements for limiting mercury discharges to EFPC are defined in the draft Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit, which is expected to become effective in July 1994. The main requirement related to mercury in the permit is to reduce the downstream mercury concentration to 5 g/day or less. Three basic options are considered and estimated in this study, including treatment at the building sources with local units (∼$3.8 million); a combination of local treatment and centralized treatment at the Central Pollution Control Facility (∼$6.6--8.9 million); and hydraulic control of the groundwater and/or in situ soil treatment (∼$120 million). As negotiated under the NPDES Permit, an ''interim'' local unit, utilizing carbon adsorption, is being placed in operation in the 9201-2 building by July 1994. Since the major uncertainties associated with meeting the NPDES permit discharge requirements for mercury are flow rates and treatment efficiency, the 9201-2 unit will provide within 6 months the data necessary to optimize a treatment design

  19. Chemical effluents in surface waters from nuclear power plants. Quarterly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this research project are threefold: to obtain data on the behavior of potentially toxic substances introduced into surface waters from nuclear power plants; to determine the magnitude of the impact of these substances on representative and economically important aquatic species; and to develop models with which to predict the partitioning of these substances among the abiotic aquatic compartments. To fulfill these objectives in our investigation of copper, we are determining copper partitioning in marine and freshwater systems, evaluating the toxicity of copper to representative aquatic organisms, and developing a mathematical model to predict copper partitioning

  20. The impact of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) effluents on fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrauskas, A.; Bernotas, E.; Didrikas, T.

    1997-01-01

    Successive changes of the ecosystems, censor structure and functioning in the cooling reservoir of the Ignalina NPP - lake Drukshiai are continuing so far. The plant working at full capacity, the territory of the lake due to thermogradient conditions is expanding considerably, not seldom exceeding the hygienic norms. Under such conditions the volume of cold water masses is notably decreasing, and the limit of temperature jump becomes lower. Changes and elimination of species in the ichtyocenosis of the lake are taking place, exceeding the rates typical to the development of natural water reservoirs. The pelagic fish populations were observed from 1979 till 1995. During fish population investigation hydroacoustic technique was applied. Research into the fish population structure and functioning discovered the existence of some adaptation processes.That is confirmed by the decrease of fish in the lake and natural habitat during the construction of the plant and first years of its exploitation. Besides, a partial restoration of the species is observed in the recent years. In some species, adaptive possibilities to not quite typical life conditions have been revealed (vendace), others practically became extinct (smelt), while still other species have properly adapted themselves to the changed life conditions and remained abundant (roach, silver bream, perch). (author). 17 refs., 9 figs

  1. Recovery of sodium hydroxide and silica from zirconium oxide plant effluent of Nuclear Fuel Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, M.B.; Shenoi, M.R.K.; Keni, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide (lye) and silica can be recovered in pure form from the alkaline sodium silicate waste of Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. Electrolytic method was used to amalgamate the sodium present in an electrolyser with flowing mercury as cathode and nickel as anode. The amalgam is then denuded with water in a graphite packed tower to recover mercury for recycling to the electrolyser and sodium hydroxide lye. Sodium hydroxide lye can be recycled in the zirconium oxide plant. Silica is recovered from the spent electrolyte by ion exchange method using cation exchange resin. Both the process details are described in this paper, with experimental data useful for the scale up. The process converts waste to value products. (author)

  2. Recovery of sodium hydroxide and silica from zirconium oxide plant effluent of Nuclear Fuel Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, M B; Shenoi, M R.K.; Keni, V S [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Sodium hydroxide (lye) and silica can be recovered in pure form from the alkaline sodium silicate waste of Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. Electrolytic method was used to amalgamate the sodium present in an electrolyser with flowing mercury as cathode and nickel as anode. The amalgam is then denuded with water in a graphite packed tower to recover mercury for recycling to the electrolyser and sodium hydroxide lye. Sodium hydroxide lye can be recycled in the zirconium oxide plant. Silica is recovered from the spent electrolyte by ion exchange method using cation exchange resin. Both the process details are described in this paper, with experimental data useful for the scale up. The process converts waste to value products. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Combined biological treatment of sinter plant waste water, blast furnace gas scrubber water polluted groundwater and coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine van Hoorn [Corus Staal, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Waste water from the Corus coke plant in IJmuiden had been handled by the activated sludge process since start-up in 1972 but in the eighties it was clear that although this removed most phenols, the rest of the COD and thiocyanate must also be removed before discharge. The paper describes the original water treatment process and the higher pressure gas scrubber system for removal of SO{sub 2}, heavy metals and other harmful components. It goes on to describe development of a combined biological treatment system, the heart of which is the so-called Bio 2000. The performance of this new plant is discussed. COD concentrations are very constant but Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) concentrations fluctuate. COD, TKN and heavy metals are in compliance but cyanide and suspended solids are not always so. A method of overcoming this is being sought. This paper was presented at a COMA meeting in March 2005 held in Scunthorpe, UK. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Contamination of nonylphenolic compounds in creek water, wastewater treatment plant effluents, and sediments from Lake Shihwa and vicinity, Korea: Comparison with fecal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Minkyu; Furlong, Edward T.; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yu, Jun; Choi, Hee-Gu

    2011-01-01

    Nonylphenolic compounds (NPs), coprostanol (COP), and cholestanol, major contaminants in industrial and domestic wastewaters, were analyzed in creek water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and sediment samples from artificial Lake Shihwa and its vicinity, one of the most industrialized regions in Korea. We also determined mass discharge of NPs and COP, a fecal sterol, into the lake, to understand the linkage between discharge and sediment contamination. Total NP (the sum of nonylphenol, and nonylphenol mono- and di-ethoxylates) were 0.32–875 μg L-1 in creeks, 0.61–87.0 μg L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 29.3–230 μg g-1 TOC in sediments. Concentrations of COP were 0.09–19.0 μg L-1 in creeks, 0.11–44.0 μg L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 2.51–438 μg g-1 TOC in sediments. The spatial distributions of NPs in creeks and sediments from the inshore region were different from those of COP, suggesting that Lake Shihwa contamination patterns from industrial effluents differ from those from domestic effluents. The mass discharge from the combined outfall of the WWTPs, located in the offshore region, was 2.27 kg d-1 for NPs and 1.00 kg d-1 for COP, accounting for 91% and 95% of the total discharge into Lake Shihwa, respectively. The highest concentrations of NPs and COP in sediments were found in samples at sites near the submarine outfall of the WWTPs, indicating that the submarine outfall is an important point source of wastewater pollution in Lake Shihwa.

  5. Assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of refinery waste effluent using plant, animal and bacterial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Ahmad, Masood

    2012-01-30

    The work described here presents the toxic effect of Mathura refinery wastewater (MRWW) in plant (Allium cepa), bacterial (E. coli K12) and human (blood) system. The samples were collected from adjoining area of Mathura refinery, Dist. Mathura, U.P. (India). Chromosomal aberration test and micronucleus assay in (A. cepa) system, E. coli K12 survival assay as well as hemolysis assay in human blood were employed to assess the toxicity of MRWW. MRWW exposure resulted in the formation of micronuclei and bridges in chromosomes of A. cepa cells. A significant decline occurred in survival of DNA repair defective mutants of E. coli K12 exposed to MRWW. On incubation with MRWW, calf thymus DNA-EtBr fluorescence intensity decreased and percent hemolysis of human blood cells increased. An induction in the MDA levels of MRWW treated A. cepa roots indicated lipid peroxidation also. Collectively, the results demonstrate a significant genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of MRWW. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effluents from MBT plants: Plasma techniques for the treatment of VOCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragazzi, Marco, E-mail: marco.ragazzi@unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Tosi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.tosi@unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 5, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Rada, Elena Cristina, E-mail: elena.rada@unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy); Schiavon, Marco, E-mail: marco.schiavon@unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Dielectric Barrier Discharge was applied to remove methyl ethyl ketone from air. • Methyl ethyl ketone was chosen since it represents emissions from MBT plants. • The removal efficiency was linearly dependent on time, power and energy density. • Besides CO{sub 2}, methyl nitrate and 2,3-butanedione were the main byproducts formed. • The removal efficiency can be increased by increasing the convective flow. - Abstract: Mechanical–biological treatments (MBTs) of urban waste are growing in popularity in many European countries. Recent studies pointed out that their contribution in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other air pollutants is not negligible. Compared to classical removal technologies, non-thermal plasmas (NTP) showed better performances and low energy consumption when applied to treat lowly concentrated streams. Therefore, to study the feasibility of the application of NTP to MBTs, a Dielectric Barrier Discharge reactor was applied to treat a mixture of air and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), to simulate emissions from MBTs. The removal efficiency of MEK was linearly dependent upon time, power and specific input energy. Only 2–4% of MEK was converted to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the remaining carbon being involved in the formation of byproducts (methyl nitrate and 2,3-butanedione, especially). For future development of pilot-scale reactors, acting on residence time, power, convective flow and catalysts will help finding a compromise between energy consumption, desired abatement and selectivity to CO{sub 2}.

  7. Fate of sulfamethoxazole, 4-nonylphenol, and 17beta-estradiol in groundwater contaminated by wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B; Keefe, Steffanie H; Leblanc, Denis R; Bradley, Paul M; Chapelle, Francis H; Meyer, Michael T; Loftin, Keith A; Kolpin, Dana W; Rubio, Fernando

    2009-07-01

    Organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) were measured in samples collected from monitoring wells located along a 4.5-km transect of a plume of groundwater contaminated by 60 years of continuous rapid infiltration disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent. Fifteen percent of the 212 OWCs analyzed were detected, including the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SX), the nonionic surfactant degradation product 4-nonylphenol (NP), the solvent tetrachloroethene (PCE), and the disinfectant 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Comparison of the 2005 sampling results to data collected from the same wells in 1985 indicates that PCE and DCB are transported more rapidly in the aquiferthan NP, consistent with predictions based on compound hydrophobicity. Natural gradient in situ tracer experiments were conducted to evaluate the subsurface behavior of SX, NP, and the female sex hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2) in two oxic zones in the aquifer: (1) a downgradient transition zone at the interface between the contamination plume and the overlying uncontaminated groundwater and (2) a contaminated zone located beneath the infiltration beds, which have not been loaded for 10 years. In both zones, breakthrough curves for the conservative tracer bromide (Br-) and SX were nearly coincident, whereas NP and E2 were retarded relative to Br- and showed mass loss. Retardation was greater in the contaminated zone than in the transition zone. Attenuation of NP and E2 in the aquifer was attributed to biotransformation, and oxic laboratory microcosm experiments using sediments from the transition and contaminated zones show that uniform-ring-labeled 14C 4-normal-NP was biodegraded more rapidly 130-60% recovered as 14CO2 in 13 days) than 4-14C E2 (20-90% recovered as 14CO2 in 54 days). There was little difference in mineralization potential between sites.

  8. Fate of sulfamethoxazole, 4-nonylphenol, and 17β-estradiol in groundwater contaminated by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Bradley, Paul M.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Meyer, Michael T.; Loftin, Keith A.; Koplin, Dana W.; Rubio, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) were measured in samples collected from monitoring wells located along a 4.5-km transect of a plume of groundwater contaminated by 60 years of continuous rapid infiltration disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent. Fifteen percent of the 212 OWCs analyzed were detected, including the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SX), the nonionic surfactant degradation product 4-nonylphenol (NP), the solvent tetrachloroethene (PCE), and the disinfectant 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Comparison of the 2005 sampling results to data collected from the same wells in 1985 indicates that PCE and DCB are transported more rapidly in the aquifer than NP, consistent with predictions based on compound hydrophobicity. Natural gradient in situ tracer experiments were conducted to evaluate the subsurface behavior of SX, NP, and the female sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) in two oxic zones in the aquifer: (1) a downgradient transition zone at the interface between the contamination plume and the overlying uncontaminated groundwater and (2) a contaminated zone located beneath the infiltration beds, which have not been loaded for 10 years. In both zones, breakthrough curves for the conservative tracer bromide (Br−) and SX were nearly coincident, whereas NP and E2 were retarded relative to Br− and showed mass loss. Retardation was greater in the contaminated zone than in the transition zone. Attenuation of NP and E2 in the aquifer was attributed to biotransformation, and oxic laboratory microcosm experiments using sediments from the transition and contaminated zones show that uniform-ring-labeled 14C 4-normal-NP was biodegraded more rapidly (30−60% recovered as 14CO2 in 13 days) than 4-14C E2 (20−90% recovered as 14CO2in 54 days). There was little difference in mineralization potential between sites.

  9. A sequential and fast method for low level of 226Ra , 228Ra, 210Pb e 210Po in mine effluents and uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, M.H.T.; Taddei, J.F.A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Due to biological risk and long half lives, the radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po should be frequently monitored to check for any environmental contamination around mines and uranium plants. Currently, the methods used for the determination of these radionuclides take about thirty days to reach the radioactive equilibrium of the 210 Pb and 226 Ra daughter's. The evaluation of effluent discharges and leakage of deposits to water bodies in monitoring programs, require quick answers to implement corrective measures. Thereby fast determination methods must be implemented. This work presents a fast and sequential method to, in three days, determine accurately and sensitively, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, in water and effluent samples

  10. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

    2011-10-01

    Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Approach to the problem of liquid effluents in petrochemical plants; Abordagem do problema efluentes liquidos em plantas petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Cordelia Alves [PROMON Engenharia SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    It represents the typical example of petrochemical company that uses the responsible care. The company looks for solve the liquid effluent problems of its units at a complete view. First of all, they made a complete report of the environmental scenario through the operational conditions (it included the collect system, effluent treatment, etc.) and their connection with the environmental problems. In the following step was made the necessary changes to establish the effluents pollute level below the allowable levels and to avoid soil contamination. The company has made the modifications at the following systems:a closed system to collect and reprocess process drains; collect, transfer and retention of contaminated storm water; a stripper column and a solid removal system to treat contaminated water. (author) 2 figs.

  12. Approach to the problem of liquid effluents in petrochemical plants; Abordagem do problema efluentes liquidos em plantas petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Cordelia Alves [PROMON Engenharia SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    It represents the typical example of petrochemical company that uses the responsible care. The company looks for solve the liquid effluent problems of its units at a complete view. First of all, they made a complete report of the environmental scenario through the operational conditions (it included the collect system, effluent treatment, etc.) and their connection with the environmental problems. In the following step was made the necessary changes to establish the effluents pollute level below the allowable levels and to avoid soil contamination. The company has made the modifications at the following systems:a closed system to collect and reprocess process drains; collect, transfer and retention of contaminated storm water; a stripper column and a solid removal system to treat contaminated water. (author) 2 figs.

  13. Assessment of potential impact of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant thermal effluent on the Watts Bar Reservoir striped bass population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, J.H.; McIntosh, D.; Ostrowski, P.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1983-11-01

    This report is an assessment of potential adverse impact to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Watts Bar Reservoir caused by thermal effluent from operation of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir is occupied by adult striped bass during the warmest months of the year. Concern was raised that operation of the CRBRP, specifically thermal discharges, could conflict with management of striped bass. In all cases examined the thermal plume becomes nearly imperceptible within a short distance from the discharge pipe (about 30 ft [10 m]) compared to river width (about 630 ft [190 m]). Under worst case conditions any presence of the plume in the main channel (opposite side of the river from the discharge) will be confined to the surface layer of the water. An ample portion of river cross sections containing ambient temperature water for passage or residence of adult striped bass will always be available in the vicinity of this thermal effluent. Although a small portion of river cross section would exceed the thermal tolerance of striped bass, the fish would naturally avoid this area and seek out adjacent cooler water. Therefore, it is concluded the CRBRP thermal effluent will not significantly affect the integrity of the striped bass thermal refuge in the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir. At this time there is no need to consider alternative diffuser designs and thermal modeling. 8 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  14. Comparison of dilution factors for German wastewater treatment plant effluents in receiving streams to the fixed dilution factor from chemical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Moritz; von der Ohe, Peter C; Voß, Katharina; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2017-11-15

    Incomplete removal during wastewater treatment leads to frequent detection of compounds such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products in municipal effluents. A fixed standard dilution factor of 10 for effluents entering receiving water bodies is used during the exposure assessment of several chemical risk assessments. However, the dilution potential of German receiving waters under low flow conditions is largely unknown and information is sparse for other European countries. We calculated dilution factors for two datasets differing in spatial extent and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) size: a national dataset comprising 1225 large WWTPs in Central and Northern Germany and a federal dataset for 678 WWTPs of a single state in Southwest Germany. We found that the fixed factor approach overestimates the dilution potential of 60% and 40% of receiving waters in the national and the federal dataset, with median dilution factors of 5 and 14.5, respectively. Under mean flow conditions, 8% of calculated dilution factors were below 10, with a median dilution factor of 106. We also calculated regional dilution factors that accounted for effluent inputs from upstream WWTPs. For the national and the federal dataset, 70% and 60% of calculated regional dilution factors fell below 10 under mean low flow conditions, respectively. Decrease of regional dilution potential in small receiving streams was mainly driven by the next WWTP upstream with a 2.5 fold drop of median regional dilution factors. Our results show that using the standard dilution factor of 10 would result in the underestimation of environmental concentrations for authorised chemicals by a factor of 3-5 for about 10% of WWTPs, especially during low flow conditions. Consequently, measured environmental concentrations might exceed predicted environmental concentrations and ecological risks posed by effluents could be much higher, suggesting that a revision of current risk assessment practices may be required

  15. Distribution of antibiotic resistance in the effluents of ten municipal wastewater treatment plants in China and the effect of treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Weiwei; Wang, Jian; Cao, Rukun; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yu; Qiang, Zhimin

    2017-04-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents represent an important contamination source of antibiotic resistance, threatening the ecological safety of receiving environments. In this study, the release of antibiotic resistance to sulfonamides and tetracyclines in the effluents of ten WWTPs in China was investigated. Results indicate that the concentrations of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) ranged from 1.1 × 10 1 to 8.9 × 10 3  CFU mL -1 and 3.6 × 10 1 (tetW) to 5.4 × 10 6 (tetX) copies mL -1 , respectively. There were insignificant correlations of the concentrations of ARB and ARGs with those of corresponding antibiotics. Strong correlations were observed between the total concentrations of tetracycline resistance genes and sulfonamide resistance genes, and both of which were significantly correlated with intI1 concentrations. Statistical analysis of the effluent ARG concentrations in different WWTPs revealed an important role of disinfection in eliminating antibiotic resistance. The release rates of ARB and ARGs through the effluents of ten WWTPs ranged from 5.9 × 10 12 to 4.8 × 10 15  CFU d -1 and 6.4 × 10 12 (tetW) to 1.7 × 10 18 (sul1) copies d -1 , respectively. This study helps the effective assessment and scientific management of ecological risks induced by antibiotic resistance discharged from WWTPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disinfection of an advanced primary effluent with peracetic acid and ultraviolet combined treatment: a continuous-flow pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Abelardo; Gehr, Ronald; Vaca, Mabel; López, Raymundo

    2012-03-01

    Disinfection of an advanced primary effluent using a continuous-flow combined peracetic acid/ultraviolet (PAA/UV) radiation system was evaluated. The purpose was to determine whether the maximum microbial content, established under Mexican standards for treated wastewaters meant for reuse--less than 240 most probable number fecal coliforms (FC)/100 mL--could be feasibly accomplished using either disinfectant individually, or the combined PAA/UV system. This meant achieving reduction of up to 5 logs, considering initial concentrations of 6.4 x 10(+6) to 5.8 x 10(+7) colony forming units/100 mL. During the tests performed under these experiments, total coliforms (TC) were counted because FC, at the most, will be equal to TC. Peracetic acid disinfection achieved less than 1.5 logs TC reduction when the C(t) x t product was less than 2.26 mg x minimum (min)/L; 3.8 logs for C(t) x t 4.40 mg x min/L; and 5.9 logs for C(t) x t 24.2 mg x min/L. In continuous-flow UV irradiation tests, at a low-operating flow (21 L/min; conditions which produced an average UV fluence of 13.0 mJ/cm2), the highest TC reduction was close to 2.5 logs. The only condition that produced a disinfection efficiency of approximately 5 logs, when both disinfection agents were used together, was the combined process dosing 30 mg PAA/L at a pilot plant flow of 21 L/min and contact time of 10 minutes to attain an average C(t) x t product of 24.2 mg x min/L and an average UV fluence of 13 mJ/cm2. There was no conclusive evidence of a synergistic effect when both disinfectants were employed in combination as compared to the individual effects achieved when used separately, but this does not take into account the nonlinearity (tailing-off) of the dose-response curve.

  17. Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. Draft EIR/EIS, Volume 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The primary focus of this environmental analysis is on improvements to the Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (SRWTP) facilities and disposal to the Geysers for injection. This analysis will be incorporated with an earlier EIR which evaluated system improvements to the SRWTP and twelve disposal alternatives. In July 1993, the Lake County Sanitation District Board of Directors (LACOSAN) selected the Geysers Effluent Pipeline as the preferred alternative to be analyzed in this EIR/EIS. This environmental analysis will primarily focus on improvements to the SRWTP facilities and a 24 inch pipeline designed to carry up to 5,400 gallons per minute of secondarily treated wastewater. The wastewater will be transported from the Lake County Sanitation District's Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, Middletown Wastewater Treatment Plant with additional make-up water from Clear Lake to the Southeast portion of the Geysers Geothermal Field in Lake and Sonoma Counties, California

  18. Formation of a local Abramis brama orientalis (BERG) population in the zone of hot effluent from the Konakovo hydroelectric power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappo, G B

    1976-01-01

    Bream (Abramis brama orientalis) inhabitating the part of the Ivan'kovo Reservoir directly exposed to effluent from the Konakovo Hydroelectric Power Plant are smaller and become sexually mature sooner than elsewhere in the reservoir. Moreover, they have longer tail peduncles and anal, thoracic, and dorsal fins than other bream. And, in contrast with the latter, many (20 percent) have two rows of pharyngeal teeth. Thus, the differences in ecological (growth rate, condition factor, spawning times, etc.) and meristic and plastic characters (branched rays, enlarged fins, etc.) as well as in composition of parasites point to the development of an isolated bream population.

  19. Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier [Division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA), Department of Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering (MIE), Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Center for Process Engineering and Technology (PROCESS), Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 229, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Arnell, Magnus [Division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA), Department of Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering (MIE), Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); CIT Urban Water Management, Gjuterigatan 1D, SE-582 73 Linköping (Sweden); Amerlinck, Youri [BIOMATH, Department of Mathematical Modelling, Statistics and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Corominas, Lluís [ICRA, Catalan Institute for Water Research, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, H_2O Building, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Gernaey, Krist V. [Center for Process Engineering and Technology (PROCESS), Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 229, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Guo, Lisha [ModelEAU, Département de génie civil et de génie des eaux, Université Laval, 1065 Avenue de la Médecine, Québec G1V 0A6, QC (Canada); Lindblom, Erik [Division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA), Department of Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering (MIE), Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Sweco Environment, Gjörwellsgatan 22, SE-100 26 Stockholm (Sweden); and others

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The proposed GHG evaluation is based on a set of comprehensive dynamic models that estimate the most significant potential on-site and off-site sources of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. The study calculates and discusses the changes in EQI, OCI and the emission of GHGs as a consequence of varying the following four process variables: (i) the set point of aeration control in the activated sludge section; (ii) the removal efficiency of total suspended solids (TSS) in the primary clarifier; (iii) the temperature in the anaerobic digester; and (iv) the control of the flow of anaerobic digester supernatants coming from sludge treatment. Based upon the assumptions built into the model structures, simulation results highlight the potential undesirable effects of increased GHG production when carrying out local energy optimization of the aeration system in the activated sludge section and energy recovery from the AD. Although off-site CO{sub 2} emissions may decrease, the effect is counterbalanced by increased N{sub 2}O emissions, especially since N{sub 2}O has a 300-fold stronger greenhouse effect than CO{sub 2}. The reported results emphasize the importance and usefulness of using multiple evaluation criteria to compare and evaluate (plant-wide) control strategies in a WWTP for more informed operational decision making. - Graphical abstract: The 3-D representation of effluent quality (EQI), operational cost (OCI) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) during the evaluation of several (plant-wide) control/operational strategies: (1) modification of the DO set point, (2) modification of the primary clarifier TSS removal efficiency and (3

  20. Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri; 2O Building, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (ICRA, Catalan Institute for Water Research, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, H2O Building, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain))" >Corominas, Lluís; Gernaey, Krist V.; Guo, Lisha; Lindblom, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The proposed GHG evaluation is based on a set of comprehensive dynamic models that estimate the most significant potential on-site and off-site sources of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O. The study calculates and discusses the changes in EQI, OCI and the emission of GHGs as a consequence of varying the following four process variables: (i) the set point of aeration control in the activated sludge section; (ii) the removal efficiency of total suspended solids (TSS) in the primary clarifier; (iii) the temperature in the anaerobic digester; and (iv) the control of the flow of anaerobic digester supernatants coming from sludge treatment. Based upon the assumptions built into the model structures, simulation results highlight the potential undesirable effects of increased GHG production when carrying out local energy optimization of the aeration system in the activated sludge section and energy recovery from the AD. Although off-site CO 2 emissions may decrease, the effect is counterbalanced by increased N 2 O emissions, especially since N 2 O has a 300-fold stronger greenhouse effect than CO 2 . The reported results emphasize the importance and usefulness of using multiple evaluation criteria to compare and evaluate (plant-wide) control strategies in a WWTP for more informed operational decision making. - Graphical abstract: The 3-D representation of effluent quality (EQI), operational cost (OCI) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) during the evaluation of several (plant-wide) control/operational strategies: (1) modification of the DO set point, (2) modification of the primary clarifier TSS removal efficiency and (3) modification of the anaerobic

  1. Comment on 'evaluation of dechlorination mechanisms during anaerobic fermentation of blached kraft mill effluent by W.J. Parker, E.R. Hall and G.J. Farquhar'

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    Comment on "Evaluation of dechlorination mechanisms during anaerobic fermentation of bleached kraft mill effluent", is put forth. The data reproduced in Table 1 does not seem to be authentic as the method of preprationo of the chlorinated organic...

  2. Oestrogenic activity of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant effluent evaluated by the E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiliro, Tiziana, E-mail: tiziana.schiliro@unito.it [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Porfido, Arianna [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Spina, Federica; Varese, Giovanna Cristina [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Torino, Viale Mattioli 25, 10125 Torino (Italy); Gilli, Giorgio [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    This study quantified the biological oestrogenic activity in the effluent of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) in northwestern Italy. Samples of the IWWTP effluent were collected monthly, both before and after tertiary treatment (ozonation). After solid phase extraction, all samples were subjected to two in vitro tests of total estrogenic activity, the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay, or E-screen test, and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay, to measure the 17{beta}-oestradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ). In the E-screen test, the mean EEQ values were 2.35 {+-} 1.68 ng/L pre-ozonation and 0.72 {+-} 0.58 ng/L post-ozonation; in the MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, the mean EEQ values were 4.18 {+-} 3.54 ng/L pre-ozonation and 2.53 {+-} 2.48 ng/L post-ozonation. These results suggest that the post-ozonation IWWTP effluent had a lower oestrogenic activity (simple paired t-tests, p < 0.05). The average reduction of estrogenic activity of IWWTP effluent after ozonation was 67 {+-} 26% and 52 {+-} 27% as measured by E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, respectively. There was a positive and significant correlation between the two tests (Rho S = 0.650, p = 0.022). This study indicates that the environmental risk is low because oestrogenic substances are deposited into the river via IWWTP at concentrations lower than those at which chronic exposure has been reported to affect the endocrine system of living organisms. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two in vitro tests are suited for oestrogenic activity assessment in textile WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a significant correlation between the results of the two in vitro tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oestrogenic activity of the effluent is reduced by ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The input of estrogenic substances into the river via textile WWTP is low.

  3. Effluent standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  4. Removal of Reactive-dyes from Textile Plant Effluents Using Polyvinyl Alcohol-coated Active Carbon obtained from Sesame Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Moradi- Nasab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption of active carbon derived from waste sesame seeds coated with polyvinyl alcohol (AC/PVA was investigated for removing red 198 and blue 19 reactive dyes from textile effluents. The batch process was carried out to identify such parameters as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and initial dye concentration involved in the dye removal adsorption capacity of AC/PVA. Also, batch kinetic and isotherm experiments were conducted. Results indicated that the maximum dye removal was obtained in an acidic pH over 90 min of contact time and that adsorption rates followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Blue and red dye concentrations were determined using the spectrophotometric method at 590 and 517 nm, respectively. It may be concluded that AC/PVA is capable of removing blue and red reactive dyes and can be used as an efficient, cheap, and accessible adsorbent for treating textile effluents.

  5. Study on Bleaching Technology of Cotton Fabric with Sodium Percarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhi; Wang Yanling; Wang Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Bleach cotton fabric with sodium percarbonate solution. Analyse of the effect of the concentration of sodium percarbonate solution, bleaching time, bleaching temperature and the light radiation on the bleaching effect of fabric.The result shows that increasing concentrations of percarbonate,increasing the bleaching time , raising the bleaching temperature and the UV irradiation may whiten the cotton fabric.The most suitable conditions for the bleaching process is concentration of sodium perca...

  6. Construction of the effluent shaft at the Flamanville EPR plant. An example where electronic detonators are used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couvrat, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives some details on the mining procedure using electronic detonators for the mining of the effluent shaft on a highly sensitive site, the EPR reactor of Flamanville in France. The special constraints and issues associated with the use of electronic detonators are reviewed (close explosive charges, humidity and marine atmosphere, connection and current leaks, sensitization phenomena). The main advantage of electronic detonators is limiting the vibration levels

  7. Xylanase-Aided Chlorine Dioxide Bleaching of Bagasse Pulp to Reduce AOX Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Xylanase pretreatment was used to improve the chlorine dioxide bleaching of bagasse pulp. The pulp was pretreated with xylanase, which was followed by a chlorine dioxide bleaching stage. The HexA content of the pulp and the AOX content of the bleaching effluent were measured using UV-Vis and GC-MS methods, respectively. The results showed that a good correlation occurred between HexA and kappa number. HexA content of the pulp decreased significantly after the xylanase pretreatment. The AOX content of the bleaching effluent decreased as HexA was removed from the pulp. It was found that AOX could be reduced by up to 29.8%, comparing XD0 with a D0 stage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was employed to determine the breakage of chemical bonds in the pulp. It revealed that some lignin and hemicellulose were removed after xylanase treatment. The GC-MS results showed that some toxic chloride such as 2,4,6-trichlorophenol could be completely removed after xylanase pretreatment.

  8. Oil use of the effluent plant ETEO (Effluent Station of Oil Treatment) as combustible for generation of energy in the power plant UG-50Hz; Utulizacao de oleo da ETEO (Estacao de Tratamento de Efluentes Oleosos) para geracao de energia na UG-50Hz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Francisco de; Nascimento, Jose Maria do; Silva, Luiz Antonio da; Salazar, Marcos Vinicios; Baptista, Reinaldo Lopes; Barros, Sueli Aguiar [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    The areas of finishing products of CSN Steel Plant generate contaminated effluents with oil and grease , that are treated in ETEO (Effluent Station of Oil Treatment). In this plant, the oil is processed to be sold for the consuming market. However, some seasons of the year, the market does not absorb the oil, and CSN is obliged to defray the burning of this oil, to not interrupt the productive process and cause an environmental impact. Because of this situation, we search alternatives for the viable use of this oil inside CSN steel plant, taking care for the security of the processes and the impact to the environment. This paper describes the details of the work and the implantation of the burning of this oil of the ETEO with BPF oil (type of petrochemical oil) as combustible in the boiler 7 of the power plant UG 50 Hz. For the implantation of this project, operational contingencies of security for equipment was prepared . Moreover, the work included chemical analyses of the oil and the conditions of the boiler using this mixing of oils. The reached results demonstrate the total viability of this project and it was proved another alternative of the use of this residue, with reduction of the fuel costs , steam costs and the electric energy generated in the power plant of CSN. (author)

  9. Uptake of heavy metals by Typha capensis from wetland sites polluted by effluent from mineral processing plants: implications of metal-metal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaranyika, M F; Nyati, W

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to demonstrate the existence of metal-metal interactions in plants and their implications for the absorption of toxic elements like Cr. Typha capensis , a good accumulator of heavy metals, was chosen for the study. Levels of Fe, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were determined in the soil and roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves of T. capensis from three Sites A, B and C polluted by effluent from a chrome ore processing plant, a gold ore processing plant, and a nickel ore processing plant, respectively. The levels of Cr were extremely high at Site A at 5415 and 786-16,047 μg g -1 dry weight in the soil and the plant, respectively, while the levels of Ni were high at Site C at 176 and 24-891 μg g -1 in the soil and the plant, respectively. The levels of Fe were high at all three sites at 2502-7500 and 906-13,833 μg g -1 in the soil and plant, respectively. For the rest of the metals, levels were modest at 8.5-148 and 2-264 μg g -1 in the soil and plant, respectively. Pearson's correlation analysis confirmed mutual synergistic metal-metal interactions in the uptake of Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Fe, and Cr, which are attributed to the similarity in the radii and coordination geometry of the cations of these elements. The implications of such metal-metal interactions (or effects of one metal on the behaviour of another) on the uptake of Cr, a toxic element, and possible Cr detoxification mechanism within the plant, are discussed.

  10. Analysis of nitrosamines in water by automated SPE and isotope dilution GC/HRMS Occurrence in the different steps of a drinking water treatment plant, and in chlorinated samples from a reservoir and a sewage treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Carles; Palacios, Oscar; Ventura, Francesc; Rivera, Josep; Caixach, Josep

    2008-08-15

    A method based on automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) and isotope dilution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has been developed for the analysis of nine nitrosamines in water samples. The combination of automated SPE and GC/HRMS for the analysis of nitrosamines has not been reported previously. The method shows as advantages the selectivity and sensitivity of GC/HRMS analysis and the high efficiency of automated SPE with coconut charcoal EPA 521 cartridges. Low method detection limits (MDLs) were achieved, along with a greater facility of the procedure and less dependence on the operator with regard to the methods based on manual SPE. Quality requirements for isotope dilution-based methods were accomplished for most analysed nitrosamines, regarding to trueness (80-120%), method precision (water samples (16 samples from a drinking water treatment plant {DWTP}, 2 chlorinated samples from a sewage treatment plant {STP} effluent, and 1 chlorinated sample from a reservoir) were analysed. Concentrations of nitrosamines in the STP effluent were 309.4 and 730.2 ng/L, being higher when higher doses of chlorine were applied. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were the main compounds identified in the STP effluent, and NDEA was detected above 200 ng/L, regulatory level for NDMA in effluents stated in Ontario (Canada). Lower concentrations of nitrosamines were found in the reservoir (20.3 ng/L) and in the DWTP samples (n.d. -28.6 ng/L). NDMA and NDEA were respectively found in the reservoir and in treated and highly chlorinated DWTP samples at concentrations above 10 ng/L (guide value established in different countries). The highest concentrations of nitrosamines were found after chlorination and ozonation processes (ozonated, treated and highly chlorinated water) in DWTP samples.

  11. Value-added products from spent bleaching earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh Soh Kheang; Muzammil Ngatiman; James, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Bleaching earth is used in the bleaching process of physical refining of palm oil to remove color, phospholipids, residue gums, oxidized products and any trace metals from the oil. These colored pigments are trapped and absorbed in the bleaching earth, thus transforming the originally whitish earth to dark grey and is, from then, named spent bleaching earth (SBE). SBE is considered as an industrial by-product as there is hardly any practical application for it. Large quantity of SBE is commonly disposed of in landfills, which poses potential hazards to environment. New economical ways in utilizing it is sought to eliminate the problem arises from its disposal. This paper presents a study on the possibility of developing a soil conditioner using enhanced SBE as the base material. The study found that there are certain attributes observed in the enhanced SBE that could be of advantages for SBE to become a good soil conditioner. The enhanced SBE contains organic matters and about 18-20 % of residue oil which exhibits good water holding capacity in slow release of water, and enriched nutrient content for plant nutrient uptake. (author)

  12. Microtensile bond strength of enamel after bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Andrea Dias Neves; Garone-Netto, Narciso

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the bond strength of a composite resin to the bovine enamel bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide. It was used an etching-and-rinse adhesive system employed immediately, 7 and 14 days after the bleaching. Twenty bovine teeth were randomly distributed into 4 groups (n = 5), 3 experimental and 1 control. G1: Unbleached + restoration 14 days after storage in artificial saliva (control); G2: Bleached + restoration immediately after bleaching; G3: Bleached + restoration 7 days after bleaching; G4: Bleached + restoration 14 days after bleaching. Their buccal enamel surfaces were flattened, and a 25 mm² (5 × 5 mm) area from each one of these regions was outlined so as to standardize the experimental region. Universal hybrid composite resin Filtek™Z350 was inserted into four layers of 1 mm each and photo-activated. The bond strength was quantitatively evaluated by a microtensile test (1.0 mm/min) 24 h after the restorative procedures. The failure mode was assessed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There was a significant reduction in the bond strength of the restored teeth immediately after the bleaching (G2). There were no significant differences in enamel bond strength between groups G1, G3, and G4. There was a predominance of adhesive and mixed (cohesive + adhesive) failure in all groups. The 7-day-period after the end of the bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide was enough to achieve the appropriate values of bond strength to the enamel.

  13. Body image disturbance and skin bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Christopher A D; McLean, Shua-Kym

    2017-11-01

    This study looks at body image disturbance among Jamaicans who bleach their skin. The hypothesis states that there is a positive relationship between skin bleaching and body image disturbance. The study used a convenience sample of 160 participants with a skin bleaching group (n = 80) and a non-bleaching comparison group (n = 80). The instrument included demographic questions, the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ), and questions about skin bleaching. The results of a t-test revealed that the skin bleaching group (M = 1.5255, SD = 0.42169) was not significantly different from the non-bleaching group (M = 1.4938, SD = 0.74217) in terms of body image disturbance, t(158) = 0.333, p = .740. The participants who bleached did not suffer from body image disturbance. Self-reports revealed that they bleached to acquire beauty, attract a partner, elude the police, and market skin bleaching products. The practice was fashionable and popular and it made some participants feel good, while others were fans of a popular musical artiste who bleached his skin. The majority of participants bleached because of the perceived personal, social, and entrepreneurial benefits of the practice and not because they suffered emotional distress, anxiety, and functional impairment because of their skin colour. However, there was some level of BID among the minority of participants who argued that they bleached because they wanted to be pretty so they were emotionally distressed about there body image and experienced functional impairment. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Microhardness of demineralized enamel following home bleaching and laser-assisted in office bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarzadeh, Majid; Akbari, Majid; Hamzei, Haniye

    2015-01-01

    Background There is little data regarding the effect of tooth whitening on microhardness of white spot lesions. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of home-bleaching and laser-assisted in-office bleaching on microhardness of demineralized enamel. Material and Methods Forty bovine incisors were selected and immersed in a demineralizing solution for 12 weeks to induce white spot lesions. Enamel blocks were prepared and randomly assigned to two groups of 20 each. The first group underwent home bleaching with 15% carbamide peroxide which was applied for 8 hours a day over a period of 15 days. In the second group, in-office bleaching was performed by 40% hydrogen peroxide and powered by irradiation from an 810 nm gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser (CW, 2W). This process was performed for 3 sessions every seven days, in 15 days. The specimens were stored in Fusayama Meyer artificial saliva during the experiment. Surface microhardness was assessed before and after the bleaching therapies in both groups. Results Microhardness decreased significantly following both home bleaching and laser-assisted in-office bleaching (pTooth whitening through home bleaching or laser-assisted in-office bleaching can result in a significant reduction in microhardness of white spot lesions. Therefore, it is suggested to take protective measures on bleached demineralized enamel. Key words:White spot lesion, bleaching, laser, microhardness, demineralized enamel, home bleaching, in-office bleaching. PMID:26330939

  15. Occurrence of Vibrio Pathotypes in the Final Effluents of Five Wastewater Treatment Plants in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyokazi Nongogo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the occurrence of Vibrio pathogens in the final effluents of five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs located in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities in South Africa over a 12 months period between September 2012 and August 2013 using standard membrane filtration technique followed by cultivation on thiosulphate citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS agar. The identities of the presumptive Vibrio isolates were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR including delineation into V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. fluvialis pathotypes. The counts of Vibrio spp. varied with months in all the study sites and ranged in the order of 101 and 104 CFU/100mL. Vibrio distribution also showed seasonality with high counts being obtained in autumn and spring (p < 0.05. Prevalence of Vibrio spp. among the five WWTPs also differed significantly (p < 0.05. Of the 300 isolates that were confirmed as belonging to the Vibrio genus, 29% (86 were V. fluvialis, 28% (84 were V. vulnificus and 12% (35 were V. parahaemolyticus. The isolation of Vibrio pathogens from the final effluent suggests that this pathogen is in circulation in some pockets of the population and that the WWTPs under study do not efficiently remove bacterial pathogens from the wastewater and consequently are threats to public health.

  16. Uptake of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by microalgae in presence of colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worms, Isabelle A.M.; Traber, Jacqueline; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura; Slaveykova, Vera I.

    2010-01-01

    The present study addresses the key issue of linking the chemical speciation to the uptake of priority pollutants Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the wastewater treatment plant effluents, with emphasis on the role of the colloidal organic matter (EfOM). Binding of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by EfOM was examined by an ion exchange technique and flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in parallel to bioassays with green microalga Chlorella kesslerii in ultrafiltrate (<1 kDa) and colloidal isolates (1 kDa to 0.45 μm). The uptake of Cd by C. kesslerii was consistent with the speciation analysis and measured free metal ion concentrations, while Pb uptake was much greater than that expected from the speciation measurement. Better understanding of the differences in the effects of the EfOM on Cd(II) and Pb(II) uptake required to take into account the size dependence of metal binding by EfOM. - Colloids isolated from WWTP effluents decrease Cd uptake, but increase Pb uptake by microalga Chlorella kesslerii.

  17. Uptake of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by microalgae in presence of colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worms, Isabelle A.M. [Environmental Biophysical Chemistry, IIE-ENAC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Traber, Jacqueline; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Slaveykova, Vera I., E-mail: vera.slaveykova@epfl.c [Environmental Biophysical Chemistry, IIE-ENAC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    The present study addresses the key issue of linking the chemical speciation to the uptake of priority pollutants Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the wastewater treatment plant effluents, with emphasis on the role of the colloidal organic matter (EfOM). Binding of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by EfOM was examined by an ion exchange technique and flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in parallel to bioassays with green microalga Chlorella kesslerii in ultrafiltrate (<1 kDa) and colloidal isolates (1 kDa to 0.45 mum). The uptake of Cd by C. kesslerii was consistent with the speciation analysis and measured free metal ion concentrations, while Pb uptake was much greater than that expected from the speciation measurement. Better understanding of the differences in the effects of the EfOM on Cd(II) and Pb(II) uptake required to take into account the size dependence of metal binding by EfOM. - Colloids isolated from WWTP effluents decrease Cd uptake, but increase Pb uptake by microalga Chlorella kesslerii.

  18. Assessing Methanobrevibacter smithii and Clostridium difficile as not conventional faecal indicators in effluents of a wastewater treatment plant integrated with sludge anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanazzi, Valeria; Bonetta, Silvia; Fornasero, Stefania; De Ceglia, Margherita; Gilli, Giorgio; Traversi, Deborah

    2016-12-15

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are an important source of surface water contamination by enteric pathogens, affecting the role of environmental water as a microbial reservoir. We describe the release to the environment of certain anaerobes of human and environmental concern. The work was focused on emerging microbial targets. They are tracing, by RT-qPCR, on WWTP effluents, both liquid and solid, when an anaerobic digestion step is included. The focus is placed on Clostridium spp. with the specific quantification of Clostridium perfringens, as typical bioindicator, and Clostridium difficile, as emerging pathogen not only confined into nosocomial infection. Moreover methanogens were quantified for their involvement in the anaerobic digestion, and in particular on Methanobrevibacter smithii as major methanogenic component of the human gut microbiome and as not conventional faecal indicator. In the water samples, a reduction, statistically significant, in all microbial targets was observed (p effluents, particularly bio-solids, to reduce the potential release of pathogens into the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation code for the dose due to the discharges of liquid effluents of the Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Fabio O.; Boutet, Luis I.; Bruno, Hector A.; Gavini, Ricardo M.

    2004-01-01

    A new methodology is presented to assess the evaluation of the radiological impact to the population, due to the discharges to the environment of liquids effluents of Central Nuclear Embalse (CNE), located in the Province of Cordoba (Argentina). In order to carry out the dose evaluation, a code denominated EDDELIQ was developed, in this code the calculation of the radionuclides concentration in the water lake is made by means of a simple physical model of the type of complete mixture. The physical model is solved numerically by means of Runge Kutta method of second order. (author)

  20. Y-chromosomal DNA markers for discrimination of chemical substance and effluent effects on sexual differentiation in salmon.

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Luis O B; Smith, Jack L; Ikonomou, Michael G; Devlin, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Chinook salmon alevins were exposed during their labile period for sex differentiation to different concentrations of bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME), primary sewage effluent, secondary sewage effluent (SE), 17ss-estradiol, testosterone, and nonylphenol. After exposure for 29 days post hatching (DPH), fish were allowed to grow until 103 and 179 DPH, at which time their genetic sex was determined using Y-chromosomal DNA markers and their gonadal sex was determined by histology. Independent...

  1. Non-bleached colonies of massive Porites may attract fishes for selective grazing during mass bleaching events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Ikeuchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the variation in grazing scar densities between bleached and non-bleached colonies of massive Porites species in Sekisei Lagoon (Okinawa, southwestern Japan during a mass bleaching event in 2016. The grazing scar densities and bleaching susceptibility varied among neighboring colonies of massive Porites spp. However, non-bleached colonies had significantly more surface scars than bleached colonies. One explanation for these variations is that corallivorous fishes may selectively graze on non-bleached, thermally tolerant colonies. This is the first report of a relationship between grazing scars and the bleaching status of massive Porites spp. colonies during a mass bleaching event.

  2. Contaminant Characterization of Effluent from Pennsylvania Brine Treatment, Inc., Josephine Facility: Implications for Disposal of Oil and Gas Flowback Fluids from Brine Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PBT-Josephine Facility accepts only wastewater from the oil and gas industry. This report describes the concentrations of selected contaminants in the effluent water and compares the contaminant effluent concentrations to state and federal standards.

  3. Photocatalytic treatment of an industrial effluent using artificial and solar UV radiation: an operational cost study on a pilot plant scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I

    2012-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the operation costs of treating a real effluent from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power station located in Spain. The study compares different homogeneous photocatalytic processes on a pilot plant scale using different types of radiation (artificial UV or solar UV with a compound parabolic collector). The efficiency of the processes was evaluated by an analysis of the total organic carbon (TOC) removed. The following processes were considered in the study: (i) a photo-Fenton process at an artificial UV pilot plant (with the initial addition of H(2)O(2)), (ii) a modified photo-Fenton process with continuous addition of H(2)O(2) and O(2) to the system and (iii) a ferrioxalate-assisted solar photo-Fenton process at a compound parabolic collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of these processes in degrading pollutants has been studied previously, and the results obtained in each of those studies have been published elsewhere. The operational costs due to the consumption of electrical energy, reagents and catalysts were calculated from the optimal conditions of each process. The results showed that the solar photo-Fenton system was economically feasible, being able to achieve up to 75% mineralization with a total cost of 6 €/m(3), which can be reduced to 3.6 €/m(3) by subtracting the electrical costs because the IGCC plant is self-sufficient in terms of energy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On-line immunoaffinity column-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for trace analysis of diuron in wastewater treatment plant effluent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuli; Martens, Dieter; Krämer, Petra M; Kettrup, Antonius A; Liang, Xinmiao

    2006-11-10

    An on-line immunoaffinity column with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (IAC-LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of diuron in water matrices was described. This method used a sol-gel immunoaffinity column (20 mm x 4 mm I.D.) for on-line sample cleanup and enrichment, a monolithic analytical column (100 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.) for separation, and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for quantitation. The major challenges for the on-line set-up were discussed. The optimized on-line protocol was emphasized by the fact that low limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 1.0 ng/L was achieved with only 2.5-mL sample. In addition, a satisfactory accuracy ( approximately 90% of recovery) and precision (effect, the on-line IAC-LC-MS/MS analysis method can reliably determine diuron in wastewater treatment plant effluent sample.

  5. Chlorine and antibiotic-resistant bacilli isolated from an effluent treatment plant - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.12951

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Cláudia Silveira Martins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to different concentrations of chlorine and the susceptibility to antibiotics by bacteria isolated from the final effluent of the Pici Campus wastewater treatment plant of the Federal University of Ceará (UFC is evaluated. Twelve strains, morphologically and biochemically identified as belonging to the genus Bacillus, were selected. The strains were submitted to sodium hypochlorite at different contact times and tested against the antibiotics amoxicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and vancomycin. All strains were resistant to concentration 0.1 ppm chlorine up to 30 minutes, but bacteria resistant to concentrations up to 5,000 ppm for 10 minutes were detected. Bacterial growth was impaired in 10,000 ppm concentration. The strains presented three antibiotic resistance profiles, 50% were sensitive to all antibiotics, 25% were resistant to one antibiotic and 25% were resistant to two antibiotics.  

  6. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared by pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Parmila; Saroha, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared from pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant (ETP) sludge in temperature range 200-700 °C was studied. The sorption behaviour was found to depend on the degree of carbonization where the fractions of carbonized and uncarbonized organic content in the biochar act as an adsorption media and partition media, respectively. The sorption and partition fractions were quantified by isotherm separation method and isotherm parameters were correlated with biochar properties (aromaticity, polarity, surface area, pore volume and ash content). The risk assessment for the 16 priority EPA PAHs present in the biochar matrix was performed and it was found that the concentrations of the PAHs in the biochar were within the permissible limits prescribed by US EPA (except BC400 and BC500 for high molecular weight PAHs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of cold light bleaching using different bleaching times and their effects on human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yuhe; Li, Jiajia; Liao, Susan; Ai, Hongjun

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of cold light bleaching using different bleaching times and the effects thereof on tooth enamel. Before and after bleaching, stained tooth specimens were subjected to visual and instrumental colorimetric assessments using Vita Shade Guide and spectrophotometric shade matching. Enamel surface alterations were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze surface morphology, surface microhardness (SMH) measurement to determine changes in mechanical properties, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize post-bleaching enamel composition. Cold light bleaching successfully improved tooth color, with optimal efficacy when bleaching time was beyond 10 min. Significant differences in surface morphology were observed among the different bleaching times, but no significant differences were observed for enamel composition and surface microhardness among the different bleaching times. Results of this study revealed an association between the bleaching time of cold light bleaching and its whitening efficacy. Together with the results on enamel surface changes, this study provided positive evidence to support cold light bleaching as an in-office bleaching treatment.

  8. Radiation coloration and bleaching of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treadaway, M.J.; Passenheim, B.C.; Kitterer, B.D.; Schall, P.

    1976-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the bleaching of radiation-induced darkening in ten Schott optical glasses is presented. Measurements were made at several temperatures from 160K to 340K for times from 5 msec to 500 hours after exposure. The theory of processes distributed in activation energies has been used to formulate a model which explains the time and temperature dependence of the bleaching. Analysis of the bleaching results in terms of this model has yielded the activation energy distributions and ''frequency factors'' which govern the bleaching for each material

  9. Removal of Emerging Contaminants and Estrogenic Activity from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent with UV/Chlorine and UV/H₂O₂ Advanced Oxidation Treatment at Pilot Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Eduard; Kuch, Bertram; Lange, Claudia; Richter, Philipp; Kugele, Amélie; Minke, Ralf

    2018-05-07

    Effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was treated on-site with the UV/chlorine (UV/HOCl) advanced oxidation process (AOP) using a pilot plant equipped with a medium pressure UV lamp with an adjustable performance of up to 1 kW. Results obtained from parallel experiments with the same pilot plant, where the state of the art UV/H₂O₂ AOP was applied, were compared regarding the removal of emerging contaminants (EC) and the formation of adsorbable organohalogens (AOX). Furthermore, the total estrogenic activity was measured in samples treated with the UV/chlorine AOP. At an energy consumption of 0.4 kWh/m³ (0.4 kW, 1 m³/h) and in a range of oxidant concentrations from 1 to 6 mg/L, the UV/chlorine AOP had a significantly higher EC removal yield than the UV/H₂O₂ AOP. With free available chlorine concentrations (FAC) in the UV chamber influent of at least 5 mg/L (11 mg/L of dosed Cl₂), the total estrogenic activity could be reduced by at least 97%. To achieve a certain concentration of FAC in the UV chamber influent, double to triple the amount of dosed Cl₂ was needed, resulting in AOX concentrations of up to 520 µg/L.

  10. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  11. Spatiotemporal variations in estrogenicity, hormones, and endocrine-disrupting compounds in influents and effluents of selected wastewater-treatment plants and receiving streams in New York, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Ernst, Anne G.; Gray, James L.; Hemming, Jocelyn D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater effluents have been linked to changes in sex ratios, intersex (in males), behavioral modifications, and developmental abnormalities in aquatic organisms. Yet efforts to identify and regulate specific EDCs in complex mixtures are problematic because little is known about the estrogen activity (estrogenicity) levels of many common and emerging contaminants. The potential effects of EDCs on the water quality and health of biota in streams of the New York City water supply is especially worrisome because more than 150 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) are permitted to discharge effluents into surface waters and groundwaters of watersheds that provide potable water to more than 9 million people. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), and New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) began a pilot study to increase the understanding of estrogenicity and EDCs in effluents and receiving streams mainly in southeastern New York. The primary goals of this study were to document and assess the spatial and temporal variability of estrogenicity levels; the effectiveness of various treatment-plant types to remove estrogenicity; the concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs); and the relations between estrogenicity and concentrations of hormones, EDCs, and PPCPs. The levels of estrogenicity and selected hormones, non-hormone EDCs, and PPCPs were characterized in samples collected seasonally in effluents from 7 WWTPs, once or twice in effluents from 34 WWTPs, and once in influents to 6 WWTPs. Estrogenicity was quantified, as estradiol equivalents, using both the biological e-screen assay and a chemical model. Results generally show that (1) estrogenicity levels in effluents varied spatially and seasonally, (2) a wide range of known and unknown EDCs

  12. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of Belford Roxo industrial plant effluent and its contribution in water quality of downstream of Sarapui River, Iguacu River sub-basin, Baia da Guanabara Basin, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz Eduardo Botelho

    2006-01-01

    The quality of Belford Roxo Industrial Plant effluent and water from Sarapui River were evaluated with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Danio rerio acute and chronic toxicity tests. In association with the ecotoxicological monitoring, the Toxicity Identification Evaluation procedure were performed and the identification of the toxic compounds was possible. The Chloride ion was identified as the major toxic compound in the effluent with additional effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. For the Sarapui River, the compounds of Phosphorus and Nitrogen were identified as the major toxic compounds with addictive effects of Metals, Ammonium and Sulfide. Although the environmental impact estimation based on the effluent toxicity suggests a minor impact on the water quality of Sarapui River, this was already sufficiently contaminated to make impracticable the establishment of an aquatic community. The constant discharge of untreated sludge promotes the eutrophication of this water body and makes impossible the equilibrium of this ecosystem. (author)

  13. Comparative Study on Performance and Organic Fouling of ZrO2 Ceramic Membranes in Ultrafiltration of Synthetic Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Cen

    2011-07-01

    Adsorption of organic matter on ceramic membrane can lead to hydraulic-irreversible fouling, which decreases the permeate flux and the cost-efficiency of membrane devices. In order to optimize the filtration process, detailed information is necessary about the organic fouling mechanisms on ceramic membranes. In this study, dead-end filtration experiments of both synthetic water and secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were conducted on a ZrO2 ceramic membrane. The experiment results of synthetic water showed that humic acid (HA) was able to be adsorbed by the ZrO2 membrane and cause permeate flux decline; and that HA-tryptophan mixture, at the same DOC level, promoted the filtration flux decline; DOC removal in the case of HA-tryptophan was lower than that of HA alone. It seems that hydrophilic organic matter with low molecular weight have some specific contribution to the organic fouling of the ZrO2 membrane. The results also suggest that tryptophan molecules were preferentially adsorbed on the membrane at the beginning, exposing their hydrophobic sides which might further adsorb HA from the feed water. During the filtration of WWTP effluent, protein-like substances (mainly tryptophan-like) were also preferentially adsorbed on the membrane compared with humic-like ones in the initial few cycles of filtration. More humic-like substances were adsorbed in the following filtration cycles due to the increase of membrane hydrophobicity. A significant rise in hydraulic-irreversible flux decline was obtained by decreasing pH from near pHpzc to below pHpzc of the membrane. It suggests that a positively charged surface is preferred for HA adsorption. Ionic strength increase did not affect the filtration of HA, but it lessened the hydraulic-irreversible flux decline of HA-tryptophan filtration. The adsorption of HA-tryptophan can be attributed to outersphere interaction while HA adsorption is mainly caused by inner-sphere interaction. The results of

  14. THE BLEACHING SYNDROME: MANIFESTATION OF A POST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    universal and extends to the Americas and elsewhere impacted by colonial influences. Without exception .... "They say we should stop bleaching because of skin cancer and skin disease. ... Kenya, activists moved to have a ban put on the sale of skin bleaching creams. In agreement .... socioeconomic standing. Furthermore ...

  15. Reef corals bleach to resist stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, David O

    2009-02-01

    A rationale is presented here for a primary role of bleaching in regulation of the coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis under conditions of stress. Corals and zooxanthellae have fundamentally different metabolic rates, requiring active homeostasis to limit zooxanthellae production and manage translocated products to maintain the symbiosis. The control processes for homeostasis are compromised by environmental stress, resulting in metabolic imbalance between the symbionts. For the coral-zooxanthella symbiosis the most direct way to minimize metabolic imbalance under stress is to reduce photosynthetic production by zooxanthellae. Two mechanisms have been demonstrated that do this: reduction of the chlorophyll concentration in individual zooxanthellae and reduction of the relative biomass of zooxanthellae. Both mechanisms result in visual whitening of the coral, termed bleaching. Arguments are presented here that bleaching provides the final control to minimize physiological damage from stress as an adversity response to metabolic imbalance. As such, bleaching meets the requirements of a stress response syndrome/general adaptive mechanism that is sensitive to internal states rather than external parameters. Variation in bleaching responses among holobionts reflects genotypic and phenotypic differentiation, allowing evolutionary change by natural selection. Thus, reef corals bleach to resist stress, and thereby have some capacity to adapt to and survive change. The extreme thermal anomalies causing mass coral bleaching worldwide lie outside the reaction norms for most coral-zooxanthellae holobionts, revealing the limitations of bleaching as a control mechanism.

  16. Androgenic endocrine disruptors in wastewater treatment plant effluents in India: Their influence on reproductive processes and systemic toxicity in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Viswanath, Gunda; Roy, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are linked to human health and diseases as they mimic or block the normal functioning of endogenous hormones. The present work dealt with a comparative study of the androgenic potential of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents and effluents in Northern region of India, well known for its polluted water. Water samples were screened for their androgenic potential using the Hershberger assay and when they were found positive for androgenicity, we studied their mode of action in intact rats. The data showed a significant change in the weight and structure of sex accessory tissues (SATs) of castrated and intact rats. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated a significant change in the expression patterns of the major steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal and testis: cytochrome P450 SCC , cytochrome P450 C17 , 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This was further supported by increased enzymatic activities measured in vitro spectrophotometrically. Serum hormone profile showed a decreased level of gonadotrophic hormones and increased testosterone level. Further, increase in the serum level of alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and SGOT and histopathological changes in kidney and liver of treated animals, confirmed the toxic effects of contaminating chemicals. Analysis of water samples using HPLC and GC-MS showed the presence of various compounds and from them, four prominent aromatic compounds viz. nonylphenol, hexachlorobenzene and two testosterone equivalents, were identified. Our data suggest that despite rigorous treatment, the final treated effluent from WWTP still has enough androgenic and toxic compounds to affect general health

  17. Are perfluoroalkyl acids in waste water treatment plant effluents the result of primary emissions from the technosphere or of environmental recirculation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Marko; Berger, Urs

    2015-06-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been suggested to be one of the major pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from the technosphere to the aquatic environment. The origin of PFAAs in WWTP influents is either from current primary emissions or a result of recirculation of PFAAs that have been residing and transported in the environment for several years or decades. Environmental recirculation can then occur when PFAAs from the environment enter the wastewater stream in, e.g., tap water. In this study 13 PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were analyzed in tap water as well as WWTP influent, effluent and sludge from three Swedish cities: Bromma (in the metropolitan area of Stockholm), Bollebygd and Umeå. A mass balance of the WWTPs was assembled for each PFAA. Positive mass balances were observed for PFHxA and PFOA in all WWTPs, indicating the presence of precursor compounds in the technosphere. With regard to environmental recirculation, tap water was an important source of PFAAs to the Bromma WWTP influent, contributing >40% for each quantified sulfonic acid and up to 30% for the carboxylic acids. The PFAAs in tap water from Bollebygd and Umeå did not contribute significantly to the PFAA load in the WWTP influents. Our results show that in order to estimate current primary emissions from the technosphere, it may be necessary to correct the PFAA emission rates in WWTP effluents for PFAAs present in tap water, especially in the case of elevated levels in tap water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years has increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal waste water is an effective mean of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plants. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in the effluent were decomposed and the COD values decreased with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in the effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. In this paper we studied on the fading color and the reducing of order of sewage effluent. (author)

  19. BLEACHING IN VITAL TEETH: A LITERARY REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Fagundes Soares

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tooth bleaching technique has presented a significant evolution, promoting higher satisfaction and comfort to the patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to present the bleaching agents and the techniques, discussing advantages and disadvantages of each one, and the effect of these agents in the oral environment. The main agents used in the bleaching technique are the hydrogen peroxide and the carbamide peroxide, promoting the bleaching effect through oxidation of organic compounds. The application of these agents can be made at home or at a doctor office. During treatment, it may occur some adverse effects, such as tooth sensibility, increasing of dental porosity, and some interactions with the restorative material. However, these adverse effects can be eliminated or controlled when the treatment is executed under professional orientation. When the bleaching technique is well indicated and correctly conducted, it is associated with significantly positive results.

  20. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruzell, E.M.; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study was performed to assess the risk of at-home and in-office bleaching procedures, and to recognise potential predictors for side effects. Design Multi-centre, questionnaire-based prospective study with follow-ups at around 14 days and around one year post-treatment. Setting...... General practices and university clinics during the years 2007‑2009 in Scandinavia. Subjects Patients with tooth bleaching as part of the treatment plan. Results The prevalence of experienced tooth sensitivity at first follow-up was independent of bleaching procedure (at-home = 50.3% [n = 143]; in...... attributed to the bleaching treatment in the at-home and in-office groups, respectively. Predictors for side effects were tooth sensitivity, surface loss and gingivitis when observed at inclusion. Treatment-related predictors were bleaching concentration and contact between tray and gingiva. Conclusions...

  1. A combined effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether and aquaculture effluent on growth and antioxidative response of mangrove plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzana, Shazia; Tam, Nora Fung Yee

    2018-06-01

    Mangrove wetland receives nutrient-rich aquaculture effluent (AE) from nearby farming activities and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from the production and usage of flame retardants. The effects of BDE-209 (the most common PBDE congener), AE and their combination on two true mangrove species, namely Kandelia obovata and Avicennia marina, were compared in a 6-month microcosm study. Results showed that K. obovata was more sensitive to these contaminants than A. marina, as reflected by its enhanced production of leaf superoxide (O 2 -∗ ) by BDE-209 and root malondialdehyde (MDA) by the combined BDE-209 and AE treatment. The hormesis model showed that the combined effects of BDE-209 and AE on the production of MDA, O 2 -∗ and catalase (CAT) activity in K. obovata and A. marina were antagonistic except root O 2 -∗ in A. marina, but the effects on leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in K. obovata, and root SOD and peroxidase (POD) activities in A. marina were synergistic. The defense mechanisms differed between treatment and species. The activities of SOD and POD were the main mechanisms to defend K. obovata and A. marina against BDE-209, but CAT in K. obovata and POD in A. marina were more important in defending the combined BDE-209 and AE treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Polyphasic bacterial community analysis of an aerobic activated sludge removing phenols and thiocyanate from coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfoldi, T.; Szekely, A.J.; Goral, R.; Barkacs, K.; Scheirich, G.; Andras, J.; Racz, A.; Marialigeti, K. [Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Microbiology

    2010-05-15

    Biological purification processes are effective tools in the treatment of hazardous wastes such as toxic compounds produced in coal coking. In this study, the microbial community of a lab-scale activated sludge system treating coking effluent was assessed by cultivation-based (strain isolation and identification, biodegradation tests) and culture-independent techniques (sequence-aided T-RFLP, taxon-specific PCR). The results of the applied polyphasic approach showed a simple microbial community dominated by easily culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Comamonas badia was identified as the key microbe of the system, since it was the predominant member of the bacterial community, and its phenol degradation capacity was also proved. Metabolism of phenol, even at elevated concentrations (up to 1500 mg/L), was also presented for many other dominant (Pseudomonas, Rhodanobacter, Oligella) and minor (Alcaligenes, Castellaniella, Microbacterium) groups, while some activated sludge bacteria (Sphingomonas, Rhodopseudomonas) did not tolerate it even in lower concentrations (250 mg/L). In some cases, closely related strains showed different tolerance and degradation properties. Members of the genus Thiobacillus were detected in the activated sludge, and were supposedly responsible for the intensive thiocyanate biodegradation observed in the system. Additionally, some identified bacteria (e.g. C. badia and the Ottowia-related strains) might also have had a significant impact on the structure of the activated sludge due to their floc-forming abilities.

  3. Beta-ray depth dose in tissue equivalent material due to gaseous radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schadt, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The magnitude of the absorbed dose to skin from beta particles emitted by the radionuclides in gaseous effluents from boiling water nuclear power reactors is investigated in this dissertation. Using the radionuclide release patterns of F. Brutschy and the beta dosimetry methods of M. Berger, an equation is derived which gives the dose rate in rads per day when the total radionuclide concentration is one microcurie per gram of air. The coefficients in the equation are presented for a wide range of reactor gas hold-up times (48 minutes to 6 days) and plume environmental transit time (0.5 to 60 minutes). The beta dose rates at the skin surface are found to range from 3.9 to 26.7 rads per day. An upper limit of the relative standard deviation in the dose rate is estimated to be 30 percent. The techniques used to develop the equation are applied to data from the Millstone Nuclear Power Station obtained during the summer of 1972. The beta dose at a site 1.7 miles from the reactor is determined to have been 675 millirads per year at the skin surface and 476 millirads per year at a depth of 200 micrometers. At a site 5.1 miles from the reactor these dose rates were 138 and 100 millirads per year respectively

  4. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junchao; Wang, Thanh; Han, Shanlong; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ(13)C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m(-2)⋅y(-1). Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microtensile bond strength of enamel after bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Dias Neves Lago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the bond strength of a composite resin to the bovine enamel bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide. It was used an etching-and-rinse adhesive system employed immediately, 7 and 14 days after the bleaching. Materials and Methods: Twenty bovine teeth were randomly distributed into 4 groups (n = 5, 3 experimental and 1 control. G1: Unbleached + restoration 14 days after storage in artificial saliva (control; G2: Bleached + restoration immediately after bleaching; G3: Bleached + restoration 7 days after bleaching; G4: Bleached + restoration 14 days after bleaching. Their buccal enamel surfaces were flattened, and a 25 mm² (5 × 5 mm area from each one of these regions was outlined so as to standardize the experimental region. Universal hybrid composite resin Filtek™Z350 was inserted into four layers of 1 mm each and photo-activated. The bond strength was quantitatively evaluated by a microtensile test (1.0 mm/min 24 h after the restorative procedures. The failure mode was assessed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results: There was a significant reduction in the bond strength of the restored teeth immediately after the bleaching (G2. There were no significant differences in enamel bond strength between groups G1, G3, and G4. There was a predominance of adhesive and mixed (cohesive + adhesive failure in all groups. Conclusion: The 7-day-period after the end of the bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide was enough to achieve the appropriate values of bond strength to the enamel.

  6. Cell-based metabolomics approach for assessing the impact of wastewater treatment plant effluent on downstream water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are a known source of various types of chemicals including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), naturally occurring hormones, and pesticides. There is great concern regarding their adverse effects on human and ecological health th...

  7. Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota-design, methods, and data, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Martinovic, Dalma; Woodruff, Olivia R.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the study design, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for an integrated chemical and biological study of selected streams or lakes that receive wastewater-treatment plant effluent in Minnesota. This study was a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Cloud State University, the University of St. Thomas, and the University of Colorado. The objective of the study was to identify distribution patterns of endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other organic and inorganic chemicals of concern indicative of wastewater effluent, and to identify biological characteristics of estrogenicity and fish responses in the same streams. The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water, bed-sediment, and quality-assurance samples, and measured or recorded streamflow once at each sampling location from September through November 2009. Sampling locations included surface water and wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Twenty-five wastewater-treatment plants were selected to include continuous flow and periodic release facilities with differing processing steps (activated sludge or trickling filters) and plant design flows ranging from 0.002 to 10.9 cubic meters per second (0.04 to 251 million gallons per day) throughout Minnesota in varying land-use settings. Water samples were collected from the treated effluent of the 25 wastewater-treatment plants and at one point upstream from and one point downstream from wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges. Bed-sediment samples also were collected at each of the stream or lake locations. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens and pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and other neutral organic chemicals, carboxylic acids, and steroidal hormones. A subset (25 samples) of the bed-sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, wastewater-indicator chemicals, and steroidal hormones; the

  8. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Junchao; Wang, Thanh; Han, Shanlong; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ 13 C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m −2 ⋅y −1 . Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Highlights: • The distribution of PCBs in an urban riparian zone around a wastewater effluent affected river was investigated. • Relatively high abundances of PCB-11 and PCB-28 were found for most samples. • Mid-chlorinated congeners (PCB-153 and PCB-138) were more accumulated in chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates. • Emerging invertebrates can carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial

  9. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Junchao [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Thanh, E-mail: bswang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Han, Shanlong [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ{sup 13}C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m{sup −2}⋅y{sup −1}. Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Highlights: • The distribution of PCBs in an urban riparian zone around a wastewater effluent affected river was investigated. • Relatively high abundances of PCB-11 and PCB-28 were found for most samples. • Mid-chlorinated congeners (PCB-153 and PCB-138) were more accumulated in chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates. • Emerging invertebrates can carry waterborne PCBs to the

  10. 40 CFR 63.445 - Standards for the bleaching system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for the bleaching system. 63... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Pulp and Paper Industry § 63.445 Standards for the bleaching system. (a) Each bleaching system that does not use any chlorine or chlorinated compounds for bleaching...

  11. [Assessment of tooth bleaching efficacy with spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhao; Liu, Chang; Pan, Jie

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the changes in CIE L*, a*, and b* at cervical, body, and incisal sites after tooth bleaching by using a spectrophotometer. Sixty-seven intact and healthy maxillary central incisors were in-vestigated. These incisors were darker than A3 according to the Vita Classical shade guide. The CIE tooth shade parameters L*, a*, and b* were simultaneously recorded at three tooth areas (cervical, body, and incisal) with a spectrophotometer before and after tooth bleaching (35%H2O2 coordinating with Beyond whitening accelerator irradiating). The shade dif-ferential (DeltaE) was calculated. ANOVA, paired t-test, and Pearson correlation analysis were used for data analysis. The efficacy rates of tooth bleaching were satisfactory, with 86.6%, 86.6%, and 85.1% in the cervical, body, and incisal sites, respectively. The average values of DeltaE were 5.09, 4.44, and 4.40 in the cervical, body, and incisal sites. Tooth bleaching significantly increased L* and significantly decreased a* and b* in all tooth areas (P spectrophotometer could objectively evaluate the whitening effect of tooth bleaching at the different tooth sites. The tooth bleaching system (35%H202 coordinating with Beyond whitening accelerator irradiating) exerts powerful bleaching actions in most of the tooth areas investigated. The order of tooth bleaching effectiveness is cervicalbody>incisal. Yellow coloration is decreased mainly at the cervical site, and brightness was increased mostly at theincisal site. The effectiveness of tooth bleaching increases as the baseline b* value increases.

  12. Coral bleaching independent of photosynthetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolleter, Dimitri; Seneca, François O; DeNofrio, Jan C; Krediet, Cory J; Palumbi, Stephen R; Pringle, John R; Grossman, Arthur R

    2013-09-23

    The global decline of reef-building corals is due in part to the loss of algal symbionts, or "bleaching," during the increasingly frequent periods of high seawater temperatures. During bleaching, endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium spp.) either are lost from the animal tissue or lose their photosynthetic pigments, resulting in host mortality if the Symbiodinium populations fail to recover. The >1,000 studies of the causes of heat-induced bleaching have focused overwhelmingly on the consequences of damage to algal photosynthetic processes, and the prevailing model for bleaching invokes a light-dependent generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by heat-damaged chloroplasts as the primary trigger. However, the precise mechanisms of bleaching remain unknown, and there is evidence for involvement of multiple cellular processes. In this study, we asked the simple question of whether bleaching can be triggered by heat in the dark, in the absence of photosynthetically derived ROS. We used both the sea anemone model system Aiptasia and several species of reef-building corals to demonstrate that symbiont loss can occur rapidly during heat stress in complete darkness. Furthermore, we observed damage to the photosynthetic apparatus under these conditions in both Aiptasia endosymbionts and cultured Symbiodinium. These results do not directly contradict the view that light-stimulated ROS production is important in bleaching, but they do show that there must be another pathway leading to bleaching. Elucidation of this pathway should help to clarify bleaching mechanisms under the more usual conditions of heat stress in the light. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    A key finding of this research program was that Laccase Mediator Systems (LMS) treatments on high-kappa kraft could be successfully accomplished providing substantial delignification (i.e., > 50%) without detrimental impact on viscosity and significantly improved yield properties. The efficiency of the LMS was evident since most of the lignin from the pulp was removed in less than one hour at 45 degrees C. Of the mediators investigated, violuric acid was the most effective vis-a-vis delignification. A comparative study between oxygen delignification and violuric acid revealed that under relatively mild conditions, a single or a double LMS{sub VA} treatment is comparable to a single or a double O stage. Of great notability was the retention of end viscosity of LMS{sub VA} treated pulps with respect to the end viscosity of oxygen treated pulps. These pulps could then be bleached to full brightness values employing conventional ECF bleaching technologies and the final pulp physical properties were equal and/or better than those bleached in a conventional ECF manner employing an aggressively O or OO stage initially. Spectral analyses of residual lignins isolated after LMS treated high-kappa kraft pulps revealed that similar to HBT, VA and NHA preferentially attack phenolic lignin moieties. In addition, a substantial decrease in aliphatic hydroxyl groups was also noted, suggesting side chain oxidation. In all cases, an increase in carboxylic acid was observed. Of notable importance was the different selectivity of NHA, VA and HBT towards lignin functional groups, despite the common N-OH moiety. C-5 condensed phenolic lignin groups were overall resistant to an LMS{sub NHA, HBT} treatments but to a lesser extent to an LMS{sub VA}. The inactiveness of these condensed lignin moieties was not observed when low-kappa kraft pulps were biobleached, suggesting that the LMS chemistry is influenced by the extent of delignification. We have also demonstrated that the current

  14. Nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide emission in surface flow constructed wetlands for treating sewage treatment plant effluent: Effect of C/N ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wu, Haiming; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Kong, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    In order to design treatment wetlands with maximal nitrogen removal and minimal nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission, the effect of influent C/N ratios on nitrogen removal and N 2 O emission in surface flow constructed wetlands (SF CWs) for sewage treatment plant effluent treatment was investigated in this study. The results showed that nitrogen removal and N 2 O emission in CWs were significantly affected by C/N ratio of influent. Much higher removal efficiency of NH 4 + -N (98%) and TN (90%) was obtained simultaneously in SF CWs at C/N ratios of 12:1, and low N 2 O emission (8.2mg/m 2 /d) and the percentage of N 2 O-N emission in TN removal (1.44%) were also observed. These results obtained in this study would be utilized to determine how N 2 O fluxes respond to variations in C/N ratios and to improve the sustainability of CWs for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact assessment for the aquatic biota arising from discharges of radioactive liquid effluents into the marine environment - Angra dos Reis nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, D.C.; Peres, S.S.; Martins, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    The Piraquara de Fora Bay receives the liquid effluents from the two Brazilian nuclear power plants (NPPs): Angra I that has been operating since 1985 and Angra II that started operating in 2000. The monitoring data set obtained by IRD/CNEN for marine samples over a period of 25 years (from 1985 to 2010) were statistically evaluated. Despite the high presence of non detect observations, suitable statistical tests were applied to compare 60 Co levels in sediments between two periods of time and from different sampling locations. The natural dose and the dose derived from the NPPs routine radioactive releases on the marine biota were assessed by the Erica tool. The highest value of dose rate due to the naturally occurrence radionuclides was estimated to be around 0.6 μGy h -1 for phytoplankton, mainly due to internal dose contribution of 238 U, while fishes received the highest dose (value around 0.4 μGy h -1 ) due to the radionuclide discharges of the NPPs. Accordingly, the dose rates to the studied species (fish, crustacean, macroalgae, zooplankton and phytoplankton) were clearly below the Erica screening level of 10 μGy h -1 , indicating no significant radiological impact of NPPs on these species. (author)

  16. Antibiotic-resistant genes and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the effluent of urban residential areas, hospitals, and a municipal wastewater treatment plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Cheng, Weixiao; Xu, Like; Strong, P J; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we determined the abundance of 8 antibiotics (3 tetracyclines, 4 sulfonamides, and 1 trimethoprim), 12 antibiotic-resistant genes (10 tet, 2 sul), 4 antibiotic-resistant bacteria (tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and combined resistance), and class 1 integron integrase gene (intI1) in the effluent of residential areas, hospitals, and municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) systems. The concentrations of total/individual targets (antibiotics, genes, and bacteria) varied remarkably among different samples, but the hospital samples generally had a lower abundance than the residential area samples. The WWTP demonstrated removal efficiencies of 50.8% tetracyclines, 66.8% sulfonamides, 0.5 logs to 2.5 logs tet genes, and less than 1 log of sul and intI1 genes, as well as 0.5 log to 1 log removal for target bacteria. Except for the total tetracycline concentration and the proportion of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (R (2) = 0.330, P antibiotics and the corresponding resistant bacteria (P > 0.05). In contrast, various relationships were identified between antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (P antibiotic-resistant bacteria (P < 0.01).

  17. Radioactive effluents from nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community. Discharge data 1972-1976 radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luykx, F.; Fraser, G.

    1978-04-01

    The report presents the available data on radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents discharged by nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in the European Community from 1972 to 1976. Discharges are expressed both in absolute terms and relative to the net production of electricity from the fuel. On the basis of the discharges recorded for 1976 the resulting maximum exposure of members of the population is quantified and compared with the dose limits prescribed by Euratom radiological protection standards and with the exposure resulting from natural radioactivity. It is concluded that there is no case in which a discharge could have given rise to an exposure exceeding the relevant prescribed limit. Not only did the possible maximum exposures incurred by individuals leave an appreciable safety margin relative to that limit but, for the vast majority of installations, they were comparable with or were considerably lower than the geographical and temporal variations in exposures resulting from natural radioactivity. Where environmental levels have been detectable the measured results have of course been used but, with few exceptions, the levels have remained less than the very low limits of detection currently possible. In general, where theoretical models are used to evaluate exposure, they are designed to give conservative results and hence it is likely that the true exposures are even less than those calculated

  18. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  19. Two novel real time cell-based assays quantify beta-blocker and NSAID specific effects in effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Kevin; Stahl, Cordula; Martens, Regina; Köhler, Heinz-R; Triebskorn, Rita; Scheurer, Marco; Frey, Manfred

    2017-05-15

    Pharmaceuticals, such as beta-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as well as their metabolites are introduced into the water cycle via municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in all industrialized countries. As the amino acid sequences of the biological target molecules of these pharmaceuticals - the beta-1 adrenergic receptor for beta-blockers and the cyclooxygenase for NSAIDs - are phylogenetically conserved among vertebrates it is reasonable that wildlife vertebrates including fish physiologically respond in a similar way to them as documented in humans. Consequently, beta-blockers and NSAIDs both exhibit their effects according to their mode of action on one hand, but on the other hand that may lead to unwanted side effects in non-target species. To determine whether residuals of beta-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists and cyclooxygenase inhibitors may pose a risk to aquatic organisms, one has to know the extent to which such organisms respond to the total of active compounds, their metabolites and transformation products with the same modes of action. To cope with this demand, two cell-based assays were developed, by which the total beta-blocker and cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity can be assessed in a given wastewater or surface water extract in real time. The measured activity is quantified as metoprolol equivalents (MetEQ) of the lead substance metoprolol in the beta-blocker assay, and diclofenac equivalents (DicEQ) in the NSAID assay. Even though MetEQs and DicEQs were found to surpass the concentration of the respective lead substances (metoprolol, diclofenac), as determined by chemical analysis by a factor of two to three, this difference was shown to be reasonably explained by the presence and action of additional active compounds with the same mode of action in the test samples. Thus, both in vitro assays were proven to integrate effectively over beta-blocker and NSAID activities in WWTP effluents in a very sensitive

  20. Identification of microplastic in effluents of waste water treatment plants using focal plane array-based micro-Fourier-transform infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintenig, S M; Int-Veen, I; Löder, M G J; Primpke, S; Gerdts, G

    2017-01-01

    The global presence of microplastic (MP) in aquatic ecosystems has been shown by various studies. However, neither MP concentrations nor their sources or sinks are completely known. Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered as significant point sources discharging MP to the environment. This study investigated MP in the effluents of 12 WWTPs in Lower Saxony, Germany. Samples were purified by a plastic-preserving enzymatic-oxidative procedure and subsequent density separation using a zinc chloride solution. For analysis, attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) and focal plane array (FPA)-based transmission micro-FT-IR imaging were applied. This allowed the identification of polymers of all MP down to a size of 20 μm. In all effluents MP was found with quantities ranging from 0 to 5 × 10 1  m -3  MP > 500 μm and 1 × 10 1 to 9 × 10 3  m -3  MP < 500 μm. By far, polyethylene was the most frequent polymer type in both size classes. Quantities of synthetic fibres ranged from 9 × 10 1 to 1 × 10 3  m -3 and were predominantly made of polyester. Considering the annual effluxes of tested WWTPs, total discharges of 9 × 10 7 to 4 × 10 9  MP particles and fibres per WWTP could be expected. Interestingly, one tertiary WWTP had an additionally installed post-filtration that reduced the total MP discharge by 97%. Furthermore, the sewage sludge of six WWTPs was examined and the existence of MP, predominantly polyethylene, revealed. Our findings suggest that WWTPs could be a sink but also a source of MP and thus can be considered to play an important role for environmental MP pollution. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Don't bleach chaotic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theiler, J.; Eubank, S.

    1993-01-01

    A common first step in time series signal analysis involves digitally filtering the data to remove linear correlations. The residual data is spectrally white (it is ''bleached''), but in principle retains the nonlinear structure of the original time series. It is well known that simple linear autocorrelation can give rise to spurious results in algorithms for estimating nonlinear invariants, such as fractal dimension and Lyapunov exponents. In theory, bleached data avoids these pitfalls. But in practice, bleaching obscures the underlying deterministic structure of a low-dimensional chaotic process. This appears to be a property of the chaos itself, since nonchaotic data are not similarly affected. The adverse effects of bleaching are demonstrated in a series of numerical experiments on known chaotic data. Some theoretical aspects are also discussed

  2. Absorption column working study for iodine formed in spent fuel reprocessing plant gaseous effluents: hydrodynamic and mass transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignau, B.

    1986-09-01

    The hydrodynamic and matter transfer parameters has been studied on absorption columns destined to trap iodine issued of spent fuel reprocessing plants. These columns have different packing - Raschig rings (glass, ceramic, PVC, steel) - Berl saddles (ceramic) - Weaved metallic thread (steel). The effect of dimension and of packing structure on gas pressure drop and on liquid holdup has been evaluated. The partial transfer coefficients of I 2 -Air-NaOH system has been the object of an experimental study. This system can be simulated by CO 2 -Air-NaOH system [fr

  3. Importance of benthonic marine flora monitoring in the liquid effluent discharge form Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloise, G.C.; Araujo Costa, D. de

    1994-01-01

    Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant use sea water to condenser the steam of the secondary circuit. This water capted from Itaorna bay is chlorined and discharged more heater in Piraquara de Fora small bay. The temperature, chlorinade concentration, marine flora and fauna are monitored frequently with the intend of value the impact caused by this discharge to marine environment. The macroscopic marines algae is very sensible to environment temperature variations, constitutes on of the main rink in the food chain and stay every time attach at the bottom. Because of this facts they are considered an important bio indicators. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Disposal of tritiated effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.; Bruecher, H.

    1981-06-01

    After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described (deep well injection, in-situ solidification, deep-sea dumping) and compared with each other under various aspects. The study is based on the concept of a 1400 t/a reprocessing plant for LWR fuel, which annually produces 3000 m 3 of tritiated waste water with a tritium content of 6.5 x 10 12 Bq/m 3 as well as a residual fission product and actinide content. An assessment of the three methods under the aspects of simplicity, reliability, safety, costs, state of development and materials handling revealed advantages in favour of 'injection', followed by 'dumping' and 'in-situ solidification'. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 200 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    The following facility effluent monitoring plan determinations document the evaluations conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 200 Area facilities (chemical processing, waste management, 222-S Laboratory, and laundry) on the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. These evaluations determined the need for facility effluent monitoring plans for the 200 Area facilities. The facility effluent monitoring plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438 (WHC 1991). The Plutonium/Uranium Extraction Plant and UO 3 facility effluent monitoring plan determinations were prepared by Los Alamos Technical Associates, Richland, Washington. The Plutonium Finishing Plant, Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility, T Plant, Tank Farms, Low Level Burial Grounds, and 222-S Laboratory determinations were prepared by Science Applications International Corporation of Richland, Washington. The B Plant Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan Determination was prepared by ERCE Environmental Services of Richland, Washington

  6. Compatibility of Different Eucalyptus Species and Provenances Under Sewage Irrigation Using Yazd City Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadhadi Rad

    2014-04-01

    92.4% and 98.6%, 95.1%, 94.4%, respectively. The species E. camaldulensis (41-zh had the best performance after the first and the second years of planting, although there was not significant difference between some of the eucalypt characteristics. Overall, the species E. camaldulensis (41-zh can be recommended for forest plantation and wood production at sites similar to the trial condition, ecologically. The species E. rubida, E. saligna and E. viminalis are also recommended for plantation and wood production, using sewage irrigation, due to their fast growing performance, although they might have high mortality at their first stage of establishment. E. sargentii is a suitable species for desertification control due to its high resistance to soil and water salinity and somewhat coldness and its fast diameter and crown growth.

  7. The selection and performance of the natural zeolite clinoptilolite in British Nuclear Fuels' site ion exchange effluent plant, SIXEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, S.G.; Berghauser, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    SIXEP has been conducted by British Nuclear Fuels plc at its Sellafield reprocessing site as part of its committment to reduce radioactive discharges to the Irish Sea. An extensive development program identified the natural ion exchange mineral clinoptilolite, from a particular deposit in California now owned by Tenneco Specialty Minerals, as the most suitable for use in SIXEP to extract caesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel storage pond water. Close cooperation with the supplier in a Quality Assurance scheme ensured the supply of a fully-characterised, high grade ion exchanger. Since SIXEP commenced treating pond water on 28 May 1985, the plant has performed well, exceeding the design expectation in terms of discharge reduction and availability

  8. Model, parameter and code of environmental dispersion of gaseous effluent under normal operation from nuclear power plant with 600 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Gao Zhanrong

    1998-06-01

    The model of environmental dispersion of gaseous effluence under normal operation from a nuclear power plant with 600 MWe is established to give a mathematical expression of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor under mixing release condition based on quality assessment of radiological environment for 30 years of Chinese nuclear industry. In calculation, the impact from calm and other following factors have been taken into account: mixing layer, dry and wet deposition, radioactive decay and buildings. The doses caused from the following exposure pathways are also given by this model: external exposure from immersion cloud and ground deposition, internal exposure due to inhalation and ingestion. The code is named as ROULEA. It contains four modules, i.e. INPUT, ANRTRI, CHIQV and DOSE for calculating 4-dimension joint frequency, annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor and doses

  9. Radioactive airborne effluents and the environmental impact assessment of CAP1400 nuclear power plant under normal operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiong; Guo, RuiPing; Zhang, ChunMing; Chen, XiaoQiu; Wang, Bo, E-mail: wangbo@chinansc.cn

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Typical radionuclides dispersion from CAP1400 under normal operation was simulated. • Modified Gaussian model considered radioactive decay, dry and wet deposition and so on. • The radioactive impact pathways on the public through atmosphere were compared. • The maximum individual effective dose was lower than the public irradiation limit. - Abstract: China Advanced Passive nuclear power plant with installed capacity reaching to 1400 MW (CAP1400) is independently designed as the China's state-of-the-art third generation nuclear power brand based on AP1000 technology digestion and absorption. The concentration of typical radionuclides dispersed from CAP1400 under normal operation was calculated with modified Gaussian model, considering mixed layer height, dry deposition, wet deposition, radioactive decay and so on. The atmospheric dispersion factors, ground deposition rate, individual dose and public dose were also investigated to estimate the radioactive effects of CAP1400 under normal operation on surrounding environment and human beings. The radioactive impact pathways on the public through atmosphere, such as immersion irradiation in the smoke plume, internal irradiation from ingestion and inhalation and external irradiation from surface deposition were briefly introduced with focus on the comparison of the maximum individual effective dose to different group from atmospheric dispersion. All computation results show that the maximum individual irradiation dose happened to children with total effective irradiation dose of 4.52E−03 mSv/y, which was lower than the public irradiation limit of 0.25 mSv/y.

  10. Radioactive airborne effluents and the environmental impact assessment of CAP1400 nuclear power plant under normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiong; Guo, RuiPing; Zhang, ChunMing; Chen, XiaoQiu; Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Typical radionuclides dispersion from CAP1400 under normal operation was simulated. • Modified Gaussian model considered radioactive decay, dry and wet deposition and so on. • The radioactive impact pathways on the public through atmosphere were compared. • The maximum individual effective dose was lower than the public irradiation limit. - Abstract: China Advanced Passive nuclear power plant with installed capacity reaching to 1400 MW (CAP1400) is independently designed as the China's state-of-the-art third generation nuclear power brand based on AP1000 technology digestion and absorption. The concentration of typical radionuclides dispersed from CAP1400 under normal operation was calculated with modified Gaussian model, considering mixed layer height, dry deposition, wet deposition, radioactive decay and so on. The atmospheric dispersion factors, ground deposition rate, individual dose and public dose were also investigated to estimate the radioactive effects of CAP1400 under normal operation on surrounding environment and human beings. The radioactive impact pathways on the public through atmosphere, such as immersion irradiation in the smoke plume, internal irradiation from ingestion and inhalation and external irradiation from surface deposition were briefly introduced with focus on the comparison of the maximum individual effective dose to different group from atmospheric dispersion. All computation results show that the maximum individual irradiation dose happened to children with total effective irradiation dose of 4.52E−03 mSv/y, which was lower than the public irradiation limit of 0.25 mSv/y

  11. Determination of Ketorolac in the Effluent from a Hospital Treating Plant and Kinetics Study of Its Photolytic Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Hugo Ortega Soto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two specific, sensitive, and rapid analytical methods were developed. One of them was for the determination of ketorolac in a hospital wastewater treatment plant where there is no interference with other organic substances; the other one was for the determination of the degradation kinetics in aqueous medium. Ketorolac was extracted from wastewater samples through solid-phase extraction (SPE cartridges, then it was identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Ketorolac was detected in concentrations between 0.1376 and 0.2667 μg/L. Photolytic degradation was performed on aqueous solutions of ketorolac tromethamine reference substance, at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. Samples were in direct contact with ultraviolet light in a dark chamber, equipped with two mercury lamps (254 nm at a radiation source of 15 W. The results of the photolytic degradation were adjusted to a first-order model, obtaining a half-life of 4.8 hrs.

  12. Influence of marine sediments in the distribution of the main radionuclides of the effluent from the nuclear power plant Almirante Alvaro Alberto (Unit 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugnara, Miriam

    1977-01-01

    This study aimed to: 1) Characterize bottom sediments of the Angra dos Reis region, in the dispersion area of the effluent of the central Almirante Nuclear Alvaro Alberto, Unit 1. 2) Determining the adsorption capacity of these sediments to the long half-life and mean radionuclides to be released in the reactor effluent in a higher concentration. 3) Estimate the fraction of the different studied radionuclides that will be immobilized in sediments. 4) Identify critical radionuclides available for food chain

  13. Assessment of bleaching of K-feldspar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiafu; Li Shenghua; Tso, M-Y.W.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the difference in the bleaching rate between IRSL and TL signals, a new method of assessing the bleaching of sedimentary feldspar is proposed. All measurements for De and the bleaching factor (normalized ratio of IRSL to TL) are carried out on the same grain. K-feldspar grains from two sediments, a marine and an alluvium, from Hong Kong were tested. Their bleaching factors indicate that bleaching of the marine sediment was not uniform, whereas the latter was relatively homogeneous. Furthermore, the relatively well-bleached grains in each sample were identified

  14. Impact of effluents from Tihange nuclear plant on the Meuse ecosystem: a five year in situ study and experimental approach 1976 -1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clercq-Versele, H. de; Kirchmann, R.

    1982-07-01

    The aim of present multidisciplinary study, started in 1975, was to evaluate the influence of liquid effluent releases from a PWR-type nuclear reactor on the ecosystem of running water. The Tihange-1 nuclear power plant, along the Meuse river near Liege, has been selected as site for this study, which situates in the general context of the industrial and urban pollution of this region. The in situ biological research dealt with phytoplankton, microphytobenthos and bryophytic populations on the one hand, and with zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and fish on the other hand. The impact of the releases on certain aquatic organisms has been studied with the help of experimental devices (pools and rafts). Laboratory research has been carried out on an alga type representative of Meuse phytoplankton. It could be concluded that a temperature increase of the Meuse water (generally 2 to 3 0 C), although it has no detectable qualitative influence on the various links of the Meuse ecosystem, seems to promote the development of more temperature-tolerant species and to influence biological parameters such as growth and reproduction of aquatic animals. Although the legal limit (namely 0.3 mg/l in the water downstream the releases) is always respected, chlorination of the Meuse water gives rise to a decrease of the photosynthetic activity in aquatic mosses and creates asphyxiation phenomena in fish and crayfish. The utility of certain animal organisms of the Meuse biocenose as bio-indicators of the radionuclides present in the releases, has been confirmed. The alga cultures are also very adequate for the evaluation of the biological availability of some radioisotopes such as tritium. (author)

  15. Temperament and perception of tooth bleaching results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mehr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . The neurophysiological process of perceiving the results of tooth bleaching requires the correct interaction between the central nervous system and the organs of sight. Exaggerated beliefs concerning defective facial features may enhance inner attitudes about one’s own color of dentition, as well as a feeling of dissatisfaction with the degree of leaching. Objectives. The study aimed to assess the degree of the patient satisfaction with the results of tooth bleaching in relation to their temperament. Material and methods. There were 68 generally healthy volunteers, aged 28–38 years, with external discolorations of the teeth. They had never undergone dental bleaching and their frontal teeth did not have any fillings. After clinical evaluation and the completion of formalities, the patients were asked to fill in Strelau’s temperament questionnaire. Questionnaires and visual status were assessed three times by three doctors: before bleaching, and then 24 hours and two weeks after the home-bleaching operation, which was done with the use of Opalescence (Ultradent in uniform sequence. Results . There were practically no adverse side results, except a periodic dentin hypersensitivity that occurred periodically in 44 patients. The results of the visual assessment performed by the physicians did not differ. The questionnaire data showed that women were more critical of the results in relation to the expectations. Among elancholics, full satisfaction was declared by 41%, whereas among sanguine people, full satisfaction was obtained by 85%. Satisfaction with the aesthetic results was associated with bleaching by at least 4 degrees. Conclusions . Patients’ temperament affects their subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of tooth bleaching, which should be taken into consideration in the patient’s individual dental treatment plan.

  16. Bleaching and enamel surface interactions resulting from the use of highly-concentrated bleaching gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, Guillermo; Valente, Lisia Lorea; Isolan, Cristina Pereira; Pinheiro, Helena Alves; Duarte, Camila Gonçalves; Münchow, Eliseu Aldrighi

    2018-03-01

    Tooth bleaching is considered a non-invasive treatment, although the use of highly-concentrated products may provoke increased surface roughness and enamel demineralization, as well as postoperative sensitivity. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) concentration would affect tooth bleaching effectiveness and the enamel surface properties. Enamel/dentin bovine specimens (6 × 4 mm) were immersed in coffee solution for 7 days and evaluated with a spectrophotometer (Easyshade; baseline), using the CIEL * a * b * color parameters. Hardness was measured using a hardness tester. The specimens were randomly assigned into four groups: one negative control, in which the specimens were not bleached, but they were irradiated with a laser-light source (Whitening Lase II, DMC Equipments); and three groups using distinct H 2 O 2 concentration, namely LP15% (15% Lase Peroxide Lite), LP25% (25% Lase Peroxide Sensy), and LP35% (35% Lase Peroxide Sensy), all products from DMC. The bleached specimens were also irradiated with the laser-light source. After bleaching, all specimens were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). pH kinetics and rate was monitored during bleaching. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p bleaching gels produced similar color change (p > 0.05). Concerning hardness, only the LP25% and LP35% significantly reduced hardness after bleaching; also, there was a progressive tendency for a greater percentage reduction in hardness with increased H 2 O 2 concentration of the gel (R 2  = 0.9973, p bleaching effectiveness, and may increase the possibility for alteration of enamel hardness, surface morphology, and acidity of the medium. When using H 2 O 2 -based bleaching agents, dental practitioners should choose for less concentrated gels, e.g., around the 15% level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Radium contamination of the banks of a small river receiving the liquid effluents of a large phosphate plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.; Paridaens, J.

    2000-01-01

    A chemical plant in the north of Belgium processes since 1929 large quantities of marine phosphate ore, with a 226 Ra content of 1500 Bq/kg, into products suited for animal feeding, using hydrochloric acid (HCl) as dissolution agent instead of the more common sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ). Until 1991, two thirds of the radium was released with the waste water into two small rivers with a concentration of about 20 Bq/l and a flow rate of 1500 m 3 /h. Adding barium salts has recently reduced the radium concentration of the waste water to 3 Bq/l. The purpose of this study was to map the historical radium contamination of one of the receiving rivers, the Laak, over a distance of 20 km. Enhanced dose rates are found everywhere along the Laak between the discharge points and the merging with the Grote Nete. The contamination is mostly confined to a narrow strip of 5 to 10 m wide on one or on both sides, caused by the periodic dredging of the sediment. The measured dose rates vary between the low natural background of the region, 50 to 80 nSv/h, and 1000 to 2000 nSv/h. The total surface area contaminated above 100 nSv/h amounts to 22 ha. The radiological impact on the surrounding population was estimated. Realistic scenarios for critical groups for the external exposure result in doses of a few hundreds of μSv/year. Pastures and maize for animal feeding are currently the only cultures along the contaminated banks of the Laak. This additional step in the food chain reduces the internal doses to a few tens of μSv/year. The inhalation of radon decay products in open air poses no problem. The construction of dwellings on the contaminated banks would undo this favorable situation as radon gas could accumulate in the dwellings resulting in doses that could exceed the limit for radiation workers. (author)

  18. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  19. Color Recovery Effect of Different Bleaching Systems on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... KEYWORDS: Composite resin, discoloration, home bleaching, laser activated bleaching, office ... hexametaphosphate, which protect the teeth surface from .... exposure, saliva and other fluids diluting the staining .... Penetration of the pulp ... dentin permeability of carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide.

  20. Short communication: The influence of solids concentration and bleaching agent on bleaching efficacy and flavor of sweet whey powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, M G; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the effect of bleaching conditions and bleaching agent on flavor and functional properties of whey protein ingredients. Solids concentration at bleaching significantly affected bleaching efficacy and flavor effects of different bleaching agents. It is not known if these parameters influence quality of sweet whey powder (SWP). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of solids concentration and bleaching agent on the flavor and bleaching efficacy of SWP. Colored cheddar whey was manufactured, fat separated, and pasteurized. Subsequently, the whey (6.7% solids) was bleached, concentrated using reverse osmosis (RO) to 14% solids, and then spray dried, or whey was concentrated before bleaching and then spray dried. Bleaching treatments included a control (no bleaching, 50 °C, 60 min), hydrogen peroxide (HP; 250 mg/kg, 50 °C, 60 min), benzoyl peroxide (50 mg/kg, 50 °C, 60 min), lactoperoxidase (20 mg/kg of HP, 50 °C, 30 min), and external peroxidase (MaxiBright, DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands; 2 dairy bleaching units/mL, 50 °C, 30 min). The experiment was repeated in triplicate. Sensory properties and volatile compounds of SWP were evaluated by a trained panel and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Bleaching efficacy (norbixin destruction) and benzoic acid were measured by HPLC. Differences in bleaching efficacy, sensory and volatile compound profiles, and benzoic acid were observed with different bleaching agents, consistent with previous studies. Solids concentration affected bleaching efficacy of HP, but not other bleaching agents. The SWP from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase following RO had increased cardboard and fatty flavors and higher concentrations of lipid oxidation compounds compared with SWP from whey bleached before RO. The SWP bleached with benzoyl peroxide after RO contained less benzoic acid than SWP from whey bleached before RO. These results indicate that

  1. Bleaching of cotton fabric with tetraacetylhydrazine as bleach activator for H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Zhang, Xuan; Yan, Kelu

    2018-05-15

    Tetraacetylhydrazine (TH) as bleach activator for H 2 O 2 cotton bleaching was synthesized and characterized by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and MS spectra. TH has better solubility than that of TAED. The CIE whiteness index (WI), H 2 O 2 decomposition rate and bursting strength were employed to investigate the performance of H 2 O 2 /TH bleaching system. By addition of TH, WI and H 2 O 2 decomposition rate increased significantly at 70 °C. Bleaching temperature, NaHCO 3 concentration and bleaching time were also discussed in detail and the loss of bursting strength is not clear. By using benzenepentacarboxylic acid (BA) as a fluorescent probe for hydroxyl radical detection, the bleaching process of H 2 O 2 /TH system was investigated. Acetylhydrazine and diacetylhydrazine were also utilized to further confirm the process. In addition, bimolecular decomposition was investigated by using 9,10-dimethylanthracene (DMA) as fluorescent probe of 1 O 2 . Based on these experimental results, the bleaching mechanism of H 2 O 2 /TH system was proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  3. On luminescence bleaching of tidal channel sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Pejrup, Morten; Murray, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the processes responsible for bleaching of the quartz OSL signal from tidal channel sediment. Tidal dynamics are expected to play an important role for complete bleaching of tidal sediments. However, no studies have examined the amount of reworking occurring in tidal channels...... and on tidal flats due to the mixing caused by currents and waves. We apply bed level data to evaluate the amount of vertical sediment reworking in modern tidal channels and at a tidal flat. Cycles of deposition and erosion are measured with a bed level sensor, and the results show that gross sedimentation...... was several times higher than net sedimentation. We propose that tidal channel sediment is bleached either on the tidal flat before it is transported to the tidal channels and incorporated in channel-fill successions or, alternatively, on the shallow intertidal part of the channel banks. Based...

  4. Coral Bleaching and Associated Mortality at Mayotte, Western Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamoudzou 97600, Mayotte. Keywords: coral, bleaching, mortality, Mayotte, Western Indian Ocean. Abstract—Bleaching and associated coral mortality were assessed on fringing and barrier reefs on the north and east coasts of Mayotte from 1-24 May 2010. Major bleaching was encountered; nearly 80% of the corals were ...

  5. Mass coral bleaching in the northern Persian Gulf, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Kavousi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching events due to elevated temperatures are increasing in both frequency and magnitude worldwide. Mass bleaching was recorded at five sites in the northern Persian Gulf during August and September 2012. Based on available seawater temperature data from field, satellite and previous studies, we suggest that the coral bleaching threshold temperature in the northern Persian Gulf is between 33.5 and 34°C, which is about 1.5 to 2.5°C lower than that in the southern part. To assess the bleaching effects, coral genera counted during 60-minute dives were categorized into four groups including healthy, slightly bleached ( 50% bleached tissue and fully bleached colonies. The anomalously high sea surface temperature resulted in massive coral bleaching (~84% coral colonies affected. Acropora spp. colonies, which are known as the most vulnerable corals to thermal stress, were less affected by the bleaching than massive corals, such as Porites, which are among the most thermo-tolerant corals. Turbid waters, suggested as coral refugia against global warming, did not protect corals in this study since most affected corals were found in the most turbid waters. The 2012 bleaching in the northern Persian Gulf was relatively strong from the viewpoint of coral bleaching severity. Long-term monitoring is needed to understand the actual consequences of the bleaching event on the coral reefs and communities.

  6. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat source for bleaching teeth. 872.6475 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a) Identification. A heat source for bleaching teeth is an AC-powered device that consists of a...

  7. Bleaching and diffusion dynamics in optofluidic dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Asger

    2007-01-01

    The authors have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in optofluidic dye lasers where the liquid laser dye in a microfluidic channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. They find that for microfluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules...

  8. Tooth Bleaching: Current Concepts of the Procedure in Cosmetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Less caustic agents more recently introduced, in the late 1900s, have revived the interest of the dental profession in the art of tooth bleaching. These agents are now being packaged as bleaching kits, which may be used for in-office bleaching by the dentist or used at home by the patient under the supervision of the dentist.

  9. Color Recovery Effect of Different Bleaching Systems on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite samples were immersed in coffee and turnip juice for 1 week in each. One laser activated bleaching (LB) (Biolase Laserwhite*20) and three conventional bleaching systems (Ultradent Opalescence Boost 40% (OB), Ultradent Opalescence PF 15% home bleaching (HB), Crest 3D White [Whitening Mouthwash]) ...

  10. Simulation of ammoniacal nitrogen effluent using feedforward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammoniacal nitrogen in domestic wastewater treatment plants has recently been added as the monitoring parameter by the Department of Environment, Malaysia. It is necessary to obtain a suitable model for the simulation of ammonical nitrogen in the effluent stream of sewage treatment plant in order to meet the new ...

  11. Gamma irradiation treatment of secondary sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajdic, A.H.

    The operation and monitoring of a pilot scale Co-60 gamma irradiation unit treating secondary sewage effluent is described. The disinfecting efficiency of the unit is compared to that of an experimental 'ideal' chlorination unit and to the plant chlorination process. A cost estimate for disinfection by gamma irradiation on a full plant scale is included. (author)

  12. Impact analysis of palm oil mill effluent on the aerobic bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... Key words: Palm oil mill effluent, total aerobic bacteria, ammonium oxidizers. INTRODUCTION ... bacteria help in the degradation of macromolecules from plant and animal .... Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent.

  13. Elimination of micropollutants and transformation products from a wastewater treatment plant effluent through pilot scale ozonation followed by various activated carbon and biological filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Gregor; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A; Cornel, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants are ineffective in removing a broad range of micropollutants, resulting in the release of these compounds into the aquatic environment, including natural drinking water resources. Ozonation is a suitable treatment process for micropollutant removal, although, currently, little is known about the formation, behavior, and removal of transformation products (TP) formed during ozonation. We investigated the elimination of 30 selected micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, industrial chemicals, and TP) by biological treatment coupled with ozonation and, subsequently, in parallel with two biological filters (BF) or granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. The selected micropollutants were removed to very different extents during the conventional biological wastewater treatment process. Ozonation (specific ozone consumption: 0.87 ± 0.29 gO3 gDOC(-1), hydraulic retention time: 17 ± 3 min) eliminated a large number of the investigated micropollutants. Although 11 micropollutants could still be detected after ozonation, most of these were eliminated in subsequent GAC filtration at bed volumes (BV) of approximately 25,000 m(3) m(-3). In contrast, no additional removal of micropollutants was achieved in the BF. Ozonation of the analgesic tramadol led to the formation of tramadol-N-oxide that is effectively eliminated by GAC filters, but not by BF. For the antiviral drug acyclovir, the formation of carboxy-acyclovir was observed during activated sludge treatment, with an average concentration of 3.4 ± 1.4 μg L(-1) detected in effluent samples. Subsequent ozonation resulted in the complete elimination of carboxy-acyclovir and led to the formation of N-(4-carbamoyl-2-imino-5-oxo imidazolidin)-formamido-N-methoxyacetetic acid (COFA; average concentration: 2.6 ± 1.0 μg L(-1)). Neither the BF nor the GAC filters were able to remove COFA. These results highlight the importance of considering TP in the

  14. Occurrence and potential transport of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds from wastewater-treatment plant influent and effluent to groundwater and canal systems in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Adam L.; Katz, Brian G.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    An increased demand for fresh groundwater resources in South Florida has prompted Miami-Dade County to expand its water reclamation program and actively pursue reuse plans for aquifer recharge, irrigation, and wetland rehydration. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (WASD) and the Miami-Dade Department of Environmental Resources Management (DERM), initiated a study in 2008 to assess the presence of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds in the influent and effluent at three regional wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) operated by the WASD and at one WWTP operated by the City of Homestead, Florida (HSWWTP).

  15. Liquid effluent processing group. Activity details 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-08-01

    This report first gives a quantitative overview of volumes of effluents of high activity, medium activity and low activity which passed through the department for effluent processing. It also makes the distinction between the shape or type of container of these effluents. A table indicates their origin and another indicates their destination. The β and α decontamination rates are determined, and the assessment of stored aqueous and organic effluents on the 31 December 1963 is given. The next part proposes an assessment of laboratory activities: control operations (input controls, control of processed effluent before discarding), controls related to processing (processing types, radiochemical and chemical dosing performed on effluent mixes before processing). Tables indicate the characteristics of medium activity effluents collected in 1963, the results of high activity liquid analysis, and Beryllium dosing results. A summary of ALEA processing, a table of the characteristics of stored oils and solvents are given. The third part reports data related to transport activities, and various works performed in the Saclay plant to improve exploitation conditions and results

  16. Identifying well-bleached quartz using the different bleaching rates of quartz and feldspar luminescence signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Masuda, N.

    2012-01-01

    When dating older sedimentary deposits using quartz, there are no unambiguous methods for identifying the presence of incomplete bleaching. Current statistical analysis of dose distributions depends entirely on the assumption that incomplete bleaching and mixing are the main causes of any excess...... dispersion in the distribution; the only existing way to test this assumption is using independent age control. Here we suggest a new approach to this question, based on the differential bleaching rates of quartz and feldspar luminescence signals. We first present data that confirm the differences...... in relative bleaching rates of quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and feldspar luminescence stimulated at 50 °C by infrared light (IR50) and feldspar luminescence stimulated at 290 °C by infrared light after a stimulation at 50 °C (pIRIR290), and use recently deposited samples to determine...

  17. Comprehensive Two-dimensional Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Chemical Characterization of Sewage Treatment Plant Effluents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, X.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Legler, J.; van der Oost, R.; de Boer, J.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC. ×. LC) system coupled with a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HR-ToF MS) was developed and applied for analysis of emerging toxicants in wastewater effluent. The system was optimized and validated using

  18. Optimization of Dithionite Bleaching of High Yield Bagasse Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.

    2005-01-01

    High yield bagasse pulp was prepared by soaking bagasse in 10 % cold sodium hydroxide for 24 hours and then refluxing for two hours at 95 degree C. Optimization of dithionite bleaching was attained by investigation of different parameters as consistency, temperature, time and ph. Effect of additives as chelating agent (EDTA) or stabilizing of bleaching solution (Zn compound and hexamethylene tetramine) was considered. The effect of air content was also studied. One and two stages bleaching of the pulp were investigated by using sodium dithionite (D) as a sole bleaching agent or after application of one stage bleaching by hydrogen peroxide to attain high brightness for high yield pulp

  19. Bleaching of the discolored traumatized tooth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jon E.; Kopperud, Siemen E.; Pallesen, Ulla

    2018-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the treatment of discolored traumatized teeth, most of them being non-vital and subsequently, endodontically treated. Tooth bleaching based upon hydrogen peroxide as the active agent, applied directly or produced in a chemical reaction from sodium perborate or carbamide pe...

  20. REMINERALIZATION POTENTIAL OF A CARBAMIDE BLEACHING AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinova-Takorova Borislavova Mirela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bleaching has gradually became a popular procedure for people searching for aesthetic improvement. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of bleaching with 45% carbamide peroxide on the level of mineralization of enamel, using laser fluorescence. Materials and methods: Sixty extracted human teeth were treated with 45% carbamid peroxide (Opalescence, Ultradent, 4 consecutive days for one hour each day. The effect of the bleaching agent on the level of mineralization of enamel was measured with DIAGNO dent pen. The statistical method we use was descriptive analysis. Results: The average values, measured before the applications of the carbamid peroxide were 6.33. On the first day they were 5.41, on the second 5.38, on the third 5.11 and 5.35 on the forth. Conclusion: There was observed a slight remineralization effect due to the incorporated Ca2+ and F- ions in the bleaching agent that we have used.

  1. Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenal, D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an acid treatment after the extraction stage followed by the DEPD sequence. Elemental-chlorine free bleaching was also performed using the xylanase-laccase treated pulp. Xylanase treatment was incorporated to the laccase mediator system in the elemental-chlorine free bleaching both sequentially and simultaneously. The bleaching sequence DEPD followed and in both the cases, the reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was greater in comparison to the control. The chlorine dioxide consumption was reduced further when xylanase-laccase treated pulp was given an additional acid treatment. The final pulp properties of the treated pulps were comparable to the control pulp.

  2. Effluent monitoring: Its purpose and value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of effluent monitoring is described in terms of the primary objectives, the most important of which is to verify that the facility is functioning as it was designed and that the waste treatment and effluent control systems are performing as planned and expected. The object of a monitoring programme should be periodically re-examined to ensure that the programme serves a contemporary purpose. The value of the effluent monitoring programme is determined by the extent to which users of the monitoring data, i.e. the operator, the regulating authorities and the public, accept the result as indicating that the plant is operating safely, and in an environmentally acceptable manner. The credibility of the monitoring results is therefore the most important factor determining the value of an effluent monitoring programme. (author)

  3. Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Terry P.; Kerry, James T.; Álvarez-Noriega, Mariana; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G.; Anderson, Kristen D.; Baird, Andrew H.; Babcock, Russell C.; Beger, Maria; Bellwood, David R.; Berkelmans, Ray; Bridge, Tom C.; Butler, Ian R.; Byrne, Maria; Cantin, Neal E.; Comeau, Steeve; Connolly, Sean R.; Cumming, Graeme S.; Dalton, Steven J.; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Eakin, C. Mark; Figueira, Will F.; Gilmour, James P.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Heron, Scott F.; Hoey, Andrew S.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Kennedy, Emma V.; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Liu, Gang; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Malcolm, Hamish A.; McWilliam, Michael J.; Pandolfi, John M.; Pears, Rachel J.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Schoepf, Verena; Simpson, Tristan; Skirving, William J.; Sommer, Brigitte; Torda, Gergely; Wachenfeld, David R.; Willis, Bette L.; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2017-03-01

    During 2015-2016, record temperatures triggered a pan-tropical episode of coral bleaching, the third global-scale event since mass bleaching was first documented in the 1980s. Here we examine how and why the severity of recurrent major bleaching events has varied at multiple scales, using aerial and underwater surveys of Australian reefs combined with satellite-derived sea surface temperatures. The distinctive geographic footprints of recurrent bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef in 1998, 2002 and 2016 were determined by the spatial pattern of sea temperatures in each year. Water quality and fishing pressure had minimal effect on the unprecedented bleaching in 2016, suggesting that local protection of reefs affords little or no resistance to extreme heat. Similarly, past exposure to bleaching in 1998 and 2002 did not lessen the severity of bleaching in 2016. Consequently, immediate global action to curb future warming is essential to secure a future for coral reefs.

  4. Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Terry P; Kerry, James T; Álvarez-Noriega, Mariana; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Anderson, Kristen D; Baird, Andrew H; Babcock, Russell C; Beger, Maria; Bellwood, David R; Berkelmans, Ray; Bridge, Tom C; Butler, Ian R; Byrne, Maria; Cantin, Neal E; Comeau, Steeve; Connolly, Sean R; Cumming, Graeme S; Dalton, Steven J; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Eakin, C Mark; Figueira, Will F; Gilmour, James P; Harrison, Hugo B; Heron, Scott F; Hoey, Andrew S; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Kennedy, Emma V; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M; Lowe, Ryan J; Liu, Gang; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Malcolm, Hamish A; McWilliam, Michael J; Pandolfi, John M; Pears, Rachel J; Pratchett, Morgan S; Schoepf, Verena; Simpson, Tristan; Skirving, William J; Sommer, Brigitte; Torda, Gergely; Wachenfeld, David R; Willis, Bette L; Wilson, Shaun K

    2017-03-15

    During 2015-2016, record temperatures triggered a pan-tropical episode of coral bleaching, the third global-scale event since mass bleaching was first documented in the 1980s. Here we examine how and why the severity of recurrent major bleaching events has varied at multiple scales, using aerial and underwater surveys of Australian reefs combined with satellite-derived sea surface temperatures. The distinctive geographic footprints of recurrent bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef in 1998, 2002 and 2016 were determined by the spatial pattern of sea temperatures in each year. Water quality and fishing pressure had minimal effect on the unprecedented bleaching in 2016, suggesting that local protection of reefs affords little or no resistance to extreme heat. Similarly, past exposure to bleaching in 1998 and 2002 did not lessen the severity of bleaching in 2016. Consequently, immediate global action to curb future warming is essential to secure a future for coral reefs.

  5. Perbandingan intensitas warna CPO dengan menggunakan Bleaching Earth (BE) dan Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE) di PT. SMART Tbk.

    OpenAIRE

    Aritonang, Dwi Christina

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies have been conducted on the effect of bleaching earth quality bleachibility power on CPO (crude palm oil). by using the tool Lovibond Tintometer model of F in PT Smart Tbk Medan – Belawan.From experiments obtained initial color with the CPO 20R - 20Y after addition Bleaching Earth and spent bleaching earth with the CPO each - each 10,2R - 20Y and 17.3R - 20Y . The results showed that purification using Bleaching Earth better than the purification of Spent Bleaching Earh ...

  6. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola J; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations. The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence(®) Boost and Mirawhite(®) Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 subgroups remineralized with: Mirasensitive(®) hap+, Mirawhite(®) Gelleѐ, GC Tooth Mousse™ and Mirafluor(®) C. The samples were analysed by SEM/3D-SEM-micrographs, SEM/EDX-qualitative analysis and SEM/EDX-semiquantitative analysis. The microphotographs show that both types of bleaching cause alterations: emphasized perikymata, erosions, loss of interprizmatic substance; the laser treatment is more aggressive and loss of integrity of the enamel is determined by shearing off the enamel rods. In all samples undergoing remineralization deposits were observed, those of toothpastes based on calcium phosphate technologies seem to merge with each other and cover almost the entire surface of the enamel. Loss of integrity and minerals were detected only in the line-scans of the sample remineralized with GC Tooth Mousse™. The semiquantitative EDX analysis of individual elements in the surface layer of the enamel indicates that during tooth-bleaching with HP statistically significant loss of Na and Mg occurs, whereas the bleaching in combination with a laser leads to statistically significant loss of Ca and P. The results undoubtedly confirm that teeth whitening procedures lead to enamel alterations. In this context, it must be noted that laser bleaching is more aggressive for dental substances. However, these changes are reversible and can be repaired by application of remineralization toothpastes. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. In-Office Bleaching During Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Mauricio Neves; Dutra, Hélio; Morais, Alexandre; Sgura, Ricardo; Devito-Moraes, André Guaraci

    2017-04-01

    To demonstrate that it is possible to pursue teeth whitening treatment protocols during orthodontic treatment with no esthetic loss. Many patients undergoing orthodontic treatment desire to have a straight and well aligned dentition, but also whiter teeth. For many years, it was believed that carrying out a whitening treatment with positioned orthodontic brackets in place would result in localized spots on the enamel labial surfaces of teeth. However, a deeper understanding of the bleaching process suggests that the oxidation caused by products, which results from hydrogen peroxide decomposition, are able to diffuse peripherally into the tooth structure and reach even that under the cemented brackets. Two in-office-bleaching treatments were performed in patients using orthodontic fixed braces in two or three 40-minute sessions using a 35% hydrogen peroxide. In-office bleaching is possible and effective, even with orthodontic brackets in position. The teeth were successfully bleached despite the presence of brackets. All biological criteria have been fulfilled satisfying patients' expectations of aligned and whitened teeth in less time than if treatments had been performed separately, with satisfactory results and no esthetic loss. The whitening of teeth is possible during orthodontic treatment with fixed braces without any esthetic loss. The in-office bleaching treatment with brackets in position also may act as a motivation factor, preventing patient withdrawal or treatment interruption. Therefore, at the end of the orthodontic treatment, the patient is able to display an aligned, functional and whitened smile. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:83-92, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Legal provisions governing gaseous effluents radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.

    1985-01-01

    This contribution explains the main provisions governing radiological monitoring of gaseous effluents from LWR type nuclear power plants. KTA rule 1503.1 defines the measuring methods and tasks to be fulfilled by reactor operators in order to safeguard due monitoring and accounting of radioactive substances in the plants' gaseous effluents. The routine measurements are checked by a supervisory programme by an independent expert. The routine controls include analysis of filter samples, comparative measurement of radioactive noble gases, interlaboratory comparisons, and comparative evaluation of measured values. (DG) [de

  9. Oxidant reduction and biodegradability improvement of paper mill effluent by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiezheng Wang; Waite, T.D.; Kurucz, C.

    1994-01-01

    Paper mill bleach processing wastewaters represent a large input of hazardous compounds to the environment and these compounds are usually non-biodegradable. A preliminary study using a 5000 Ci 60 Co gamma radiation source as a surrogate for electron beam irradiation, potentially an emerging technology for wastewater treatment, to treat a paper mill bleach effluent showed that for an absorbed dose of 800 krads, chemical oxygen demand (COD) was reduced by 13.5% and 5 day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) was increased 58.6%. These changes altered the value of COD/BOD 5 from 14 to 5. For the same dose, the absorbable organic halogen (AOX) was reduced 76.2%. These results suggested the possibility of using the electron beam process to detoxify paper mill effluent thereby generating a more biodegradable wastewater. (author)

  10. Changes in bleaching susceptibility among corals subject to ocean warming and recurrent bleaching in Moorea, French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, Morgan S; McCowan, Dominique; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Heron, Scott F

    2013-01-01

    Climate-induced coral bleaching poses a major threat to coral reef ecosystems, mostly because of the sensitivities of key habitat-forming corals to increasing temperature. However, susceptibility to bleaching varies greatly among coral genera and there are likely to be major changes in the relative abundance of different corals, even if the wholesale loss of corals does not occur for several decades. Here we document variation in bleaching susceptibility among key genera of reef-building corals in Moorea, French Polynesia, and compare bleaching incidence during mass-bleaching events documented in 1991, 1994, 2002 and 2007. This study compared the proportion of colonies that bleached for four major genera of reef-building corals (Acropora, Montipora, Pocillopora and Porites), during each of four well-documented bleaching events from 1991 to 2007. Acropora and Montipora consistently bleached in far greater proportions (up to 98%) than Pocillopora and Porites. However, there was an apparent and sustained decline in the proportion of colonies that bleached during successive bleaching events, especially for Acropora and Montipora. In 2007, only 77% of Acropora colonies bleached compared with 98% in 1991. Temporal variation in the proportion of coral colonies bleached may be attributable to differences in environmental conditions among years. Alternately, the sustained declines in bleaching incidence among highly susceptible corals may be indicative of acclimation or adaptation. Coral genera that are highly susceptible to coral bleaching, and especially Acropora and Montipora, exhibit temporal declines in their susceptibility to thermal anomalies at Moorea, French Polynesia. One possible explanation for these findings is that gradual removal of highly susceptible genotypes (through selective mortality of individuals, populations, and/or species) is producing a coral assemblage that is more resistant to sustained and ongoing ocean warming.

  11. Changes in Bleaching Susceptibility among Corals Subject to Ocean Warming and Recurrent Bleaching in Moorea, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, Morgan S.; McCowan, Dominique; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Heron, Scott F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Climate-induced coral bleaching poses a major threat to coral reef ecosystems, mostly because of the sensitivities of key habitat-forming corals to increasing temperature. However, susceptibility to bleaching varies greatly among coral genera and there are likely to be major changes in the relative abundance of different corals, even if the wholesale loss of corals does not occur for several decades. Here we document variation in bleaching susceptibility among key genera of reef-building corals in Moorea, French Polynesia, and compare bleaching incidence during mass-bleaching events documented in 1991, 1994, 2002 and 2007. Methodology/Principal Findings This study compared the proportion of colonies that bleached for four major genera of reef-building corals (Acropora, Montipora, Pocillopora and Porites), during each of four well-documented bleaching events from 1991 to 2007. Acropora and Montipora consistently bleached in far greater proportions (up to 98%) than Pocillopora and Porites. However, there was an apparent and sustained decline in the proportion of colonies that bleached during successive bleaching events, especially for Acropora and Montipora. In 2007, only 77% of Acropora colonies bleached compared with 98% in 1991. Temporal variation in the proportion of coral colonies bleached may be attributable to differences in environmental conditions among years. Alternately, the sustained declines in bleaching incidence among highly susceptible corals may be indicative of acclimation or adaptation. Conclusions/Significance Coral genera that are highly susceptible to coral bleaching, and especially Acropora and Montipora, exhibit temporal declines in their susceptibility to thermal anomalies at Moorea, French Polynesia. One possible explanation for these findings is that gradual removal of highly susceptible genotypes (through selective mortality of individuals, populations, and/or species) is producing a coral assemblage that is more resistant to

  12. Corrosion Study of Stainless Steels in Peracetic Acid Bleach Media With and Without Chloride and Chelant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohtash

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper industries are adopting non-chlorine containing chemicals e.g. peroxide, ozone, peracids etc. as alternate of chlorine based bleach chemicals e.g. chlorine and chlorine dioxide etc. with the aim of eco-friend atmospheres. Changeover to the new chemicals in the bleaching process is likely to affect the metallurgy of the existing bleach plants due to change in the corrosivity of the media. Accordingly, corrosion investigations were performed in a peracid namely peracetic acid to test the suitability of austenitic stainless steels 654SMO, 265SMO, 2205, 317L and 316L. The performance of above stainless steels was evaluated through long term immersion tests and Electrochemical polarization measurements in peracetic acid (PAA bleach media at pH value 4 maintaining concentration 0.2 % as active oxygen along with three chloride levels 0, 500 and 1000 ppm in pulp-free laboratory. To study the effect of corrosion inhibitors with extending limit of chloride in liquors, measurements were also made with two types of chelants- EDTA & MgSO4. The results showed that corrosivity of PAA reduced by addition of chelant while increased with concentration of Cl¯. The results also exhibited that EDTA is better inhibitor than MgSO4.

  13. Immune defenses of healthy, bleached and diseased Montastraea faveolata during a natural bleaching event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mydlarz, Laura D; Couch, Courtney S; Weil, Ernesto; Smith, Garriet; Harvell, C Drew

    2009-11-16

    One prominent hypothesis regarding climate change and scleractinian corals is that thermal stress compromises immune competence. To test this hypothesis we tracked how the immune defenses of bleached, apparently healthy and yellow band disease (YBD) diseased Montastraea faveolata colonies varied with natural thermal stress in southwestern Puerto Rico. Colonies were monitored for 21 mo from the peak of the bleaching event in October 2005 to August 2007. Since sea surface temperature was significantly higher in summer and fall 2005 than 2006, year of collection was used as a proxy for temperature stress, and colony fragments collected in 2005 were compared with those collected in 2006. Mortality rate was high (43% overall) and all colonies (except one) either died or became infected with YBD by August 2007. YBD-infected tissue did not bleach (i.e. expel zooxanthellae) during the 2005 bleaching event, even when healthy tissue of these colonies bleached. Immune activity was assayed by measuring prophenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), lysozyme-like (LYS) and antibacterial (AB) activity. Immune activity was variable between all coral samples, but there was a significant elevation of PPO activity in bleached colonies collected in 2005 relative to apparently healthy and YBD-diseased corals in 2006. In YBD-diseased colonies, LYS and AB activity were elevated in both healthy and infected tissue, indicating a systemic response; activity levels in these colonies were higher compared to those that appeared healthy. In both these immune parameters, there was a trend for suppression of activity in corals that were bleached in 2005. These data, while complicated by between-genet variability, illustrate the complex interaction between disease and temperature stress on immune function.

  14. Coral bleaching response index: a new tool to standardize and compare susceptibility to thermal bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Timothy D; Vega-Perkins, Jesse B; Oestreich, William K; Triebold, Conrad; DuBois, Emily; Henss, Jillian; Baird, Andrew; Siple, Margaret; Backman, Vadim; Marcelino, Luisa

    2016-07-01

    As coral bleaching events become more frequent and intense, our ability to predict and mitigate future events depends upon our capacity to interpret patterns within previous episodes. Responses to thermal stress vary among coral species; however the diversity of coral assemblages, environmental conditions, assessment protocols, and severity criteria applied in the global effort to document bleaching patterns creates challenges for the development of a systemic metric of taxon-specific response. Here, we describe and validate a novel framework to standardize bleaching response records and estimate their measurement uncertainties. Taxon-specific bleaching and mortality records (2036) of 374 coral taxa (during 1982-2006) at 316 sites were standardized to average percent tissue area affected and a taxon-specific bleaching response index (taxon-BRI) was calculated by averaging taxon-specific response over all sites where a taxon was present. Differential bleaching among corals was widely variable (mean taxon-BRI = 25.06 ± 18.44%, ±SE). Coral response may differ because holobionts are biologically different (intrinsic factors), they were exposed to different environmental conditions (extrinsic factors), or inconsistencies in reporting (measurement uncertainty). We found that both extrinsic and intrinsic factors have comparable influence within a given site and event (60% and 40% of bleaching response variance of all records explained, respectively). However, when responses of individual taxa are averaged across sites to obtain taxon-BRI, differential response was primarily driven by intrinsic differences among taxa (65% of taxon-BRI variance explained), not conditions across sites (6% explained), nor measurement uncertainty (29% explained). Thus, taxon-BRI is a robust metric of intrinsic susceptibility of coral taxa. Taxon-BRI provides a broadly applicable framework for standardization and error estimation for disparate historical records and collection of novel

  15. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments

  16. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sometimes effluents gain access into wells or streams within the community. Analyses aimed to determine the strength of effluents of three different industries in Jos metropolis: industry A (a food industry), industry B (a pharmaceutical outfit) and Industry C (a water treatment plant) using parameters such as physicochemical, ...

  17. Clinical and patient reported outcomes of bleaching effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaric Sever, Eva; Budimir, Zrinka; Cerovac, Matea; Stambuk, Mario; Par, Matej; Negovetic Vranic, Dubravka; Tarle, Zrinka

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate clinical and patient reported outcomes of different bleaching products. Thirty participants were randomly divided into three bleaching groups (n = 10). Bleaching was performed with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HP) - Boost (40%) and Dash (30%), and with prefabricated splints Bite&White (6% HP). Tooth colour was measured before, immediately after, and 1 and 6 months after the bleaching by using classical shade guide and spectrophotometer. Tooth hypersensitivity was self-rated by patients on the Wong-Baker's face scale. Patient satisfaction was evaluated on a 7-point Likert-type scales that measured perceived performance and importance of different characteristics of bleaching treatment. All products were effective in teeth colour change (ΔE > 3.3), which was significantly higher for Boost (p = .016) and Dash (p = .024) than Bite&White treatment. Perception of hypersensitivity was the highest in Boost group, followed by Dash and Bite&White treatment. Most of the patients were satisfied with final tooth colour, length and comfort during treatment, but were dissatisfied with the stability of bleached tooth colour. Materials with the higher concentrations of bleaching agent demonstrated greater bleaching effectiveness than at-home bleaching product, but also a greater hypersensitivity. Lengthening the treatment process, but achieving a more stable tooth colour may improve the perceived value of a bleaching service.

  18. Spatial consequences of bleaching adaptation in cat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, A B; Enroth-Cugell, C

    1981-01-01

    1. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of localized bleaching on the centre responses of rod-driven cat retinal ganglion cells. 2. Stimulation as far as 2 degrees from the bleaching site yielded responses which were reduced nearly as much as those generated at the bleaching site. Bleaching in the receptive field middle reduced responsiveness at a site 1 degrees peripheral more than bleaching at that peripheral site itself. 3. The effectiveness of a bleach in reducing centre responsiveness is related to the sensitivity of the region in which the bleach is applied. 4. Response reduction after a 0.2 degree bleach followed the same temporal pattern for concentric test spots of from 0.2 to 1.8 degrees in diameter, implying a substantially uniform spread of adaptation within these bounds. 5. A linear trade-off between fraction of rhodopsin and area bleached over a range of 8:1 yields the same pattern of response reduction, implying that the non-linear nature of bleaching adaptation is a property of the adaptation pool rather than independent photoreceptors. PMID:7320894

  19. Incorporating adaptive responses into future projections of coral bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cheryl A; Dunne, John P; Eakin, C Mark; Donner, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming threatens to increase mass coral bleaching events, and several studies have projected the demise of tropical coral reefs this century. However, recent evidence indicates corals may be able to respond to thermal stress though adaptive processes (e.g., genetic adaptation, acclimatization, and symbiont shuffling). How these mechanisms might influence warming-induced bleaching remains largely unknown. This study compared how different adaptive processes could affect coral bleaching projections. We used the latest bias-corrected global sea surface temperature (SST) output from the NOAA/GFDL Earth System Model 2 (ESM2M) for the preindustrial period through 2100 to project coral bleaching trajectories. Initial results showed that, in the absence of adaptive processes, application of a preindustrial climatology to the NOAA Coral Reef Watch bleaching prediction method overpredicts the present-day bleaching frequency. This suggests that corals may have already responded adaptively to some warming over the industrial period. We then modified the prediction method so that the bleaching threshold either permanently increased in response to thermal history (e.g., simulating directional genetic selection) or temporarily increased for 2-10 years in response to a bleaching event (e.g., simulating symbiont shuffling). A bleaching threshold that changes relative to the preceding 60 years of thermal history reduced the frequency of mass bleaching events by 20-80% compared with the 'no adaptive response' prediction model by 2100, depending on the emissions scenario. When both types of adaptive responses were applied, up to 14% more reef cells avoided high-frequency bleaching by 2100. However, temporary increases in bleaching thresholds alone only delayed the occurrence of high-frequency bleaching by ca. 10 years in all but the lowest emissions scenario. Future research should test the rate and limit of different adaptive responses for coral species across latitudes and

  20. 40 CFR 426.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Incandescent Lamp... technology economically achievable: (a) [Reserved] (b) Any manufacturing plant which frosts incandescent lamp... characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for 30 consecutive days shall...

  1. Occurrence and geodatabase mapping of three contaminants of emerging concern in receiving water and at effluent from waste water treatment plants - A first overview of the situation in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahar, Alexandre; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Rowan, Neil J

    2018-03-01

    This constitutes the first study to address occurrence and geodatabase mapping of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DCL) and the natural (17-beta-estradiol or E2) and synthetic (17-alpha-ethynylestradiol or EE2) estrogenic hormones in Republic of Ireland receiving waters over the period 1999 to 2015. Among these data, 317 samples came from concentration studies, while 205 were from effect-based studies. Monitoring data came from 16 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), 23 water bodies (including rivers, lakes, marine and transitional waters) and 7 from domestic locations. Out of approximately 1000 WWPTs in the Republic of Ireland, only 16 have been monitored for at least one of these compounds of emerging concern (CECs). Diclofenac is found in treated effluents from 5 WWTPs at levels at least as high as other European WWPTs, and sometime higher. Measurements of E2 and EE2 in WWPT effluents were rare and effluents were more often evaluated for total estrogens; these CECs were generally not detected using conventional analytical methods because of limits of detection being too high compared to environmental concentrations and WFD environmental quality standards. There was good agreement between occurrence of these CEC and regional drug dispensing data in Ireland. Mapping the aforementioned data onto appropriate river basin catchment management tools will inform predictive and simulated risk determinations to inform investment in infrastructure that is necessary to protect rivers and beaches and economic activities that rely on clean water. There is a pressing commensurate need to refine/develop new analytical methods with low levels of detection for future CEC intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Complications of cosmetic skin bleaching in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, J J; Ly, F; Lightburn, E; Mahé, A

    2007-12-01

    Use of cosmetic products to bleach or lighten the skin is common among dark-skinned women in some sub-Saharan African countries. Long-term use of some pharmacologic compounds (e.g. hydroquinone, glucocorticoids and mercury) can cause adverse effects including dermatologic disorders such as dyschromia, exogenous ochronosis, acne and hypertrichosis, prominent striae, tinea corporis, pyoderma, erysipelas, scabies, and contact dermatitis and systemic complications such as hypertension, hypercorticism or surrenal deficiency, and mercurial nephropathy.

  3. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J.; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations.\\ud \\ud The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence® Boost and Mirawhite® Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 ...

  4. Sodium Hydroxide and Calcium Hydroxide Hybrid Oxygen Bleaching with System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelle, K.; Bajrami, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the replacement of sodium hydroxide in the oxygen bleaching stage using a hybrid system consisting of sodium hydroxide calcium hydroxide. Commercial Kraft pulping was studied using yellow pine Kraft pulp obtained from a company in the US. The impact of sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide hybrid system in regard to concentration, reaction time and temperature for Kraft pulp was evaluated. The sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide dosage was varied between 0% and 15% based on oven dry fiber content. The bleaching reaction time was varied between 0 and 180 minutes whereas the bleaching temperature ranged between 70 °C and 110 °C. The ability to bleach pulp was measured by determining the Kappa number. Optimum bleaching results for the hybrid system were achieved with 4% sodium hydroxide and 2% calcium hydroxide content. Beyond this, the ability to bleach pulp decreased.

  5. Thermoluminescence emission spectra and optical bleaching of oligoclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, A.J.J.; Piters, T.M.; Ypma, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) spectra of oligoclase samples have been recorded in the temperature range from 300 to 700 K and the wavelength range from 300 to 850 nm. Like other feldspars, oligoclase produces blue (peaking at 460 nm) and red (peaking at 765 nm) emission bands. The maximum of the red emission occurs 20 K lower than that of the blue band. Optical bleaching was performed at wavelengths varying from 360 to 800 nm. Bleaching of artificially irradiated oligoclase causes a decrease of the TL signal. The bleaching efficiency increases with decreasing wavelength. Bleaching does not only influence the height of the glow curve but also the shape. An interesting observation is that the ratio of the blue and red band intensities is not affected by a bleaching procedure. No evidence has been found that bleaching influences the shape of the emission spectra. The correlation between the blue and red bands is discussed. (Author)

  6. Effluent management and pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananda Narayanan, R.; Vedamoorthy, S.

    2006-01-01

    Generation of waste/effluent has a direct impact on environment, the higher the generation of waste higher the environmental impact. Though complete prevention of radioactive waste generation is a difficult task, keeping the waste generation to the minimum practicable is essential objective of Radioactive Waste Management. In doing so, it is essential to minimize waste generation at all the stages of a Nuclear Plant Cycle. Waste minimization refers to both a) Waste generation by operational and maintenance activities of plant and b) Secondary waste resulting from predisposal management of Radioactive Waste. The management of the effluent can be done in efficient manner by better designs, improved procedure, periodic reviews and above all inculcate the awareness amongst the waste generators since minimisation of waste, at source is the most efficient way to safe guard the environment. Commissioning and rich operating experience of waste management plant gather novel ideas which result in beneficial improvements in the system and operating procedure. Some of the steps initiated by designers and site agencies towards this are worth mentioning. (author)

  7. A global protocol for monitoring of coral bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, J.; Setiasih, N.; Marshall, P.; Hansen, L.

    2004-01-01

    Coral bleaching and subsequent mortality represent a major threat to the future health and productivity of coral reefs. However a lack of reliable data on occurrence, severity and other characteristics of bleaching events hampers research on the causes and consequences of this important phenomenon. This article describes a global protocol for monitoring coral bleaching events, which addresses this problem and can be used by people with different levels of expertise and resources.

  8. Mass Coral Bleaching in 2010 in the Southern Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Alemu I, Jahson Berhane; Clement, Ysharda

    2014-01-01

    Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision mak...

  9. Coral mass bleaching and reef temperatures at Navassa Island, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. W.; Piniak, G. A.; Williams, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bleaching and associated mortality is an extreme threat to the persistence of coral populations in the projected warming regime of the next few decades. Recent evidence indicates that thermal bleaching thresholds may be affected by water quality gradients. The unexpected encounter of a coral mass bleaching event at a remote, uninhabited Caribbean island (Navassa) during a routine reef assessment cruise in November 2006 provided the opportunity to characterize bleaching responses and thermal exposure in an oceanic area with negligible continental influence or human impact on water quality. The coral taxa most susceptible to bleaching were Agaricia spp. and Montastraea faveolata. Siderastraea siderea, Diploria spp. and Porites porites were intermediately affected, while Porites astreoides and Montastraea cavernosa were minimally affected and negligible bleaching was observed in Acropora palmata. Bleaching prevalence (colonies > 4 cm diameter) ranged from 0.16 to 0.63 among sites. Deeper sites (between 18 and 37 m) had significantly higher prevalence of bleaching than shallow sites (<10 m). This general pattern of more bleaching in deeper sites also occurred within species. Though exposure to high-temperature stress was not greater at deeper sites, water motion, which may bolster bleaching resistance, was likely less. In situ loggers indicated temperatures over 30 °C initiated at shallow sites in mid-August, at deeper sites in early September, and were persistent at all sites until mid-October. Long term (1983-2007) climatologies constructed from AVHRR SSTs suggest that the mass bleaching event observed at Navassa in 2006 corresponded with greater intensity and duration of warm temperature anomalies than occurred in 2005, for which no in situ observations (bleaching nor temperature) are available.

  10. Epidemiological studies on salmonella in a certain area ("Walcheren project") III. The presence of salmonella in man, insects, seagulls and in foods, chopping-block scrapings from butcher's shops, effluent of sewage treatment plants and drains of butcher's shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, W; van Schothorst, M; van Leusden, F M; Kampelmacher, E H

    1978-12-01

    For a period of three months in a relatively small area (Walcheren), various materials (meat and meat products, insects, seagull droppings, chopping-block scrapings from butcher's shops, effluent of sewage treatment plants, drains from butcher's shops and stools of patients) were examined again for the presence of Salmonella as a continuation of previous investigations. As had been the case in previous studies, S. typhimurium (27.5%), S. panama (22.2%) and S. brandenburg (9.2%) were the three most frequently isolated serotypes. The three most frequently isolated phage types of S. typhimurium were II 505 (62.1%) II 502 (5.3%) and I 650 (4.2%). The serotypes and phage types were present in almost all the materials examined which again emphasizes the fact that there are contamination cycles of Salmonella. These studies show that the route of contamination divides in the butcher's shops. Salmonella organisms carried with the meat from the slaughter-house find their way into the drains on the one hand, and through meat and meat products, to the consumer on the other. Moreover, the high degree of contamination of effluent is not in accordance with the small number of cases of salmonellosis in man.

  11. Fishes of Saco do Piraquara de Fora, in a discharge area of liquid effluents from Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant (CNAAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ademar Ferrari Vaz de; Santoro, Maria Dulce Novaes

    1996-01-01

    Because the thermal effluents, released from the Unit I condenser system, it was implanted, at discharge area (Saco Piraquara de Fora), a Marine Fauna and Flora Monitoring Program, been necton area part of this, to verify possible impact over fish population, quantitative and qualitative studies were performed. Trichiurus lipeturus and Diapterus rhombeus were chosen as indicators because the high frequencies and abundances. Besides this, Furnas implanted a Radiological Monitoring Program, where samples of fish were collected and analysed by gamma spectrometry, showing the presence of Cs-137 since the pre-operational period, caused by fall out process at the region, from nuclear weapons test at atmosphere. (author)

  12. The determination of Pu-241 by liquid scintillation counting in gaseous effluents of an incineration facility, FERAB, and the Karlsruhe Nuclear Reprocessing Plant, WAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1983-03-01

    Although the concentration of Pu-241 in nuclear fuel to be reprocessed is high, there are only few results published about the emission of Pu-241 with gaseous and liquid effluents. Nearly no information is available, too, about the environmental contamination of nuclear installations by Pu-241. Therefore a procedure was developed to measure Pu-241 by liquid scintillation counting. Sample preparation was performed by electroplating of plutonium on stainless steel planchets. To correct the selfabsorption the linear dependence of counting efficiency in the liquid scintillation counter and the resolution in the α-spectrometer was used. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Methodological study for management of the generated effluents during MTR-type fuel elements fabrication at IPEN/CNEN-SP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzillo Santos, Glaucia Regina

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the industrial activities success, front to a more and more informed and demanding society and to a more and more competitive market demands an environmental administration policy which doesn't limit itself to assist the legislation but anticipate and prevent, in a responsible way, possible damages to the environment. One of the main programs of the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy located in Brazil, through the Center of Nuclear Fuel -CCN- is to manufacture MTR-type fuel elements using low-enrichment uranium (20 wt % 235 U), to supply its IEA-R1 research reactor. Integrated in this program, this work aims at well developing and assuring a methodology to implant an environment, health and safety policy, foreseeing its management with the use of detailed data reports and through the adoption of new tools for improving the management, in order to fulfil the applicable legislation and accomplish all the environmental, operational and works aspects. The applied methodology for the effluents management comprises different aspects, including the specific environmental legislation of a country, main available effluents treatment techniques, process flow analyses from raw materials and intakes to products, generated effluents, residuals and emissions. Data collections were accomplished for points gathering and tests characterization, classification and compatibility of the generated effluents and their eventual environmental impacts. This study aims to implant the sustainability concept in order to guarantee access to financial resources, allowing cost reduction, maximizing long-term profits, preventing and reducing environmental accident risks and stimulating both the attraction and the keeping of a motivated manpower. Work on this project has already started and, even though many technical actions have not still ended, the results have being extremely valuable. These results can already give to

  14. modelling effluent assimila modelling effluent assimilat modelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    G EFFLUENT ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY OF IKPOBA RIVE. BENIN CITY, NIGERIA ... l purposes to communities rse such as ... treat in order for it to meet the aforeme of the communities. It is therefore i ..... Substituting and integrating yields the following equations ..... Purification Potentials of Small Tropical Urban. Stream: A ...

  15. Therapeutic effectiveness of a new enzymatic bleaching dentifrice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner, Leopaldo; Amengual, José; Liena, Carmen; Riutord, Pere

    2012-01-01

    Research into bleaching focuses on new products in order to minimize undesirable effects. This study evaluated the bleaching effectiveness of a new enzymatic-activated dentifrice. A total of 20 volunteers were bleached with a dentifrice containing 5% lactoperoxidase and 3% carbamide peroxide applied three times a day for two minutes over 21 days. Color was recorded before and after the treatment using a spectrophotometer. CIELAB differences were calculated before and after treatment using the paired t test (P whitening teeth. Enzymatic dental bleaching is able to increase the efficiency of low concentration peroxides, reducing the potential risk of peroxides on oral tissues.

  16. Mass coral bleaching in 2010 in the southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu I, Jahson Berhane; Clement, Ysharda

    2014-01-01

    Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision making process to cope with mass bleaching events. The bleaching signal (length of exposure to high ocean temperatures) varied widely between the Atlantic and Caribbean reefs, but regardless of this variation most taxa bleached. Colpophyllia natans, Montastraea faveolata and Siderastrea siderea were considered the most bleaching vulnerable taxa. Interestingly, reefs with the highest coral cover showed the greatest decline reef building taxa, and conversely, reefs with the lowest coral cover showed the most bleaching but lowest change in coral cover with little algal overgrowth post-bleaching.

  17. Coral bleaching at Little Cayman, Cayman Islands 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooidonk, Ruben J.; Manzello, Derek P.; Moye, Jessica; Brandt, Marilyn E.; Hendee, James C.; McCoy, Croy; Manfrino, Carrie

    2012-06-01

    The global rise in sea temperature through anthropogenic climate change is affecting coral reef ecosystems through a phenomenon known as coral bleaching; that is, the whitening of corals due to the loss of the symbiotic zooxanthellae which impart corals with their characteristic vivid coloration. We describe aspects of the most prevalent episode of coral bleaching ever recorded at Little Cayman, Cayman Islands, during the fall of 2009. The most susceptible corals were found to be, in order, Siderastrea siderea, Montastraea annularis, and Montastraea faveolata, while Diplora strigosa and Agaricia spp. were less so, yet still showed considerable bleaching prevalence and severity. Those found to be least susceptible were Porites porites, Porites astreoides, and Montastraea cavernosa. These observations and other reported observations of coral bleaching, together with 29 years (1982-2010) of satellite-derived sea surface temperatures, were used to optimize bleaching predictions at this location. To do this a Degree Heating Weeks (DHW) and Peirce Skill Score (PSS) analysis was employed to calculate a local bleaching threshold above which bleaching was expected to occur. A threshold of 4.2 DHW had the highest skill, with a PSS of 0.70. The method outlined here could be applied to other regions to find the optimal bleaching threshold and improve bleaching predictions.

  18. Regeneration of irradiated optical fibres by photo-bleaching?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, H.; Koehn, O.

    1999-01-01

    It is known that a light power between 0,1 and 20 μW caused bleaching of colour centres, which implies a reduction of induced loss. Older fibres especially those with a core made of undoped, low OH silica, experience tremendous photo-bleaching. Light of shorter wavelengths has a higher bleaching efficiency than that of longer wavelengths and same light intensity. The investigations have demonstrated that the injection of photo-bleaching light of shorter wavelength and higher intensity can distinctly decrease the radiation-induced loss of Ge-doped fibres, especially at low temperatures. Another possibility to apply photo-bleaching by short wavelength is to regenerate fibres that are permanently installed in radiation environments. Modern undoped multi-mode (MM) step index (Si), Ge-doped MM graded index (Gi) and Ge-doped single-mode (SM) fibres that had been irradiated were submitted to bleaching light. In this article it is shown how loss reduction and necessary bleaching time depend on wavelength and intensity of the bleaching light, on fibre length (bleaching time) and on radiation dose. These results are promising for the regeneration of optical fibres in facilities where the fibres cannot be replaced easily by new ones. (A.C.)

  19. Coral community response to bleaching on a highly disturbed reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, J R; Low, J; Tun, K; Wilson, B; Ng, C; Raingeard, D; Ulstrup, K E; Tanzil, J T I; Todd, P A; Toh, T C; McDougald, D; Chou, L M; Steinberg, P D

    2016-02-15

    While many studies of coral bleaching report on broad, regional scale responses, fewer examine variation in susceptibility among coral taxa and changes in community structure, before, during and after bleaching on individual reefs. Here we report in detail on the response to bleaching by a coral community on a highly disturbed reef site south of mainland Singapore before, during and after a major thermal anomaly in 2010. To estimate the capacity for resistance to thermal stress, we report on: a) overall bleaching severity during and after the event, b) differences in bleaching susceptibility among taxa during the event, and c) changes in coral community structure one year before and after bleaching. Approximately two thirds of colonies bleached, however, post-bleaching recovery was quite rapid and, importantly, coral taxa that are usually highly susceptible were relatively unaffected. Although total coral cover declined, there was no significant change in coral taxonomic community structure before and after bleaching. Several factors may have contributed to the overall high resistance of corals at this site including Symbiodinium affiliation, turbidity and heterotrophy. Our results suggest that, despite experiencing chronic anthropogenic disturbances, turbid shallow reef communities may be remarkably resilient to acute thermal stress.

  20. Mass Coral Bleaching in 2010 in the Southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu I, Jahson Berhane; Clement, Ysharda

    2014-01-01

    Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision making process to cope with mass bleaching events. The bleaching signal (length of exposure to high ocean temperatures) varied widely between the Atlantic and Caribbean reefs, but regardless of this variation most taxa bleached. Colpophyllia natans, Montastraea faveolata and Siderastrea siderea were considered the most bleaching vulnerable taxa. Interestingly, reefs with the highest coral cover showed the greatest decline reef building taxa, and conversely, reefs with the lowest coral cover showed the most bleaching but lowest change in coral cover with little algal overgrowth post-bleaching. PMID:24400078

  1. Arundo donax L. reed: new perspectives for pulping and bleaching. Part 4. Peroxide bleaching of organosolv pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatalov, A A; Pereira, H

    2005-05-01

    A comparative study on TCF (totally chlorine-free) bleachability of organosolv pulps from the annual fibre crop Arundo donax L. (giant reed) was carried out using a simple three-stage peroxide bleaching sequence without oxygen pre-bleaching. ASAM (alkali-sulfite-anthraquinone-methanol), Organocell (alkali-anthraquinone-methanol) and ethanol-soda organosolv pulps were bleached and compared with kraft pulp, as a reference. The final brightness of 76-78% ISO was attained for all tested pulps. The chemical charge required to reach this level of brightness varied for different pulps (despite the equal initial content of the residual lignin) and directly related to starting brightness values. No direct correlation between brightness improvement and lignin removal during bleaching was found, indicating the influence of the specific pulp properties introduced by pulping process on bleaching chemistry. The general higher bleaching response of organosolv pulps from A. donax was noted in comparison with kraft.

  2. Efficiency Evaluation of Filtration with Fluidized Bed for Treatment of Secondary Effluents for Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hosaini; Rohallah Moradi; Gholam Hossain Safari

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Recently, deficient in atmospheric drop and discharges of wastewater effluents leads to serious threat for water resource. For that reason, for prevention of water source pollution and also reuse of wastewater effluents, treatment of such effluents seems to be necessary. Methods: In this work, fluidized bed reactor with a filter was used for treatment of effluents from Shahrak Gharb wastewater treatment plant. Various parameters such as BOD5, COD, TS, TP, TN and t...

  3. Bioremediation of textile effluent polluted soil using kenaf (Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR BADA

    Bioremediation of textile effluent polluted soil using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus Linn.) and composted ... Lead, Cadmium, Chromium and Zinc levels in plants and soil were determined using Atomic ..... Contaminated land in the EC: Report of ...

  4. Diffusion characteristics of the Kakinada Bay for effluent assessment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Asthana, V.

    The present study reports the determination of diffusion characteristics of the Kakinada Bay to choose a suitable marine outfall location for industrial discharge of effluents from a proposed fertilizer plant. The study consisted of dye diffusion...

  5. Removal of pharmaceuticals in WWTP effluents by ozone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-12

    Feb 12, 2013 ... discharge of effluents by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that are not ... The efficiency of ozone in removing pharmaceuticals and personal care ...... assessment and modeling of an ozonation step for full-scale munic-.

  6. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  7. A novel paleo-bleaching proxy using boron isotopes and high-resolution laser ablation to reconstruct coral bleaching events

    OpenAIRE

    Dishon, G.; Fisch, J.; Horn, Ingo; Kaczmarek, Karina; Bijma, Jelle; Gruber, D.F.; Nir, O.; Popovich, Y.; Tchernov, D.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs occupy only ~ 0.1 percent of the ocean's habitat, but are the most biologically diverse marine ecosystem. In recent decades, coral reefs have experienced a significant global decline due to a variety of causes, one of the major causes being widespread coral bleaching events. During bleaching, the coral expels its symbiotic algae, thereby losing its main source of nutrition generally obtained through photosynthesis. While recent coral bleaching events have been ex...

  8. PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF TETRA ACETYL ETHYLENE DIAMINE ACTIVATED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF POPULUS NIGRA CTMP

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Zhao; Junwen Pu; Shulei Mao; Guibo Qi

    2010-01-01

    To enhance the bleaching efficiency, the activator of tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED) was used in conventional H2O2 bleaching. The H2O2/TAED bleaching system can accelerate the reaction rate and shorten bleaching time at relative low temperature, which can reduce the production cost. In this research, the process with hydrogen peroxide activated by TAED bleaching of Populus nigra chemi-thermo mechanical pulp was optimized. Suitable bleaching conditions were confirmed as follows: pulp con...

  9. Effective remediation of phenol,2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in farm effluent using Guar gum--A plant based biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Yang Ling; Mukherjee, Sumona; Pariatamby, Agamuthu

    2015-10-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of Guar gum in removing Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), viz. phenol,2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), from farm effluent. The removal efficiency was compared with alum. The results indicated that 4.0 mg L(-1) of Guar gum at pH 7 could remove 99.70% and 99.99% of phenol,2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) and DEHP, respectively. Box Behnken design was used for optimization of the operating parameters for optimal POPs removal. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy studies were conducted on the flocs. SEM micrographs showed numerous void spaces in the flocs produced by Guar gum as opposed to those produced by alum. This indicated why Guar gum was more effective in capturing and removal of suspended particles and POPs as compared to alum. FTIR spectra indicated a shift in the bonding of functional groups in the flocs produced by Guar gum as compared to raw Guar gum powder signifying chemical attachment of the organics present in the effluent to the coagulant resulting in their removal. Guar gum is highly recommended as a substitute to chemical coagulant in treating POPs due to its non-toxic and biodegradable characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 222-S Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.V.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems against applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. The current operation of the 222-S facilities includes the provision of analytical and radiological chemistry services in support of Hanford Site processing plants. The emphasis is on waste management, chemical processing, environmental monitoring effluent programs at B Plant, the Uranium Oxide Plant, Tank Farms, the 242-A Evaporator, the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility, the Plutonium Finishing Plant, process development/impact activities, and essential materials. The laboratory also supplies analytical services in support of ongoing waste tank characterization

  11. Atmospherical experiment in Angra I plant for characterizing the effluent transport threw in the atmospheric; Experimento atmosferico no local da Usina Angra I para caracterizar o transporte de efluentes lancados na atmosfera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Lobo, M.A. da [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kronemberger, B M.E.

    1990-12-31

    Available as short communication only. The Environmental Safety Division of the Nuclear Safety and Fuel Department from FURNAS Electric Station S.A. joint with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), achieved a field experiment for characterizing the atmospheric transport and diffusion in the site complex of Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. The complex topography with the thick vegetation and the neighbour building bring problems for the modelling of the effluent transport and the dispersion. The actual meteorological measure system is automatic and compound with four towers. An intensive atmospheric measure with captive balloon is included, and the collected data shows that the site flux is strongly influenced by the topography and insolation. (C.G.C.). 2 figs.

  12. A new, high-resolution global mass coral bleaching database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Donner

    Full Text Available Episodes of mass coral bleaching have been reported in recent decades and have raised concerns about the future of coral reefs on a warming planet. Despite the efforts to enhance and coordinate coral reef monitoring within and across countries, our knowledge of the geographic extent of mass coral bleaching over the past few decades is incomplete. Existing databases, like ReefBase, are limited by the voluntary nature of contributions, geographical biases in data collection, and the variations in the spatial scale of bleaching reports. In this study, we have developed the first-ever gridded, global-scale historical coral bleaching database. First, we conducted a targeted search for bleaching reports not included in ReefBase by personally contacting scientists and divers conducting monitoring in under-reported locations and by extracting data from the literature. This search increased the number of observed bleaching reports by 79%, from 4146 to 7429. Second, we employed spatial interpolation techniques to develop annual 0.04° × 0.04° latitude-longitude global maps of the probability that bleaching occurred for 1985 through 2010. Initial results indicate that the area of coral reefs with a more likely than not (>50% or likely (>66% probability of bleaching was eight times higher in the second half of the assessed time period, after the 1997/1998 El Niño. The results also indicate that annual maximum Degree Heating Weeks, a measure of thermal stress, for coral reefs with a high probability of bleaching increased over time. The database will help the scientific community more accurately assess the change in the frequency of mass coral bleaching events, validate methods of predicting mass coral bleaching, and test whether coral reefs are adjusting to rising ocean temperatures.

  13. A new, high-resolution global mass coral bleaching database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Simon D; Rickbeil, Gregory J M; Heron, Scott F

    2017-01-01

    Episodes of mass coral bleaching have been reported in recent decades and have raised concerns about the future of coral reefs on a warming planet. Despite the efforts to enhance and coordinate coral reef monitoring within and across countries, our knowledge of the geographic extent of mass coral bleaching over the past few decades is incomplete. Existing databases, like ReefBase, are limited by the voluntary nature of contributions, geographical biases in data collection, and the variations in the spatial scale of bleaching reports. In this study, we have developed the first-ever gridded, global-scale historical coral bleaching database. First, we conducted a targeted search for bleaching reports not included in ReefBase by personally contacting scientists and divers conducting monitoring in under-reported locations and by extracting data from the literature. This search increased the number of observed bleaching reports by 79%, from 4146 to 7429. Second, we employed spatial interpolation techniques to develop annual 0.04° × 0.04° latitude-longitude global maps of the probability that bleaching occurred for 1985 through 2010. Initial results indicate that the area of coral reefs with a more likely than not (>50%) or likely (>66%) probability of bleaching was eight times higher in the second half of the assessed time period, after the 1997/1998 El Niño. The results also indicate that annual maximum Degree Heating Weeks, a measure of thermal stress, for coral reefs with a high probability of bleaching increased over time. The database will help the scientific community more accurately assess the change in the frequency of mass coral bleaching events, validate methods of predicting mass coral bleaching, and test whether coral reefs are adjusting to rising ocean temperatures.

  14. Recovery of cat retinal ganglion cell sensitivity following pigment bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, A B; Enroth-Cugell, C

    1979-01-01

    1. The threshold illuminance for small spot stimulation of on-centre cat retinal ganglion cells was plotted vs. time after exposure to adapting light sufficiently strong to bleach significant amounts of rhodopsin. 2. When the entire receptive field of an X- or Y-type ganglion cell is bleached by at most 40%, recovery of the cell's rod-system proceeds in two phases: an early relatively fast one during which the response appears transient, and a late, slower one during which responses become more sustained. Log threshold during the later phase is well fit by an exponential in time (tau = 11.5-38 min). 3. After bleaches of 90% of the underlying pigment, threshold is cone-determined for as long as 40 min. Rod threshold continues to decrease for at least 85 min after the bleach. 4. The rate of recovery is slower after strong than after weak bleaches; 10 and 90% bleaches yield time constants for the later phase of 11.5 and 38 min, respectively. This contrasts with an approximate time constant of 11 min for rhodopsin regeneration following any bleach. 5. The relationship between the initial elevation of log rod threshold extrapolated from the fitted exponential curves and the initial amount of pigment bleached is monotonic, but nonlinear. 6. After a bleaching exposure, the maintained discharge is initially very regular. The firing rate first rises, then falls to the pre-bleach level, with more extended time courses of change in firing rate after stronger exposures. The discharge rate is restored before threshold has recovered fully. 7. The change in the response vs. log stimulus relationship after bleaching is described as a shift of the curve to the right, paired with a decrease in slope of the linear segment of the curve. PMID:521963

  15. Assessment of physicochemical parameters and prevalence of virulent and multiple-antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in treated effluent of two wastewater treatment plants and receiving aquatic milieu in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Leanne; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2016-05-01

    The poor operational status of some wastewater treatment plants often result in the discharge of inadequately treated effluent into receiving surface waters. This is of significant public health concern as there are many informal settlement dwellers (ISDs) that rely on these surface waters for their domestic use. This study investigated the treatment efficiency of two independent wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Durban, South Africa and determined the impact of treated effluent discharge on the physicochemical and microbial quality of the receiving water bodies over a 6-month period. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were identified using biochemical tests and detection of the mdh gene via PCR. Six major virulence genes namely eae, hly, fliC, stx1, stx2, and rfbE were also detected via PCR while antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. The physicochemical parameters of the wastewater samples ranged variously between 9 and 313.33 mg/L, 1.52 and 76.43 NTUs, and 6.30 and 7.87 for COD, turbidity, and pH respectively, while the E. coli counts ranged between 0 and 31.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml. Of the 200 selected E. coli isolates, the hly gene was found in 28 %, fliC in 20 %, stx2 in 17 %, eae in 14 %, with stx1 and rfbE in only 4 % of the isolates. Notable resistance was observed toward trimethoprim (97 %), tetracycline (56 %), and ampicillin (52.5 %). These results further highlight the poor operational status of these WWTPs and outline the need for improved water quality monitoring and enforcement of stringent guidelines.

  16. Potential for reuse of effluent from fish-processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Morena Rodrigues Vitor Dias Ferraciolli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common problems in the fish processing industry relate to high water consumption and the generation of effluents with concentrated organic loads. Given that reuse can represent an alternative for sustainable development, this study sought to assess the potential for recycling effluents produced in a fish-processing plant. In order to do so, the final industrial effluent was analyzed using the American Public Health Association (APHA standard effluent-analysis method (2005. In addition, the study assessed treatments which produce effluents meeting the requirements prescribed by different countries' regulations for reuse and recycling. The results found that effluents with smaller organic loads, such as those from health barriers and monoblock washing, can be treated in order to remove nutrients and solids so that they can be subsequently reused. For effluents produced by the washing and gutting cylinders, it is recommended that large fragments of solid waste be removed beforehand. Effluents can in this way attain a quality compatible with industrial reuse. This study further highlights the possibility of treating effluents so as comply with drinking water standards. This would potentially allow them to be used within the actual fish-processing procedure; in such a case, a revision of standards and measures for controlling use should be considered to prevent microbiological damage to products and risks to handlers and final consumers.

  17. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  18. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  19. CONCAWE effluent speciation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonards, P.; Comber, M.; Forbes, S.; Whale, G.; Den Haan, K.

    2010-09-15

    In preparation for the implementation of the EU REACH regulation, a project was undertaken to transfer the high-resolution analytical method for determining hydrocarbon blocks in petroleum products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) to a laboratory external to the petroleum industry (Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) of the VU University of Amsterdam). The method was validated and used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from refinery effluents. The report describes the technology transfer and the approaches used to demonstrate the successful transfer and application of the GCxGC methodology from analysing petroleum products to the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon blocks in refinery effluents. The report describes all the methods used for all the determinations on the effluent samples along with an overview of the results obtained which are presented in summary tables and graphs. These data have significantly improved CONCAWE's knowledge of what refineries emit in their effluents. A total of 111 Effluent Discharge Samples from 105 CONCAWE refineries in Europe were obtained in the period June 2008 to March 2009. These effluents were analysed for metals, standard effluent parameters (including COD, BOD), oil in water, BTEX and volatile organic compounds. The hydrocarbon speciation determinations and other hydrocarbon analyses are also reported. The individual refinery analytical results are included into this report, coded as per the CONCAWE system. These data will be, individually, communicated to companies and refineries. The report demonstrates that it is feasible to conduct a research programme to investigate the fate and effects of hydrocarbon blocks present in discharged refinery effluents.

  20. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  1. Removal of Emerging Contaminants and Estrogenic Activity from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent with UV/Chlorine and UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Treatment at Pilot Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Rott

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP was treated on-site with the UV/chlorine (UV/HOCl advanced oxidation process (AOP using a pilot plant equipped with a medium pressure UV lamp with an adjustable performance of up to 1 kW. Results obtained from parallel experiments with the same pilot plant, where the state of the art UV/H2O2 AOP was applied, were compared regarding the removal of emerging contaminants (EC and the formation of adsorbable organohalogens (AOX. Furthermore, the total estrogenic activity was measured in samples treated with the UV/chlorine AOP. At an energy consumption of 0.4 kWh/m3 (0.4 kW, 1 m3/h and in a range of oxidant concentrations from 1 to 6 mg/L, the UV/chlorine AOP had a significantly higher EC removal yield than the UV/H2O2 AOP. With free available chlorine concentrations (FAC in the UV chamber influent of at least 5 mg/L (11 mg/L of dosed Cl2, the total estrogenic activity could be reduced by at least 97%. To achieve a certain concentration of FAC in the UV chamber influent, double to triple the amount of dosed Cl2 was needed, resulting in AOX concentrations of up to 520 µg/L.

  2. Removal of Emerging Contaminants and Estrogenic Activity from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent with UV/Chlorine and UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Treatment at Pilot Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuch, Bertram; Lange, Claudia; Richter, Philipp; Kugele, Amélie; Minke, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    Effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was treated on-site with the UV/chlorine (UV/HOCl) advanced oxidation process (AOP) using a pilot plant equipped with a medium pressure UV lamp with an adjustable performance of up to 1 kW. Results obtained from parallel experiments with the same pilot plant, where the state of the art UV/H2O2 AOP was applied, were compared regarding the removal of emerging contaminants (EC) and the formation of adsorbable organohalogens (AOX). Furthermore, the total estrogenic activity was measured in samples treated with the UV/chlorine AOP. At an energy consumption of 0.4 kWh/m3 (0.4 kW, 1 m3/h) and in a range of oxidant concentrations from 1 to 6 mg/L, the UV/chlorine AOP had a significantly higher EC removal yield than the UV/H2O2 AOP. With free available chlorine concentrations (FAC) in the UV chamber influent of at least 5 mg/L (11 mg/L of dosed Cl2), the total estrogenic activity could be reduced by at least 97%. To achieve a certain concentration of FAC in the UV chamber influent, double to triple the amount of dosed Cl2 was needed, resulting in AOX concentrations of up to 520 µg/L. PMID:29735959

  3. The effects of habitat on coral bleaching responses in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsditch, Gabriel; Mwaura, Jelvas M; Kilonzo, Joseph; Amiyo, Nassir

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the bleaching responses of scleractinian corals at four sites in Kenya (Kanamai, Vipingo, Mombasa and Nyali) representing two distinct lagoon habitats (relatively shallow and relatively deep). Bleaching incidence was monitored for the whole coral community, while zooxanthellae densities and chlorophyll levels were monitored for target species (Pocillopora damicornis, Porites lutea, and Porites cylindrica) during a non-bleaching year (2006) and a year of mild-bleaching (2007). Differences in bleaching responses between habitats were observed, with shallower sites Kanamai and Vipingo exhibiting lower bleaching incidence than deeper sites Nyali and Mombasa. These shallower lagoons display more fluctuating thermal and light environments than the deeper sites, suggesting that corals in the shallower lagoons have acclimatized and/or adapted to the fluctuating environmental conditions they endure on a daily basis and have become more resistant to bleaching stress. In deeper sites that did exhibit higher bleaching (Mombasa and Nyali), it was found that coral recovery occurred more quickly in the protected area than in the non-protected area.

  4. The effect of light-activation sources on tooth bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Kusai; Hassan, Nadia Aly

    2014-01-01

    Vital bleaching is one of the most requested cosmetic dental procedures asked by patients who seek a more pleasing smile. This procedure consists of carbamide or hydrogen peroxide gel applications that can be applied in-office or by the patient (at-home/overnight bleaching system). Some in-office treatments utilise whitening light with the objective of speeding up the whitening process. The objective of this article is to review and summarise the current literature with regard to the effect of light-activation sources on in-office tooth bleaching. A literature search was conducted using Medline, accessed via the National Library of Medicine Pub Med from 2003 to 2013 searching for articles relating to effectiveness of light activation sources on in-office tooth bleaching. This study found conflicting evidence on whether light truly improve tooth whitening. Other factors such as, type of stain, initial tooth colour and subject age which can influence tooth bleaching outcome were discussed. Conclusions: The use of light activator sources with in-office bleaching treatment of vital teeth did not increase the efficacy of bleaching or accelerate the bleaching. PMID:25298598

  5. Effect of a New Bleaching Gel on Tooth Whitening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, T N; Bailey, C W; Ashcraft-Olmscheid, D; Vandewalle, K S

    The purpose of this study was to compare the whitening efficacy of a novel bleaching agent containing a unique tribarrel hydremide-peroxide gel (KöR) with a traditional bleaching system of hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide (Opalescence). Bovine incisors were mounted into a custom resin, arch-shaped mounting device. Four groups of 10 teeth were created using mounting devices containing five teeth each. The in-office and home bleaching gels of KöR and Opalescence were applied to the teeth alone and in trays to simulate a combination of in-office and home bleaching or home bleaching only. Spectrophotometer readings of L* a* b* were performed at baseline, the end of active bleaching (immediate), and three and six months postbleaching. Immediately postbleaching, the use of Opalescence gel resulted in greater change in ΔE* and Δb* (less yellow) for combined and home bleaching techniques compared with KöR. After six months, Opalescence had significantly greater ΔE* and Δb* compared with KöR for home bleaching only. There was no significant difference in ΔL* between Opalescence and KöR at any time period with either technique.

  6. Investigating Motivations for Women's Skin Bleaching in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Robkin, Navit; Gaska, Karie; Njoki, Lillian Carol

    2011-01-01

    Why do many African women continue to use damaging skin-bleaching cosmetics that contain dangerous chemicals (e.g., mercury) that may increase their rates of infertility, skin cancer, and serious skin/brain/kidney disease? To address this question, our study investigated motivations driving the preservation of skin-bleaching practices in Tanzania.…

  7. The evaluation of hydrogen peroxide bleaching of Gonometa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide bleaching on Gonometa postica silk and the influence that temperature, pH and time duration had on hydrogen peroxide release , colour change, breaking load and stiffness were determined. The best bleaching (81 delta E) of the Gonometa postica silk fabric was obtained with 60 minutes ...

  8. The Bleaching Syndrome: The Role of Educational Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    Per the Bleaching Syndrome, people of color, including African, Asian, and Latino Americans, are both victims and perpetrators of color discrimination. The Bleaching Syndrome encompasses perceptual, psychological, and behavioral sectors that affect students' schooling experiences. Education professionals, including teachers, administrators, and…

  9. Effects of a New Bleaching Gel on Tooth Whitening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    that claims "wow’’ results and permanent whiteness unaffected by consumption of coffee, tea, or red wine with low to no sensitivity. KOR has also...bleaching to result in greater lightness {delta L *)than Home bleaching, suggesting no overall benefit from either technique. Two recent clinical

  10. Effect of a New Bleaching Gel on Tooth Whitening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    that claims “wow” results and permanent whiteness unaffected by consumption of coffee, tea, or red wine with low to no sensitivity. KöR has also...tendency for Combined bleaching to result in greater lightness (delta L*) than Home bleaching, suggesting no overall benefit from either technique

  11. The bleaching syndrome: manifestation of a post-colonial pathology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-colonial root of African problems is directly related to skin color. Under the cloak of personal preference, light skin among African women has replaced dark skin as the native ideal. The aftermath is manifestation of the Bleaching Syndrome. Social Work professionals have overlooked the Bleaching Syndrome as ...

  12. Does deposition depth control the OSL bleaching of fluvial sediment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, A. C.; Wallinga, J.; Hobo, N.; Versendaal, A. J.; Makaske, B.; Middelkoop, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) signal from fluvial sediment often contains a remnant from the previous deposition cycle, leading to a partially bleached equivalent-dose distribution. Although identification of the burial dose is of primary concern, the degree of bleaching could

  13. Treatment of effluents in uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium processing technology in India has matured in the last 50 years and is able to meet the country's requirement. Right from mining of the ore to milling and refining, effluents are generated and are being processed for their safe disposal. While the available technology is able to meet the regulatory limits of the effluents, the same may not be enough to meet the increased demand of uranium in the future. The increased population, urbanization and climate change are not only going to decrease the supply of process water but will also place increased restrictions on disposal to environment. This demands technologies that will generate less effluent for disposal and enable reuse and recycle concept to the extent possible. Presently used conventional physical-chemical methods, to contain the contaminants would, therefore, require further refinements. Contaminants like sulfates, chlorides etc in the effluent of uranium mill based on acid leach process are the concerns for the future plants. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of suitable methods for maximum recycle of the process effluents, which will also enable in minimizing the consumption of process water. A suitable membrane based process can be an option leaving a concentrated brine for reuse or for further treatment and disposal

  14. Seasonal impact of quarry mining effluent discharge impacted soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the impact quarry mining effluent discharge impacted soil on growth parameters and phytochemical constituents of edible vegetables. Three quarry mining sites were used for the study that covered wet and dry seasons. Plant growth such as plant height, leaf area, internodes and plant ...

  15. Rice field for the treatment of pond aquaculture effluents | Wang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficiency of rice fields in treating pond aquaculture effluent and its responses to different fertilizer treatments. Four treatments was considered in the experiment: no rice planted as the control (CT); rice planted and no fertilizer input (RE); rice planted and a rate of approximately ...

  16. Coral bleaching pathways under the control of regional temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, C. E.; Lenton, A.; Heron, S. F.; Evenhuis, C.; Sen Gupta, A.; Brown, J. N.; Kuchinke, M.

    2017-11-01

    Increasing sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are predicted to adversely impact coral populations worldwide through increasing thermal bleaching events. Future bleaching is unlikely to be spatially uniform. Therefore, understanding what determines regional differences will be critical for adaptation management. Here, using a cumulative heat stress metric, we show that characteristics of regional SST determine the future bleaching risk patterns. Incorporating observed information on SST variability, in assessing future bleaching risk, provides novel options for management strategies. As a consequence, the known biases in climate model variability and the uncertainties in regional warming rate across climate models are less detrimental than previously thought. We also show that the thresholds used to indicate reef viability can strongly influence a decision on what constitutes a potential refugia. Observing and understanding the drivers of regional variability, and the viability limits of coral reefs, is therefore critical for making meaningful projections of coral bleaching risk.

  17. 浮水植物处理对猪场污水中可溶性有机物组成的影响%Effects of floating plants on the compositions of dissolved organic matter in swine effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊; 刘明; 李燕丽; 刘佳; 李忠佩

    2016-01-01

    In the study,swine effluent was collected from scale pig farms,located in Yujiang county of Jiangxi province.A pot experiment was carried out in a greenhouse and lasted for four and a half months.Three types of floating plants,including Lemna minor,Spriodela polyrrhiza,and Pistia stratiotes,were introduced to treat swine effluent.The main purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of floating plants on the compositions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its fluorescence properties.Throughout the entire experiment,a continuous sampling was completed and the removal rates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC),total nitrogen (TN),and total phosphorus (TP) concentration were determined.In the end,all plants were harvested to determine the biomass,TN and TP concentration,and the content of chlorophyll,respectively.Meanwhile,three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) were applied to characterize DOM in swine effluent.Results showed that the doubling time of duckweeds biomass was shorter than P.stratiotes,while a higher biomass and daily accumulated amount of TN and TP were found in the later.With the increase in cultivated days,the removal rates of DOC,TN,and TP were over 75%,90%,and 80%,respectively,as the presence of floating plants.In swine effluent,three DOM components were identified,including one protein-like component and two humic-like components.Furthermore,protein-like component was the predominant fluorophores in original samples.During the period of experiment,the percent of protein-like component decreased dramatically,while the humic-like strengthened significantly.Compared with control,the floating plants significantly reduced the percent of protein-like component,and increased the humic-like components.Moreover,the values of fluorescence indices showed that the freshness of DOM was reduced as the remediation of floating plants,while strengthened the percent of microbial derived

  18. Bleaching of reef coelenterates in the San Blas Islands, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Howard R.; Peters, Esther C.; Coffroth, Mary Alice

    1984-12-01

    Starting in June 1983, 25 species of hermatypic corals, gorgonians, hydrocorals, anemones and zoanthids in the San Blas Islands, Panama, began showing signs of a loss of colour leading in some cases to a white “bleached” appearance. Histologic examination of six coral species indicated that bleaching was associated with drastic reductions in the density of zooxanthellae and with the atrophy and necrosis of the animal tissue. The severity of the bleaching varied among species and many species were unaffected. The species most extensively affected were: Agaricia spp., which became completely bleached and frequently died; Montastraea annularis which bleached and continued to survive; and Millepora spp. which bleached white but quickly regained their colouration. Shallow reefs dominated by Agaricia spp. suffered the most extensive bleaching. At one site, Pico Feo, 99% of the Agaricia (32% of the living cover) was bleached. On fore reers, which were dominated by Agaricia spp. and M. annularis, the proportion of M. annularis bleached ranged from 18 to 100% and that of Agaricia spp. from 30 to 53%. Transects at Sail Rock and House Reef were surveyed in August 1983 and January 1984. At those sites, 53% of the Agaricia cover died between August and January. The remaining living cover of Agaricia and of all other species exhibited normal colouration in January. Salinity and temperature were monitored every second day at 4 m depth between May 10 and August 28, 1983 at one of the localities. Bleaching was first observed within two weeks of a 2 °C rise in temperature which occurred in late May 1983. Temperatures remained at or above 31.5 °C for the following 3 weeks and were at or above 30 °C for an additional 4 weeks. The bleaching of corals in the San Blas was most likely due to those elevanted temperatures.

  19. Competition between excitation and bleaching of thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, R.; Hornyak, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    The bleaching of thermoluminescence (TL) yield to a residual value by light is explained, at least in some cases, to be due to an equilibrium between excitation and de-excitation by the illuminating light. Kinetic differential equations are given governing the process for the simple case of a single trapping state for electrons and a single variety of hole recombination centre. The equations are solved numerically for chosen sets of the relevant parameters starting either from empty traps and centres or from highly populated ones. In agreement with experimental results, the numerical computation predicts that after a long enough illumination the process of filling of the traps converges to the same equilibrium value as that produced by bleaching. It is also found that the equilibrium value is independent of the intensity, though, of course, this is approached faster with more intense light. The computed dependencies of the filling of trapping states as a function of illumination time are shown. The final equilibrium value for the filling of trapping states can also be evaluated analytically for any set of given parameters; these compare very favourably with the calculated results. The change of the results with the variation of the relevant parameters is discussed. (author)

  20. Radioactive effluents in the Savannah River: Summary report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.

    1991-09-01

    Researchers at the Savannah River Site have low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River to distinguish between the effluent contributions of the Savannah River Site and Plant Vogtle. Since the startup of Plant Vogtle in 1987, researchers have routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases, but all have routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases, but all have been well below the Department of Energy's (DOE) guidelines. The study has found that processing improvement at Plant Vogtle during 1989 have lowered the activities of effluents from Plant Vogtle. These studies will continue on a routine basis because they provide disturbing trends before actual health concerns evolve

  1. Examination of vegetation around a nuclear plant emitting gaseous fluorides in order to detect fluorine pollution; Utilisation des vegetaux pour detecter la pollution fluoree autour d'une usine susceptible d'emettre des effluents gazeux fluores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teulon, Francoise; Bonnaventure, J. P. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre de Pierrelatte, Section de Protection contre les Radiations (France)

    1971-08-15

    Fluorine pollution (chronic or occasional) around a plant rejecting gaseous fluoride effluents can be detected from vegetation samples by chemical analysis. Systematic monitoring allows the effects and gravity of the pollution to be estimated. The analytical method used consists of a double distillation (in phosphoric acid and perchloric acid) followed by a spectro-colorimetric analysis (alizarine-complexon-lanthane). This method of control allows both the efficiency of the trapping installations and also the appearance of effluents at unexpected places to be checked, In the event of an accident it is possible to determine the advisability of prohibiting the consumption of locally grown produce by humans or fodder by cattle. Research conducted in order to determine the relation between visible, damage to certain vegetables (tomatoes, haricot beans and sorghum) and their fluorine contents demonstrated that such a relation appears above all at the level of the leaves; chemical analysis may thus be used to confirm or reject information obtained on the basis of visual evidence [French] La detection d'une pollution fluoree (chronique ou accidentelle) autour d'une usine susceptible d'emettre des effluents gazeux fluores peut etre avantageusement realisee par un reseau de prelevements vegetaux suivis de dosages chimiques. Une surveillance systematique permet une evaluation des consequences et du degre de gravite de la pollution. La methode d'analyse consiste en une double distillation (dans l'acide phosphorique et l'acide perchlorique) suivie d'une spectrocolorimetrie (alizarine-complexon-lanthane). Ce mode de controle permet non seulement de verifier si les installations de piegeage sont efficaces mais egalement de localiser des points d'emission imprevus. En cas d'accident, on peut egalement juger de l'opportunite d'interdire la consommation des legumes par les habitants ou du fourrage par le betail des environs. Enfin, des etudes experimentales ont ete realisees pour

  2. Efficacy and persistence of tooth bleaching using a diode laser with three different treatment regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Quran, Firas A M; Mansour, Yasar; Al-Hyari, Sabaa; Al Wahadni, Ahed; Mair, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Studies have measured the effectiveness of tooth bleaching, however there are very few studies that have measured the persistence in color change after a 6-month follow-up. This study assessed the efficacy of the laser bleaching process using different regimens, and the persistence of color change over a 6-month period. Sixty patients divided into three equal groups were subjected to bleaching using a diode laser with 34% hydrogen peroxide. Group 1: patients subjected to one session of laser bleaching. Group 2: patients subjected to two sessions of laser bleaching with a 1-week interval. Group 3: the same as Group 2 but followed by home bleaching once a month for 3 months. The color was assessed four times: before bleaching, directly after bleaching, 3 months after bleaching, and 6 months after bleaching. All teeth had a significant color change at 6 months, but all teeth had regressed from the maximum value. There was significantly less regression in color for Group 3, followed by Groups 2 and 1, respectively. The combined technique of in-office laser bleaching for two sessions with a 1-week interval, followed by home bleaching once a month for 3 months gave more persistence in color change. In-office power bleaching using a laser assisted hydrogen peroxide system repeated after a week, combined with home bleaching once a month for 3 months, is an effective bleaching regimen with less color regression after 6 months compared to a regimen of in-office bleaching alone.

  3. Bitumen coating of the radio-active sludges from the effluent treatment plant at the Marcoule centre. Review of the progress reports 1, 2, 3 and 4 (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.; Scheidhauer, J.

    1963-01-01

    Besides the very high activity liquids containing fission products, the chemical treatment of irradiated fuels produces a large volume of aqueous effluents and solid waste of relatively low radioactivity. These weakly active products can be eliminated in the ground, in a hydrographic land system or in the sea. Techniques of evaporation, of resin concentration, and of coprecipitation give rise to inorganic sludges with a high water content. All these residues occupy a large volume and represent a far from negligible weight. In the case of the sludge, their relative fluidity necessitates a conditioning guaranteeing safe storage. The solution to the problem will consist in passing directly from a liquid or a suspension, to a solid whose structure is homogeneous and whose matter is inert with respect to the storage medium (soil, sea, etc. ). We have proposed to coat the radioactive products with bitumen. This article is designed to give a review of the studies undertaken on this method. It consists of a progress report rather than a final assessment. (authors) [fr

  4. Evaluation of the antibiotic activity and genetic mutation of microorganisms in the effluent treated with the electron-beam from waste-water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Nam, Ji Hyun; Shin, Ji Hye; Yun, Seo Yeon; Cho, Young Cheol; Oh, Kyoung hee [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    In this study, the residual concentrations and activities of antibiotics after UV or gamma-ray treatments were estimated, and the effect of irradiation of UV, gamma-ray, or electron beam was estimated on the survivability and less mutagenic effect on bacteria. The changes of bacterial communities and radiation resistant population in the effluent treated with UV and electron-beam were analyzed. The gamma-ray irradiation was more effective than UV in degradation of antibiotics. The extent of mutagenicity of electron-beam irradiation was less than those of UV or gamma-ray irradiations. The application of election-beam to the wastewater treatment system showed the high efficiency of destroying and removal effects on bacterial cells. The selective increase in population of radiation resistant bacteria was not observed. These results indicate that the application of ionizing radiation to the processes of wastewater treatment system will be suitable than UV irradiation because of its degradability of variable antibiotics, high removal rate of harmful bacteria, less mutagenicity of bacteria, and low selective effect on radiation resistant bacteria

  5. Evaluation of the antibiotic activity and genetic mutation of microorganisms in the effluent treated with the electron-beam from waste-water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Nam, Ji Hyun; Shin, Ji Hye; Yun, Seo Yeon; Cho, Young Cheol; Oh, Kyoung hee

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the residual concentrations and activities of antibiotics after UV or gamma-ray treatments were estimated, and the effect of irradiation of UV, gamma-ray, or electron beam was estimated on the survivability and less mutagenic effect on bacteria. The changes of bacterial communities and radiation resistant population in the effluent treated with UV and electron-beam were analyzed. The gamma-ray irradiation was more effective than UV in degradation of antibiotics. The extent of mutagenicity of electron-beam irradiation was less than those of UV or gamma-ray irradiations. The application of election-beam to the wastewater treatment system showed the high efficiency of destroying and removal effects on bacterial cells. The selective increase in population of radiation resistant bacteria was not observed. These results indicate that the application of ionizing radiation to the processes of wastewater treatment system will be suitable than UV irradiation because of its degradability of variable antibiotics, high removal rate of harmful bacteria, less mutagenicity of bacteria, and low selective effect on radiation resistant bacteria

  6. Influence of different flow conditions on the occurrence and behavior of potentially hazardous organic xenobiotics in the influent and effluent of a municipal sewage treatment plant in Germany: an effect-directed approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Peter [University of Trier (Germany). Department of Hydrology; Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany). Particle Chemistry Dept.; Bierl, Reinhard [University of Trier (Germany). Department of Hydrology

    2012-12-15

    Flow conditions in the sewer systems are particularly important for the chemical and toxicological characteristics of raw and treated wastewater. Nevertheless, this topic has not been thoroughly investigated to date. In this study, composite wastewater samples were taken daily from the influent and effluent of a municipal sewage treatment plant. Polarity-based fractionation of the samples was carried out through sequential solid phase extractions. Biological testing of single and recombinant fractions was performed using bioluminescence inhibition assay according to DIN EN ISO 11348-2. Selected compounds (pharmaceuticals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were also included in the chemical analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. By analyzing different flow conditions, this study clarifies how these fractions contribute to the total toxicity of organic substances in wastewater. Additionally, it demonstrates the extent to which the potentially hazardous effects of the fractions can be reduced at the examined sewage treatment plant. Summarizing, medium to highly polar organic compounds were particularly relevant for the total toxicity of organic xenobiotics. For rising wastewater flow under wet weather conditions, we observed a significant decrease in the overall toxicity of the organic pollutants and specifically in the toxic effects of the moderately polar fraction 2. The results provide the starting point for an important risk assessment regarding the occurrence and behavior of potentially toxic xenobiotics by differentiated polarity in municipal wastewater for varying flow conditions. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of the Physicochemical Qualities and Prevalence of Escherichia coli and Vibrios in the Final Effluents of Two Wastewater Treatment Plants in South Africa: Ecological and Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Osuolale

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The final effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were evaluated for their physicochemical and microbiological qualities over a period of 12 months. The physicochemical parameters assessed ranged as follows both plants. The ranges of values for the physicochemical are: pH (3.9–8.6, total dissolved solids (86.50–336.3 mg/L, electrical conductivity (13.57–52.50 mS/m, temperature (13–28 °C, nitrate (0–21.73 mg/L, nitrite (0.01–0.60 mg/L, orthophosphate (1.29–20.57 mg/L, turbidity (4.02–43.20 NTU, free chlorine (0.05–7.18 mg/L, dissolve oxygen (3.91–9.60 mg/L, biochemical oxygen demand (0.1–9.0 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand (4.67–211 mg/L. The microbiological assessment for both WWTPs revealed the presence of E. coli in counts ranging between 0 and 1.86 × 104 CFU/100 mL and Vibrio counts ranging between 0 and 9.93 × 103 CFU/100 mL. We conclude that these WWTPs are important point sources of pollution in surface water with potential public health and ecological risks.

  8. Assessment of the Physicochemical Qualities and Prevalence of Escherichia coli and Vibrios in the Final Effluents of Two Wastewater Treatment Plants in South Africa: Ecological and Public Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuolale, Olayinka; Okoh, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The final effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were evaluated for their physicochemical and microbiological qualities over a period of 12 months. The physicochemical parameters assessed ranged as follows both plants. The ranges of values for the physicochemical are: pH (3.9–8.6), total dissolved solids (86.50–336.3 mg/L), electrical conductivity (13.57–52.50 mS/m), temperature (13–28 °C), nitrate (0–21.73 mg/L), nitrite (0.01–0.60 mg/L), orthophosphate (1.29–20.57 mg/L), turbidity (4.02–43.20 NTU), free chlorine (0.05–7.18 mg/L), dissolve oxygen (3.91–9.60 mg/L), biochemical oxygen demand (0.1–9.0 mg/L) and chemical oxygen demand (4.67–211 mg/L). The microbiological assessment for both WWTPs revealed the presence of E. coli in counts ranging between 0 and 1.86 × 104 CFU/100 mL and Vibrio counts ranging between 0 and 9.93 × 103 CFU/100 mL. We conclude that these WWTPs are important point sources of pollution in surface water with potential public health and ecological risks. PMID:26512686

  9. Bleaching and recovery of a phototrophic bioeroding sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Joseph; Davy, Simon K.; Shaffer, Megan; Haris, Abdul; Bell, James J.

    2018-06-01

    In the Wakatobi region of Indonesia, a prolonged period of elevated water temperature in 2016 caused extensive coral bleaching and mortality. Unusually, bleaching was also observed in the bioeroding sponge Cliona aff. viridis, with affected sponges expelling 99% of their Symbiodinium. Bleaching surveys of C. aff. viridis were conducted 6 weeks apart, coinciding with a 0.8 °C drop in water temperature. Over this period, bleaching prevalence dropped from 73.9% (± 9.9 SE) to 25.7% (± 5.8 SE), and bleaching severity dropped from 25.95% (± 4.5 SE) to 11.54% (± 1.9 SE) of sponge tissue. Over the same period, monitored bleached sponges showed an 81% drop in bleaching severity, but also a 13% reduction in overall sponge size. Our results show that while the clionaid- Symbiodinium relationship is susceptible to break down under thermal stress, rapid recovery can occur, although incurring some partial host mortality.

  10. Evaluation of peanut hulls as an alternative to bleaching clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, M. M.; El-Shami, S. M.; Taha, F. S.

    2011-07-01

    Peanut hulls (PNH) were carbonized at different temperatures, times, and evaluated at different concentrations as an alternative to bleaching clays. Evaluation of bleached crude soybean oil with PNH was based on their delta free fatty acids, reduction in peroxide value (PV), reduction in phospholipids (PL) and bleachability. The performance of several commercially used bleaching clays was evaluated, for comparison. Mixtures were formulated including: PNH and Tonsil -N (TN), PNH and Fuller's earth (FE) and PNH and O-passive (OP) and examined. The oxidative stability of oils was determined. Results for the investigated commercial bleaching clays revealed: TN > FE > F > TF > OP. Highest reduction in PV and PL, and highest bleachability were achieved for soybean oil bleached with 2% PNH carbonized at 500 degree centigrade for 30 min (PNH). Mixtures of PNH with the three chosen bleaching clays indicated that 1PNH : 2TN gave the highest bleachability. CSO was miscella bleached in hexane using PNH and resulted in an appreciable improvement in all oil characteristics, especially in bleachability. Oxidative stability of oils was in the following order: TN > control > FE > PNH with Induction period values of 23.1 > 6.43 > 5.73 > 2.85 h, respectively. (Author) 20 refs.

  11. Bleaching of F-type centres in alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratillake, M.R.; Newton, G.W.A.; Robinson, V.J.

    1984-01-01

    Bleaching of the F band in KCl occurs on pulsing with 532 nm laser light. The bleaching is accompanied by the appearance of an absorption on the red side of the F band. Both bleaching and absorption are transient phenomena, and no permanent bleaching or absorption is observed. The same exponential lifetime of about 5μS was obtained for both bleaching and absorption, and all the features were found to be independent of both temperature (between 200 and 300 K) and the intensity of the analysing light. This eliminates the possibility of a trapped species, such as F - , being responsible. The phenomena are qualitatively different from the bleaching observed at low light intensity, where bleaching of the F band is accompanied by formation of F - , which is thermally stable below 250 K. The most likely explanation of the results is that the high concentration of conduction band electrons following the laser pulse allows formation of free or quasi-free electron pairs, e 2 - , which decay back into F centres on a time scale which is long compared with that for individual electrons. (author)

  12. Determination of burial dose in incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We determine the burial dose in three known-age incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz. Estimation of burial dose in incompletely bleached samples requires that the characteristics of the well-bleached part of the distribution are known in order to distinguish between...... well-bleached and poorly bleached grains. It is especially important to investigate if the uncertainties assigned to individual estimates of dose adequately describe the observed variability in well-bleached dose distributions. We investigate this by quantifying the overdispersion in laboratory-bleached...

  13. An assessment of the quality of liquid effluents from opaque beer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2005-01-01

    Jan 1, 2005 ... The effluent treatment plants in both plants were not only inadequate but also ... Keywords: industrial effluents, opaque beer-brewery, pollution load, quality, quantity ... to hydraulic overloading and corrosion of the sewer pipe system ... The two breweries studied in this paper produce African traditional.

  14. Effect of light energy on peroxide tooth bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Karen; Tam, Laura; Hubert, Manfred

    2004-02-01

    Light-activated bleaching is a method of tooth whitening. The authors conducted a study to compare the whitening effects and tooth temperature changes induced by various combinations of peroxide bleaches and light sources. The authors randomly assigned 250 extracted human teeth halves into experimental groups (n = 10). A placebo gel (control), a 35 percent hydrogen peroxide or a 10 percent carbamide peroxide bleach was placed on the tooth surface and was irradiated with no light (control); a halogen curing light; an infrared, or IR, light; an argon laser; or a carbon dioxide, or CO2, laser. Color changes were evaluated immediately, one day and one week after treatment using a value-oriented shade guide and an electronic dental color analyzer. The outer enamel and inner dentin surface temperatures were monitored before and immediately after each 30-second application of light using a thermocouple thermometer. Color and temperature changes were significantly affected by an interaction of the bleach and light variables. The application of lights significantly improved the whitening efficacy of some bleach materials, but it caused significant temperature increases in the outer and inner tooth surfaces. The IR and CO2 laser lights caused the highest tooth temperature increases. Dentists performing an in-office bleaching technique with the use of an additional light source to accelerate tooth whitening should consider the specific bleaching agent being used, as well as the potential risks of heating teeth. A specific combination of bleach and light that demonstrates good color change and little temperature rise should be selected for in-office tooth bleaching.

  15. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet as an Accelerator of Tooth Bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Šantak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP jet as a potential accelerator of the degradation of hydrogen peroxide in bleaching gels which could lead to better and faster bleaching. Material and Methods: 25 pastilles of hydroxylapatite were colored in green tea for 8 hours and were randomly divided into five groups (n = 5. The bleaching process was performed with 30% and 40% hydrogen peroxide (HP gel alone and in conjunction with helium APP jet. During the bleaching treatment, optical emission spectroscopy and non-contact surface temperature measurement using pyrometer were performed. Color of the pastilles was determined by a red– green–blue (RGB colorimeter. PH values of bleaching gels were measured before and after the plasma treatment on additional 10 pastilles using a pH meter with contact pH electrode. Results: The color measurements of pastilles before and after the treatment showed that treatment with APP jet improved the bleaching effect by 32% and 15% in the case of 30 % and 40% HP gel. Better results were obtained approximately six times faster than with a procedure suggested by the bleaching gel manufacturer. Optical emission spectroscopy proved that plasma has a chemically active role on the gel. After the APP treatment, pH values of bleaching gels dropped to about 50–75% of their initial value while the surface temperature increased by 8–10˚C above baseline. Conclusion: The use of plasma jet provides more effective bleaching results in a shorter period of time without a significant temperature increase which may cause damage of the surrounding tissue.

  16. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on reproductive success of largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maria S; Quinn, Brian P; Denslow, Nancy D; Holm, Stewart E; Gross, Timothy S

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of bleached and unbleached kraft mill effluent on reproductive success of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Bass were exposed to effluent concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for 28 and 56 d. Parameters measured included hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) and plasma concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and vitellogenin (VTG). At the end of the 56-d period, bass were moved to hatchery ponds to evaluate spawning success. Spawning mats with eggs either were brought indoors for evaluation of fecundities, hatchabilities, and egg and fry size (measured at age 3 d), or were left in ponds and fry number and size recorded (average age of 14 d). Effluent exposure was verified by measuring resin acids (isopimaric, abietic. and dehydroabietic acids) in bile. Compared to controls, exposed bass had greater concentrations of resin acids in bile. In general, exposed females had lower concentrations of E2 and VTG (> or = 20% effluent), whereas males had lower concentrations of 11-KT (> or = 20% effluent) and increased E2 (> or = 20% effluent). The HSI values increased in females (> or = 10% effluent), and GSI values decreased in both sexes (> or = 40% effluent). Fecundity, egg size, and hatchability did not differ across treatments, but an increase in the frequency of fry abnormalities and a decrease in fry weights was observed at effluent exposures of 40% and higher. However, results from the pond study, revealed a significant reduction in fry growth and survival (> or = 10%). This decline may have been caused by an increased frequency of deformities, in conjunction with alterations of growth. These changes could have resulted from alterations in egg quality because of failure of parental reproductive systems, from acute embryo toxicity after translocation of contaminants from the mother to the developing embryo, or from both.

  17. Effect of factory effluents on physiological and biochemical contents of Gossypium hirsutum l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, A; Jayabalan, N

    2001-10-01

    The effect of sago and sugar factory effluents was studied on Gossypium hirsutum L. var. MCU 5 and MCU 11. Plants were irrigated with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of effluents of both factories. At lower concentration (25%) of sugar factory effluents had stimulatory effect on all biochemical contents observed. Moreover, all concentration of sago factory effluents were found to have inhibitory effect on all biochemical contents except proline content which increased with increasing concentration of both the effluents. Plants growing on adjacent to sago and sugar factories or they irrigated with such type of polluted water, may accumulate the heavy metals found in both the effluents, at higher levels in plant products and if consumed may have similar effect on living organisms.

  18. Diversity of marine invertebrates in a thermal effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, D.T.; Maurer, D.

    1975-01-01

    Invertebrates were collected at four sites in the Indian River and Indian River Bay in Delaware to study the effects of thermal effluents from a steam-generating plant. A list of species of anemones, nemerteans, annelids, molluscs, and crustaceans is presented. Differences in species composition, an increase in relative numbers of a pollution indicator organism, and reduction in species number and in the total number of organisms in the effluent were noted. The period of highest diversity corresponded to that of the lowest numbers of species and individuals and highest effluent temperatures. (U.S.)

  19. Uptake by benthic algae of critical radionuclides to be released in the liquid effluent of the Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant, R.J., Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, J.R.D.

    1982-06-01

    In vitro interaction of benthic algae from the Angra dos Reis region, R.J., Brazil, was studied with critical radionuclides to be released in the liquid effluent of CNAAA (unit I). 137 Cs- 60 Co - and 125 I uptake and loss by Sargassum filipendula, Padina Vickersiae and Acanthophora Spicifera were observed. Biological half-lives and bioaccumulation factors (B.F.) were estimated. Co and I uptake were fast (apparent equilibrium in 3 to 7 days). Cs uptake was slower (2 to 3 weeks). Loss followed an inverse pattern (fast for Cs, slow for Co and I). B.F. ranged from 10 1 for Cs, to 10 3 for I and 10 3 -10 4 for Co. Higher B.F. for Co and I were found for P. vickersiae (up to 1,4 X 10 4 ) an A. spicifera (up to 7 X 10 3 ) respectively. These species represent important potential media for the transference of Co-I-and-to a much lesser extent - Cs isotopes, through food-webs. They exhibited high capacity to compete with local sandy sediments for the retention of Co and I. High B.F., rapid uptake and moderate to long biological half-lives enable S. filipendula, P. vickersiae and A. specifera to be powerful aids in the monitoring of radioactive contamination by Co and I isotopes. Since the majority of marine organisms tends to exhibit Cs B.F. similars to those reported here, these algae may also be used as monitors for Cs isotopes, the low B.F. being compensated by their abundance, wide distribution and facility of collection. (M.A.) [pt

  20. A comparison of the suitability of different willow varieties to treat on-site wastewater effluent in an Irish climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curneen, S J; Gill, L W

    2014-01-15

    Short rotation coppiced willow trees can be used to treat on-site wastewater effluent with the advantage that, if planted in a sealed basin and sized correctly, they produce no effluent discharge. This paper has investigated the evapotranspiration rate of four different willow varieties while also monitoring the effects of three different effluent types on each variety. The willow varieties used are all cultivars of Salix viminalis. The effluents applied were primary (septic tank) effluent, secondary treated effluent and rain water (control). The results obtained showed that the addition of effluent had a positive effect on the evapotranspiration. The willows were also found to uptake a high proportion of the nitrogen and phosphorus from the primary and secondary treated effluents added during the first year. The effect of the different effluents on the evapotranspiration rate has been used to design ten full scale on-site treatment systems which are now being monitored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.