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Sample records for blazar 1es 1101-232

  1. The hadronic origin of hard gamma-ray spectrum from blazar 1ES 1101-232

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Gang

    2014-01-01

    The very hard $\\gamma$-ray spectrum from distant blazars challenges the traditional synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, which may indicate that there is the contribution of an additional high-energy component beyond the SSC emission. In this paper, we study the possible origin of the hard $\\gamma$-ray spectrum from distant blazars. We develop a model to explain the hard $\\gamma$-ray spectrum from blazar 1ES 1101-232. In the model, the optical and X-ray radiation would come from the synchrotron radiation of primary electrons and secondary pairs, the GeV emission would be produced by the SSC process, however, the hard $\\gamma$-ray spectrum would originate from the decay of neutral pion produced through proton-photon interactions with the synchrotron radiation photons within the jet. Our model can explain the observed SED of 1ES 1101-232 well, especially the very hard $\\gamma$-ray spectrum. However, our model requires the very large proton power to efficiently produce the $\\gamma$-ray through proton-photon int...

  2. Monitoring of the Tev Blazar 1ES 1101-232 with RXTE and H.E.S.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puehlhofer, Gerd

    We want to carry out an observation campaign of 10 nights with HESS and RXTE on 1ES 1101-232, the by far most distant object detected in TeV gamma-rays. HESS is a second generation TeV Cherenkov telescope system with a much better sensitivity and lower energy threshold compared to previous instruments. The campaign will be accompanied by observations of various other instruments. Our goals are (a) to measure and understand the temporal evolution of the broad-band spectral energy distribution of Blazars, in order to allow more detailed modeling of radiation processes and particle acceleration in Blazar jets, and (b) to investigate the cosmic Extragalactic Background Light by studying the absorption of TeV gamma-rays, for which 1ES 1101-232 (z=0.186) is an extremely important target.

  3. The Hadronic Origin of the Hard Gamma-Ray Spectrum from Blazar 1ES 1101-232

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Wang, Jiancheng

    2014-03-01

    The very hard γ-ray spectrum from distant blazars challenges the traditional synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, which may indicate that there is a contribution from an additional high-energy component beyond the SSC emission. In this paper, we study the possible origin of the hard γ-ray spectrum from distant blazars. We develop a model to explain the hard γ-ray spectrum from blazar 1ES 1101-232. In the model, the optical and X-ray radiation would come from the synchrotron radiation of primary electrons and secondary pairs and the GeV emission would be produced by the SSC process, however, the hard γ-ray spectrum would originate from the decay of neutral pion produced through proton-photon interactions with the synchrotron radiation photons within the jet. Our model can explain the observed spectral energy distribution of 1ES 1101-232 well, especially the very hard γ-ray spectrum. However, our model requires a very large proton power to efficiently produce the γ-ray through proton-photon interactions.

  4. A Hard X-Ray View of Two Distant VHE Blazars: 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113

    CERN Document Server

    Reimer, A; Madejski, G; Reimer, O; Dorner, D

    2008-01-01

    TeV blazars are known as prominent nonthermal emitters across the entire electromagnetic spectrum with their photon power peaking in the X-ray and TeV bands. If distant, absorption of gamma-ray photons by the extragalactic background light (EBL) alters the intrinsic TeV spectral shape, thereby affecting the overall interpretation. Suzaku observations for two of the more distant TeV blazars known to date, 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113, were carried out in 2006 May and July, respectively, including a quasi-simultaneous coverage with the state-of-the-art Cerenkov telescope facilities. We report on the resulting data sets with emphasis on the X-ray band and set in context to their historical behavior. During our campaign, we did not detect any significant X-ray or gamma-ray variability. 1ES 1101-232 was found in a quiescent state with the lowest X-ray flux ever measured. The combined XIS and HXD PIN data for 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113 clearly indicate spectral curvature up to the highest hard X-ray data point ...

  5. A Hard X-Ray View of Two Distant VHE Blazars: 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, A.; Costamante, L.; Madejski, G.; Reimer, O.; Dorner, D.

    2008-08-01

    TeV blazars are known as prominent nonthermal emitters across the entire electromagnetic spectrum with their photon power peaking in the X-ray and TeV bands. If distant, absorption of γ-ray photons by the extragalactic background light (EBL) alters the intrinsic TeV spectral shape, thereby affecting the overall interpretation. Suzaku observations for two of the more distant TeV blazars known to date, 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113, were carried out in 2006 May and July, respectively, including a quasi-simultaneous coverage with the state-of-the-art Cerenkov telescope facilities. We report on the resulting data sets with emphasis on the X-ray band and set in context to their historical behavior. During our campaign, we did not detect any significant X-ray or γ-ray variability. 1ES 1101-232 was found in a quiescent state with the lowest X-ray flux ever measured. The combined XIS and HXD PIN data for 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113 clearly indicate spectral curvature up to the highest hard X-ray data point (~30 keV), manifesting as softening with increasing energy. We describe this spectral shape by either a broken power law or a log-parabolic fit with equal statistical goodness of fits. The combined 1ES 1553+113 very high energy spectrum (90-500 GeV) did not show any significant changes with respect to earlier observations. The resulting contemporaneous broadband spectral energy distributions of both TeV blazars are discussed in view of implications for intrinsic blazar parameter values, taking into account the γ-ray absorption in the EBL.

  6. A Hard X-ray View on Two Distant VHE Blazars: 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, A.; Costamente, L.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Madejski, G.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Reimer, O.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Dorner, D.; /Wurzburg U.

    2008-05-02

    TeV-blazars are known as prominent non-thermal emitters across the entire electromagnetic spectrum with their photon power peaking in the X-ray and TeV-band. If distant, absorption of -ray photons by the extragalactic background light (EBL) alters the intrinsic TeV spectral shape, thereby affecting the overall interpretation. Suzaku observations for two of the more distant TeV-blazars known to date, 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113, were carried out in May and July 2006, respectively, including a quasi-simultaneous coverage with the state of the art Cherenkov telescope facilities. We report on the resulting data sets with emphasis on the X-ray band, and set into context to their historical behavior. During our campaign, we did not detect any significant X-ray or {gamma}-ray variability. 1ES 1101-232 was found in a quiescent state with the lowest X-ray flux ever measured. The combined XIS and HXD PIN data for 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113 clearly indicate spectral curvature up to the highest hard X-ray data point ({approx} 30 keV), manifesting as softening with increasing energy. We describe this spectral shape by either a broken power law or a log-parabolic fit with equal statistical goodness of fits. The combined 1ES 1553+113 very high energy spectrum (90-500 GeV) did not show any significant changes with respect to earlier observations. The resulting contemporaneous broadband spectral energy distributions of both TeV-blazars are discussed in view of implications for intrinsic blazar parameter values, taking into account the {gamma}-ray absorption in the EBL.

  7. Observations of 1ES 1101-232 with H.E.S.S. and at lower frequencies: A hard spectrum blazar and constraints on the extragalactic background light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pühlhofer, Gerd; Benbow, Wystan; Costamante, Luigi; Sol, Helene; Boisson, Catherine; Emmanoulopoulos, Dimitrios; Wagner, Stefan; Horns, Dieter; Giebels, Berrie

    VHE observations of the distant (z=0.186) blazar 1ES 1101-232 with H.E.S.S. are used to constrain the extragalactic background light (EBL) in the optical to near infrared band. As the EBL traces the galaxy formation history of the universe, galaxy evolution models can therefore be tested with the data. In order to measure the EBL absorption effect on a blazar spectrum, we assume that usual constraints on the hardness of the intrinsic blazar spectrum are not violated. We present an update of the VHE spectrum obtained with H.E.S.S. and the multifrequency data that were taken simultaneously with the H.E.S.S. measurements. The data verify that the broadband characteristics of 1ES 1101-232 are similar to those of other, more nearby blazars, and strengthen the assumptions that were used to derive the EBL upper limit.

  8. Detection of VHE gamma-ray emission from the distant blazar 1ES 1101-232 with H.E.S.S. and broadband characterisation

    CERN Document Server

    Akhperjanian, A G; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Brion, E; Brown, A M; Buhler, R; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Carrigan, S; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L M; Coignet, G; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Atai, A; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubus, G; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Ferrero, E; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Funk, Seb; Funk, S; Fussling, M; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khelifi, B; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemiere, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; Maurin, G; McComb, T J L; Moulin, E; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nedbal, D; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Olive, J P; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Ranchon, S; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V V; Santangelo, A; Sauge, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schroder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Spanier, F; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Superina, G; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J; Ward, M

    2007-01-01

    The blazar 1ES 1101-232 was observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) of Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (ACT) in 2004 and 2005, for a live time of 43 hours. VHE (E > 10^11 eV) gamma-rays were detected for the first time from this object. VHE observations of blazars are used to investigate the inner parts of the blazar jets, and also to study the extragalactic background light (EBL) in the near-infrared band. Observations in 2005 were conducted in a multiwavelength campaign, together with the RXTE satellite and optical observations. In 2004, simultaneous observations with XMM-Newton were obtained. 1ES 1101-232 was detected with H.E.S.S. with an excess of 722 photons, at a significance of 12 sigma. The measured VHE gamma-ray flux amounts to dN/dE = (5.63 +- 0.89) x 10^-13 (E/TeV)^-(2.94 +- 0.20) cm^-2 s^-1 TeV^-1, above a spectral energy threshold of 225 GeV. No significant variation of the VHE gamma-ray flux on any time scale was found. 1ES 1101-232 exhibits a very hard spectrum, and at a ...

  9. Non-variable TeV emission from the extended jet of a blazar in the stochastic acceleration scenario: the case of the hard TeV emission of 1ES 1101-232

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dahai; Zeng, Houdun; Zhang, Li

    2012-08-01

    The detections of X-ray emission from the kiloparsec-scale jets of blazars and radio galaxies could imply the existence of high-energy electrons in these extended jets, and these electrons could produce high-energy emission through the inverse Compton (IC) process. In this paper, we study the non-variable hard TeV emission from a blazar. The multiband emission consists of two components: (i) the traditional synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from the inner jet; (ii) the emission produced via SSC and IC scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons (IC/CMB) and extragalactic background light (EBL) photons by relativistic electrons in the extended jet under the stochastic acceleration scenario. Such a model is applied to 1ES 1101-232. The results indicate the following. (i) The non-variable hard TeV emission of 1ES 1101-232, which is dominated by IC/CMB emission from the extended jet, can be reproduced well by using three characteristic values of the Doppler factor (δD = 5, 10 and 15) for the TeV-emitting region in the extended jet. (ii) In the cases of δD = 15 and 10, the physical parameters can achieve equipartition (or quasi-equipartition) between the relativistic electrons and the magnetic field. In contrast, the physical parameters largely deviate from equipartition for the case of δD = 5. Therefore, we conclude that the TeV emission region of 1ES 1101-232 in the extended jet should be moderately or highly beamed.

  10. Non-variable TeV emission from the extended jet of a blazar in the stochastic acceleration scenario: the case of the hard TeV emission of 1ES 1101-232

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Dahai; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    The detections of X-ray emission from the kiloparsec-scale jets of blazars and radio galaxies may imply the existence of high energy electrons in these extended jets, and these electrons could produce high energy emission through inverse Compton (IC) process. In this paper we study the non-variable hard TeV emission from a blazar. The multi-band emission consists of two components: one is the traditional synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from the inner jet, and the other is the emission produced via SSC and IC scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons (IC/CMB) and extragalactic background light (EBL) photons (IC/EBL) by relativistic electrons in the extended jet under the stochastic acceleration scenario. Such a model is applied to 1ES 1101-232. The results indicate that (1) the non-variable hard TeV emission of 1ES 1101-232 can be reproduced well, which is dominated by IC/CMB emission from the extended jet, using three characteristic values of Doppler factor ($\\delta_{\\rm D}=5,10,15$) for...

  11. Hard synchrotron BL Lacs the case of 1ES 1101-232

    CERN Document Server

    Wolter, A; Tagliaferri, G; Tavecchio, F; Caccianiga, A; Wolter, Anna; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Caccianiga, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    The bright X-ray selected BL Lac object 1ES1101--232 shows a flat X-ray spectrum, making it detectable with high statistics over the wide BeppoSAX energy range. We have observed it in two different epochs with BeppoSAX, and found a variation of the flux of about 30% that can be explained by a change in the spectral index above the synchrotron peak. We present here the data and infer limits on the strength of the magnetic field based on models of emission for High-frequency peaked BL Lacs.

  12. Detection of VHE gamma-ray emission from the distant blazar 1ES 1101-232 with HESS and broadband characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berge, D.; Bernlöhr, K.; Boisson, C.; Bolz, O.; Borrel, V.; Braun, I.; Brion, E.; Brown, A. M.; Bühler, R.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Carrigan, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chounet, L.-M.; Coignet, G.; Cornils, R.; Costamante, L.; Degrange, B.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Egberts, K.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Feinstein, F.; Ferrero, E.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Funk, Seb.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Hauser, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Kendziorra, E.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khélifi, B.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Lamanna, G.; Latham, I. J.; Le Gallou, R.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lohse, T.; Martin, J. M.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masterson, C.; Maurin, G.; McComb, T. J. L.; Moulin, E.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nolan, S. J.; Noutsos, A.; Olive, J.-P.; Orford, K. J.; Osborne, J. L.; Panter, M.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Ranchon, S.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rolland, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Saugé, L.; Schlenker, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schröder, R.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sol, H.; Spangler, D.; Spanier, F.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Superina, G.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.

    2007-08-01

    Context: The blazar 1ES 1101-232 was observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) of Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (ACT) in 2004 and 2005, for a live time of 43 h. VHE (E > 1011 eV) γ-rays were detected for the first time from this object. Aims: VHE observations of blazars are used to investigate the inner parts of the blazar jets, and also to study the extragalactic background light (EBL) in the near-infrared band. Methods: Observations in 2005 were conducted in a multiwavelength campaign, together with the RXTE satellite and optical observations. In 2004, simultaneous observations with XMM-Newton were obtained. Results: 1ES 1101-232 was detected with HESS with an excess of 649 photons, at a significance of 10σ. The measured VHE γ-ray flux amounts to dN/dE = (5.63 ± 0.89) × 10-13 (E/TeV)-(2.94±0.20) cm-2 s-1 TeV-1, above a spectral energy threshold of 225 GeV. No significant variation of the VHE γ-ray flux on any time scale was found. 1ES 1101-232 exhibits a very hard spectrum, and at a redshift of z = 0.186, is the blazar with the highest confirmed redshift detected in VHE γ-rays so far. Conclusions: The data allow the construction of truly simultaneous spectral energy distributions of the source, from the optical to the VHE band. Using an EBL model with ν Fν = 14 nWm-2 sr-1 at 1.5~μm as presented in Aharonian et al. (2006a) suggests an intrinsic VHE power output peak of the source at above 3 TeV.

  13. A low density of the extragalactic background light revealed by the H.E.S.S. spectra of the BL Lac objects 1ES 1101-232 and H 2356-309

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamante, Luigi

    2007-06-01

    The study of the TeV emission from extragalactic sources is hindered by the uncertainties on the diffuse Extragalactic Background Light (EBL). The recent H.E.S.S. results on the blazars 1ES 1101-232 and H 2356-309 represent a breakthrough on this issue. Their unexpectedly hard spectra allow an upper limit to be derived on the EBL in the optical/near-infrared range, which is very close to the lower limit given by the resolved galaxy counts. This result seems to exclude a large contribution to the EBL from other sources (e.g. Population III stars) and indicates that the intergalactic space is more transparent to γ-rays than previously thought. A discussion of EBL absorption effects and further observational tests with Cherenkov telescopes are presented.

  14. A low density of the Extragalactic Background Light revealed by the H.E.S.S. spectra of the BLLac objects 1ES 1101-232 and H 2356-309

    CERN Document Server

    Costamante, L

    2006-01-01

    The unexpectedly hard spectra measured by HESS for the BLLacs 1ES 1101-232 and H 2356-309 has allowed an upper limit on the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) to be derived in the optical/near-infrared range, which is very close to the lower limit given by the resolved galaxy counts. This result seems to exclude a large contribution to the EBL from other sources (e.g. Population III stars) and indicates that the intergalactic space is more transparent to gamma-rays than previously thought. A brief discussion of EBL absorption effects on blazar spectra and further observational tests to check this conclusion are presented, including the selection of new candidates for observations with Cherenkov telescopes.

  15. -Ray Emission from the Extreme Blazar 1ES 0229+200

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Li; T. Kang; Y. G. Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Based on the traditional Synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) model, we consider a secondary γ -ray emission component to an extreme blazar 1ES 0229 + 200 for the multiwavelength radiation. By assuming a suitable electron spectra and Inter-Galactic Magnetic Field (IGMF), we obtained excellent fits to observed spectra of the source. This indicated that the observed excess GeV -rays emission can be explained by secondary -rays produced through inverse Compton scattering of ± pairs against Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons.

  16. Investigating Broadband Variability of the TeV Blazar 1ES 1959+650

    CERN Document Server

    Aliu, E; Arlen, T; Aune, T; Barnacka, A; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berger, K; Bird, R; Bouvier, A; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Ciupik, L; Collins-Hughes, E; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Dumm, J; Eisch, J D; Falcone, A; Federici, S; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Griffiths, S T; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Hakansson, N; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Hughes, G; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kertzman, M; Khassen, Y; Kieda, D; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Madhavan, A S; Majumdar, P; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nelson, T; Nieto, D; de Bhroithe, A O'Faolain; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Perkins, J S; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Prokoph, H; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Rajotte, J; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Sadun, A; Santander, M; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Sheidaei, F; Smith, A W; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Theiling, M; Tyler, J; Varlotta, A; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Welsing, R; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B; Böttcher, M; Fumagalli, M

    2014-01-01

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959+650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift UVOT, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 17 April 2012 and 1 June 2012 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters required to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected-emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected b...

  17. Evidence of Two-Component Optical Polarization in Blazar 1ES 1959+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorcia, Marco; Benítez, Erika; Hiriart, David

    2013-12-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the optical polarimetric variability of the TeV-blazar 1 ES 1959+650 from 2007 October 18 to 2011 May 5. The source showed a maximum variation of 1.2 mag in R- band, and a maximum polarization degree of 12.2%. The blazar presented a preferential position angle of the optical polarization of ~ 153°, with variations of 10° - 50°, which is in agreement with the projected position angle of the parsec-scale jet found at 43 GHz. We infer the existence of the two optically thin synchrotron components that contribute to the polarized flux, consistent with the spine-sheath model. One of them is stable with a constant polarization degree of 4%. Assuming a stationary shock, we estimated some parameters associated with the physics of the relativistic jet: the Doppler factor of δD ˜ 23, the viewing angle of the jet of Φ ~ 2°.4, and the size of the emission region of rb ~ 5.6 × 1017 cm.

  18. Long-term optical polarization variability of the tev blazar 1es~1959+650

    CERN Document Server

    Sorcia, Marco; Hiriart, David; López, José M; Cabrera, José I; Mújica, Raúl; Heidt, Jochen; Agudo, Ivan; Nilsson, Kari; Mommert, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the optical polarimetric variability of the TeV blazar 1ES 1959+650 from 2007 October 18 to 2011 May 5 is presented. The source showed a maximum and minimum brightness states in the R-band of 14.08$\\pm$0.03 mag and 15.20$\\pm$0.03 mag, respectively, with a maximum variation of 1.12 mag, and also a maximum polarization degree of $P=$(12.2$\\pm$0.7)%, with a maximum variation of 10.7%. From August to November 2009, a correlation between the optical $R$-band flux and the degree of linear polarization was found, with a correlation coefficient $r_{pol}$=0.984$\\pm$0.025. The source presented a preferential position angle of optical polarization of $\\sim153^{\\circ}$, with variations of $10\\degr$-$50\\degr$, that is in agreement with the projected position angle of the parsec scale jet found at 43 GHz. From the Stokes parameters we infer the existence of two optically-thin synchrotron components that contribute to the polarized flux. One of them is stable, with a constant polarization degree of 4%...

  19. Evidence for the Secondary Emission as the Origin of Hard Spectra in TeV Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Y G

    2016-01-01

    We develop a model for a possible origin of hard very high energy spectra from a distant blazar. In the model, both the primary photons produced in the source and secondary photons produced outside the source contribute to the observed high energy $\\gamma$-rays emission. That is, the primary photons are produced in the source through the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) process, and the secondary photons are produced outside the source through high energy protons interaction with the background photons along the line of sight. We apply the model to a characteristic case was the very high energy (VHE) $\\gamma$-ray emissions in distant blazar 1ES 1101-232. Assuming a suitable electron and proton spectra, we obtain excellent fits to observed spectra of distant blazar 1ES 1101-232. This indicated that the surprisingly low attenuation of high energy $\\gamma$-rays, especially for the shape of the very high energy $\\gamma$-rays tail of the observed spectra, can be explained by secondary $\\gamma$-rays produced in inter...

  20. Extreme Blazars Studied with Fermi-LAT and Suzaku: 1ES 0347-121 and Blazar Candidate HESS J1943+213

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Y T; Finke, J; Cheung, C C; Dermer, C D; Kataoka, J; Bamba, A; Dubus, G; De Naurois, M; Wagner, S J; Fukazawa, Y; Thompson, D J

    2014-01-01

    We report on our study of high-energy properties of two peculiar TeV emitters: the "extreme blazar" 1ES 0347-121 and the "extreme blazar candidate" HESS J1943+213 located near the Galactic Plane. Both objects are characterized by quiescent synchrotron emission with flat spectra extending up to the hard X-ray range, and both were reported to be missing GeV counterparts in the Fermi-LAT 2-year Source Catalog. We analyze a 4.5 year accumulation of the Fermi-LAT data, resulting in the detection of 1ES 0347-121 in the GeV band, as well as in improved upper limits for HESS J1943+213. We also present the analysis results of newly acquired Suzaku data for HESS J1943+213. The X-ray spectrum is well represented by a single power law extending up to 25 keV with photon index 2.00+/-0.02 and a moderate absorption in excess of the Galactic value, in agreement with previous X-ray observations. No short-term X-ray variability was found over the 80 ks duration of the Suzaku exposure. Under the blazar hypothesis, we modeled th...

  1. Multiwavelength observations of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 in Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; de Almeida, U. Barres; Barrio, J. A.; González, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Mendez, C. Delgado; Pierro, F. Di; Prester, D. Dominis; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Elsaesser, D.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; López, R. J. García; Garczarczyk, M.; Terrats, D. Garrido; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; (Eisenacher), D. Glawion; Godinović, N.; Muñoz, A. González; Guberman, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Barbera, A. La; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Rosillo, M. Nievas; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Moroni, P. G. Prada; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Garcia, J. Rodriguez; Rügamer, S.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.; Lucarelli, F.; Pittori, C.; Vercellone, S.; Berdyugin, A.; Carini, M. T.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Pasanen, M.; Pease, A.; Sainio, J.; Tornikoski, M.; Walters, R.

    2016-07-01

    The BL Lac object 1ES 1011+496 was discovered at very high energy (VHE, E > 100GeV) γ-rays by Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) in Spring 2007. Before that the source was little studied in different wavelengths. Therefore, a multiwavelength (MWL) campaign was organized in Spring 2008. Along MAGIC, the MWL campaign included the Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Bell and Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien (KVA) optical telescopes and the Swift and AGILE satellites. MAGIC observations span from 2008 March to May for a total of 27.9 h, of which 19.4 h remained after quality cuts. The light curve showed no significant variability yielding an integral flux above 200 GeV of (1.3 ± 0.3) × 10-11 photons cm-2 s-1. The differential VHE spectrum could be described with a power-law function with a spectral index of 3.3 ± 0.4. Both results were similar to those obtained during the discovery. Swift X-ray Telescope observations revealed an X-ray flare, characterized by a harder-when-brighter trend, as is typical for high synchrotron peak BL Lac objects (HBL). Strong optical variability was found during the campaign, but no conclusion on the connection between the optical and VHE γ-ray bands could be drawn. The contemporaneous spectral energy distribution shows a synchrotron-dominated source, unlike concluded in previous work based on non-simultaneous data, and is well described by a standard one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. We also performed a study on the source classification. While the optical and X-ray data taken during our campaign show typical characteristics of an HBL, we suggest, based on archival data, that 1ES 1011+496 is actually a borderline case between intermediate and high synchrotron peak frequency BL Lac objects.

  2. Multi-Wavelength Observations of the Blazar 1ES 1011+496 in Spring 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Ahnen, M L; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Banerjee, B; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; Gonzalez, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Chatterjee, A; Clavero, R; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Mendez, C Delgado; Di Pierro, F; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Elsaesser, D; Fernandez-Barral, A; Fidalgo, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; Lopez, R J Garcia; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giammaria, P; Glawion, D; Godinovic, N; Munoz, A Gonzalez; Guberman, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Hughes, G; Idec, W; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; Lopez, M; Lopez-Coto, R; Lopez-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Manganaro, M; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martinez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Nakajima, D; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Rosillo, M Nievas; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palacio, J; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribo, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rugamer, S; Saito, T; Satalecka, K; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpaa, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzic, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Verguilov, V; Vovk, I; Ward, J E; Will, M; Wu, M H; Zanin, R; Lucarelli, F; Pittori, C; Berdyugin, A; Carini, M T; Lahteenmaki, A; Pasanen, M; Pease, A; Sainio, J; Tornikoski, M; Walters, R

    2016-01-01

    The BL Lac object 1ES 1011+496 was discovered at Very High Energy gamma-rays by MAGIC in spring 2007. Before that the source was little studied in different wavelengths. Therefore a multi-wavelength (MWL) campaign was organized in spring 2008. Along MAGIC, the MWL campaign included the Metsahovi radio observatory, Bell and KVA optical telescopes and the Swift and AGILE satellites. MAGIC observations span from March to May, 2008 for a total of 27.9 hours, of which 19.4 hours remained after quality cuts. The light curve showed no significant variability. The differential VHE spectrum could be described with a power-law function. Both results were similar to those obtained during the discovery. Swift XRT observations revealed an X-ray flare, characterized by a harder when brighter trend, as is typical for high synchrotron peak BL Lac objects (HBL). Strong optical variability was found during the campaign, but no conclusion on the connection between the optical and VHE gamma-ray bands could be drawn. The contempo...

  3. LONG-TERM OPTICAL POLARIZATION VARIABILITY OF THE TeV BLAZAR 1ES 1959+650

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorcia, Marco; Benitez, Erika; Cabrera, Jose I. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Hiriart, David; Lopez, Jose M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. 810, Ensenada, B.C. 22800 (Mexico); Mujica, Raul [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Heidt, Jochen; Mommert, Michael [ZAH, Landessternwarte Heidelberg, Koenigstuhl, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Agudo, Ivan [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Nilsson, Kari, E-mail: msorcia@astro.unam.mx [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland)

    2013-06-01

    A detailed analysis of the optical polarimetric variability of the TeV blazar 1ES 1959+650 from 2007 October 18 to 2011 May 5 is presented. The source showed maximum and minimum brightness states in the R band of 14.08 {+-} 0.03 mag and 15.20 {+-} 0.03 mag, respectively, with a maximum variation of 1.12 mag, and a maximum polarization degree of P = (12.2 {+-} 0.7)%, with a maximum variation of 10.7%. From 2009 August to November, a correlation between the optical R-band flux and the degree of linear polarization was found with a correlation coefficient r {sub pol} = 0.984 {+-} 0.025. The source presented a preferential position angle of optical polarization of {approx}153 Degree-Sign , with variations of 10 Degree-Sign -50 Degree-Sign , which is in agreement with the projected position angle of the parsec-scale jet found at 43 GHz. From the Stokes parameters we infer the existence of two optically thin synchrotron components that contribute to the polarized flux. One of them is stable with a constant polarization degree of 4%. Assuming a stationary shock for the variable component, we estimated some parameters associated with the physics of the relativistic jet: the magnetic field, B {approx} 0.06 G, the Doppler factor, {delta}{sub 0} {approx} 23, the viewing angle, {Phi} {approx} 2. Degree-Sign 4, and the size of the emission region r{sub b} {approx} 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm. Our study is consistent with the spine-sheath model of explaining the polarimetric variability displayed by this source during our monitoring.

  4. Long-term Optical Polarization Variability of the TeV Blazar 1ES 1959+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorcia, Marco; Benítez, Erika; Hiriart, David; López, José M.; Cabrera, José I.; Mújica, Raúl; Heidt, Jochen; Agudo, Iván; Nilsson, Kari; Mommert, Michael

    2013-06-01

    A detailed analysis of the optical polarimetric variability of the TeV blazar 1ES 1959+650 from 2007 October 18 to 2011 May 5 is presented. The source showed maximum and minimum brightness states in the R band of 14.08 ± 0.03 mag and 15.20 ± 0.03 mag, respectively, with a maximum variation of 1.12 mag, and a maximum polarization degree of P = (12.2 ± 0.7)%, with a maximum variation of 10.7%. From 2009 August to November, a correlation between the optical R-band flux and the degree of linear polarization was found with a correlation coefficient r pol = 0.984 ± 0.025. The source presented a preferential position angle of optical polarization of ~153°, with variations of 10°-50°, which is in agreement with the projected position angle of the parsec-scale jet found at 43 GHz. From the Stokes parameters we infer the existence of two optically thin synchrotron components that contribute to the polarized flux. One of them is stable with a constant polarization degree of 4%. Assuming a stationary shock for the variable component, we estimated some parameters associated with the physics of the relativistic jet: the magnetic field, B ~ 0.06 G, the Doppler factor, δ0 ~ 23, the viewing angle, Φ ~ 2.°4, and the size of the emission region rb ~ 5.6 × 1017 cm. Our study is consistent with the spine-sheath model of explaining the polarimetric variability displayed by this source during our monitoring.

  5. Discovery of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the blazar 1ES 0033+595 by the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, D Carreto; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Preziuso, S; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Tronconi, V; Buson, S

    2014-01-01

    The number of known very high energy (VHE) blazars is $\\sim\\,50$, which is very small in comparison to the number of blazars detected in other frequencies. This situation is a handicap for population studies of blazars, which emit about half of their luminosity in the $\\gamma$-ray domain. Moreover, VHE blazars, if distant, allow for the study of the environment that the high-energy $\\gamma$-rays traverse in their path towards the Earth, like the extragalactic background light (EBL) and the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF), and hence they have a special interest for the astrophysics community. We present the first VHE detection of 1ES\\,0033+595 with a statistical significance of 5.5\\,$\\sigma$. The VHE emission of this object is constant throughout the MAGIC observations (2009 August and October), and can be parameterized with a power law with an integral flux above 150 GeV of $(7.1\\pm1.3)\\times 10^{-12} {\\mathrm{ph\\,cm^{-2}\\,s^{-1}}}$ and a photon index of ($3.8\\pm0.7$). We model its spectral energy distrib...

  6. H.E.S.S and Fermi-LAT discovery of gamma rays from the blazar 1ES 1312-423

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E; Anton, G; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Bissaldi, E; Biteau, J; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Gast, H; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Göring, D; Grondin, M -H; Grudzińska, M; Häffner, S; Hague, J D; Hahn, J; Harris, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, F; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moulin, E; Murach, T; Naumann, C L; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Oakes, L; Ohm, S; de OñaWilhelmi, E; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Raue, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Spieß, F; Stawarz, {Ł }; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Ward, M; Weidinger, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S; Perkins, J S; Ojha, R; Stevens, J; Edwards, P G; Kadler, M

    2013-01-01

    A deep observation campaign carried out by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) on Centaurus A enabled the discovery of gamma rays from the blazar 1ES 1312-423, two degrees away from the radio galaxy. With a differential flux at 1 TeV of (1.9 +/-0.6(stat) +/-0.4(sys)) x 10^{-13} /cm^2 /s /TeV corresponding to 0.5% of the Crab nebula differential flux and a spectral index of 2.9 +/- 0.5 (stat) +/- 0.2 (sys), 1ES 1312-423 is one of the faintest sources ever detected in the very high energy (E>100 GeV) extragalactic sky. A careful analysis using three and a half years of Fermi-LAT data allows the discovery at high energies (E>100 MeV) of a hard spectrum (index of 1.4 +/- 0.4 (stat) +/- 0.2 (sys)) source coincident with 1ES 1312-423. Radio, optical, UV and X-ray observations complete the spectral energy distribution of this blazar, now covering 16 decades in energy. The emission is successfully fitted with a synchrotron self Compton model for the non-thermal component, combined with a black-body spectru...

  7. A three-year multi-wavelength study of the very-high-energy γ-ray blazar 1ES 0229+200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T.; Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Behera, B.; Chen, X. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); Dumm, J., E-mail: mcerruti@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jeremy.s.perkins@nasa.gov [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others

    2014-02-10

    The high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object 1ES 0229+200 is a relatively distant (z = 0.1396), hard-spectrum (Γ ∼ 2.5), very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) emitting γ-ray blazar. VHE measurements of this active galactic nucleus have been used to place constraints on the intensity of the extragalactic background light and the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF). A multi-wavelength study of this object centered around VHE observations by Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) is presented. This study obtained, over a period of three years, an 11.7 standard deviation detection and an average integral flux F(E > 300 GeV) = (23.3 ± 2.8{sub stat} ± 5.8{sub sys}) × 10{sup –9} photons m{sup –2} s{sup –1}, or 1.7% of the Crab Nebula's flux (assuming the Crab Nebula spectrum measured by H.E.S.S). Supporting observations from Swift and RXTE are analyzed. The Swift observations are combined with previously published Fermi observations and the VHE measurements to produce an overall spectral energy distribution which is then modeled assuming one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton emission. The χ{sup 2} probability of the TeV flux being constant is 1.6%. This, when considered in combination with measured variability in the X-ray band, and the demonstrated variability of many TeV blazars, suggests that the use of blazars such as 1ES 0229+200 for IGMF studies may not be straightforward and challenges models that attribute hard TeV spectra to secondary γ-ray production along the line of sight.

  8. Discovery of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the blazar 1ES 1727+502 with the MAGIC Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; Backes, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, D Carreto; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadamek, A; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Jankowski, F; Kadenius, V; Klepser, S; Knoetig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Masbou, J; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the Costamante & Ghisellini (2002) predictions we investigated if the blazar 1ES 1727+502 (z=0.055) is emitting very high energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma rays. We observed the BL Lac object 1ES 1727+502 in stereoscopic mode with the two MAGIC telescopes during 14 nights between May 6th and June 10th 2011, for a total effective observing time of 12.6 hours. For the study of the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) we use simultaneous optical R-band data from the KVA telescope, archival UV/optical and X-ray observations by instruments UVOT and XRT on board of the Swift satellite and high energy (HE, 0.1 GeV - 100 GeV) gamma-ray data from the Fermi-LAT instrument. We detect, for the first time, VHE gamma-ray emission from 1ES 1727+502 at a statistical significance of 5.5 sigma. The integral flux above 150 GeV is estimated to be (2.1\\pm0.4)% of the Crab Nebula flux and the de-absorbed VHE spectrum has a photon index of (2.7\\pm0.5). No significant short-term variability was found in an...

  9. Spectrum of Very High Energy Gamma-Rays from the blazar 1ES1959+650 during Flaring Activity in 2002

    CERN Document Server

    Daniel, M K; Boyle, P J; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Carter-Lewis, D A; Celik, O; Cui, W; Dowdall, C; Duke, C; Fegan, D J; La Perez, I C; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Fortson, L F; Gaidos, J A; Gibbs, K; Gammell, S; Hall, J; Hall, T A; Hillas, A M; Holder, J; Horan, D; Jordan, M; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Kildea, J; Knapp, J; Kosack, K; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Le Bohec, S; Linton, E T; Lloyd-Evans, J; Moriarty, P; Müller, D; Nagai, T N; Ong, R A; Page, M; Pallassini, R; Petry, D; Power-Mooney, B; Quinn, J; Rebillot, P; Reynolds, P T; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Swordy, S P; Vasilev, V V; Wakely, S P; Walker, G; Weekes, T C

    2005-01-01

    The blazar 1ES 1959+650 was observed in a flaring state with the Whipple 10 m Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope during May of 2002. A spectral analysis has been carried out on the data from that time period and the resulting very high energy gamma-ray spectrum ($E \\geq 316$ GeV) can be well fit by a power-law of differential spectral index \\alpha = 2.78 +/- 0.12_{stat.} +/- 0.21_{sys.}. On June 4th 2002, the source flared dramatically in the gamma-ray range without any coincident increase in the X-ray emission, providing the first unambiguous example of an `orphan' gamma-ray flare from a blazar. The gamma-ray spectrum for these data can also be described by a simple power-law fit with \\alpha = 2.82 +/- 0.15_{stat.} +/- 0.30_{sys.}. There is no compelling evidence for spectral variability, or for any cut-off to the spectrum.

  10. Insights into the emission of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 through unprecedented broadband observations during 2011 and 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de O na; Mendez, C Delgado; Di Pierro, F; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fernández-Barral, A; Fidalgo, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; noz, A González Mu; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Knoetig, M L; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Rosillo, M Nievas; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vogler, P; Will, M; Zanin, R; Buson, S; D'Ammando, F; Lähteenmäki, A; Hovatta, T; Kovalev, Y Y; Lister, M L; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mundell, C; Pushkarev, A B; Rastorgueva-Foi, E; Readhead, A C S; Richards, J L; Tammi, J; Sanchez, D A; Tornikoski, M; Savolainen, T; Steele, I

    2016-01-01

    1ES 1011+496 $(z=0.212)$ was discovered in very high energy (VHE, E >100 GeV) $\\gamma$-rays with MAGIC in 2007. The absence of simultaneous data at lower energies led to a rather incomplete characterization of the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED). We study the source properties and the emission mechanisms, probing whether a simple one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) scenario is able to explain the observed broadband spectrum. We analyzed VHE to radio data from 2011 and 2012 collected by MAGIC, $Fermi$-LAT, $Swift$, KVA, OVRO, and Mets\\"{a}hovi in addition to optical polarimetry data and radio maps from the Liverpool Telescope and MOJAVE. The VHE spectrum was fit with a simple power law with a photon index of $3.69\\pm0.22$ and a flux above 150 GeV of $(1.46\\pm0.16)\\times10^{-11}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. 1ES 1011+496 was found to be in a generally quiescent state at all observed wavelengths, showing only moderate variability from radio to X-rays. A low degree of polarization of less than 10\\% was...

  11. On the Spectral Curvature of VHE Blazar 1ES 1011+496: Effect of Spatial Particle Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Atreyee; Sahayanathan, S.; Acharya, B. S.; Anupama, G. C.; Chitnis, V. R.; Singh, B. B.

    2017-02-01

    A detailed multi-epoch study of the broadband spectral behavior of the very high energy (VHE) source 1ES 1011+496 provides us with valuable information regarding the underlying particle distribution. Simultaneous observations of the source at optical/UV/X-ray/γ-ray during three different epochs, as obtained from Swift-UVOT/Swift-XRT/Fermi-LAT, are supplemented with the information available from the VHE telescope array, HAGAR. The long-term flux variability at the Fermi-LAT energies is clearly found to be lognormal. It is seen that the broadband spectral energy distribution of 1ES 1011+496 can be successfully reproduced by synchrotron and synchrotron self Compton emission models. Notably, the observed curvature in the photon spectrum at X-ray energies demands a smooth transition of the underlying particle distribution from a simple power law to a power law with an exponential cutoff, or a smooth broken power law distribution, which may possibly arise when the escape of the particles from the main emission region is energy dependent. Specifically, if the particle escape rate is related to its energy as {E}0.5, then the observed photon spectrum is consistent with the ones observed during the various epochs.

  12. On the spectral curvature of VHE blazar 1ES\\,1011+496: Effect of spatial particle diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Atreyee; Acharya, B S; Anupama, G C; Chitnis, V R; Singh, B B

    2016-01-01

    A detailed multi-epoch study of the broadband spectral behaviour of the very high energy (VHE) source, 1ES\\,1011+496, provides us with valuable information regarding the underlying particle distribution. Simultaneous observations of the source at optical/ UV/ X-ray/ $\\gamma$-ray during three different epochs, as obtained from Swift-UVOT/ Swift-XRT/ Fermi-LAT, are supplemented with the information available from the VHE telescope array, HAGAR. The longterm flux variability at the Fermi-LAT energies is clearly found to be lognormal. It is seen that the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of 1ES\\,1011+496 can be successfully reproduced by synchrotron and synchrotron self Compton emission models. Notably, the observed curvature in the photon spectrum at X-ray energies demands a smooth transition of the underlying particle distribution from a simple power law to a power law with an exponential cutoff or a smooth broken power law distribution, which may possibly arise when the escape of the particles from ...

  13. Test of models of the cosmic infrared background with multiwavelength observations of the blazar 1ES 1218+30.4 in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T.; Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Böttcher, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Clippinger 339, Athens, OH 45701-2979 (United States); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W.; Feng, Q. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Federici, S., E-mail: krawcz@wuphys.wustl.edu [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); and others

    2014-06-20

    We present the results of a multi-wavelength campaign targeting the blazar 1ES 1218+30.4 with observations with the 1.3 m McGraw-Hill optical telescope, the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, and the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). The RXTE and VERITAS observations were spread over a 13 day period and revealed clear evidence for flux variability, and a strong X-ray and γ-ray flare on 2009 February 26 (MJD 54888). The campaign delivered a well-sampled broadband energy spectrum with simultaneous RXTE and VERITAS very high energy (VHE, >100 GeV) observations, as well as contemporaneous optical and Fermi observations. The 1ES 1218+30.4 broadband energy spectrum—the first with simultaneous X-ray and VHE γ-ray energy spectra—is of particular interest as the source is located at a high cosmological redshift for a VHE source (z = 0.182), leading to strong absorption of VHE gamma rays by photons from the optical/infrared extragalactic background light (EBL) via γ{sub VHE} + γ{sub EBL} → e {sup +} e {sup –} pair-creation processes. We model the data with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission model and with the extragalactic absorption predicted by several recent EBL models. We find that the observations are consistent with the SSC scenario and all the EBL models considered in this work. We discuss observational and theoretical avenues to improve on the EBL constraints.

  14. A Three-Year Multi-Wavelength Study of the Very High Energy Gamma-ray Blazar 1ES 0229+200

    CERN Document Server

    Aliu, E; Arlen, T; Aune, T; Behera, B; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berger, K; Bird, R; Bouvier, A; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Ciupik, L; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Duke, C; Dumm, J; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Federici, S; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Griffiths, S T; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Hughes, G; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kertzman, M; Khassen, Y; Kieda, D; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Madhavan, A S; Maier, G; Majumdar, P; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nieto, D; de Bhroithe, A O'Faolain; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Perkins, J S; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Prokoph, H; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Sembroski, G H; Smith, A W; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Theiling, M; Varlotta, A; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Welsing, R; Williams, D A; Zajczyk, A; Zitzer, B

    2013-01-01

    The high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object 1ES 0229+200 is a relatively distant (z = 0.1396), hard-spectrum (Gamma ~ 2.5), very-high-energy-emitting (E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray blazar. Very-high-energy measurements of this active galactic nucleus have been used to place constraints on the intensity of the extragalactic background light and the intergalactic magnetic field. A multi-wavelength study of this object centered around very-high-energy observations by VERITAS is presented. This study obtained, over a period of three years, an 11.7 standard deviation detection and an average integral flux F(E>300 GeV) = (23.3 +- 2.8_stat +- 5.8_sys) x 10^-9 photons m^-2 s^-1, or 1.7% of the Crab Nebula's flux (assuming the Crab Nebula spectrum measured by H.E.S.S). Supporting observations from Swift and RXTE are analyzed. The Swift observations are combined with previously published Fermi observations and the very-high-energy measurements to produce an overall spectral energy distribution which is then modeled assuming ...

  15. Discovery of VHE gamma-rays from the blazar 1ES 1215+303 with the MAGIC Telescopes and simultaneous multi-wavelength observations

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; Backes, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Bretz, T; Cañellas, A; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; del Pozo, E De Cea; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Ortega, A Diago; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Huber, B; Jankowski, F; Jogler, T; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Klepser, S; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Leonardo, E; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Makariev, M; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Niedzwiecki, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Paiano, S; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Pardo, S; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Pilia, M; Pochon, J; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Gimenez, I Puerto; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Strah, N; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Berdyugin, A; Buson, S; Järvelä, E; Larsson, S; Lähteenmäki, A; Tammi, J; de Lausanne, now at: Ecole polytechnique fédérale; Lausanne,; Switzerland,; Padova, supported by INFN; Energéticas, now at: Centro de Investigaciones; Tecnológicas, Medioambientales y; Madrid,; Spain,; KIPAC, now at:; Laboratory, SLAC National Accelerator; USA,; ESO, now at: Finnish Centre for Astronomy with; Turku, University of; Finland,; Observatory, Aalto University Metsähovi Radio; Metsähovintie,; Finland,; Physics, Department of; University, Stockholm; Stockholm,; Sweden,; Physics, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle; Stockholm,; Sweden,; Astronomy, Department of; University, Stockholm; Stockholm,; Sweden),

    2012-01-01

    Context. We present the discovery of very high energy (VHE, E > 100GeV) gamma-ray emission from the BL Lac object 1ES 1215+303 by the MAGIC telescopes and simultaneous multi-wavelength data in a broad energy range from radio to gamma-rays. Aims. We study the VHE gamma-ray emission from 1ES 1215+303 and its relation to the emissions in other wavelengths. Methods. Triggered by an optical outburst, MAGIC observed the source in January-February 2011 for 20.3 hrs. The target was monitored in the optical R-band by the KVA telescope that also performed optical polarization measurements. We triggered target of opportunity observations with the Swift satellite and obtained simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope and from the Mets\\"ahovi radio telescope. We also present the analysis of older MAGIC data taken in 2010. Results. The MAGIC observations of 1ES 1215+303 carried out in January-February 2011 resulted in the first detection of the source at VHE with a statistical significanc...

  16. Search for TeV $\\gamma$--ray emission from blazar 1ES1218+304 with TACTIC telescope during March-April 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, K K; Tickoo, A K; Rannot, R C; Chandra, P; Agarwal, N K; Gaur, K K; Goyal, A; Goyal, H C; Kumar, N; Marandi, P; Kothari, M; Bhatt, H; Chanchalani, K; Chouhan, N; Dhar, V K; Ghosal, B; Kaul, S R; Koul, M K; Koul, R; Venugopal, K; Bhat, C K; Borwankar, C; Bhagwan, J; Gupta, A C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present results of TeV $\\gamma$--ray observations of the high synchrotron peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1218+304 (z=0.182) with the $TACTIC$ (TeV Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope with Imaging Camera). The observations are primarily motivated by the unusually hard GeV-TeV spectrum of the source despite its relatively large redshift. The source is observed in the TeV energy range with the $TACTIC$ from March 1, 2013 to April 15, 2013 (MJD 56352--56397) for a total observation time of 39.62 h and no evidence of TeV $\\gamma$--ray activity is found from the source. The corresponding 99$\\%$ confidence level upper limit on the integral flux above a threshold energy of 1.1 TeV is estimated to be 3.41 $\\times10^{-12}$ photons cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ (i.e $<23\\%$ Crab Nebula flux) assuming a power law differential energy spectrum with photon index 3.0, as previously observed by the $MAGIC$ and $VERITAS$ telescopes. For the study of multi-wavelength emission from the source, we use nearly simultaneous optical,...

  17. BLAZARS AS ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY SOURCES: IMPLICATIONS FOR TeV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Kohta [Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dermer, Charles D. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Takami, Hajime [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Migliori, Giulia [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    The spectra of BL Lac objects and Fanaroff-Riley I radio galaxies are commonly explained by the one-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. Spectral modeling of correlated multiwavelength data gives the comoving magnetic field strength, the bulk outflow Lorentz factor, and the emission region size. Assuming the validity of the SSC model, the Hillas condition shows that only in rare cases such sources accelerate protons to much above 10{sup 19} eV, so {approx}> 10{sup 20} eV ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are likely to be heavy ions if powered by this type of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Survival of nuclei is shown to be possible in TeV BL Lacs and misaligned counterparts with weak photohadronic emissions. Another signature of hadronic production is intergalactic UHECR-induced cascade emission, which is an alternative explanation of the TeV spectra of some extreme non-variable blazars such as 1ES 0229+200 or 1ES 1101-232. We study this kind of cascade signal, taking into account effects of the structured extragalactic magnetic fields in which the sources should be embedded. We demonstrate the importance of cosmic-ray deflections on the {gamma}-ray flux, and show that required absolute cosmic-ray luminosities are larger than the average UHECR luminosity inferred from UHECR observations and can even be comparable to the Eddington luminosity of supermassive black holes. Future TeV {gamma}-ray observations using the Cerenkov Telescope Array and the High Altitude Water Cerenkov detector array can test for UHECR acceleration by observing >25 TeV photons from relatively low redshift sources such as 1ES 0229+200, and {approx}>TeV photons from more distant radio-loud AGNs.

  18. Hadronic Modeling of Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidinger Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing systematic search for sources of extragalactic gamma rays has now revealed many blazars in which the very high energy output can not consistently be described as synchrotron self-Compton radiation. In this paper a self consistent hybrid model is described, explaining the very high energy radiation of those blazars as proton synchrotron radiation accompanied by photo-hadronic cascades. As the model includes all relevant radiative processes it naturally includes the synchrotron self-Compton case as well, depending on the chosen parameters. This paper focuses on rather high magnetic fields to be present within the jet, hence the hadronically dominated case. To discriminate the hadronic scenario against external photon fields being upscattered within the jet to produce the dominating gamma-ray output, the temporal behavior of blazars may be exploited with the presented model. Variability reveals both, the highly non-linear nature caused by the photohadronic cascades and typical timescales as well as fingerprints in the inter-band lightcurves of the involved hadrons. The modeling of two individual sources is shown : 1 ES 1011+496, a high frequency peaked blazar at redshift z = 0.212, which is well described within the hybrid scenario using physically reasonable parameters. The short term variability of the second example, namely 3C 454.3, a Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar at z = 0.859, reveals the limitations of the gamma-rays being highly dominated by proton synchrotron radiation.

  19. Discovery of Variability in the Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission of 1ES 1218+304 with VERITAS

    CERN Document Server

    Acciari, V A; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Boltuch, D; Böttcher, M; Bradbury, S M; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cesarini, A; Ciupik, L; Cogan, P; Cui, W; Dickherber, R; Duke, C; Falcone, A; Finley, J P; Finnegan, G; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gall, D; Gibbs, K; Guenette, R; Gillanders, G H; Godambe, S; Grube, J; Hanna, D; Hui, C M; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Kaaret, P; Karlsson, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; LeBohec, S; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Moriarty, P; Nagai, T; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Pandel, D; Perkins, J S; Pichel, A; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Smith, A W; Steele, D; Swordy, S P; Theiling, M; Thibadeau, S; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Weisgarber, T; Williams, D A; 10.1088/2041-8205/709/2/L163

    2010-01-01

    We present results from an intensive VERITAS monitoring campaign of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1218+304 in 2008/2009. Although 1ES 1218+304 was detected previously by MAGIC and VERITAS at a persistent level of ~6% of the Crab Nebula flux, the new VERITAS data reveal a prominent flare reaching ~20% of the Crab. While very high energy (VHE) flares are quite common in many nearby blazars, the case of 1ES 1218+304 (redshift z = 0.182) is particularly interesting since it belongs to a group of blazars that exhibit unusually hard VHE spectra considering their redshifts. When correcting the measured spectra for absorption by the extragalactic background light, 1ES 1218+304 and a number of other blazars are found to have differential photon indices less than 1.5. The difficulty in modeling these hard spectral energy distributions in blazar jets has led to a range of theoretical gamma-ray emission scenarios, one of which is strongly constrained by these new VERITAS observations. We consider the implic...

  20. High Energy Neutrinos from Recent Blazar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Halzen, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The energy density of cosmic neutrinos measured by IceCube matches the one observed by Fermi in extragalactic photons that predominantly originate in blazars. This has inspired attempts to match Fermi sources with IceCube neutrinos. A spatial association combined with a coincidence in time with a flaring source may represent a smoking gun for the origin of the IceCube flux. In June 2015, the Fermi Large Area Telescope observed an intense flare from blazar 3C 279 that exceeded the steady flux of the source by a factor of forty for the duration of a day. We show that IceCube is likely to observe neutrinos, if indeed hadronic in origin, in data that are still blinded at this time. We also discuss other opportunities for coincident observations that include a recent flare from blazar 1ES 1959+650 that previously produced an intriguing coincidence with AMANDA observations.

  1. 1ES 0033+595 found in a very high state by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Chenevez, Jérôme;

    2014-01-01

    During recent Galactic Plane Scan survey observations (GPS, PI: A. Bazzano) performed between Dec 2, 2014 (08:47 UTC) and Dec 3, 2014 (00:26 UTC), INTEGRAL detected 1ES 0033+595 with both JEM-X and IBIS/ISGRI instruments. 1ES 0033+595 is a blazar near the Galactic plane belonging to the BL Lac type......; the source has recently been reported as one of the 50 or so blazars detected at TeV energies (Aleksic et al. 2014, http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.7059v1 ). 1ES 0033+595 was found in the combined JMX1+2 mosaic (effective exposure of 3.1 ksec, 3-10 keV band) with a flux of 20 +/-2 mCrab (3.4 x 10^-10 erg/cm2/s......) corresponding to a 10 sigma significance. It is also detected at higher energies ((in JEM-X2 only), with a flux of 21 +/-5 mCrab (or 2.5 x 10^-10 erg/cm2/s) at 4 sigma level (effective exposure of 1.2 ksec, 10-25 keV band). At even higher energies, IBIS/ISGRI found 1ES 0033+595Â at a flux level of 13.6+/-2 m...

  2. Blazar Monitoring List

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a compilation of sources in major blazar monitoring programs. This list contains all blazars known to be regularly monitored, plus all the MOJAVE- &...

  3. Mining the Blazar Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, P; Padovani, Paolo; Giommi, Paolo

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of our methods to "mine" the blazar sky, i.e., select blazar candidates with very high efficiency. These are based on the cross-correlation between public radio and X-ray catalogs and have resulted in two surveys, the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS) and the "Sedentary" BL Lac survey. We show that data mining is vital to select sizeable, deep samples of these rare active galactic nuclei and we touch upon the identification problems which deeper surveys will face.

  4. Blazar Sequence in Fermi Era

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liang Chen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we review the latest research results on the topic of blazar sequence. It seems that the blazar sequence is phenomenally ruled out, while the theoretical blazar sequence still holds. We point out that black hole mass is a dominated parameter accounting for high-power-high-synchrotron-peaked and low-power-low-sychrotron-peaked blazars. Because most blazars have similar size of emission region, theoretical blazar sequence implies that the break of Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) is a cooling break in nature.

  5. High redshift blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G

    2013-01-01

    Blazars are sources whose jet is pointing to us. Since their jets are relativistic, the flux is greatly amplified in the direction of motion, making blazars the most powerful persistent objects in the Universe. This is true at all frequencies, but especially where their spectrum peaks. Although the spectrum of moderate powerful sources peaks in the ~GeV range, extremely powerful sources at high redshifts peak in the ~MeV band. This implies that the hard X-ray band is the optimal one to find powerful blazars beyond a redshift of ~4. First indications strongly suggest that powerful high-z blazars harbor the most massive and active early black holes, exceeding a billion solar masses. Since for each detected blazars there must exist hundreds of similar, but misaligned, sources, the search for high-z blazars is becoming competitive with the search of early massive black holes using radio-quiet quasars. Finding how the two populations of black holes (one in jetted sources, the other in radio-quiet objects) evolve i...

  6. Swift for blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G

    2015-01-01

    I will review recent advances in the field of blazars, highlighting the contribution of Swift. Together with other operating satellites (most notably Fermi, but also AGILE, WISE, Planck) and ground based facilities such as Cherenkov telescopes, Swift was (and is) crucial for improving our understanding of blazars. The main advances in the blazar field made possible by Swift includes the opening of the time domain investigation, since there are several sources with hundreds of simultaneous optical, UV and X-ray data taken at different times; the possibility to measure the black hole mass in very powerful blazars, that show clear signs of accretion disk emission; the possibility to classify blazar candidates, through X-ray observations; the finding of the most powerful and distant blazars, emitting strongly in the hard X-ray band accessible to Swift/BAT. All these improvements had and have a great impact on our understanding on how relativistic jets are formed and emit, on their power, and on how the heavy blac...

  7. Core Dominance Parameter for -Ray Loud Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. H. Li; J. H. Fan; D. X. Wu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we compiled 572 blazars that have known core dominance parameter (log ), out of which 121 blazars are -ray loud blazars. We compared log between 121 blazars and the rest with non -ray detections, and found that -ray loud blazars showed a different distribution, and their average value of log is greater than that for non -ray blazars. Our analysis suggests that the -ray emissions are strongly beamed.

  8. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma Rays from 1ES 1440+122

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, S; Barnacka, A; Behera, B; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berger, K; Bird, R; Boettcher, M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Cardenzana, J V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Christiansen, J L; Ciupik, L; Collins-Hughes, E; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Dickinson, H J; Dumm, J; Eisch, J D; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Federici, S; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gillanders, G H; Godambe, S; Griffin, S; Griffiths, S T; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Haakansson, N; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Hughes, G; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kertzman, M; Khassen, Y; Kieda, D; Krawczynski, H; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Madhavan, A S; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Nelson, T; Nieto, D; de Bhroithe, A O'Faolain; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Perkins, J S; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Prokoph, H; Pueschel, E; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Rajotte, J; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Smith, A W; Staszak, D; Sweeney, K; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Varlotta, A; Vassiliev, V V; Wakely, S P; Welsing, R; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B

    2016-01-01

    The BL Lacertae object 1ES 1440+122 was observed in the energy range from 85 GeV to 30 TeV by the VERITAS array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The observations, taken between 2008 May and 2010 June and totalling 53 hours, resulted in the discovery of $\\gamma$-ray emission from the blazar, which has a redshift $z$=0.163. 1ES 1440+122 is detected at a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations above the background with an integral flux of (2.8$\\pm0.7_{\\mathrm{stat}}\\pm0.8_{\\mathrm{sys}}$) $\\times$ 10$^{-12}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ (1.2\\% of the Crab Nebula's flux) above 200 GeV. The measured spectrum is described well by a power law from 0.2 TeV to 1.3 TeV with a photon index of 3.1 $\\pm$ 0.4$_{\\mathrm{stat}}$ $\\pm$ 0.2$_{\\mathrm{sys}}$. Quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (0.3--300 GeV) and the Swift X-ray Telescope (0.2--10 keV) are additionally used to model the properties of the emission region. A synchrotron self-Compton model produces a good repr...

  9. VERITAS and Multiwavelength Observations of the BL Lacertae Object 1ES 1741+196

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, A U; Archer, A; Benbow, W; Bird, R; Biteau, J; Buchovecky, M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cardenzana, J V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Christiansen, J L; Ciupik, L; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Dickinson, H J; Dumm, J; Eisch, J D; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Flinders, A; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Hütten, M; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kelley-Hoskins, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Krause, M; Krennrich, F; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nieto, D; O'Brien, S; de Bhróithe, A O'Faoláin; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Pelassa, V; Petrashyk, A; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Pueschel, E; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Ratliff, G; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Rulten, C; Santander, M; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Smith, A W; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weiner, O M; Weinstein, A; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B

    2016-01-01

    We present results from multiwavelength observations of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 1741+196, including results in the very-high-energy $\\gamma$-ray regime using the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). The VERITAS time-averaged spectrum, measured above 180 GeV, is well-modelled by a power law with a spectral index of $2.7\\pm0.7_{\\mathrm{stat}}\\pm0.2_{\\mathrm{syst}}$. The integral flux above 180 GeV is $(3.9\\pm0.8_{\\mathrm{stat}}\\pm1.0_{\\mathrm{syst}})\\times 10^{-8}$ m$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, corresponding to 1.6% of the Crab Nebula flux on average. The multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of the source suggests that 1ES 1741+196 is an extreme-high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object. The observations analysed in this paper extend over a period of six years, during which time no strong flares were observed in any band. This analysis is therefore one of the few characterizations of a blazar in a non-flaring state.

  10. Discovery of very high energy gamma rays from 1ES 1440+122

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Böttcher, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Nelson, T.; Nieto, D.; de Bhróithe, A. O'Faoláin; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Sweeney, K.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wakely, S. P.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2016-09-01

    The BL Lacertae object 1ES 1440+122 was observed in the energy range from 85 GeV to 30 TeV by the VERITAS array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The observations, taken between 2008 May and 2010 June and totalling 53 h, resulted in the discovery of γ-ray emission from the blazar, which has a redshift z = 0.163. 1ES 1440+122 is detected at a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations above the background with an integral flux of (2.8 ± 0.7stat ± 0.8sys) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 (1.2 per cent of the Crab Nebula's flux) above 200 GeV. The measured spectrum is described well by a power law from 0.2 to 1.3 TeV with a photon index of 3.1 ± 0.4stat ± 0.2sys. Quasi-simultaneous multiwavelength data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (0.3-300 GeV) and the Swift X-ray Telescope (0.2-10 keV) are additionally used to model the properties of the emission region. A synchrotron self-Compton model produces a good representation of the multiwavelength data. Adding an external-Compton or a hadronic component also adequately describes the data.

  11. VERITAS and multiwavelength observations of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 1741+196

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Flinders, A.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Huetten, M.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Brien, S.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Pelassa, V.; Petrashyk, A.; Petry, D.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Ratliff, G.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Reynolds, K.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rulten, C.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2016-07-01

    We present results from multiwavelength observations of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 1741 + 196, including results in the very high energy γ-ray regime using the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). The VERITAS time-averaged spectrum, measured above 180 GeV, is well modelled by a power law with a spectral index of 2.7 ± 0.7stat ± 0.2syst. The integral flux above 180 GeV is (3.9 ± 0.8stat ± 1.0syst) × 10-8 m-2 s-1, corresponding to 1.6 per cent of the Crab nebula flux on average. The multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of the source suggests that 1ES 1741+196 is an extreme-high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object. The observations analysed in this paper extend over a period of six years, during which time no strong flares were observed in any band. This analysis is therefore one of the few characterizations of a blazar in a non-flaring state.

  12. Variability of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Fan; Y. Liu; Y. Li; Q. F. Zhang; J. Tao; O. Kurtanidze

    2011-03-01

    Variability is one of the characteristics of blazars. The rapid variability is superposed on the long term variation. In this work, the variability on different time scales, such as intra-day (IDV), short-term (STV) and long-term (LTV) variations are presented for some sources. We also presented our own observations of some selected objects, for which the historical data were compiled for periodicity analysis using several methods. The parameters of the binary black hole system OJ 287 are determined.

  13. Accretion Discs in Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Jolley, E. J. D.; Kuncic, Z.; Bicknell, G. V.; Wagner, S.(Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117, Heidelberg, Germany)

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic properties of blazars (rapid variability, strong polarization, high brightness) are widely attributed to a powerful relativistic jet oriented close to our line of sight. Despite the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) being strongly jet-dominated, a "big blue bump" has been recently detected in sources known as flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). These new data provide a unique opportunity to observationally test coupled jet-disc accretion models in these extreme sources....

  14. The nature of transition blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, J. J.; Anderson, S. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Plotkin, R. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Burnett, T. H. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States); Myers, A. D., E-mail: jruan@astro.washington.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy 3905, University of Wyoming, 1000 East University, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Blazars are classically divided into the BL Lacertae (BLL) and flat-spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) subclasses, corresponding to radiatively inefficient and efficient accretion regimes, respectively, largely based on the equivalent width (EW) of their optical broad emission lines (BELs). However, EW-based classification criteria are not physically motivated, and a few blazars have previously transitioned' from one subclass to the other. We present the first systematic search for these transition blazars in a sample of 602 unique pairs of repeat spectra of 354 blazars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, finding six clear cases. These transition blazars have bolometric Eddington ratios of ∼0.3 and low-frequency synchrotron peaks, and are thus FSRQ-like. We show that the strong EW variability (up to an unprecedented factor of >60) is due to swamping of the BELs from variability in jet continuum emission, which is stronger in amplitude and shorter in timescale than typical blazars. Although these transition blazars appear to switch between FSRQ and BLL according to the phenomenologically based EW scheme, we show that they are most likely rare cases of FSRQs with radiatively efficient accretion flows and especially strongly beamed jets. These results have implications for the decrease of the apparent BLL population at high redshifts, and may lend credence to claims of a negative BLL redshift evolution.

  15. Gamma Rays From Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Tavecchio, F

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are high-energy engines providing us natural laboratories to study particle acceleration, relativistic plasma processes, magnetic field dynamics, black hole physics. Key informations are provided by observations at high-energy (in particular by Fermi/LAT) and very-high energy (by Cherenkov telescopes). I give a short account of the current status of the field, with particular emphasis on the theoretical challenges connected to the observed ultra-fast variability events and to the emission of flat spectrum radio quasars in the very high energy band.

  16. Detection of Exceptional X-Ray Spectral Variability in the TeV BL Lac 1ES 2344+514

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, P; Perlman, E S

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of six BeppoSAX observations of 1ES 2344+514, five of which were taken within a week. 1ES 2344+514, one of the few known TeV BL Lac objects, was detected by the BeppoSAX Narrow Field Instruments between 0.1 to large amplitude luminosity variability, associated with spectacular spectral changes, particularly when compared to the last observation when the source was found to be several times fainter, with a much steeper X-ray spectrum. The energy dependent shape of the lightcurve and the spectral changes imply a large shift (factor of 30 or more in frequency) of the peak of the synchrotron emission. At maximum flux the peak was located at or above 10 keV, making 1ES 2344+514 the second blazar (after MKN501) with the synchrotron peak in the hard X-ray band. The shift, and the corresponding increase in luminosity, might be due to the onset of a second synchrotron component extending from the soft to the hard X-ray band where most of the power is emitted. Rapid variability on a timescale of ...

  17. AGN Winds and Blazar Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2012-01-01

    The launch of {\\em Fermi} produced a significant number of AGN detections to allow statistical treatment of their properties. One of the first such systematics was the "Blazar Divide" in FSRQs and BL Lacs according to their gamma-ray spectral index and luminosity. Further data accumulation indicated this separation to be less clear than thought before. An MHD wind model which can model successfully the Seyfert X-ray absorber properties provides the vestiges of an account of the observed blazar classification. We propose to employ this model to model in detail the broad band blazar spectra and their statistical properties in terms of the physical parameters of these MHD winds.

  18. Multiwavelength Observations of 1ES 1959+650, One Year After the Strong Outburst of 2002

    CERN Document Server

    Gutíerrez, K; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Celik, O; Chow, Y C; Cogan, P; Cui, W; Daniel, M; Falcone, A; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Gillanders, G H; Grube, J; Holder, J; Horan, D; Hughes, S B; Jung, I; Kieda, D; Kosack, K; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Le Bohec, S; Maier, G; Moriarty, P; Perkins, J; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Rebillot, P F; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Wakely, S P; Weekes, T C; White, R J

    2006-01-01

    In April-May 2003, the blazar 1ES 1959+650 showed an increased level of X-ray activity. This prompted a multiwavelength observation campaign with the Whipple 10 m gamma-ray telescope, the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, the Bordeaux Optical Observatory, and the University of Michigan Radio Astrophysical Observatory. We present the multiwavelength data taken from May 2, 2003 to June 7, 2003 and compare the source characteristics with those measured during observations taken during the years 2000 and 2002. The X-ray observations gave a data set with high signal-to-noise light curves and energy spectra; however, the gamma-ray observations did not reveal a major TeV gamma-ray flare. Furthermore, we find that the radio and optical fluxes do not show statistically significant deviations from those measured during the 2002 flaring periods. While the X-ray flux and X-ray photon index appear correlated during subsequent observations, the apparent correlation evolved significantly between the years 2000, 2002, and 2003. W...

  19. Multicolor Observations of Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, L.; Carini, M. T.; Scott, R. L.; Barnaby, D.; Ryle, W. T.; Monroe, T. R.

    2003-05-01

    Blazars are the most extreme members of a class of objects known as Active Galactic Nuclei. The defining characteristics of Blazars are large amplitude continuum variability at all wavelengths, a featureless optical continuum, and large amplitude, highly variable polarization. Variations on the timescale of hours are known as microvariability, and represent the fastest variations observed in these sources and thus (via light travel time arguments) provide the tightest constraints on the size of the emission region. Using the 42 inch Hall telescope at Lowell Observatory and the 0.6 meter telescope at Bell Observatory at Western Kentucky University, we obtained observations of the objects PKS 0716+714 and BL Lacertae in B and I filters and the objects OJ 287 and 3C 66A in V and I filters. These observations allow us to 1) set limits to the size of the emission regions responsible for any observed microvariability and 2) determine what, if any, amplitude difference exists between the variations at widely separated optical bands and to determine if lags exist in the variations at different optical bands. Funding for this research was provided by the NASA/Kentucky Space Grant Consortium, NASA/Kentucky EPSCoR Program and the Applied Research and Technology Program at WKU.

  20. AGILE and blazar studies

    CERN Document Server

    Marisaldi, M; Vercellone, S; Donnarumma, I; Bulgarelli, A; Chen, A W; Giuliani, A; Longo, F; Pacciani, L; Pucella, G; Tavani, M; Vittorini, V

    2009-01-01

    During the first two years of observation, AGILE detected several blazars at high significance: 3C 279, 3C 454.3, PKS 1510-089, S5 0716+714, 3C 273, W Comae, Mrk 421 and PKS 0537-441. We obtained long-term coverage of 3C 454.3, for a total of more than three months at energies above 100 MeV. 3C 273 was the first blazar detected simultaneously by the AGILE gamma-ray detector and by its hard X-ray monitor. S5 0716+714, an intermediate BL Lac object, exhibited a very fast and intense gamma-ray transient during an optical high-state phase, challenging the current theoretical models for energy extraction from a rotating black hole, while W Comae and Mkn 421 were detected during an AGILE Target of Opportunity (ToO) repointing, and were simultaneously detected by Cherenkov telescopes. Thanks to the rapid dissemination of our alerts, we were able to obtain multi-wavelength ToO data from other observatories such as Spitzer, Swift, RXTE, Suzaku, INTEGRAL, MAGIC, VERITAS, as well as radio-to-optical coverage by means of...

  1. The CLASS blazar survey: testing the blazar sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Caccianiga, A

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the properties of the sources in the CLASS Blazar survey which aims at the selection of low radio power (P(5GHz)<10^25 W Hz^-1) blazars. We use VLA data from available catalogues and from our own observations to constrain the radio core-dominance of the sample which, together with the flat radio spectral index, is a signature of the blazar activity. X-ray data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey were also collected in order to constrain the radio-to-X-ray luminosity ratio (alpha_RX) of the sources. The data analysis shows that more than 30% of sources at low radio power (P(5 GHz)<10^25 W Hz^-1) have an alpha_RX steeper than that expected in the framework of the ``blazar sequence'' recently put forward to unify the high and low power blazars. The possibility that this result is influenced by contaminating sources in the current sample is discussed. The conclusion is that, even if a number of non-blazars (typically CSO/GPS sources) are expected in the survey, it is unlikely that this constitutes the ...

  2. Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and 1ES 1426+428 at 100 GeV with the CELESTE Cherenkov Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D A; Britto, R; Bruel, P; Gordo, J B; Dumora, D; Durand, E; Eschstruth, P; Espigat, P; Holder, J; Jacholkowska, A; Lavalle, J; Le Gallou, R; Lott, B; Manseri, H; Munz, F; Nuss, E; Piron, Frédéric; Reposeur, T; Sako, T

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the gamma-ray fluxes of the blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 in the energy range between 50 and 350 GeV (1.2 to 8.3 x 10^25 Hz). The detector, called CELESTE, used first 40, then 53 heliostats of the former solar facility "Themis" in the French Pyrenees to collect Cherenkov light generated in atmospheric particle cascades. The signal from Mrk 421 is often strong. We compare its flux with previously published multi-wavelength studies and infer that we are straddling the high energy peak of the spectral energy distribution. The signal from Mrk 501 in 2000 was weak (3.4 sigma). We obtain an upper limit on the flux from 1ES 1426+428 of less than half that of the Crab flux near 100 GeV. The data analysis and understanding of systematic biases have improved compared to previous work, increasing the detector's sensitivity.

  3. STACEE Observations of 1ES 1218+304

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, R; Ball, J; Carson, J E; Covault, C E; Driscoll, D D; Fortin, P; Gingrich, D M; Hanna, D S; Jarvis, A; Kildea, J; Lindner, T; Müller, C; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J

    2007-01-01

    We present the analysis and results of recent high-energy gamma-ray observations of the high energy-peaked BL Lac (HBL) object 1ES 1218+304 with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE). 1ES 1218+304 is an X-ray bright HBL at a redshift z=0.182. It has been predicted to be a gamma-ray emitter above 100 GeV, detectable by ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. Recently this source has been detected by MAGIC and VERITAS, confirming these predictions. STACEE's sensitivity to astrophysical sources at energies above 100 GeV allows it to explore high energy sources such as X-ray bright active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts. We present results from STACEE observations of 1ES 1218+304 in the 2006 and 2007 observing seasons.

  4. Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alok C. Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Here we report our recent discoveries of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in blazars time series data in X-ray and optical electromagnetic bands. Any such detection can give important clues of the location and nature of the processes of emission mechanism. In the case of radio-quiet AGN, the detected QPOs are very likely to be associated with the accretion disk. But in the case of blazars, it may be associated with jets in the high and outburst states, and in the low-state, it is probably associated with the accretion disk. In this brief review, I summarize the recent QPO detections in blazars. There is one strong evidence of QPO detection in XMM–Newton time series data of narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396 about which we will also discuss briefly.

  5. FACT. More than four years of blazar monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Since October 2011, the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) has been collecting more than 5500 hours of physics data. Thanks to the silicon based photosensors (SiPMs, aka G-APDs), observations during bright ambient light like full moon can be carried out without degradation of the sensors. Keeping the gain of the SiPMs stable using an online feedback system, a stable and homogeneous detector performance is achieved. Based on this and an automatic data taking procedure, an unbiased longterm data sample is collected. An automatic quick look analysis provides results shortly after the data are taken allowing to send flare alerts within the same night. The main targets for FACT are the bright TeV blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 which are monitored since January 2012. In addition, several other sources like for example the Crab Nebula, 1ES 1959+650, 1ES 2344+54.1 are observed. In this presentation, the results from more than four years of monitoring are summarized. Several flares from Mrk 501 and Mrk 421 are discussed in the multi-wavelength (MWL) context. Mrk 501 underwent major outbursts in June 2012 and June 2014 during the yearly MWL campaigns. Mrk 421 showed a bright flare in April 2013 where also MWL observations are available. 1ES 1959+650 showed enhanced flux in autumn 2015. Results from these observations are discussed.

  6. Debeamed Sequence of LBAS Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bangrong Huang; Xiong Zhang; Dingrong Xiong; Haojin Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We have collected a sample of 71 -ray blazars selected from the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). The correlation between synchrotron peak luminosities p and synchrotron peak frequencies p have been studied and there is a weak negative correlation. But after correcting the effect of redshift and Doppler boosting, the relation between intrinsic 'p and 'p show significant positive correlation.

  7. Thermal AGN Signatures in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Perlman, E S; Georganopoulos, M; Wingert, B; Graff, P

    2008-01-01

    Long ignored in blazars because of the dominance of the beamed radiation from the jet, the topic of thermal emissions in these objects is just beginning to be explored. While this emission is weak in most blazars compared to the dominant nonthermal jet components, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests that thermal emission is observable even in the most highly beamed objects. The emitting regions, which can include the accretion disk as well as the torus, are key parts of the central engine which also powers the jets. They also may be of critical importance in helping us decide between unified scheme models. We will review the observational evidence for thermal emissions in blazars, with an emphasis on recent work, and the spectral and variability characteristics that have been observed. The majority of the evidence for thermal emission in blazars (now observed in several objects) has come as a result of multiwavelength campaigns, where the object showed a clear bump in the optical-UV in a faint s...

  8. Search for Blazar Flux-correlated TeV Neutrinos in IceCube 40-string Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, C. F.; Fox, D. B.; Murase, K.; Falcone, A.; Barnaba, M.; Coutu, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Filippatos, G.; Hanna, C.; Keivani, A.; Messick, C.; Mészáros, P.; Mostafá, M.; Oikonomou, F.; Shoemaker, I.; Toomey, M.; Tešić, G.; Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network, For The

    2016-12-01

    We present a targeted search for blazar flux-correlated high-energy ({\\varepsilon }ν ≳ 1 TeV) neutrinos from six bright northern blazars, using the public database of northern hemisphere neutrinos detected during “IC40” 40-string operations of the IceCube neutrino observatory (2008 April to 2009 May). Our six targeted blazars are subjects of long-term monitoring campaigns by the VERITAS TeV γ-ray observatory. We use the publicly available VERITAS light curves to identify periods of excess and flaring emission. These predefined intervals serve as our “active temporal windows” in a search for an excess of neutrinos, relative to Poisson fluctuations of the near-isotropic atmospheric neutrino background, which dominates at these energies. After defining the parameters of an optimized search, we confirm the expected Poisson behavior with Monte Carlo simulations prior to testing for excess neutrinos in the actual data. We make two searches: one for excess neutrinos associated with the bright flares of Mrk 421 that occurred during the IC40 run, and one for excess neutrinos associated with the brightest emission periods of five other blazars (Mrk 501, 1ES 0806+524, 1ES 1218+304, 3C 66A, and W Comae), all significantly fainter than the Mrk 421 flares. We find no significant excess of neutrinos from the preselected blazar directions during the selected temporal windows. We derive 90% confidence upper limits on the number of expected flux-associated neutrinos from each search. These limits are consistent with previous point-source searches and Fermi GeV flux-correlated searches. Our upper limits are sufficiently close to the physically interesting regime that we anticipate that future analyses using already-collected data will either constrain models or yield discovery of the first blazar-associated high-energy neutrinos.

  9. Optical Monitoring of TeV Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Michael T.; Barnaby, D.; Walters, R.; Maune, J.; Shakhovskoy, D.; Antonyuk, K.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of long term optical monitoring of known and candidate TeV Blazars. These observations were obtained with the 0.6m telescope at the Bell Observatory of Western Kentucky University and the 1.3M AZT11 telescope at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. A total of 10 known TeV Blazars and 11 TeV Blazar candidates are being monitored. Some of the known TeV Blazars are being monitored as part of the Whipple 10m Blazar monitoring program. The recent success of Magic in detecting Blazars based on enhanced optical activity has resulted in us adding additional TeV candidate sources to our routine optical monitoring list. The detection of enhanced optical activity in these sources will then be used to trigger TeV observations.

  10. Intergalactic Magnetic Fields and Gamma Ray Observations of Extreme TeV Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Arlen, Timothy C; Weisgarber, Thomas; Wakely, Scott P; Shafi, S Yusef

    2012-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) can be indirectly probed through its effect on electromagnetic cascades initiated by a source of TeV gamma-rays, such as active galactic nuclei (AGN). AGN that are sufficiently luminous at TeV energies, extreme TeV blazars, can produce detectable levels of secondary radiation from Inverse Compton (IC) scattering of the electrons in the cascade, provided that the IGMF is not too large. We review recent work in the literature which utilizes this idea to derive constraints on the IGMF for three TeV-detected blazars-1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1218+304, and RGB J0710+591, and we also investigate four other hard-spectrum TeV blazars in the same context. Through a recently developed detailed Monte Carlo code, incorporating all major effects of QED and cosmological expansion, we research effects of major uncertainties such as the spectral properties of the source, uncertainty in the UV - far IR extragalactic background light (EBL), undersampled Very High Energy (VHE; energy > 100 GeV) c...

  11. Bethe-Heitler cascades as a plausible origin of hard spectra in distant TeV blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Y G; Kang, S J

    2016-01-01

    Context. Very high-energy (VHE) $\\gamma$-ray measurements of distant TeV blazars can be nicely explained by TeV spectra induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays. Aims. We develop a model for a plausible origin of hard spectra in distant TeV blazars. Methods. In the model, the TeV emission in distant TeV blazars is dominated by two mixed components. The first is the internal component with the photon energy around 1 TeV produced by inverse Compton scattering of the relativistic electrons on the synchrotron photons (SSC) with a correction for extragalactic background light absorbtion and the other is the external component with the photon energy more than 1 TeV produced by the cascade emission from high-energy protons propagating through intergalactic space. Results. Assuming suitable model parameters, we apply the model to observed spectra of distant TeV blazars of 1ES 0229+200. Our results show that 1) the observed spectrum properties of 1ES 0229+200, especially the TeV $\\gamma$-ray tail of the observed spect...

  12. Optical Observations Of Fermi LAT Monitored Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kyle; Carini, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    For the past 8 years the Bell Observatory at Western Kentucky University has been conducting R band monitoring of the variability of approximately 50 Blazars. A subset of these objects are being routinely observed with the LAT instrument on-board the Fermi Space Telescope. Adding the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak National Observatory and observations with the AZT-11 telescope at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CRAO), we are intensively monitoring the Blazars on the Lat monitoring list. We present the results of our long term monitoring of the LAT monitored Blazars, as well as the recent contemporaneous optical R band observations we have obtained of the LAT Blazars.

  13. A Luminous and Isolated Gamma-Ray Flare from the Blazar B2 1215+30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Hütten, M.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nguyen, T.; Nieto, D.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Pelassa, V.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rulten, C.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; VERITAS Collaboration; Fegan, S.; Giebels, B.; Horan, D.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Berdyugin, A.; Kuan, J.; Lindfors, E.; Nilsson, K.; Oksanen, A.; Prokoph, H.; Reinthal, R.; Takalo, L.; Zefi, F.

    2017-02-01

    B2 1215+30 is a BL-Lac-type blazar that was first detected at TeV energies by the MAGIC atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes and subsequently confirmed by the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) observatory with data collected between 2009 and 2012. In 2014 February 08, VERITAS detected a large-amplitude flare from B2 1215+30 during routine monitoring observations of the blazar 1ES 1218+304, located in the same field of view. The TeV flux reached 2.4 times the Crab Nebula flux with a variability timescale of 10, and an electron population with spectral index p< 2.3.

  14. Optical Spectral Variability of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haritma Gaur

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that blazars show flux variations in the complete electromagnetic (EM) spectrum on all possible time scales ranging from a few tens of minutes to several years. Here, we report the review of optical flux and spectral variability properties of different classes of blazars on IDV and STV time-scales. Our analysis show HSPs are less variable in optical bands as compared to LSPs. Also, we investigated the spectral slope variability and found that the average spectral slopes of LSPs showed a good agreement with the synchrotron self-Compton loss-dominated model. However, spectra of the HSPs and FSRQs have significant additional emission components. In general, spectra of BL Lacs get flatter when they become brighter, while for FSRQs the opposite trend appears to hold.

  15. Studies of inverse-Compton emission in the Crab Nebula and the BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Faolain de Bhroithe, Anna

    This thesis concerns the study of inverse-Compton emission from two astrophysical sources. The first object, 1ES 1959+650, is a nearby active galactic nucleus. This source was observed as part of the VERITAS blazar monitoring programme in the hopes of detecting it in the midst of a dramatic flaring event. Over the course of these monitoring observations which span four years, a significant detection of the source in its low state was accumulated. The spectral energy distribution of this source was analysed from optical to VHE and was modelled with a synchrotron self-Compton model with an additional external Compton component. The parameters obtained cannot be fully explained by first-order Fermi acceleration at parallel shocks, and instead may suggest particle acceleration at oblique subluminal shocks, or that 1ES 1959+650 may consist of an inhomogeneous jet with a fast inner spine and slower-moving outer cocoon. The second source is the famous Crab Nebula, for years considered the standard candle of X-ray to VHE gamma-ray astronomy. VERITAS observed the Crab Nebula during the recent flare of the high-energy synchrotron component of the source in March 2013. No enhanced VHE emission was detected, but the observations facilitated the calculation of upper limits on any extra VHE spectral component emerging during the flare. A wealth of archival VHE Crab Nebula data also exists, spanning many years. An extended VHE data set of the source from 2000 to 2013 was compiled from Whipple 10m Telescope and VERITAS observations. This data set was searched for short-term flaring activity, but no evidence of this behaviour was found. A slight decrease in the long-term flux of the nebula was detected in the VERITAS data in 2011. This could possibly be correlated with increasing instability of the aerosol content of the local atmosphere around the VERITAS site.

  16. HIGH ENERGY POLARIZATION OF BLAZARS: DETECTION PROSPECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pavlidou, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Fields, B. D. [Department of Astronomy and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  17. Search for Magnetically Broadened Cascade Emission from Blazars with VERITAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Buchovecky, M.; Bugaev, V.; Cerruti, M.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Falcone, A.; Fernández Alonso, M.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Griffin, S.; Hütten, M.; Hervet, O.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lin, T. T. Y.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; Moriarty, P.; Nieto, D.; O’Brien, S.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Sadeh, I.; Shahinyan, K.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tyler, J.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Wilcox, P.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2017-02-01

    We present a search for magnetically broadened gamma-ray emission around active galactic nuclei (AGNs), using VERITAS observations of seven hard-spectrum blazars. A cascade process occurs when multi-TeV gamma-rays from an AGN interact with extragalactic background light (EBL) photons to produce electron–positron pairs, which then interact with cosmic microwave background photons via inverse-Compton scattering to produce gamma-rays. Due to the deflection of the electron–positron pairs, a non-zero intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) would potentially produce detectable effects on the angular distribution of the cascade emission. In particular, an angular broadening compared to the unscattered emission could occur. Through non-detection of angularly broadened emission from 1ES 1218+304, the source with the largest predicted cascade fraction, we exclude a range of IGMF strengths around 10‑14 G at the 95% confidence level. The extent of the exclusion range varies with the assumptions made about the intrinsic spectrum of 1ES 1218+304 and the EBL model used in the simulation of the cascade process. All of the sources are used to set limits on the flux due to extended emission.

  18. On the classification of flaring states of blazar

    CERN Document Server

    Resconi, E; Gross, A; Costamante, L; Flaccomio, E

    2009-01-01

    The time evolution of the electromagnetic emission from blazars, in particular high frequency peaked sources (HBLs), displays irregular activity not yet understood. In this work we report a methodology capable of characterizing the time behavior of these variable objects. The Maximum Likelihood Blocks (MLBs) is a model-independent estimator which sub-divides the light curve into time blocks, whose length and amplitude are compatible with states of constant emission rate of the observed source. The MLBs yields the statistical significance in the rate variations and strongly suppresses the noise fluctuations in the light curves. We apply the MLBs for the first time on the long term X-ray light curves (RXTE/ASM) of Mkn~421,Mkn~501, 1ES 1959+650 and 1ES 2155-304, which consist of more than 10 years of observational data (1996-2007). Using the MLBs interpretation of RXTE/ASM data, the integrated time flux distribution is determined for each single source considered. We identify in these distributions the character...

  19. VERITAS detection of $\\gamma$-ray flaring activity from the BL Lac object 1ES 1727+502 during bright moonlight observations

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, S; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Bird, R; Biteau, J; Bouvier, A; Bugaev, V; Cardenzana, J V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Ciupik, L; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Dickinson, H J; Dumm, J; Eisch, J D; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Griffiths, S T; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Håkansson, N; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kertzman, M; Khassen, Y; Kieda, D; Krause, M; Krennrich, F; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nieto, D; de Bhróithe, A O'Faoláin; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Prokoph, H; Pueschel, E; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Santander, M; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Smith, A W; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Varlotta, A; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weinstein, A; Welsing, R; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B; Hughes, Z D

    2015-01-01

    During moonlit nights, observations with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes at very high energies (VHE, $E>100$ GeV) are constrained since the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in the telescope camera are extremely sensitive to the background moonlight. Observations with the VERITAS telescopes in the standard configuration are performed only with a moon illumination less than 35$\\%$ of full moon. Since 2012, the VERITAS collaboration has implemented a new observing mode under bright moonlight, by either reducing the voltage applied to the PMTs (reduced-high-voltage configuration, RHV), or by utilizing UV-transparent filters. While these operating modes result in lower sensitivity and increased energy thresholds, the extension of the available observing time is useful for monitoring variable sources such as blazars and sources requiring spectral measurements at the highest energies. In this paper we report the detection of $\\gamma$-ray flaring activity from the BL Lac object 1ES 1727+502 during RHV observations. Thi...

  20. Stochastic Particle Acceleration in Blazar Jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The bulk kinetic energy of jets can be dissipated via generating tur bulent plasma waves. We examine stochastic particle acceleration in blazar jets to explain the emissions of all blazars. We show that acceleration of electrons by plasma turbulence waves with a spectrum W(k) ~ k-4/3 produces a nonthermal population of relativistic electrons whose peak frequency of synchrotron emission can fit the observational trends in the spectral energy distribution of all blazars.The plasma nonlinear processes responsible for the formation of turbulent spectrum are investigated. Increases in the interaction time of turbulent waves can produce a flatter speckrum leading to efficient particle acceleration.

  1. Blazars as Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic-Ray Sources: Implications for TeV Gamma-Ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kohta; Takami, Hajime; Migliori, Giulia

    2011-01-01

    Spectral fitting of correlated multiwavelength data of BL Lac objects and Fanaroff-Riley I radio galaxies gives the mean comoving magnetic field strength B', the bulk outflow Doppler factor Gamma, and the emission region size R' of the radiating plasma in the one-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. From the Hillas condition, we show that only in rare cases can these sources accelerate protons to much above 10^19 eV, so >10^20 eV ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are likely to be heavy ions if powered by this type of AGN. One of the signatures of hadronic production by blazars is intergalactic cascade emission initiated by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, which can explain TeV spectra of some extreme, apparently non-variable blazars such as 1ES 0229+200. We study this kind of cascade signal from such blazars, taking into account effects of the structured extragalactic magnetic fields in clusters and filaments in which the blazars are embedded. We demonstrate the importance of cosmic-ray deflections o...

  2. Variability along the Blazar-Sequence - Hints for extragalactic Cosmic Rays?

    CERN Document Server

    Weidinger, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution and variability of several blazars (Mkn 501, 1 ES 2344+51.4, PKS 2155-30.4, 1 ES 1218+30.4, 3C 454.3) along the blazar sequence is investigated using a selfconsistent and timedependent lepto-hadronic hybrid emission model. The BL Lac objects in the list are successfully modelled with purely leptonic radiation processes (essentially Synchrotron Self-Compton emission), while the Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar requires highly relativistic hadrons to be present within the jet. Variability is exploited as well with our model to distinguish between Self-Compton and hadronic gamma radiation making use of their different signatures in lightcurves. As a consequence active galactic nuclei with z > 0.5 are the best candidates as sources of extragalactic consmic rays, since High-Peaked BL Lac objects do not seem to accelerate protons to energies above thermal. Furthermore the parameters found during the modelling of the objects agree very well with obervations of e.g. superluminal motion or t...

  3. Fourier Analysis of Blazar Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Finke, Justin D

    2014-01-01

    Blazars display strong variability on multiple timescales and in multiple radiation bands. Their variability is often characterized by power spectral densities (PSDs) and time lags plotted as functions of the Fourier frequency. We develop a new theoretical model based on the analysis of the electron transport (continuity) equation, carried out in the Fourier domain. The continuity equation includes electron cooling and escape, and a derivation of the emission properties includes light travel time effects associated with a radiating blob in a relativistic jet. The model successfully reproduces the general shapes of the observed PSDs and predicts specific PSD and time lag behaviors associated with variability in the synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC), and external Compton (EC) emission components, from sub-mm to gamma-rays. We discuss applications to BL Lacertae objects and to flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), where there are hints that some of the predicted features have already been observed. We a...

  4. A model for periodic blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Sobacchi, Emanuele; Stamerra, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We describe a scenario to explain blazar periodicities with timescales of $\\sim$ few years. The scenario is based on a binary super-massive black hole (SMBH) system in which one of the two SMBH carries a jet. We discuss the various mechanisms that can cause the jet to precess and produce corkscrew patterns through space with a scale of $\\sim$ few pc. It turns out that the dominant mechanism responsible for the precession is simply the imprint of the jet-carrying SMBH orbital speed on the jet. Gravitational deflection and Lense-Thirring precession (due to the gravitational field of the other SMBH) are second order effects. We complement the scenario with a kinematical jet model which is inspired to the spine-sheath structure observed in M87. One of the main advantages of such a structure is that it allows the peak of the synchrotron emission to scale with frequency according to $\

  5. Constraining Emission Models of Luminous Blazar Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, Marek; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr.; Stawarz, Lukasz; /Kipac, Menlo Park /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ. /SLAC; Moderski, Rafal; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr.; Madejski, Greg; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    Many luminous blazars which are associated with quasar-type active galactic nuclei display broad-band spectra characterized by a large luminosity ratio of their high-energy ({gamma}-ray) and low-energy (synchrotron) spectral components. This large ratio, reaching values up to 100, challenges the standard synchrotron self-Compton models by means of substantial departures from the minimum power condition. Luminous blazars have also typically very hard X-ray spectra, and those in turn seem to challenge hadronic scenarios for the high energy blazar emission. As shown in this paper, no such problems are faced by the models which involve Comptonization of radiation provided by a broad-line-region, or dusty molecular torus. The lack or weakness of bulk Compton and Klein-Nishina features indicated by the presently available data favors production of {gamma}-rays via up-scattering of infrared photons from hot dust. This implies that the blazar emission zone is located at parsec-scale distances from the nucleus, and as such is possibly associated with the extended, quasi-stationary reconfinement shocks formed in relativistic outflows. This scenario predicts characteristic timescales for flux changes in luminous blazars to be days/weeks, consistent with the variability patterns observed in such systems at infrared, optical and {gamma}-ray frequencies. We also propose that the parsec-scale blazar activity can be occasionally accompanied by dissipative events taking place at sub-parsec distances and powered by internal shocks and/or reconnection of magnetic fields. These could account for the multiwavelength intra-day flares occasionally observed in powerful blazars sources.

  6. Long-Term Monitoring of Bright Blazars in the Multi-GeV to TeV Range with FACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Temme

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Blazars like Markarian 421 or Markarian 501 are active galactic nuclei (AGN, with their jets orientated towards the observer. They are among the brightest objects in the very high energy (VHE gamma ray regime (>100 GeV. Their emitted gamma-ray fluxes are extremely variable, with changing activity levels on timescales between minutes, months, and even years. Several questions are part of the current research, such as the question of the emission regions or the engine of the AGN and the particle acceleration. A dedicated longterm monitoring program is necessary to investigate the properties of blazars in detail. A densely sampled and unbiased light curve allows for observation of both high and low states of the sources, and the combination with multi-wavelength observation could contribute to the answer of several questions mentioned above. FACT (First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the first operational telescope using silicon photomultiplier (SiPM, also known as Geigermode—Avalanche Photo Diode, G-APD as photon detectors. SiPM have a very homogenous and stable longterm performance, and allow operation even during full moon without any filter, leading to a maximal duty cycle for an Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope (IACT. Hence, FACT is an ideal device for such a longterm monitoring of bright blazars. A small set of sources (e.g., Markarian 421, Markarian 501, 1ES 1959+650, and 1ES 2344+51.4 is currently being monitored. In this contribution, the FACT telescope and the concept of longterm monitoring of bright blazars will be introduced. The results of the monitoring program will be shown, and the advantages of densely sampled and unbiased light curves will be discussed.

  7. High Energy Polarization of Blazars : Detection Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Nachiketa; Fields, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (wit...

  8. A Physical Classification Scheme for Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Landt, H; Perlman, E S; Giommi, P

    2004-01-01

    Blazars are currently separated into BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) based on the strength of their emission lines. This is done rather arbitrarily by defining a diagonal line in the Ca H&K break value -- equivalent width plane, following Marcha et al. We readdress this problem and put the classification scheme for blazars on firm physical grounds. We study ~100 blazars and radio galaxies from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS) and 2 Jy radio survey and find a significant bimodality for the narrow emission line [OIII] 5007. This suggests the presence of two physically distinct classes of radio-loud AGN. We show that all radio-loud AGN, blazars and radio galaxies, can be effectively separated into weak- and strong-lined sources using the [OIII] 5007 -- [OII] 3727 equivalent width plane. This plane allows one to disentangle orientation effects from intrinsic variations in radio-loud AGN. Based on DXRBS, the strongly beamed sources of the new class of weak-lined r...

  9. Fermi detected blazars seen by INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Soldi, S

    2009-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations are essential to constrain physical parameters of the blazars observed by Fermi/LAT. Among the 187 AGN significantly detected in public INTEGRAL data above 20 keV by the imager IBIS/ISGRI, 20 blazars were detected. 15 of these sources allowed significant spectral extraction. They show hard X-ray spectra with an average photon index of 2.1+-0.1 and a hard X-ray luminosity of L(20-100 keV) = 1.3e46 erg/s. 15 of the INTEGRAL blazars are also visible in the first 16 months of the Fermi/LAT data, thus allowing to constrain the inverse Compton branch in these cases. Among others, we analyse the LAT data of four blazars which were not included in the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample based on the first 3 months of the mission: QSO B0836+710, H 1426+428, RX J1924.8-2914, and PKS 2149-306. Especially for blazars during bright outbursts, as already observed simultaneously by INTEGRAL and Fermi (e.g. 3C 454.3 and Mrk 421), INTEGRAL provides unique spectral coverage up to several hundred keV. We pr...

  10. VERITAS Detection of γ-Ray Flaring Activity From the BL Lac Object 1ES 1727+502 During Bright Moonlight Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Bouvier, A.; Bugaev, V.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; Veritas Collaboration; Hughes, Z. D.

    2015-08-01

    During moonlit nights, observations with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes at very high energies (VHEs, E\\gt 100 GeV) are constrained since the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in the telescope camera are extremely sensitive to the background moonlight. Observations with the VERITAS telescopes in the standard configuration are performed only with a moon illumination less than 35% of full moon. Since 2012, the VERITAS collaboration has implemented a new observing mode under bright moonlight, by either reducing the voltage applied to the PMTs (reduced-high-voltage; RHV configuration), or by utilizing UV-transparent filters. While these operating modes result in lower sensitivity and increased energy thresholds, the extension of the available observing time is useful for monitoring variable sources such as blazars and sources requiring spectral measurements at the highest energies. In this paper we report the detection of γ-ray flaring activity from the BL Lac object 1ES 1727+502 during RHV observations. This detection represents the first evidence of VHE variability from this blazar. The integral flux is (1.1+/- 0.2)× {10}-11 {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 above 250 GeV, which is about five times higher than the low-flux state. The detection triggered additional VERITAS observations during standard dark-time. Multiwavelength observations with the FLWO 48″ telescope, and the Swift and Fermi satellites are presented and used to produce the first spectral energy distribution (SED) of this object during γ-ray flaring activity. The SED is then fitted with a standard synchrotron-self-Compton model, placing constraints on the properties of the emitting region and of the acceleration mechanism at the origin of the relativistic particle population in the jet.

  11. Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne-Moench, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    One key scientific program of the MAGIC telescope project is the discovery and detection of blazars. They constitute the most prominent extragalactic source class in the very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray regime with 29 out of 34 known objects. Therefore a major part of the available observation time was spent in the last years on high-frequency peaked blazars. The selection criteria were chosen to increase the detection probability. As the X-ray flux is believed to be correlated to the VHE {gamma}-ray flux, only X-ray selected sources with a flux F{sub X}>2 {mu}Jy at 1 keV were considered. To avoid strong attenuation of the -rays in the extragalactic infrared background, the redshift was restricted to values between z<0.15 and z<0.4, depending on the declination of the objects. The latter determines the zenith distance during culmination which should not exceed 30 (for z<0.4) and 45 (for z<0.15), respectively. Between August 2005 and April 2009, a sample of 24 X-ray selected high-frequency peaked blazars has been observed with the MAGIC telescope. Three of them were detected including 1ES 1218+304 being the first high-frequency peaked BL Lacertae object (HBL) to be discovered with MAGIC in VHE {gamma}-rays. One previously detected object was not confirmed as VHE emitter in this campaign by MAGIC. A set of 20 blazars previously not detected is treated more closely in this work. In this campaign, during almost four years {proportional_to}450 hrs or {proportional_to}22% of the available observation time for extragalactic objects were dedicated to investigate the baseline emission of blazars and their broadband spectral properties in this emission state. For the sample of 20 objects in a redshift range of 0.018

  12. What determines the observational differences of blazars?

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Xu-Liang; Mao, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    We examine the scenario that the Doppler factor determines the observational differences of blazars in this paper. Significantly negative correlations are found between the observational synchrotron peak frequency and the Doppler factor. After correcting the Doppler boosting, the intrinsic peak frequency further has a tightly linear relation with the Doppler factor. It is more interesting that this relation is consistent with the scenario that the black hole mass governs both the bulk Lorentz factor and the synchrotron peak frequency. In addition, the distinction of the kinetic jet powers between BL Lacs and FSRQs disappears after the boosting factor $\\delta^2$ is considered. The negative correlation between the peak frequency and the observational isotropic luminosity, known as the blazar sequence, also disappears after the Doppler boosting is corrected. We also find that the correlation between the Compton dominance and the Doppler factor exists for all types of blazars. Therefore, this correlation is unsui...

  13. Relativistic Beaming Effect in Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Fan; D. Bastieri; J. H. Yang; Y. Liu; D. X. Wu; S. H. Li

    2014-09-01

    The most identified sources observed by Fermi/LAT are blazars, based on which we can investigate the emission mechanisms and beaming effect in the -ray bands for blazars. Here, we used the compiled around 450 Fermi blazars with the available X-ray observations to estimate their Doppler factors and compared them with the integral -ray luminosity in the range of 1–100 GeV. It is interesting that the integral -ray luminosity is closely correlated with the estimated Doppler factor, log = (2.95 ± 0.09) log + 43.59 ± 0.08 for the whole sample. When the dependence of the correlation between them and the X-ray luminosity is removed, the correlation is still strong, which suggests that the -ray emissions are strongly beamed.

  14. Multiwavelength Emission from Blazars – Conference Summary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meg Urry

    2011-03-01

    Presentations at the Guangzhou Conference on Multiwave-length Emission from Blazars confirmed our understanding of blazars as relativistic jets closely aligned with the line of sight. Powerful new studies have been enabled by the Fermi gamma-ray satellite and new ground-based TeV facilities, which are an order of magnitude more sensitive than their predecessors. Combining gamma-ray data with VLBA radio and with optical/IR photometry has shed new light on the emission mechanisms and the jet geometry. This conference summary sets the context for the 4th blazar conference and presents some of the highlights from the meeting, as well as the questions that remain outstanding.

  15. Radio Band Observations of Blazar Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Aller, Margo F; Hughes, Philip A

    2010-01-01

    The properties of blazar variability in the radio band are studied using the unique combination of temporal resolution from single dish monitoring and spatial resolution from VLBA imaging; such measurements, now available in all four Stokes parameters, together with theoretical simulations, identify the origin of radio band variability and probe the characteristics of the radio jet where the broadband blazar emission originates. Outbursts in total flux density and linear polarization in the optical-to-radio bands are attributed to shocks propagating within the jet spine, in part based on limited modeling invoking transverse shocks; new radiative transfer simulations allowing for shocks at arbitrary angle to the flow direction confirm this picture by reproducing the observed centimeter-band variations observed more generally, and are of current interest since these shocks may play a role in the gamma-ray flaring detected by Fermi. Recent UMRAO multifrequency Stokes V studies of bright blazars identify the spec...

  16. Powers and Magnetization of Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, Marek

    2016-01-01

    In this work I review the observational constraints imposed on the energetics and magnetisation of quasar jets, in the context of theoretical expectations. The discussion is focused on issues regarding the jet production efficiency, matter content, and particle acceleration. I show that if the ratio of electron-positron-pairs to protons is of order $15$, as is required to achieve agreement between jet powers computed using blazar spectral fits and those computed using radio-lobe calorimetry, the magnetization of blazar jets in flat-spectrum-radio-quasars (FSRQ) must be significant. This result favors the reconnection mechanism for particle acceleration and explains the large Compton-dominance of blazar spectra that is often observed, without the need to postulate very low jet magnetization.

  17. Core shifts in blazar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A; Pjanka, Patryk; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of core shift in jets, which is the dependence of the position of the jet radio core on the frequency. We derive a new method to measure the jet magnetic field based on both the value of the shift and the observed flux, which compliments the standard method assuming equipartition. Using both methods, we re-analyse the blazar sample of Zamaninasab et al. We find that equipartition is satisfied only if the jet opening angle in the radio core region is close to the values found observationally, $\\simeq$0.1--0.2 divided by the bulk Lorentz factor, $\\Gamma_{\\rm j}$. Larger values, e.g., $1/\\Gamma_{\\rm j}$, would imply very strong departures from equipartition. A small jet opening angle implies in turn the magnetization parameter of $\\ll 1$. We determine the jet magnetic flux taking this effect into account. We find that the average jet magnetic flux is compatible with the model of jet formation due to black-hole spin energy extraction and accretion being magnetically arrested. We calculate the ...

  18. Optical spectroscopic observations of blazars and γ-ray blazar candidates in the sloan digital sky survey data release nine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Masetti, N.; D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Funk, S.

    2014-09-09

    We present an analysis of the optical spectra available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release nine (SDSS DR9) for the blazars listed in the ROMA-BZCAT and for the γ-ray blazar candidates selected according to their IR colors. First, we adopt a statistical approach based on Monte Carlo simulations to find the optical counterparts of the blazars listed in the ROMA-BZCAT catalog. Then, we crossmatched the SDSS spectroscopic catalog with our selected samples of blazars and γ-ray blazar candidates, searching for those with optical spectra available to classify our blazar-like sources and, whenever possible, to confirm their redshifts. Our main objectives are to determine the classification of uncertain blazars listed in the ROMA-BZCAT and to discover new gamma-ray blazars. For the ROMA-BZCAT sources, we investigated a sample of 84 blazars, confirming the classification for 20 of them and obtaining 18 new redshift estimates. For the γ-ray blazars, indicated as potential counterparts of unassociated Fermi sources or with uncertain nature, we established the blazar-like nature of 8 out of the 27 sources analyzed and confirmed 14 classifications.

  19. The Spectral Energy Distributions of Fermi Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Luo, G. Y.; Lin, C.; Yuan, Y. H.; Xiao, H. B.; Zhou, A. Y.; Hua, T. X.; Pei, Z. Y.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, multiwavelength data are compiled for a sample of 1425 Fermi blazars to calculate their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). A parabolic function, {{log}}{(ν {F}ν )={P}1({{log}}ν -{P}2)}2+{P}3, is used for SED fitting. Synchrotron peak frequency ({log}{ν }{{p}}), spectral curvature (P1), peak flux ({ν }{{p}}{F}{ν {{p}}}), and integrated flux (ν {F}ν ) are successfully obtained for 1392 blazars (461 flat-spectrum radio quasars [FSRQs], 620 BL Lacs [BLs], and 311 blazars of uncertain type [BCUs]; 999 sources have known redshifts). Monochromatic luminosity at radio 1.4 GHz, optical R band, X-ray at 1 keV and γ-ray at 1 GeV, peak luminosity, integrated luminosity, and effective spectral indices of radio to optical ({α }{{RO}}) and optical to X-ray ({α }{{OX}}) are calculated. The “Bayesian classification” is employed to log {ν }{{p}} in the rest frame for 999 blazars with available redshift, and the results show that three components are enough to fit the log {ν }{{p}} distribution; there is no ultra-high peaked subclass. Based on the three components, the subclasses of blazars using the acronyms of Abdo et al. are classified, and some mutual correlations are also studied. Conclusions are finally drawn as follows: (1) SEDs are successfully obtained for 1392 blazars. The fitted peak frequencies are compared with common sources from available samples. (2) Blazars are classified as low synchrotron peak sources if log {ν }{{p}}({Hz})≤slant 14.0, intermediate synchrotron peak sources if 14.0\\lt {log} {ν }{{p}}({Hz})≤slant 15.3, and high synchrotron peak sources if {log} {ν }{{p}}({Hz})\\gt 15.3. (3) Gamma-ray emissions are strongly correlated with radio emissions. Gamma-ray luminosity is also correlated with synchrotron peak luminosity and integrated luminosity. (4) There is an anticorrelation between peak frequency and peak luminosity within the whole blazar sample. However, there is a marginally positive correlation for high

  20. The Jets of TeV Blazars at Higher Resolution: 43 GHz and Polarimetric VLBA Observations from 2005-2009

    CERN Document Server

    Piner, B Glenn; Edwards, Philip G

    2010-01-01

    We present 23 new VLBA images of the six established TeV blazars Markarian 421, Markarian 501, H 1426+428, 1ES 1959+650, PKS 2155-304, and 1ES 2344+514, obtained from 2005 to 2009. Most images were obtained at 43 GHz, and they reveal the parsec-scale structures of three of these sources (1ES 1959+650, PKS 2155-304, and 1ES 2344+514) at factors of two to three higher resolution than has previously been attained. Most of the remaining images map the linear polarization structures at a lower frequency of 22 GHz. We discuss the transverse structures of the jets as revealed by the high-frequency and polarimetric imaging. The transverse structures include significant limb-brightening in Mrk 421, and spine-sheath structures in the electric vector position angle (EVPA) and fractional polarization distributions in Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and 1ES 1959+650. We use new measured component positions to update measured apparent jet speeds, in many cases significantly reducing the statistical error over previously published result...

  1. Blazar Demographics with MOJAVE and GLAST

    CERN Document Server

    Lister, Matthew L

    2007-01-01

    MOJAVE is a long term VLBA program to investigate the kinematics and polarization evolution of a complete sample of 133 active galactic nuclei selected on the basis of compact, relativistically beamed jet emission at 15 GHz. By fitting to the apparent distributions of superluminal speed and jet luminosity, we can constrain the Lorentz factor distribution and intrinsic luminosity function of the radio-selected blazar parent population. These low-energy peaked blazars formed a significant fraction of all EGRET detections, and should figure prominently in the GLAST source catalog. Using simple models, we investigate the predicted distribution of GLAST blazars in the gamma-ray/radio flux density plane, and describe an extension of the MOJAVE survey that will provide extensive parsec-scale jet information in complete regions of this plane. We find that if a population of intrinsically radio bright yet gamma-ray weak blazars exists, its signal will be largely wiped out by the large gamma-ray flux scatter associated...

  2. Estimating Black Hole Masses of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xue-Bing Wu; F. K. Liu; M. Z. Kong; R. Wang; J. L. Han

    2011-03-01

    Estimating black hole masses of blazars is still a big challenge. Because of the contamination of jets, using the previously suggested size–continuum luminosity relation can overestimate the broad line region (BLR) size and black hole mass for radio-loud AGNs, including blazars. We propose a new relation between the BLR size and emission line luminosity and present evidences for using it to get more accurate black hole masses of radio-loud AGNs. For extremely radio-loud AGNs such as blazars with weak/absent emission lines, we suggest the use of fundamental plane relation of their elliptical host galaxies to estimate the central velocity dispersions and black hole masses, if their velocity dispersions are not known but the host galaxies can be mapped. The black hole masses of some well-known blazars, such as OJ 287, AO 0235+164 and 3C 66B are obtained using these two methods and the – relation. The implications of their black hole masses on other related studies are also discussed.

  3. General physical properties of bright Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G; Foschini, L; Ghirlanda, G; Maraschi, L; Celotti, A

    2009-01-01

    We studied all blazars of known redshift detected by the Fermi satellite during its first three months survey. For the majority of them, pointed Swift observations ensures a good multiwavelength coverage, enabling us to to reliably construct their spectral energy distributions (SED). We model the SEDs using a one-zone leptonic model and study the distributions of the derived interesting physical parameters as a function of the observed gamma-ray luminosity. We confirm previous findings concerning the relation of the physical parameters with source luminosity which are at the origin of the blazar sequence. The SEDs allow to estimate the luminosity of the accretion disk for the majority of broad emitting line blazars, while for the line-less BL Lac objects in the sample upper limits can be derived. We find a positive correlation between the jet power and the luminosity of the accretion disk in broad line blazars. In these objects we argue that the jet must be proton-dominated, and that the total jet power is of...

  4. The GTN-AAVSO Blazar Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominsky, L. R.; Spear, G. G.; Graves, T.; Slater, G.; Price, A.

    2004-08-01

    The GLAST Telescope Network (GTN) is a collaboration among students, teachers, amateur astronomers, small college observatories, and professional astronomers who will obtain observations of base-line activity levels and follow-up observations for bright blazars, one of the key science objectives for NASA's Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission. A key partner in the GTN is the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO, a non-profit international scientific and educational organization that has considerable experience with handling, processing, and displaying large amounts of data and with coordinating observers from every corner of the globe. The GTN-AAVSO blazar program will recommend observing sequences, and provide advice and mentoring for observing techniques and data reduction. The program will archive magnitude estimates using the AAVSO database system and lightcurve generator, as well as CCD images of blazar fields. The program will also employ the online image archiving system developed by the GTN. Images of blazar fields will be available for subsequent analysis by contributors to the program, and by the GLAST science team for mission planning and follow-up studies. We will present examples of the AAVSO lightcurve generator, examples of the GTN image archive system, plus examples of the data we are currently accumulating. The GTN-AAVSO collaboration is partially funded by the NASA's GLAST Education and Public Outreach Program.

  5. Emission and power of blazar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G

    2008-01-01

    Through the modelling of the Spectral Energy Distribution of blazars we can infer the physical parameters required to originate the flux we see. Then we can estimate the power of blazar jets in the form of matter and fields. These estimates are rather robust for all classes of blazars, although they are in part dependent of the chosen model (i.e. leptonic rather than adronic). The indication is that, in almost all cases, the carried Poynting flux is not dominant, while protons should carry most of the power. In emission line blazars the jet has a comparable, and often larger, power than the luminosity of the accretion disk. This is even more true for line-less BL Lacs. If the jet is structured at the sub-pc scale, with a fast spine surrounded by a slower layer, then one component sees the radiation of the other boosted, and this interplay enhances the Inverse Compton flux of both. Since the layer emission is less beamed, it can be seen also at large viewing angles, making radio-galaxies very interesting GLAST...

  6. The CLASS blazar survey - II. Optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccianiga, A; Marcha, MJ; Anton, S; Mack, KH; Neeser, MJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the optical properties of the objects selected in the CLASS blazar survey. Because an optical spectrum is now available for 70 per cent of the 325 sources present in the sample, a spectral classification, based on the appearance of the emission/absorption lines, is possible. A wi

  7. The blazar sequence 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    I discuss the spectral energy distribution (SED) of all blazars with redshift detected by the {\\it Fermi} satellite and listed in the 3LAC catalog. I will update the so called "blazar sequence" from the phenomenological point of view, with no theory or modelling. I will show that: i) pure data show that jet and accretion power are related; ii) the updated blazar sequence maintains the properties of the old version, albeit with a less pronounced dominance of the $\\gamma$--ray emission; iii) at low bolometric luminosities, two different type of objects have the same high energy power: low black hole mass flat spectrum radio quasars and high mass BL Lacs. Therefore, at low luminosities, there is a very large dispersion of SED shapes; iv) in low power BL Lacs, the contribution of the host galaxy is important. Remarkably, the luminosity distribution of the host galaxies of BL Lacs are spread in a very narrow range; v) a simple sum of two smoothly joining power laws can describe the blazar SEDs very well.

  8. UV and X-ray Variability of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alok C. Gupta

    2011-03-01

    It is well established that the blazars show flux variations in the complete electromagnetic (EM) spectrum on all possible time scales ranging from a few tens of minutes to several years. Here we report the review of various UV and X-ray flux variability properties of blazars. Our analysis show that UV variability amplitude is smaller than X-rays, mostly soft X-rays hardness ratio show correlations with blazar luminosity and different modes of variability might be operating for different time scales and epochs. Quasi periodic oscillations are seen on a few occasions in blazars, higher fraction of high energy peaked blazars show intra day and short term variabilities in X-rays but variability duty cycle is much less in optical bands on intra day time scale compared to low energy peaked blazars. But these results are yet to be established.

  9. Correlation Analysis of Multi-Wavelength Luminosity of Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiongwei Bi; Wanquan He; Jiajin Tian; Zhimei Ding; Shuping Ge

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the correlations between luminosities (R, O, X, ) in radio, optical, X-ray and -ray wave bands for Fermi blazars, and found that there are significant correlations between R and , X and and O and for blazars, BL Lacs and FSRQs, but no correlation between and O for BL Lacs. These results suggest that for Fermi blazars, the high energy -ray emission can be related with radio, X-ray and optical emissions.

  10. Chandra View of the Warm-Hot IGM toward 1ES 1553+113: Absorption Line Detections and Identifications (Paper I)

    CERN Document Server

    Nicastro, F; Krongold, Y; Mathur, S; Gupta, A; Danforth, C; Barcons, X; Borgani, S; Branchini, E; Cen, R; Davé, R; Kaastra, J; Paerels, F; Piro, L; Shull, J M; Takei, Y; Zappacosta, L

    2012-01-01

    About 30-40 percent of the expected number of baryons is still missing in the local Universe (z \\lesssim 0.4). They are predicted to be hiding in a web of intergalactic gas at temperatures of about 10^5-10^7 K (the WHIM). Detecting this matter has had limited success so far, because of its low-density and high temperature, which makes it difficult to detect with current far-ultraviolet and X-ray instrumentation. Here we present the first results from our pilot 500 ks Chandra-LETG observation of the soft X-ray brightest source in the z > 0.4 sky, the blazar 1ES 1553+113. We identify a total of 11 possible absorption lines, with single-line statistical significances between 2.2-4.1 sigma. Six of these lines are detected at high significance (3.6 < \\sigma < 4.1), while the remaining five are regarded as marginal detections in association with either other X-ray lines detected at higher significance and/or FUV signposts. Three of these lines are consistent with metal absorption at z~0. The remaining 8 lines...

  11. Neutral Beams from Blazar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoyan, Armen M.; Dermer, Charles D.

    2003-03-01

    We treat the production of neutrons, photons, and neutrinos through photomeson interactions of relativistic protons with ambient photons in the compact inner jets of blazars. Internal synchrotron and external isotropic radiation due to scattered optical/UV accretion-disk radiation are considered as target photon fields. Protons are assumed to be accelerated to a maximum energy limited by the size scale and magnetic field of the jet, and by competing energy losses. We characterize the conditions when the photomeson interactions of ultrarelativistic protons become effective, and show that the presence of the external radiation field makes possible strong energy losses for protons with energies Ep>~1015 eV. Without this component, effective energy losses of protons begin at Ep>~1018 eV, and would rapidly disappear with expansion of the blob. We develop a model describing the production and escape of neutrons from a comoving spherical blob, which continue to interact with the ambient external radiation field on the parsec-scale broad-line region (BLR). Neutrons may carry ~10% of the overall energy of the accelerated protons with Ep>~1015 eV outside the BLR. Ultra-high-energy gamma rays produced by photomeson interaction of neutrons outside the blob can also escape the BLR. The escaping neutrons, gamma rays, and neutrinos form a collimated neutral beam with a characteristic opening angle θ~1/Γ, where Γ is the bulk Lorentz factor of the inner jet. Energy and momentum is deposited in the extended jet from the decay of neutrons at distances ld(En)~(En/1017eV) kpc, and through pair-production attenuation of gamma rays with energies Eγ>~1015 eV which propagate to ~10-100 kpc distances. In this scenario, neutral beams of ultra-high-energy gamma rays and neutrons can be the reason for straight extended jets, such as in Pictor A. Fluxes of neutrinos detectable with kilometer-scale neutrino telescopes are predicted from flat-spectrum radio quasars such as 3C 279.

  12. The role of plasma instabilities in the propagation of gamma-rays from distant Blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saveliev, A.; Evoli, C.; Sigl, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-11-15

    The observation in the GeV band of distant blazars has been recently used to put constraints on the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) and Extragalactic Magnetic Fields (EGMF). To support such claims one has to assume that the leptonic component of the electromagnetic cascade initiated by blazar gamma-rays is deflected away by strong enough EGMF, suppressing the signal in the Fermi window. Apart from magnetic fields, the development of such a cascade might be affected by plasma instabilities due to interactions with the ionized component of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). In this paper we model the electromagnetic cascade through a Monte Carlo simulation in which both effects are taken into account separately, and we derive constraints on these scenarios from the combined Fermi-HESS data set. In the specific case of 1ES 0229+200 observations, we show that both explanations of the GeV flux suppression are compatible with the available data, specifically by assuming a magnetic field of B >or similar 10{sup -16} G or an IGM temperature of T

  13. APEX sub-mm monitoring of gamma-ray blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, S; Weiss, A; Angelakis, E; Krichbaum, T P; Nestoras, I; Zensus, J A; Axelsson, M; Nilsson, D; Ryde, F; Hjalmarsdotter, L; Larsson, J; Lundgren, A; Mac-Auliffe, F; Parra, R; Siringo, G

    2012-01-01

    So far, no systematic long-term blazar monitoring programs and detailed variability studies exist at sub-mm wavelengths. Here, we present a new sub-mm blazar monitoring program using the APEX 12-m telescope. A sample of about 40 gamma-ray blazars has been monitored since 2007/2008 with the LABOCA bolometer camera at 345 GHz. First light curves, preliminary variability results and a first comparison with the longer cm/mm bands (F-GAMMA program) are presented, demonstrating the extreme variability characteristics of blazars at such short wavelengths.

  14. 2WHSP: A catalog of HE and VHE gamma-ray blazars and blazar candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Giommi, Paolo; Padovani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Aims. High Synchrotron Peaked blazars (HSPs) dominate the -ray sky at energies larger than a few GeV; however, only a few hundred blazars of this type have been catalogued so far. In this paper we present the 2WHSP sample, the largest and most complete list of HSP blazars available to date, which is an expansion of the 1WHSP catalog of gamma-ray source candidates off the Galactic plane. Methods. We cross-matched a number of multi-wavelength surveys (in the radio, infrared and X-ray bands) and applied selection criteria based on the radio to IR and IR to X-ray spectral slopes. To ensure the selection of genuine HSPs we examined the SED of each candidate and estimated the peak frequency of its synchrotron emission ($\

  15. Search for neutrinos from flaring blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreter, Michael [Lehrstuhl fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Emil-Fischer-Strasse 31, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); ECAP, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Eberl, Thomas; James, Clancy [ECAP, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Kadler, Matthias [Lehrstuhl fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Emil-Fischer-Strasse 31, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Collaboration: ANTARES-KM3NeT-Erlangen-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Jets from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are among the best candidates for the recently detected extraterrestrial neutrino flux. Hadronic AGN jet-emission models predict a tight correlation between the neutrino flux and the time-variable gamma-ray emission. At the same time, the atmospheric-background (noise) signal, which often dominates in neutrino-astronomical observations, can be substantially reduced by rejecting long-lasting periods of low flux. For these reasons, short high-amplitude gamma-ray flares, as often observed in blazars, can be used to substantially increase the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes in point-source searches. We develop a strategy to search for TeV neutrinos from flaring blazar jets from the TANAMI sample using the ANTARES telescope and Fermi gamma-ray light curves. An unbinned maximum-likelihood method is applied to optimize the probability of a neutrino detection from TANAMI sources.

  16. Gravitational microlensing of gamma-ray blazars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Torres, Diego; E. Romero, Gustavo; F. Eiroa, Ernesto;

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the effects of gravitational microlensing on compact and distant $\\gamma$-ray blazars. These objects have $\\gamma$-ray emitting regions which are small enough as to be affected by microlensing effects produced by stars lying in intermediate galaxies. We analyze...... the temporal evolution of the gamma-ray magnification for sources moving in a caustic pattern field, where the combined effects of thousands of stars are taken into account using a numerical technique. We propose that some of the unidentified $\\gamma$-ray sources (particularly some of those lying at high...... galactic latitude whose gamma-ray statistical properties are very similar to detected $\\gamma$-ray blazars) are indeed the result of gravitational lensing magnification of background undetected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs)....

  17. Multi-Waveband Emission Maps of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alan Marscher; Svetlana G. Jorstad; Valeri M. Larionov; Margo F. Aller; Anne Lähteenmäki

    2011-03-01

    We are leading a comprehensive multi-waveband monitoring program of 34 -ray bright blazars designed to locate the emission regions of blazars from radio to -ray frequencies. The `maps’ are anchored by sequences of images in both total and polarized intensity obtained with the VLBA at an angular resolution of ∼ 0.1 milliarcseconds. The time-variable linear polarization at radio to optical wavelengths and radio to -ray light curves allow us to specify the locations of flares relative to bright stationary features seen in the images and to infer the geometry of the magnetic field in different regions of the jet. Our data reveal that some flares occur simultaneously at different wavebands and others are only seen at some of the frequencies. The flares are often triggered by a superluminal knot passing through the stationary `core’ on the VLBA images. Other flares occur upstream or even parsecs downstream of the core.

  18. Magnetic Field Amplification and Blazar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuhui; Fossati, Giovanni; Pohl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent multiwavelength observations of PKS 0208-512 by SMARTS, Fermi, and Swift revealed that gamma-ray and optical light curves of this flat spectrum radio quasars are highly correlated, but with an exception of one large optical flare having no corresponding gamma-ray activity or even detection. On the other hand, recent advances in SNRs observations and plasma simulations both reveal that magnetic field downstream of astrophysical shocks can be largely amplified beyond simple shock compression. These amplifications, along with their associated particle acceleration, might contribute to blazar flares, including the peculiar flare of PKS 0208-512. Using our time dependent multizone blazar emission code, we evaluate several scenarios that may represent such phenomena. This code combines Monte Carlo method that tracks the radiative processes including inverse Compton scattering, and Fokker-Planck equation that follows the cooling and acceleration of particles. It is a comprehensive time dependent code that ful...

  19. ELECTROPORATION OF CONFLUENT HM-1 ES CELLS LEADS TO HIGHER AMOUNT COLONIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.ALENA BENCSIK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Electroporation is used to induce homologous recombination in the genome of the murine ES (embryonic stem cells. Routinelly subconfluent ES cells are recommended to be used in such experiments. Electroporation of immunoglobulin specific targeting vectors with different length of homology leads to reduced number of selected colonies. The enrichment of double selected colonies is high and thus the amount of HM-1 ES cell colonies for the analysis is very low. Here we show that the electroporation of confluent HM-1 ES cells leads to an increased amount of simple and double selected colonies.

  20. Astronomical Plate Archives and Binary Blazars Studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rene Hudec

    2011-03-01

    There are about 3 million astronomical photographic plates around the globe, representing an important data source for various aspects of astrophysics. The main advantage is the large time coverage of 100 years or even more. Recent digitization efforts, together with the development of dedicated software, enables for the first time, effective data mining and data analyses by powerful computers with these archives. Examples of blazars proposed and/or investigated on the astronomical plates are presented and discussed.

  1. Ringo2 Optical Polarimetry of Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Jermak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present polarimetric and photometric observations from a sample of 15 γ-ray bright blazars with data from the Tuorla blazar monitoring program (KVA DIPOL and Liverpool Telescope (LT Ringo2 polarimeters (supplemented with γ-ray data from Fermi-LAT. We find that (1 The optical magnitude and γ-ray flux are positively correlated; (2 electric vector position angle rotations can occur in any blazar subclass; (3 there is no difference in the γ-ray flaring rates in the sample between subclasses; flares can occur during and outside of rotations with no preference for this behaviour; (4 the average degree of polarisation (P, optical magnitude and γ-ray flux are lower during a rotation compared with during non-rotation; (5 the number of observed flaring events and optical polarisation rotations are correlated and (6 the maximum observed P increases from ∼10% to ∼30% to ∼40% for subclasses with synchrotron peaks at high, intermediate and low frequencies respectively.

  2. Characterizing X-ray Variability of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Kataoka, Jun

    2008-01-01

    In this review, I will discuss how to characterize synchrotron X-ray variability of TeV blazars by using the observed/simulated light curves. Apparently, temporal studies provide independent and complementary information to the spectral studies, but surprisingly little attention has been paid especially for the blazar study. Only exception is a classical argument for presence of "time lag", which may (or may not) reflect the diffrence of synchrotron cooling timescale. Also very recently, it was suggested that the X-ray variability of TeV blazars indicates a strong red-noise, compared to a fractal, flickering-noise of Seyfert galaxies. Various temporal techniques are proposed in literature, e.g., the power spectrum density (PSD), the structure function (SF), and the discrete correlation function (DCF) and other analysis tools, but special care must be taken if the data are not well sampled and observation is relatively short compared to a characteristic timescale of the system. Also, the situation is being mor...

  3. Radio Band Observations of Blazar Variability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Margo F. Aller; Hugh D. Aller; Philip A. Hughes

    2011-03-01

    The properties of blazar variability in the radio band are studied using the unique combination of temporal resolution from single dish monitoring and spatial resolution from VLBA imaging. Such measurements now available in all four Stokes parameters, together with theoretical simulations, identify the origin of radio band variability and probe the characteristics of the radio jet where the broadband blazar emission originates. Outbursts in total flux density and linear polarization in the optical-to-radio bands are attributed to shocks propagating within the jet spine, in part, based on limited modelling invoking transverse shocks; new radiative transfer simulations allowing for shocks at arbitrary angle to the flow direction confirm this picture by reproducing the observed centimeter-band variations observed more generally, and are of current interest since these shocks may play a role in the -ray flaring detected by Fermi. Recent UMRAO multifrequency Stokes V studies of bright blazars identify the spectral variability properties of circular polarization for the first time and demonstrate that polarity flips are relatively common. All-Stokes data are consistent with the production of circular polarization by linear-to-circular mode conversion in a region that is at least partially selfabsorbed. Detailed analysis of single-epoch, multifrequency, all-Stokes VLBA observations of 3C 279 support this physical picture and are best explained by emission from an electron-proton plasma.

  4. Gamma-Ray and Multiwavelength Emission from Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meg Urry

    2011-03-01

    Blazars are now well understood as approaching relativistic jets aligned with the line of sight. The long-time uncertainty about the demographics of blazars is starting to become clearer: since the Fermi blazar sample includes a larger fraction of high-frequency peaked blazars (like the typical X-ray-selected blazars in, say, the Einstein Slew Survey sample) than did the higher-flux-limit EGRET blazar sample, these low-luminosity sources must be more common than their higher luminosity, low-frequency-peaked cousins. Blazar spectral energy distributions have a characteristic two-component form, with synchrotron radiation at radio through optical (UV, X-ray) frequencies and gamma-rays from X-ray through GeV (TeV) energies.Multiwavelength monitoring has suggested that gamma-ray flares can result from acceleration of electrons at shocks in the jet, and there appears to be an association between the creation of outflowing superluminal radio components in VLBI maps and the gamma-ray flares. In many cases, the gamma-ray emission is produced by inverse Compton upscattering of ambient optical-UV photons, although the contribution from energetic hadrons cannot be ruled out. The next few years of coordinated gamma-ray, X-ray, UV, optical, infrared and radio monitoring of blazars will be important for characterizing jet content, structure, and total power.

  5. The Spectral Index Distribution of EGRET Blazars: Prospects for GLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venters, Tonia M.; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; /SLAC

    2011-11-29

    The intrinsic distribution of spectral indices in GeV energies of gamma-ray-loud blazars is a critical input in determining the spectral shape of the unresolved blazar contribution to the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background, as well as an important test of blazar emission theories. We present a maximum-likelihood method of determining the intrinsic spectral index distribution (ISID) of a population of {gamma}-ray emitters which accounts for error in measurement of individual spectral indices, and we apply it to EGRET blazars. We find that the most likely Gaussian ISID for EGRET blazars has a mean of 2.27 and a standard deviation of 0.20. We additionally find some indication that FSRQs and BL Lacs may have different ISIDs (with BL Lacs being harder). We also test for spectral index hardening associated with blazar variability for which we find no evidence. Finally, we produce simulated GLAST spectral index datasets and perform the same analyses. With improved statistics due to the much larger number of resolvable blazars, GLAST data will help us determine the ISIDs with much improved accuracy. Should any difference exist between the ISIDs of BL Lacs and FSRQs or between the ISIDs of blazars in the quiescent and flaring states, GLAST data will be adequate to separate these ISIDs at a significance better than 3{sigma}.

  6. Core-dominance parameter, black hole mass and jet-disc connection in Fermi blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y. Y.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, H. J.; X. L. Yu

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between jet power and accretion for Fermi and non-Fermi blazars, respectively. We also compare the relevant parameter between them. Our main results are as follows. (i) Fermi and non-Fermi blazars have significant difference in redshift, black hole mass, and broad line luminosity. (ii) Fermi blazars have higher average core-dominance parameter than non-Fermi blazars, which suggests that Fermi blazars have strong beaming effect. (iii) We find significant correlation b...

  7. Search for Extended {\\gamma}-ray Emission around AGN with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Benkhali, F Ait; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E; Anton, G; Backes, M; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Bissaldi, E; Biteau, J; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Chadwick, P M; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Grondin, M -H; Grudzińska, M; Häffner, S; Hahn, J; Harris, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, F; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Méhault, J; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moulin, E; Murach, T; Naumann, C L; de Naurois, M; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Oakes, L; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Raue, M; Reichardt, I; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Rob, L; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J -P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorster, M; Vuillaume, T; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Ward, M; Weidinger, M; Weitzel, Q; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S; Malyshev, D

    2014-01-01

    Context: Very-high-energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) {\\gamma}-ray emission from blazars inevitably gives rise to electron-positron pair production through the interaction of these {\\gamma}-rays with the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL). Depending on the magnetic fields in the proximity of the source, the cascade initiated from pair production can result in either an isotropic halo around an initially beamed source or a magnetically broadened cascade flux. Aims: Both extended pair halo (PH) and magnetically broadened cascade (MBC) emission from regions surrounding the blazars 1ES 1101-232, 1ES 0229+200 and PKS 2155-304 were searched for, using VHE {\\gamma}-ray data taken with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), and high energy (HE; 100 MeV 10$^{-12}$G, this limits the production of pair halos developing from electromagnetic cascades. For weaker magnetic fields, in which electromagnetic cascades would result in magnetically broadened cascades, EGMF strengths in the range (0.3 - 3)$\\times 10^{-15}$G were e...

  8. A sample of weak blazars at milli-arcsecond resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mantovani, F; Mack, K -H; Alef, W; Ros, E; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    We started a follow-up investigation of the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey objects with declination >-10 deg. We undertook a survey with the EVN at 5GHz to make the first images of a complete sample of weak blazars, aiming at a comparison between high- and low-power samples of blazars. All of the 87 sources observed were detected. Point-like sources are found in 39 cases, and 48 show core-jet structure. According to the spectral indices previously obtained, 58 sources show a flat spectral index, and 29 sources show a steep spectrum or a spectrum peaking at a frequency around 1-2 GHz. Adding to the DXRBS objects we observed those already observed with ATCA in the southern sky, we found that 14 blazars and a SSRQ, are associated to gamma-ray emitters. We found that 56 sources can be considered blazars. We also detected 2 flat spectrum NLRGs. About 50% of the blazars associated to a gamma-ray object are BL Lacs, confirming that they are more likely detected among blazars gamma-emitters. We confirm the correlatio...

  9. Robopol: Optical polarisation monitoring of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Böttcher, Markus; Hovatta, Talvikki; Kiehlmann, Sebastian; Myserlis, Ioannis; Pavlidou, Vassiliki; Zensus, J Anton

    2016-01-01

    The RoboPol program has been monitoring the $R$-band linear polarisation parameters of an unbiased sample of 60 gamma-ray-loud blazars and a "control" sample of 15 gamma-ray-quite ones. The prime drive for the program has been the systematic study of the temporal behaviour of the optical polarisation and particularly the potential association of smooth and long rotations of the polarisation angle with flaring activity at high energies. Here we present the program and discuss a list of selected topics from our studies of the first three observing seasons (2013--2015) both in the angle and in the amplitude domain.

  10. -Rays Radiation of High Redshift Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W. G. Liu; S. H. Fu; X. Zhang; L. Ma; Y. B. Li; D. R. Xiong

    2014-09-01

    Based on the 31 high redshift ( > 2) Flat Spectral Radio Quasars (FSRQs), which is from the second Fermi-LAT AGNs catalogue (2LAC), we studied the correlation between flux densities (R, K, ) in the radio, infrared and -ray wave bands. We found that there is a significant positive correlation between and R, and a weak anticorrelation between and K in the average state. For high redshift blazars, we argue that the seed photon of -ray emission mainly comes from the jet itself and partially from the dusty torus.

  11. The Jets of TeV Blazars at Higher Resolution: 43 GHz and Polarimetric VLBA Observations from 2005 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piner, B. Glenn; Pant, Niraj; Edwards, Philip G.

    2010-11-01

    We present 23 new VLBA images of the six established TeV blazars Markarian 421, Markarian 501, H 1426+428, 1ES 1959+650, PKS 2155-304, and 1ES 2344+514, obtained from 2005 to 2009. Most images were obtained at 43 GHz (7 mm), and they reveal the parsec-scale structures of three of these sources (1ES 1959+650, PKS 2155-304, and 1ES 2344+514) at factors of 2-3 higher resolution than has previously been attained. These images reveal new morphological details, including a high degree of jet bending in the inner milliarcsecond in PKS 2155-304. This establishes strong apparent jet bending on VLBI scales as a common property of TeV blazars, implying viewing angles close to the line of sight. Most of the remaining images map the linear polarization structures at a lower frequency of 22 GHz (1 cm). We discuss the transverse structures of the jets as revealed by the high-frequency and polarimetric imaging. The transverse structures include significant limb brightening in Mrk 421, and "spine-sheath" structures in the electric vector position angle and fractional polarization distributions in Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and 1ES 1959+650. We use new measured component positions to update measured apparent jet speeds, in many cases significantly reducing the statistical error over previously published results. With the increased resolution at 43 GHz, we detect new components within 0.1-0.2 mas of the core in most of these sources. No motion is apparent in these new components over the time span of our observations, and we place upper limits on the apparent speeds of the components near the core of <2c. From those limits, we conclude that Γ2 < (Γ1)1/2 at ~105 Schwarzschild radii, where Γ1 and Γ2 are the bulk Lorentz factors in the TeV emitting and 43 GHz emitting regions, respectively, assuming that their velocity vectors are aligned.

  12. Correlation between -Ray and Radio Bands for -Ray Loud Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. X. Wu; J. H. Fan; S. H. Li

    2014-09-01

    The most identified sources observed by Fermi are blazars (Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacertae objects (BLs). In this paper, we obtained 124 -ray loud blazars with available -ray and radio (core and total) data. It is interesting that the -ray luminosity have a good correlation with the radio luminosity. This phenomenon exists in the core radio luminosity (c) and total radio luminosity (t). The correlation between the -ray and the radio luminosities is still stronger even after we eliminated the redshift effect, which suggests that the -ray radiations in the -ray loud blazars are strongly beamed.

  13. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi bright blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Ajello, M; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chaty, S; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Colafrancesco, S; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fuhrmann, L; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Healey, S E; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Itoh, R; Jackson, M S; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, W N; Kadler, M; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knodlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broad-band spectral properties of the \\gamma-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi gamma-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical and other hard X-ray/gamma-ray data, collected within three months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars.The SED of these gamma-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual Log $\

  14. A spine-sheath model for strong-line blazars

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a quasi-analytical model for the production of radiation in strong-line blazars, assuming a spine-sheath jet structure. The model allows us to study how the spine and sheath spectral components depend on parameters describing the geometrical and physical structure of "the blazar zone". We show that typical broad-band spectra of strong-line blazars can be reproduced by assuming the magnetization parameter to be of order unity and reconnection to be the dominant dissipation me...

  15. Superluminal Motion and Polarization in Blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hui Fan; Yong-Jiu Wang; Jiang-He Yang; Cheng-Yue Su

    2004-01-01

    A relativistic beaming model has been successfully used to explain the observed properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In this model there are two emission components, a boosted one and an unbeamed one, shown up in the radio band as the core and lobe components. The luminosity ratio of the core to the lobe is defined as the core-dominance parameter (R = LCore/LLobe) The de-beamed radio luminosity (Ldbjet) in the jet is assumed to be proportional to the unbeamed luminosity (Lub) in the co-moving frame, i.e., f = Ldbjet/Lub and f is determined in our previous paper. We further discuss the relationship between BL Lacertae objects(BLs) and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), which are subclasses of blazars with different degrees of polarization, using the calculated values of the ratio f for a sample of superluminal blazars. We found 1) that the BLs show smaller averaged Doppler factors and Lorentz factors, larger viewing angles and higher coredominance parameters than do the FSRQs, and 2) that in the polarization-core dominance parameter plot (P - log R) the BLs and FSRQs occupy a scattered region, but in a revised plot (logP/c(m) - logR), they gather around two different lines, suggesting that they have some different intrinsic properties.

  16. A Radiative Transport Model for Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tiffany; Justin, Finke; Becker, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are observed across the electromagnetic spectrum, often with strong variability throughout. The underlying electron distribution associated with the observed emission is typically not computed from first principles. We start from first-principles to build up a transport model, whose solution is the electron distribution, rather than assuming a convenient functional form. Our analytical transport model considers shock acceleration, adiabatic expansion, stochastic acceleration, Bohm diffusion, and synchrotron radiation. We use this solution to generate predictions for the X-ray spectrum and time lags, and compare the results with data products from BeppoSAX observations of X-ray flares from Mrk 421. This new self-consistent model provides an unprecedented view into the jet physics at play in this source, especially the strength of the shock and stochastic acceleration components and the size of the acceleration region.More recently, we augmented the transport model to incorporate Compton scattering, including Klein-Nishina effects. In this case, an analytical solution cannot be derived, and therefore we obtain the steady-state electron distribution computationally. We compare the resulting radiation spectrum with multi-wavelength data for 3C 279. We show that our new Compton + synchrotron blazar model is the first to successfully fit the FermiLAT gamma-ray data for this source based on a first-principles physical calculation.

  17. The blazar paradigm and its discontents

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, C D

    2014-01-01

    The standard blazar paradigm consists of a supermassive black hole that expels relativistic jets of magnetized plasma in our direction. This plasma entrains nonthermal synchrotron-emitting electrons that furthermore scatter internally-produced synchrotron photons as well as externally-produced photons from the accretion-disk, the broad-line region, and the infrared-emitting torus. This picture has been very successful in reproducing the two-humped blazar spectral energy distribution. Yet various discontents persist, including (1) ultra-short variability at TeV energies that is much shorter than the black hole's dynamical timescale; (2) very-high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) radiation from FSRQs; (3) evidence for a hard spectral component in high-synchrotron peaked objects, found when deabsorbing the measured VHE spectrum using conventional extragalactic background light (EBL) models; (4) an unusual slowly varying class of BL Lac objects; (5) location of the gamma-ray emission region. Some of these problems can be r...

  18. Detecting the Elusive Blazar Counter-Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Liodakis, I; Angelakis, E

    2016-01-01

    Detection of blazar pc scale counter-jets is difficult, but it can provide invaluable insight into the relativistic effects, radiative processes and the complex mechanisms of jet production, collimation and accelation in blazars. We build on recent populations models (optimized using the MOJAVE apparent velocity and redshift distributions) in order to derive the distribution of jet-to-counter-jet ratios and the flux densities of the counter-jet at different frequencies, in an effort to set minimum sensitivity limits required for existing and future telescope arrays in order to detect these elusive counter-jets. We find that: for the BL Lacs $5\\%$ of their counter-jets have a flux-density higher than 100mJy, $15\\%$ are higher than 10 mJy, and $32\\%$ have higher flux-density than 1 mJy, whereas for the FSRQs $8\\%$ have a flux-density higher than 10mJy, $17\\%$ are higher than 1 mJy, and $32\\%$ are higher than 0.1 mJy (at 15 GHz). Future telescopes like the SKA and newly operating like e-MERLIN and JVLA may detec...

  19. Implications for High Energy Blazar Spectra from Intergalactic Absorption Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F

    2008-01-01

    Given a knowledge of the density spectra intergalactic low energy photons as a function of redshift, one can derive the intrinsic gamma-ray spectra and luminosities of blazars over a range of redshifts and look for possible trends in blazar evolution. Stecker, Baring & Summerlin have found some evidence hinting that TeV blazars with harder spectra have higher intrinsic TeV gamma-ray luminosities and indicating that there may be a correlation of spectral hardness and luminosity with redshift. Further work along these lines, treating recent observations of the blazers lES02291+200 and 3C279 in the TeV and sub-TeV energy ranges, has recently been explored by Stecker & Scully. GLAST will observe and investigate many blazars in the GeV energy range and will be sensitive to blazers at higher redshifts. I examine the implications high redshift gamma-ray absorption for both theoretical and observational blazer studies.

  20. Blazar flares powered by plasmoids in relativistic reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Petropoulou, Maria; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Powerful flares from blazars with short ($\\sim$ min) variability timescales are challenging for current models of blazar emission. Here, we present a physically motivated ab initio model for blazar flares based on the results of recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic magnetic reconnection. PIC simulations demonstrate that quasi-spherical plasmoids filled with high-energy particles and magnetic fields are a self-consistent by-product of the reconnection process. By coupling our PIC-based results (i.e., plasmoid growth, acceleration profile, particle and magnetic content) with a kinetic equation for the evolution of the electron distribution function we demonstrate that relativistic reconnection in blazar jets can produce powerful flares whose temporal and spectral properties are consistent with the observations. In particular, our model predicts correlated synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton flares of duration of several hours--days powered by the largest and slowest moving plasmoids th...

  1. Another Very Strong X-ray Flare in 1ES 1959+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanadze, Bidzina

    2016-10-01

    The nearby TeV-detected HBL source 1ES 1959+650 (z=0.047) has been observed five times by X-ray Telescope onboard the Swift satellite (Swift-XRT) in the framework of our Target of Opportunity (ToO) requests of different urgencies (ToO Request Number: 8544, 8614, 8623; see https://www.swift.psu.edu/secure/toop/summary.php) which revealed an onset of the third very strong X-ray flare during the last 1 year period.

  2. INVESTIGATING BROADBAND VARIABILITY OF THE TeV BLAZAR 1ES 1959+650

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T.; Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Barnacka, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Eisch, J. D., E-mail: amy.furniss@gmail.com, E-mail: Markus.Bottcher@nwu.ac.za [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; and others

    2014-12-20

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959+650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope, high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 2012 April 17 and 2012 June 1 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters required to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected emission model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV.

  3. Extended radio emission and the nature of blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonucci, R.R.J.; Ulvestad, J.S.

    1985-07-01

    The VLA has been used at 20 cm to map all 23 of the 54 confirmed blazars listed in the Angel and Stockman review paper that had not been mapped before at high resolution. (Blazars include BL Lac objects and optically violently variable quasars.) In addition, data on most of the previously mapped blazars have been reprocessed in order to achieve higher dynamic range. Extended emission has been detected associated with 49 of the 54 objects. The extended radio emission has been used to test the hypothesis that blazars are normal radio galaxies and radio quasars viewed along the jet axes. We find that blazars have substantial extended power, consistent with this hypothesis. Many have extended powers as high as the luminous Fanaroff-Riley class 2 radio doubles. The projected linear sizes are small, as expected from foreshortening of the extended sources, and many blazars have the expected core-halo morphology. There are also several small doubles, a head-tail source, and some one-sided sources, and these could be in cases where the line of sight is slightly off the jet axis, or projections of asymmetrical radio galaxies and quasars. The ratio of core to extended radio emission has been studied as a possible indicator of viewing aspect or beaming intensity. It is found to correlate with optical polarization, optical and radio core variability, and one-sided radio morphology. We can go beyond these consistency checks and work toward a proof of the hypothesis under discussion. The flux from the extended emission alone is sufficient in some blazars to qualify them for inclusion in the 3C and 4C catalogs. Suppose that the radio core emission is anisotropic, but the extended emission is predominantly isotropic. The isotropy of the extended emission implies that these blazars would be in the catalogs even if viewed from the side.

  4. Time Variability Analysis of the SMARTS Monitoring of Fermi Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Ritaban; Bonning, E W; Buxton, M; Coppi, P; Isler, J; Urry, C M

    2011-01-01

    We present the time variability properties of a sample of six blazars, AO 0235+164, 3C 273, 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, PKS 2155-304, and 3C 454.3, at optical-near IR frequencies as well as Gamma-ray energies observed as a part of the Yale/SMARTS program during 2008-2010 that has followed the variations in emission of the bright Fermi-LAT-monitored blazars in the southern sky with closely-spaced observations at BVRJK bands. The discrete auto-correlation function of the variability of these six blazars at optical-IR and Gamma-ray energies do not show any periodicity or characteristic timescale. The power spectral density (PSD) functions of the R-band variability of all six blazars are fit well by simple power-law functions with negative slope implying there is higher amplitude variability on longer than on shorter timescales. Average slope of the PSD of R-band variability of these blazars is similar to what was found by the Fermi team for the Gamma-ray variability of a larger sample of bright blazars. The shortest t...

  5. Discovery of VHE gamma-rays from the distant BL Lac 1ES 0347-121

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonian, F; Barres de Almeida, U; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Behera, B; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Brion, E; Brown, A M; Buhler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Carrigan, S; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Dalton, M; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ata:, A; Domainko, W; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Förster, A; Fontaine, G; Funk, Seb; Fuling, M; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Jung, I; Katarzynski, K; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khelifi, B; Keogh, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Latham, I J; Lemiere, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J P; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; Maurin, D; Maurin, G; McComb, T J L; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nedbal, D; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J P; De Ona Wilhelmi, E; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Ranchon, S; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Renaud, M; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schock, F; Schroder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Stawarz,; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Superina, G; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A

    2007-01-01

    Aims: Our aim is to study the production mechanism for very-high-energy (VHE; >100GeV) gamma-rays in distant active galactic nuclei (AGN) and use the observed VHE spectrum to derive limits on the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL). We also want to determine physical quantities through the modeling of the object's broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Methods: VHE observations (~25h live time) of the BL Lac 1ES 0347-121 (redshift z=0.188) were conducted with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) between August and December 2006. Contemporaneous X-ray and UV/optical observations from the SWIFT satellite are used to interpret the SED of the source in terms of a synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. Results: An excess of 327 events, corresponding to a statistical significance of 10.1 standard deviations, is detected from 1ES 0347-121. Its photon spectrum, ranging from ~250GeV to ~3TeV, is well described by a power law with a photon index of Gamma = 3.10 +/- 0.23_stat +/- 0.10_sys. The integral...

  6. VERITAS observations of the BL Lac 1ES 1218+304

    CERN Document Server

    Acciari, V A; Arlen, T; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Butt, Y; Byrum, K L; Celik, O; Cesarini, A; Ciupik, L; Chow, Y C K; Cogan, P; Colin, P; Cui, W; Daniel, M K; Ergin, T; Falcone, A D; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Fortin, P; Fortson, L F; Furniss, A; Gillanders, G H; Grube, J; Guenette, R; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Hays, E; Holder, J; Horan, D; Hui, C M; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Kaaret, Philip; Karlsson, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D B; Kildea, J; Konopelko, A; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Le Bohec, S; Maier, G; McCann, A; McCutcheon, M; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nagai, T; Niemiec, J; Ong, R A; Pandel, D; Perkins, J S; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Smith, A W; Steele, D; Swordy, S P; Toner, J A; Valcarcel, L; Vasilev, V V; Wagner, R; Wakely, S P; Ward, J E; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; White, R J; Williams, D A; Wissel, S A; Wood, M; Zitzer, B

    2009-01-01

    The VERITAS collaboration reports the detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1218+304 located at a redshift of z=0.182. A gamma-ray signal was detected with a statistical significance of 10.4 standard deviations (10.4 sigma) for the observations taken during the first three months of 2007, confirming the discovery of this object made by the MAGIC collaboration. The photon spectrum between ~160 GeV and ~1.8 TeV is well described by a power law with an index of Gamma = 3.08 +/- 0.34_stat +/- 0.2_sys. The integral flux is Phi(E > 200 GeV) = (12.2 +/- 2.6) X 10^-12 cm^-2 s^-1, which corresponds to ~6% of that of the Crab Nebula. The light curve does not show any evidence for VHE flux variability. Using lower limits on the density of the extragalactic background light in the near to mid-infrared we are able to limit the range of intrinsic energy spectra for 1ES 1218+304. We show that the intrinsic photon spectrum has an index that is harder than Gamm...

  7. Six-year Optical Monitoring of BL Lacertae Object 1ES 0806+52.4

    CERN Document Server

    Man, Zhongyi; Wu, Jianghua; Zhou, Xu; Yuan, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of the first systematic long-term multi-color optical monitoring of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 0806+52.4. The monitoring was performed in multiple passbands with a 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope from December 2005 to February 2011. The overall brightness of this object decreased from 2005 December to 2008 December, and regained after that. A sharp outburst probably occurred around the end of our monitoring program. Overlapped on the long-term trend are some short-term small-amplitude oscillations. No intra-night variability was found in the object, which is in accord with the historical observations before 2005. By investigating the color behavior, we found strong bluer-when-brighter chromatism for the long-term variability of 1ES 0806+52.4. The total amplitudes at the c, i and o bands are 1.18, 1.12, and 1.02 mags, respectively. The amplitudes tend to increase toward shorter wavelength, which may be the major cause of bluer-when-brighter. Such bluer-when-brighter is also found in other bla...

  8. Faraday Conversion in Turbulent Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Nicholas R

    2016-01-01

    Low ($\\lesssim 3\\%$) levels of circular polarization (CP) detected at radio frequencies in the relativistic jets of some blazars can provide insight into the underlying nature of the jet plasma. CP can be produced through linear birefringence, in which initially linearly polarized emission produced in one region of the jet is altered by Faraday rotation as it propagates through other regions of the jet with various magnetic field orientations. Marscher has recently begun a study of jets with such magnetic geometries with the Turbulent Extreme Multi-Zone (TEMZ) model, in which turbulent plasma crossing a standing shock in the jet is represented by a collection of thousands of individual plasma cells, each with distinct magnetic field orientation. Here we develop a radiative transfer scheme that allows the numerical TEMZ code to produce simulated images of the time-dependent linearly and circularly polarized intensity at different radio frequencies. In this initial study, we produce synthetic polarized emission...

  9. FACT - Monitoring Blazars at Very High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dorner, D; Bergmann, M; Biland, A; Balbo, M; Bretz, T; Buss, J; Einecke, S; Freiwald, J; Hempfling, C; Hildebrand, D; Hughes, G; Lustermann, W; Mannheim, K; Meier, K; Mueller, S; Neise, D; Neronov, A; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Toscano, S; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Wilbert, A

    2015-01-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) was built on the Canary Island of La Palma in October 2011 as a proof of principle for silicon based photosensors in Cherenkov Astronomy. The scientific goal of the project is to study the variability of active galatic nuclei (AGN) at TeV energies. Observing a small sample of TeV blazars whenever possible, an unbiased data sample is collected. This allows to study the variability of the selected objects on timescales from hours to years. Results from the first three years of monitoring will be presented. To provide quick flare alerts to the community and trigger multi-wavelength observations, a quick look analysis has been installed on-site providing results publicly online within the same night. In summer 2014, several flare alerts were issued. Results of the quick look analysis are summarized.

  10. Multi-waveband Behavior of Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marscher Alan P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews recent progress toward understanding blazars that multi-waveband monitoring observations have advanced. The primary techniques include the compilation of multi-waveband light curves, multi-epoch VLBI images at radio wavelengths, plots of linear polarization vs. time at radio through optical wavelengths, and spectral energy distributions (SEDs. Correlations and the coincidence or lag of events across wavebands and in the images indicate where the events take place relative to the “core” that lies ≳ 0.5 pc from the central engine. Rotations of the polarization electric vector suggest a helical geometry of the magnetic field upstream of the millimeter-wave core, while rapid fluctuations in degree and position angle of polarization imply that the jet plasma is turbulent in and downstream of the core. The author is developing a numerical model that simulates the emission from such turbulence as it interacts with a conical standing shock in the core region.

  11. The line emissions and polarization in blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The correlations between broad-line emission,polarization,and core-dominance parameters are investigated for a sample of 148 blazars(BL Lacertae objects-BLs and flat spectrum radio quasars-FSRQs). An anti-correlation between the broad-line luminosity and the linear polarization is found. The broad-line and polarization relation can be explained by using a relativistic beaming model,which perhaps suggests that BL Lacs and FSRQs are a single class. We also investigated the relation between the ratio of the broad-line luminosity to the Eddington luminosity and linear polarization,and that between the ratio of the broad-line luminosity to the Eddington luminosity and the core-dominance parameter.

  12. BLAZAR MONITORING WITH THE WATCHER ROBOTIC TELESCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Tisdall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos informaci ́on sobre una intensa campa ̃na de obs ervaciones de blazars de rayos gamma en el ́optico que estamos llevando a cabo capaz de observar variabilidad ́ optica de corta y larga duraci ́on para fuentes del hemisferio sur. Diez fuentes est ́an siendo observadas dent ro de este programa con ́enfasis en PKS 2155-304 y PKS 2005-489 durante el invierno austral de 2013. Ambas fuen tes fueron observadas con 3 filtros (V, R e I obteniendo alrededor de 20,000 im ́agenes durante un period o de 5 meses. Un an ́alisis preliminar parcial de los datos indica que no hubo episodios de gran actividad en la ban da ́optica.

  13. Multi-Color Microvariability in HBLs: 1ES 1959+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W. L.; Carini, M. T.

    2003-12-01

    BL Lac objects are the most extreme members of the class of objects known as AGN. The defining characteristics of BL Lac objects are large amplitude continuum variations at all wavelengths, a featureless optical spectrum, and large amplitude, highly variable polarization. BL Lacs can be divided into subclasses, based on the peak of the synchrotron portion of their SED. In the HBL sub class, this peak occurs in the UV/X-ray wavelength range. We present the results of a study of the color dependency of microvariability(variations on timescales of minutes to hours) for the HBL 1ES 1959+650, using the Bell Observatory 0.6m telescope and the 1.3m Robotically Controlled Telescope. This research was funded via the Kentucky Space Grant Consortium, the Kentucky NSF EPSCoR program, the Kentucky NASA/EPSCoR program and the Applied Research and Technology Program at Western Kentucky University.

  14. Photohadronic scenario in interpreting the February-March 2014 flare of 1ES 1011+496

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, Sarira; Miranda, Luis Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The extraordinary multi-TeV flare from 1ES 1011 +496 during February-March 2014 was observed by MAGIC telescopes for 17 nights and the average spectrum of the whole period has a non-trivial shape. We have used the photohadronic model and a template EBL model to explain the average spectrum which fits well to the flare data. The spectral index $\\alpha$ is the only free parameter in our model. We have also shown that the non-trivial nature of the spectrum is due to the change in the behavior of the optical depth above $\\sim 600$ GeV $\\gamma$-ray energy accompanied with the high SSC flux.

  15. Increasing X-Ray Brightness of HBL Source 1ES 1727+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanadze, Bidzina

    2017-02-01

    The nearby TeV-detected HBL object 1ES 1727+502 (1Zw 187, z=0.055) has been targeted 111 times by X-ray Telescope (XRT) onboard Swift since 2010 April 2. During this monitoring, the 0.3-10 keV count rate varied by a factor of 17.4 (see http://www.swift.psu.edu/monitoring/source.php?source=QSOB1727+502) and showed a prolonged X-ray flaring activity during 2015 March - 2016 February, revealed mainly via the Target of Opportunity observations performed in the framework of our request of different urgencies (Request Number 6571, 6606, 6717, 6809, 6927, 7322, 7355, 7379, 7390, 7404, 7430, 7441, 7516, 7565; see Kapanadze et al. 2015, Atel #8224, #7342).

  16. Gamma-Ray Blazars within the First 2 Billion Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Conrad, J.; Costantin, D.; Costanza, F.; Cutini, S.; D’Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Lalla, N.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Domínguez, A.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hartmann, D. H.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kuss, M.; La Mura, G.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J. D.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Marcotulli, L.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mirabal, N.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Ojha, R.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paliya, V. S.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Persic, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Principe, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Rani, B.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Romani, R. W.; Sgrò, C.; Simone, D.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stalin, C. S.; Stawarz, L.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, M.; Tanaka, K.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Torres, D. F.; Torresi, E.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.

    2017-03-01

    The detection of high-redshift (z > 3) blazars enables the study of the evolution of the most luminous relativistic jets over cosmic time. More importantly, high-redshift blazars tend to host massive black holes and can be used to constrain the space density of heavy black holes in the early universe. Here, we report the first detection with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope of five γ-ray-emitting blazars beyond z = 3.1, more distant than any blazars previously detected in γ-rays. Among these five objects, NVSS J151002+570243 is now the most distant known γ-ray-emitting blazar at z = 4.31. These objects have steeply falling γ-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and those that have been observed in X-rays have a very hard X-ray spectrum, both typical of powerful blazars. Their Compton dominance (ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities) is also very large (> 20). All of these properties place these objects among the most extreme members of the blazar population. Their optical spectra and the modeling of their optical-UV SEDs confirm that these objects harbor massive black holes ({M}{BH}∼ {10}8-10 {M}ȯ ). We find that, at z≈ 4, the space density of > {10}9 {M}ȯ black holes hosted in radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei are similar, implying that radio-loudness may play a key role in rapid black hole growth in the early universe.

  17. The hard synchrotron X-ray spectrum of the TeV BL Lac 1ES 1426+428

    CERN Document Server

    Wolter, A; Ghisellini, G; Tavecchio, F; Maraschi, L; Costamante, L; Celotti, A; Ghirlanda, G

    2007-01-01

    We have observed 1ES 1426+428 with INTEGRAL detecting it up to $\\sim$150 keV. The spectrum is hard, confirming that this source is an extreme BL Lac object, with a synchrotron component peaking, in a $\

  18. Analysis of the activity of the blazar BL Lacertae over the period 1998-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigunov, K. S.; Zhovtan, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    In 1998-2011 the blazar (active galactic nucleus) BL Lacertae was observed at Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) with the second-generation GT-48 Cherenkov telescope at energies >1 TeV with a total significance of 11.8σ. More than 20 flares and a fourfold change in yearly mean fluxes (>1 TeV) were recorded. The optical ( B band) data obtained at CrAO and the TeV data are shown to correlate in some time intervals. The optical data are also compared with the X-ray RXTE/ASM (2-10 keV) data. In addition, the data from GT-48 are compared with the gamma-ray fluxes recorded by the Fermi LAT space telescope (0.1-300 GeV). The 2009 flare at TeV and Fermi energies has been studied. As a result, it has been found that as the activity rises the increase in flux at high energies exceeds its increase at low energies. This conclusion may be related to the conversion mechanism of particle acceleration. This is consistent with the results of studies for a similar object, 1ES 1426+428.

  19. Probing Acceleration and Turbulence at Relativistic Shocks in Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, Matthew G; Summerlin, Errol J

    2016-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at relativistic shocks is widely thought to be an important acceleration mechanism in various astrophysical jet sources, including radio-loud active galactic nuclei such as blazars. Such acceleration can produce the non-thermal particles that emit the broadband continuum radiation that is detected from extragalactic jets. An important recent development for blazar science is the ability of Fermi-LAT spectroscopy to pin down the shape of the distribution of the underlying non-thermal particle population. This paper highlights how multi-wavelength spectra spanning optical to X-ray to gamma-ray bands can be used to probe diffusive acceleration in relativistic, oblique, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in blazar jets. Diagnostics on the MHD turbulence near such shocks are obtained using thermal and non-thermal particle distributions resulting from detailed Monte Carlo simulations of DSA. These probes are afforded by the characteristic property that the synchrotron $\

  20. Spectral and Polarization Signatures of Relativistic Shocks in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic shocks are one of the most plausible sites of the emission of strongly variable, polarized multi-wavelength emission from relativistic jet sources such as blazars, via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of relativistic particles. This paper summarizes recent results on a self-consistent coupling of diffusive shock acceleration and radiation transfer in blazar jets. We demonstrate that the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of blazars strongly constrain the nature of hydromagnetic turbulence responsible for pitch-angle scattering by requiring a strongly energy-dependent pitch-angle mean free path. The prominent soft X-ray excess ("Big Blue Bump") in the SED of the BL Lac object AO 0235+164 can be modelled as the signature of bulk Compton scattering of external radiation fields by the thermal electron population, which places additional constraints on the level of hydromagnetic turbulence. It has further been demonstrated that internal shocks propagating in a jet pervaded by a helical ma...

  1. A sample of Swift/SDSS faint blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Bernardo; Giommi, Paolo; Turriziani, Sara

    2015-12-01

    We aim here to provide a complete sample of faint (fr ≳ 1 mJy, fx ≳ 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1) blazars and blazar candidates serendipitously discovered in deep Swift images centered on Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). By stacking all available images, we obtain exposures ranging from 104 to more than a million seconds. Since GRBs are thought to explode randomly across the sky, this set of deep fields can be considered as an unbiased survey of ≈ 12 square degrees of extragalactic sky, with sensitivities reaching a few 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5-2 keV band. We then derive the x-ray Log N Log S and show that, considering that our sample may be contaminated by sources other than blazars, we are in agreement with previous estimations based on data and simulations.

  2. Blazar origin of some IceCube events

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Luis Salvador; Sahu, Sarira

    2015-01-01

    Recently ANTARES collaboration presented a time dependent analysis to a selected number of flaring blazars to look for upward going muon events produced from the charge current interaction of the muon neutrinos. We use the same list of flaring blazars to look for possible positional correlation with the IceCube neutrino events. We observed that six FSRQs and two BL Lac objects from the list are within the error circles of eight IceCube events. We also observed that three FSRQs are within the error circles of more than one event. In the context of photohadronic model we propose that these neutrinos are produced within the nuclear region of the blazar where Fermi accelerated high energy protons interact with the background synchrotron/SSC photons.

  3. A spine-sheath model for strong-line blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Marek; Rutkowski, Mieszko; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a quasi-analytical model for the production of radiation in strong-line blazars, assuming a spine-sheath jet structure. The model allows us to study how the spine and sheath spectral components depend on parameters describing the geometrical and physical structure of `the blazar zone'. We show that typical broad-band spectra of strong-line blazars can be reproduced by assuming the magnetization parameter to be of order unity and reconnection to be the dominant dissipation mechanism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the spine-sheath model can explain why γ-ray variations are often observed to have much larger amplitudes than the corresponding optical variations. The model is also less demanding of jet power than one-zone models, and can reproduce the basic features of extreme γ-ray events.

  4. A spine-sheath model for strong-line blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, Marek; Begelman, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a quasi-analytical model for the production of radiation in strong-line blazars, assuming a spine-sheath jet structure. The model allows us to study how the spine and sheath spectral components depend on parameters describing the geometrical and physical structure of "the blazar zone". We show that typical broad-band spectra of strong-line blazars can be reproduced by assuming the magnetization parameter to be of order unity and reconnection to be the dominant dissipation mechanism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the spine-sheath model can explain why gamma-ray variations are often observed to have much larger amplitudes than the corresponding optical variations. The model is also less demanding of jet power than one-zone models, and can reproduce the basic features of extreme gamma-ray events.

  5. Polarization Swings Reveal Magnetic Energy Dissipation in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Haocheng; Boettcher, Markus; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The polarization signatures of the blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, sometimes large (> 180^o) polarization angle swings are observed. We suggest that such p henomena can be interpreted as arising from light-travel-time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. We present the first simultaneous fitting of the multi-wavelength spectrum, variability and time-dependent polarization features of a correlated optical and gamma-ray flaring event of the prominent blazar 3C279, which was accompanied by a drastic change of its polarization signatures. This unprecedented combination of spectral, variability, and polarization information in a coherent physical model allows us to place stringent constraints on the particle acceleration and magnetic-field topology in the relativistic jet of a blazar, strongly favoring a scenario in which magnetic energy dissipation is the primary driver of the flare event.

  6. Gamma-ray blazars within the first two billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, Marco; Paliya, Vaidehi; Gasparrini, Dario; Ojha, Roopesh; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    MeV blazars, with a high-energy peak in the MeV band, are the most powerful persistent sources in the Universe, exhibiting larger-than-average jet powers, accretion luminosities, and black hole masses. Their detection above redshift 3 has the power to constrain the formation mechanism of heavy black holes. Here we report the first detection with the Fermi Large Area Telescope of gamma-ray emitting blazars beyond redshift 3. The newly detected objects have black-hole masses in excess of 1 billion solar masses and very prominent disk and gamma-ray emission. We will discuss the new finding within the context of blazar evolution and the disk-jet connection in powerful jetted AGN.

  7. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF 1ES 1959+650 IN A LOW FLUX STATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T.; Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Boettcher, M. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others

    2013-09-20

    We report on the VERITAS observations of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 in the period 2007-2011. This source is detected at TeV energies by VERITAS at 16.4 standard deviation ({sigma}) significance in 7.6 hr of observation in a low flux state. A multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) is constructed from contemporaneous data from VERITAS, Fermi-LAT, RXTE PCA, and Swift UVOT. Swift XRT data is not included in the SED due to a lack of simultaneous observations with VERITAS. In contrast to the orphan {gamma}-ray flare exhibited by this source in 2002, the X-ray flux of the source is found to vary by an order of magnitude, while other energy regimes exhibit less variable emission. A quasi-equilibrium synchrotron self-Compton model with an additional external radiation field is used to describe three SEDs corresponding to the lowest, highest, and average X-ray states. The variation in the X-ray spectrum is modeled by changing the electron injection spectral index, with minor adjustments of the kinetic luminosity in electrons. This scenario produces small-scale flux variability of the order of {approx}< 2 in the high energy (E > 1 MeV) and very high energy (E > 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray regimes, which is corroborated by the Fermi-LAT, VERITAS, and Whipple 10 m telescope light curves.

  8. An innovative blazar classification based on radio jet kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervet, O.; Boisson, C.; Sol, H.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Blazars are usually classified following their synchrotron peak frequency (νF(ν) scale) as high, intermediate, low frequency peaked BL Lacs (HBLs, IBLs, LBLs), and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), or, according to their radio morphology at large scale, FR I or FR II. However, the diversity of blazars is such that these classes seem insufficient to chart the specific properties of each source. Aims: We propose to classify a wide sample of blazars following the kinematic features of their radio jets seen in very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Methods: For this purpose we use public data from the MOJAVE collaboration in which we select a sample of blazars with known redshift and sufficient monitoring to constrain apparent velocities. We selected 161 blazars from a sample of 200 sources. We identify three distinct classes of VLBI jets depending on radio knot kinematics: class I with quasi-stationary knots, class II with knots in relativistic motion from the radio core, and class I/II, intermediate, showing quasi-stationary knots at the jet base and relativistic motions downstream. Results: A notable result is the good overlap of this kinematic classification with the usual spectral classification; class I corresponds to HBLs, class II to FSRQs, and class I/II to IBLs/LBLs. We deepen this study by characterizing the physical parameters of jets from VLBI radio data. Hence we focus on the singular case of the class I/II by the study of the blazar BL Lac itself. Finally we show how the interpretation that radio knots are recollimation shocks is fully appropriate to describe the characteristics of these three classes.

  9. Broadband Observations of High Redshift Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Paliya, Vaidehi S; Fabian, A C; Stalin, C S

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of four high redshift blazars, S5 0014+81 ($z=3.37$), CGRaBS J0225+1846 ($z=2.69$), BZQ J1430+4205 ($z=4.72$), and 3FGL J1656.2$-$3303 ($z=2.40$), using the quasi-simultaneous data from {\\it Swift}, {\\it NuSTAR}, and {\\it Fermi}-Large Area Telescope (LAT) and also the archival {\\it XMM-Newton} observations. Other than 3FGL J1656.2$-$3303, none of the sources were known as $\\gamma$-ray emitters and our analysis of $\\sim$7.5 years of LAT data reveals the first time detection of the statistically significant $\\gamma$-ray emission from CGRaBS J0225+1846. We generate the broadband spectral energy distributions (SED) of all the objects, centering at the epoch of {\\it NuSTAR} observations and reproduce them using a one zone leptonic emission model. The optical$-$UV emission in all the objects can be explained by the radiation from the accretion disk, whereas, X-ray to $\\gamma$-ray window of the SEDs are found to be dominated by the inverse Compton scattering off the broad line reg...

  10. Applying Relativistic Reconnection to Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and luminous flares of non-thermal radiation observed in blazars require an efficient mechanism of energy dissipation and particle acceleration in relativistic active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets. Particle acceleration in relativistic magnetic reconnection is being actively studied by kinetic numerical simulations. Relativistic reconnection produces hard power-law electron energy distributions N(gamma) = N_0 gamma^(-p) exp(-gamma/gamma_max) with index p -> 1 and exponential cut-off Lorentz factor gamma_max ~ sigma in the limit of magnetization sigma = B^2/(4 pi w) >> 1 (where w is the relativistic enthalpy density). Reconnection in electron-proton plasma can additionally boost gamma_max by the mass ratio m_p/m_e. Hence, in order to accelerate particles to gamma_max ~ 10^6 in the case of BL Lacs, reconnection should proceed in plasma of very high magnetization sigma_max >~ 10^3. On the other hand, moderate mean jet magnetization values are required for magnetic bulk acceleration of relativistic jets, sigma...

  11. The Disc-Jet Relation in Strong-Lined Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    D'Elia, V.; Padovani, P.; Landt, H.

    2002-01-01

    The relation between accretion disc (thermal emission) and jet (non-thermal emission) in blazars is still a mystery as, typically, the beamed jet emission swamps the disc even in the ultraviolet band where disc emission peaks. In this paper we estimate the accretion disc component for 136 flat-spectrum radio quasars selected from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey. We do this by deriving the accretion disc spectrum from the mass and accretion rate onto the central black hole for each object, ...

  12. The Lyman α forest in a blazar-heated Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchwein, Ewald; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker; Broderick, Avery E.; Chang, Philip

    2012-06-01

    It has been realized only recently that TeV emission from blazars can significantly heat the intergalactic medium (IGM) by pair-producing high-energy electrons and positrons, which in turn excite vigorous plasma instabilities, leading to a local dissipation of the pairs' kinetic energy. In this work, we use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to model the impact of this blazar heating on the Lyman α forest at intermediate redshifts (z˜ 2-3). We find that blazar heating produces an inverted temperature-density relation in the IGM and naturally resolves many of the problems present in previous simulations of the forest that included photoionization heating alone. In particular, our simulations with blazar heating simultaneously reproduce the observed effective optical depth and temperature as a function of redshift, the observed probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the transmitted flux, and the observed flux power spectra, over the full redshift range 2 sum of thermally broadened individual lines, we find superb agreement with the observed lower cut-off of the linewidth distribution and abundances of neutral hydrogen column densities per unit redshift. Using the most recent constraints on the cosmic ultraviolet (UV) background, this excellent agreement with observations does not require rescaling the amplitude of the UV background - a procedure that was routinely used in the past to match the observed level of transmitted flux. We also show that our blazar-heated model matches the data better than standard simulations even when such a rescaling is allowed. This concordance between Lyman α data and simulation results, which are based on the most recent cosmological parameters, also suggests that the inclusion of blazar heating alleviates previous tensions on constraints for σ8 derived from Lyman α measurements and other cosmological data. Finally, we show that blazar heating dramatically alters the volume-weighted temperature PDF, implying an

  13. From the Blazar Sequence to the Blazar Envelope: Revisiting the Relativistic Jet Dichotomy in Radio-Loud AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Fossati, Giovanini; Georganopoulos, Markos; Lister, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the concept of a blazar sequence that relates the synchrotron peak frequency (Vpeak) in blazars with synchrotron peak luminosity (Lpeak, in vLv) using a large sample of radio-loud AGN. We present observational evidence that the blazar sequence is formed from two populations in the synchrotron Vpeak - Lpeak plane, each forming an upper edge to an envelope of progressively misaligned blazars, and connecting to an adjacent group of radio galaxies having jets viewed at much larger angles to the line of sight. When binned by jet kinetic power (Lkin; as measured through a scaling relationship with extended radio power), we find that radio core dominance decreases with decreasing synchrotron Lpeak, revealing that sources in the envelope are generally more misaligned. We find population-based evidence of velocity gradients in jets at low kinetic powers (approximately 10(exp 42) - 10(exp 44.5) erg s(exp -1)), corresponding to FR I radio galaxies and most BL Lacs. These low jet power 'weak jet' sources, thought to exhibit radiatively inefficient accretion, are distinguished from the population of non-decelerating, low synchrotron-peaking (LSP) blazars and FR II radio galaxies ('strong' jets) which are thought to exhibit radiatively efficient accretion. The two-population interpretation explains the apparent contradiction of the existence of highly core-dominated, low-power blazars at both low and high synchrotron peak frequencies, and further implies that most intermediate synchrotron peak (ISP) sources are not intermediate in intrinsic jet power between LSP and high synchrotron-peaking (HSP) sources, but are more misaligned versions of HSP sources with similar jet powers.

  14. Flaring γ-Ray Emission from High Redshift Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Orienti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High redshift blazars are among the most powerful objects in the Universe. Although they represent a significant fraction of the extragalactic hard X-ray sky, they are not commonly detected in γ-rays. High redshift ( z > 2 objects represent < 10 per cent of the active galactic nuclei (AGN population observed by Fermi so far, and γ-ray flaring activity from these sources is even more uncommon. The characterization of the radio-to-γ-ray properties of high redshift blazars represents a powerful tool for the study of the energetics of such extreme objects and the Extragalactic Background Light. This contribution will present results of multi-band campaigns, from radio to γ-rays, on PKS 0836+710, PKS 2149−306, and TXS 0536+145. The latter is the highest redshift detection of a flaring γ-ray blazar so far. At the peaks of their respective flares these sources reached an apparent isotropic gamma-ray luminosity of about 10 50 erg·s − 1 , which is comparable with the luminosity observed from the most powerful blazars. The physical properties derived from the multi-wavelength observations of these sources are then compared with those shown by the high redshift population.

  15. Modeling Fermi Large Area Telescope and Multiwavelength Data from Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Finke, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are active galactic nuclei with relativistic jets pointed at the Earth, making them extremely bright at essentially all wavelengths, from radio to gamma rays. I review the modeling of this broadband spectral energy distributions of these objects, and what we have learned, with a focus on gamma rays.

  16. Relation between Radio Polarization and Spectral Index of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuhai Yuan

    2014-09-01

    University Michigan RAdio Observatory (UMRAO) supply many radio photometries and polarimetries. We select a sample of 81 blazars from UMRAO and analyse the correlations between their spectral index and polarizations. Out of 35 BL Lacs and 46 FSRQs in the sample, 8 and 15 show strong correlation.

  17. Blazar flares powered by plasmoids in relativistic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, Maria; Giannios, Dimitrios; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2016-11-01

    Powerful flares from blazars with short (˜min) variability time-scales are challenging for current models of blazar emission. Here, we present a physically motivated ab initio model for blazar flares based on the results of recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic magnetic reconnection. PIC simulations demonstrate that quasi-spherical plasmoids filled with high-energy particles and magnetic fields are a self-consistent by-product of the reconnection process. By coupling our PIC-based results (i.e. plasmoid growth, acceleration profile, particle and magnetic content) with a kinetic equation for the evolution of the electron distribution function we demonstrate that relativistic reconnection in blazar jets can produce powerful flares whose temporal and spectral properties are consistent with the observations. In particular, our model predicts correlated synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton flares of duration of several hours-days powered by the largest and slowest moving plasmoids that form in the reconnection layer. Smaller and faster plasmoids produce flares of sub-hour duration with higher peak luminosities than those powered by the largest plasmoids. Yet, the observed fluence in both types of flares is similar. Multiple flares with a range of flux-doubling time-scales (minutes to several hours) observed over a longer period of flaring activity (days or longer) may be used as a probe of the reconnection layer's orientation and the jet's magnetization. Our model shows that blazar flares are naturally expected as a result of magnetic reconnection in a magnetically dominated jet.

  18. The power and production efficiency of blazar jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pjanka, Patryk; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Sikora, Marek

    2017-03-01

    We use published data on the power and production efficiency of jets in blazars with double radio lobes in order to compare results obtained using different methods. In order to eliminate selection effects, we use cross-matched sub-samples containing only luminous blazars. We compare the three main existing methods, namely those based on the emission of radio lobes, on spectral fitting, and on radio-core shift. We find that the average jet power obtained for identical samples with the radio-lobe method is ∼10 times lower than that from the spectral fitting. In turn, the power from spectral fitting is compatible with that from core-shift modelling for plausible parameters of the latter. We also consider a phenomenological estimator based on the γ-ray luminosity. We examine uncertainties of those methods and discuss two alternative hypotheses. In one, the blazar-fit and core-shift methods are assumed to be correct, and the lower power from radio lobes is caused by intermittency of accretion. Long periods of quiescence cause the energy in the radio lobes, accumulated over the lifetime of the blazar, to be much less than that estimated based on the present luminous state. In addition, the power calculated using the radio lobes can be underestimated for intrinsically compact jets, in which the radio-core flux can be over-subtracted. In our second hypothesis, the radio-lobe method is assumed to be correct, and the blazar-fit and core-shift powers are reduced due to the presence of ∼15 pairs per proton and a larger magnetization than usually assumed, respectively.

  19. CLUSTERING OF γ-RAY-SELECTED 2LAC FERMI BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Cappelluti, N. [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We present the first measurement of the projected correlation function of 485 γ-ray-selected blazars, divided into 175 BL Lacertae (BL Lacs) and 310 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) detected in the 2 year all-sky survey by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope. We find that Fermi BL Lacs and FSRQs reside in massive dark matter halos (DMHs) with log M{sub h} = 13.35{sub −0.14}{sup +0.20} and log M{sub h} = 13.40{sub −0.19}{sup +0.15} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}, respectively, at low (z ∼ 0.4) and high (z ∼ 1.2) redshift. In terms of clustering properties, these results suggest that BL Lacs and FSRQs are similar objects residing in the same dense environment typical of galaxy groups, despite their different spectral energy distributions, power, and accretion rates. We find no difference in the typical bias and hosting halo mass between Fermi blazars and radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), supporting the unification scheme simply equating radio-loud objects with misaligned blazar counterparts. This similarity in terms of the typical environment they preferentially live in, suggests that blazars tend to occupy the center of DMHs, as already pointed out for radio-loud AGNs. This implies, in light of several projects looking for the γ-ray emission from DM annihilation in galaxy clusters, a strong contamination from blazars to the expected signal from DM annihilation.

  20. Lorentz factor distribution of blazars from the optical Fundamental plane of black hole activity

    CERN Document Server

    Saikia, Payaswini; Falcke, Heino

    2016-01-01

    Blazar radiation is dominated by a relativistic jet which can be modeled at first approximation using just two intrinsic parameters - the Lorentz factor $\\Gamma$ and the viewing angle $\\theta$. Blazar jet observations are often beamed due to relativistic effects, complicating the understanding of these intrinsic properties. The most common way to estimate blazar Lorentz factors needs the estimation of apparent jet speeds and Doppler beaming factors. We present a new and independent method of constructing the blazar Lorentz factor distribution, using the optical fundamental plane of black hole activity. The optical fundamental plane is a plane stretched out by both the supermassive black holes and the X-ray binaries, in the 3D space provided by their [OIII] line luminosity, radio luminosity and black hole mass. We use the intrinsic radio luminosity obtained from the optical fundamental plane to constrain the boosting parameters of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS) blazar sample. We find a blazar b...

  1. MAGIC detection of short-term variability of the high-peaked BL Lac object 1ES 0806+524

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de O na; Mendez, C Delgado; Di Pierro, F; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fernández-Barral, A; Fidalgo, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; noz, A González Mu; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Knoetig, M L; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Rosillo, M Nievas; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vogler, P; Will, M; Zanin, R; Berger, K; Buson, S; D'Ammando, F; Gasparrini, D; Hovatta, T; Max-Moerbeck, W; Readhead, A; Richards, J

    2015-01-01

    The high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) 1ES 0806+524 (z = 0.138) was discovered in VHE $\\gamma$ rays in 2008. Until now, the broad-band spectrum of 1ES 0806+524 has been only poorly characterized, in particular at high energies. We analysed multiwavelength observations from $\\gamma$ rays to radio performed from 2011 January to March, which were triggered by the high activity detected at optical frequencies. These observations constitute the most precise determination of the broad-band emission of 1ES 0806+524 to date. The stereoscopic MAGIC observations yielded a $\\gamma$-ray signal above 250 GeV of $(3.7 \\pm 0.7)$ per cent of the Crab Nebula flux with a statistical significance of 9.9 $\\sigma$. The multiwavelength observations showed significant variability in essentially all energy bands, including a VHE $\\gamma$-ray flare that lasted less than one night, which provided unprecedented evidence for short-term variability in 1ES 0806+524. The spectrum of this flare is well described by a power law with a photon...

  2. Position Angle Changes of Inner-Jets in a Sample of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ligong Mi; Xiang Liu

    2014-09-01

    We have carried out the Gaussian model-fitting to 15 GHz VLBAcores for a sample of blazars from the MOJAVE database, analysed the correlations in the model-fitted parameters and studied the variability properties for different group of sources. We found that the Fermi LAT-detected blazars have on an average higher position angle changes of cores than the non-LAT detected blazars, and that the LAT-detected ones are associated with more variable cores in flux density.

  3. Blazar Jets Push Closer to Cosmic Speed Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) have discovered jets of plasma blasted from the cores of distant galaxies at speeds within one-tenth of one percent of the speed of light, placing these plasma jets among the fastest objects yet seen in the Universe. "This tells us that the physical processes at the cores of these galaxies, called blazars, are extremely energetic and are capable of propelling matter very close to the absolute cosmic speed limit," said Glenn Piner of Whittier College in Whittier, California. Piner, who worked on the project with student Dipesh Bhattari, also of Whittier College, Philip Edwards of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Dayton Jones of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, California. According to Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity, no object with mass can be accelerated to the speed of light. To get even close to the speed of light requires enormous amounts of energy. "For example, to accelerate a bowling ball to the speed newly measured in these blazars would require all the energy produced in the world for an entire week," Piner said, "and the blobs of plasma in these jets are at least as massive as a large planet". Blazars are active galactic nuclei -- energetic regions surrounding massive black holes at the centers of galaxies. Material being drawn into the black hole forms a spinning disk called an accretion disk. Powerful jets of charged particles are ejected at high speeds along the poles of accretion disks. When these jets happen to be aimed nearly toward the Earth, the objects are called blazars. Taking advantage of the extremely sharp radio "vision" of the continent-wide VLBA, the scientists tracked individual features in the jets of three blazars at distances from Earth ranging from 7.3 to 9 billion light-years. A Boston University team led by Svetlana Jorstad earlier had identified

  4. QUASI-PERIODICITIES AT YEAR-LIKE TIMESCALES IN BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A. [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Covino, S. [INAF—Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Dotti, M. [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of six blazars in the optical—near-infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from Rapid Eye Mounting photometry plus archival Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the γ-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and γ-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.

  5. The γ-ray spectral changes in Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianghe; Fan, Junhui; Nie, Jianjun; Yang, Rushu; Tuo, Manxian; Zhang, Yuelian

    2017-02-01

    Based upon Fermi 2FGL and 3FGL catalogues, a sample of 842 blazars (hereinto 356 FSRQs, 486 BL Lac objects) is collected to discuss the changes of γ-ray photon spectral indices and brightness from 2FGL to 3FGL blazars. Our results indicate that the distributions of γ-ray photon spectral indices and luminosities between 2FGL and 3FGL have no obvious difference; The photon spectral indices and γ-ray luminosity from 2FGL are closely correlated with that from 3FGL respectively; There are close anti-relations between the change of photon spectral indices and the change of luminosity for FSRQs and BL Lac objects samples and for sub-class samples of HBLs, IBLs and LBLs, which suggests that the spectrum becomes flat when the source becomes bright.

  6. Extremely violent optical microvariability in blazars: fact or fiction?

    CERN Document Server

    Cellone, S A; Araudo, A T; Cellone, Sergio A.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Araudo, Anabella T.

    2006-01-01

    Variability amplitudes larger than 1 magnitude over time-scales of a few tens of minutes have recently been reported in the optical light-curves of several blazars. In order to independently verify the real occurrence of such extremely violent events, we undertook an observational study of a selected sample of three blazars: PKS 0048-097, PKS 0754+100, and PKS 1510-089. Possible systematic error sources during data acquisition and reduction were carefully evaluated. We indeed found flux variability at intra-night time-scales in all three sources, although no extremely violent behaviour, as reported by other authors, was detected. We show that an incorrect choice of the stars used for differential photometry will, under fairly normal conditions, lead to spurious variability with large amplitudes on short time-scales. Wrong results of this kind can be avoided with the use of simple error-control techniques.

  7. Probing cluster environments of blazars through gamma-gamma absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Sushch, Iurii

    2014-01-01

    Most blazars are known to be hosted in giant elliptic galaxies, but their cluster environments have not been thoroughly investigated. Cluster environments may contain radiation fields of low-energy photons created by nearby galaxies and/or stars in the intracluster medium that produce diffuse intracluster light. These radiation fields may absorb very high energy gamma rays ($E\\gtrsim100$ GeV; VHE) and trigger pair cascades with further production of subsequent generations of gamma rays with lower energies via inverse Compton scattering on surrounding radiation fields leaving a characteristic imprint in the observed spectral shape. The change of the spectral shape of the blazar reflects the properties of its ambient medium. We show, however, that neither intracluster light nor the radiation field of an individual nearby galaxy can cause substantial gamma-gamma absorption. Substantial gamma-gamma absorption is possible only in the case of multiple, $\\gtrsim5$, luminous nearby galaxies. This situation is not fou...

  8. Multiwavelength Spectral Studies Of Fermi-LAT Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Manasvita; Jorstad, Svetlana; Boettcher, Markus; Agudo, Ivan; Larionov, Valeri; Aller, Margo; Gurwell, Mark; Lahteenmaki, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We present multiwavelength spectral analyses of two Fermi-LAT blazars, OJ 287 and 3C 279, that are part of the Boston University multiwaveband polarization program. The data have been compiled from observations with Fermi, RXTE, the VLBA, and various ground-based optical and radio telescopes. We simulate the dynamic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) within the framework of a multi-slice, time-dependent leptonic jet model for blazars, with radiation feedback, in the internal shock scenario. We use the physical jet parameters obtained from the VLBA monitoring to guide our modeling efforts. We discuss the role of intrinsic parameters and the interplay between synchrotron and inverse Compton radiation processes responsible for producing the resultant SEDs.

  9. Optical flux behaviour of a sample of Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, E J; Cellone, S A; Combi, J A; Zibecchi, L; Martí, J; Romero, G E; Muñoz-Arjonilla, A J; Luque-Escamilla, P; Sánchez-Sutil, J R

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We aim at investigating the time-behaviour of a sample of gamma-ray blazars. We present the results from a 13 month-long optical photometry monitoring campaign of the blazars PKS 0048-097, PKS 0754+100, HB89 0827+243, PKS 0851+202, PKS 1253-055, PKS1510-089, PKS 1749+096, PKS 2230+114 and PKS 2251+158. Methods: We analyse the variability of each object, focusing on different time-scales (long term, short term, and microvariability), in an attempt to achieve a statistical comparison of the results. Results: After applying a geometric model to explain the variability results, we found that it is possible that a slight change in the direction of the jet generates the variations detected in some objects during this campaign.

  10. Models for High-Energy Radiation from Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. E. Romero; M. M. Reynoso

    2011-03-01

    We discuss on the modelling of blazar jets as emitters of multiwavelength radiation with the implementation of a lepto-hadronic treatment. Assuming that injection of non-thermal electrons and protons can take place at the base of the jet, the stationary particle distributions can be found using an inhomogeneous one-dimensional transport equation with cooling and convection. The goal of this approach is to replace the widely used one-zone purely leptonic approximation by a more realistic model. We argue that the rapid variability observed in emission from blazars can be obtained as a result of interaction of the jet with obstacles, i.e., molecular clouds and stars. Long term variability is likely related to changes in the injection and physical conditions in the acceleration region.

  11. Leptonic and Hadronic Modeling of Fermi-Detected Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, M; Sweeney, K; Prakash, A

    2013-01-01

    We describe new implementations of leptonic and hadronic models for the broadband emission from relativistic jets in AGN in a temporary steady state. For the leptonic model, a temporary equilibrium between particle injection/acceleration, radiative cooling, and escape from a spherical emission region is evaluated, and the self-consistent radiative output is calculated. For the hadronic model, a temporary equilibrium between particle injection/acceleration, radiative and adiabatic cooling, and escape is evaluated for both primary electrons and protons. A new, semi-analytical method to evaluate the radiative output from cascades initiated by internal gamma-gamma pair production is presented. We use our codes to fit snap-shot spectral energy distributions of a representative set of Fermi-LAT detected blazars. We find that the leptonic model provides acceptable fits to the SEDs of almost all blazars with parameters close to equipartition between the magnetic field and the relativistic electron population. However...

  12. Probing acceleration and turbulence at relativistic shocks in blazar jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baring, Matthew G.; Böttcher, Markus; Summerlin, Errol J.

    2017-02-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at relativistic shocks is widely thought to be an important acceleration mechanism in various astrophysical jet sources, including radio-loud active galactic nuclei such as blazars. Such acceleration can produce the non-thermal particles that emit the broad-band continuum radiation that is detected from extragalactic jets. An important recent development for blazar science is the ability of Fermi-Large Area Telescope spectroscopy to pin down the shape of the distribution of the underlying non-thermal particle population. This paper highlights how multiwavelength spectra spanning optical to X-ray to gamma-ray bands can be used to probe diffusive acceleration in relativistic, oblique, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in blazar jets. Diagnostics on the MHD turbulence near such shocks are obtained using thermal and non-thermal particle distributions resulting from detailed Monte Carlo simulations of DSA. These probes are afforded by the characteristic property that the synchrotron νFν peak energy does not appear in the gamma-ray band above 100 MeV. We investigate self-consistently the radiative synchrotron and inverse Compton signatures of the simulated particle distributions. Important constraints on the diffusive mean free paths of electrons, and the level of electromagnetic field turbulence are identified for three different case study blazars, Mrk 501, BL Lacertae and AO 0235+164. The X-ray excess of AO 0235+164 in a flare state can be modelled as the signature of bulk Compton scattering of external radiation fields, thereby tightly constraining the energy-dependence of the diffusion coefficient for electrons. The concomitant interpretations that turbulence levels decline with remoteness from jet shocks, and the probable significant role for non-gyroresonant diffusion, are posited.

  13. Observing Blazar Variability: The GTN-AAVSO Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, G.; Price, A.; Plait, P.; Graves, T.; Cominsky, L.; Mattei, J.

    2004-05-01

    The NASA/EPO group at Sonoma State University is creating the GLAST Ground-Based Telescope Network (GTN). The GTN is a series of telescopes and observers which will support the science and education goals of NASA's Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope. The GTN is a collaboration with the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO), other amateurs, schools, and professionals. GLAST will observe gamma rays from high-energy sources such as blazars. The ground-based telescopes will observe GLAST targets to provide a multi-year baseline of variability characteristics. During the mission the network will observe these targets simultaneously with GLAST to provided multi-wavelength coverage. Because of recent improvements in the sensitivity of CCD detectors and the improved reliability of computer controlled (robotic) telescopes, amateurs and students can now obtain professional quality data, and can make substantial contributions to the science goals of space observatories such as GLAST. Because of the unpredictability of blazar variability it is important to obtain as many observations as possible. A distributed network of committed observers is ideally suited. Indeed, such a network is essential to accumulate the data needed to ultimately understand the variability mechanism and the production of the gamma rays in this type of active galaxy. Amateurs are ideally suited to provide this type of coverage while professionals are finding it increasingly difficult to obtain telescope time on small telescopes. We will describe the resource materials and tutorials that are available through the GTN and the AAVSO, the GTN blazar image archive, the AAVSO international database of magnitudes, and the various levels of contributions to provide the required science data. We will also show comparisons of blazar data accumulated by professionals, by the AAVSO, and by students. Finally we will provide a status report for the 0.3 meter robotic telescope system being

  14. The CLASS blazar survey. I - selection criteria and radio properties

    CERN Document Server

    Marcha, M J M; Browne, I W A; Jackson, N

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new complete and well defined sample of Flat Spectrum Radio Sources (FSRS) selected from the CLASS survey with the further constraint of a bright (mag<17.5) optical counterpart. The sample has been designed to produce a large number of low-luminosity blazars in order to test the current unifying models in the low luminosity regime. In this first paper the new sample is presented and the radio properties of the 325 sources contained therein discussed.

  15. HST/COS Observations of the Ly alpha Forest toward the BL Lac Object 1ES1553+113

    CERN Document Server

    Danforth, Charles W; Stocke, John T; Shull, J Michael; Yao, Yangsen

    2010-01-01

    We present new far-ultraviolet spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST/COS) of the BL Lac object 1ES1553+113 covering the wavelength range 1135-1795 A. The data show a smooth continuum with a wealth of narrow absorption features arising in the ISM and IGM. These features include 41 Lya absorbers at 00.6 for the strongest component of the absorber complex. Galaxy redshift surveys show a number of massive galaxies at approximately the same redshift as this absorption complex, suggesting that it arises in a large-scale galaxy filament. As one of the brightest extragalactic X-ray and gamma-ray sources, 1ES1553+113 is of great interest to the high-energy astrophysics community. With no intrinsic emission or absorption features, 1ES1553+113 has no direct redshift determination. We use intervening Lya absorbers to place a direct limit on the redshift: z_em>0.395 based on a confirmed Lya+OVI absorber and z_em>0.433 based on a single-line detection of Lya. COS/FUV data are only sensitive to Lya absorbers at ...

  16. Localizing the $\\gamma$ rays from blazar PKS 1502+106

    CERN Document Server

    Karamanavis, Vassilis; Krichbaum, T P; Angelakis, E; Hodgson, J; Myserlis, I; Nestoras, I; Zensus, J A; Ungerechts, H; Sievers, A

    2015-01-01

    Blazars are among the most variable objects in the universe. They feature energetic jets of plasma that launch from the cores of these active galactic nuclei (AGN), triggering activity from radio up to gamma-ray energies. Spatial localization of the region of their MeV/GeV emission is a key question in understanding the blazar phenomenon. The flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 1502+106 has exhibited extreme and correlated, radio and high-energy activity that triggered intense monitoring by the Fermi-GST AGN Multi-frequency Monitoring Alliance (F-GAMMA) program and the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) down to $\\lambda$3 mm (or 86 GHz), enabling the sharpest view to date towards this extreme object. Here, we report on preliminary results of our study of the gamma-ray loud blazar PKS 1502+106, combining VLBI and single dish data. We deduce the critical aspect angle towards the source to be $\\theta_{\\rm c} = 2.6^{\\circ}$, calculate the apparent and intrinsic opening angles and constrain the distance of the ...

  17. The power and production efficiency of blazar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Pjanka, Patryk; Sikora, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We use published data on the power and production efficiency of jets in blazars with double radio lobes in order to compare results obtained using different methods. In order to eliminate selection effects, we use cross-matched sub-samples containing only luminous blazars. We compare the three main existing methods, namely those based on the emission of radio lobes, on spectral fitting, and on radio core shift. We find the average jet power obtained for identical samples with the radio-lobe method is $\\sim10$ times lower than that from the spectral fitting. In turn, the power from spectral fitting is compatible with that from core-shift modelling for plausible parameters of the latter. We also consider a phenomenological estimator based on the {\\gamma}-ray luminosity. We examine uncertainties of those methods and discuss two alternative hypotheses. In one, the blazar-fit and core-shift methods are assumed to be correct, and the lower power from radio lobes is caused by intermittency of accretion. Long periods...

  18. Intrinsic Correlations for Flaring Blazars Detected by Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Xiao, H. B.; Lin, C.; Constantin, D.; Luo, G. Y.; Pei, Z. Y.; Hao, J. M.; Mao, Y. W.

    2017-02-01

    Blazars are an extreme subclass of active galactic nuclei. Their rapid variability, luminous brightness, superluminal motion, and high and variable polarization are probably due to a beaming effect. However, this beaming factor (or Doppler factor) is very difficult to measure. Currently, a good way to estimate it is to use the timescale of their radio flares. In this Letter, we use multiwavelength data and Doppler factors reported in the literature for a sample of 86 flaring blazars detected by Fermi to compute their intrinsic multiwavelength data and intrinsic spectral energy distributions and investigate the correlations among observed and intrinsic data. Quite interestingly, intrinsic data show a positive correlation between luminosity and peak frequency, in contrast with the behavior of observed data, and a tighter correlation between γ-ray luminosity and the lower-energy ones. For flaring blazars detected by Fermi, we conclude that (1) observed emissions are strongly beamed; (2) the anti-correlation between luminosity and peak frequency from the observed data is an apparent result, the correlation between intrinsic data being positive; and (3) intrinsic γ-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with other intrinsic luminosities.

  19. Leptonic and Hadronic Modeling of Fermi-Detected Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böttcher Markus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe new implementations of leptonic and hadronic models for the broadband emission from relativistic jets in AGN in a temporary steady state. The new model implementations are used to fit snap-shot spectral energy distributions of a representative set of Fermi-LAT detected blazars from the first LAT AGN catalogue. We find that the leptonic model is capable of producing acceptable fits to the SEDs of almost all blazars with reasonable parameters close to equipartition between the magnetic field and the relativistic electron population. If charge neutrality in leptonic models is provided by cold protons, our fits indicate that the kinetic energy carried by the jet should be dominated by protons. We also find satisfactory representations of the snapshot SEDs of most blazars in our sample with the hadronic model presented here. All of our hadronic model fits require powers in relativistic protons in the range 1047 – 1049 erg/s. As a potential way to distinguish between the leptonic and hadronic high-energy emission models considered here, we suggest diagnostics based on the predicted X-ray and γ-ray polarization, which are drastically different for the two types of models.

  20. Redshift measurement of Fermi Blazars for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Goldoni, P; Boisson, C; Cotter, G; Williams, D A

    2015-01-01

    Blazars are active galactic nuclei, and the most numerous High Energy (HE) and Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitters. Their optical emission is often dominated by non-thermal, and, in the case of BL Lacs, featureless continuum radiation. This renders the determination of their redshift extremely difficult. Indeed, as of today only about 50 % of gamma-ray blazars have a measured spectroscopic redshift. The knowledge of redshift is fundamental because it allows the precise modeling of the VHE emission and also of its interaction with the extragalactic background light (EBL). The beginning of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) operations in the near future will allow the detection of several hundreds of new BL Lacs. Using the first Fermi catalogue of sources above 10 GeV (1FHL), we performed simulations which demonstrate that at least half of the 1FHL BL Lacs detectable by CTA will not have a measured redshift. Indeed the organization of observing campaigns to measure the redshift of these blazars has been ...

  1. Time Series Analysis of the Blazar OJ 287

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamel, Ellen; Ryle, W. T.; Carini, M. T.

    2013-06-01

    Blazars are a subset of active galactic nuclei (AGN) where the light is viewed along the jet of radiation produced by the central supermassive black hole. These very luminous objects vary in brightness and are associated with the cores of distant galaxies. The blazar, OJ 287, has been monitored and its brightness tracked over time. From these light curves the relationship between the characteristic “break frequency” and black hole mass can be determined through the use of power density spectra. In order to obtain a well-sampled light curve, this blazar will be observed at a wide range of timescales. Long time scales will be obtained using archived light curves from published literature. Medium time scales were obtained through a combination of data provided by Western Kentucky University and data collected at The Bank of Kentucky Observatory. Short time scales were achieved via a single night of observation at the 72” Perkins Telescope at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, AZ. Using time series analysis, we present a revised mass estimate for the super massive black hole of OJ 287. This object is of particular interest because it may harbor a binary black hole at its center.

  2. Study of the variability of Blazars gamma-ray emission

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarrato, T; Ghisellini, G; Tavecchio, F

    2011-01-01

    The gamma-ray emission of blazar jets shows a pronounced variability and this feature provides limits to the size and to the speed of the emitting region. We study the gamma-ray variability of bright blazars using data from the first 18 months of activity of the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. From the daily light-curves of the blazars characterized by a remarkable activity, we firstly determine the minimum variability time-scale, giving an upper limit for the size of the emitting region of the sources, assumed to be spheroidal blobs in relativistic motion. These regions must be smaller than ~10^-3 parsec. Another interesting time-scale is the duration of the outbursts. We conclude that they cannot correspond to radiation produced by a single blob moving relativistically along the jet, but they are either the signature of emission from a standing shock extracting energy from a modulated jet, or the superposition of a number of flares occurring on a shorter time-scale. We also deri...

  3. The RINGO2 and DIPOL Optical Polarisation Catalogue of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Jermak, H; Lindfors, E; Hovatta, T; Nilsson, K; Lamb, G P; Mundell, C; de Almeida, U Barres; Berdyugin, A; Kadenius, V; Reinthal, R; Takalo, L

    2016-01-01

    We present ~2000 polarimetric and ~3000 photometric observations of 15 gamma-ray bright blazars over a period of 936 days (11/10/2008 - 26/10/2012) using data from the Tuorla blazar monitoring program (KVA DIPOL) and Liverpool Telescope (LT) RINGO2 polarimeters (supplemented with data from SkyCamZ (LT) and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data). In 11 out of 15 sources we identify a total of 19 electric vector position angle (EVPA) rotations and 95 flaring episodes. We group the sources into subclasses based on their broadband spectral characteristics and compare their observed optical and gamma-ray properties. We find that (1) the optical magnitude and gamma-ray flux are positively correlated, (2) EVPA rotations can occur in any blazar subclass, 4 sources show rotations that go in one direction and immediately rotate back, (3) we see no difference in the gamma-ray flaring rates in the sample; flares can occur during and outside of rotations with no preference for this behaviour, (4) the average degree of polarisation (Do...

  4. 2WHSP: A multi-frequency selected catalog of VHE gamma-ray blazars and blazar candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu Lin; Arsioli, Bruno; Giommi, Paolo; Padovani, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    High Synchrotron Peaked Blazars (HSPs) are extremely important for VHE astronomy. We built the largest existing catalog of High Synchrotron Blazars (2WHSP) based on multi-frequency data. The catalog is an extension of the 1WHSP list. We compared several general properties of HSPs such as the synchrotron peak, the redshift and IR the color-color diagram. We also built the logN-logS for the sources, trying to see the evolution and the deficiency of the catalog. The catalog will provide a unique sample of targets for VHE observations in future since the HSPs are the dominant extra-Galactic sources in VHE sky. This might help find more VHE sources later. In the future, we will use this catalog to estimate other VHE properties of HSPs.

  5. Correlation between Spectral Index and Doppler Factor for a Sample of Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Tao; J. H. Fan; H. J. Pan; D. X. Wu; S. H. Li

    2014-09-01

    Relativistic beaming effect is important for blazars. In a very recent work, -ray Doppler factors were calculated for a sample of Fermi blazars (Fan et al. 2013). In this work, we investigated the correlation between the Doppler factor and the effective spectral index, 4OX, and found an anticorrelation between them.

  6. The Correlation between -Ray and Radio Emissions for the Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Yang; J. H. Fan

    2011-03-01

    Based upon the Fermi blazars sample, the radio and -ray emissions are compiled for a sample of 74 -ray loud blazars to calculate the radio to -ray effective spectrum index R . The correlations between R and -ray luminosity, and between radio and -ray luminosity are also investigated.

  7. Characterizing the Optical Variability of Bright Blazars: Variability-based Selection of Fermi Active Galactic Nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruan, J.J.; Anderson, S.F.; MacLeod, C.L.; Becker, A.C.; Burnett, T.H.; Davenport, J.R.A.; Ivezić, Z.; Kochanek, C.S.; Plotkin, R.M.; Sesar, B.; Stuart, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of optical photometric variability to select and identify blazars in large-scale time-domain surveys, in part to aid in the identification of blazar counterparts to the ~30% of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog still lacking reliable associations. Using data from the opt

  8. The Extremes in Intra-Night Blazar Variability: The S4 0954+65 Case

    CERN Document Server

    Bachev, Rumen; Semkov, Evgeni; Dimitrova, Rosa Victoria Muñoz; Latev, Georgi; Spassov, Borislav; Petrov, Blagovest

    2016-01-01

    We present results of optical observations of the extremely violently variable blazar S4 0954+65 on intra-night time scales. The object showed flux changes of up to 100% within a few hours. Time delays between optical bands, color changes and "rms-flux" relations are investigated and the results are discussed in terms of existing models of blazar variability.

  9. The contribution of blazars to the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mücke, A.; Pohl, M.; Dermer, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    We present results of a calculation of the blazar contribution to the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background (EGRB) in the EGRET-energy range. Our model is based on the non-thermal emission processes known to be important in blazar jets, and on the unification scheme of radio-loud AGN...

  10. The Gamma-ray Blazar Quest: new optical spectra, state of art and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, F; D'Abrusco, R; Landoni, M; Masetti, N; Ricci, F; Milisavljevic, D; Paggi, A; Chavushyan, V; Jiménez-Bailón, E; Patiño-Álvarez, V; Strader, J; Chomiuk, L; La Franca, F; Smith, Howard A; Tosti, G

    2016-01-01

    We recently developed a procedure to recognize gamma-ray blazar candidates within the positional uncertainty regions of the unidentified/unassociated gamma-ray sources (UGSs). Such procedure was based on the discovery that Fermi blazars show peculiar infrared colors. However, to confirm the real nature of the selected candidates, optical spectroscopic data are necessary. Thus, we performed an extensive archival search for spectra available in the literature in parallel with an optical spectroscopic campaign aimed to reveal and confirm the nature of the selected gamma-ray blazar candidates. Here, we first search for optical spectra of a selected sample of gamma-ray blazar candidates that can be potential counterparts of UGSs using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR12). This search enables us to update the archival search carried out to date. We also describe the state-of-art and the future perspectives of our campaign to discover previously unknown gamma-ray blazars.

  11. Systematic Study of Gamma-ray bright Blazars with Optical Polarization and Gamma-ray Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, Ryosuke; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Uemura, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T; Kawabata, Koji S; Madejski, Grzegorz M; Schinzel, Frank K; Kanda, Yuka; Shiki, Kensei; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Miho; Moritani, Yuki; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Ohsugi, Takashi; Sasada, Mahito; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Takata, Koji; Ui, Takahiro; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are highly variable active galactic nuclei which emit radiation at all wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays. Polarized radiation from blazars is one key piece of evidence for synchrotron radiation at low energies and it also varies dramatically. The polarization of blazars is of interest for understanding the origin, confinement, and propagation of jets. However, even though numerous measurements have been performed, the mechanisms behind jet creation, composition and variability are still debated. We performed simultaneous gamma-ray and optical photopolarimetry observations of 45 blazars between Jul. 2008 and Dec. 2014 to investigate the mechanisms of variability and search for a basic relation between the several subclasses of blazars. We identify a correlation between the maximum degree of optical linear polarization and the gamma-ray luminosity or the ratio of gamma-ray to optical fluxes. Since the maximum polarization degree depends on the condition of the magnetic field (chaotic or ordered), thi...

  12. Extended Radio Emission in MOJAVE Blazars: Challenges to Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, P.; Lister, M. L.; Cooper, N. J.

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of a study on the kiloparsec-scale radio emission in the complete flux density limited MOJAVE sample, comprising 135 radio-loud active galactic nuclei. New 1.4 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) radio images of six quasars and previously unpublished images of 21 blazars are presented, along with an analysis of the high-resolution (VLA A-array) 1.4 GHz emission for the entire sample. While extended emission is detected in the majority of the sources, about 7% of the sources exhibit only radio core emission. We expect more sensitive radio observations, however, to detect faint emission in these sources, as we have detected in the erstwhile "core-only" source, 1548+056. The kiloparsec-scale radio morphology varies widely across the sample. Many BL Lac objects exhibit extended radio power and kiloparsec-scale morphology typical of powerful FRII jets, while a substantial number of quasars possess radio powers intermediate between FRIs and FRIIs. This poses challenges to the simple radio-loud unified scheme, which links BL Lac objects to FRIs and quasars to FRIIs. We find a significant correlation between extended radio emission and parsec-scale jet speeds: the more radio powerful sources possess faster jets. This indicates that the 1.4 GHz (or low-frequency) radio emission is indeed related to jet kinetic power. Various properties such as extended radio power and apparent parsec-scale jet speeds vary smoothly between different blazar subclasses, suggesting that, at least in terms of radio jet properties, the distinction between quasars and BL Lac objects, at an emission-line equivalent width of 5 Å, is essentially an arbitrary one. While the two blazar subclasses display a smooth continuation in properties, they often reveal differences in the correlation test results when considered separately. This can be understood if, unlike quasars, BL Lac objects do not constitute a homogeneous population, but rather include both FRI and FRII radio galaxies for

  13. RoboPol: Unveiling the Physics of Blazar Jets from Skinakas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, V.

    2016-06-01

    Blazars are powered by relativistic jets and radiate exclusively through extreme, nonthermal particle interactions, energized by accretion onto supermassive black holes. Despite intensive observational and theoretical efforts over the last four decades, the details of blazar astrophysics remain elusive. The launch of NASA's Fermi Gammaray Space Telescope in 2008 provided an unprecedented opportunity for the systematic study of blazar jets and has prompted large-scale blazar monitoring efforts across wavelengths. In such a multi-wavelength campaign, a novel effect was discovered: fast changes in the optical polarization during gamma-ray flares. Optical emission from blazars is significantly polarized and the polarization probes the magnetic field structure in the jet. For this reason, such polarization rotations reveal important information about the evolution of disturbances responsible for blazar flares. The RoboPol program for the polarimetric monitoring of statistically complete samples of blazars was developed in 2013 to systematically study this class of events. RoboPol is a collaboration between the University of Crete, Caltech, the Max-Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in India, and the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Poland. Using a novel polarimeter operating at the 1.3m telescope of the Skinakas Observatory in Crete, it has succeeded in its 3 years of operation in taking optopolarimetric rotations of blazars from novelty status to a well-studied phenomenon that can be used to answer long-standing questions in our theoretical understanding of jets. We review the RoboPol program and its most important results in the classification of the optopolarimetric properties of blazars, the statistical properties of polarization rotations, and their relation to gamma-ray activity in blazar jets.

  14. Relation between the "Double-Hump" Behavior in the Radio Band and the Broad-Line Luminosity for Blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Hua Xie; Hong Dai; Jian-Ming Hao; Lei-Ming Du; Xiong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The physics behind the spectral energy distribution (SED) of blazars remains open.We assembled 36 blazars to tackle the factors that control their SED. Now, many blazar spectra have the "double hump" feature in the radio and far-IR frequencies. For these a parameter,△, is created to characterize the behavior of the SED. We found a significant correlation between the broad-line luminosity (LBLR) and △. Because LBLR is an indicator of the accreting power of the source in blazars, we derived a linear correlation,△∝ (M)1/3. 18, which suggests that the SED of blazars may depend on the accretion rate, like that of BL Lac objects. We also found a significant correlation between (m) and△ for a sample of 11 blazars (out of one of 36)with available black hole masses. This implies the Eddington accretion ratio may influence the shape of the SED of blazars.

  15. Discovery of Very High-Energy Gamma-Ray Radiation from the BL Lac 1ES 0806+524

    CERN Document Server

    Aliu, E; Bautista, M; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Böttcher, M; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Butt, Y; Byrum, K; Cannon, A; Celik, O; Cesarini, A; Chow, Y C; Ciupik, L; Cogan, P; Colin, P; Cui, W; Dickherber, R; Duke, C; Ergin, T; Falcone, A; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Finnegan, G; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gall, D; Gibbs, K; Gillanders, G H; Grube, J; Guenette, R; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Hays, E; Holder, J; Horan, D; Hui, C M; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Kaaret, Philip; Karlsson, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Kildea, J; Konopelko, A; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Le Bohec, S; Maier, G; McCann, A; McCutcheon, M; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nagai, T; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Pandel, D; Perkins, J S; Petry, D; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E; Rose, J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Smith, A W; Steele, D; Swordy, S P; Theiling, M; Toner, J A; Valcarcel, L; Varlotta, A; Vasilev, V V; Wagner, R G; Wakely, S P; Ward, J E; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; White, R J; Williams, D A; Wissel, S; Wood, M; Zitzer, B

    2008-01-01

    The high-frequency-peaked BL-Lacertae object \\objectname{1ES 0806+524}, at redshift z=0.138, was observed in the very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray regime by VERITAS between November 2006 and April 2008. These data encompass the two-, and three-telescope commissioning phases, as well as observations with the full four-telescope array. \\objectname{1ES 0806+524} is detected with a statistical significance of 6.3 standard deviations from 245 excess events. Little or no measurable variability on monthly time scales is found. The photon spectrum for the period November 2007 to April 2008 can be characterized by a power law with photon index $3.6 \\pm 1.0_{\\mathrm{stat}} \\pm 0.3_{\\mathrm{sys}}$ between $\\sim$300 GeV and $\\sim$700 GeV. The integral flux above 300 GeV is $(2.2\\pm0.5_{\\mathrm{stat}}\\pm0.4_{\\mathrm{sys}})\\times10^{-12}\\:\\mathrm{cm}^{2}\\:\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ which corresponds to 1.8% of the Crab Nebula flux. Non contemporaneous multiwavelength observations are combined with the VHE data to produce a broadband ...

  16. Long term lightcurve of the BL Lac object 1ES 0229+200 at TeV energies

    CERN Document Server

    Cologna, Gabriele; Wagner, Stefan J; Wierzcholska, Alicja; Romoli, Carlo; Kurtanidze, Omar

    2015-01-01

    The high-frequency peaked BL Lac object 1ES 0229+200 (z = 0.14) was first detected in very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) $\\gamma$-rays by the H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) collaboration in 2006. No flux variability was reported in the initial study and its spectral characteristics have been used to derive constraints on the extragalactic background light (EBL) and on the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF). 1ES 0229+200 has been observed with H.E.S.S. for $\\sim$130 hours from 2004 to 2013: the full dataset analysed with a more sensitive method will be presented here. The results indicate that the source is not constant and displays flux variability on yearly and monthly timescales. The existence of flux variability affects the derivation of the constraints on the IGMF. The H.E.S.S. observations cover several simultaneous multi-frequency campaigns and the VHE variations are compared with those reported in different bands.

  17. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Agudo, I.; Ajello, M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Arkharov, A. A.; Axelsson, M.; Bach, U.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Benitiez, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Gehrels, N.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Marshall, F.; Scargle, J. D.; Thompson, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the gamma-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi gamma-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray /gamma-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these gamma-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log v-log v Fv representation, the typical broadband spectral signatures normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. We have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, alpha(sub ro) , and optical to X-ray, alpha(sub ox), spectral slopes) and from the gamma-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (v(sup S) (sub peak)) is positioned between 10(exp 12.5) and 10(exp 14) Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 10(exp 13) and 10(exp 17) Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the gamma-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the observed spectral variability. While more than

  18. The RINGO2 and DIPOL optical polarization catalogue of blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermak, H.; Steele, I. A.; Lindfors, E.; Hovatta, T.; Nilsson, K.; Lamb, G. P.; Mundell, C.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Berdyugin, A.; Kadenius, V.; Reinthal, R.; Takalo, L.

    2016-11-01

    We present ˜2000 polarimetric and ˜3000 photometric observations of 15 γ-ray bright blazars over a period of 936 days (2008-10-11 to 2012-10-26) using data from the Tuorla blazar monitoring program (KVA DIPOL) and Liverpool Telescope (LT) RINGO2 polarimeters (supplemented with data from SkyCamZ (LT) and Fermi-LAT γ-ray data). In 11 out of 15 sources we identify a total of 19 electric vector position angle (EVPA) rotations and 95 flaring episodes. We group the sources into subclasses based on their broad-band spectral characteristics and compare their observed optical and γ-ray properties. We find that (1) the optical magnitude and γ-ray flux are positively correlated, (2) EVPA rotations can occur in any blazar subclass, four sources show rotations that go in one direction and immediately rotate back, (3) we see no difference in the γ-ray flaring rates in the sample; flares can occur during and outside of rotations with no preference for this behaviour, (4) the average degree of polarization (DoP), optical magnitude and γ-ray flux are lower during an EVPA rotation compared with during non-rotation and the distribution of the DoP during EVPA rotations is not drawn from the same parent sample as the distribution outside rotations, (5) the number of observed flaring events and optical polarization rotations are correlated, however we find no strong evidence for a temporal association between individual flares and rotations and (6) the maximum observed DoP increases from ˜10 per cent to ˜30 per cent to ˜40 per cent for subclasses with synchrotron peaks at high, intermediate and low frequencies, respectively.

  19. Variability of the Blazar BL Lac in 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, D.; Carini, M.; Wills, W.; Atkerson, A.; Monroe, T.; Ryle, W.

    2002-06-01

    BL Lacertae (z=0.0686) is the archetype of a class of active galactic nuclei known as BL Lacertae objects. BL Lacertae objects are a branch of the class of objects known as blazars, and BL Lac is one of the best-observed blazars. It exhibits large amplitude (> 1 mag) variability at optical wavelengths over years, months, and weeks. In the last few years, BL Lac has returned to a highly active state, and a concerted effort is being made to discern the mechanism(s) responsible for this high-degree of variability. To do this many observatories have begun to monitor BL Lacertae regularly in an attempt to measure the light curve 24-hours per day in a collaboration called the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT). To date the WEBT results show an approximately 7-hour time scale for short outbursts and suggest a measurable distinction between spectral changes during low-brightness and out-burst phases. Western Kentucky University's Bell Astrophysical Observatory began regularly monitoring BL Lacertae in the latter half of 2001 with our newly refurbished 0.6meter telescope. We present an R-band light curve derived from photometric CCD observations covering the monitoring period. Generally, the light curve ranges between R=13.6-14.4, which is similar to the range measured by WEBT observers during the low-brightness phase in 2000. In addition to the long-term light curve, we present R-band microvariability light curves derived from persistent monitoring over 2 different nights during the same period. These show monotonic changes in R-band brightness of up 0.25 magnitudes over 3 hours. We gratefully acknowledge NASA for funding this research through grant NAG5-8762, and Western Kentucky University for funds provided through the Applied Research and Technology Program of Distinction.

  20. Target of Opportunity observations of blazars with H.E.S.S.$\\ $

    CERN Document Server

    Cerruti, M; Chakraborty, N; Davids, I D; Füßling, M; Jankowsky, F; Lenain, J P; Meyer, M; Prokoph, H; Wagner, S; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M

    2016-01-01

    The very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) sky is dominated by blazars, radio-loud active galactic nuclei whose relativistic jet is closely aligned with the line of sight. Blazars are characterized by rapid variability at all wavelengths and thus an important part of the H.E.S.S. blazar program is devoted to target of opportunity (ToO) observations. H.E.S.S. triggers blazar ToOs on the basis of publicly available blazar observations at longer wavelengths (optical, X-rays, and $\\gamma$-rays), from private optical observations with the ATOM telescope, and from private communications by $\\gamma$-ray partners in the context of MoUs. In 2015, about 70 hours of H.E.S.S. data were taken in the form of blazar ToOs, which represents ~15$\\%$ of all extragalactic observations. In this contribution, we present the H.E.S.S. blazar ToO status, and we focus on two major results from the 2015 season: the detection of VHE emission from 3C 279 during the June 2015 flare, and the discovery of PKS 0736+017 as a new VHE quasar.

  1. Optical and X-ray Variability of Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A. C.

    Here we report our recent results of variability studies in optical and X-ray bands of three blazars namely 3C 273, PKS 2155 -- 304 and BL Lacertae with XMM-Newton. We found large amplitude optical to X-rays variability in 3C 273, and PKS 2155 -- 304 on year time scale. In 3C 273, we noticed that synchrotron cooling and particle acceleration are at work at different epoch of observations. In PKS 2155 -- 304, spectral energy distribution from optical to X-ray is fitted with LPPL (log parabolic + power law) model. In BL Lacertae, optical flux and degree of polarization were anti-correlated.

  2. Spectral Index Changes with Brightness for -Ray Loud Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Yang; R. S. Yang; J. J. Nie; J. H. Fan

    2014-09-01

    Based on Fermi 1FGL and 2FGL data, a sample of 572 -ray loud blazars are selected, in which each source has both -ray flux and spectral index in 1FGL and 2FGL, respectively. Theoretic relation of spectral index changes depending on -ray brightness is obtained. The correlations between the ratio of -ray flux densities and the differences of the -ray spectral indices are discussed for the three subclasses of HBL, LBL and FSRQs. Results show that the ratio is related with the differences for the three subclasses. It is consistent with the theoretical result and it indicates that the spectrum becomes flat as the source brightens in the -ray band.

  3. Integral and Swift Observations of Blazars in Outburst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemos monitoreado a los blazares 3C 454.3 y PKS 0537-441 que son brillantes y variables con diversos instrumentos incluyendo Swift e INTEGRAL, y hemos interpretado sus variaciones como consecuencia de choques internos en un jet relativista. En este modelo, todas las cantidades físicas pueden parametrizarse como funciones del factor de Lorentz. Por tanto, esto depende de donde se encuentra localizado el choque interno con respecto al núcleo. Se pueden reproducir grandes variaciones en distintas parte del espectro, aún cuando la cantidad de energía inyectada al jet sea constante.

  4. Optical and X-ray Variability of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, A C

    2015-01-01

    Here we report our recent results of variability studies in optical and X-ray bands of three blazars namely 3C 273, PKS 2155 - 304 and BL Lacertae with XMM-Newton. We found large amplitude optical to X-rays variability in 3C 273, and PKS 2155 - 304 on year time scale. In 3C 273, we noticed that synchrotron cooling and particle acceleration are at work at different epoch of observations. In PKS 2155 - 304, spectral energy distribution from optical to X-ray is fitted with LPPL (log parabolic + power law) model. In BL Lacertae, optical flux and degree of polarization were anti-correlated.

  5. Visual Method for Spectral Energy Distribution Calculation of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y. Huang; J. H. Fan

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we propose to use `The Geometer’s Sketchpad’ to the fitting of a spectral energy distribution of blazar based on three effective spectral indices, RO, OX, and RX and the flux density in the radio band. It can make us to see the fitting in detail with both the peak frequency and peak luminosity given immediately. We used our method to those sources whose peak frequency and peak luminosity are given and found that our results are consistent with those given in the work of Sambruna et al. (1996).

  6. NIR brightening of the Blazar BZBJ1059-1134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Porras, A.; Escobedo, G.; Recillas, E.; Chabushyan, V.; Carraminana, A.; Mayya, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the NIR brightening of the blazar BZBJ1059-1134, also known as PKSB1056-113 associated with the gamma-ray source 2FGL1059.3-1132. Our NIR photometry for this source shows that, on Jan 6th,2014 (JD2456663.9615), the object brightness corresponded to J = 13.804 +/- 0.04, H = 13.069 +/- 0.04 and Ks = 12.352 +/- 0.04. These values are about 1.1 magnitud brighter than our previous photometry, obtained on JD2456464.6, for this field.

  7. Radio Variability of First 3-Month Fermi Blazars at 5 GHz: Affected by Interstellar Scintillation?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X. Liu; Z. Ding; J. Liu; N. Marchili; T. P. Krichbaum

    2011-03-01

    Blazars from the first-three-months Fermi-AGN list were observed with the Urumqi 25-m radio telescope at 5 GHz in IDV (Intra-Day Variability) mode and inter-month observation mode. A significant correlation between the flux density at 5 GHz and the -ray intensity for the Fermi-LAT detected blazars is seen. There is a higher IDV detection rate in Fermi detected blazars than those reported for other samples. Stronger variability appears at lower galactic latitudes; IDV appears to be stronger in weaker sources, indicating that the variability is affected by interstellar scintillation.

  8. The gamma-ray Doppler factor determinations for a Fermi blazar sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hui Fan; Jiang-He Yang; Yi Liu; Jing-Yi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Observations suggest that γ-ray loud blazars are strongly beamed.The Fermi mission has detected many of blazars,which provide us with a good opportunity to investigate the emission mechanism and the beaming effect in the γ-ray region.We compiled the X-ray observations for 138 Fermi blazars (54 flat spectrum radio quasars,36 low-peaked BL Lacertae objects,and 48 high-peaked BL Lacertae objects) and calculated their Doppler factors,δγ.It is interesting that the calculated Doppler factors,δγ,are strongly correlated with the γ-ray luminosity.

  9. RCT photometry and HCT spectroscopy of blazar candidates in the Kepler field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Michael T.; Goyal, A.; Jose, J.

    2014-01-01

    The results of photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of 9 blazar candidates in the Kepler field of view are presented. These sources were identified as blazar candidates based on their position in the so-called WISE blazar strip. Finding charts and comparison sequences were created using the NOMAD database. R band photometric monitoring was begun in spring 2013 with the Robotically Controlled Telescope(RCT), and spectroscopic observations of 7 of the sources were obtained with the Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) in September, 2013. Light curves for all 9 sources and preliminary spectroscopic classifications for the 7 sources with spectra will be presented.

  10. VERITAS long-term (2006-2014) observations of the BL Lac object 1ES 0806+524

    CERN Document Server

    Cerruti, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object 1ES 0806+524 (z=0.138) as a source of very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-ray photons was announced in 2008 by the VERITAS Collaboration, at a level of 1.8% of the Crab Nebula flux above 300 GeV. Since then, VERITAS has continued observing the source over multiple seasons, significantly improving the significance of the detection. We report the results of the analysis of the 2006-2014 VERITAS data, corresponding to a total exposure of about 70 hours. We present the new, average VHE spectrum of the source, together with the multi-year light-curve constraining long-term VHE variability.

  11. X-Ray Luminosity and Spectral Variability in the TEV BL Lac 1ES2344+514

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, P; Perlman, E S

    1998-01-01

    The results of a series of five \\sax observations of the TeV BL Lac object 1ES2344+514 are briefly presented. Large amplitude luminosity variability, associated to impressive spectral changes in the hard X-rays, have been found. The shape of the lightcurve depends on energy, with the flare starting and ending in the hard band, but with maximum intensity possibly reached earlier in the soft X-rays. The luminosity and spectral changes may be due to a shift of the peak of the synchrotron emission from the soft X-rays to the hard X-ray band similar to that detected during \\sax observations of MKN 501.

  12. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE AGN 1ES 0414+009 WITH VERITAS, FERMI-LAT, SWIFT-XRT, AND MDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aune, T.; Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Boettcher, M. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Federici, S., E-mail: aw.smith@utah.edu [DESY, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); and others

    2012-08-20

    We present observations of the BL Lac object 1ES 0414+009 in the >200 GeV gamma-ray band by the VERITAS array of Cherenkov telescopes. 1ES 0414+009 was observed by VERITAS between 2008 January and 2011 February, resulting in 56.2 hr of good quality pointed observations. These observations resulted in a detection of 822 events from the source corresponding to a statistical significance of 6.4 standard deviations (6.4{sigma}) above the background. The source flux, showing no evidence for variability, is measured as (5.2 {+-} 1.1{sub stat} {+-} 2.6{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 200 GeV, equivalent to approximately 2% of the Crab Nebula flux above this energy. The differential photon spectrum from 230 GeV to 850 GeV is well fit by a power law with a photon index of {Gamma} = 3.4 {+-} 0.5{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub sys} and a flux normalization of (1.6 {+-} 0.3{sub stat} {+-} 0.8{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at 300 GeV. We also present multiwavelength results taken in the optical (MDM), x-ray (Swift-XRT), and GeV (Fermi-LAT) bands and use these results to construct a broadband spectral energy distribution (SED). Modeling of this SED indicates that homogenous one-zone leptonic scenarios are not adequate to describe emission from the system, with a lepto-hadronic model providing a better fit to the data.

  13. A Blazar-Like Radio Flare in Mrk 231

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Cormac; O'Dea, Christopher; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Wrobel, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Radio monitoring of the broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) Mrk 231 from 13.9 GHz to 17.6 GHz detected a strong flat spectrum flare. Even though BALQSOs are typically weak radio sources, the 17.6 GHz flux density doubled in ~150 days, from ~135 mJy to ~270 mJy. It is demonstrated that the elapsed rise time in the quasar rest frame and the relative magnitude of the flare is typical of some of the stronger flares in blazars that are associated with the ejection of discrete components on parsec scales. The decay of a similar flare was found in a previous monitoring campaign at 22 GHz. We conclude that these flares are not rare and indicate the likely ejection of a new radio component that can be resolved from the core with Very Long Baseline Interferometry. The implication is that Mrk 231 seems to be a quasar in which the physical mechanism that produces the BAL wind is in tension with the emergence of a fledgling blazar.

  14. The TANAMI Multiwavelength Program: Dynamic SEDs of Southern Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Krauß, Felicia; Kadler, Matthias; Ojha, Roopesh; Schulz, Robert; Trüstedt, Jonas; Edwards, Philip G; Stevens, Jamie; Ros, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Wayne; Beuchert, Tobias; Blanchard, Jay; Buson, Sara; Carpenter, Bryce; Dauser, Thomas; Falkner, Sebastian; Gehrels, Neil; Gräfe, Christina; Gulyaev, Sergei; Hase, Hayo; Horiuchi, Shinji; Kreikenbohm, Annika; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Langejahn, Marcus; Leiter, Katharina; Lovell, Jim E J; Müller, Cornelia; Natusch, Tim; Nesci, Roberto; Pursimo, Tapio; Phillips, Chris; Plötz, Christian; Quick, Jonathan; Tzioumis, Anastasios K; Weston, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous broadband spectral and temporal studies of blazars are an important tool for investigating active galactic nuclei (AGN) jet physics. We study the spectral evolution between quiescent and flaring periods of 22 radio-loud AGN through multi-epoch, quasi-simultaneous broadband spectra. For many of these sources these are the first broadband studies. We use a Bayesian block analysis of \\Fermi/LAT light curves in order to determine time ranges of constant flux for constructing quasi-simultaneous SEDs. The shapes of the resulting 81 SEDs are described by two logarithmic parabolas and a blackbody spectrum where needed. For low states the peak frequencies and luminosities agree well with the blazar sequence, higher luminosity implying lower peak frequencies. This is not true for sources in a high state. The $\\gamma$-ray photon index in Fermi/LAT correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency in low and intermediate states. No correlation is present in high states. The black hole mass cannot be determined ...

  15. Shaping the GeV-spectra of bright blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Hunger, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The non-thermal spectra of jetted active galactic nuclei show a variety of shapes in their low- and high energy components. In some of the brightest Fermi-LAT blazars, prominent spectral breaks at a few GeV have been regularly detected, which is inconsistent with conventional cooling effects. We study the effects of continuous time-dependent injection of electrons into the jet with differing rates, durations, locations, and power-law spectral indices, and evaluate its impact on the ambient emitting particle spectrum at a given snapshot time in the framework of a leptonic blazar emission model. The emitting electron spectrum is calculated by Compton cooling the continuously injected electrons, where target photons are assumed to be provided by the accretion disk and broad line region. We calculate the non-thermal photon spectra produced by inverse Compton scattering of these external target radiation fields using the full Compton cross-section in the head-on approximation. By means of a comprehensive parameter...

  16. The Disc-Jet Relation in Strong-Lined Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    D'Elia, V; Landt, H

    2003-01-01

    The relation between accretion disc (thermal emission) and jet (non-thermal emission) in blazars is still a mystery as, typically, the beamed jet emission swamps the disc even in the ultraviolet band where disc emission peaks. In this paper we estimate the accretion disc component for 136 flat-spectrum radio quasars selected from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey. We do this by deriving the accretion disc spectrum from the mass and accretion rate onto the central black hole for each object, estimated using the emission line widths and the power emitted from the broad line region. We find that non-thermal emission dominates the optical/UV band of our sources. The thermal component, in fact, is, on average, ~ 15 per cent of the total and > 90 per cent of the objects in the sample have a thermal component < 0.5 of the total luminosity. We then estimate the integrated disc and kinetic jet powers and find that, on average, the disc luminosity is ~ 1 to 20 times the jet power (depending on the uncertainties in ...

  17. Patchy blazar heating: diversifying the thermal history of the intergalactic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Lamberts, Astrid; Pfrommer, Christoph; Puchwein, Ewald; Broderich, Avery E; Shalaby, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    TeV-blazars potentially heat the intergalactic medium (IGM) as their gamma rays interact with photons of the extragalactic background light to produce electron-positron pairs, which lose their kinetic energy to the surrounding medium through plasma instabilities. This results in a heating mechanism that is only weakly sensitive to the local density, and therefore approximately spatially uniform, naturally producing an inverted temperature-density relation in underdense regions. In this paper we go beyond the approximation of uniform heating and quantify the heating rate fluctuations due to the clustered distribution of blazars and how this impacts on the thermal history of the IGM. We analytically compute a filtering function that relates the heating rate fluctuations to the underlying dark matter density field. We implement it in the cosmological code GADGET-3 and perform large scale simulations to determine the impact of inhomogeneous heating. We show that, because of blazar clustering, blazar heating is in...

  18. The jets-accretion relation, mass-luminosity relation in Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Haojing; Xiong, Dingrong; Li, Bijun; Cha, Yongjuan; Chen, Yongyun; Huang, Xia; Wang, Yuwei

    2015-05-01

    A sample of 111 Fermi blazars each with a well-established radio core luminosity, broad-line luminosity, bolometric luminosity and black hole mass has been compiled from the literatures. We present a significant correlation between radio core and broad-line emission luminosities that supports a close link between accretion processes and relativistic jets. Analysis reveals a relationship of which is consistant with theoretical predicted coefficient and supports that blazar jets are powered by energy extraction from a rapidly spinning Kerr black hole through the magnetic field provided by the accretion disk. Through studying the correlation between the intrinsic bolometric luminosity and the black hole mass, we find a relationship of which supports mass-luminosity relation for Fermi blazars derived in this work is a powerlaw relation similar to that for main-sequence stars. Finally, EVOLUTIONARY SEQUENCE OF BLAZARS is discussed.

  19. RoboPol: Do optical polarization rotations occur in all blazars?

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, D; Papadakis, I; Kiehlmann, S; Liodakis, I; Panopoulou, G V; Pearson, T J; Angelakis, E; Baloković, M; Hovatta, T; Joshi, V; King, O G; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Mahabal, A; Marecki, A; Myserlis, I; Paleologou, E; Papamastorakis, I; Pazderski, E; Prabhudesai, S; Ramaprakash, A; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present a new set of optical polarization plane rotations in blazars, observed during the third year of operation of RoboPol. The entire set of rotation events discovered during three years of observations is analysed with the aim of determining whether these events are inherent in all blazars. It is found that the frequency of the polarization plane rotations varies widely among blazars. This variation cannot be explained either by a difference in the relativistic boosting or by selection effects caused by a difference in the average fractional polarization. We conclude that the rotations are characteristic of a subset of blazars and that they occur as a consequence of their intrinsic properties.

  20. Effect of Particle Acceleration Process on the Flare Characteristics of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Bhattacharyya; S. Sahayanathan; C. L. Kaul

    2002-03-01

    Following the kinetic equation approach, we study the flare processes in blazars in the optical-to-X-ray region, considering energy dependent acceleration time-scale of electrons and synchrotron and adiabatic cooling as their dominant energy loss processes.

  1. Extremes of the jet-accretion power relation of blazars, as explored by NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarrato, T; Tagliaferri, G; Perri, M; Madejski, G M; Stern, D; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    Hard X-ray observations are crucial to study the non-thermal jet emission from high-redshift, powerful blazars. We observed two bright z>2 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in hard X-rays to explore the details of their relativistic jets and their possible variability. S5 0014+81 (at z=3.366) and B0222+185 (at z=2.690) have been observed twice by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) simultaneously with Swift/XRT, showing different variability behaviours. We found that NuSTAR is instrumental to explore the variability of powerful high-redshift blazars, even when no gamma-ray emission is detected. The two sources have proven to have respectively the most luminous accretion disk and the most powerful jet among known blazars. They are located at the extreme end of the jet-accretion disk relation previously found for gamma-ray detected blazars.

  2. White Paper for Blazar Observations with a GEMS-like X-ray Polarimetry Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Krawczynski, Henric; Baring, Matthew; Baumgartner, Wayne; Black, Kevin; Dotson, Jessie; Ghosh, Pranab; Harding, Alice; Hill, Joanne; Jahoda, Keith; Kaaret, Phillip; Kallman, Tim; Krolik, Julian; Lai, Dong; Markwardt, Craig; Marshall, Herman; Martoff, Jeffrey; Morris, Robin; Okajima, Takashi; Petre, Robert; Poutanen, Juri; Reynolds, Stephen; Scargle, Jeffrey; Schnittman, Jeremy; Serlemitsos, Peter; Soong, Yang; Strohmayer, Tod; Swank, Jean; Tawara, Yuzuru; Tamagawa, Toru

    2013-01-01

    In this document, we describe the scientific potential of blazar observations with a X-ray polarimetry mission like GEMS (Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX). We describe five blazar science investigations that such a mission would enable: (i) the structure and the role of magnetic fields in AGN jets, (ii) analysis of the polarization of the synchrotron X-ray emission from AGN jets, (iii) discrimination between synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton models for blazars with inverse Compton emission in the X-ray band, (iv) a precision study of the polarization properties of the X-ray emission from Cen-A, (v) tests of Lorentz Invariance based on X-ray polarimetric observations of blazars. We conclude with a discussion of a straw man observation program and recommended accompanying multiwavelength observations.

  3. Collision-induced magnetic reconnection and a unified interpretation of polarization properties of GRBs and blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The jet composition and energy dissipation mechanism of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and Blazars are fundamental questions which remain not fully understood. One plausible model is to interpret the $\\gamma$-ray emission of GRBs and optical emission of blazars as synchrotron radiation of electrons accelerated from the collision-induced magnetic dissipation regions in Poynting-flux-dominated jets. The polarization observation is an important and independent information to test this model. Based on our recent 3D relativistic MHD simulations of collision-induced magnetic dissipation of magnetically dominated blobs, here we perform calculations of the polarization properties of the emission in the dissipation region and apply the results to model the polarization observational data of GRB prompt emission and blazar optical emission. We show that the same numerical model with different input parameters can reproduce well the observational data of both GRBs and blazars, especially the $90^{\\circ}$ polarization angle (PA)...

  4. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the X-ray Light Curves of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paul J. Wiita

    2011-03-01

    Any quasi-periodic variations discovered in blazar light curves would contain important information on the location and nature of the processes within the emission regions. In non-blazar active galactic nuclei, particularly Seyfert galaxies, any such fluctuations are very likely to be associated with the accretion disks, but in blazars they would almost certainly have to emanate from jets. This brief review summarizes recent claims for the presence of quasi-periodic variability in the X-ray emission of several AGN, focusing on blazars. Although no individual claim of the presence of a QPO in AGN X-ray light curves is absolutely convincing, there are some good cases for the presence of QPOs, including the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy, RE J1034+396, the quasar, 3C 273 and the BL Lac, PKS 2155−304.

  5. Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations of blazar PKS 1510-089: a case for two blazar zones

    CERN Document Server

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Madejski, Greg M; Exter, Katrina; Szostek, Anna; Szczerba, Ryszard; Kidger, Mark R; Lorente, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of observations of blazar PKS 1510-089 with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, together with multiwavelength data from Fermi/LAT, Swift, SMARTS and SMA. The source was found in a quiet state, and its far-infrared spectrum is consistent with a power-law with a spectral index of alpha ~ 0.7. Our Herschel observations were preceded by two 'orphan' gamma-ray flares. The near-infrared data reveal the high-energy cut-off in the main synchrotron component, which cannot be associated with the main gamma-ray component in a one-zone leptonic model. This is because in such a model the luminosity ratio of the External-Compton and synchrotron components is tightly related to the frequency ratio of these components, and in this particular case an unrealistically high energy density of the external radiation would be implied. Therefore, we consider a well-constrained two-zone blazar model to interpret the entire dataset. In this framework, the observed infrared emission is asso...

  6. Herschel PACS and SPIRE Observations of Blazar PKS 1510-089: A Case for Two Blazar Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Sikora, Marek; Madejski, Greg M.; Exter, Katrina; Szostek, Anna; Szczerba, Ryszard; Kidger, Mark R.; Lorente, Rosario

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of observations of blazar PKS 1510-089 with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, together with multiwavelength data from Fermi/LAT, Swift, SMARTS, and Submillimeter Array. The source was found in a quiet state, and its far-infrared spectrum is consistent with a power law with a spectral index of α ~= 0.7. Our Herschel observations were preceded by two "orphan" gamma-ray flares. The near-infrared data reveal the high-energy cutoff in the main synchrotron component, which cannot be associated with the main gamma-ray component in a one-zone leptonic model. This is because in such a model the luminosity ratio of the external-Compton (EC) and synchrotron components is tightly related to the frequency ratio of these components, and in this particular case an unrealistically high energy density of the external radiation would be implied. Therefore, we consider a well-constrained two-zone blazar model to interpret the entire data set. In this framework, the observed infrared emission is associated with the synchrotron component produced in the hot-dust region at the supra-parsec scale, while the gamma-ray emission is associated with the EC component produced in the broad-line region at the sub-parsec scale. In addition, the optical/UV emission is associated with the accretion disk thermal emission, with the accretion disk corona likely contributing to the X-ray emission.

  7. CHARACTERIZING THE OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF BRIGHT BLAZARS: VARIABILITY-BASED SELECTION OF FERMI ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Becker, Andrew C.; Davenport, James R. A.; Ivezic, Zeljko [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Burnett, T. H. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Plotkin, Richard M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stuart, J. Scott, E-mail: jruan@astro.washington.edu [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, MA 02420-9108 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We investigate the use of optical photometric variability to select and identify blazars in large-scale time-domain surveys, in part to aid in the identification of blazar counterparts to the {approx}30% of {gamma}-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog still lacking reliable associations. Using data from the optical LINEAR asteroid survey, we characterize the optical variability of blazars by fitting a damped random walk model to individual light curves with two main model parameters, the characteristic timescales of variability {tau}, and driving amplitudes on short timescales {sigma}-circumflex. Imposing cuts on minimum {tau} and {sigma}-circumflex allows for blazar selection with high efficiency E and completeness C. To test the efficacy of this approach, we apply this method to optically variable LINEAR objects that fall within the several-arcminute error ellipses of {gamma}-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog. Despite the extreme stellar contamination at the shallow depth of the LINEAR survey, we are able to recover previously associated optical counterparts to Fermi active galactic nuclei with E {>=} 88% and C = 88% in Fermi 95% confidence error ellipses having semimajor axis r < 8'. We find that the suggested radio counterpart to Fermi source 2FGL J1649.6+5238 has optical variability consistent with other {gamma}-ray blazars and is likely to be the {gamma}-ray source. Our results suggest that the variability of the non-thermal jet emission in blazars is stochastic in nature, with unique variability properties due to the effects of relativistic beaming. After correcting for beaming, we estimate that the characteristic timescale of blazar variability is {approx}3 years in the rest frame of the jet, in contrast with the {approx}320 day disk flux timescale observed in quasars. The variability-based selection method presented will be useful for blazar identification in time-domain optical surveys and is also a probe of jet physics.

  8. Are Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Blazar-like?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renyi Ma; Chong Ping

    2014-09-01

    The similarities between blazars and radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (RLNLS1s) have received much attention. In this paper, by using the magnetized slim disk model, we calculate the jet power and disk luminosity. It is found that the jet power is only a very small fraction of the disk luminosity, < 10%. This indicates that the jet orientation of RLNLS1 is close to the line-of-sight, which is similar to blazars.

  9. Optical follow-up of the blazar S5 2007+77

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesci, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Following the announcement of a Gamma-ray flare of the blazar S5 2007+77 (ATel #8635) by S. Cutini we observed the source with the 30cm telescope of the Foligno Observatory on 2016-02-05.77 UT. The blazar was detected at V=15.93+-0.05: three observations at 18 minutes intervals showed an appreciable decreasing trend of about 0.045 mag/hour.

  10. Strong constraint on hadronic models of blazar activity from Fermi and IceCube stacking analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Neronov, A; Ptitsyna, K

    2016-01-01

    High-energy emission from blazars is produced by electrons which are either accelerated directly (the assumption of leptonic models of blazar activity) or produced in interactions of accelerated protons with matter and radiation fields (the assumption of hadronic models). The hadronic models predict that gamma-ray emission is accompanied by neutrino emission with comparable energy flux but with a different spectrum. We derive constraints on the hadronic models of activity of blazars imposed by non-detection of neutrino flux from a population of gamma-ray emitting blazars. We stack the gamma-ray and muon neutrino flux from 749 blazars situated in the declination strip above -5 degrees. Non-detection of neutrino flux from the stacked blazar sample rules out the proton induced cacade models in which the high-energy emission is powered by interactions of shock-accelerated proton beam in the AGN jet with the ambient matter or with the radiation field of the black hole accretion disk. The result remains valid also ...

  11. COLLISION-INDUCED MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AND A UNIFIED INTERPRETATION OF POLARIZATION PROPERTIES OF GRBs AND BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Zhang, Haocheng; Li, Hui, E-mail: deng@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: hli@lanl.gov, E-mail: hz193909@ohio.edu [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    The jet composition and energy dissipation mechanism of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and blazars are fundamental questions that remain not fully understood. One plausible model is to interpret the γ-ray emission of GRBs and optical emission of blazars as synchrotron radiation of electrons accelerated from the collision-induced magnetic dissipation regions in Poynting-flux-dominated jets. The polarization observation is an important and independent information to test this model. Based on our recent 3D relativistic MHD simulations of collision-induced magnetic dissipation of magnetically dominated blobs, here we perform calculations of the polarization properties of the emission in the dissipation region and apply the results to model the polarization observational data of GRB prompt emission and blazar optical emission. We show that the same numerical model with different input parameters can reproduce well the observational data of both GRBs and blazars, especially the 90° polarization angle (PA) change in GRB 100826A and the 180° PA swing in blazar 3C279. This supports a unified model for GRB and blazar jets, suggesting that collision-induced magnetic reconnection is a common physical mechanism to power the relativistic jet emission from events with very different black hole masses.

  12. Major Optical Outburst of Two Blazars: 3C66A and OJ287

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, K. K.; Ramsey, B. D.; Soundararajaperumal, S.; Pukalenthi, S.; Rosario, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Differential CCD photometric observations of 3C66A and OJ287 were carried out on 16 and 35 nights between December 1995 and March 1996, at the Vainu Bappu Observatory, India, as part of the blazar monitoring program. During this period we detected major optical outbursts (brightness of 3C66A and OJ287 increased by 0.8 and 1 mag, respectively) of these two blazars on timescales of two months. Integrating the outburst profiles we find that both the blazars released around 10(exp 53) erg. Such large amount of energy may come from the release of binding energy of a compact star when tidally disrupted by a super-massive black hole at the center of these blazars. Also we extend this model to explain the observed multifrequency (radio through gamma-ray) outburst of these two blazars and show that this model will be able to explain the outburst phenomena of other blazars. These new results will be presented with a detailed discussion of the suggested model.

  13. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Giroletti, M; D'Abrusco, R; Lico, R; Burlon, D; Hurley-Walker, N; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Morgan, J; Pavlidou, V; Bell, M; Bernardi, G; Bhat, R; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A A; Ewall-Rice, A; Emrich, D; Gaensler, B M; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Hindson, L; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kratzenberg, E; Feng, L; Jacobs, D; Kurdryavtseva, N; Lenc, E; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A R; Ord, S M; Pindor, B; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Riding, J; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Waterson, M; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. We characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6,100 deg^2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by \\fermilat. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray bl...

  14. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES. V. TNG, KPNO, AND OAN OBSERVATIONS OF BLAZAR CANDIDATES OF UNCERTAIN TYPE IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez Crespo, N.; Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Masetti, N. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Ricci, F.; La Franca, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy); Landoni, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Chavushyan, V.; Torrealba, J. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Óptica y Electrónica, Apartado Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico); D’Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A. [Harvard—Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jiménez-Bailón, E. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 877, Ensenada, 22800 Baja California, México (Mexico); Latronico, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The extragalactic γ-ray sky is dominated by emission from blazars, a peculiar class of active galactic nuclei. Many of the γ-ray sources included in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope Third Source catalog (3FGL) are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs) because there are no optical spectra available in the literature to confirm their nature. In 2013, we started a spectroscopic campaign to look for the optical counterparts of the BCUs and of the unidentified γ-ray sources to confirm their blazar nature. Whenever possible we also determine their redshifts. Here, we present the results of the observations carried out in the northern hemisphere in 2013 and 2014 at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in San Pedro Mártir. In this paper, we describe the optical spectra of 25 sources. We confirmed that all of the 15 BCUs observed in our campaign and included in our sample are blazars and we estimated the redshifts for three of them. In addition, we present the spectra for three sources classified as BL Lacs in the literature but with no optical spectra available to date. We found that one of them is a quasar (QSO) at a redshift of z = 0.208 and the other two are BL Lacs. Moreover, we also present seven new spectra for known blazars listed in the Roma-BZCAT that have an uncertain redshift or are classified as BL Lac candidates. We found that one of them, 5BZB J0724+2621, is a “changing look” blazar. According to the spectrum available in the literature, it was classified as a BL Lac, but in our observation we clearly detected a broad emission line that led us to classify this source as a QSO at z = 1.17.

  15. The Simultaneous Low State Spectral Energy Distribution of 1ES 2344+514 from Radio to Very High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Longo, F; Pittori, C; Vercellone, S; Bastieri, D; Angelakis, E; Fuhrmann, L; Nestoras, I; Krichbaum, T P; Sievers, A; Antonyuk, K A; Baumgartner, W; Berduygin, A; Carini, M; Cook, K; Gehrels, N; Kadler, M; Kovalev, Yu A; Kovalev, Y Y; Krauss, F; Krimm, H A; Lähteenmäki, A; Lister, M L; Max-Moerbeck, W; Pasanen, M; Pushkarev, A B; Readhead, A C S; Richards, J L; Sainio, J; Shakhovskoy, D N; Sokolovsky, K V; Tornikoski, M; Tueller, J; Weidinger, M; Wilms, J

    2012-01-01

    [Abridged] Context. To construct and interpret the spectral energy distribution (SED) of BL Lacertae objects, simultaneous broad-band observations are mandatory. Aims. We intend to study the simultaneous broad-band emission of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object and known TeV emitter 1ES 2344+514 by means of a pre-organised multi-wavelength campaign independently of the current flux state. By correlating the obtained light curves and describing the corresponding SEDs with state-of-the-art models we intend to derive physical parameters of the emission region. Methods. The observations were conducted during simultaneous visibility windows of MAGIC and AGILE in late 2008. The measurements were complemented by Mets\\"ahovi, RATAN-600, KVA+Tuorla, Swift and VLBA pointings. Additional coverage was provided by the ongoing long-term F-GAMMA and MOJAVE programs, the OVRO 40-m and CrAO telescopes as well as the Fermi satellite. The obtained SEDs are modelled using a one-zone as well as a self-consistent two-zone syn...

  16. MAGIC observations of the February 2014 flare of 1ES 1011+496 and ensuing constraint of the EBL density

    CERN Document Server

    Ahnen, M L; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Banerjee, B; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Bil, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Chatterjee, A; Clavero, R; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de O na; Mendez, C Delgado; Di Pierro, F; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Glawion, D Eisenacher; Elsaesser, D; Fernández-Barral, A; Fidalgo, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giammaria, P; Godinovic, N; Muñoz, A González; Guberman, D; Hahn, A; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Hughes, G; Idec, W; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Manganaro, M; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Mira, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Moretti, E; Nakajima, D; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Rosillo, M Nievas; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palacio, J; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prini, E; Puljak, I; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Saito, T; Satalecka, K; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpaa, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzic, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Verguilov, V; Vovk, I; Ward, J E; Will, M; Wu, M H; Zanin, R

    2016-01-01

    In February-March 2014, the MAGIC telescopes observed the high-frequency peaked BL Lac 1ES 1011+496 (z=0.212) in flaring state at very-high energy (VHE, E>100GeV). The flux reached a level more than 10 times higher than any previously recorded flaring state of the source. We present the description of the characteristics of the flare presenting the light curve and the spectral parameters of the night-wise spectra and the average spectrum of the whole period. From these data we aim at detecting the imprint of the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) in the VHE spectrum of the source, in order to constrain its intensity in the optical band. For this we implement the method developed by the H.E.S.S. collaboration in which the intrinsic energy spectrum of the source is modeled with a simple function, and the EBL-induced optical depth is calculated using a template EBL model. The likelihood of the observed spectrum is then maximized, including a normalization factor for the EBL opacity among the free parameters. F...

  17. A recent strong X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 with possibly less efficient stochastic acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanadze, B.; Dorner, D.; Vercellone, S.; Romano, P.; Kapanadze, S.; Mdzinarishvili, T.

    2016-09-01

    We present an X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 in 2015 August-2016 January, which was the most powerful and prolonged during the 10.75 yr period since the start of its monitoring with X-ray Telescope onboard Swift. A new highest historical 0.3-10 keV count rate was recorded three times that makes this object the third BL Lacertae source exceeding the level of 20 counts s-1. Along with the overall variability by a factor of 5.7, this epoch was characterized by fast X-ray flares by a factor of 2.0-3.1, accompanied with an extreme spectral variability. The source also shows a simultaneous flaring activity in the optical - UV and 0.3-100 GeV bands, although a fast γ-ray flare without significant optical - X-ray counterparts is also found. In contrast to the X-ray flares in the previous years, the stochastic acceleration seems be less important for the electrons responsible for producing X-ray emission during this flare that challenges the earlier suggestion that the electrons in the jets of TeV-detected BL Lacertae objects should undergo an efficient stochastic acceleration resulting in a lower X-ray spectral curvature.

  18. Discovery of hard-spectrum \\gamma-ray emission from the BL Lac object 1ES 0414+009

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; de Almeida, U Barres; Becherini, Y; Becker, J; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L -M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gallant, Y A; Gast, H; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göring, D; Häffner, S; Hague, J D; Hampf, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzynski, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Keogh, D; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Kluźniak, D Klochkov W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P -O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sheidaei, F; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S; Costamante, L; Fegan, S; Ajello, M

    2012-01-01

    1ES 0414+009 (z = 0.287) is a distant high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object, and has long been considered a likely emitter of very-high energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-rays due to its high X-ray and radio flux. Observations in the VHE gamma-ray band and across the electromagnetic spectrum can provide insights into the origin of highly energetic particles present in the source and the radiation processes at work. Because of the distance of the source, the gamma-ray spectrum might provide further limits on the level of the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL). We report observations made between October 2005 and December 2009 with H.E.S.S., an array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Observations at high energies (HE, 100 MeV - 100 GeV) with the Fermi-LAT instrument in the first 20 months of its operation are also reported. To complete the multi-wavelength picture, archival UV and X-ray observations with the Swift satellite and optical observations with the ATOM telescope are also used. Based on the ...

  19. Discovery of >350 GeV Gamma Rays from the BL Lacertae Object 1ES 2344+514

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, M; Badran, H M; Biller, S D; Bond, I H; Boyle, P J; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Burdett, A M; Gordo, J B; Carter-Lewis, D A; Cawley, M F; Connaughton, V; Fegan, D J; Finley, J P; Gaidos, J A; Hall, T; Hillas, A M; Krennrich, F; Lamb, R C; Lessard, R W; Masterson, C; McEnery, J E; Mohanty, G B; Quinn, J; Rodgers, A J; Rose, H J; Samuelson, F W; Schubnell, M S; Sembroski, G H; Srinivasan, R; Weekes, T C; Wilson, C W; Zweerink, J A

    1997-01-01

    We present the discovery of >350 GeV gamma-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object 1ES 2344+514 with the Whipple Observatory 10m gamma-ray telescope. This is the third BL Lac object detected at gamma-ray energies above 300 Gev, the other two being Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) and Mrk501. These three active galactic nuclei are all X-ray selected and have the lowest known redshifts of any BL Lac objects currently identified. The evidence for emission derives primarily from an apparent flare on December 20, 1995 when a 6 sigma excess was detected with a flux approximately 63% of the very high energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula, the standard candle for TeV gamma-ray sources. Excluding the flare, observations between October 1995 and January 1996 yield a 4 sigma detection corresponding to 11% of the VHE Crab Nebula flux. Observations spanning September 1996 to January 1997 failed to yield a significant detection of a steady flux or any flaring. For this period, the 99.9% confidence level upper limit is <...

  20. The VLBA-BU-BLAZAR Multi-Wavelength Monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Jorstad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiwavelength program of monitoring of a sample of bright γ-ray blazars, which the Boston University (BU group has being carrying out since June 2007. The program includes monthly monitoring with the Very Long Baseline Array at 43 GHz, optical photometric and polarimetric observations, construction and analysis of UV and X-ray light curves obtained with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE and Swift satellites, and construction and analysis of γ-ray light curves based on data provided by the Large Area Telescope of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We present general results about the kinematics of parsec-scale radio jets, as well as the connection between γ-ray outbursts and jet events.

  1. Implications of very rapid TeV variability in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Begelman, Mitchell C; Rees, Martin J

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the implications of rapid (few-minute) variability in the TeV flux of blazars, which has been observed recently with the HESS and MAGIC telescopes. The variability timescales seen in PKS 2155-304 and Mrk 501 are much shorter than inferred light-crossing times at the black hole horizon, suggesting that the variability involves enhanced emission in a small region within an outflowing jet. The enhancement could be triggered by dissipation in part of the black hole's magnetosphere at the base of the outflow, or else by instabilities in the jet itself. By considering the energetics of the observed flares, along with the requirement that TeV photons escape without producing pairs, we deduce that the bulk Lorentz factors in the jets must be >50. The distance of the emission region from the central black hole is less well-constrained. We discuss possible consequences for multi-wavelength observations.

  2. Two new high energy gamma-ray blazar candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, R; Bernieri, E; Massaro, E

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of two new gamma-ray sources in the Fermi-LAT sky (Pass 8) at energies higher than 20 GeV, and confirmed at lower energies, using a source detection tool based on the Minimum Spanning Tree algorithm. One of these sources, at a Galactic latitude of about -4{\\deg}, is a new discovery, while the other was previously reported above 50 GeV in the 2FHL catalogue. We searched for archival multi-wavelength data of possible counterparts and found interesting candidates. Both objects are radio sources and their WISE infrared colours are typical of blazars. While for the former source no optical spectra are available, for the latter a puzzling optical spectrum corresponding to a white dwarf star is found in the 6dF database. We discuss the spectral energy distributions of both sources and possible interpretations.

  3. Location and origin of gamma-rays in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Rani, B; Hodgson, J A; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    One of the most intriguing and challenging quests of current astrophysics is to understand the physical conditions and processes responsible for production of high-energy particles, and emission of \\gamma-rays. A combination of high-resolution Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) images with broadband flux variability measurements is a unique way to probe the emission mechanisms at the bases of jets. Our analysis of \\gamma-ray flux variability observed by the Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope) along with the parsec-scale jet kinematics suggests that the $\\gamma$-ray emission in blazar S5 0716+714 has a significant correlation with the mm-VLBI core flux and the orientation of jet outflow on parsec scales. These results indicate that the inner jet morphology has a tight connection with the observed $\\gamma$-ray flares. An overview of our current understanding on high-energy radiation processes, their origin, and location is presented here.

  4. Through the Looking Glass: Faraday Conversion in Turbulent Blazar Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Roy MacDonald

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Faint levels of circular polarization (Stokes V have been detected in several relativistic jets. While typically less than a few percent, circular polarization can give us critical insight into the underlying nature of the jet plasma. Circular polarization can be produced through a process known as linear birefringence, in which initially linearly polarized emission produced in one region of the jet is altered by Faraday rotation as it propagates through other regions of the jet with distinct magnetic field orientations. Recently, Marscher has developed the Turbulent Extreme Multi-Zone (TEMZ model for blazar emission, in which turbulent plasma crossing a standing shock in the jet is represented by a collection of thousands of individual plasma cells, each with distinct magnetic field orientation. In order to test whether the TEMZ model can reproduce circularly polarized radiation at levels comparable to those observed in blazars, I have developed a numerical algorithm to solve the full Stokes equations of polarized radiative transfer. I have embedded this algorithm into the ray-tracing code RADMC3D (http://ascl.net/1202.015. RADMC3D was originally developed to model continuum radiative transfer in dusty media. This code, however, has been written in a modularized fashion that allows the user to specify the physics that is incorporated into the radiative transfer. I have replaced RADMC3D’s thermal emission and absorption coefficients with non-thermal coefficients pertaining to polarized synchrotron emission. This code is applied to ray-tracing through the 3-D TEMZ computational grid. Here I present a suite of synthetic polarized emission maps that highlight the effect that thousands of distinct cells of plasma within a jet can have on the observed linear and circular polarization.

  5. Discovery of hard-spectrum γ-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object 1ES 0414+009

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Bernloehr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Buesching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataie, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'c.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Foerster, A.; Fuesling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gerard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glueck, B.; Goret, P.; Goering, D.; Haeffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzynski, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Keogh, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khelifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Mehault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Ona Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Puehlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schoeck, F. M.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Voelk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S. L.; Costamante, L.; Fegan, S.; Ajello, M.

    2012-02-01

    Context. 1ES 0414 + 009 (z = 0.287) is a distant high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object, and has long been considered a likely emitter of very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-rays due to its high X-ray and radio flux. Aims: Observations in the VHE γ-ray band and across the electromagnetic spectrum can provide insights into the origin of highly energetic particles present in the source and the radiation processes at work. Because of the distance of the source, the γ-ray spectrum might provide further limits on the level of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Methods: We report observations made between October 2005 and December 2009 with H.E.S.S., an array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Observations at high energies (HE, 100 MeV-100 GeV) with the Fermi-LAT instrument in the first 20 months of its operation are also reported. To complete the multi-wavelength picture, archival UV and X-ray observations with the Swift satellite and optical observations with the ATOM telescope are also used. Results: Based on the observations with H.E.S.S., 1ES 0414 + 009 is detected for the first time in the VHE band. An excess of 224 events is measured, corresponding to a significance of 7.8σ. The photon spectrum of the source is well described by a power law, with photon index of ΓVHE = 3.45 ± 0.25stat ± 0.20syst. The integral flux above 200 GeV is (1.88 ± 0.20stat ± 0.38syst) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. Observations with the Fermi-LAT in the first 20 months of operation show a flux between 200 MeV and 100 GeV of (2.3 ± 0.2stat) × 10-9 erg cm-2 s-1, and a spectrum well described by a power-law function with a photon index ΓHE = 1.85 ± 0.18. Swift/XRT observations show an X-ray flux between 2 and 10 keV of (0.8-1) × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1, and a steep spectrum ΓX = (2.2-2.3). Combining X-ray with optical-UV data, a fit with a log-parabolic function locates the synchrotron peak around 0.1 keV. Conclusions: Although the GeV-TeV observations do not provide better

  6. VLBI observations of four radio quasars at z > 4: blazars or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, H. M.; Frey, S.; Gabányi, K. É.; Paragi, Z.; Yang, J.; Cseh, D.; Hong, X.-Y.; An, T.

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are active galactic nuclei (AGN) whose relativistic jets point nearly to the line of sight. Their compact radio structure can be imaged with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) on parsec scales. Blazars at extremely high redshifts provide a unique insight into the AGN phenomena in the early Universe. We observed four radio sources at redshift z > 4 with the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.7 and 5 GHz. These objects were previously classified as blazar candidates based on X-ray observations. One of them, J2134-0419 is firmly confirmed as a blazar with our VLBI observations, due to its relativistically beamed radio emission. Its radio jet extended to ˜10 milli-arcsec scale makes this source a promising target for follow-up VLBI observations to reveal any apparent proper motion. Another target, J0839+5112 shows a compact radio structure typical of quasars. There is evidence for flux density variability and its radio "core" has a flat spectrum. However, the EVN data suggest that its emission is not Doppler-boosted. The remaining two blazar candidates (J1420+1205 and J2220+0025) show radio properties totally unexpected from radio AGN with small-inclination jet. Their emission extends to arcsec scales and the Doppler factors of the central components are well below 1. Their structures resemble that of double-lobed radio AGN with large inclination to the line of sight. This is in contrast with the blazar-type modeling of their multi-band spectral energy distributions. Our work underlines the importance of high-resolution VLBI imaging in confirming the blazar nature of high-redshift radio sources.

  7. MAGIC observations of the February 2014 flare of 1ES 1011+496 and ensuing constraint of the EBL density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Di Pierro, F.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Guberman, D.; Hahn, A.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. During February-March 2014, the MAGIC telescopes observed the high-frequency peaked BL Lac 1ES 1011+496 (z = 0.212) in flaring state at very-high energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV). The flux reached a level of more than ten times higher than any previously recorded flaring state of the source. Aims: To describe the characteristics of the flare presenting the light curve and the spectral parameters of the night-wise spectra and the average spectrum of the whole period. From these data we aim to detect the imprint of the extragalactic background light (EBL) in the VHE spectrum of the source, to constrain its intensity in the optical band. Methods: We analyzed the gamma-ray data from the MAGIC telescopes using the standard MAGIC software for the production of the light curve and the spectra. To constrain the EBL, we implement the method developed by the H.E.S.S. collaboration, in which the intrinsic energy spectrum of the source is modeled with a simple function (≤4 parameters), and the EBL-induced optical depth is calculated using a template EBL model. The likelihood of the observed spectrum is then maximized, including a normalization factor for the EBL opacity among the free parameters. Results: The collected data allowed us to describe the night-wise flux changes and also to produce differential energy spectra for all nights in the observed period. The estimated intrinsic spectra of all the nights could be fitted by power-law functions. Evaluating the changes in the fit parameters, we conclude that the spectral shape for most of the nights were compatible, regardless of the flux level, which enabled us to produce an average spectrum from which the EBL imprint could be constrained. The likelihood ratio test shows that the model with an EBL density 1.07 (-0.20, +0.24)stat+sys, relative to the one in the tested EBL template, is preferred at the 4.6σ level to the no-EBL hypothesis, with the assumption that the intrinsic source spectrum can be modeled as a log

  8. Peak of spectral energy distribution play an important role in intra-day variability of Blazars?

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Alok C; Gaur, Haritma; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Blazars can be divided into two sub-classes namely high energy and low energy peaked blazars. In spectral energy distribution, the first synchrotron hump of the former class peaks in UV/X-rays and in IR/optical bands for the latter class. The peak of the spectral energy distribution seems to be responsible for variability properties of these classes of blazars in X-ray and optical bands. Since, in low energy peaked blazars, the X-ray bands lies well below the synchrotron hump, one expects that the highest energy electrons available for the synchrotron emission would have slower effect of variability on X-ray intra-day timescale. In this paper, by taking the advantage of a sample of 12 low energy peaked blazars with total 50 observations from XMM$-$Newton since its launch, we confirm that this class is less variable in X-ray bands. We found that out of 50 observational light curves, genuine intra-day variability is present in only two of light curves i.e 4%. Similar results we obtained from our earlier optical...

  9. Incidence of MgII absorbers towards Blazars and the GRB/QSO puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeron, Jacqueline; Ménard, Brice

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the origin of the excess of strong MgII systems towards GRB afterglows as compared to QSO sightlines, we have measured the incidence of MgII absorbers towards a third class of objects: the Blazars. This class includes the BL Lac object population for which a tentative excess of MgII systems had already been reported. We observed with FORS1 at the ESO-VLT 42 Blazars with an emission redshift 0.8 1.0 A) and weaker (0.3 < w_r(2796) < 1.0 A) MgII systems. The dependence on velocity separation with respect to the background Blazars indicates, at the ~1.5 sigma level, a potential excess for beta = v/c ~0.1. We show that biases involving dust extinction or gravitational amplification are not likely to notably affect the incidence of MgII systems towards Blazars. Finally we discuss the physical conditions required for these absorbers to be ga s entrained by the powerful Blazar jets. More realistic numerical modelling of jet-ambient gas interaction is required to reach any firm conclusion...

  10. Mining the Herschel-ATLAS: submillimeter-selected blazars in equatorial fields

    CERN Document Server

    López-Caniego, M; Massardi, M; Bonavera, L; Herranz, D; Negrello, M; De Zotti, G; Carrera, F J; Danese, L; Fleuren, S; Hardcastle, M; Jarvis, M J; Klöckner, H -R; Mauch, T; Procopio, P; Righini, S; Sutherland, W; Auld, R; Baes, M; Buttiglione, S; Clark, C J R; Cooray, A; Dariush, A; Dunne, L; Dye, S; Eales, S; Hopwood, R; Hoyos, C; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Maddox, S; Valiante, E

    2012-01-01

    The Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) provides an unprecedented opportunity to search for blazars at sub-mm wavelengths. We cross-matched the FIRST radio source catalogue with the 11655 sources brighter than 35 mJy at 500{\\mu}m in the \\sim 135 square degrees of the sky covered by the H-ATLAS equatorial fields at 9 h and 15 h, plus half of the field at 12 h. We found that 379 of the H-ATLAS sources have a FIRST counterpart within 10 arcsec, including 8 catalogued blazars (plus one known blazar that was found at the edge of one the H-ATLAS maps). To search for additional blazar candidates we have devised new diagnostic diagrams and found that known blazars occupy a region of the log(S500{\\mu}m/S350{\\mu}m) vs. log(S500{\\mu}m/S1.4GHz) plane separated from that of the other sub-mm sources with radio counterparts. Using this diagnostic we have selected 12 further candidates that turn out to be scattered in the (r-z) vs. (u-r) plane or in the WISE colour-colour diagram proposed by Massaro ...

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Blazars equivalent widths and radio luminosity (Landt+, 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, H.; Padovani, P.; Perlman, E. S.; Giommi, P.

    2004-07-01

    Blazars are currently separated into BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat spectrum radio quasars based on the strength of their emission lines. This is performed rather arbitrarily by defining a diagonal line in the Ca H&K break value-equivalent width plane, following Marcha et al. (1996MNRAS.281..425M). We readdress this problem and put the classification scheme for blazars on firm physical grounds. We study ~100 blazars and radio galaxies from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS, Cat. and ) and 2-Jy radio survey and find a significant bimodality for the narrow emission line [OIII]{lambda}5007. This suggests the presence of two physically distinct classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that all radio-loud AGN, blazars and radio galaxies, can be effectively separated into weak- and strong-lined sources using the [OIII]{lambda}5007-[OII]{lambda}3727 equivalent width plane. This plane allows one to disentangle orientation effects from intrinsic variations in radio-loud AGN. Based on DXRBS, the strongly beamed sources of the new class of weak-lined radio-loud AGN are made up of BL Lacs at the ~75 per cent level, whereas those of the strong-lined radio-loud AGN include mostly (~97 per cent) quasars. (4 data files).

  12. Resolving the blazar CGRaBS J0809+5341 in the presence of telescope systematics

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Iniyan; Zwart, Jonathan; Perkins, Simon; Smirnov, Oleg; van der Heyden, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    We analyse Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of the blazar CGRaBS J0809+5341 using Bayesian inference methods. The observation was carried out at 5 GHz using 8 telescopes that form part of the European VLBI Network. Imaging and deconvolution using traditional methods imply that the blazar is unresolved. To search for source structure beyond the diffraction limit, we perform Bayesian model selection between three source models (point, elliptical Gaussian, and circular Gaussian). Our modelling jointly accounts for antenna-dependent gains and system equivalent flux densities. We obtain posterior distributions for the various source and instrumental parameters along with the corresponding uncertainties and correlations between them. We find that there is very strong evidence (>1e9 :1) in favour of elliptical Gaussian structure and using this model derive the apparent brightness temperature distribution of the blazar, accounting for uncertainties in the shape estimates. To test the integrity of...

  13. Variability of Soft X-ray Spectral Shape in Blazars Observed by ROSAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In previous paper we have shown that the soft X-ray spectra of two types of Seyfert 1 galaxies behave statistically differently with increasing intensity.In order to see how the spectrum of blazars changes, we made plots of Hardness Ratio 1 versus Count Rates (HR1-Cts) for 18 blazars observed by ROSAT/PSPC.According to our criteria, ten showed a positive HR1-Cts correlation, two a negative correlation, and the remaining six, no clear correlation. Thus, most blazars of our sample show a hardening spectrum during overall flux increase, though some vary randomly. By investigating the photon index of these objects and different radiation theories, we argue that relative dominance between the synchrotron and inverse Compton emission in the soft X-ray band can well account for the differing spectral behaviours and that the different spectral variations might represent a sequence of synchrotron peaked frequency.

  14. The Lyman-alpha forest in a blazar-heated Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Puchwein, Ewald; Springel, Volker; Broderick, Avery E; Chang, Philip

    2011-01-01

    It has been realised only recently that TeV emission from blazars can significantly heat the intergalactic medium (IGM) by pair-producing high-energy electrons and positrons, which in turn excite vigorous plasma instabilities, leading to a local dissipation of the pairs' kinetic energy. In this work, we use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to model the impact of this induced blazar heating on the Lyman-alpha forest at intermediate redshifts (z~2-3). We find that blazar heating produces an inverted equation-of-state in the IGM and naturally resolves many of the problems present in previous simulations of the forest that included photoionisation heating alone. In particular, our simulation results simultaneously reproduce the observed effective optical depth and temperature as a function of redshift, the observed probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the transmitted flux, and the observed flux power spectra, over the full redshift range 2

  15. Multiwavelength Study of Fermi-LAT blazars Variability and Radiation Production Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, R. J.; Bottacini, E.; Böttcher, M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Buson, S.; Lott, B.; Marais, J. P.; Meintjes, P. J.; Razzaque, S.; van Soelen, B.

    2016-12-01

    Quasars constitute a subclass of radio-loud active galactic nuclei that release a tremendous amount of non-thermal radiation through a pair of twin jets. When one of these jets is aligned close to the direction of the Earth, the object is then called a blazar. A consistent monitoring of these sources can help to unveil physical mechanisms at the origin of the radiation production that spreads throughout the whole electromagnetic spectrum, from radio waves to γ rays. The goal of this paper is to report some current works being undertaken in term of both spectral studies and time domain analyses of bright blazars which are observed with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and by South Africa-based optical telescopes. In particular, we present our recent and current studies on blazars 3C 454.3 and NVSS J141922-083830 respectively.

  16. The influence of the magnetic field on the spectral properties of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Rueda-Becerril, J M; Aloy, M A

    2013-01-01

    We explore the signature imprinted by dynamically relevant magnetic fields on the spectral energy distribution (SED) of blazars. It is assumed that the emission from these sources originates from the collision of ultrarelativistic and magnetized shells of cold plasma. A suitable analytic modeling, based on the numerical solution of Riemann problems, accounts for the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of the shell collisions. Using this dynamics we compute model SEDs including the most relevant radiative processes (synchrotron emission, synchrotron self-Compton and external inverse Compton scattering). To quantify the way in which the degree of magnetization shapes the SED, we scan a broad parameter space that encompasses a significant fraction of the commonly accepted values of not directly measurable physical properties. Starting from unmagnetized shell collisions, we reproduce the standard double hump SED found in blazar observations. We also show that the prototype double hump structure of blazars can also be r...

  17. Variability of Spectral Energy Distribution of Blazar S5 0716+714

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. Rani; Alok C. Gupta; Paul J. Wiita

    2011-03-01

    The emission from blazars is known to be variable at all wavelengths. The flux variability is often accompanied by spectral changes. Spectral energy distribution (SED) changes must be associated with changes in the spectra of emitting electrons and/or the physical parameters of the jet. Meaningful modeling of blazar broadband spectra is required to understand the extreme conditions within the emission region. Not only is the broadband SED crucial, but also information about its variability is needed to understand how the highest states of emission occur and how they differ from the low states. This may help in discriminating between models. Here we present the results of our SED modeling of the blazar S5 0716+714 during various phases of its activity. The SEDs are classified into different bins depending on the optical brightness state of the source.

  18. B-FlaP: Classifying Gamma-ray Blazars Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David John; Chiaro, Graziano; Giroletti, Marcello; Salvetti, David; La Mura, Giovanni; Bastieri, Denis

    2017-01-01

    In the Third Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources, 573 are listed as Blazar Candidates of Uncertain type (BCU), or sources without a conclusive classification. Blazar Flaring Patterns (B-FlaP) uses Empirical Cumulative Distribution Function and Artificial Neural Network machine-learning techniques for a fast method of screening and classification of BCUs based on gamma-ray data only, when rigorous multiwavelength analysis is not available. In this study radio analysis and direct observations by ground-based optical observatories are used to validate the B-FlaP method. Tests indicate that the method is effective, suggesting that 342 sources are likely BL Lac objects, 154 are likely Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars, with only 77 remaining uncertain. 53 of the BCUs appear to be High Synchrotron Peaked blazars, a class of particular interest to ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes.

  19. FACT - Long-term Monitoring of Bright TeV-Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Dorner, D; Bretz, T; Buss, J; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Hildebrand, D; Knötig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Lustermann, W; Mannheim, K; Meier, K; Neise, D; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Walter, R; Weitzel, Q; Zänglein, M

    2013-01-01

    Since October 2011, the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) is operated successfully on the Canary Island of La Palma. Apart from the proof of principle for the use of G-APDs in Cherenkov telescopes, the major goal of the project is the dedicated long-term monitoring of a small sample of bright TeV blazars. The unique properties of G-APDs permit stable observations also during strong moon light. Thus a superior sampling density is provided on time scales at which the blazar variability amplitudes are expected to be largest, as exemplified by the spectacular variations of Mrk 501 observed in June 2012. While still in commissioning, FACT monitored bright blazars like Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 during the past 1.5 years so far. Preliminary results including the Mrk 501 flare from June 2012 will be presented.

  20. The Contribution of Fermi-2LAC Blazars to Diffuse TeV–PeV Neutrino Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Burgman, A.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Franckowiak, A.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O’Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schimp, M.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of a diffuse cosmic neutrino flux extending up to PeV energies raises the question of which astrophysical sources generate this signal. Blazars are one class of extragalactic sources which may produce such high-energy neutrinos. We present a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from blazars in the 2nd Fermi-LAT AGN catalog (2LAC) using IceCube neutrino data set 2009-12, which was optimized for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to those in previous searches with IceCube, the populations investigated contain up to hundreds of sources, the largest one being the entire blazar sample in the 2LAC catalog. No significant excess is observed, and upper limits for the cumulative flux from these populations are obtained. These constrain the maximum contribution of 2LAC blazars to the observed astrophysical neutrino flux to 27% or less between around 10 TeV and 2 PeV, assuming the equipartition of flavors on Earth and a single power-law spectrum with a spectral index of ‑2.5. We can still exclude the fact that 2LAC blazars (and their subpopulations) emit more than 50% of the observed neutrinos up to a spectral index as hard as ‑2.2 in the same energy range. Our result takes into account the fact that the neutrino source count distribution is unknown, and it does not assume strict proportionality of the neutrino flux to the measured 2LAC γ-ray signal for each source. Additionally, we constrain recent models for neutrino emission by blazars.

  1. Peak of spectral energy distribution plays an important role in intra-day variability of blazars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok C.; Kalita, Nibedita; Gaur, Haritma; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-10-01

    Blazars can be divided into two sub-classes namely high energy and low energy peaked blazars. In spectral energy distribution, the first synchrotron hump of the former class peaks in UV/X-rays and in IR/optical bands for the latter class. The peak of the spectral energy distribution seems to be responsible for variability properties of these classes of blazars in X-ray and optical bands. Since, in low energy peaked blazars, the X-ray bands lies well below the synchrotron hump, one expects that the highest energy electrons available for the synchrotron emission would have slower effect of variability on X-ray intra-day time-scale. In this paper, by taking the advantage of a sample of 12 low energy peaked blazars with total 50 observations from XMM-Newton since its launch, we confirm that this class is less variable in X-ray bands. We found that out of 50 observational light curves, genuine intra-day variability is present in only two of light curves i.e 4 per cent. Similar results we obtained from our earlier optical intra-day variability studies of high energy peaked blazars where out of 144 light curves, only genuine intra-day variability was detected in 6 light curves i.e ˜4 per cent. Since, X-ray bands lie below the peak of the spectral energy distribution of LSPs where inverse Compton mechanism is dominating rather than synchrotron radiation at the peak of the optical band, leads to slower variability in the X-ray bands. Hence, reducing their intra-day variability in X-ray bands as compared to the variability in optical bands.

  2. Searching for Gamma-Ray Blazar Candidates Among the Unidentified INTEGRAL Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; /SLAC; Paggi, A.; D' Abrusco, R.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Tosti, G.; /Perugia U.

    2012-04-02

    The identification of low-energy counterparts for {gamma}-ray sources is one of the biggest challenge in modern {gamma}-ray astronomy. Recently, we developed and successfully applied a new association method to recognize {gamma}-ray blazar candidates that could be possible counterparts for the unidentified {gamma}-ray sources above 100 MeV in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog (2FGL). This method is based on the Infrared (IR) colors of the recent Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. In this letter we applied our new association method to the case of unidentified INTEGRAL sources (UISs) listed in the fourth soft gamma-ray source catalog (4IC). Only 86 UISs out of the 113 can be analyzed, due to the sky coverage of the WISE Preliminary data release. Among these 86 UISs, we found that 18 appear to have a {gamma}-ray blazar candidate within their positional error region. Finally, we analyzed the Swift archival data available for 10 out these 18 {gamma}-ray blazar candidates, and we found that 7 out of 10 are clearly detected in soft X-rays and/or in the optical-ultraviolet band. We cannot confirm the associations between the UISs and the selected {gamma}-ray blazar candidates due to the discrepancies between the INTEGRAL and the soft X-ray spectra. However, the discovery of the soft X-ray counterparts for the selected {gamma}-ray blazar candidates adds an important clue to help understand their origin and to confirm their blazar nature.

  3. An Investigation into the Spectral Properties of Bright Fermi Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Jonathan; Daniel, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the spectral properties of blazars detected with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the high energy regime 100 MeV - 100 GeV. We find that over long timescales a log-parabola provides an adequate description of the spectrum in almost all objects and in most cases is significantly better than a simple power law or broken power law description. Broken power law descriptions appear to arise from two causes: confusion with nearby sources and as an artifact of older LAT instrument response functions. We create a light curve for 2FGLJ2253.9+1609 (3C 454.3), the brightest of the objects investigated. During the quiescent state we find the spectrum to be fairly stable and well-described by a log-parabola. There is some evidence that, on average, the peak energy of the inverse Compton emission is lower in the quiescent state than in the time-averaged state, suggesting that increases in flux are due to changing parameters within the jet as opposed to changes in an external photon field. However, no ...

  4. Multi-Band Spectral Properties of Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benzhong Dai; Dahai Yan

    2011-03-01

    The multi-band data covering optical, X-ray and -ray energy regions of 130 Fermi blazars in the First LAT AGN Catalog (1LAC) were collected to investigate the broadband spectral properties. The composite spectral indices show that HBLs have convex optical-to-X-ray continua and concave X-ray-to--ray continua, > 0 and < 0, while FSRQs and LBLs have < 0. The distribution of FSRQs and LBLs extends from negative to positive values. We suggest > 0 and < 0 could be considered as a criterion for HBLs. Moreover, HBLs have narrow distribution of peak interval of log $v^{\\text{ic}}_{\\text{p}}=\\log v^{\\text{syn}}_{\\text{p}}$, and FSRQs have significant anti-correlation between log $v^{\\text{ic}}_{\\text{p}}-\\log v^{\\text{syn}}_{\\text{p}}$ and $\\log v^{\\text{syn}}_{\\text{p}}$. This indicates that SSC model is responsible for high energy emission of HBLs, while EC for FSRQs. Our results also indicate that FSRQs with larger break energy of electrons have smaller bulk Lorentz factor of dissipation region.

  5. INTEGRAL and Swift Observations of Blazars in Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Pian, Elena; Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    The blazars 3C 454.3, PKS 0537-441 and PKS 2155-304 are traditionally known to be among the most active sources of this class. They emit at all frequencies, up to the gamma-rays, and are good probes of multiwavelength nuclear variability. The first two have also luminous broad emission line regions. We have recently monitored them with various facilities, including Swift and INTEGRAL, and have interpreted their variations with models of non-thermal radiation from a relativistic jet. In particular, we have tested for the first two sources the hypothesis that the variability is produced within the jet through internal shocks, i.e. collisions of relativistic plasma blobs. This allows a parameterization of all physical quantities as functions of the bulk Lorentz factor. We have made the critical assumption that every flaring episode is characterized by a fixed amount of energy. The model reproduces brilliantly the multiwavelength data and especially the gamma-ray spectra, when available. The model is not applicab...

  6. Gamma-Rays from Non-Blazar AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Rieger, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Non-blazar Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) have emerged as a new gamma-ray emitting source class on the extragalactic sky and started to deepen our understanding of the physical processes and the nature of AGN in general. The detection of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies in the Fermi-LAT energy regime, for example, offers important information for our understanding of jet formation and radio-loudness. Radio galaxies, on the other hand, have become particularly interesting at high (HE) and very high (VHE) gamma-ray energies. With their jets not directly pointing towards us (i.e. misaligned), they offer a unique tool to probe into the nature of the fundamental (and often hidden) physical processes in AGN. This review highlights and discusses some of the observational and theoretical progress achieved in the gamma-ray regime during recent years, including the evidence for unexpected spectral hardening in Centaurus A and extreme short-term variability as seen in IC 310 and M87.

  7. Long term variability of the blazar PKS 2155-304

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Jill; Rieger, Frank; Maurin, Gilles; Lenain, Jean-Philippe; Lamanna, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Time variability of the photon flux is a known feature of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and in particular of blazars. The high frequency peaked BL Lac (HBL) object PKS 2155-304 is one of the brightest sources in the TeV band and has been monitored regularly with different instruments and in particular with the H.E.S.S. experiment above 200 GeV for more than 11 years. These data together with the observations of other instruments and monitoring programs like SMARTS (optical), Swift-XRT/RXTE/XMM-Newton (X-ray) and Fermi-LAT (100 MeV < E < 300 GeV) are used to characterize the variability of this object in the quiescent state over a wide energy range. Variability studies are made by looking at the lognormality of the light curves and at the fractional root mean square (rms) variability Fvar in several energy bands. Lognormality is found in every energy range and the evolution of Fvar with the energy shows a similar increase both in X-rays and in TeV bands.

  8. Fast Variations of Gamma-Ray Emission in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, S J; Herter, M; Wagner, Stefan J.; Montigny, Corinna von; Herter, Martin

    1997-01-01

    The largest group of sources identified by EGRET are Blazars. This sub-class of AGN is well known to vary in flux in all energy bands on time-scales ranging from a few minutes (in the optical and X-ray bands) up to decades (radio and optical regimes). In addition to variations of the gamma-ray flux between different viewing periods, the brightest of these sources showed a few remarkable gamma-ray flares on time-scales of about one day, confirming the extension of the ``Intraday-Variability (IDV)'' phenomenon into the GeV range. We present first results of a systematic approach to study fast variability with EGRET data. This statistical approach confirms the existence of IDV even during epochs when no strong flares are detected. This provides additional constraints on the site of the gamma-ray emission and allows cross-correlation analyses with light curves obtained at other frequencies even during periods of low flux. We also find that some stronger sources have fluxes systematically above threshold even duri...

  9. Spectroscopic monitoring of the Blazar 3C 454.3

    CERN Document Server

    Benítez, E; Raiteri, C M; Villata, M; Dultzin, D; Martínez, O; Perez-Camargo, B; Torrealba, J

    2009-01-01

    We performed an optical spectroscopic monitoring of the blazar 3C 454.3 from September 2003 to July 2008. Sixteen optical spectra were obtained during different runs, which constitute the first spectroscopic monitoring done in the rest-frame UV region (z=0.859). An overall flux variation of the MgII (2800 A) by a factor ~ 3 was observed, while the corresponding UV continuum (F_cont at 3000 A) changed by a factor ~ 14. The MgII emission lines respond proportionally to the continuum variations when the source is in a low-activity state. In contrast, near the optical outbursts detected in 2005 and 2007, the MgII emission lines showed little response to the continuum flux variations. During the monitored period the UV FeII flux changed by a factor ~ 6 and correlated with F_cont (r = 0.92). A negative correlation between EW(Mg II) and F_cont was found, i.e. the so-called "Intrinsic Baldwin Effect".

  10. Radio Variability and Random Walk Noise Properties of Four Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a time series analysis of the long-term radio lightcurves of four blazars: 3C 279, 3C 345, 3C 446, and BL Lacertae. We exploit the data base of the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) monitoring program which provides densely sampled lightcurves spanning 32 years in time in three frequency bands located at 4.8, 8, and 14.5 GHz. Our sources show mostly flat or inverted (spectral indices -0.5 < alpha < 0) spectra, in agreement with optically thick emission. All lightcurves show strong variability on all time scales. Analyzing the time lags between the lightcurves from different frequency bands, we find that we can distinguish high-peaking flares and low-peaking flares in accord with the classification of Valtaoja et al. (1992). The periodograms (temporal power spectra) of the observed lightcurves are consistent with random-walk powerlaw noise without any indication of (quasi-)periodic variability. The fact that all four sources studied are in agreement with...

  11. On radiative acceleration in spine-sheath structured blazar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Chhotray, Atul; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Salafia, Om Sharan; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Lazzati, Davide

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that blazar jets are structured, with a fast spine surrounded by a slower sheath or layer. This structured jet model explains some properties of their emission and morphology. Because of their relative motion, the radiation produced by one component is seen amplified by the other, thus enhancing the inverse Compton emission of both. Radiation is emitted anisotropically in the comoving frames, and causes the emitting plasma to recoil. As seen in the observer frame, this corresponds to a deceleration of the fastest component (the spine) and an acceleration of the slower one (the layer). While the deceleration of the spine has already been investigated, here we study for the first time the acceleration of the sheath and find self-consistent velocity profile solutions for both the spine and the sheath while accounting for radiative cooling. We find that the sheath can be accelerated to the velocities required by the observations if its leptons remain energetic in the acceleration region, assu...

  12. Phase-transient hierarchical turbulence as an energy correlation generator of blazar light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Mitsuru

    2008-01-01

    Hierarchical turbulent structure constituting a jet is considered to reproduce energy-dependent variability in blazars, particularly, the correlation between X- and gamma-ray light curves measured in the TeV blazar Markarian 421. The scale-invariant filaments are featured by the ordered magnetic fields that involve hydromagnetic fluctuations serving as electron scatterers for diffusive shock acceleration, and the spatial size scales are identified with the local maximum electron energies, which are reflected in the synchrotron spectral energy distribution (SED) above the near-infrared/optical break. The structural transition of filaments is found to be responsible for the observed change of spectral hysteresis.

  13. A simplified view of blazars: comparison with multi-frequency observations

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We have recently proposed a new scenario where blazars are classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars or BL Lacs according to the prescriptions of unified schemes, and to a varying combination of Doppler boosted radiation from the jet, emission from the accretion disk, the broad line region, and light from the host galaxy. This mix of different components leads to strong selection effects, which are properly taken into account in our scheme. We describe here the main features of our approach, which solves many long-standing issues of blazar research, give the most important results, and discuss its implications and testable predictions.

  14. Relation between X-Ray and -Ray Emissions for Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bijun Li; Xiong Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Using -ray band data detected by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and X-ray band data for 78 blazars, we find a medium correlation between X-ray and -ray fluxes in the average state. A medium anticorrelation is also found between X-ray (1 KeV) mean spectral index and -ray mean spectral index for blazars. Our results suggest that the most likely radiation mechanism for the high energy -ray would be SSC. And that the -ray emission mechanism may be somewhat different for BL Lacs and FSRQs.

  15. TANAMI Blazars in the IceCube PeV Neutrino Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Krauß, F; Mannheim, K; Schulz, R; Trüstedt, J; Wilms, J; Ojha, R; Ros, E; Anton, G; Baumgartner, W; Beuchert, T; Blanchard, J; Bürkel, C; Carpenter, B; Eberl, T; Edwards, P G; Eisenacher, D; Elsässer, D; Fehn, K; Fritsch, U; Gehrels, N; Gräfe, C; Großberger, C; Hase, H; Horiuchi, S; James, C; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kreikenbohm, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Langejahn, M; Leiter, K; Litzinger, E; Lovell, J E J; Müller, C; Phillips, C; Plötz, C; Quick, J; Steinbring, T; Stevens, J; Thompson, D J; Tzioumis, A K

    2014-01-01

    The IceCube Collaboration has announced the discovery of a neutrino flux in excess of the atmospheric background. Due to the steeply falling atmospheric background spectrum, events at PeV energies are most likely of extraterrestrial origin. We present the multiwavelength properties of the six radio brightest blazars positionally coincident with these events using contemporaneous data of the TANAMI blazar sample, including high-resolution images and spectral energy distributions. Assuming the X-ray to {\\gamma}-ray emission originates in the photoproduction of pions by accelerated protons, the integrated predicted neutrino luminosity of these sources is large enough to explain the two detected PeV events.

  16. Models for Very Rapid High-Energy -Ray Variability in Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. E. Romero; M. M. Reynoso

    2014-09-01

    We present a family of models for rapid -ray variability in blazars based on a two-component jet. Fast variability occurs when relativistic electron–positron pairs interact with small-scale perturbations in the inner jet. These perturbations are produced by Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. We fit the minute-scale strong variability displayed by the blazar PKS 2155−304 and present synthetic light-curves of the kind that might be observed with forthcoming instruments such as the Cherenkov telescope array.

  17. 2WHSP: A multi-frequency selected catalogue of high energy and very high energy γ-ray blazars and blazar candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y.-L.; Arsioli, B.; Giommi, P.; Padovani, P.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: High synchrotron peaked blazars (HSPs) dominate the γ-ray sky at energies higher than a few GeV; however, only a few hundred blazars of this type have been cataloged so far. In this paper we present the 2WHSP sample, the largest and most complete list of HSP blazars available to date, which is an expansion of the 1WHSP catalogue of γ-ray source candidates off the Galactic plane. Methods: We cross-matched a number of multi-wavelength surveys (in the radio, infrared and X-ray bands) and applied selection criteria based on the radio to IR and IR to X-ray spectral slopes. To ensure the selection of genuine HSPs, we examined the SED of each candidate and estimated the peak frequency of its synchrotron emission (νpeak) using the ASDC SED tool, including only sources with νpeak > 1015 Hz (equivalent to νpeak > 4 eV). Results: We have assembled the largest and most complete catalogue of HSP blazars to date, which includes 1691 sources. A number of population properties, such as infrared colours, synchrotron peak, redshift distributions, and γ-ray spectral properties have been used to characterise the sample and maximize completeness. We also derived the radio log N-log S distribution. This catalogue has already been used to provide seeds to discover new very high energy objects within Fermi-LAT data and to look for the counterparts of neutrino and ultra high energy cosmic ray sources, showing its potential for the identification of promising high-energy γ-ray sources and multi-messenger targets. Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/598/A17

  18. Optical Spectroscopic Observations of Gamma-ray Blazar Candidates. V. TNG, KPNO, and OAN Observations of Blazar Candidates of Uncertain Type in the Northern Hemisphere

    CERN Document Server

    Crespo, N Álvarez; Ricci, F; Landoni, M; Patiño-Álvarez, V; Massaro, F; D'Abrusco, R; Paggi, A; Chavushyan, V; Jiménez-Bailón, E; Torrealba, J; Latronico, L; La Franca, F; Smith, Howard A; Tosti, G

    2016-01-01

    The extragalactic $\\gamma$-ray sky is dominated by emission from blazars, a peculiar class of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Many of the $\\gamma$-ray sources included in Fermi -Large Area Telescope Third Source catalog (3FGL) are classified as a blazar candidate of uncertain type (BCU) because there is no optical spectra available in the literature to confirm their nature. In 2013 we started a spectroscopic campaign to look for the optical counterparts of the BCUs and of the Unidentified $\\gamma$-ray Sources. The main goal of our investigation is to confirm the blazar nature of these sources having peculiar properties as compact radio emission and/or selected on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Whenever possible we also determine their redshifts. Here we present the results of the observations carried out in the Northern hemisphere in 2013 and 2014 at Telescopio Nazionale Galilleo (TNG), Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional (OAN) in San Pedro M\\'artir. In this ...

  19. Multiwavelength Doppler factors for Fermi-detected gamma-ray loud blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou-Dun Zeng; Li Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We collect a sample of 51 Fermi-detected gamma-ray loud blazars with known radio Doppler factors and study properties of the Doppler factors of blazars at optical, X-ray and gamma-ray bands. A basic assumption is that the emission from the radio to gamma-ray bands of the blazars are produced by the nonthermal radiation of accelerated particles in a jet. Our results show that (1) the Doppler factors of blazars are a function of frequency, with the Doppler factor decreasing with frequency from the radio to X-ray regions, and then increasing from the X-ray to y-ray regions which are similar to results given by Zhang et al., and (2) there are marginal correlations between the Doppler factors at radio and X-ray bands and the synchrotron peak frequency, and a strong correlation between the Doppler factor in the gamma-ray band and the synchrotron peak frequency, but no correlation in the optical band.

  20. The Evolution of Swift/BAT blazars and the origin of the MeV background

    CERN Document Server

    Ajello, M; Sambruna, R M; Gehrels, N; Chiang, J; Rau, A; Escala, A; Greiner, J; Tüller, J; Wall, J V; Mushotzky, R F

    2009-01-01

    We use 3 years of data from the Swift/BAT survey to select a complete sample of X-ray blazars above 15 keV. This sample comprises 26 Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects detected over a redshift range of 0.03blazars. We find that, contrary to the Seyfert-like AGNs detected by BAT, the population of blazars shows strong positive evolution. This evolution is comparable to the evolution of luminous optical QSOs and luminous X-ray selected AGNs. We also find evidence for an epoch-dependence of the evolution as determined previously for radio-quiet AGNs. We interpret both these findings as a strong link between accretion and jet activity. In our sample, the FSRQs evolve strongly, while our best-fit shows that BL Lacs might not evolve at all. The blazar population accounts for 10-20 % (depending on the evolution of the BL Lacs) of the Cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in the 15--55 keV band. W...

  1. Characterizing the Optical Variability of Bright Blazars: Variability-Based Selection of Fermi AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, John J; MacLeod, Chelsea L; Becker, Andrew C; Burnett, T H; Davenport, James R A; Ivezic, Zeljko; Kochanek, Christopher S; Plotkin, Richard M; Sesar, Branimir; Stuart, J Scott

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of optical photometric variability to select and identify blazars in large-scale time-domain surveys, in part to aid in the identification of blazar counterparts to the ~30% of gamma-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog still lacking reliable associations. Using data from the optical LINEAR asteroid survey, we characterize the optical variability of blazars by fitting a damped random walk model to individual light curves with two main model parameters, the characteristic timescales of variability (tau), and driving amplitudes on short timescales (sigma). Imposing cuts on minimum tau and sigma allows for blazar selection with high efficiency E and completeness C. To test the efficacy of this approach, we apply this method to optically variable LINEAR objects that fall within the several-arcminute error ellipses of gamma-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog. Despite the extreme stellar contamination at the shallow depth of the LINEAR survey, we are able to recover previously-associated ...

  2. RoboPol: First season rotations of optical polarization plane in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, D; Papadakis, I; Kiehlmann, S; Panopoulou, G; Liodakis, I; King, O G; Angelakis, E; Baloković, M; Das, H; Feiler, R; Fuhrmann, L; Hovatta, T; Khodade, P; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Myserlis, I; Modi, D; Pazderska, B; Pazderski, E; Papamastorakis, I; Pearson, T J; Rajarshi, C; Ramaprakash, A; Reig, P; Readhead, A C S; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    We present first results on polarization swings in optical emission of blazars obtained by RoboPol, a monitoring program of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray bright blazars specially designed for effective detection of such events. A possible connection of polarization swing events with periods of high activity in gamma rays is investigated using the dataset obtained during the first season of operation. It was found that the brightest gamma-ray flares tend to be located closer in time to rotation events, which may be an indication of two separate mechanisms responsible for the rotations. Blazars with detected rotations have significantly larger amplitude and faster variations of polarization angle in optical than blazars without rotations. Our simulations show that the full set of observed rotations is not a likely outcome (probability $\\le 1.5 \\times 10^{-2}$) of a random walk of the polarization vector simulated by a multicell model. Furthermore, it is highly unlikely ($\\sim 5 \\times 10^{-5}$) that none of o...

  3. VERITAS Observations of Six Bright, Hard-Spectrum Fermi-LAT Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Aliu; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boettcher, M.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupick, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Erando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Perkins, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    We report on VERITAS very-high-energy (VHE; E >= 100 GeV) observations of six blazars selected from the Fermi Large Area Telescope First Source Catalog (1FGL). The gamma-ray emission from 1FGL sources was extrapolated up to the VHE band, taking gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light into account. This allowed the selection of six bright, hard-spectrum blazars that were good candidate TeV emitters. Spectroscopic redshift measurements were attempted with the Keck Telescope for the targets without Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data. No VHE emission is detected during the observations of the six sources described here. Corresponding TeV upper limits are presented, along with contemporaneous Fermi observations and non-concurrent Swift UVOT and XRT data. The blazar broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are assembled and modeled with a single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. The SED built for each of the six blazars show a synchrotron peak bordering between the intermediate- and high-spectrum-peak classifications, with four of the six resulting in particle-dominated emission region.

  4. Coeval Observations of a Complete Sample of Blazars with Effelsberg, IRAM 30m, and Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Rachen, Jörg P; Krichbaum, Thomas; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Nestoras, Ioannis; Zensus, Anton; Sievers, Albrecht; Ungerechts, Hans; Keihänen, Elina; Reinecke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We present the outline and first results of a project using the synergies of the long term blazar radiomillimetre monitoring program F-GAMMA, the continued scanning of the millimetre-submillimetre sky by the Planck satellite, together with several dedicated observing programs at the Effelsberg 100m telescope, to obtain a data sample unprecedented in both time resolution and frequency span.

  5. Upper Limits from Five Years of Blazar Observations with the VERITAS Cherenkov Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hütten, M.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nguyen, T.; Nieto, D.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Fumagalli, M.; Prochaska, J. X.

    2016-06-01

    Between the beginning of its full-scale scientific operations in 2007 and 2012, the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array observed more than 130 blazars; of these, 26 were detected as very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray sources. In this work, we present the analysis results of a sample of 114 undetected objects. The observations constitute a total live-time of ˜570 hr. The sample includes several unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources (located at high Galactic latitude) as well as all the sources from the second Fermi-LAT catalog that are contained within the field of view of the VERITAS observations. We have also performed optical spectroscopy measurements in order to estimate the redshift of some of these blazars that do not have spectroscopic distance estimates. We present new optical spectra from the Kast instrument on the Shane telescope at the Lick observatory for 18 blazars included in this work, which allowed for the successful measurement or constraint on the redshift of four of them. For each of the blazars included in our sample, we provide the flux upper limit in the VERITAS energy band. We also study the properties of the significance distributions and we present the result of a stacked analysis of the data set, which shows a 4σ excess.

  6. Nustar detection of the blazar B2 1023+25 at redshift 5.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sbarrato, T.; Tagliaferri, G.; Ghisellini, G.

    2013-01-01

    B2 1023+25 is an extremely radio-loud quasar at z = 5.3 that was first identified as a likely high-redshift blazar candidate in the SDSS+FIRST quasar catalog. Here, we use the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) to investigate its non-thermal jet emission, whose high-energy component w...

  7. NUSTAR, SWIFT, and GROND Observations of the Flaring MEV Blazar PMN J0641-0320

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajello, M.; Ghisellini, G.; Paliya, V. S.;

    2016-01-01

    Area Telescope and subsequent follow-up observations with NuSTAR, Swift, and GROND of a new member of the MeV blazar family: PMN J0641-0320. Our optical spectroscopy provides confirmation that this is a flat-spectrum radio quasar located at a redshift of z = 1.196. Its very hard NuSTAR spectrum (power...

  8. Infrared properties of blazars: putting the GASP-WEBT sources into context

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, C M; Carnerero, M I; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Larionov, V M; D'Ammando, F; Arévalo, M J; Arkharov, A A; Bueno, A Bueno; Di Paola, A; Efimova, N V; González-Morales, P A; Gorshanov, D L; Grinon-Marin, A B; Lázaro, C; Manilla-Robles, A; Yabar, A Pastor; Giménez, I Puerto; Velasco, S

    2014-01-01

    The infrared properties of blazars can be studied from the statistical point of view with the help of sky surveys, like that provided by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). However, these sources are known for their strong and unpredictable variability, which can be monitored for a handful of objects only. In this paper we consider the 28 blazars (14 BL Lac objects and 14 flat-spectrum radio quasars, FSRQs) that are regularly monitored by the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) since 2007. They show a variety of infrared colours, redshifts, and infrared-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and thus represent an interesting mini-sample of bright blazars that can be investigated in more detail. We present near-IR light curves and colours obtained by the GASP from 2007 to 2013, and discuss the infrared-optical SEDs. These are analysed with the aim of understanding the interplay among different emission compon...

  9. New blazars from the cross-match of recent multi-frequency catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Maselli, A; D'Abrusco, R; Cusumano, G; La Parola, V; Segreto, A; Tosti, G

    2015-01-01

    Blazars are radio-loud active galactic nuclei well known for their non thermal emission spanning a wide range of frequencies. The Roma-BZCAT is, to date, the most comprehensive list of these sources. We performed the cross-match of several catalogs obtained from recent surveys at different frequencies to search for new blazars. We cross-matched the 1$^{st}$ Swift-XRT Point Source catalog with the spectroscopic sample of the 9$^{th}$ Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Then, we performed further cross-matches with the catalogs corresponding to the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm survey and to the AllWISE Data release, focusing on sources with infrared colors similar to those of confirmed $\\gamma$-ray blazars included in the Second Fermi-LAT catalog. As a result, we obtained a preliminary list of objects with all the elements needed for a proper blazar classification according to the prescriptions of the Roma-BZCAT. We carefully investigated additional properties such as their morphology an...

  10. J1026+2542: proper motion in a blazar jet at z=5.27

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, S.; Paragi, Z.; Fogasy, J.O.; Gurvits, L.

    2014-01-01

    The radio-loud AGN J1026+2542 has recently been classified as the second most distant blazar, based on its broad-band spectral energy distribution and X-ray spectrum. The source with a prominent one-sided jet extending to at least ∼20 mas was earlier observed with the VLBA at 5 GHz in January 2006.

  11. Stochastic Modeling of the Fermi/LAT Gamma-ray Blazar Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Sobolewska, Malgorzata A; Kelly, Brandon C; Nalewajko, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    We study the gamma-ray variability of 13 blazars observed with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). These blazars have the most complete light curves collected during the first 4 years of the Fermi sky survey. We model them with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process or a mixture of the OU processes. The OU process has power spectral density (PSD) proportional to 1/f^alpha with alpha changing at a characteristic time scale, tau_0, from 0 (tau>>tau_0) to 2 (tau<blazars in our sample. For the first time we constrain a characteristic gamma-ray time scale of variability in two BL Lac sources, 3C 66A and PKS 2155-304 (tau_0=25 day and tau_0=43 day, respectively, in the observer's frame), which are longer than the soft X-ray time scales detected in blazars and Seyfert galaxies. We find ...

  12. The extension of variability properties in gamma-ray bursts to blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Qingwen; Lei, Wei-Hua; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Liang, Enwen; Cao, Xinwu

    2015-01-01

    Both gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and blazars have relativistic jets pointing at a small angle from our line of sight. Several recent studies suggested that these two kinds of sources may share similar jet physics. In this work, we explore the variability properties for GRBs and blazars as a whole. We find that the correlation between minimum variability timescale (MTS) and Lorentz factor, $\\Gamma$, as found only in GRBs by Sonbas et al. can be extended to blazars with a joint correlation of $\\rm MTS\\propto\\Gamma^{-4.7\\pm0.3}$. The same applies to the $\\rm MTS\\propto \\it L_{\\gamma}^{\\rm -1.0\\pm0.1}$ correlation as found in GRBs, which can be well extended into blazars as well. These results provide further evidence that the jets in these two kinds of sources are similar despite of the very different mass scale of their central engines. Further investigations of the physical origin of these correlations are needed, which can shed light on the nature of the jet physics.

  13. Characterizing the Optical Variability of Bright Blazars: Variability-Based Selection of Fermi Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    due to the heterogenous na- ture of these observations and the small sample sizes. Blazar light curves from a large-scale flux-limited time-domain...G. H., Evans, J. B., Viggh, H. E. M., Shelly, F. C., & Pearce, E. C. 2000, Icarus, 148, 21 Ulrich, M.-H., Maraschi, L., & Urry, C. M. 1997, ARA &A

  14. Optical flare observed in the flaring gamma-ray blazar S5 1044+71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursimo, Tapio; Blay, Pere; Telting, John; Ojha, Roopesh

    2017-01-01

    We report optical photometry of the blazar S5 1044+71, obtained with the 2.56m Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma, to look for any enhanced optical activity associated with a recent flare in the daily averaged gamma-ray flux (ATel#9928).

  15. Constraints on black hole massess with timescales of variations in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, H T

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the issue of black hole masses and minimum timescales of jet emission for blazars. We proposed a sophisticated model that sets an upper limit to the central black hole masses $M_{\\bullet}$ with the minimum timescales $\\Delta t^{\\rm{ob}}_{\\rm{min}}$ of variations observed in blazars. The value of $\\Delta t^{\\rm{ob}}_{\\rm{min}}$ presents an upper limit to the size of blob in jet. The blob is assumed to be generated in the jet-production region in the vicinity of black hole, and then the expanding blob travels outward along the jet. We applied the model to 32 blazars, 29 of which were detected in gamma rays by satellites, and these $\\Delta t^{\\rm{ob}}_{\\rm{min}}$ are on the order of hours with large variability amplitudes. In general, these $M_{\\bullet}$ estimated with this method are not inconsistent with those masses reported in the literatures. This model is natural to connect $M_{\\bullet}$ with $\\Delta t^{\\rm{ob}}_{\\rm{min}}$ for blazars, and seems to be applicable to constrain...

  16. New constraints on the Mid-IR EBL from the HESS discovery of VHE gamma rays from 1ES 0229+200

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonian, F; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Behera, B; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Brion, E; Brown, A M; Buhler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Carrigan, S; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Dalton, M; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Atai, A; Domainko, W; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Förster, A; Fontaine, G; Funk, Seb; Fussling, M; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Jung, I; Katarzynski, K; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khelifi, B; Keogh, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Latham, I J; Lemiere, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J P; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; Maurin, D; Maurin, G; McComb, T J L; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nedbal, D; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J P; de Ona Wilhelmi, E; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Ranchon, S; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Renaud, M; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schock, F; Schroder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Superina, G; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the very high energy (VHE: >100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from the high-frequency peaked BL Lac 1ES 0229+200. METHODS: Observations of 1ES 0229+200 at energies above 580 GeV were performed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) in 2005 and 2006. RESULTS: 1ES 0229+200 is discovered by HESS to be an emitter of VHE photons. A signal is detected at the 6.6 sigma level in the HESS observations (41.8 h live time). The integral flux above 580 GeV is (9.4 +- 1.5 {stat} +- 1.9 {syst}) x 10^{-13} cm^{-2} s^{-1}, corresponding to ~1.8% of the flux observed from the Crab Nebula. The data show no evidence for significant variability on any time scale. The observed spectrum is characterized by a hard power law (Gamma = 2.50 +- 0.19 {stat} +- 0.10 {syst}) from 500 GeV to ~15 TeV. CONCLUSIONS: The high-energy range and hardness of the observed spectrum, coupled with the object's relatively large redshift (z=0.1396), enable the strongest constraints so far on the density of the Extragalactic Backgr...

  17. Observations of variability of TeV gamma-ray blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qi

    The boom in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy since the beginning of the 21st century has enabled a new probe of the universe using very-high-energy photons. The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) is an array of four 12-m imaging Cherenkov telescopes that is sensitive to gamma rays in the energy range between ~100 GeV and ~30 TeV. Among all known TeV sources, blazars, a particular type of active galactic nuclei, have shown exceptional variabilities over a wide range of timescales and energies. The observations of such variabilities have been previously limited at lower energies, ranging from radio to X-ray. However, the superior sensitivity of VERITAS has made the detection of fast TeV gamma-ray variability of blazars possible. The studies of their gamma-ray variability can, in a relatively model-independent way, shed significant light on the emitting regions and production mechanisms in blazars. This thesis describes my work on blazar variability, based primarily on the VERITAS observations but are interpreted in a multi-wavelength context. One of the most exceptional phenomena observed in blazars with VERITAS is the fast variability of the TeV gamma rays. The short duration of these flares strongly constrains the size of the emitting region, and provides insights to the kinetics and location of the emitting region. We describe the fast TeV flare of BL Lacertae as an example, and discuss the connection between TeV flares and multi-wavelength observations that may help localize the TeV emitting region. To study the persistent variability of TeV blazars, we examine a variety of statistical properties in the time and frequency domains. We study both local properties of time series, e.g. time lags between different energy bands and spectral hysteresis during flares, and global properties, e.g. variability amplitude and power spectrum. These properties are connected to the physical processes in blazars, although they are also limited by

  18. Polarization Signatures distinguish the kinetic- and the magnetic-driven blazar jet models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Li, Hui; Taylor, Gregory B.

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are a type of active galaxies whose jets direct close to our line of sight. They exhibit strong variability across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from radio up to TeV gamma-rays. The radio to optical polarization signatures, which originate from synchrotron emission in a partially ordered magnetic field, show strong variability as well. Two scenarios have been advanced to explain the blazar variability. The kinetic-driven model argues that the emission region can drain kinetic energy through shocks to accelerate nonthermal particles and generate flares. The magnetic-driven model suggests that the magnetic energy can dissipate through current-driven instabilities to fuel the variability. Both models have their merits in understanding blazar spectra and light curves during flares, thus they cannot be distinguished. We perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of shocks and kink instabilities in the blazar emission region, based on detailed relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations. Our approach involves self-consistent magnetic field evolution, nonthermal particle injection based on the energy release from the RMHD simulation, and detailed radiation transfer including all light travel time effects. Hence our method offers the self-consistent time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures from first principles. By comparing the shock and the kink models, we find that while both can interpret the light curves well, the shock model generally produce too strong polarization variations compared to observations. On the other hand, the kink model well fits the general polarization fluctuations and polarization angle swings. We conclude that by coupling first-principle simulations and detailed polarization-dependent radiaiton modeling, polarization signatures can probe the origin of the blazar jet variability, and offer a general diagnostic of the jet physics, including the energy composition, the particle acceleration, and

  19. Estimating the distribution of rest-frame time-scales for blazar jets: a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodakis, I.; Blinov, D.; Papadakis, I.; Pavlidou, V.

    2017-03-01

    In any flux-density limited sample of blazars, the distribution of the time-scale modulation factor Δt΄/Δt, which quantifies the change in observed time-scales compared to the rest-frame ones due to redshift and relativistic compression follows an exponential distribution with a mean depending on the flux limit of the sample. In this work, we produce the mathematical formalism that allows us to use this information in order to uncover the underlining rest-frame probability density function of measurable time-scales of blazar jets. We extensively test our proposed methodology using a simulated Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar population with a 1.5 Jy flux-density limit in the simple case (where all blazars share the same intrinsic time-scale), in order to identify limits of applicability and potential biases due to observational systematics and sample selection. We find that for monitoring with time intervals between observations longer than ∼30 per cent of the intrinsic time-scale under investigation the method loses its ability to produce robust results. For time intervals of ∼3 per cent of the intrinsic time-scale, the error of the method is as low as 1 per cent in recovering the intrinsic rest-frame time-scale. We applied our method to rotations of the optical polarization angle of blazars observed by RoboPol. We found that the intrinsic time-scales of the longest duration rotation event in each blazar follows a narrow distribution, well described by a normal distribution with mean 87 d and standard deviation 5 d. We discuss possible interpretations of this result.

  20. Theoretical Study Of The Effects Of Magnetic Field Geometry On The High-Energy Emission Of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Manasvita; Boettcher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the structure of the magnetic field inside a blazar jet, as deduced from polarization observations at radio to optical wavelengths, is closely related to the formation and propagation of relativistic jets that result from accretion onto supermassive black holes. However, a largely unexplored aspect of the theoretical understanding of radiation transfer physics in blazar jets has been the magnetic field geometry as revealed by the polarized emission and the connection between the variability in polarization and flux across the spectrum. Here, we explore the effects of various magnetic geometries that can exist inside a blazar jet: parallel, oblique, toroidal, and tangled. We investigate the effects of changing the orientation of the magnetic field, according to the above-mentioned geometries, on the resulting high-energy spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and spectral variability patterns (SVPs) of a typical blazar. We use the MUlti-ZOne Radiation Feedback (MUZORF) model of Joshi et al. (201...

  1. A search for chaos in the blazar: W2R 1926+42 and its possible consequence

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Strigachev, Anton

    2016-01-01

    We search for low-dimensional chaotic signatures in the optical lightcurve of the $Kepler$ field blazar W2R 1926+42. The frequently used correlation integral method is employed in our analysis. We find no apparent evidence for the presence of low-dimensional chaos in the lightcurve. If further confirmed, these results could be of importance for modeling the blazar emission mechanisms.

  2. 1WHSP: An IR-based sample of ~1000 VHE γ-ray blazar candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsioli, B.; Fraga, B.; Giommi, P.; Padovani, P.; Marrese, P. M.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Blazars are the dominant type of extragalactic sources at microwave and at γ-ray energies. In the most energetic part of the electromagnetic spectrum (E ≳ 100 GeV) a high fraction of high Galactic latitude sources are blazars of the high synchrotron peaked (HSP) type, that is BL Lac objects with synchrotron power peaking in the UV or in the X-ray band. Building new large samples of HSP blazars is key to understand the properties of jets under extreme conditions, and to study the demographics and the peculiar cosmological evolution of these sources. Aims: High synchrotron peaked blazars are remarkably rare, with only a few hundreds of them expected to be above the sensitivity limits of currently available surveys, some of which include hundreds of millions of sources. To find these very uncommon objects, we have devised a method that combines ALLWISE survey data with multi-frequency selection criteria. Methods: The sample was defined starting from a primary list of infrared colour-colour selected sources from the ALLWISE all sky survey database, and applying further restrictions on IR-radio and IR-X-ray flux ratios. Using a polynomial fit to the multi-frequency data (radio to X-ray), we estimated synchrotron peak frequencies and fluxes of each object. Results: We assembled a sample including 992 sources, which is currently the largest existing list of confirmed and candidates HSP blazars. All objects are expected to radiate up to the highest γ-ray photon energies. In fact, 299 of these are confirmed emitters of GeV γ-ray photons (based on Fermi-LAT catalogues), and 36 have already been detected in the TeV band. The majority of sources in the sample are within reach of the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), and many may be detectable even by the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes during flaring episodes. The sample includes 425 previously known blazars, 151 new identifications, and 416 HSP candidates (mostly faint sources) for which no

  3. An exploration of hadronic interactions in blazars using IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernin, C.; Aguilar, J. A.; Neronov, A.; Montaruli, T.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Hadronic models, involving matter (proton or nuclei) acceleration in blazar jets, imply high energy photon and neutrino emissions due to interactions of high-energy protons with matter and/or radiation in the source environment. Aims: This paper shows that the sensitivity of the IceCube neutrino telescope in its 40-string configuration (IC-40) is already at the level of constraining the parameter space of purely hadronic scenarios of activity of blazars. Methods: Assuming that the entire source power originates from hadronic interactions, and assuming that the model describe the data, we estimate the expected neutrino flux from blazars based on the observed γ-ray flux by Fermi, simultaneously with IC-40 observations. We consider two cases separately to keep the number of constrainable parameters at an acceptable level: proton-proton or proton-gamma interactions are dominant. Comparing the IC-40 sensitivity to the neutrino flux expected from some of the brightest blazars, we constrain model parameters characterizing the parent high-energy proton spectrum. Results: Using together the Fermi photon observations and the IC-40 neutrino sensitivities, we find that when pp interactions dominate, some constraints on the primary proton spectrum can be imposed. For instance, for the tightest constrained source 3C 454.3, the very high energy part of the spectra of blazars is constrained to be harder than E-2 with cut-off energies in the range of Ecut ≥ 1018 eV. When interactions of high-energy protons on soft photon fields dominate, we can find similarly tight constraints on the proton spectrum parameters if the soft photon field is in the UV range or at higher energy, e.g. if it originates from the "big blue bump" produced by the accretion disk. The tightest constraint is for 3C 273, with the cut-off energy constrained to be Ecut ≳ 1018 eV for any spectral index and different soft photon fields, including the radiation from the accretions disk, broad line region

  4. Fermi LAT detection of increasing GeV gamma-ray activity from the high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprini, Stefano; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed increasing gamma-ray emission from a source positionally consistent with the very-high energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 (also known as TXS 1959+650 and 3FGL J2000.0+6509, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS 218, 23) with radio coordinates (J2000) R.A.: 299.999384 deg, Dec.: 65.148514 deg (Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13). This source has a redshift z=0.047 (Schachter et al. 1993, ApJ, 412, 541).

  5. Fermi-LAT, FACT, MAGIC and VERITAS detection of increasing gamma-ray activity from the high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buson, S.; Magill, J. D.; Dorner, D.; Biland, A.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mukherjee, R.

    2016-04-01

    The Fermi-LAT, FACT, MAGIC and VERITAS collaborations report the detection of enhanced gamma-ray activity from a source positionally consistent with the very-high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 (a.k.a 3FGL J2000.0+6509, in the 3rd LAT source catalog, 3FGL, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS 218, 23) with radio coordinates (J2000) R.A.: 299.999384 deg, Dec.: 65.148514 deg (Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13). This source has a redshift z=0.047 (Schachter et al. 1993, ApJ, 412, 541).

  6. GAMMA-RAY AND X-RAY EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY-LOUD BLAZARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XIONG; ZHAO GANG; XIE GUANG-ZHONG; ZHENG GUANG-SHENG; ZHANG LI

    2001-01-01

    We present a strong correlation of the gamma-ray (above 100 MeV) mean spectral indices aγ and X-ray (1 keV)mean spectral indices cX for 34 gamma-ray-loud blazars (16 BL Lac objects and 18 flat spectrum radio quasars). Astrong correlation is also found between the gamma-ray flux densities F-γ and X-ray flux densities Fx in the low state for 47 blazars (17 BL Lac and 30 flat spectrum radio quasars). Possible correlation on the gamma-ray emission mechanism is discussed. We suggest that the main gamma-ray radiation mechanism is probably the synchrotron process. The gamma-ray emission may be somewhat different from that of BL Lac objects and flat spectrum radio quasars.

  7. The relationship of extended radio power and broad emission line luminosity in blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between broad line luminosity LBLR and extended radio power PE is investigated.In the log PE-log LBLR diagram,FSRQs populate the region of higher luminosity relative to BL Lacs,and FR II BL Lacs are between FSRQs and FR I BL Lacs.For these blazars,there is a significant correlation between LBLR and PE.The regression line scales as PE ∝ L0B.L87R ± 0.15.The slope of this scaling relation is consistent with that derived from the simple theoretical formulae.Thus,the unification of BL Lacs and FRSQs into a single population finds a statistical basis,and a disk-jet symbiosis in blazars is confirmed.FR II BL Lacs are probably at an intermediate stage in the sequence from FSRQs to BL Lacs with FR I BL Lacs at the end of this sequence.

  8. Looking for blazars in a sample of unidentified high-energy emitting Fermi sources

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, E J; Chavushyan, V; Cellone, S A; Andruchow, I; Bassani, L; Bazzano, A; Jiménez-Bailón, E; Landi, R; Malizia, A; Palazzi, E; Patiño-Álvarez, V; Rodríguez-Castillo, G A; Stephen, J B; Ubertini, P

    2016-01-01

    Context. Based on their overwhelming dominance among associated Fermi gamma ray catalogue sources, it is expected that a large fraction of the unidentified Fermi objects are blazars. Through crossmatching between the positions of unidentified gamma ray sources from the First Fermi Catalog of gamma ray sources emitting above 10 GeV (1FHL) and the ROSAT and Swift XRT catalogues of X ray objects and between pointed XRT observations, a sample of 36 potential associations was found in previous works with less than 15 arcsec of positional offset. One third of them have recently been classified; the remainder, though believed to belong to the blazar class, still lack spectroscopic classifications. Aims. We study the optical spectrum of the putative counterparts of these unidentified gamma ray sources in order to find their redshifts and to determine their nature and main spectral characteristics. Methods. An observational campaign was carried out on the putative counterparts of 13 1FHL sources using medium resolutio...

  9. RoboPol: optical polarization-plane rotations and flaring activity in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, D; Papadakis, I E; Hovatta, T; Pearson, T J; Liodakis, I; Panopoulou, G V; Angelakis, E; Baloković, M; Das, H; Khodade, P; Kiehlmann, S; King, O G; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Mahabal, A; Marecki, A; Modi, D; Myserlis, I; Paleologou, E; Papamastorakis, I; Pazderska, B; Pazderski, E; Rajarshi, C; Ramaprakash, A; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of rotations of the optical polarization of blazars during the second year of operation of RoboPol, a monitoring programme of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray bright blazars specially designed for effective detection of such events, and we analyse the large set of rotation events discovered in two years of observation. We investigate patterns of variability in the polarization parameters and total flux density during the rotation events and compare them to the behaviour in a non-rotating state. We have searched for possible correlations between average parameters of the polarization-plane rotations and average parameters of polarization, with the following results: (1) there is no statistical association of the rotations with contemporaneous optical flares; (2) the average fractional polarization during the rotations tends to be lower than that in a non-rotating state; (3) the average fractional polarization during rotations is correlated with the rotation rate of the polarization plane...

  10. The estimations of four basic parameters for gamma-ray loud blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hui Fan; Yu-Hai Yuan; Yi Liu; Jing-Yi Zhang; Yi-Ping Qin; Hua Liu; Yong Huang; Jiang-He Yang; Hong-Guang Wang; Jiang-Shui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The method used in our previous papers is adopted to estimate four basic pa-rameters (the central black hole mass (M), the boosting factor (or Doppler factor) (δ), the (d)) for 59 γ-ray loud blazars (20 BL Lacertae objects and 39 fiat spectrum radio quasars).The central black hole masses estimated for this sample are in a range of from 107 M⊙to 109 M⊙. In the case of black hole mass, there is no clear difference between BL Lacertae objects and flat spectrum radio quasars, which is consistent with the previous results sug-gesting that the central black hole masses do not play an important role in the evolutionary sequence of blazars.

  11. A Diagnostic Test for Determining the Location of the GeV Emission in Powerful Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Amanda; Georganopoulos, Markos; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Perlman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    An issue currently under debate in the literature is how far from the black hole is the Fermi-observed GeV emission of powerful blazars emitted. Here we present a clear diagnostic tool for testing whether the Ge V emission site is located within the sub-pc broad emission line (BLR) region or further out in the few pc scale molecular torus (MT) environment. Within the BLR the scatteri takes place at the onset of the Klein-Nishina regime, causing the electron cooling time to become almost energy independent and as a result, the variation of high-energy emission is expected to be achromatic. Contrarily, if the emission site is located outside the BLR, the expected GeY variability is energy-dependent and with amplitude increasing with energy. We demonstrate this using time-dependent numerical simulations of blazar variability.

  12. Undergraduate Participation in the Blazar Monitoring Program at the WKU Bell Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, M. T.; Barnaby, D.; Atkerson, A.; Glass, D. A.; Monroe, T. R.; Poteet, C.; Ryle, W. T.; Walters, R.; Wills, W. L.

    2003-12-01

    Blazars are the most extreme example of the AGN phenomena. They have as one of thier defining characteristics large amplitude variability at all wavelengths and on multiple timescales. We have established a Blazar monitoring program using the 0.6m telescope of the Bell Observatory at Western Kentucky University. Undergraduate students play a primary role in this program. They observe with the telescope, reduce and analyze the resulting data and present their results at local, state, and national conferences. We discuss the monitoring program, the results from its first 3 years, and student participation. This program has been funded by the Kentucky Space Grant Consortium, The Kentucky NSF EPSCoR Program, The NASA/Kentucky EPSCoR Program, The Applied Research and Technology Program at Western Kentucky University and the Western Kentucky University Faculty Summer Fellowship program * Now at Indiana University ** Now at Georgia State University

  13. The central black hole masses for the γ-ray loud blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST) provides an increase in sensitivity and has detected rapid variability of gamma-ray sources.The variability time scales detected from the gamma-ray loud blazars by LAT and EGRET,and gamma-ray luminosity are used to estimate the central black hole masses.In this work,we find that the lower limits of central black hole masses are in a range of (0.3-24)×107M⊙,which are compared with those obtained by other authors.Our results are consistent with other authors’ results.Also,the Lorentz factor,Γ,and the propagation angle,θ,are obtained for 18 blazars for which superluminal motions are known.

  14. Electromagnetic cascade masquerade: a way to mimic $\\gamma$--ALP mixing effects in blazar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhatdoev, T A; Kircheva, A P; Lyukshin, A A

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies on extragalactic {\\gamma}-ray propagation performed up to now only accounted for primary gamma-ray absorption and adiabatic losses (absorption-only model). However, there is growing evidence that this model is oversimplified and must be modified in some way. (...) There are many hints that a secondary component from electromagnetic cascades initiated by primary $\\gamma$-rays or nuclei may be observed in the spectra of some blazars. We study the impact of electromagnetic cascades from primary $\\gamma$-rays or protons on the physical interpretation of blazar spectra obtained with imaging Cherenkov telescopes. We use the publicly-available code ELMAG to compute observable spectra of electromagnetic cascades from primary $\\gamma$-rays. For the case of primary proton, we develop a simple, fast, and reasonably accurate hybrid method to calculate the observable spectrum. (...) Electromagnetic cascades show at least two very distinct regimes labeled by the energy of the primary $\\gamma$-ray ($E_{0...

  15. Magnetization of AGN jets as imposed by leptonic models of luminous blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Mateusz; Sikora, Marek; Moderski, Rafal

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurements of frequency-dependent shift of radio-core locations indicate that the ratio of the magnetic to kinetic energy flux (the σ parameter) is of the order of unity. These results are consistent with predictions of magnetically-arrested-disk (MAD) models of a jet formation, but contradict the predictions of leptonic models of γ-ray production in luminous blazars. We demonstrate this discrepancy by computing the γ-ray-to-synchrotron luminosity ratio (the q parameter) as a function of a distance from the black hole for different values of σ and using both spherical and planar models for broad-line region and dusty torus. We find that it is impossible to reproduce observed q >> 1 for jets with σ >= 1. This may indicate that blazar radiation is produced in reconnection layers or in spines of magnetically stratified jets.

  16. The Evolution of Swift/BAT blazars and the origin of the MeV background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Costamante, L.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Sambruna, R.M.; Gehrels, N.; /NASA, Goddard; Chiang, J.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Rau, A.; /Caltech; Escala, A.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Cerro Calan Observ.; Greiner, J.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Tueller, J.; /NASA, Goddard; Wall, J.V.; /British Columbia U.; Mushotzky, R.F.; /NASA, Goddard

    2009-10-17

    We use 3 years of data from the Swift/BAT survey to select a complete sample of X-ray blazars above 15 keV. This sample comprises 26 Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects detected over a redshift range of 0.03 < z < 4.0. We use this sample to determine, for the first time in the 15-55 keV band, the evolution of blazars. We find that, contrary to the Seyfert-like AGNs detected by BAT, the population of blazars shows strong positive evolution. This evolution is comparable to the evolution of luminous optical QSOs and luminous X-ray selected AGNs. We also find evidence for an epoch-dependence of the evolution as determined previously for radio-quiet AGNs. We interpret both these findings as a strong link between accretion and jet activity. In our sample, the FSRQs evolve strongly, while our best-fit shows that BL Lacs might not evolve at all. The blazar population accounts for 10-20% (depending on the evolution of the BL Lacs) of the Cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in the 15-55 keV band. We find that FSRQs can explain the entire CXB emission for energies above 500 keV solving the mystery of the generation of the MeV background. The evolution of luminous FSRQs shows a peak in redshift (z{sub c} = 4.3 {+-} 0.5) which is larger than the one observed in QSOs and X-ray selected AGNs. We argue that FSRQs can be used as tracers of massive elliptical galaxies in the early Universe.

  17. Searching for distant blazars with GLAST and the Large Millimeter Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carramiñana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Gran Telescopio Milimétrico estudiará el universo a altos corrimientos al rojo, incluyendo la formación de las primeras galaxias masivas y sus núcleos activos. El GTM puede ser usado en conjunto con GLAST en la búsqueda de los blazares más distantes para explorar la época de formación de los primeros hoyos negros.

  18. Broad Band Spectral Index TeV Blazars Detected by Fermi LAT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yong Juan Cha; Xiong Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We collected the radio, K-band, optical, X-ray, and -ray data for 35 TeV blazars detected by Fermi LAT and studied the possible correlation between different broad band spectral indices (r.o, r.x, ir.o, ir.x, o., x.) in all states (average/high/low). Based on our results, we suggested that the seed photons of the -ray drive from the synchrotron radiation themselves.

  19. Multi-frequency, multi-messenger astrophysics with Swift. The case of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    During its first 10 years of orbital operations Swift dedicated approximately 11% of its observing time to blazars, carrying out more than 12,000 observations of ~1,600 different objects, for a total exposure time of over 25 million seconds. This is probably the largest contribution to multi-frequency (optical, UV, soft and hard X-rays) and multi-temporal data archives about this type of sources. In this paper I briefly discuss the impact that Swift is having on blazar multi-frequency and time-domain astrophysics, as well as how it is contributing to the opening of the era of multi-messenger astronomy. Finally, I present some preliminary results from a systematic analysis of a very large number of Swift XRT observations of blazars. All the "science ready" data products that are being generated by this project will be publicly released. Specifically, deconvolved X-ray spectra and best fit spectral parameters will be available through the ASDC "SED builder" tool (https://tools.asdc.asi.it/SED) and by means of i...

  20. ON THE REDSHIFT OF THE VERY HIGH ENERGY BLAZAR 3C 66A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furniss, A.; Williams, D. A. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Fumagalli, M. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Danforth, C. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Prochaska, J. X. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-03-20

    As a bright gamma-ray source, 3C 66A is of great interest to the high-energy astrophysics community, having a potential for placing cosmological constraints on models for the extragalactic background light (EBL) and the processes which contribute to this photon field. No firm spectroscopic redshift measurement has been possible for this blazar due to a lack of intrinsic emission and absorption features in optical spectra. We present new far-ultraviolet spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST/COS) of the BL Lac object 3C 66A covering the wavelength range 1132-1800 A. The data show a smooth continuum with intergalactic medium absorption features which can be used to place a firm lower limit on the blazar redshift of z {>=} 0.3347. An upper limit is set by statistically treating the non-detection of additional absorbers beyond z = 0.3347, indicating a redshift of less than 0.41 at 99% confidence and ruling out z {>=} 0.444 at 99.9% confidence. We conclude by showing how the redshift limits derived from the COS spectra remove the potential for this gamma-ray emitting blazar to place an upper limit on the flux of the EBL using high energy data from a flare in 2009 October.

  1. 5 year Global 3-mm VLBI survey of Gamma-ray active blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgson, J A; Marscher, A P; Jorstad, S G; Marti-Vidal, I; Lindqvist, M; Bremer, M; Sanchez, S; de Vicente, P; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    The Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA) is a network of 14 3\\,mm and 7\\,mm capable telescopes spanning Europe and the United States, with planned extensions to Asia. The array is capable of sensitive maps with angular resolution often exceeding 50\\,$\\mu$as. Using the GMVA, a large sample of prominent $\\gamma$-ray blazars have been observed approximately 6 monthly from later 2008 until now. Combining 3\\,mm maps from the GMVA with near-in-time 7\\,mm maps from the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR program and 2\\,cm maps from the MOJAVE program, we determine the sub-pc morphology and high frequency spectral structure of $\\gamma$-ray blazars. The magnetic field strength can be estimated at different locations along the jet under the assumption of equipartition between magnetic field and relativistic particle energies. Making assumptions on the jet magnetic field configuration (e.g. poloidal or toroidal), we can estimate the separation of the mm-wave "core" and the jet base, and estimate the strength of the magnetic field there. The results ...

  2. The jets-accretion relation, mass-luminosity relation in Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Haojing; Xiong, Dingrong; Li, Bijun; Cha, Yongjuan; Chen, Yongyun; Huang, Xia; Wang, Yuwei

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 111 Fermi blazars each with a well-established radio core luminosity, broad-line luminosity, bolometric luminosity and black hole mass has been compiled from the literatures.We present a significant correlation between radio core and broad-line emission luminosities that supports a close link between accretion processes and relativistic jets. Analysis reveals a relationship of $\\rm{LogL_{BLR}\\sim(0.81\\pm0.06)LogL_{R}^{C}}$ which is consistant with theoretical predicted coefficient and supports that blazar jets are powered by energy extraction from a rapidly spinning Kerr black hole through the magnetic field provided by the accretion disk. Through studying the correlation between the intrinsic bolometric luminosity and the black hole mass, we find a relationship of $\\rm{{Log}\\frac{L_{in}}{L_{\\odot}}=(0.95\\pm0.26){Log}\\frac{M}{M_{\\odot}}+(3.53\\pm2.24)}$ which supports mass-luminosity relation for Fermi blazars derived in this work is a powerlaw relation similar to that for main-sequence stars. Fina...

  3. "Orphan" $\\gamma$-ray Flares and Stationary Sheaths of Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Nicholas R; Marscher, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    Blazars exhibit flares across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Many $\\gamma$-ray flares are highly correlated with flares detected at longer wavelengths; however, a small subset appears to occur in isolation, with little or no correlated variability at longer wavelengths. These "orphan" $\\gamma$-ray flares challenge current models of blazar variability, most of which are unable to reproduce this type of behavior. Macdonald et al. have developed the Ring of Fire model to explain the origin of orphan $\\gamma$-ray flares from within blazar jets. In this model, electrons contained within a blob of plasma moving relativistically along the spine of the jet inverse-Compton scatter synchrotron photons emanating off of a ring of shocked sheath plasma that enshrouds the jet spine. As the blob propagates through the ring, the scattering of the ring photons by the blob electrons creates an orphan $\\gamma$-ray flare. This model was successfully applied to modeling a prominent orphan $\\gamma$-ray flare observed in the ...

  4. The RoboPol optical polarization survey of gamma-ray - loud blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlidou, V; Myserlis, I; Blinov, D; King, O G; Papadakis, I; Tassis, K; Hovatta, T; Pazderska, B; Paleologou, E; Baloković, M; Feiler, R; Fuhrmann, L; Khodade, P; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Modi, D; Panopoulou, G; Papamastorakis, I; Pazderski, E; Pearson, T J; Rajarshi, C; Ramaprakash, A; Reig, P; Readhead, A C S; Steiakaki, A; Zensus, J A

    2013-01-01

    We present first results from RoboPol, a novel-design optical polarimeter operating at the Skinakas Observatory in Crete. The data, taken during the May - June 2013 commissioning of the instrument, constitute a single-epoch linear polarization survey of a sample of gamma-ray - loud blazars, defined according to unbiased and objective selection criteria, easily reproducible in simulations, as well as a comparison sample of, otherwise similar, gamma-ray - quiet blazars. As such, the results of this survey are appropriate for both phenomenological population studies and for tests of theoretical population models. We have measured polarization fractions as low as $0.015$ down to $R$ magnitude of 17 and as low as $0.035$ down to 18 magnitude. The hypothesis that the polarization fractions of gamma-ray - loud and gamma-ray - quiet blazars are drawn from the same distribution is rejected at the $10^{-3}$ level. We therefore conclude that gamma-ray - loud and gamma-ray - quiet sources have different optical polarizat...

  5. Polarization Signatures of Kink Instabilities in the Blazar Emission Region from Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Li, Hui; Guo, Fan; Taylor, Greg

    2017-02-01

    Kink instabilities are likely to occur in the current-carrying magnetized plasma jets. Recent observations of the blazar radiation and polarization signatures suggest that the blazar emission region may be considerably magnetized. While the kink instability has been studied with first-principle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, the corresponding time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures have not been investigated. In this paper, we perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of the kink instability in the blazar emission region based on relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations. We find that the kink instability may give rise to strong flares with polarization angle (PA) swings or weak flares with polarization fluctuations, depending on the initial magnetic topology and magnetization. These findings are consistent with observations. Compared with the shock model, the kink model generates polarization signatures that are in better agreement with the general polarization observations. Therefore, we suggest that kink instabilities may widely exist in the jet environment and provide an efficient way to convert the magnetic energy and produce multiwavelength flares and polarization variations.

  6. Multi-band optical variability of three TeV Blazars on Diverse Timescales

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Alok C; Bhagwan, J; Strigachev, A; Bachev, R; Semkov, E; Gaur, H; Damljanovic, G; Vince, O; Wiita, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    We present our optical photometric observations of three TeV blazars, PKS 1510-089, PG 1553+113 and Mrk 501 taken using two telescopes in India, one in Bulgaria, one in Greece and one in Serbia during 2012 - 2014. These observations covered a total of 95 nights with a total of 202 B filter frames, 247 images in V band, 817 in R band while 229 images were taken in the I filter. This work is focused on multi-band flux and colour variability studies of these blazars on diverse timescales which are useful in understanding the emission mechanisms. We studied the variability characteristics of above three blazars and found all to be active over our entire observational campaigns. We also searched for any correlation between the brightness of the sources and their colour indices. During the times of variability, no significant evidence for the sources to display spectral changes correlated with magnitude was found on timescales of a few months. We briefly discuss the possible physical mechanisms most likely responsi...

  7. The Energy Spectrum of the Blazar Markarian 421 Above 130 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, J E; Ong, R A; Ball, J; Bramel, D A; Covault, C E; Driscoll, D; Fortin, P; Gingrich, D M; Hanna, D S; Lindner, T; Müller, C; Jarvis, A; Mukherjee, R; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J

    2006-01-01

    Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) was the first blazar detected at gamma-ray energies above 300 GeV, and it remains one of only twelve TeV blazars detected to date. TeV gamma-ray measurements of its flaring activity and spectral variability have placed constraints on models of the high-energy emission from blazars. However, observations between 50 and 300 GeV are rare, and the high-energy peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED), predicted to be in this range, has never been directly detected. We present a detection of Mrk 421 above 100 GeV as made by the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) during a multiwavelength campaign in early 2004. STACEE is a ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope using the wavefront sampling technique to detect gamma rays at lower energies than achieved by most imaging Cherenkov telescopes. We also outline a method for reconstructing gamma-ray energies using a solar heliostat telescope. This technique was applied to the 2004 data, and we present the differe...

  8. Upper limits from five years of blazar observations with the VERITAS Cherenkov telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, S; Benbow, W; Bird, R; Biteau, J; Buchovecky, M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Ciupik, L; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Eisch, J D; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Hütten, M; Hakansson, N; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kelley-Hoskins, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Krause, M; Krennrich, F; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nguyen, T; Nieto, D; De Bhróithe, A O'Faoláin; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Perkins, J S; Pichel, A; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Pueschel, E; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Rovero, A C; Santander, M; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Smith, A W; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weiner, O M; Weinstein, A; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B; Fumagalli, M; Prochaska, J X

    2016-01-01

    Between the beginning of its full-scale scientific operations in 2007 and 2012, the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array observed more than 130 blazars; of these, 26 were detected as very-high-energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) {\\gamma}-ray sources. In this work, we present the analysis results of a sample of 114 undetected objects. The observations constitute a total live-time of ~570 hours. The sample includes several unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources (located at high Galactic latitude) as well as all the sources from the second Fermi-LAT catalog which are contained within the field of view of the VERITAS observations. We have also performed optical spectroscopy measurements in order to estimate the redshift of some of these blazars that do not have a spectroscopic distance estimate. We present new optical spectra from the Kast instrument on the Shane telescope at the Lick observatory for 18 blazars included in this work, which allowed for the successful measurement or constraint on the redshift of fo...

  9. Multiwavelength behaviour of the blazar OJ 248 from radio to {\\gamma}-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Carnerero, M I; Villata, M; Acosta-Pulido, J A; D'Ammando, F; Smith, P S; Larionov, V M

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the multiwavelength behaviour of the blazar OJ 248 at z = 0.939 in the period 2006-2013. We use low-energy data (optical, near-infrared, and radio) obtained by 21 observatories participating in the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT), as well as data from the Swift (optical-UV and X-rays) and Fermi (gamma-rays) satellites, to study flux and spectral variability and correlations among emissions in different bands. We take into account the effect of absorption by the Damped Lyman Alpha intervening system at z = 0.525. Two major outbursts were observed in 2006-2007 and in 2012-2013 at optical and near-IR wavelengths, while in the high-frequency radio light curves prominent radio outbursts are visible peaking at the end of 2010 and beginning of 2013, revealing a complex radio-optical correlation. Cross-correlation analysis suggests a delay of the optical variations after the gamma-ray ones of about a month, which is a peculiar behaviour in blazar...

  10. ANTARES Constrains a Blazar Origin of Two IceCube PeV Neutrino Events

    CERN Document Server

    Adrián-Martínez, S; André, M; Anton, G; Ardid, M; Aubert, J -J; Baret, B; Barrios, J; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bogazzi, C; Bormuth, R; Bou-Cabo, M; Bouwhuis, M C; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Capone, A; Caramete, L; Carr, J; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coniglione, R; Core, L; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Creusot, A; De Rosa, G; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; De Bonis, G; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Dorosti, Q; Drouhin, D; Dumas, A; Eberl, T; Enzenhöfer, A; Escoffier, S; Fehn, K; Felis, I; Fermani, P; Folger, F; Fusco, L A; Galatà, S; Gay, P; Geißelsöder, S; Geyer, K; Giordano, V; Gleixner, A; Gómez-González, J P; Graf, K; Guillard, G; van Haren, H; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herold, B; Herrero, A; Hößl, J; Hofestädt, J; Hugon, C; James, C W; de Jong, M; Kalekin, O; Katz, U; Kießling, D; Kooijman, P; Kouchner, A; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lambard, E; Lambard, G; Lefèvre, D; Leonora, E; Loehner, H; Loucatos, S; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martínez-Mora, J A; Martini, S; Mathieu, A; Michael, T; Migliozzi, P; Neff, M; Nezri, E; Palioselitis, D; Păvălaş, G E; Pellegrino, C; Perrina, C; Piattelli, P; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Racca, C; Riccobene, G; Richter, R; Roensch, K; Rostovtsev, A; Saldaña, M; Samtleben, D F E; Sánchez-Losa, A; Sanguineti, M; Sapienza, P; Schmid, J; Schnabel, J; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Seitz, T; Sieger, C; Spies, A; Spurio, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Tayalati, Y; Trovato, A; Vallage, B; Vallée, C; Van Elewyck, V; Visser, E; Vivolo, D; Wagner, S; de Wolf, E; Yatkin, K; Yepes, H; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J; :,; Krauß, F; Kadler, M; Mannheim, K; Schulz, R; Trüstedt, J; Wilms, J; Ojha, R; Ros, E; Baumgartner, W; Beuchert, T; Blanchard, J; Bürkel, C; Carpenter, B; Edwards, P G; Glawion, D Eisenacher; Elsässer, D; Fritsch, U; Gehrels, N; Gräfe, C; Großberger, C; Hase, H; Horiuchi, S; Kappes, A; Kreikenbohm, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Langejahn, M; Leiter, K; Litzinger, E; Lovell, J E J; Müller, C; Phillips, C; Plötz, C; Quick, J; Steinbring, T; Stevens, J; Thompson, D J; Tzioumis, A K

    2015-01-01

    The source(s) of the neutrino excess reported by the IceCube Collaboration is unknown. The TANAMI Collaboration recently reported on the multiwavelength emission of six bright, variable blazars which are positionally coincident with two of the most energetic IceCube events. Such objects are prime candidates to be the source of the highest-energy cosmic rays, and thus of associated neutrino emission. We present an analysis of neutrino emission from the six blazars using observations with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The standard methods of the ANTARES candidate list search are applied to six years of data to search for an excess of muons - and hence their neutrino progenitors - from the directions of the six blazars described by the TANAMI Collaboration, and which are possibly associated with two IceCube events. Monte Carlo simulations of the detector response to both signal and background particle fluxes are used to estimate the sensitivity of this analysis for different possible source neutrino spectra. A...

  11. Coincidence of a high-fluence blazar outburst with a PeV-energy neutrino event

    CERN Document Server

    Kadler, M; Mannheim, K; Ojha, R; Müller, C; Schulz, R; Anton, G; Baumgartner, W; Beuchert, T; Buson, S; Carpenter, B; Eberl, T; Edwards, P G; Glawion, D Eisenacher; Elsässer, D; Gehrels, N; Gräfe, C; Hase, H; Horiuchi, S; James, C W; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kreikenbohm, A; Kreter, M; Kreykenbohm, I; Langejahn, M; Leiter, K; Litzinger, E; Longo, F; Lovell, J E J; McEnery, J; Phillips, C; Plötz, C; Quick, J; Ros, E; Stecker, F W; Steinbring, T; Stevens, J; Thompson, D J; Trüstedt, J; Tzioumis, A K; Wilms, J; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of extraterrestrial very-high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube collaboration has launched a quest for the identification of their astrophysical sources. Gamma-ray blazars have been predicted to yield a cumulative neutrino signal exceeding the atmospheric background above energies of 100 TeV, assuming that both the neutrinos and the gamma-ray photons are produced by accelerated protons in relativistic jets. Since the background spectrum falls steeply with increasing energy, the individual events with the clearest signature of being of an extraterrestrial origin are those at PeV energies. Inside the large positional-uncertainty fields of the first two PeV neutrinos detected by IceCube, the integrated emission of the blazar population has a sufficiently high electromagnetic flux to explain the detected IceCube events, but fluences of individual objects are too low to make an unambiguous source association. Here, we report that a major outburst of the blazar PKS B1424-418 occurred in temporal and pos...

  12. Parsec-Scale Behavior of Blazars during High Gamma-Ray States

    CERN Document Server

    Jorstad, S; Agudo, I; Harrison, B

    2011-01-01

    We compare the \\gamma-ray light curves of the blazars, constructed with data provided by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, with flux and polarization variations in the VLBI core and bright superluminal knots obtained via monthly monitoring with the Very Long Baseline Array at 43 GHz. For all blazars in the sample that exhibit a high \\gamma-ray state on time scales from several weeks to several months, an increase of the total flux in the mm-wave core is contemporaneous with the \\gamma-ray activity (more than a third of the sample). Here we present the results for quasars with the most extreme \\gamma-ray behavior (3C 454.3, 3C 273, 3C 279, 1222+216, and 1633+382). The sources show that in addition to the total flux intensity behavior, a maximum in the degree of polarization in the core or bright superluminal knot nearest to the core coincides with the time of a \\gamma-ray peak to within the accuracy of the sampling of the radio data. These argue in favor of location of many of \\gamma-ray outbursts in blazars out...

  13. Blazar Monitoring at the Bell Observatory: Results from the First Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W. L.; Carini, M. T.; Barnaby, D.; Atkerson, A.; Glass, D. A.; Monroe, T. R.; Ryle, W. T.

    2003-05-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are some of the most energetic objects in the Universe. They are composed of an ordinary elliptical galaxy with a super massive black hole at the center. An accretion disk surrounds the black hole while jets of material, moving at nearly relativistic speeds are emitted perpendicular to the disk. In the Blazar class of AGN jets are pointed almost directly along the line of sight, resulting in large amplitude, erratic brightness variations. Blazars are the most extreme examples of AGN with highly variable continuum emission as one of their defining characteristics. Our primary goal is the monitoring of the brightness variations of Blazars and using these variations to investigate the physics at work in these objects. The Bell Observatory has been used for the past two years to collect data to monitor these continuum variations. Undergraduate students run each observing session from either WKU's campus via the Internet or on-site. The telescope is equipped with a CCD camera, which is used to obtain images that are then transferred to WKU's campus where they are archived and analyzed by undergraduate students and faculty mentors. The results of the first two years of monitoring will be presented. Funding for this research was provided by NASA Kentucky Space Grant Consortium, NASA Kentucky EPSCoR Program, NSF EPSCoR Program, and the Applied Research and Technology Program at Western Kentucky University.

  14. Multi-TeV flaring from blazars: Markarian 421 as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Sarira; Miranda, Luis Salvador [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rajpoot, Subhash [California State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Long Beach, CA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The TeV blazar Markarian 421 underwent multi-TeV flaring during April 2004 and simultaneously observations in the X-ray and TeV energies were made. It was observed that the TeV outbursts had no counterparts in the lower energy range. One implication of this is that it might be an orphan flare. We show that Fermi-accelerated protons of energy ≤ 168 TeV can interact with the low energy tail of the background synchrotron self-Compton photons in the inner region of the blazar to produce the multi-TeV flare and our results fit very well with the observed spectrum. Based on our study, we predict that the blazars with a deep valley in between the end of the synchrotron spectrum and the beginning of the SSC spectrum are possible candidates for orphan flaring. Future possible candidates for this scenario are the HBLs Mrk 501 and PG 1553 + 113 objects. (orig.)

  15. Multiband optical variability of the blazar OJ 287 during its outbursts in 2015 -- 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Alok C; Mishra, A; Gaur, H; Wiita, P J; Gu, M F; Kurtanidze, O M; Damljanovic, G; Uemura, M; Semkov, E; Strigachev, A; Bachev, R; Vince, O; Zhang, Z; Villarroel, B; Kushwaha, P; Pandey, A; Abe, T; Chanishvili, R; Chigladze, R A; Fan, J H; Hirochi, J; Itoh, R; Kanda, Y; Kawabata, M; Kimeridze, G N; Kurtanidze, S O; Latev, G; Dimitrova, R V Muñoz; Nakaoka, T; Nikolashvili, M G; Shiki, K; Sigua, L A; Spassov, B

    2016-01-01

    We present recent optical photometric observations of the blazar OJ 287 taken during September 2015 -- May 2016. Our intense observations of the blazar started in November 2015 and continued until May 2016 and included detection of the large optical outburst in December 2016 that was predicted using the binary black hole model for OJ 287. For our observing campaign, we used a total of 9 ground based optical telescopes of which one is in Japan, one is in India, three are in Bulgaria, one is in Serbia, one is in Georgia, and two are in the USA. These observations were carried out in 102 nights with a total of ~ 1000 image frames in BVRI bands, though the majority were in the R band. We detected a second comparably strong flare in March 2016. In addition, we investigated multi-band flux variations, colour variations, and spectral changes in the blazar on diverse timescales as they are useful in understanding the emission mechanisms. We briefly discuss the possible physical mechanisms most likely responsible for ...

  16. Unusual Flaring Activity in the Blazar PKS 1424-418 during 2008-2011

    CERN Document Server

    Buson, S; Larsson, S; Cutini, S; Finke, J; Ciprini, S; Ojha, R; D'Ammando, F; Donato, D; Thompson, D J; Desiante, R; Bastieri, D; Wagner, S; Hauser, M; Fuhrmann, L; Dutka, M; Müller, C; Kadler, M; Angelakis, E; Zensus, J A; Stevens, J; Blanchard, J M; Edwards, P G; Lovell, J E J; Gurwell, M A; Wehrle, A E; Zook, A

    2014-01-01

    Context. Blazars are a subset of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with jets that are oriented along our line of sight. Variability and spectral energy distribution (SED) studies are crucial tools for understanding the physical processes responsible for observed AGN emission. Aims. We report peculiar behaviour in the bright gamma-ray blazar PKS 1424-418 and use its strong variability to reveal information about the particle acceleration and interactions in the jet. Methods. Correlation analysis of the extensive optical coverage by the ATOM telescope and nearly continuous gamma-ray coverage by the Fermi Large Area Telescope is combined with broadband, time-dependent modeling of the SED incorporating supplemental information from radio and X-ray observations of this blazar. Results. We analyse in detail four bright phases at optical-GeV energies. These flares of PKS 1424-418 show high correlation between these energy ranges, with the exception of one large optical flare that coincides with relatively low gamma-ray a...

  17. Prominent Polarized Flares of the Blazars AO 0235+164 and PKS 1510-089

    CERN Document Server

    Sasada, Mahito; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kawabata, Koji S; Ikejiri, Yuki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Sakimoto, Kiyoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Sato, Shuji; Kino, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    We report on multi-band photometric and polarimetric observations of the blazars AO 0235+164 and PKS 1510-089. These two blazars were active in 2008 and 2009, respectively. In these active states, prominent short flares were observed in both objects, having amplitudes of >1 mag within 10 d. The $V-J$ color became bluer when the objects were brighter in these flares. On the other hand, the color of PKS 1510-089 exhibited a trend that it became redder when it was brighter, except for its prominent flare. This redder-when-brighter trend can be explained by the strong contribution of thermal emission from an accretion disk. The polarization degree increased at the flares, and reached >25 % at the maxima. We compare these flares in AO 0235+164 and PKS 1510-089 with other short flares which were detected by our monitoring of 41 blazars. Those two flares had one of the largest variation amplitudes in both flux and polarization degree. Furthermore, we found a significant positive correlation between the amplitudes of...

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sample of Fermi Blazars (Chen+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-Y.; Zhang, X.; Xiong, D.-R.; Wang, S.-J.; Yu, X.-L.

    2016-04-01

    We tried to select a large number of blazars with reliable redshift, radio core and extended radio luminosity at 1.4GHz. Firstly, we considered the following samples of blazars to get the radio core luminosity and extended luminosity at 1.4GHz: Kharb et al. (2010, J/ApJ/710/764), Antonucci & Ulvestad (1985ApJ...294..158A), Cassaro et al. (1999A&AS..139..601C), Murphy et al. (1993MNRAS.264..298M), Landt & Bignall (2008MNRAS.391..967L), Caccianiga & Marcha (2004, Cat. J/MNRAS/348/973), Giroletti et al. (2004). We cross-correlated these samples with the Fermi LAT Third Source Catalog (3FGL), and we acquired the 3FGL spectral index and energy flux at 0.1-100GeV from clean sources in 3FGL (Fermi-LAT Collaboration 2015, J/ApJS/218/23) Using these catalogs, we compiled 201 Fermi blazars. (1 data file).

  19. INTEGRAL observations of the blazar 3C454.3 in outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Pian, E; Beckmann, V; Pian, Elena; Foschini, Luigi; Beckmann, Volker

    2006-01-01

    In Spring 2005, the blazar 3C454.3 underwent a dramatic outburst at all wavelengths from mm to X-rays. This prompted INTEGRAL observations, accomplished in 15-18 May 2005. The source was detected by the INTEGRAL instruments from 3 to 200 keV in a bright state (~5 x 10E-10 cgs), at least a factor of 2-3 higher than previously observed. This is one of the brightest blazar detections achieved by INTEGRAL. During the 2.5 days of INTEGRAL monitoring, we detected a ~20% decrease in the hard X-rays (20-40 keV), indicating that we have sampled the decaying part of the flare. The decrease is less apparent in the soft X-rays (5-15 keV). The simultaneous optical variations are weakly correlated with those at soft X-rays, and not clearly correlated with those at hard X-rays. The spectral energy distribution exhibits two components, as typically seen in blazars, which can be modeled with synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering occurring in a region external to the broad line region.

  20. The High Redshift Blazar S5 0836+71: A Broadband Study

    CERN Document Server

    Paliya, Vaidehi S

    2015-01-01

    A broadband study of the high redshift blazar S5 0836+71 (z = 2.172) is presented. Multi-frequency light curves show multiple episodes of X-ray and $\\gamma$-ray flares, while optical-UV fluxes show little variations. During the GeV outburst, the highest $\\gamma$-ray flux measured is (5.22 $\\pm$ 1.10) $\\times$ 10$^{-6}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ in the range of 0.1-300 GeV, which corresponds to an isotropic $\\gamma$-ray luminosity of (1.62 $\\pm$ 0.44) $\\times$ 10$^{50}$ erg s$^{-1}$, thereby making this as one of the most luminous $\\gamma$-ray flare ever observed from any blazar. A fast $\\gamma$-ray flux rising time of $\\sim$3 hours is also noticed which is probably the first measurement of hour scale variability detected from a high redshift (z > 2) blazar. The various activity states of S5 0836+71 are reproduced under the assumption of single zone leptonic emission model. In all the states, the emission region is located inside the broad line region, and the optical-UV radiation is dominated by the accretion dis...

  1. Blazar Flaring Patterns (B-FlaP): Classifying Blazar Candidates of Uncertain type in the third Fermi-LAT catalog by Artificial Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaro, G; La Mura, G; Giroletti, M; Thompson, D J; Bastieri, D

    2016-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) is currently the most important facility for investigating the GeV $\\gamma$-ray sky. With Fermi LAT more than three thousand $\\gamma$-ray sources have been discovered so far. 1144 ($\\sim40\\%$) of the sources are active galaxies of the blazar class, and 573 ($\\sim20\\%$) are listed as Blazar Candidate of Uncertain type (BCU), or sources without a conclusive classification. We use the Empirical Cumulative Distribution Functions (ECDF) and the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for a fast method of screening and classification for BCUs based on data collected at $\\gamma$-ray energies only, when rigorous multiwavelength analysis is not available. Based on our method, we classify 342 BCUs as BL Lacs and 154 as FSRQs, while 77 objects remain uncertain. Moreover, radio analysis and direct observations in ground-based optical observatories are used as counterparts to the statistical classifications to validate the method. This approach is of interest because of the increasing number ...

  2. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES. IV. RESULTS OF THE 2014 FOLLOW-UP CAMPAIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy); Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Landoni, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); D’Abrusco, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Masetti, N. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Tosti, G., E-mail: riccif@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    The extragalactic γ-ray sky is dominated by the emission arising from blazars, one of the most peculiar classes of radio-loud active galaxies. Since the launch of Fermi several methods were developed to search for blazars as potential counterparts of unidentified γ-ray sources (UGSs). To confirm the nature of the selected candidates, optical spectroscopic observations are necessary. In 2013 we started a spectroscopic campaign to investigate γ-ray blazar candidates selected according to different procedures. The main goals of our campaign are: (1) to confirm the nature of these candidates, and (2) whenever possible, determine their redshifts. Optical spectroscopic observations will also permit us to verify the robustness of the proposed associations and check for the presence of possible source class contaminants to our counterpart selection. This paper reports the results of observations carried out in 2014 in the northern hemisphere with Kitt Peak National Observatory and in the southern hemisphere with the Southern Astrophysical Research telescopes. We also report three sources observed with the Magellan and Palomar telescopes. Our selection of blazar-like sources that could be potential counterparts of UGSs is based on their peculiar infrared colors and on their combination with radio observations both at high and low frequencies (i.e., above and below ∼1 GHz) in publicly available large radio surveys. We present the optical spectra of 27 objects. We confirm the blazar-like nature of nine sources that appear to be potential low-energy counterparts of UGSs. Then we present new spectroscopic observations of 10 active galaxies of uncertain type associated with Fermi sources, classifying all of them as blazars. In addition, we present the spectra for five known γ-ray blazars with uncertain redshift estimates and three BL Lac candidates that were observed during our campaign. We also report the case for WISE J173052.85−035247.2, candidate counterpart of the

  3. Photopolarimetric monitoring of 41 blazars in the optical and near-infrared bands with the Kanata telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ikejiri, Y; Sasada, M; Sakimoto, K; Ito, R; Yamanaka, M; Arai, A; Fukazawa, Y; Ohsugi, T; Kawabata, K S

    2009-01-01

    Blazars are a kind of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in which a relativistic jet is considered to be directed along the line of sight. They are characterized by strong and rapid variability of the flux and high polarization. We performed a monitoring of 41 blazars in the optical and near-infrared regions from 2008 to 2009 using TRISPEC attached to the "Kanata" 1.5-m telescope. In this paper, we report the correlation of the flux, color and polarization using our data, and discuss universal features for blazars, which have not fully been established. Three blazars (3C 454.3, QSO 0454$-$234, and PKS 1510$-$089) tended to be redder when they were brighter, only during their faint states. This color behavior suggests that the contribution of a thermal component is strong in the faint states for those objects. Excluding this "redder-when-brighter" phase, we found that 24 blazars tended to be bluer when they were brighter. This number corresponds to 83% among well-observed objects which we observed for $>10$ nights. ...

  4. Optical archival spectra of blazar candidates of uncertain type in the 3rd Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Crespo, N.; Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Landoni, M.; Masetti, N.; Chavushyan, V.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; La Franca, F.; Milisavljevic, D.; Paggi, A.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Ricci, F.; Smith, Howard A.

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that blazars constitute the rarest class among active galactic nuclei (AGNs) they are the largest known population of associated γ-ray sources. Many of the γ-ray objects listed in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope Third Source catalog (3FGL) are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs), either because they show multifrequency behavior similar to blazars but lacking optical spectra in the literature, or because the quality of such spectra is too low to confirm their nature. Here we select, out of 585 BCUs in the 3FGL, 42 BCUs which we identify as probable blazars by their WISE infrared colors and which also have optical spectra that are available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and/or Six-Degree Field Galaxy Survey Database (6dFGS). We confirm the blazar nature of all of the sources. We furthermore conclude that 28 of them are BL Lacs, 8 are radio-loud quasars with flat radio spectrum and 6 are BL Lac whose emission is dominated by their host galaxy.

  5. Optical archival spectra of blazar candidates of uncertain type in the 3$^{rd}$ Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Crespo, N Álvarez; D'Abrusco, R; Landoni, M; Masetti, N; Chavushyan, V; Jiménez-Bailón, E; La Franca, F; Milisavljevic, D; Paggi, A; Patiño-Álvarez, V; Ricci, F; Smith, Howard A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that blazars constitute the rarest class among active galactic nuclei (AGNs) they are the largest known population of associated $\\gamma$-ray sources. Many of the $\\gamma$-ray objects listed in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope Third Source catalog (3FGL) are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs), either because they show multifrequency behaviour similar to blazars but lacking optical spectra in the literature, or because the quality of such spectra is too low to confirm their nature. Here we select, out of 585 BCUs in the 3FGL, 42 BCUs which we identify as probable blazars by their WISE infrared colors and which also have optical spectra that are available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and/or Six-Degree Field Galaxy Survey Database (6dFGS). We confirm the blazar nature of all of the sources. We furthermore conclude that 28 of them are BL Lacs, 8 are radio-loud quasars with flat radio spectrum and 6 are BL Lac whose emission is dominated by their host galaxy.

  6. Correlations between the peak flux density and the position angle of inner-jet in three blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, X; Liu, B -R; Li, Q -W

    2012-01-01

    We aim to investigate the relation between the long-term flux density and the position angle (PA) evolution of inner-jet in blazars. We have carried out the elliptic Gaussian model-fit to the `core' of 50 blazars from 15 GHz VLBA data, and analyzed the variability properties of three blazars from the model-fit results. Diverse correlations between the long-term peak flux density and the PA evolution of the major axis of the `core' have been found in $\\sim$ 20% of the 50 sources. Of them, three typical blazars have been analyzed, which also show quasi-periodic flux variations of a few years (T). The correlation between the peak flux density and the PA of inner-jet is positive for S5~0716+714, and negative for S4~1807+698. The two sources cannot be explained with the ballistic jet models, the non-ballistic models have been analyzed to explain the two sub-luminal blazars. A correlation between the peak flux density and the PA (with a T/4 time lag) of inner-jet is found in [HB89]~1823+568, this correlation can be...

  7. SEARCHING FOR NEW {gamma}-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES IN THE THIRD PALERMO BAT HARD X-RAY CATALOG WITH WISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maselli, A.; Cusumano, G.; La Parola, V.; Segreto, A. [INAF-IASF Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Massaro, F. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2013-06-01

    We searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates among the 382 unidentified hard X-ray sources of the third Palermo BAT Catalog (3PBC) obtained from the analysis of 66 months of Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey data and listing 1586 sources. We adopted a recently developed association method based on the peculiar infrared colors that characterize the {gamma}-ray blazars included in the second catalog of active galactic nuclei detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We used this method exploiting the data of the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to establish correspondences between unidentified 3PBC sources and WISE {gamma}-ray blazar candidates located within the BAT positional uncertainty region at a 99% confidence level. We obtained a preliminary list of candidates for which we analyzed all the available data in the Swift archive to complement the information in the literature and in the radio, infrared, and optical catalogs with the information on their optical-UV and soft X-ray emission. Requiring the presence of radio and soft X-ray counterparts consistent with the infrared positions of the selected WISE sources, as well as a blazar-like radio morphology, we finally obtained a list of 24 {gamma}-ray blazar candidates.

  8. A Comprehensive Statistical Description of Radio-Through-$\\gamma$-Ray Spectral Energy Distributions of All Known Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Peiyuan; Massaro, Francesco; Paggi, Alessandro; Cauteruccio, Joe; Künzel, Soren R

    2016-01-01

    We combined multi-wavelength data for blazars from the Roma-BZCAT catalog and analyzed hundreds of X-ray spectra. We present the fluxes and Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs), in 12 frequency bands from radio to $\\gamma$-rays, for a final sample of 2214 blazars. Using a model-independent statistical approach, we looked for systematic trends in the SEDs; the most significant trends involved the radio luminosities and X-ray spectral indices of the blazars. We used a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), to determine the basis vectors of the blazar SEDs and, in order to maximize the size of the sample, imputed missing fluxes using the K-nearest neighbors method. Using more than an order of magnitude more data than was available when Fossati et al. (1997, 1998) first reported trends of SED shape with blazar luminosity, we confirmed the anti-correlation between radio luminosity and synchrotron peak frequency, although with greater scatter than was seen in the smaller sample. The same trend can be seen between bolo...

  9. Optical spectroscopic observations of gamma-ray blazar candidates IV. Results of the 2014 follow-up campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, F; Landoni, M; D'Abrusco, R; Milisavljevic, D; Stern, D; Masetti, N; Paggi, A; Smith, Howard A; Tosti, G

    2015-01-01

    The extragalactic gamma-ray sky is dominated by the emission arising from blazars, one of the most peculiar classes of radio-loud active galaxies. Since the launch of Fermi several methods were developed to search for blazars as potential counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs). To confirm the nature of the selected candidates, optical spectroscopic observations are necessary. In 2013 we started a spectroscopic campaign to investigate gamma-ray blazar candidates selected according to different procedures. The main goals of our campaign are: 1) to confirm the nature of these candidates, and 2) whenever possible determine their redshifts. Optical spectroscopic observations will also permit us to verify the robustness of the proposed associations and check for the presence of possible source class contaminants to our counterpart selection. This paper reports the results of observations carried out in 2014 in the Northern hemisphere with Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and in the Southern hemi...

  10. Photon propagation and the VHE gamma-ray spectra of blazars: how transparent is really the Universe?

    CERN Document Server

    De Angelis, A; Persic, M; Roncadelli, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent findings by Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) suggest a transparency of the Universe to Very-High-Energy (VHE) photons beyond expectations based on realistic models of the Extragalactic Background Light. It has recently been shown that such transparency can be naturally explained by the mixing between the photon and a new very light Axion-Like Particle (ALP) predicted by many extensions of the Standard Model of elementary particles (DARMA scenario). We discuss the implications of the DARMA scenario for the observed spectra of blazars detected in the VHE band. In fact, contemplating all such blazars at once allows us to correlate the emitted and observed spectral indexes. Besides confirming the DARMA scenario in more general terms, we show that this picture automatically explains why - even starting from the same nominal value of 2.4 for the spectral index of all VHE blazars at emission - the observed spectral index predicted by the DARMA scenario reproduces the observations, becoming asy...

  11. Probing Precise Location of Radio Core in TeV Blazar Mrk 501 with VERA at 43 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, S; Doi, A; Niinuma, K; Hada, K; Nagai, H; Honma, M; Akiyama, K; Giroletti, M; Giovannini, G; Orienti, M; Isobe, N; Kataoka, J; Paneque, D; Kobayashi, H; Asada, K

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the position of the radio core in a blazar by multi-epoch astrometric observations at 43 GHz. Using the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), we have conducted four adjacent observations in February 2011 and another four in October 2011, and succeeded in measuring the position of the radio core in the TeV blazar Mrk 501 relative to a distant compact quasar NRAO 512. During our observations, we find that (1) there is no positional change within ~0.2 mas or ~2.0 pc de-projected with $\\pm1\\sigma$ error for the weighted-mean phase-referenced positions of Mrk 501 core relative to NRAO 512 over four adjacent days, and (2) there is an indication of position change for 3C 345 core relative to NRAO 512. By applying our results to the standard internal shock model for blazars, we constrain the bulk Lorenz factors of the ejecta.

  12. Analysis of the cumulative neutrino flux from Fermi LAT blazar populations using 3 years of IceCube data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glüsenkamp Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of a diffuse neutrino flux up to PeV energies raises the question of which populations of astrophysical sources contribute to this diffuse signal. One extragalactic candidate source population to produce high-energy neutrinos are Blazars. We present results from a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from Blazar populations selected with the 2nd Fermi LAT AGN catalogue (2LAC using an IceCube data set that has been optimized for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to previous searches with IceCube, the investigated populations contain up to hundreds of sources, the biggest one being the entire Blazar sample measured by the Fermi-LAT. No significant neutrino signal was found from any of these populations. Some implications of this non-observation for the origin of the observed PeV diffuse signal will be discussed.

  13. The Outburst of the Blazar S5 0716+71 in 2011 October: Shock in a Helical Jet

    CERN Document Server

    Larionov, V M; Marscher, A P; Morozova, D A; Blinov, D A; Hagen-Thorn, V A; Konstantinova, T S; Kopatskaya, E N; Larionova, L V; Larionova, E G; Troitsky, I S

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of optical (R band) photometric and polarimetric monitoring and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) imaging of the blazar S5 0716+714 along with Fermi gamma-ray data during a multi-waveband outburst in 2011 October. We analyze total and polarized intensity images of the blazar obtained with the VLBA at 43 GHz during and after the outburst. Monotonic rotation of the linear polarization vector at a rate of >50 degrees per night coincided with a sharp maximum in gamma-ray and optical flux. At the same time, within the uncertainties, a new superluminal knot appeared, with an apparent speed of ~21c. The general multi-frequency behavior of the outburst can be explained within the framework of a shock wave propagating along a helical path in the blazar's jet.

  14. Theoretical Study of the Effects of Magnetic Field Geometry on the High-Energy Emission of Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasvita Joshi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the structure of the magnetic field inside a blazar jet, as deduced from polarization observations at radio to optical wavelengths, is closely related to the formation and propagation of relativistic jets that result from accretion onto supermassive black holes. However, a largely unexplored aspect of the theoretical understanding of radiation transfer physics in blazar jets has been the magnetic field geometry as revealed by the polarized emission and the connection between the variability in polarization and flux across the spectrum. Here, we explore the effects of various magnetic geometries that can exist inside a blazar jet: parallel, oblique, toroidal, and tangled. We investigate the effects of changing the orientation of the magnetic field, according to the above-mentioned geometries, on the resulting high-energy spectral energy distributions (SEDs and spectral variability patterns (SVPs of a typical blazar. We use the MUlti-ZOne Radiation Feedback (MUZORF model of Joshi et al. (2014 to carry out this study and to relate the geometry of the field to the observed SEDs at X-ray and γ-ray energies. One of the goals of the study is to understand the relationship between synchrotron and inverse Compton peaks in blazar SEDs and the reason for the appearance of γ-ray “orphan flares” observed in some blazars. This can be associated with the directionality of the magnetic field, which creates a difference in the radiation field as seen by an observer versus that seen by the electrons in the emission region.

  15. Multifrequency Observations of the Gamma-Ray Blazar 3C 279 in Low-State during Integral AO-1

    CERN Document Server

    Collmar, W; Burwitz, V; Courvoisier, Thierry J L; Komossa, S; Kretschmar, P; Nieppola, E; Nilsson, K; Ojala, T; Pottschmidt, K; Pasanen, M; Pursimo, T; Sillanpää, A; Takalo, L; Tornikoski, M; Ungerechts, H; Valtaoja, E; Walter, R; Webster, R; Whiting, M; Wiik, K; Wong, I

    2004-01-01

    We report first results of a multifrequency campaign from radio to hard X-ray energies of the prominent gamma-ray blazar 3C 279 during the first year of the INTEGRAL mission. The variable blazar was found at a low activity level, but was detected by all participating instruments. Subsequently a multifrequency spectrum could be compiled. The individual measurements as well as the compiled multifrequency spectrum are presented. In addition, this 2003 broadband spectrum is compared to one measured in 1999 during a high activity period of 3C 279.

  16. Optical Counterparts of Undetermined Type -Ray Active Galactic Nuclei with Blazar-Like Spectral Energy Distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Giovanni La Mura; Graziano Chiaro; Stefano Ciroi; Piero Rafanelli; David Salvetti; Marco Berton; Valentina Cracco; Fermi-LAT collaboration

    2015-12-01

    During its first four years of scientific observations, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) detected 3033 -ray sources above a 4 significance level. Although most of the extra-galactic sources are active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the blazar class, other families of AGNs are observed too, while a still high fraction of detections (∼30%) remains with uncertain association or classification. According to the currently accepted interpretation, the AGN -ray emission arises from inverse Compton (IC) scattering of low energy photons by relativistic particles confined in a jet, which, in the case of blazars, is oriented very close to our line-of-sight. Taking advantage of data from radio and X-ray wavelengths, which we expect to be produced together with -rays, providing a much better source localization potential, we focused our attention on a sample of -ray Blazar Candidates of Undetermined type (BCUs), starting a campaign of optical spectroscopic observations. The main aims of our investigation include a census of the AGN families that contribute to -ray emission and a study of their redshift distribution, with the subsequent implications on the intrinsic source power. We furthermore analyze which -ray properties can better constrain the nature of the source, thus helping in the study of objects not yet associated with a reliable low frequency counterpart. Here we report on the instruments and techniques used to identify the optical counterparts of -ray sources, we give an overview on the status of our work, and we discuss the implications of a large scale study of -ray emitting AGNs.

  17. Multi-wavelength Study of Blazars Using Variability as a Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliyan, Kiran S.; Kaur, Navpreet; Chandra, Sunil; Sameer, Sameer; Ganesh, Shashikiran

    2016-09-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are too compact to be resolved by any existing optical telescope facility, making it difficult to understand their structure and the emission processes responsible for their huge energy output. However, variability, one of their characteristic properties, provides a tool to probe the inner regions of AGN. Blazars are the best candidates for such a study, and hence a considerable amount of effort is being made to investigate variability in these sources across the electromagnetic spectrum. Here, using the Mt. Abu infrared observatory (MIRO) blazar monitoring program, we present intra-night, inter-night, and long term aspects of the variability in S5 0716+71, 3C66A, and OJ 287. These stars show significant variability on short (a few tens of mins, to a few hours, to a few days) to long term (months to years) timescales. Based on the light travel time argument, the shortest variability timescales (micro-variability) provide upper limits to the size of the emission region. While S5 0716 shows a very high duty cycle of variability (> 80 %), 3C66A shows a much lower intra day variability (IDV) duty cycle (< 20 %). All three show rapid variations within 2.5 to 3.5 hr, which, perhaps, are generated near the vicinity of black holes. Assuming this, estimates of the masses of the black holes are made at 10^{9} , 8×10^{8}, and 2.7×10^{9} M⨀ for S5 0716+71, 3C66A, and OJ 287, respectively. Multi-wavelength light-curves for the blazar PKS 1510-089 are discussed to infer the emission processes responsible for the recent flaring episodes in this source.

  18. Looking for blazars in a sample of unidentified high-energy emitting Fermi sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, E. J.; Masetti, N.; Chavushyan, V.; Cellone, S. A.; Andruchow, I.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Palazzi, E.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Rodríguez-Castillo, G. A.; Stephen, J. B.; Ubertini, P.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Based on their overwhelming dominance among associated Fermi γ-ray catalogue sources, it is expected that a large fraction of the unidentified Fermi objects are blazars. Through crossmatching between the positions of unidentified γ-ray sources from the First Fermi Catalog of γ-ray sources emitting above 10 GeV (1FHL) and the ROSAT and Swift/XRT catalogues of X-ray objects and between pointed XRT observations, a sample of 36 potential associations was found in previous works with less than 15 arcsec of positional offset. One-third of them have recently been classified; the remainder, though believed to belong to the blazar class, still lack spectroscopic classifications. Aims: We study the optical spectrum of the putative counterparts of these unidentified gamma-ray sources in order to find their redshifts and to determine their nature and main spectral characteristics. Methods: An observational campaign was carried out on the putative counterparts of 13 1FHL sources using medium-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna in Loiano, Italy; the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo and the Nordic Optical Telescope, both in the Canary Islands, Spain; and the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, Mexico. Results: We were able to classify 14 new objects based on their continuum shapes and spectral features. Conclusions: Twelve new blazars were found, along with one new quasar and one new narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) to be potentially associated with the 1FHL sources of our sample. Redshifts or lower limits were obtained when possible alongside central black hole mass and luminosity estimates for the NLS1 and the quasar.

  19. An exploration of hadronic interactions in blazars using multi-messenger data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernin, C.; Aguilar, J. A.; Neronov, A.; Montaruli, T.

    2014-04-01

    High energy photon and neutrino emissions are expected from the interactions of high-energy protons with matter and/or radiation in the blazars environment. In these proceedings, we use the sensitivity of the IceCube neutrino detector estimated for different neutrino spectral indices (derived in Tchernin et al. (2013) [12]) to show that already in its 40-string configuration (IC-40), the sensitivity of the IceCube neutrino telescope is already at the level of constraining the parameter space of purely hadronic scenarios of blazar activity. As a result, using the full detector sensitivity, those constraints should be about a factor of 3 better than what discussed here. Assuming that the γ-ray flux observed by Fermi can be explained with purely hadronic interactions, we estimate the expected neutrino flux from blazars based on the combination of the γ-ray flux observed by Fermi, with the simultaneous IC-40 observations. We consider separately the cases where the proton-proton or proton-γ interactions are dominant. In both cases, we set some constraints on the primary proton spectrum. In the case where pp interactions dominate, the tightest constraints are set for the source 3C 454.3, for which the high energy part of the spectrum is constrained to be harder than E-2 and the cut-off energy larger than 1018 eV. Alternatively, in the case where the dominant channel is the interaction of the high-energy protons with the soft radiation fields, the magnitude of the constraints depends on the radiation field energy distribution. For the source 3C 273, the most constrained source of our sample for the pγ interaction, the cut-off energy is constrained to be Ecut ≳1018 eV for any spectral index and for different soft photon fields, including the radiation from the accretion disk (Big Blue Bump), the broad line region or the synchrotron radiation from the jet.

  20. Resolving the blazar CGRaBS J0809+5341 in the presence of telescope systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Iniyan; Paragi, Zsolt; Zwart, Jonathan; Perkins, Simon; Smirnov, Oleg; van der Heyden, Kurt

    2017-02-01

    We analyse very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the blazar CGRaBS J0809+5341 using Bayesian inference methods. The observation was carried out at 5 GHz using eight telescopes which form part of the European VLBI Network. Imaging and deconvolution using traditional methods imply that the blazar is unresolved. To search for source structure beyond the diffraction limit, we perform Bayesian model selection between three source models (point, elliptical Gaussian and circular Gaussian). Our modelling jointly accounts for antenna-dependent gains and system equivalent flux densities. We obtain posterior distributions for the various source and instrumental parameters along with the corresponding uncertainties and correlations between them. We find that there is very strong evidence (>109:1) in favour of an elliptical Gaussian structure and using this model derive the apparent brightness temperature distribution of the blazar, accounting for uncertainties in the shape estimates. To test the integrity of our method, we also perform model selection on synthetic observations and use this to develop a Bayesian criterion for the minimum resolvable source size and consequently the maximum measurable brightness temperature for a given interferometer, dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the data incorporating the aforementioned systematics. We find that calibration errors play an increasingly important role in determining the over-resolution limit for SNR≫100. We show that it is possible to exploit the resolving power of future VLBI arrays down to about 5 per cent of the size of the naturally weighted restoring beam, if the gain calibration is precise to 1 per cent or less.

  1. An Emerging Class of Gamma-ray Flares from Blazars: Beyond One-zone Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, M.; Vittorini, V.; Cavaliere, A.

    2015-11-01

    Blazars radiate from relativistic plasma jets with bulk Lorentz factors {{Γ }}∼ 10, closely aligned along our line of sight. In a number of blazars of the flat-spectrum radio quasar type, such as 3C 454.3 and 3C 279, gamma-ray flares have recently been detected with very high luminosity and few or no counterparts in the optical and soft X-ray bands. They challenge the current one-zone leptonic models of emissions from within the broad-line region (BLR). The latter envisage the optical/X-ray emissions to be produced as synchrotron radiation by the same population of highly relativistic electrons in the jet that would also yield the gamma rays by inverse Compton upscattering of surrounding soft photons. To meet the challenge, we present here a model based on primary synchrotron photons emitted in the BLR by a plasmoid moving out with the jet and scattered back toward the incoming plasmoid by an outer plasma clump acting as a mirror. We consider both a scenario based on a static mirror located outside the BLR and an alternative provided by a moving mirror geometry. We show that mirroring phenomena can locally enhance the density and anisotropy with associated relativistic boosting of soft photons within the jet, so as to trigger bright inverse Compton gamma-ray transients from nearly steady optical/X-ray synchrotron emissions. In this picture we interpret the peculiarly asymmetric light curves of the recently detected gamma-ray flares from 3C 279. Our scenario provides a promising start to understanding the widening class of bright and transient gamma-ray activities in blazars.

  2. Numerical study of broadband spectra caused by internal shocks in magnetized relativistic jets of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Rueda-Becerril, Jesus M; Aloy, Miguel A; Aloy, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The internal-shocks scenario in relativistic jets has been used to explain the variability of blazars' outflow emission. Recent simulations have shown that the magnetic field alters the dynamics of these shocks producing a whole zoo of spectral energy density patterns. However, the role played by magnetization in such high-energy emission is still not entirely understood. With the aid of \\emph{Fermi}'s second LAT AGN catalog, a comparison with observations in the $\\gamma$-ray band was performed, in order to identify the effects of the magnetic field.

  3. Results from the Blazar Monitoring Campaign at the Whipple 10m Gamma-ray Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, David; Charlot, P; Kurtanidze, O; Lahteenmaki, A; Montaruli, T; Sadun, A C; Villata, M

    2007-01-01

    In September 2005, the observing program of the Whipple 10 m gamma-ray telescope was redefined to be dedicated almost exclusively to AGN monitoring. Since then the five Northern Hemisphere blazars that had already been detected at Whipple are monitored routinely each night that they are visible. Thanks to the efforts of a large number of multiwavelength collaborators, the first year of this program has been very successful. We report here on the analysis of Markarian 421 observations taken from November, 2005 to May, 2006 in the gamma-ray, X-ray, optical and radio bands.

  4. The nature of gamma ray blazar candidate PMN J1326-5256

    CERN Document Server

    Bignall, H; Jauncey, D; Senkbeil, C; Lovell, J; Ellingsen, S

    2007-01-01

    A comparison of AGN detected at gamma ray energies by EGRET with flat-spectrum radio sources observed in surveys for intraday variability reveals that a remarkably high fraction of EGRET blazars show significant interstellar scintillation at centimetre wavelengths. Scintillating AGN will therefore be targets of interest for GLAST, scheduled for launch in early 2008. We suggest that the variable, scintillating flat-spectrum radio source PMN J1326-5256 is associated with the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1316-5244. We describe the properties of PMN J1326-5256 and present recent results of monitoring with the ATCA and Ceduna radio telescopes.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The CLASS blazar survey. I. (Marcha+, 2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcha, M. J.; Caccianiga, A.; Browne, I. W. A.; Jackson, N.

    2002-04-01

    This paper presents a new complete and well-defined sample of flat-spectrum radio sources (FSRS) selected from the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS), with the further constraint of a bright (mag<=17.5) optical counterpart. The sample has been designed to produce a large number of low-luminosity blazars in order to test the current unifying models in the low-luminosity regime. In this first paper the new sample is presented and the radio properties of the 325 sources contained therein are discussed. (1 data file).

  6. Increased activity of blazar SBS 1150+497 detected by Fermi LAT and Swift XRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, L.; D'Ammando, F.; Hoversten, E.

    2011-05-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed an ongoing gamma-ray flare from a source positionally consistent with the blazar SBS 1150+497 (RA: 11h53m24.4666s, Dec: +49d31m08.830s, J2000, Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880), a quasar with a prominent radio jet detected in X-rays and at optical frequencies (Sambruna et al. 2002, ApJ, 571, 206) and located at z=0.334 (Lynds & Wills 1968, ApJ, 153, L23).

  7. Fermi LAT detection of renewed activity from the blazar PKS 1502+106

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprini, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1502+106 (also known as OR 103, S3 1502+10 and 3FGL J1504.4+1029, Acero et al., arXiv:1501.02003), with radio coordinates, (J2000.0), R.A.: 226.10408 deg, Dec: 10.49422 deg (Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880). This blazar has a redshift of z=1.8383 (Hewett & Wild 2010, MNRAS, 405, 2302).

  8. Broad Band Observations of Gravitationally Lensed Blazar during a Gamma-Ray Outburst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Sitarek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available QSO B0218+357 is a gravitationally lensed blazar located at a cosmological redshift of 0.944. In July 2014 a GeV flare was observed by Fermi-LAT, triggering follow-up observations with the MAGIC telescopes at energies above 100 GeV. The MAGIC observations at the expected time of arrival of the trailing component resulted in the first detection of QSO B0218+357 in Very-High-Energy (VHE, >100 GeV gamma rays. We report here the observed multiwavelength emission during the 2014 flare.

  9. The contribution of Fermi-2LAC blazars to the diffuse TeV-PeV neutrino flux

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Anderson, T; Ansseau, I; Anton, G; Archinger, M; Arguelles, C; Argüelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Axani, S; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blot, S; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Burgman, A; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Collin, G H; Conrad, J M; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Rosendo, E del Pino; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; di Lorenzo, V; Dujmovic, H; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Flis, S; Fösig, C -C; Franckowiak, A; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Giang, W; Gladstone, L; Glagla, M; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Grant, D; Griffith, Z; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansen, E; Hansmann, B; Hansmann, T; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfel, K; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Huelsnitz, W; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jeong, M; Jero, K; Jones, B J P; Jurkovic, M; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Katz, U; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kim, M; Kintscher, T; Kiryluk, J; Kittler, T; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Koirala, R; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, M; Krückl, G; Krüger, C; Kunnen, J; Kunwar, S; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lennarz, D; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lu, L; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Mancina, S; Mandelartz, M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meier, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Moulai, M; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Neer, G; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Pollmann, A Obertacke; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Pandya, H; Pankova, D V; Penek, Ö; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Quinnan, M; Raab, C; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ryckbosch, D; Rysewyk, D; Sabbatini, L; Herrera, S E Sanchez; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Satalecka, K; Schimp, M; Schlunder, P; Schmidt, T; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schumacher, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Soldin, D; Song, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Steuer, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tatar, J; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Turcati, A; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; Vandenbroucke, J; van Eijndhoven, N; Vanheule, S; van Rossem, M; van Santen, J; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallace, A; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wickmann, S; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wills, L; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woolsey, E; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zoll, M

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of a diffuse cosmic neutrino flux extending up to PeV energies raises the question of which astrophysical sources generate this signal. One class of extragalactic sources which may produce such high-energy neutrinos are blazars. We present a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from blazars in the 2nd Fermi-LAT AGN catalogue (2LAC) using an IceCube neutrino dataset 2009-12 which was optimised for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to previous searches with IceCube, the populations investigated contain up to hundreds of sources, the largest one being the entire blazar sample in the 2LAC catalogue. No significant excess is observed and upper limits for the cumulative flux from these populations are obtained. These constrain the maximum contribution of the 2LAC blazars to the observed astrophysical neutrino flux to be $27 \\%$ or less between around 10 TeV and 2 PeV, assuming equipartition of flavours at Earth and a single power-law spectrum with a spec...

  10. Optical spectroscopic observations of $\\gamma$-ray blazar candidates VI. Further observations from TNG, WHT, OAN, SOAR and Magellan telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Crespo, N Álvarez; Milisavljevic, D; Landoni, M; Chavushyan, V; Patiño-Álvarez, V; Masetti, N; Jiménez-Bailón, E; Strader, J; Chomiuk, L; Katagiri, H; Kagaya, M; Cheung, C C; Paggi, A; D'Abrusco, R; Ricci, F; La Franca, F; Smith, Howard A; Tosti, G

    2016-01-01

    Blazars, one of the most extreme class of active galaxies, constitute so far the largest known population of $\\gamma$-ray sources and their number is continuously growing in the Fermi catalogs. However in the latest release of the Fermi catalog there is still a large fraction of sources that are classified as blazar candidate of uncertain type (BCUs) for which optical spectroscopic observations are necessary to confirm their nature and their associations. In addition about 1/3 of the $\\gamma$-ray point sources listed in the Third Fermi-LAT Source Catalog (3FGL) are still unassociated and lacking an assigned lower energy counterpart. Since 2012 we have been carrying out an optical spectroscopic campaign to observe blazar candidates to confirm their nature. In this paper, the sixth of the series, we present optical spectroscopic observations for 30 $\\gamma$-ray blazar candidates from different observing programs we carried out with the TNG, WHT, OAN, SOAR and Magellan telescopes. We found that 21 out of 30 sour...

  11. Extremes of the jet-accretion power relation of blazars, as explored by NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sbarrato, T.; Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2016-01-01

    Hard X-ray observations are crucial to study the non-thermal jet emission from high-redshift, powerful blazars. We observed two bright z > 2 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in hard X-rays to explore the details of their relativistic jets and their possible variability. S5 0014+81 (at z = 3.36...

  12. Radio monitoring of a sample of X- and gamma-ray loud blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Venturi, T; Orfei, A; Bondi, M; Fanti, R; Gregorini, L; Mantovani, F; Stanghellini, C; Trigilio, C; Umana, G

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a 4-year (1996 - 1999) radio flux density monitoring program for a sample of X- and $\\gamma$-ray loud blazars. Our program started in January 1996 and was carried out on monthly basis at the frequencies of 5 GHz and 8.4 GHz with the 32-m antennas located in Medicina (Bologna, Italy) and Noto (Siracusa, Italy). 22 GHz data collected in Medicina from January 1996 to June 1997 will also be presented. The sample of selected sources comprises most radio loud blazars with $\\delta \\ge -10^{\\circ}$ characterised by emission in the X- and $\\gamma$-ray regimes, and target sources for the BeppoSAX X-ray mission. All sources in the sample, except J1653+397 (MKN 501), are variable during the four years of our monitoring program. We classified the type of variability in each source by means of a structure function analysis. We also computed th$\\alpha_{5}^{8.4}$ for all epochs with nearly simultaneous observations ate spectral index and found that $\\alpha_{5}^{8.4}$ starts flattening ...

  13. The “Far Site” Scenario for Gamma-ray Emission in Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agudo Iván

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the birth of γ-ray astronomy, locating the origin of γ-ray emission has been a fundamental problem for the knowledge of the emission processes involved. Densely time sampled monitoring programs with very long baseline interferometry and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, together with several other facilities at most of the available spectral ranges (including polarization measurements if possible are starting to shed new light for the case of blazars. A successful observing technique consists on analyzing the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in ultra-high resolution VLBI images to associate the particularly bright events at different wavebands. Such association can be robustly demonstrated by probing the statistical significance of the correlation among spectral ranges through Monte Carlo simulations. The location of the high energy emission region is inferred through its relative location with regard to the associated low energy event observed in the VLBI images. In this paper, I present some of the latest results using this method that locate the GeV emission within the jets of blazars AO 0235+164 and OJ287 at > 12 pc from the central AGN engine, hence supporting the “far site” scenario.

  14. Reconciling models of luminous blazars with magnetic fluxes determined by radio core shift measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of magnetic field strength in relativistic jets of active galactic nuclei (AGN), obtained by measuring the frequency-dependent radio core location, imply that the total magnetic fluxes in those jets are consistent with the predictions of the magnetically-arrested disk (MAD) scenario of jet formation. On the other hand, the magnetic field strength determines the luminosity of the synchrotron radiation, which forms the low-energy bump of the observed blazar spectral energy distribution (SED). The SEDs of the most powerful blazars are strongly dominated by the high-energy bump, which is most likely due to the external radiation Compton (ERC) mechanism. This high Compton dominance may be difficult to reconcile with the MAD scenario, unless 1) the geometry of external radiation sources (broad-line region, hot-dust torus) is quasi-spherical rather than flat, or 2) most gamma-ray radiation is produced in jet regions of low magnetization, e.g., in magnetic reconnection layers or in fast jet spines.

  15. Constraining the Location of Gamma-Ray Flares in Luminous Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Sikora, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Locating the gamma-ray emission sites in blazar jets is a long-standing and highly controversial issue. We investigate jointly several constraints on the distance scale r and Lorentz factor Gamma of the gamma-ray emitting regions in luminous blazars (primarily flat spectrum radio quasars, FSRQs). Working in the framework of one-zone external radiation Comptonization (ERC) models, we perform a parameter space study for several representative cases of actual gamma-ray flares in their multiwavelength context. We find a particularly useful combination of three constraints: from an upper limit on the collimation parameter Gamma*theta ~ 0.1 - 0.7. Typical values of r corresponding to moderate values of Gamma ~ 20 are in the range 0.1 - 1 pc, and are determined primarily by the observed variability time scale t_var,obs. Alternative scenarios motivated by the observed gamma-ray/mm connection, in which gamma-ray flares of t_var,obs ~ a few days are located at r ~ 10 pc, are in conflict with both the SSC and cooling co...

  16. A Method for Localizing Energy Dissipation in Blazars Using Fermi Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Amanda; Georganopoulos, Markos; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Perlman, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    The distance of the Fermi-detected blazar gamma-ray emission site from the supermassive black hole is a matter of active debate. Here we present a method for testing if the GeV emission of powerful blazars is produced within the sub-pc scale broad line region (BLR) or farther out in the pc-scale molecular torus (MT) environment. If the GeV emission takes place within the BLR, the inverse Compton (IC) scattering of the BLR ultraviolet (UV) seed photons that produces the gamma-rays takes place at the onset of the Klein-Nishina regime. This causes the electron cooling time to become practically energy independent and the variation of the gamma-ray emission to be almost achromatic. If on the other hand the -ray emission is produced farther out in the pc-scale MT, the IC scattering of the infrared (IR) MT seed photons that produces the gamma-rays takes place in the Thomson regime, resulting to energy-dependent electron cooling times, manifested as faster cooling times for higher Fermi energies. We demonstrate these characteristics and discuss the applicability and limitations of our method.

  17. Radiation and Polarization Signatures of 3D Multi-zone Time-dependent Hadronic Blazar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Haocheng; Böttcher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We present a newly developed time-dependent three-dimensional multi-zone hadronic blazar emission model. By coupling a Fokker-Planck based lepto-hadronic particle evolution code 3DHad with a polarization-dependent radiation transfer code, 3DPol, we are able to study the time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures of a hadronic blazar model for the first time. Our current code is limited to parameter regimes in which the hadronic $\\gamma$-ray output is dominated by proton synchrotron emission, neglecting pion production. Our results demonstrate that the time-dependent flux and polarization signatures are generally dominated by the relation between the synchrotron cooling and the light crossing time scale, which is largely independent of the exact model parameters. We find that unlike the low-energy polarization signatures, which can vary rapidly in time, the high-energy polarization signatures appear stable. As a result, future high-energy polarimeters may be able to distinguish such signatures from t...

  18. RoboPol: optical polarization-plane rotations and flaring activity in blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Papadakis, I. E.; Hovatta, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Liodakis, I.; Panopoulou, G. V.; Angelakis, E.; Baloković, M.; Das, H.; Khodade, P.; Kiehlmann, S.; King, O. G.; Kus, A.; Kylafis, N.; Mahabal, A.; Marecki, A.; Modi, D.; Myserlis, I.; Paleologou, E.; Papamastorakis, I.; Pazderska, B.; Pazderski, E.; Rajarshi, C.; Ramaprakash, A.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reig, P.; Tassis, K.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    We present measurements of rotations of the optical polarization of blazars during the second year of operation of RoboPol, a monitoring programme of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray bright blazars specially designed for effective detection of such events, and we analyse the large set of rotation events discovered in two years of observation. We investigate patterns of variability in the polarization parameters and total flux density during the rotation events and compare them to the behaviour in a non-rotating state. We have searched for possible correlations between average parameters of the polarization-plane rotations and average parameters of polarization, with the following results: (1) there is no statistical association of the rotations with contemporaneous optical flares; (2) the average fractional polarization during the rotations tends to be lower than that in a non-rotating state; (3) the average fractional polarization during rotations is correlated with the rotation rate of the polarization plane in the jet rest frame; (4) it is likely that distributions of amplitudes and durations of the rotations have physical upper bounds, so arbitrarily long rotations are not realized in nature.

  19. Understanding the General Feature of Microvariability in ${\\it Kepler}$ Blazar W2R 1926$+$42

    CERN Document Server

    Sasada, Mahito; Yamada, Shinya; Negoro, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the ${\\it Kepler}$ monitoring light curve of a blazar W2R 1926$+$42 to examine features of microvariability by means of the "shot analysis" technique. We select 195 intra-day, flare-like variations (shots) for the continuous light curve of Quarter 14 with a duration of 100 d. In the application of the shot analysis, an averaged profile of variations is assumed to converge with a universal profile which reflects a physical mechanism generating the microvariability in a blazar jet, although light-variation profiles of selected shots show a variety. A mean profile, which is obtained by aligning the peaks of the 195 shots, is composed of a spiky-shape shot component at $\\pm$0.1 d (with respect to the time of the peak), and two slow varying components ranging from $-$0.50 d to $-$0.15 d and from 0.10 d to 0.45 d of the peak time. The former spiky feature is well represented by an exponential rise of 0.043$\\pm$0.001 d and an exponential decay of 0.061$\\pm$0.002 d. These timescales are consistent with tha...

  20. Time-Dependent Electron Acceleration in Blazar Transients: X-Ray Time Lags and Spectral Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Tiffany R; Finke, Justin D

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation from blazar jets often displays strong variability, extending from radio to $\\gamma$-ray frequencies. In a few cases, this variability has been characterized using Fourier time lags, such as those detected in the X-rays from Mrk~421 using BeppoSAX. The lack of a theoretical framework to interpret the data has motivated us to develop a new model for the formation of the X-ray spectrum and the time lags in blazar jets based on a transport equation including terms describing stochastic Fermi acceleration, synchrotron losses, shock acceleration, adiabatic expansion, and spatial diffusion. We derive the exact solution for the Fourier transform of the electron distribution, and use it to compute the Fourier transform of the synchrotron radiation spectrum and the associated X-ray time lags. The same theoretical framework is also used to compute the peak flare X-ray spectrum, assuming that a steady-state electron distribution is achieved during the peak of the flare. The model parameters are...

  1. Turbulent, Extreme Multi-Zone Model for Simulating Flux and Polarization Variability in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Marscher, Alan P

    2013-01-01

    The author presents a model for variability of the flux and polarization of blazars in which turbulent plasma flowing at a relativistic speed down a jet crosses a standing conical shock. The shock compresses the plasma and accelerates electrons to energies up to gamma(max) > 1E4 times their rest-mass energy, with the value of gamma(max) determined by the direction of the magnetic field relative to the shock front. The turbulence is approximated in a computer code as many cells, each with a uniform magnetic field whose direction is selected randomly. The density of high-energy electrons in the plasma changes randomly with time in a manner consistent with the power spectral density of flux variations derived from observations of blazars. The variations in flux and polarization are therefore caused by continuous noise processes rather than by singular events such as explosive injection of energy at the base of the jet. Sample simulations illustrate the behavior of flux and linear polarization versus time that su...

  2. Deep Broadband Observations of the Distant Gamma-ray Blazar PKS 1424+240

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, S; Behera, B; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berger, K; Bird, R; Biteau, J; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cardenzana, J V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Ciupik, L; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Dumm, J; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Federici, S; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Griffiths, S T; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Hughes, G; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kertzman, M; Khassen, Y; Kieda, D; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Madhavan, A S; Maier, G; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nieto, D; de Bhroithe, A O'Faolain; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Prokoph, H; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Rajotte, J; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Varlotta, A; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weinstein, A; Welsing, R; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Albert, A; Baldini, L; Bastieri, D; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Bregeon, J; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cavazzuti, E; Charles, E; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Di Venere, L; Drell, P S; Favuzzi, C; Franckowiak, A; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Jogler, T; Kuss, M; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Murgia, S; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Ormes, J F; Perkins, J S; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Raino, S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Schaal, M; Sgro, C; Siskind, E J; Spinelli, P; Takahashi, H; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Troja, E; Vianello, G; Werner, M; Wood, M

    2014-01-01

    We present deep VERITAS observations of the blazar PKS 1424+240, along with contemporaneous Fermi Large Area Telescope, Swift X-ray Telescope and Swift UV Optical Telescope data between 2009 February 19 and 2013 June 8. This blazar resides at a redshift of $z\\ge0.6035$, displaying a significantly attenuated gamma-ray flux above 100 GeV due to photon absorption via pair-production with the extragalactic background light. We present more than 100 hours of VERITAS observations from three years, a multiwavelength light curve and the contemporaneous spectral energy distributions. The source shows a higher flux of (2.1$\\pm0.3$)$\\times10^{-7}$ ph m$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ above 120 GeV in 2009 and 2011 as compared to the flux measured in 2013, corresponding to (1.02$\\pm0.08$)$\\times10^{-7}$ ph m$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ above 120 GeV. The measured differential very high energy (VHE; $E\\ge100$ GeV) spectral indices are $\\Gamma=$3.8$\\pm$0.3, 4.3$\\pm$0.6 and 4.5$\\pm$0.2 in 2009, 2011 and 2013, respectively. No significant spectral change...

  3. IGR J12319-0749: Evidence for Another Extreme Blazar Found with INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, L.; Landi, R.; Marshall, F. E.; Malizia, A.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.; Ubertini, P.; Masetti, N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the identification of a new soft gamma-ray source, IGR J12319-0749, detected with the IBIS imager on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The source, which has an observed 20-100 keV flux of approx 8.3 × 10(exp -12) erg/sq. cm/ s, is spatially coincident with an active galactic nucleus (AGN) at redshift z = 3.12. The broad-band continuum, obtained by combining XRT and IBIS data, is flat (Gamma = 1.3) with evidence for a spectral break around 25 keV (100 keV in the source restframe). X-ray observations indicate flux variability, which is also supported by a comparison with a previous ROSAT measurement. IGR J12319-0749 is also a radio-emitting object likely characterised by a flat spectrum and high radio loudness; optically it is a broad-line emitting object with a massive black hole (2.8 × 10(exp 9) solar masses) at its centre. The source spectral energy distribution is similar to another high-redshift blazar, 225155+2217 at z = 3.668: both objects are bright, with a high accretion disk luminosity and a Compton peak located in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray band. IGR J12319-0749 is likely the second-most distant blazar detected so far by INTEGRAL.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1WHSP: VHE γ-ray blazar candidates (Arsioli+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsioli, B.; Fraga, B.; Giommi, P.; Padovani, P.; Marrese, P. M.

    2015-04-01

    We assembled a sample including 992 sources, which is currently the largest existing list of confirmed and candidates HSP blazars. All objects are expected to radiate up to the highest γ-ray photon energies. In fact, 299 of these are confirmed emitters of GeV γ-ray photons (based on Fermi-LAT catalogues), and 36 have already been detected in the TeV band. The majority of sources in the sample are within reach of the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), and many may be detectable even by the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes during flaring episodes. The sample includes 425 previously known blazars, 151 new identifications, and 416 HSP candidates (mostly faint sources) for which no optical spectra is available yet. The full 1WHSP catalogue is online at http://www.asdc.asi.it/1whsp/, providing a direct link to the SED building tool where multi-frequency data for each source can be easily visualised. (1 data file).

  5. An Emerging Class of Gamma-Ray Flares from Blazars: Beyond One-Zone Models

    CERN Document Server

    Tavani, Marco; Cavaliere, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Blazars radiate from relativistic plasma jets with bulk Lorentz factors {\\Gamma} ~ 10, closely aligned along our line of sight. In a number of blazars of the Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar type such as 3C 454.3 and 3C 279 gamma-ray flares have recently been detected with very high luminosity and little or no counterparts in the optical and soft X-ray bands. They challenge the current one-zone leptonic models of emissions from within the broad line region. The latter envisage the optical/X-ray emissions to be produced as synchrotron radiation by the same population of highly relativistic electrons in the jet that would also yield the gamma rays by inverse Compton up-scattering of surrounding soft photons. To meet the challenge we present here a model based on primary synchrotron photons emitted in the broad line region by a plasmoid moving out with the jet and scattered back toward the incoming plasmoid by an outer plasma clump acting as a mirror. We consider both a scenario based on a static mirror located outsid...

  6. A VLBI Search for the Origin of Wobbling in Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Agudo, I

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of blazars have been reported to show jet wobbling (i.e., non-regular rotations of the structural position angle of their innermost jets in the plane of the sky with amplitudes between 20 deg. and 50 deg., and time scales between 2 yr. and 20 yr.). The physical origin for the observed jet wobbling is still poorly understood, but as this phenomenon is triggered in the innermost regions of the jets, it must be tied to fundamental properties of the inner regions of the accretion system. Thus, jet wobbling may be an interesting potential tool for supermassive black hole, accretion and jet launching studies. As part of a joint theoretical/numerical and observational effort to characterize the observational properties and differences between these three possible scenarios we have started a long-term polarimetric phase-reference 43 GHz VLBA monitoring program to observe the jet structure and the absolute motion of the jet core of four of the blazars which have shown some of the clearest evidence...

  7. Jets, Blazars and the EBL in the GLAST-EXIST Era

    CERN Document Server

    Grindlay, Jonathan E

    2007-01-01

    The synergy of GLAST and the proposed EXIST mission as the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program is remarkable. With its full-sky per orbit hard X-ray imaging (3-600 keV) and "nuFnu" sensitivity comparable to GLAST, EXIST could measure variability and spectra of Blazars in the hard X-ray synchrotron component simultaneous with GLAST (~10-100GeV) measures of the inverse Compton component, thereby uniquely constraining intrinsic source spectra and allowing measured high energy spectral breaks to measure the cosmic diffuse extra-galactic background light (EBL) by determining the intervening diffuse IR photon field required to yield the observed break from photon-photon absorption. Such studies also constrain the physics of jets (and parameters and indeed the validity of SSC models) and the origin of the >100 MeV gamma-ray diffuse background likely arising from Blazars and jet-dominated sources. An overview of the EXIST mission, which could fly in the GLAST era, is given together with a synopsis ...

  8. The outburst of the blazar S4 0954+658 in 2011 March-April

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, D. A.; Larionov, V. M.; Troitsky, I. S.; Jorstad, S. G.; Blinov, D. A.; Efimova, N. V.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Hagen-Thorn, E. I.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Larionova, L. V.; Larionova, E. G. [Astronomical Institute of St. Petersburg State University, Universitetsky Pr. 28, Petrodvorets, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Marscher, A. P.; Joshi, M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215-1401 (United States); Gómez, J. L. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Lähteenmäki, A.; Tammi, J.; Rastorgueva-Foi, E.; Tornikoski, M. [Aalto University Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Metsähovintie 114,FI-02540 Kylmälä (Finland); McHardy, I., E-mail: comitcont@gmail.com, E-mail: jorstad@bu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-09-01

    We present the results of optical (R-band) photometric and polarimetric monitoring and Very Long Baseline Array imaging of the blazar S4 0954+658, along with Fermi γ-ray data during a multi-waveband outburst in 2011 March-April. After a faint state with a brightness level R ∼ 17.6 mag registered in the first half of 2011 January, the optical brightness of the source started to rise and reached ∼14.8 mag during the middle of March, showing flare-like behavior. The most spectacular case of intranight variability was observed during the night of 2011 March 9, when the blazar brightened by ∼0.7 mag within 7 hr. During the rise of the flux, the position angle of the optical polarization rotated smoothly over more than 300°. At the same time, within 1σ uncertainty, a new superluminal knot appeared with an apparent speed of 19.0 ± 0.3c. We have very strong evidence that this knot is associated with the multi-waveband outburst in 2011 March-April. We also analyze the multi-frequency behavior of S4 0954+658 during a number of minor outbursts from 2008 August to 2012 April. We find some evidence of connections between at least two additional superluminal ejecta and near-simultaneous optical flares.

  9. Connecting blazars with ultra high energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Resconi, Elisa; Padovani, Paolo; Giommi, Paolo; Caccianiga, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We present evidence of a direct connection between high energy $\\gamma$-ray emitting blazars, very high energy neutrinos, and ultra high energy cosmic rays. We first identify potential hadronic sources by selecting $\\gamma$-ray emitters, that are in spatial coincidence with neutrinos detected by IceCube. These are then correlated with ultra high energy cosmic rays from the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array scanning in $\\gamma$-ray flux $F_{\\gamma}$ and angular separation between sources and cosmic rays $\\theta$. A maximal excess of 80 cosmic rays (41.9 expected) is observed for the second catalog of hard Fermi-LAT (2FHL) objects with $F_\\gamma\\left(>50\\:\\mathrm{GeV}\\right)\\geq1.8\\times10^{-11}\\:\\mathrm{ph}\\,\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\,\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ and $\\theta\\leq10^{\\circ}$. The probability for this to happen is $1.6 \\times 10^{-5}$, which translates to $5.5 \\times 10^{-4}$ ($3.26\\sigma$) after compensation for trials. No excess of cosmic rays is instead observed for $\\gamma$-ray blazars not in spati...

  10. Is There an Imprint of Primordial Stars in the Tev Gamma-Ray Spectrum of Blazars?

    CERN Document Server

    Dwek, E; Arendt, R G; Dwek, Eli; Krennrich, Frank; Arendt, Richard G.

    2005-01-01

    The 1 - 5 micron diffuse sky emission from which local foreground emission from the solar system and the Galaxy have been subtracted exceeds the brightness that can be attributed to normal star forming galaxies. The nature of this excess near-infrared background light (NIRBL) is still controversial. On one hand, it has been interpreted as a distinct spectral feature created by the redshifted emission from primordial (Population III) stars that have formed at redshifts > 8. On the other hand, the NIRBL spectrum is almost identical to that of the zodiacal cloud, raising the possibility that it is of local origin. Blazars can, in principle, offer a simple test for the nature and origin of the NIRBL. Very high energy gamma-ray photons emitted by these objects are attenuated on route to earth by photon-photon interactions with the extragalactic background light (EBL). This paper examines whether the extragalactic nature of the NIRBL can be determined from the analysis of the TeV spectra of blazars. (Abridged)

  11. The Outburst of the Blazar S40954+658 in March-April 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Morozova, D A; Troitsky, I S; Jorstad, S G; Marscher, A P; Gómez, J L; Blinov, D A; Efimova, N V; Hagen-Thorn, V A; Hagen-Thorn, E I; Joshi, M; Konstantinova, T S; Kopatskaya, E N; Larionova, L V; Larionova, E G; Lähteenmäki, A; Tammi, J; Rastorgueva-Foi, E; McHardy, I; Tornikoski, M; Agudo, I; Casadio, C; Molina, S N; Volvach, A E; Volvach, L N

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of optical (R band) photometric and polarimetric monitoring and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) imaging of the blazar S4 0954+658, along with Fermi and gamma;-ray data during a multi-waveband outburst in 2011 March-April. After a faint state with a brightness level R ~17.6 mag registered in the first half of January 2011, the optical brightness of the source started to rise and reached ~14.8 mag during the middle of March, showing flare-like behavior. The most spectacular case of intranight variability was observed during the night of 2011 March 9, when the blazar brightened by ~0.7 mag within ~7 hours. During the rise of the flux the position angle of optical polarization rotated smoothly over more than 300$\\deg$. At the same time, within 1$\\sigma$ uncertainty a new superluminal knot appeared with an apparent speed of 19.0$\\pm$0.3 c. We have very strong evidence for association of this knot with the multi-waveband outburst in 2011 March-April. We also analyze the multi-frequency behavi...

  12. The Western Kentucky University Blazar Monitoring Program: The First Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R.; Barnaby, D.; Carini, M.

    2006-07-01

    In 2000, we began a blazar monitoring program utilizing the 0.6m telescope of the Bell Observatory at Western Kentucky University. We chose a sample of objects from across the αro - αox plane in order to characterize the variability characteristics of HBLs, IBLs and LBLs. The most rapid timescale variations, known as microvariability, provide information on differences in jet characteristics and observations of microvariability at different colors provides insight into the nature of the particle acceleration mechanisms in the different subclasses of blazars during different activity levels. On longer timescales (days to weeks) multiwavelength observations (via our participation in WEBT campaigns, VERITAS campaigns, etc) can be used to confront models describing the origin of the seed photons responsible for the observed high energy emission in these objects. Through our ability to obtain well sampled light curves, we will, at the longest timescales (weeks to decades), establish the differences in the variability properties between different sub-classes. We present here the results of the first fours years of this program.

  13. On the use of structure functions to study blazar variability: caveats and problems

    CERN Document Server

    Emmanoulopoulos, Dimitrios; Uttley, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The extensive use of the structure function (SF) in the field of blazar variability suggests that characteristics time-scales are embedded in the light curves of these objects. We argue that for blazar variability studies, the SF results are sometimes erroneously interpreted leading to misconceptions about the actual source properties. Based on extensive simulations we caution that spurious breaks will appear in the SFs of almost all light curves, even though these light curves may contain no intrinsic characteristic time-scales. i.e. having a featureless underlying power-spectral-density (PSD). We show that the time-scales of the spurious SF-breaks depend mainly on the length of the artificial data set and also on the character of the variability i.e. the shape of the PSD. The SF is often invoked in the framework of shot-noise models to determine the temporal properties of individual shots. We caution that although the SF may be fitted to infer the shot parameters, the resultant shot-noise model is usually i...

  14. Multiwavelength Probes of the Environs of Relativistic Shocks in Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, Matthew G; Summerlin, Errol J

    2013-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at relativistic shocks is likely to be an important acceleration mechanism in various astrophysical jet sources, including radio-loud AGN. An important recent development for blazar science is the ability of Fermi-LAT data to pin down the power-law index of the high energy portion of emission in these sources, and therefore also the index of the underlying non-thermal particle population. This diagnostic potential was not possible prior to Fermi launch, when gamma-ray information was dominated by the highly-absorbed TeV band. This paper highlights how multiwavelength spectra including X-ray band and Fermi data can be used to probe diffusive acceleration in relativistic, oblique, MHD shocks in blazar jets. The spectral index of the non-thermal particle distributions resulting from Monte Carlo simulations of DSA, and the fraction of thermal particles accelerated to non-thermal energies, depend sensitively on the particles' mean free path scale, and also on the magnetic field o...

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Non-Fermi blazar sample (Xiong+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, D.; Zhang, X.; Bai, J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-11-01

    The selection criteria for the sample were that we tried to select the largest group of blazars included in the multi-frequency catalogue of blazars (the Roma BZCAT; Massaro et al.. 2009, Cat. J/A+A/495/691) with reliable broad-line luminosity (used as a proxy for disc luminosity), redshift, black hole mass and jet kinetic power. The sample of FBs was directly from Xiong & Zhang (2014MNRAS.441.3375X). The νpeak and Lpeak of our FBs were collected from Finke (2013ApJ...763..134F) and Meyer et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJ/740/98), and the νpeak and Lpeak of NFBs from Nieppola et al. (2006, Cat. J/A+A/445/441; 2008, Cat. J/A+A/488/867), Meyer et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJ/740/98), Wu, Gu & Jiang (2009RAA.....9..168W) and Aatrokoski et al. (2011A&A...536A..15P). (1 data file).

  16. SDSSJ14584479+3720215: A Benchmark JHK Blazar Light Curve from the 2MASS Calibration Scans

    CERN Document Server

    Davenport, James R A; Becker, Andrew C; Macleod, Chelsea L; Cutri, Roc M

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are well-known to exhibit flux variability across a wide range of wavelength regimes, but the precise origin of the variability at different wavelengths remains unclear. To investigate the relatively unexplored near-IR variability of the most luminous AGNs, we conduct a search for variability using well sampled JHKs-band light curves from the 2MASS survey calibration fields. Our sample includes 27 known quasars with an average of 924 epochs of observation over three years, as well as one spectroscopically confirmed blazar (SDSSJ14584479+3720215) with 1972 epochs of data. This is the best-sampled NIR photometric blazar light curve to date, and it exhibits correlated, stochastic variability that we characterize with continuous auto-regressive moving average (CARMA) models. None of the other 26 known quasars had detectable variability in the 2MASS bands above the photometric uncertainty. A blind search of the 2MASS calibration field light curves for AGN candidates based on fitting C...

  17. Synchronous Optical and Radio Polarization Variability in the Blazar OJ287

    CERN Document Server

    D'Arcangelo, F D; Jorstad, S G; Smith, P S; Larionov, V M; Hagen-Thorn, V A; Williams, G G; Gear, W K; Clemens, D P; Sarcia, D; Grabau, A; Tollestrup, E V; Buie, M W; Taylor, B; Dunham, E

    2009-01-01

    We explore the variability and cross-frequency correlation of the flux density and polarization of the blazar OJ287, using imaging at 43 GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array, as well as optical and near-infrared polarimetry. The polarization and flux density in both the optical waveband and the 43 GHz compact core increased by a small amount in late 2005, and increased significantly along with the near-IR polarization and flux density over the course of 10 days in early 2006. Furthermore, the values of the electric vector position angle (EVPA) at the three wavebands are similar. At 43 GHz, the EVPA of the blazar core is perpendicular to the flow of the jet, while the EVPAs of emerging superluminal knots are aligned parallel to the jet axis. The core polarization is that expected if shear aligns the magnetic field at the boundary between flows of disparate velocities within the jet. Using variations in flux density, percentage polarization, and EVPA, we model the inner jet as a spine-sheath system. The model ...

  18. Discovery of a GeV Blazar Shining Through the Galactic Plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellini, A.; /Padua U., Astron. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Bolte, M.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Cheung, C.C.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NAS, Washington, D.C.; Civano, F.; /Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ.; Donato, D.; /NASA, Goddard; Fuhrmann, L.; /Bonn, Max Planck Inst., Radioastron.; Funk, S.; Healey, S.E.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Hill, A.B.; /Joseph Fourier U.; Knigge, C.; /Southampton U.; Madejski, G.M.; Romani, R.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Santander-Garcia, M.; /IAC, La Laguna /Isaac Newton Group /Laguna U., Tenerife; Shaw, M.S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Steeghs, D.; /Warwick U.; Torres, M.A.P.; /Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ.; Van Etten, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Texas U., Astron. Dept.

    2011-08-11

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) discovered a new gamma-ray source near the Galactic plane, Fermi J0109+6134, when it flared brightly in 2010 February. The low Galactic latitude (b = -1.2{sup o}) indicated that the source could be located within the Galaxy, which motivated rapid multi-wavelength follow-up including radio, optical, and X-ray observations. We report the results of analyzing all 19 months of LAT data for the source, and of X-ray observations with both Swift and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We determined the source redshift, z = 0.783, using a Keck LRIS observation. Finally, we compiled a broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) from both historical and new observations contemporaneous with the 2010 February flare. The redshift, SED, optical line width, X-ray obsorption, and multi-band variability indicate that this new Gev source is a blazar seen through the Galactic plane. Because several of the optical emission lines have equivalent width > 5 {angstrom}, this blazar belongs in the flat-spectrum radio quasar category.

  19. Anatomy of a blazar in the (sub-)millimeter: ALMA Observations of PKS 0521-365

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, S; Guerard, M; Villard, E; Hidayat, T; Flaquer, B Ocana; Vila-Vilaro, B

    2015-01-01

    We aim at analyzing the (sub-)millimeter emission in a nearby blazar, PKS 0521-365 , to study the synchrotron and thermal emission in the different components detected at low frequency. We analyze the archive public data of the ALMA Cycle 0 where PKS 0521-365 is used as a calibrator. A total of 13 projects with 23 dataset is analyzed in band 3, 6 and 7 and combined. The whole set of data is combined and wavelet filtered to obtain a deep image reaching a dynamic range of 47000. The individual emission flux is measured at different date over a period of 11 months in various components. Finally we analyze the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) in each different component, including the radio jet and counter jet. The point sources detected in the field follow a similar distribution to previous studies. The blazar flux shows large variation especially in band 3. Different components are observed: core, radio jet and newly detected counter jet, Hot Spot (HS) and a disky structure roughly perpendicular to the jet. T...

  20. Search for High Energy Gamma Rays from an X-ray Selected Blazar Sample

    CERN Document Server

    La Perez, I C; Boyle, P J; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Carter-Lewis, D A; Celik, O; Cui, W; Dowdall, C; Duke, C; Falcone, A; Fegan, D J; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Fortson, L F; Gaidos, J A; Gibbs, K; Gammell, S; Hall, J; Hall, T A; Hillas, A M; Holder, J; Horan, D; Jordan, M; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Kildea, J; Knapp, J; Kosack, K; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Le Bohec, S; Linton, E T; Lloyd-Evans, J; Moriarty, P; Müller, D; Nagai, T N; Ong, R A; Page, M; Pallassini, R; Petry, D; Power-Mooney, B; Quinn, J; Rebillot, P; Reynolds, P T; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Swordy, S P; Vasilev, V V; Wakely, S P; Walker, G; Weekes, T C

    2003-01-01

    Our understanding of blazars has been greatly increased in recent years by extensive multi-wavelength observations, particularly in the radio, X-ray and gamma-ray regions. Over the past decade the Whipple 10m telescope has contributed to this with the detection of 5 BL Lacertae objects at very high gamma-ray energies. The combination of multi-wavelength data has shown that blazars follow a well-defined sequence in terms of their broadband spectral properties. Together with providing constraints on emission models, this information has yielded a means by which potential sources of TeV emission may be identified and predictions made as to their possible gamma-ray flux. We have used the Whipple telescope to search for TeV gamma-ray emission from eight objects selected from a list of such candidates. No evidence has been found for VHE emission from the objects in our sample, and upper limits have been derived for the mean gamma-ray flux above 390GeV. These flux upper limits are compared with the model predictions...

  1. X-ray spectral studies of TeV gamma-ray emitting blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Wierzcholska, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    This work is a summary of the X-ray spectral studies of 29 TeV $\\gamma$-ray emitting blazars observed with Swift/XRT, especially focusing on sources for which X-ray regime allows to study the low and the high energy ends of the particle distributions function. Variability studies require simultaneous coverage, ideally sampling different flux states of each source. This is achieved using X-ray observations by disentangling the high-energy end of the synchrotron emission and the low-energy end of the Compton emission, which are produced by the same electron population. We focused on a sample of 29 TeV gamma-ray emitting blazars with the best signal-to-noise X-ray observations collected with Swift/XRT in the energy range of 0.3-10 keV during 10 years of Swift/XRT operations. We investigate the X-ray spectral shapes and the effects of different corrections for neutral hydrogen absorption and decompose the synchrotron and inverse Compton components. In the case of 5 sources (3C 66A, S5 0716+714, W Comae, 4C +21.35...

  2. A narrow line Seyfert 1--blazar composite nucleus in 2MASX J0324+3410

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, H; Yuan, W; Shan, H; Komossa, S; Lü, H; Liu, Y; Xu, D; Bai, J M; Jiang, D R; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Tinggui; Yuan, Weimin; Shan, Hongguang; Komossa, Stefanie; Lu, Honglin; Liu, Yi; Xu, Dawei

    2007-01-01

    We report the identification of 2MASX J032441.19+341045.9 (hereafter 2MASX J0324+3410) with an appealing object which shows the dual properties of both a narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) and a blazar. Its optical spectrum, which has a H\\beta line width about 1600 km s^-1 (FWHM), an [OIII] to H\\beta line ratio ~0.12, and strong FeII emission, clearly fulfills the conventional definition of NLS1s. On the other hand, 2MASX J0324+3410 also exhibits some behavior which is characteristic of blazars, including a flat radio spectrum above 1 GHz, a compact core plus a one-sided jet structure on mas-scale at 8.4 GHz, highly variable fluxes in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands, and a possible detection of TeV gamma-ray emission. On its optical image, obtained with the HST WFPC2, the active nucleus is displaced from the center of the host galaxy, which exhibits an apparent one-armed spiral structure extended to 16 kpc. The remarkable hybrid behavior of this object presents a challenge to current models of NLS1 galax...

  3. Search for neutrino emission from gamma-ray flaring blazars with the ANTARES telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, N.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-08-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. Radio-loud active galactic nuclei with jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, the so-called blazars, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources. The all-sky monitor LAT on board the Fermi satellite probes the variability of any given gamma-ray bright blazar in the sky on time scales of hours to months. Assuming hadronic models, a strong correlation between the gamma-ray and the neutrino fluxes is expected. Selecting a narrow time window on the assumed neutrino production period can significantly reduce the background. An unbinned method based on the minimization of a likelihood ratio was applied to a subsample of data collected in 2008 (61 days live time). By searching for neutrinos during the high state periods of the AGN light curve, the sensitivity to these sources was improved by about a factor of two with respect to a standard time-integrated point source search. First results on the search for neutrinos associated with ten bright and variable Fermi sources are presented.

  4. Search for Neutrino Emission from Gamma-Ray Flaring Blazars with the ANTARES Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Adrián-Martínez, S; Albert, A; André, M; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Anvar, S; Ardid, M; Astraatmadja, T; Aubert, J-J; Baret, B; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bigongiari, C; Bogazzi, C; Bou-Cabo, M; Bouhou, B; Bouwhuis, M C; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Camarena, F; Capone, A; Cârloganu, C; Carminati, G; Carr, J; Cecchini, S; Charif, Z; Charvis, Ph; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Core, L; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Creusot, A; Curtil, C; De Bonis, G; Decowski, M P; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Dorosti, Q; Drouhin, D; Eberl, T; Emanuele, U; Enzenhöfer, A; Ernenwein, J-P; Escoffier, S; Fehn, K; Fermani, P; Ferri, M; Ferry, S; Flaminio, V; Folger, F; Fritsch, U; Fuda, J-L; Galatà, S; Gay, P; Geyer, K; Giacomelli, G; Giordano, V; Gómez-González, J P; Graf, K; Guillard, G; Halladjian, G; Hallewell, G; van Haren, H; Hartman, J; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herold, B; Hößl, J; Hsu, C C; de Jong, M; Kadler, M; Kalekin, O; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kavatsyuk, O; Kooijman, P; Kopper, C; Kouchner, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lambard, G; Larosa, G; Lattuada, D; Lefèvre, D; Lim, G; Presti, D Lo; Loehner, H; Loucatos, S; Louis, F; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martínez-Mora, J A; Meli, A; Montaruli, T; Morganti, N; Moscoso, L; Motz, H; Neff, M; Nezri, E; Palioselitis, D; Păvălaş, G E; Payet, K; Payre, P; Petrovic, J; Piattelli, P; Picot-Clemente, N; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Presani, E; Racca, C; Reed, C; Riccobene, G; Richardt, C; Richter, R; Rivière, C; Robert, A; Roensch, K; Rostovtsev, A; Ruiz-Rivas, J; Rujoiu, M; Russo, G V; Salesa, F; Samtleben, D F E; Sapienza, P; Schöck, F; Schuller, J-P; Schüssler, F; Seitz, T; Shanidze, R; Simeone, F; Spies, A; Spurio, M; Steijger, J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Sánchez-Losa, A; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Toscano, S; Vallage, B; Vallée, C; Van Elewyck, V; Vannoni, G; Vecchi, M; Vernin, P; Visser, E; Wagner, S; Wijnker, G; Wilms, J; de Wolf, E; Yepes, H; Zaborov, D; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. Radio-loud active galactic nuclei with jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, the so-called blazars, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources. The all-sky monitor LAT on board the Fermi satellite probes the variability of any given gamma-ray bright blazar in the sky on time scales of hours to months. Assuming hadronic models, a strong correlation between the gamma-ray and the neutrino fluxes is expected. Selecting a narrow time window on the assumed neutrino production period can significantly reduce the background. An unbinned method based on the minimization of a likelihood ratio was applied to a subsample of data collected in 2008 (61 days live time). By searching for neutrinos during the high state periods of the AGN light curve, the sensitivity to these sources was improved by about a facto...

  5. The 72-Hour WEBT Microvariability Observation of Blazar S5 0716+714 in 2009

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatta, G; Hollingsworth, H; Dhalla, S; Khanuja, A; Bachev, R; Blinov, D A; Bottcher, M; Calle, O J A Bravo; Calcidese, P; Capezzali, D; Carosati, D; Chigladze, R; Collins, A; Coloma, J M; Efimov, Y; Gupta, A C; Hu, S-M; Kurtanidze, O; Lamerato, A; Larionov, V M; Lee, C -U; Lindfors, E; Murphy, B; Nilsson, K; Ohlert, J M; Oksanen, A; Paakkonen, P; Pollock, J T; Rani, B; Reinthal, R; Rodriguez, D; Ros, J A; Roustazadeh, P; Sagar, R; Sanchez, A; Shastri, P; Sillanpaa, A; Strigachev, A; Takalo, L; Vennes, S; Villata, M; Villforth, C; Wu, J; Zhou, X

    2013-01-01

    Context. The international whole earth blazar telescope (WEBT) consortium planned and carried out three days of intensive micro-variability observations of S5 0716+714 from February 22, 2009 to February 25, 2009. This object was chosen due to its bright apparent magnitude range, its high declination, and its very large duty cycle for micro-variations. Aims. We report here on the long continuous optical micro-variability light curve of 0716+714 obtained during the multi-site observing campaign during which the Blazar showed almost constant variability over a 0.5 magnitude range. The resulting light curve is presented here for the first time. Observations from participating observatories were corrected for instrumental diff?erences and combined to construct the overall smoothed light curve. Methods. Thirty-six observatories in sixteen countries participated in this continuous monitoring program and twenty of them submitted data for compilation into a continuous light curve. The light curve was analyzed using se...

  6. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES. VI. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS FROM TNG, WHT, OAN, SOAR, AND MAGELLAN TELESCOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez Crespo, N.; Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Milisavljevic, D.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A. [Harvard—Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Landoni, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Chavushyan, V.; Patiño-Álvarez, V. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Apartado Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico); Masetti, N. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Jiménez-Bailón, E. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 877, Ensenada, 22800 Baja California, México (Mexico); Strader, J.; Chomiuk, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Katagiri, H.; Kagaya, M. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Cheung, C. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); D’Abrusco, R. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Napoli Federico II, via Cinthia 9, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Ricci, F.; La Franca, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy); and others

    2016-04-15

    Blazars, one of the most extreme classes of active galaxies, constitute so far the largest known population of γ-ray sources, and their number is continuously growing in the Fermi catalogs. However, in the latest release of the Fermi catalog there is still a large fraction of sources that are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs) for which optical spectroscopic observations are necessary to confirm their nature and their associations. In addition, about one-third of the γ-ray point sources listed in the Third Fermi-LAT Source Catalog (3FGL) are still unassociated and lacking an assigned lower-energy counterpart. Since 2012 we have been carrying out an optical spectroscopic campaign to observe blazar candidates to confirm their nature. In this paper, the sixth of the series, we present optical spectroscopic observations for 30 γ-ray blazar candidates from different observing programs we carried out with the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, William Herschel Telescope, Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope, and Magellan Telescopes. We found that 21 out of 30 sources investigated are BL Lac objects, while the remaining targets are classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars showing the typical broad emission lines of normal quasi-stellar objects. We conclude that our selection of γ-ray blazar candidates based on their multifrequency properties continues to be a successful way to discover potential low-energy counterparts of the Fermi unidentified gamma-ray sources and to confirm the nature of BCUs.

  7. Through The Ring Of Fire: $\\gamma$-Ray Variability In Blazars By A Moving Plasmoid Passing A Local Source Of Seed Photons

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Nicholas R; Jorstad, Svetlana G; Joshi, Manasvita

    2015-01-01

    Blazars exhibit flares across the electromagnetic spectrum. Many $\\gamma$-ray flares are highly correlated with flares detected at optical wavelengths; however, a small subset appears to occur in isolation, with little or no variability detected at longer wavelengths. These "orphan" $\\gamma$-ray flares challenge current models of blazar variability, most of which are unable to reproduce this type of behavior. We present numerical calculations of the time-variable emission of a blazar based on a proposal by Marscher et al. (2010) to explain such events. In this model, a plasmoid ("blob") propagates relativistically along the spine of a blazar jet and passes through a synchrotron-emitting ring of electrons representing a shocked portion of the jet sheath. This ring supplies a source of seed photons that are inverse-Compton scattered by the electrons in the moving blob. The model includes the effects of radiative cooling, a spatially varying magnetic field, and acceleration of the blob's bulk velocity. Synthetic...

  8. NuSTAR and multifrequency study of the two high-redshift blazars S5 0836+710 and PKS 2149-306

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagliaferri, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Perri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Powerful blazars are flat-spectrum radio quasars whose emission is dominated by a Compton component peakingbetween a few hundred keV and a few hundred MeV. We observed two bright blazars, PKS 2149–306 at redshift z = 2.345 and S5 0836+710 at z = 2.172, in the hard X-ray band with the Nuclear Spec...

  9. Fermi-LAT View of Bright Flaring Gamma-Ray Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. Bastieri; S. Ciprini; D. Gasparrini

    2011-03-01

    The Fermi LAT provides a continuous and uniform monitoring of the Universe in the gamma-ray band. During the first year many gamma-ray blazar flares, some unidentified transients and emission by the Sun while in a quiet state were promptly detected. This is mainly due to the design of the mission, featuring a detector, the LAT with a wide field of view, and to the operation of the spacecraft itself, that can cover every region of the sky every 3 hours. Nevertheless, the scientific exploitation of this monitoring is more fruitful when early information about transients reaches a broader community. In this respect, the indefatigable activity of flare advocates, who worked on weekly shifts to validate the results and quickly broadcast information about flares and new detections, was the key to most scientific results.

  10. Evidence for Quasi-periodic Modulation in the Gamma-ray Blazar PG 1553+113

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Albert, A; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Gonzalez, J Becerra; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonino, R; Bottacini, E; Bregeon, J; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caputo, R; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P A; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; De Angelis, A; De Palma, F; Desiante, R; Di Venere, L; Dominguez, A; Drell, P S; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fuhrmann, L; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Godfrey, G; Green, D; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Harding, A K; Hays, E; Hewitt, J W; Hill, A B; Horan, D; Jogler, T; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Kuss, M; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Li, J; Li, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Magill, J; Maldera, S; Manfreda, A; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; Mcenery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Ojha, R; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Pearson, T J; Perkins, J S; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, V; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Raino', S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Readhead, A; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Schulz, A; Sgro', C; Siskind, E J; Spada, F; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vianello, G; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Zimmer, S; Berdyugin, A; Corbet, R H D; Hovatta, T; Lindfors, E; Nilsson, K; Reinthal, R; Sillanpaa, A; Stamerra, A; Takalo, L O; Valtonen, M J

    2015-01-01

    We report for the first time a gamma-ray and multiwavelength nearly-periodic oscillation in an active galactic nucleus. Using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) we have discovered an apparent quasi-periodicity in the gamma-ray flux (E>100 MeV) from the GeV/TeV BL Lac object PG 1553+113. The marginal significance of the 2.18 +/- 0.08 year-period gamma-ray cycle, seen in 3.5 oscillation maxima observed, is corroborated by correlated oscillations observed in radio and optical fluxes, through data collected in the OVRO, Tuorla, KAIT, and CSS monitoring programs and Swift UVOT. The optical cycle appearing in sim 10 years of data has a similar period, while the 15 GHz oscillation is less regular. Further long-term multi-wavelength monitoring of this blazar may discriminate among the possible explanations for this quasi-periodicity.

  11. Broadband radio jet emission and variability of γ-ray blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestoras, Ioannis

    2015-07-01

    AGN (Active Galactic Nuclei) and in particular their subclass blazars, are among the most energetic objects observed in the universe, featuring extreme phenomenological characteristics such as rapid broadband flux density and polarization variability, fast super--luminal motion, high degree of polarization and a broadband, double-humped spectral energy distribution (SED). The details of the emission processes and violent variability of blazars are still poorly understood. Variability studies give important clues about the size, structure, physics and dynamics of the emitting region making AGN/blazar monitoring programs of uttermost importance in providing the necessary constraints for understanding the origin of energy production. In this framework the F-gamma program was initiated, monitoring monthly 60 fermi detected AGN/blazars at 12 frequencies between 2.6 and 345GHz since 2007. For the thesis in hand observations and data analysis were performed within the realms of the F-gamma program, using the Effelsberg (EB) 100m and Pico Veleta (PV) 30m telescopes at 10 frequency bands ranging from 2.64 to 142GHz. The cm to short-mm variability/spectral characteristics are monitored for a sample of 59 sources for a period of five years enabling for the first time a detailed study of the observed flaring activity in both the light curve and spectral domains for such a large number of sources and such high cadence. Also the observing systems and methods are introduced as well as the data reduction techniques. The thesis at hand is structured as follows: Chapter 3 presents the reduction methods and post measurement corrections applied to the data such as pointing offsets, gain--elevation and sensitivity corrections as well as specific corrections applied for each of the Effelsberg and Pico Veleta observing systems respectively. Chapter 4 presents the analysis tools and methods that were used such as: variability characteristics, flare amplitudes with a new method for

  12. Possible Quasi-Periodic Gamma-ray Emission from Blazar PG 1553+113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David; Cutini, Sara; Ciprini, Stefano; Larsson, Stefan; Stamerra, Antonio; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We report an update on a possible gamma-ray and multiwavelength nearly periodic oscillation in an active galactic nucleus. Data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope exhibit an apparent quasi-periodicity in the gamma-ray flux (E > 100 MeV) from the GeV/TeV BL Lac object PG 1553+113. The indication of a 2.18 +/- 0.08 year period gamma-ray cycle is strengthened by correlated oscillations observed in radio and optical fluxes, through data collected in the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Tuorla, Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope, and Catalina Sky Survey monitoring programs and Swift-UVOT. Further long-term multiwavelength monitoring of this blazar may discriminate among the possible explanations for this quasi-periodicity.

  13. Twenty-Year Optical Variability of The Blazar PKS 1749+096: Exponential Outbursts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonek, Thomas J.; Lam, M. T.; Patrick, P. A.; Scott, E. L.; Kaercher, A. J.; Rupert, J.; Taber, T.; Hegel, P.; Tam, Y. H. N.; Morin, A.; Levandowski, K.; Graber, E. L.; Quirk, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the twenty-year R-band optical variability light curve for the BL Lac type quasar PKS 1749+096. We investigate the characteristic timescales and intensity of outbursts and flares by fitting exponential profiles to the variations. PKS 1749+096 underwent strong optical outbursts during the summers of 2007 and 2008, reaching its brightest optical level in two decades, and exhibited an inactive period during summer 2009. We compare these two outbursts with lower amplitude well-sampled variations in 2000 through 2003. Observations were obtained as part of the intensive blazar variability monitoring program at the Colgate University Foggy Bottom Observatory (FBO). We gratefully acknowledge support for student research through an REU grant to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium from the National Science Foundation, the NASA / New York Space Grant, and the Justus and Jayne Schlichting Student Research Fund at Colgate University.

  14. The 2007 and 2008 Optical Outbursts of the Blazar PKS 1749+096

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonek, Thomas J.; Lam, M. T.; Tam, Y. H. Ng; Scott, E. L.; Quirk, T. S.; Graber, E. L.; Gurwell, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The BL Lac type quasar PKS 1749+096 underwent strong optical outbursts (R 13.8) during the summers of 2007 and 2008. To study the variation timescales we initiated an intensive observing program to obtain R filtered CCD images at the Colgate University Foggy Bottom Observatory (FBO). These data, along with earlier observations from FBO's quasar monitoring program, reveal that during both the 2007 and 2008 outbursts this blazar reached its brightest optical level in three decades. Comparison of millimeter wavelength radio observations with the optical light curve indicates radio variations may be correlated with the optical outbursts. We gratefully acknowledge support for student research through an REU grant to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium from the National Science Foundation, the NASA / New York Space Grant, and the Schlichting Student Research Fund at Colgate University.

  15. VLBI Observations of the Blazar 1611+343 at 5 GHz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The gamma-ray blazar 1611+343 was observed with polarization VLBI mode at 5 GHz in February 1999. The total intensity (I) VLBI image of the source shows a core-jet structure. The jet bends eastward at ~ 3 mas south of the core.Four components have been detected from results of fitting, with apparent speeds estimated at 6.7 ±- 0.7, 2.5 ±- 0.3, 4.5 ± 0.5 h-1c for three jet components (taking Ho = 100 h km s- 1 Mpc-1, q0 = 0.5). The polarization (P) VLBI image of 1611±343 displays the polarized configuration in the jet. The mechanism of the curved jet is discussed.

  16. Extreme photo-polarimetric behaviour of the blazar AO 0235+164

    CERN Document Server

    Cellone, Sergio A; Combi, Jorge A; Marti, Josep

    2007-01-01

    We present optical photo-polarimetric observations with high temporal resolution of the blazar AO 0235+164. Our data, the first to test the photo-polarimetric behaviour of this object at very short time-scales, show significant micro-variability in total flux, colour index, linear polarization degree, and position angle. Strong inter-night variations are also detected for these parameters. Although no correlation between colour index and total flux was found, our data seem to support the general bluer-when-brighter trend already known for this object. The polarization degree, in turn, shows no correlation with total flux, but a clear trend in the sense that colour index is redder (the spectrum is softer) when the measured polarization is higher.

  17. Numerical simulations of the internal shock model in magnetized relativistic jets of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Rueda-Becerril, Jesus M; Aloy, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    The internal shocks scenario in relativistic jets is used to explain the variability of the blazar emission. Recent studies have shown that the magnetic field significantly alters the shell collision dynamics, producing a variety of spectral energy distributions and light-curves patterns. However, the role played by magnetization in such emission processes is still not entirely understood. In this work we numerically solve the magnetohydodynamic evolution of the magnetized shells collision, and determine the influence of the magnetization on the observed radiation. Our procedure consists in systematically varying the shell Lorentz factor, relative velocity, and viewing angle. The calculations needed to produce the whole broadband spectral energy distributions and light-curves are computationally expensive, and are achieved using a high-performance parallel code.

  18. Estudio de variabilidad del blazar BL Lacertae: desde radio hasta rayos gamma (2008-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichel, A.; Rovero, A. C.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to study the blazar BL Lacertae during extended periods (greater than weeks), by characterizing the changes in flux and polarization at optical, radio, X-rays and gamma rays; also to investigate the possible correlations between different bands. We look for periodicity in the flux variations in different bands, looking for criteria to predict high activity states of the source. We use multi-frequency observations of BL Lacertae obtained during the years 2008--2015, from radio to very-high-energy gamma rays. During this period, the source remained mainly in a low state of activity at the high energy bands, with several episodes of high activity (flares) in different bands, some of them observed simultaneously in several bands.

  19. The Imprint of The Extragalactic Background Light in the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the Universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL is important to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are lim- ited by Galactic and other foreground emissions. Here we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z$\\sim$1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to UV frequencies, and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band.

  20. On the phenomenological classification of continuum radio spectra variability patterns of Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Angelakis, E; Nestoras, I; Fromm, C M; Schmidt, R; Zensus, J A; Marchili, N; Krichbaum, T P; Perucho-Pla, M; Ungerechts, H; Sievers, A; Riquelme, D

    2011-01-01

    The F-GAMMA program is a coordinated effort to investigate the physics of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) via multi-frequency monitoring of {\\em Fermi} blazars. The current study is concerned with the broad-band radio spectra composed of measurement at ten frequencies between 2.64 and 142 GHz. It is shown that any of the 78 sources studied can be classified in terms of their variability characteristics in merely 5 types of variability. The first four types are dominated by spectral evolution and can be reproduced by a simple two-component system made of the quiescent spectrum of a large scale jet populated with a flaring event evolving according to Marscher & Gear (1985). The last type is characterized by an achromatic change of the broad-band spectrum which must be attributed to a completely different mechanism. Here are presented, the classification, the assumed physical system and the results of simulations that have been conducted.

  1. The colour of the narrow line Sy1-blazar 0324+3410

    CERN Document Server

    Antón, S; Marcha, M J

    2009-01-01

    Aims. We investigate the properties of the host galaxy of the blazar J0324+3410 (B2 0321+33) by the analysis of B and R images obtained with the NOT under good photometric conditions. Methods: The galaxy was studied using different methods: Sersic model fitting, unsharp-masked images, B-R image and B-R profile analysis. Results: The images show that the host galaxy has a ring-like morphology. The B-R colour image reveals two bluish zones: one that coincides with the nuclear region, interpreted as the signature of emission related to the active nucleus, the other zone is extended and is located in the host ring-structure. We discuss the hypothesis that the later is thermal emission from a burst of star formation triggered by an interacting/merging process.

  2. Time dependent modelisation of TeV blazars by a stratified jet model

    CERN Document Server

    Boutelier, Timothé; Petrucci, Pierre-Olivier

    2008-01-01

    We present a new time-dependent inhomogeneous jet model of non-thermal blazar emission. Ultra-relativistic leptons are injected at the base of a jet and propagate along it. We assume continuous reacceleration and cooling, producing a relativistic quasi-maxwellian (or "pile-up") particle energy distribution. The synchrotron and Synchrotron-Self Compton jet emissivity are computed at each altitude. Klein-Nishina effects as well as intrinsic gamma-gamma absorption are included in the computation. Due to the pair production optical depth, considerable particle density enhancement can occur, particularly during flaring states.Time-dependent jet emission can be computed by varying the particle injection, but due to the sensitivity of pair production process, only small variations of the injected density are required during the flares. The stratification of the jet emission, together with a pile-up distribution, allows significantly lower bulk Lorentz factors, compared to one-zone models. Applying this model to the ...

  3. Stochastic Gyroresonant Acceleration for Hard Electron Spectra of Blazars: Effect of Damping of Cascading Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Kakuwa, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic acceleration of nonthermal electrons is investigated in the context of hard photon spectra of blazars. It is well known that this acceleration mechanism can produce a hard electron spectrum of $m \\equiv \\partial \\ln n_{\\rm e}(\\gamma)/\\partial \\ln \\gamma = 2$ with the high-energy cutoff, called an ultrarelativistic Maxwellian-like distribution, where $n_{\\rm e}(\\gamma)$ is an electron energy spectrum. We revisit the formation of this characteristic spectrum, considering a particular situation where the electrons are accelerated through gyroresonant interaction with magnetohydrodynamic wave turbulence driven by the turbulent cascade. By solving kinetic equations of the turbulent fields, electrons, and photons emitted via the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) process, we demonstrate that in the non-test-particle treatment, the formation of a Maxwellian-like distribution is prevented by the damping effect on the turbulent fields due to the electron acceleration, at least unless an extreme parameter value ...

  4. First Study of Combined Blazar Light Curves with FACT and HAWC

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    For studying variable sources like blazars, it is crucial to achieve unbiased monitoring, either with dedicated telescopes in pointing mode or survey instruments. At TeV energies, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory monitors approximately two thirds of the sky every day. It uses the water Cherenkov technique, which provides an excellent duty cycle independent of weather and season. The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) monitors a small sample of sources with better sensitivity, using the imaging air Cherenkov technique. Thanks to its camera with silicon-based photosensors, FACT features an excellent detector performance and stability and extends its observations to times with strong moonlight, increasing the duty cycle compared to other imaging air Cherenkov telescopes. As FACT and HAWC have overlapping energy ranges, a joint study can exploit the longer daily coverage given that the observatories' locations are offset by 5.3 hours. Furthermore, the better sensitivity of FACT adds a fine...

  5. Constraining the Location of Gamma-Ray Flares in Luminous Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Sikora, Marek

    2014-07-01

    Locating the gamma-ray emission sites in blazar jets is a long standing and highly controversial issue. We jointly investigate several constraints on the distance scale r and Lorentz factor Γ of the gamma-ray emitting regions in luminous blazars (primarily flat spectrum radio quasars). Working in the framework of one-zone external radiation Comptonization models, we perform a parameter space study for several representative cases of actual gamma-ray flares in their multiwavelength context. We find a particularly useful combination of three constraints: from an upper limit on the collimation parameter Γθ self-Compton (SSC) luminosity L SSC low accretion disk luminosity L d. The commonly used intrinsic pair-production opacity constraint on Γ is usually much weaker than the SSC constraint. The SSC and cooling constraints provide a robust lower limit on the collimation parameter Γθ >~ 0.1-0.7. Typical values of r corresponding to moderate values of Γ ~ 20 are in the range 0.1-1 pc, and are determined primarily by the observed variability timescale t var, obs. Alternative scenarios motivated by the observed gamma-ray/millimeter connection, in which gamma-ray flares of t var, obs ~ a few days are located at r ~ 10 pc, are in conflict with both the SSC and cooling constraints. Moreover, we use a simple light travel time argument to point out that the gamma-ray/millimeter connection does not provide a significant constraint on the location of gamma-ray flares. We argue that spine-sheath models of the jet structure do not offer a plausible alternative to external radiation fields at large distances; however, an extended broad-line region is an idea worth exploring. We propose that the most definite additional constraint could be provided by determination of the synchrotron self-absorption frequency for correlated synchrotron and gamma-ray flares.

  6. Understanding the general feature of microvariability in Kepler blazar W2R 1926+42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, Mahito; Mineshige, Shin; Yamada, Shinya; Negoro, Hitoshi

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the Kepler monitoring light curve of a blazar W2R 1926+42 to examine features of microvariability by means of the "shot analysis" technique. We select 195 intra-day, flare-like variations (shots) for the continuous light curve of Quarter 14 with a duration of 100 d. In the application of the shot analysis, an averaged profile of variations is assumed to converge with a universal profile which reflects a physical mechanism generating the microvariability in a blazar jet, although light-variation profiles of selected shots show a variety. A mean profile, which is obtained by aligning the peaks of the 195 shots, is composed of a spiky-shaped shot component at ± 0.1 d (with respect to the time of the peak), and two slow varying components ranging from -0.50 d to -0.15 d and from 0.10 d to 0.45 d of the peak time. The former spiky feature is well represented by an exponential rise of 0.043 ± 0.001 d and an exponential decay of 0.061 ± 0.002 d. These timescales are consistent with that corresponding to a break frequency of a power spectrum density calculated from the obtained light curve. After verification with the Monte Carlo method, the exponential shape, but not the observed asymmetry, of the shot component can be explained by noise variation. The asymmetry is difficult to explain through a geometrical effect (i.e., changes of the geometry of the emitting region), but is more likely to be caused by the production and dissipation of high-energy accelerated particles in the jet. Additionally, the durations of the detected shots show a systematic variation with a dispersion caused by a statistical randomness. A comparison with the variability of Cygnus X-1 is also briefly discussed.

  7. DEEP BROADBAND OBSERVATIONS OF THE DISTANT GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR PKS 1424+240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Federici, S. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Beilicke, M.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Biteau, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: amy.furniss@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; Fermi LAT Collaboration; and others

    2014-04-10

    We present deep VERITAS observations of the blazar PKS 1424+240, along with contemporaneous Fermi Large Area Telescope, Swift X-ray Telescope, and Swift UV Optical Telescope data between 2009 February 19 and 2013 June 8. This blazar resides at a redshift of z ≥ 0.6035, displaying a significantly attenuated gamma-ray flux above 100 GeV due to photon absorption via pair-production with the extragalactic background light. We present more than 100 hr of VERITAS observations over three years, a multiwavelength light curve, and the contemporaneous spectral energy distributions. The source shows a higher flux of (2.1 ± 0.3) × 10{sup –7} photons m{sup –2} s{sup –1} above 120 GeV in 2009 and 2011 as compared to the flux measured in 2013, corresponding to (1.02 ± 0.08) × 10{sup –7} photons m{sup –2} s{sup –1} above 120 GeV. The measured differential very high energy (VHE; E ≥ 100 GeV) spectral indices are Γ = 3.8 ± 0.3, 4.3 ± 0.6 and 4.5 ± 0.2 in 2009, 2011, and 2013, respectively. No significant spectral change across the observation epochs is detected. We find no evidence for variability at gamma-ray opacities of greater than τ = 2, where it is postulated that any variability would be small and occur on timescales longer than a year if hadronic cosmic-ray interactions with extragalactic photon fields provide a secondary VHE photon flux. The data cannot rule out such variability due to low statistics.

  8. Synchronous Optical and Radio Polarization Variability in the Blazar OJ287

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'arcangelo, Francesca D.; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Smith, Paul S.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A.; Williams, G. Grant; Gear, Walter K.; Clemens, Dan P.; Sarcia, Domenic; Grabau, Alex; Tollestrup, Eric V.; Buie, Marc W.; Taylor, Brian; Dunham, Edward

    2009-06-01

    We explore the variability and cross-frequency correlation of the flux density and polarization of the blazar OJ287, using imaging at 43 GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array, as well as optical and near-infrared (near-IR) polarimetry. The polarization and flux density in both the optical waveband and the 43 GHz compact core increased by a small amount in late 2005, and increased significantly along with the near-IR polarization and flux density over the course of 10 days in early 2006. Furthermore, the values of the electric vector position angle (EVPA) at the three wavebands are similar. At 43 GHz, the EVPA of the blazar core is perpendicular to the flow of the jet, while the EVPAs of emerging superluminal knots are aligned parallel to the jet axis. The core polarization is that expected if shear aligns the magnetic field at the boundary between flows of disparate velocities within the jet. Using variations in flux density, percentage polarization, and EVPA, we model the inner jet as a spine-sheath system. The model jet contains a turbulent spine of half-width 1fdg2 and maximum Lorentz factor of 16.5, a turbulent sheath with Lorentz factor of 5, and a boundary region of sheared field between the spine and sheath. Transverse shocks propagating along the fast, turbulent spine can explain the superluminal knots. The observed flux density and polarization variations are then compatible with changes in the direction of the inner jet caused by a temporary change in the position of the core if the spine contains wiggles owing to an instability. In addition, we can explain a stable offset of optical and near-IR percentage polarization by a steepening of spectral index with frequency, as supported by the data.

  9. The Utilization of the RCT Telescope for Studies of Blazar Continuum Emission during the GLAST Gamma-Ray Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.; Cominsky, L.; Spear, G.; Carinni, M.; Gelderman, R.; McGruder, C. H.; Guinan, E.; Howell, S.; Davis, D. R.; Everett, M.; Walter, D. K.

    2003-05-01

    The RCT Consortium successfully proposed to refurbish and automate the Kitt Peak 1.3-m telescope, and to operate it as the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT). Refurbishment is nearing completion, and observations have begun. The capabilities of the RCT for broad-band optical photometry will be described. A program for systematic optical monitoring of blazars with the RCT is planned. We anticipate that an important utilization of the RCT will be in conjunction with multi-wavelength studies of blazar continuum emission during the operation of NASA's Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) satellite, now scheduled for launch in 2006. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG58762.

  10. Short-time Variability of Blazars via Non-linear, Time-dependent Synchrotron-Self Compton Radiative Losses

    CERN Document Server

    Röken, Christian; Schöneberg, Sebastian; Schuppan, Florian

    2016-01-01

    A leptonic one-zone model accounting for the radiation emission of blazars is presented. This model describes multiple successive injections of mono-energetic, ultra-relativistic, interacting electron populations, which are subjected to synchrotron and synchrotron-self Compton radiative losses. The electron number density is computed analytically by solving a time-dependent, relativistic transport equation. Moreover, the synchrotron and synchrotron-self Compton intensities as well as the corresponding total fluences are explicitly calculated. The lightcurves and fluences are plotted for realistic parameter values, showing that the model can simultaneously explain both the specific short-time variability in the flaring of blazars and the characteristic broad-band fluence behavior.

  11. The Cosmological Impact of Luminous TeV Blazars III: Implications for Galaxy Clusters and the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    A subset of blazars emit TeV gamma rays which annihilate and pair produce on the extragalactic background light. We have argued in Broderick et al. (2011, Paper I) that plasma beam instabilities can dissipate the pairs' energy locally. This heats the intergalactic medium and dramatically increases its entropy after redshift z~2, with important implications for structure formation: (1) This suggests a scenario for the origin of the cool core (CC)/non-cool core (NCC) bimodality in galaxy clusters and groups. Early forming galaxy groups are unaffected because they can efficiently radiate the additional entropy, developing a CC. However, late forming groups do not have sufficient time to cool before the entropy is gravitationally reprocessed through successive mergers - counteracting cooling and raising the core entropy further. Hence blazar heating works different than feedback by active galactic nuclei, which balances radiative cooling but is unable to transform CC into NCC clusters due to the weak coupling to ...

  12. DISCOVERY OF A WANDERING RADIO JET BASE AFTER A LARGE X-RAY FLARE IN THE BLAZAR MARKARIAN 421

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinuma, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Yoshida 1677-1, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Kino, M. [Korean VLBI Network, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daedeokdae-ro 776, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Doi, A. [The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Hada, K. [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Nagai, H. [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Koyama, S., E-mail: niinuma@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the location of the radio jet bases (“radio cores”) of blazars in radio images and their stationarity by means of dense very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In order to measure the position of a radio core, we conducted a 12 epoch astrometric observation of the blazar Markarian 421 with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry at 22 GHz immediately after a large X-ray flare, which occurred in the middle of 2011 September. For the first time,we find that the radio core is not stationary but rather changes its location toward 0.5 mas downstream. This angular scale corresponds to the de-projected length of a scale of 10{sup 5} Schwarzschild radii (R{sub s}) at the distance of Markarian 421. This radio-core wandering may be a new type of manifestation associated with the phenomena of large X-ray flares.

  13. Discovery of a wandering radio jet base after a large X-ray flare in the blazar Markarian 421

    CERN Document Server

    Niinuma, K; Doi, A; Hada, K; Nagai, H; Koyama, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the location of the radio jet bases ("radio cores") of blazars in radio images, and their stationarity by means of dense very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In order to measure the position of a radio core, we conducted 12 epoch astrometric observation of the blazar Markarian 421 with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry at 22 GHz immediately after a large X-ray flare, which occurred in the middle of 2011 September. For the first time, we find that the radio core is not stationary but rather changes its location toward 0.5 mas downstream. This angular scale corresponds to the de-projected length of a scale of $10^5$ Schwarzschild radii (Rs) at the distance of Markarian~421. This radio-core wandering may be a new type of manifestation associated with the phenomena of large X-ray flares.

  14. Relativistic Pair Beams from TeV Blazars: A Source of Reprocessed GeV Emission rather than IGM Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Sironi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of TeV photons from blazars with the extragalactic background light produces a relativistic beam of electron-positron pairs streaming through the intergalactic medium (IGM). The fate of the beam energy is uncertain. By means of two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we study the non-linear evolution of dilute ultra-relativistic pair beams propagating through the IGM. We explore a wide range of beam Lorentz factors gamma_b>>1 and beam-to-plasma density ratios alpha 0.2 (as typically expected for blazar-induced beams), the fraction of beam energy deposited into the IGM is much smaller than ~10%. It follows that at least ~90% of the beam energy is still available to power the GeV emission produced by inverse Compton up-scattering of the Cosmic Microwave Background by the beam pairs.

  15. Polarization Signatures of Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Shocks in the Blazar Emission Region - I. Force-free Helical Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Haocheng; Li, Hui; Böttcher, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The optical radiation and polarization signatures in blazars are known to be highly variable during flaring activities. It is frequently argued that shocks are the main driver of the flaring events. However, the spectral variability modelings generally lack detailed considerations of the self-consistent magnetic field evolution modeling, thus so far the associated optical polarization signatures are poorly understood. We present the first simultaneous modeling of the optical radiation and polarization signatures based on 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of relativistic shocks in the blazar emission environment, with the simplest physical assumptions. By comparing the results with observations, we find that shocks in a weakly magnetized environment will largely lead to significant changes in the optical polarization signatures, which are seldom seen in observations. Hence an emission region with relatively strong magnetization is preferred. In such an environment, slow shocks may produce minor flares with ei...

  16. Time-Variable Linear Polarization as a Probe of the Physical Conditions in the Compact Jets of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Marscher, Alan P

    2014-01-01

    A single measurement of linear polarization of a nonthermal source provides direct information about the mean direction and level of ordering of the magnetic field. Monitoring of the polarization in blazars, combined with millimeter-wave VLBI imaging in both total and polarized intensity, has the potential to determine the geometry of the magnetic field. This is a key probe of the physical processes in the relativistic jet, such as ordered field components, turbulence, magnetic reconnections, magnetic collimation and acceleration of the jet flow, particle acceleration, and radiative processes that produce extremely luminous, highly variable nonthermal emission. Well-sampled monitoring observations of multi-waveband flux and radio-optical polarization of blazars show a variety of behavior. In some cases, the observed polarization patterns appear systematic, while in others randomness dominates. Explanations involve helical magnetic fields, turbulence, and perhaps particle acceleration that depends on the angle...

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: X-ray, opt. & radio SEDs of Fermi blazars (Fan+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Luo, G. Y.; Lin, C.; Yuan, Y. H.; Xiao, H. B.; Zhou, A. Y.; Hua, T. X.; Pei, Z. Y.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss a sample of 1425 Fermi-detected blazars (FSRQs, BLs, and BCUs) from the 3FGL (Acero et al. 2015, J/ApJS/218/23). The multifrequency data (radio to X-ray bands) collected from NED are used to calculate their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). SEDs have been successfully fitted only for 1392 sources. (1 data file).

  18. Multifrequency monitoring of the blazar 0716+714 during the GASP-WEBT-AGILE campaign of 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Larionov, V. M.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Nilsson, K.; Aller, M. F.; Tornikoski, M.; Volvach, A.; Aller, H. D.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bach, U.; Beltrame, P.; Bhatta, G.; Buemi, C. S.; Böttcher, M.; Calcidese, P.; Carosati, D.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; da Rio, D.; di Paola, A.; Dolci, M.; Forné, E.; Frasca, A.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Jelínek, M.; Kimeridze, G. N.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Lanteri, L.; Leto, P.; Ligustri, R.; Lindfors, E.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Marilli, E.; Nieppola, E.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Pasanen, M.; Ragozzine, B.; Ros, J. A.; Sigua, L. A.; Smart, R. L.; Sorcia, M.; Takalo, L. O.; Tavani, M.; Trigilio, C.; Turchetti, R.; Uckert, K.; Umana, G.; Vercellone, S.; Webb, J. R.

    2008-04-01

    Aims: Since the CGRO operation in 1991-2000, one of the primary unresolved questions about the blazar γ-ray emission has been its possible correlation with the low-energy (in particular optical) emission. To help answer this problem, the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) consortium has organized the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) to provide the optical-to-radio monitoring data to be compared with the γ-ray detections by the AGILE and GLAST satellites. This new WEBT project started in early September 2007, just before a strong γ-ray detection of 0716+714 by AGILE. Methods: We present the GASP-WEBT optical and radio light curves of this blazar obtained in July-November 2007, about various AGILE pointings at the source. We construct NIR-to-UV spectral energy distributions (SEDs), by assembling GASP-WEBT data together with UV data from the Swift ToO observations of late October. Results: We observe a contemporaneous optical-radio outburst, which is a rare and interesting phenomenon in blazars. The shape of the SEDs during the outburst appears peculiarly wavy because of an optical excess and a UV drop-and-rise. The optical light curve is well sampled during the AGILE pointings, showing prominent and sharp flares. A future cross-correlation analysis of the optical and AGILE data will shed light on the expected relationship between these flares and the γ-ray events. The radio-to-optical data presented in this paper are stored in the WEBT archive; for questions regarding their availability, please contact the WEBT President Massimo Villata.

  19. Multi-frequency monitoring of gamma-ray loud blazars: I. Light curves and spectral energy distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, U; Villata, M; Fuhrmann, L; Buemi, C S; Larionov, V M; Leto, P; Arkharov, A A; Coloma, J M; Di Paola, A; Dolci, M; Efimova, N; Forne, E; Ibrahimov, M A; Hagen-Thorn, V; Konstantinova, T; Kopatskaya, E; Lanteri, L; Kurtanidze, O M; Maccaferri, G; Nikolashvili, M G; Orlati, A; Ros, J A; Tosti, G; Trigilio, C; Umana, G

    2006-01-01

    Context: Being dominated by non-thermal emission from aligned relativistic jets, blazars allow us to elucidate the physics of extragalactic jets, and, ltimately, how the energy is extracted from the central black hole in radio-loud active galactic nuclei. Aims: Crucial information is provided by broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs), their trends with luminosity and correlated multi-frequency variability. With this study we plan to obtain a database of contemporaneous radio-to-optical spectra of a sample of blazars, which are and will be observed by current and future high-energy satellites. Methods: Since December 2004 we are performing a monthly multi-frequency radio monitoring of a sample of 35 blazars at the antennas in Medicina and Noto. Contemporaneous near-IR and optical observations for all our observing epochs are organised. Results: Until June 2006 about 4000 radio measurements and 5500 near-IR and optical measurements were obtained. Most of the sources show significant variability in all ...

  20. Optical counterparts of undetermined type $\\gamma$-ray Active Galactic Nuclei with blazar-like Spectral Energy Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    La Mura, G; Ciroi, S; Rafanelli, P; Salvetti, D; Berton, M; Cracco, V

    2015-01-01

    During its first four years of scientific observations, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) detected 3033 $\\gamma$-ray sources above a 4$\\sigma$ significance level. Although most of the extra-Galactic sources are active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the blazar class, other families of AGNs are observed too, while a still high fraction of detections ($\\sim 30\\%$) remains with uncertain association or classification. According to the currently accepted interpretation, the AGN $\\gamma$-ray emission arises from inverse Compton (IC) scattering of low energy photons by relativistic particles confined in a jet that, in the case of blazars, is oriented very close to our line of sight. Taking advantage of data from radio and X-ray wavelengths, which we expect to be produced together with $\\gamma$-rays, providing a much better source localization potential, we focused our attention on a sample of $\\gamma$-ray Blazar Candidates of Undetermined Type (BCUs), starting a campaign of optical spectroscopic observations. The...

  1. Time structure of gamma-ray signals generated in line-of-sight interactions of cosmic rays from distant blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Prosekin, Anton; Kusenko, Alexander; Aharonian, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Blazars are expected to produce both gamma rays and cosmic rays. Therefore, observed high-energy gamma rays from distant blazars may contain a significant contribution from secondary gamma rays produced along the line of sight by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with background photons. Unlike the standard models of blazars that consider only the primary photons emitted at the source, models which include the cosmic-ray contribution predict that even ~10 TeV photons should be detectable from distant objects with redshifts as high as z> 0.1. Secondary photons contribute to signals of point sources only if the intergalactic magnetic fields are very small, below ~10 femtogauss, and their detection can be used to set upper bounds on magnetic fields along the line of sight. Secondary gamma rays have distinct spectral and temporal features. We explore the temporal properties of such signals using a semi-analytical formalism and detailed numerical simulations, which account for all the relevant processes, incl...

  2. RoboPol: The optical polarization of gamma-ray--loud and gamma-ray--quiet blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Angelakis, E; Blinov, D; Pavlidou, V; Kiehlmann, S; Myserlis, I; Boettcher, M; Mao, P; Panopoulou, G V; Liodakis, I; King, O G; Balokovic, M; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Mahabal, A; Marecki, A; Paleologou, E; Papadakis, I; Papamastorakis, I; Pazderski, E; Pearson, T J; Prabhudesai, S; Ramaprakash, A N; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Tassis, K; Urry, M; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present average R-band optopolarimetric data, as well as variability parameters, from the first and second RoboPol observing season. We investigate whether gamma- ray--loud and gamma-ray--quiet blazars exhibit systematic differences in their optical polarization properties. We find that gamma-ray--loud blazars have a systematically higher polarization fraction (0.092) than gamma-ray--quiet blazars (0.031), with the hypothesis of the two samples being drawn from the same distribution of polarization fractions being rejected at the 3{\\sigma} level. We have not found any evidence that this discrepancy is related to differences in the redshift distribution, rest-frame R-band lu- minosity density, or the source classification. The median polarization fraction versus synchrotron-peak-frequency plot shows an envelope implying that high synchrotron- peaked sources have a smaller range of median polarization fractions concentrated around lower values. Our gamma-ray--quiet sources show similar median polarization fr...

  3. 1WHSP: an IR-based sample of $\\sim$1,000 VHE $\\gamma$-ray blazar candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Arsioli, B; Giommi, P; Padovani, P; Marrese, P M

    2015-01-01

    Blazars are the dominant type of extragalactic sources at microwave and at $\\gamma$-ray energies. In the most energetic part of the electromagnetic spectrum (E>100GeV) a large fraction of high Galactic latitude sources are blazars of the High Synchrotron Peaked (HSP) type, that is BL Lac objects with synchrotron power peaking in the UV or in the X-ray band. HSP blazars are remarkably rare, with only a few hundreds of them expected to be above the sensitivity limits of currently available surveys. To find these very uncommon objects, we have devised a method that combines ALLWISE survey data with multi-frequency selection criteria. The sample was defined starting from a primary list of infrared colour-colour selected sources from the ALLWISE all sky survey database, and applying further restrictions on IR-radio and IR-X-ray flux ratios. Using a polynomial fit to the multi-frequency data (radio to X-ray) we estimated synchrotron peak frequencies and fluxes of each object. We assembled a sample including 992 sou...

  4. The Dramatic June 2016 Optical Outburst and Micro-Variability of the Blazar 3C 454.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Zachary R.; Balonek, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    We present the optical (Johnson-Cousins R filter) light curve of the blazar 3C 454.3 from May to August 2016 obtained at the Colgate University Foggy Bottom Observatory (FBO) as part of our twenty-eight year blazar variability monitoring program. In June 2016 the blazar underwent an extremely rare, quick, and powerful outburst with a duration of ~2 weeks, flaring from 15.5 to 13.0 magnitude, then back to 15.5, with multiple timescales of variations. The optical outburst appears to be correlated with gamma-ray activity as seen by the Fermi-LAT mission during a similar time period. In this outburst, several nights exhibited intraday optical variability of several tenths of a magnitude over the course of five hours. On June 25, 2016 (UT), the flux from 3C 454.3 decreased exponentially from 10.5 to 6 mJy (R = 13.7 to 14.3 magnitude) over 3.5 hours, with micro-variability in the form of damped sinusoidal oscillations with a period of 35 minutes. The amplitude of these oscillations was 7% of the intensity of the flaring component. We place the June 2016 event in a historical context with other outbursts (Balonek, Weaver, et al. 2017, at this conference). We gratefully acknowledge support through Colgate University’s Justus and Jayne Schlichting Student Research and NASC Division funds.

  5. Discerning the location of the gamma-ray emission region in blazars from multi-messenger observations

    CERN Document Server

    Agudo, Ivan; Jorstad, Svetlana G; Gomez, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets in AGN in general, and in blazars in particular, are the most energetic and among the most powerful astrophysical objects known so far. Their relativistic nature provides them with the ability to emit profusely at all spectral ranges from radio wavelengths to gamma-rays, as well as to vary extremely at time scales from hours to years. Since the birth of gamma-ray astronomy, locating the origin of gamma-ray emission has been a fundamental problem for the knowledge of the emission processes involved. Deep and densely time sampled monitoring programs with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and other facilities at most of the available spectral ranges (including millimeter interferometric imaging and polarization measurements wherever possible) are starting to shed light for the case of blazars. After a short review of the status of the problem, we summarize two of our latest results -obtained from the comprehensive monitoring data compiled by the Boston University Blazar monitoring program - t...

  6. Optical spectroscopic observations of gamma-ray blazar candidates III. The 2013/2014 campaign in the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Document Server

    Landoni, M; Paggi, A; D'Abrusco, R; Milisavljevic, D; Masetti, N; Smith, Howard A; Tosti, G; Chomiuk, L; Strader, J; Cheung, C C

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of our exploratory program carried out with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope aimed at associating counterparts and establishing the nature of the Fermi Unidentified gamma-ray Sources (UGS). We selected the optical counterparts of 6 UGSs from the Fermi catalog on the basis of our recently discovered tight connection between infrared and gamma-ray emission found for the gamma-ray blazars detected by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) in its the all-sky survey. We perform for the first time a spectroscopic study of the low-energy counterparts of Fermi UGS, in the optical band, confirming the blazar-like nature for the whole sample. We also present new spectroscopic observations of 6 Active Galaxies of Uncertain type associated with Fermi sources (AGUs) that appear to be BL Lac objects. Finally, we report the spectra collected for 6 known gamma-ray blazars belonging to the Roma BZCAT that were obtained to establish their nature or better estimate their redshif...

  7. Discovery of a Highly Polarized Optical Microflare in the Blazar S5 0716+714 During 2014 WEBT Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatta, Gopal; Ostrowski, Michal; Stawarz, Łukasz; Arkharov, A A; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Bachev, Rumen; Borman, Erika Benítez G A; Carosati, Daniele; Cason, Andy; Damljanovic, Goran; Dhalla, Sarah; Frasca, Antonio; Hiriart, David; Hu, Shao Ming; Itoh, Ryosuke; Jableka, Damian; Jorstad, Svetlana; Kawabata, Koji; Klimanov, Sergey; Kurtanidze, Omar; Larionov, Valeri; Laurence, Douglas; Leto, Giuseppe; Markowitz, Alex; Marscher, Alan P; Moody, J; Moritani, Yuki; Ohlert, Johannes; Di Paola, Andrea; Rizzi, Nicola; Sadun, Alberto; Sasada, Mahito; Sergeev, Sergey G; Strigachev, Anton; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Troitsky, Ivan; Ui, Takahiro; Villata, Massimo; Vince, Oliver; Webb, James; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Zola, Staszek

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of low-amplitude flux variations in blazars on hourly timescales, commonly known as microvariability, is still a widely debated subject in high-energy astrophysics. Several competing scenarios have been proposed to explain such occurrences, including various jet plasma instabilities leading to the formation of shocks, magnetic reconnection sites, and turbulence. In this letter we present the results of our detailed investigation of a prominent, five-hour-long optical microflare detected during recent WEBT campaign in 2014, March 2-6 targeting the blazar 0716+714. After separating the flaring component from the underlying base emission continuum of the blazar, we find that the microflare is highly polarized, with the polarization degree $\\sim (40-60)\\%$$\\pm (2-10)\\%$, and the electric vector position angle $\\sim (10 - 20)$deg$\\pm (1-8)$deg slightly misaligned with respect to the position angle of the radio jet. The microflare evolution in the $(Q,\\,U)$ Stokes parameter space exhibits a looping b...

  8. The connection between the parsec-scale radio jet and gamma-ray flares in the blazar 1156+295

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rastorgueva-Foi, Elizaveta A; Wiik, Kaj; Jorstad, Svetlana G; Marscher, Alan P; Tornikoski, Merja; Agudo, Iván; Lähteenmäki, Anne; Valtaoja, Esko; Aller, Margo F; Blinov, Dmitry A; Casadio, Carolina; Efimova, Natalia V; Gurwell, Mark A; Gómez, José L; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A; Joshi, Manasvita; Järvelä, Emilia; Konstantinova, Tatiana S; Kopatskaya, Evgenia N; Larionov, Valeri M; Larionova, Elena G; Larionova, Liudmilla V; Lavonen, Niko; MacDonald, Nicholas R; McHardy, Ian M; Molina, Sol N; Morozova, Daria A; Nieppola, Elina; Tammi, Joni; Taylor, Brian W; Troitsky, Ivan S

    2014-01-01

    The blazar 1156+295 was active at gamma-ray energies, exhibiting three prominent flares during the year 2010. Here, we present results using the combination of broadband (X-ray through mm single dish) monitoring data and radio band imaging data at 43 GHz on the connection of gamma-ray events to the ejections of superluminal components and other changes in the jet of 1156+295. The kinematics of the jet over the interval 2007.0-2012.5 using 43 GHz Very Long Baseline Array observations, reveal the presence of four moving and one stationary component in the inner region of the blazar jet. The propagation of the third and fourth components in the jet corresponds closely in time to the active phase of the source in gamma rays. We briefly discuss the implications of the structural changes in the jet for the mechanism of gamma-ray production during bright flares. To localise the gamma-ray emission site in the blazar, we performed the correlation analysis between the 43 GHz radio core and the gamma-ray light curve. Th...

  9. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. II. REWRITING THE THERMAL HISTORY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E.; Pfrommer, Christoph, E-mail: aeb@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: pchang@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: christoph.pfrommer@h-its.org [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2012-06-10

    The universe is opaque to extragalactic very high energy gamma rays (VHEGRs, E > 100 GeV) because they annihilate and pair produce on the extragalactic background light. The resulting ultrarelativistic pairs are commonly assumed to lose energy primarily through inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons, reprocessing the original emission from TeV to GeV energies. In Broderick et al., we argued that this is not the case; powerful plasma instabilities driven by the highly anisotropic nature of the ultrarelativistic pair distribution provide a plausible way to dissipate the kinetic energy of the TeV-generated pairs locally, heating the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we explore the effect of this heating on the thermal history of the IGM. We collate the observed extragalactic VHEGR sources to determine a local VHEGR heating rate. Given the pointed nature of VHEGR observations, we estimate the correction for the various selection effects using Fermi observations of high- and intermediate-peaked BL Lac objects. As the extragalactic component of the local VHEGR flux is dominated by TeV blazars, we then estimate the evolution of the TeV blazar luminosity density by tying it to the well-observed quasar luminosity density and producing a VHEGR heating rate as a function of redshift. This heating is relatively homogeneous for z {approx}< 4, but there is greater spatial variation at higher redshift (order unity at z {approx} 6) because of the reduced number of blazars that contribute to local heating. We show that this new heating process dominates photoheating in the low-redshift evolution of the IGM and calculate the effect of this heating in a one-zone model. As a consequence, the inclusion of TeV blazar heating qualitatively and quantitatively changes the structure and history of the IGM. Due to the homogeneous nature of the extragalactic background light, TeV blazars produce a uniform volumetric heating rate. This heating is sufficient to

  10. Unveiling the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources VI: gamma-ray blazar candidates in the WISH survey and their radio properties

    CERN Document Server

    Nori, M; Massaro, F; D'Abrusco, R; Paggi, A; Tosti, G; Funk, S

    2015-01-01

    According to the second Fermi LAT Catalog (2FGL), about one third of the gamma-ray sources listed have no assigned counterparts at lower energies. Many statistical methods have been developed to find proper counterparts for these sources. We explore the sky area covered at low radio frequency by Westerbork in the Southern Hemisphere (WISH) survey to search for blazar-like associations among the unidentified gamma-ray sources listed in the 2FGL (UGSs). Searching the WISH and NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) radio surveys within the positional uncertainty regions of the 2FGL UGSs, we select as gamma-ray blazar candidates the radio sources characterized by flat radio spectra between 352 MHz and 1400 MHz. We propose new gamma-ray blazar associations for eight UGSs and we also discuss their spectral properties at low radio frequencies. We compare the radio flux density distribution of the low radio frequency gamma-ray blazar candidates with that of gamma-ray blazars associated with other methods. We find significant dif...

  11. The BL-Lac gamma-ray blazar PKS 1424+240 associated with a group of galaxies at z=0.6010

    CERN Document Server

    Rovero, A C; Donzelli, C; Pichel, A

    2016-01-01

    PKS 1424+240 is a BL-Lac blazar with unknown redshift that was detected at high-energy gamma rays by Fermi-LAT with a hard spectrum. At VHE, it was first detected by VERITAS and later confirmed by MAGIC. Its spectral energy distribution is highly attenuated at VHE gamma rays, which is coherent with distant sources. Several estimations enabled the redshift to be constrained to the range 0.6 < z < 1.3. These results place PKS 1424+240 in the very interesting condition of being probably the most distant blazar that has been detected at VHE. The ambiguity in the redshift is still large enough to prevent precise studies of the EBL and the intrinsic blazar spectrum. Given the difficulty of measuring spectroscopic redshifts for BL-Lac objects directly, we aim to establish a reliable redshift value for this blazar by finding its host group of galaxies. Elliptical galaxies are associated with groups, and BL-Lac objects are typically hosted by them, so we decided to search for the host group of the blazar. For th...

  12. INTEGRAL observations of the GeV blazar PKS1502+106 and of the hard X-ray bright Seyfert Galaxy Mkn841

    CERN Document Server

    Pian, E; Bazzano, A; Beckmann, V; Eckert, D; Ghisellini, G; Pursimo, T; Tagliaferri, G; Tavecchio, F; Tuerler, M; Bianchi, S; Bianchin, V; Hudec, R; Maraschi, L; Raiteri, C M; Soldi, S; Treves, A; Villata, M

    2010-01-01

    Extragalactic nuclear activity is best explored with observations at high energies, where the most extreme flux and spectral variations are expected to occur, witnessing changes in the accretion flow or in the kinematics of the plasma. In active galactic nuclei of blazar type, these variations are the most dramatic. By following blazar outbursts from their onset and by correlating the observed variations at many different wavelengths we can reconstruct the behavior of the plasma and map out the development of the flare within the jet. The advent of the Fermi satellite has allowed the start of a systematic and intensive monitoring program of blazars. Blazar outbursts are very effectively detected by the LAT instrument in the MeV-GeV domain, and these can be promptly followed up with other facilities. Based on a Fermi LAT detection of a high MeV-GeV state, we have observed the blazar PKS 1502+106 with the INTEGRAL satellite between 9 and 11 August 2008. Simultaneous Swift observations have been also accomplishe...

  13. Synchrotron self-Compton flaring of TeV blazars. I. Linear electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlickeiser, R.; Röken, C.

    2008-01-01

    The vast improvement of the sensitivity of modern ground-based air Cherenkov telescopes, together with the sensitive flux measurements at lower frequencies, requires accurate elaborations of the theoretical radiation models for flaring blazars. Here the flaring of TeV blazars due to the synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) process is considered. We assume that, at the moment t=t_0, a flare in the emission knot occurs due to the instantaneous injection of monoenergetic (E_0) ultrarelativistic electrons. The ultrarelativistic electrons are injected uniformly over the knot volume and at later times are subject to linear synchrotron radiation cooling in a magnetic field whose strength remains constant during the time evolution of the relativistic electrons. The generated synchrotron photons are subject to multiple Thomson-scattering off the cold electrons in the source giving rise to spatial photon diffusion. Optically thick and thin synchrotron radiation intensities and photon density distributions in the emission knot as functions of frequency and time are analytically determined. The synchrotron photons serve as target photons for the SSC process, which is calculated in the optically thin frequency range using the Thomson approximation of the inverse Compton cross section. It is shown that the optically thick part of the synchrotron radiation process provides a negligible contribution to the resulting SSC intensity at all frequencies and times. Because the high-energy TeV photons undergo no elastic multiple Compton scatterings, we neglect the influence of photon diffusion in the calculation of the SSC intensity and fluence distribution with energy. The SSC fluence exhibits a break at E_f=15.8b-1/3 GeV from a ∝ E_s-1/4-power law spectrum at lower photon energies E_t≤ E_s≤ Ef to a ∝ E_s-2[1-(E_s/E_0)7/3]-distribution at high energies E_f≤ E_s≤ E_0. The application to the observed TeV fluence spectrum of the flare of PKS 2155-304 on July 28, 2006 yields δ b-1

  14. Constraining the location of gamma-ray flares in luminous blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Begelman, Mitchell C. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Sikora, Marek, E-mail: knalew@jila.colorado.edu [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-07-10

    Locating the gamma-ray emission sites in blazar jets is a long standing and highly controversial issue. We jointly investigate several constraints on the distance scale r and Lorentz factor Γ of the gamma-ray emitting regions in luminous blazars (primarily flat spectrum radio quasars). Working in the framework of one-zone external radiation Comptonization models, we perform a parameter space study for several representative cases of actual gamma-ray flares in their multiwavelength context. We find a particularly useful combination of three constraints: from an upper limit on the collimation parameter Γθ ≲ 1, from an upper limit on the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) luminosity L{sub SSC} ≲ L{sub X}, and from an upper limit on the efficient cooling photon energy E{sub cool,obs} ≲ 100 MeV. These three constraints are particularly strong for sources with low accretion disk luminosity L{sub d}. The commonly used intrinsic pair-production opacity constraint on Γ is usually much weaker than the SSC constraint. The SSC and cooling constraints provide a robust lower limit on the collimation parameter Γθ ≳ 0.1-0.7. Typical values of r corresponding to moderate values of Γ ∼ 20 are in the range 0.1-1 pc, and are determined primarily by the observed variability timescale t{sub var,obs}. Alternative scenarios motivated by the observed gamma-ray/millimeter connection, in which gamma-ray flares of t{sub var,obs} ∼ a few days are located at r ∼ 10 pc, are in conflict with both the SSC and cooling constraints. Moreover, we use a simple light travel time argument to point out that the gamma-ray/millimeter connection does not provide a significant constraint on the location of gamma-ray flares. We argue that spine-sheath models of the jet structure do not offer a plausible alternative to external radiation fields at large distances; however, an extended broad-line region is an idea worth exploring. We propose that the most definite additional constraint could be

  15. X-ray spectral studies of TeV γ-ray emitting blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzcholska, Alicja; Wagner, Stefan J.

    2016-05-01

    This work is a summary of the X-ray spectral studies of 29 TeV (1012 eV, tera-electron-volt) γ-ray emitting blazars observed with Swift/XRT, especially focusing on sources for which the X-ray regime allows us to study the low- and the high-energy ends of the particle distribution function. Variability studies require simultaneous coverage, ideally sampling different flux states of each source. This is achieved using X-ray observations by disentangling the high-energy end of the synchrotron emission and the low-energy end of the Compton emission, which are produced by the same electron population. We focused on a sample of 29 TeV γ-ray emitting blazars with the best signal-to-noise X-ray observations collected with Swift/XRT in the energy range 0.3-10 keV during 10 yr of Swift/XRT operations. We investigate the X-ray spectral shapes and the effects of different corrections for neutral hydrogen absorption and decompose the synchrotron and inverse Compton components. For five sources (3C 66A, S5 0716+714, W Comae, 4C +21.35 and BL Lacertae) a superposition of both components is observed in the X-ray band, permitting simultaneous, time-resolved studies of both ends of the electron distribution. The analysis of multi-epoch observations revealed that the break energy of the X-ray spectrum varies only by a small factor with flux changes. Flux variability is more pronounced in the synchrotron domain (high-energy end of the electron distribution) than in the Compton domain (low-energy end of the electron distribution). The spectral shape of the Compton domain is stable, while the flux of the synchrotron domain is variable. These changes cannot be described by simple variations of the cut-off energy, suggesting that the high-energy end of the electron distribution is not generally well described by cooling only.

  16. Derivation of a Relation for the Steepening of TeV Selected Blazar Gamma-Ray Spectra with Energy and Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F.

    2010-01-01

    We derive a relation for the steepening of blazar gamma-ray spectra between the multi-GeV Fermi energy range and the TeV energy range observed by atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes. The change in spectral index is produced by two effects: (1) an intrinsic steepening, independent of redshift, owing to the properties of emission and absorption in the source, and (2) a redshift-dependent steepening produced by intergalactic pair production interactions of blazar gamma-rays with low energy photons of the "intergalactic background light" (IBL). Given this relation, with good enough data on the mean gamma-ray SED of TeV Selected BL Lacs, the redshift evolution of the IBL can, in principle, be determined independently of stellar evolution models. We apply our relation to the results of new Fermi observations of TeV selected blazars.

  17. Probing the precise location of the radio core in the TeV blazar Mrk 501 with VERA at 43 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shoko; Kino, Motoki; Doi, Akihiro; Niinuma, Kotaro; Hada, Kazuhiro; Nagai, Hiroshi; Honma, Mareki; Akiyama, Kazunori; Giroletti, Marcello; Giovannini, Gabriele; Orienti, Monica; Isobe, Naoki; Kataoka, Jun; Paneque, David; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Asada, Keiichi

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the position of the radio core in a blazar by multi-epoch astrometric observations at 43 GHz. Using the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), we have conducted four adjacent observations in 2011 February and another four in 2011 October, and succeeded in measuring the position of the radio core in the TeV blazar Mrk 501 relative to a distant compact quasar NRAO 512. During our observations, we find that (1) there is no positional change within ˜0.2 mas or ˜2.0 pc de-projected with ±1 σ error for the weighted-mean phase-referenced positions of the Mrk 501 core relative to NRAO 512 over four adjacent days, and (2) there is an indication of position change for the 3C 345 core relative to NRAO 512. By applying our results to the standard internal shock model for blazars, we constrain the bulk Lorenz factors of the ejecta.

  18. Multiwavelength Observations of a Dramatic High Energy Flare in the Blazar 3C 279

    CERN Document Server

    Wehrle, A E; Urry, C M; Maraschi, L; Ghisellini, G; Hartman, R C

    1997-01-01

    The blazar 3C 279, one of the brightest identified extragalactic objects in the gamma-ray sky, underwent a flare of a factor 10 amplitude in gamma-rays towards the end of a 3-week pointing by CGRO, in 1996 January-February. The flare peak represents the highest gamma-ray intensity ever recorded for this object. During the high state, extremely rapid gamma-ray variability was seen. Coordinated multifrequency observations were carried out with RXTE, ASCA, ROSAT and IUE and from many ground-based observatories, covering most accessible wavelengths. The well-sampled, simultaneous RXTE light curve shows an outburst of lower amplitude (factor of ~3) well correlated with the gamma-ray flare without any apparent lag. The optical-UV light curves, which are not well sampled during the high energy flare, exhibit more modest variations (factor of ~2) and a lower degree of correlation. The flux at millimetric wavelengths was near an historical maximum during the gamma-ray flare peak, with suggestion of a correlated decay....

  19. The low-frequency radio emission in blazar PKS2155-304

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey-Pommier, M; Chadwick, P; Martin, J -M; Colom, P; van Driel, W; Combes, F; Kharb, P; Crespeau, P-J; Richard, J; Guiderdoni, B

    2016-01-01

    We report radio imaging and monitoring observations in the frequency range 0.235 - 2.7 GHz during the flaring mode of PKS 2155-304, one of the brightest BL Lac objects. The high sensitivity GMRT observations not only reveal extended kpc-scale jet and FRI type lobe morphology in this erstwhile `extended-core' blazar but also delineate the morphological details, thanks to its arcsec scale resolution. The radio light curve during the end phase of the outburst measured in 2008 shows high variability (8.5%) in the jet emission in the GHz range, compared to the lower core variability (3.2%) seen at the lowest frequencies. The excess of flux density with a very steep spectral index in the MHz range supports the presence of extra diffuse emission at low frequencies. The analysis of multi wavelength (radio/ optical/ gamma-ray) light curves at different radio frequencies confirms the variability of the core region and agrees with the scenario of high energy emission in gamma-rays due to inverse Compton emission from a ...

  20. External Compton Scattering in Blazar Jets and the Location of the Gamma-Ray Emitting Region

    CERN Document Server

    Finke, Justin D

    2016-01-01

    I study the location of the $\\gamma$-ray emission in blazar jets by creating a Compton-scattering approximation valid for all anisotropic radiation fields in the Thomson through Klein-Nishina regimes, which is highly accurate and can speed up numerical calculations by up to a factor $\\sim10$. I apply this approximation to synchrotron self-Compton, and external Compton-scattering of photons from the accretion disk, broad-line region (BLR), and dust torus. I use a stratified BLR model and include detailed Compton-scattering calculations of a spherical and flattened BLR. I create two dust torus models, one where the torus is an annulus, and one where it is an extended disk. I present detailed calculations of the photoabsorption optical depth using my detailed BLR and dust torus models, including the full angle dependence. I apply these calculations to the emission from a relativistically moving blob traveling through these radiation fields. The ratio of $\\gamma$-ray to optical flux produces a predictable pattern...

  1. Multi-Wavelength Variability Properties of Fermi Blazar S5 0716+714

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. H. Liao; J. M. Bai; H. T. Liu; S. S. Weng; Liang Chen; F. Li

    2014-09-01

    The multi-wavelength variability properties of blazar S5 0716 + 714 are reported. We construct multi-wavelength light curves of radio, optical, X-ray and -ray including our optical observation at Yunnan Observatories. In all the bands, the light curves show intense variabilities. The variability amplitudes in -ray and optical bands are larger than those in the hard X-ray and radio bands. The characteristic variability timescales at 14.5 GHz, optical, X-ray, and -ray bands are comparable. The variations of the hard X-ray and 14.5GHz emissions are correlated with zero lag, and so are the V band and -ray variations. The multi-wavelength variability behaviours can be naturally explained by the classic leptonic model. We model the average SED of S5 0716 + 714 by leptonic model. The SSC+ERC model using the external seed photons from hot dust or Broad Line Region (BLR) emission is probably favourable avoiding the extreme input parameters from the pure SSC model.

  2. Searching for Hard X-Ray Emission from Radio-Loud Gamma-Ray Quiet Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Katelyn R.; Macomb, Daryl J.

    2017-01-01

    While the Swift BAT AGN source catalog is dominated by radio-quiet Seyfert AGN, around 15% of the sample are radio galaxies or blazars (Ajello et al., 2009). There is an overlap of about 40 sources between the Fermi LAT and Swift BAT detected AGN populations, only a few percent of the Fermi total. These small numbers are presumably a result of selection bias as the SSC peak often falls squarely within the Fermi LAT bandpass while the Swift BAT sensitivity is highest in the spectral region straddling the synchrotron and SSC components.Recently however, a significant sample of bright (F 15GHz >1.5 Jy), radio selected AGN was found, surprisingly, to overlap with Fermi at only the ~80% level (Lister et. al., 2015). This could be a result of selection bias as well as the gamma-ray quiet objects of that survey having synchrotron peak frequencies of 10^13.4 Hz or less. On the other hand it could be due to deficient Doppler boosting among that ~20%. One can, in principle, test the former possibility by assessing emission from the low-energy wings of putative sub-GeV peaked SSC components. We describe our ongoing joint Swift BAT analysis project that attempts to address this possibility. Initial results, comparisons with INTEGRAL observations, and conclusions are presented.

  3. First broadband characterization and redshift determination of the VHE blazar MAGIC J2001+439

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, D Carreto; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Preziuso, S; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; D'Ammando, F; Hovatta, T; Larionov, V M; Max-Moerbeck, W; Perri, M; Readhead, A C S; Richards, J L; Sakamoto, T; Schwartz, R D; Verrecchia, F; Reyes, L C

    2014-01-01

    We aim to characterize the broadband emission from 2FGL J2001.1+4352, which has been associated with the unknown-redshift blazar MG4 J200112+4352. Based on its gamma-ray spectral properties, it was identified as a potential very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter. The source was observed with MAGIC first in 2009 and later in 2010 within a multi-instrument observation campaign. The MAGIC observations yielded 14.8 hours of good quality stereoscopic data. The object was monitored at radio, optical and gamma-ray energies during the years 2010 and 2011. The source, named MAGIC J2001+439, is detected for the first time at VHE with MAGIC at a statistical significance of 6.3 {\\sigma} (E > 70 GeV) during a 1.3-hour long observation on 2010 July 16. The multi-instrument observations show variability in all energy bands with the highest amplitude of variability in the X-ray and VHE bands. We also organized deep imaging optical observations with the Nordic Optical Telescope in 2013 to determine the source r...

  4. Long-Term Multiwavelength Studies of High-Redshift Blazar 0836+710

    CERN Document Server

    Akyuz, A; Donato, D; Perkins, J S; Fuhrmann, L; Angelakis, E; Zensus, J A; Larsson, S; Sokolovsky, K; Kurtanidze, O

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The observation of gamma -ray flares from blazar 0836+710 in 2011, following a period of quiescence, offered an opportunity to study correlated activity at different wavelengths for a high-redshift (z=2.218) active galactic nucleus. Methods. Optical and radio monitoring, plus Fermi-LAT gamma-ray monitoring provided 2008-2012 coverage, while Swift offered auxiliary optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray information. Other contemporaneous observations were used to construct a broad-band spectral energy distribution. Results. There is evidence of correlation but not a measurable lag between the optical and gamma-ray flaring emission. On the contrary, there is no clear correlation between radio and gamma-ray activity, indicating radio emission regions that are unrelated to the parts of the jet that produce the gamma-rays. The gamma-ray energy spectrum is unusual in showing a change of shape from a power law to a curved spectrum when going from the quiescent state to the active state.

  5. Characteristics of Gamma-Ray Loud Blazars in the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Romani, R. W.; Healey, S. E.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Readhead, A. C.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L.; Cotter, G.

    2010-01-01

    The radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed as part of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey. This large, flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong gamma-ray emission. At lower flux levels, radio flux density does not directly correlate with gamma-ray flux. We find that the LAT-detected BL Lac objects tend to be similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects, but that the LAT-detected FSRQs are often significantly different from the non-LAT FSRQs. The differences between the gamma-ray loud and quiet FSRQS can be explained by Doppler boosting; these objects appear to require larger Doppler factors than those of the BL Lac objects. It is possible that the gamma-ray loud FSRQs are fundamentally different from the gamma-ray quiet FSRQs. Strong polarization at the base of the jet appears to be a signature for gamma-ray loud AGNs.

  6. On the soft X-ray spectra of $\\gamma$-loud blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Comastri, A; Ghisellini, G; Molendi, S

    1996-01-01

    ROSAT observations of a large sample of bright gamma-ray (E > 100 MeV) blazars are presented. Results of a detailed spectral analysis in the soft energy distribution with particular emphasis on the relation between X-ray and gamma-ray properties. A significant anti-correlation between X-ray and gamma-ray spectral shapes of flat radio spectrum quasars (FSRQ) and BL Lacs has been discovered. A different shape in the overall energy distributions from radio to gamma-ray energies between FSRQ and BL Lacs is also implied by the correlation of their broad-band spectral indices $\\alpha_{ro}$ and $\\alpha_{x emission and the hard X-ray to gamma-ray emission originate from the same electron population, via, respectively, the synchrotron process and the inverse Compton mechanism. We suggest that a key parameter for understanding the overall energy distributions of both classes of objects is the energy at which the synchrotron emission peaks in a $\

  7. Multi-Frequency Blazar Micro-Variability as a Tool to Investigate Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Webb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For the past 12 years we have been studying optical micro-variability of a sample of 15 Blazars. We summarize the results of this study and draw some basic conclusions about the characteristics of micro-variability. The intermittency, the stochastic nature, and the similar profile shapes seen in micro-variations at different times and in different objects have led us to a possible model to explain the observed micro-variations. The model is based on a strong shock propagating down a relativistic jet and encountering turbulence which causes density or magnetic field enhancements. We use the theory of Kirk, Reiger, and Mastichiadis (1998 to describe the pulse of synchrotron emission emanating from individual density enhancements energized by the shock. By fitting these “pulses” to micro-variability observations, we obtain excellent fits to actual micro-variations. The model predicts that the spectral index changes as a function of pulse duration. This effect should be observable in multi-frequency micro-variability data. We present the theoretical model, model fits of our micro-variability light curves, and preliminary multi-frequency micro-variability observations that support this model. A further test that has yet to be carried out involves observing polarization changes in different pulses.

  8. Collective Evidence for Inverse Compton Emission from External Photons in High-Power Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Fossati, Giovanni; Georganopoulos, Markos; Lister, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first collective evidence that Fermi-detected jets of high kinetic power (L(sub kin)) are dominated by inverse Compton emission from upscattered external photons. Using a sample with a broad range in orientation angle, including radio galaxies and blazars, we find that very high power sources (L(sub kin) > 10(exp 45.5) erg/s) show a significant increase in the ratio of inverse Compton to synchrotron power (Compton dominance) with decreasing orientation angle, as measured by the radio core dominance and confirmed by the distribution of superluminal speeds. This increase is consistent with beaming expectations for external Compton (EC) emission, but not for synchrotron self Compton (SSC) emission. For the lowest power jets (L(sub kin) photon fields. Coupled with the evidence that jet power is linked to the jet speed, this finding suggests that external photon fields become the dominant source of seed photons in the jet comoving frame only for the faster and therefore more powerful jets.

  9. The connection between the 15 GHz radio and gamma-ray emission in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Max-Moerbeck, W; Hovatta, T; Pavlidou, V; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S; King, O G; Reeves, R

    2014-01-01

    Since mid-2007 we have carried out a dedicated long-term monitoring programme at 15 GHz using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory 40 meter telescope. One of the main goals of this programme is to study the relation between the radio and gamma-ray emission in blazars and to use it as a tool to locate the site of high energy emission. Using this large sample of objects we are able to characterize the radio variability, and study the significance of correlations between the radio and gamma-ray bands. We find that the radio variability of many sources can be described using a simple power law power spectral density, and that when taking into account the red-noise characteristics of the light curves, cases with significant correlation are rare. We note that while significant correlations are found in few individual objects, radio variations are most often delayed with respect to the gamma-ray variations. This suggests that the gamma-ray emission originates upstream of the radio emission. Because strong flares in mo...

  10. Multi-Frequency Observations of Gamma-Ray Blazar 1633 plus 382

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Agudo, I.; Smith, P. S.; Larionov, V. M.; Laehteenmaeki, A.

    2011-01-01

    We perform monthly monitoring of the quasar 1633+382 (4C+38.41) within a sample of gamma-ray blazars with the VLBA at 43 GHz along with optical photometric and polarimetric observations. We construct the gamma-ray light curve of 1633+382 using data obtained by the Fermi LAT. We find that a high gamma-ray state of the quasar starting in 2009 September is simultaneous with an increase of the flux in the mm-wave VLBI core. We resolve a superluminal feature on the VLBA images that appears to be responsible for the mm-wave flux increase. We find a strong correlation between optical and gamma-ray light curves with a delay of gamma-ray variations of 5+/-3 days, as well as a strong correlation between optical flux and degree of polarization during the high gamma-ray state. Comparison between the optical polarization position angle and that in the VLBI core supports the idea that in the quasar 1633+382 a high gamma-ray state is connected with processes originating near the mm-VLBI core.

  11. Polarization angle swings in blazars: The case of 3C 279

    CERN Document Server

    Kiehlmann, S; Jorstad, S G; Sokolovsky, K V; Schinzel, F K; Marscher, A P; Larionov, V M; Agudo, I; Akitaya, H; Benítez, E; Berdyugin, A; Blinov, D A; Bochkarev, N G; Borman, G A; Burenkov, A N; Casadio, C; Doroshenko, V T; Efimova, N V; Fukazawa, Y; Gómez, J L; Grishina, T S; Hagen-Thorn, V A; Heidt, J; Hiriart, D; Itoh, R; Joshi, M; Kawabata, K S; Kimeridze, G N; Kopatskaya, E N; Korobtsev, I V; Krajci, T; Kurtanidze, O M; Kurtanidze, S O; Larionova, E G; Larionova, L V; Lindfors, E; López, J M; McHardy, I M; Molina, S N; Moritani, Y; Morozova, D A; Nazarov, S V; Nikolashvili, M G; Nilsson, K; Pulatova, N G; Reinthal, R; Sadun, A; Sasada, M; Savchenko, S S; Sergeev, S G; Sigua, L A; Smith, P S; Sorcia, M; Spiridonova, O I; Takaki, K; Takalo, L O; Taylor, B; Troitsky, I S; Uemura, M; Ugolkova, L S; Ui, T; Yoshida, M; Zensus, J A; Zhdanova, V E

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, several occasions of large, continuous rotations of the electric vector position angle (EVPA) of linearly polarized optical emission from blazars have been reported. These events are often coincident with high energy gamma-ray flares and they have attracted considerable attention, as they could allow one to probe the magnetic field structure in the gamma-ray emitting region of the jet. The flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C279 is one of the most prominent examples showing this behaviour. Our goal is to study the observed EVPA rotations and to distinguish between a stochastic and a deterministic origin of the polarization variability. We have combined multiple data sets of R-band photometry and optical polarimetry measurements of 3C279, yielding exceptionally well-sampled flux density and polarization curves that cover a period of 2008-2012. Several large EVPA rotations are identified in the data. We introduce a quantitative measure for the EVPA curve smoothness, which is then used to test ...

  12. An eclipsing binary black hole candidate system in the blazar Mrk 421

    CERN Document Server

    Benitez, E; Fraija, N; Hernandez, X; Lopez-Corona, O; Lora-Clavijo, F D; Mendoza, S

    2015-01-01

    Removing strong outbursts from multiwavelength light curves of the blazar Mrk 421, we construct outburstless time series for this system. A model-independent power spectrum light curve analysis in the optical, hard X-ray and gamma-rays of this outburstless state shows clear evidence for a periodicity of \\approx 400 days. A subsequent full maximum likelihood analysis fitting an eclipse model confirms a periodicity of 387.16 days. The power spectrum of the signal in the outburstless state of the source does not follow a flicker noise behaviour and so, the system producing it is not self-organised. This means that the periodicity is not produced by any internal physical processes associated to the central engine. The simplest physical mechanism to which this periodicity could be ascribed is a dynamical effect produced by an orbiting supermassive black hole companion of mass \\sim 10^7 M_\\odot eclipsing the central black hole, which has a mass \\sim 10^8 M_\\odot. The optimal model restricts the physics of the eclip...

  13. Gamma-ray opacity of the anisotropic stratified broad-line regions in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Abolmasov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The GeV-range spectra of blazars are shaped not only by non-thermal emission processes internal to the relativistic jet but also by external pair-production absorption on the thermal emission of the accretion disc and the broad-line region (BLR). For the first time, we compute here the pair-production opacities in the GeV range produced by a realistic BLR accounting for the radial stratification and radiation anisotropy. Using photoionization modelling with the CLOUDY code, we calculate a series of BLR models of different sizes, geometries, cloud densities, column densities and metallicities. The strongest emission features in the model BLR are Ly$\\alpha$ and HeII Ly$\\alpha$. Contribution of recombination continua is smaller, especially for hydrogen, because Ly continuum is efficiently trapped inside the large optical depth BLR clouds and converted to Lyman emission lines and higher-order recombination continua. The largest effects on the gamma-ray opacity are produced by the BLR geometry and localization of ...

  14. F-GAMMA: On the phenomenological classification of continuum radio spectra variability patterns of Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Angelakis, E; Nestoras, I; Fromm, C M; Perucho, M; Schmidt, R; Zensus, J A; Marchili, N; Krichbaum, T P; Ungerechts, H; Sievers, A; Riquelme, D; Pavlidou, V

    2012-01-01

    The F-GAMMA program is a coordinated effort to investigate the physics of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) via multi-frequency monitoring of Fermi blazars. In the current study we show and discuss the evolution of broad-band radio spectra, which are measured at ten frequencies between 2.64 and 142 GHz using the Effelsberg 100-m and the IRAM 30-m telescopes. It is shown that any of the 78 sources studied can be classified in terms of their variability characteristics in merely 5 types of variability. It is argued that these can be attributed to only two classes of variability mechanisms. The first four types are dominated by spectral evolution and can be described by a simple two-component system composed of: (a) a steep quiescent spectral component from a large scale jet and (b) a time evolving flare component following the "Shock-in-Jet" evolutionary path. The fifth type is characterised by an achromatic change of the broad band spectrum, which could be attributed to a different mechanism, likely involving diff...

  15. On conservative models of "the pair-production anomaly" in blazar spectra at Very High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhatdoev, T A

    2015-01-01

    For some blazars, the gamma-ray absorption features due to pair-production on the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) are fainter than expected. The present work reviews the main models that could explain this paradox, with emphasis on conservative ones, that do not include any new physics. The models that are intrinsic to the source, do allow a very hard primary spectrum, but fail to explain a regular redshift dependence of the anomaly starting energy. The model that includes a contribution from secondary photons produced by cosmic rays (CR) near the Earth seems to require a well collimated CR beam, what is hard to achieve. Finally, the model with secondary photons produced in electromagnetic (EM) cascades initiated by primary gamma-rays is considered. In principle, it allows to decrease the statistical significance of the anomaly and, while requiring quite low EGMF strength B, does not contradict to most contemporary constraints on the B value. Additionally, it is shown that the recently observed correlati...

  16. On the direct correlation between gamma-rays and PeV neutrinos from blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Shan; Winter, Walter

    2016-01-01

    We study the frequently used assumption in multi-messenger astrophysics that the gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes are directly connected because they are assumed to be produced by the same photohadronic production chain. An interesting candidate source for this test is the flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS B1424-418, which recently called attention of a potential correlation between an IceCube PeV-neutrino event and its burst phase. We simulate both the multi-waveband photon and the neutrino emission from this source using a self-consistent radiation model. We demonstrate that a simple hadronic model cannot adequately describe the spectral energy distribution for this source, but a lepto-hadronic model with sub-dominant hadronic component can reproduce the multi-waveband photon spectrum observed during various activity phases of the blazar. As a conclusion, up to about 0.3 neutrino events may coincide with the burst, which implies that the leptonic contribution dominates in the relevant energy band. We also demonst...

  17. The Connection between Radio and Gamma Ray Emission in Fermi/LAT Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Xu-Liang, Fan; Hong-Tao, Liu; Liang, Chen; Neng-Hui, Liao

    2012-01-01

    We collect the 2LAC and MOJAVE quasi-simultaneous data to investigate the radio-gamma connection of blazars. The cross sample contains 166 sources. The statistic analysis based on this sample confirms positive correlations between these two bands, but the correlations become weaker as the gamma-ray energy increases. The statistic results between various parameters show negative correlations of gamma-ray photon spectral index with gamma-ray loudness for both FSRQs and BL Lacertae objects, positive correlations of gamma-ray variability index with the gamma-ray loudness for FSRQs, a negative correlation of the gamma-ray variability index with the gamma-ray photon spectral index for FSRQs, and negative correlations of gamma-ray photon spectral index with gamma-ray luminosity for FSRQs. These results suggest that the gamma-ray variability may be due to changes inside the gamma-ray emission region like the injected power, rather than changes in the photon density of the external radiation fields, and the variabilit...

  18. Extremely high polarization in 2010 outburst of blazar 3C 454.3

    CERN Document Server

    Sasada, Mahito; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Yasuda, Hajimu; Itoh, Ryosuke; Sakimoto, Kiyoshi; Ikejiri, Yuki; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kawabata, Koji S; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Komatsu, Tomoyuki; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Nagae, Osamu; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shuji; Kino, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    The gamma-ray-detected blazar 3C 454.3 exhibits dramatic flux and polarization variations in the optical and near-infrared bands. In December 2010, the object emitted a very bright outburst. We monitored it for approximately four years (including the 2010 outburst) by optical and near-infrared photopolarimetry. During the 2010 outburst, the object emitted two rapid, redder brightenings, at which the polarization degrees (PDs) in both bands increased significantly and the bands exhibited a frequency-dependent polarization. The observed frequency-dependent polarization leads us to propose that the polarization vector is composed of two vectors. Therefore, we separate the observed polarization vectors into short and long-term components that we attribute to the emissions of the rapid brightenings and the outburst that varied the timescale of days and months, respectively. The estimated PD of the short-term component is greater than the maximum observed PD and is close to the theoretical maximum PD. We constrain ...

  19. Extremely high polarization in the 2010 outburst of blazar 3C 454.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasada, Mahito; Kino, Masaru [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Akitaya, Hiroshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Fukazawa, Yasushi; Yasuda, Hajimu; Itoh, Ryosuke; Sakimoto, Kiyoshi; Ikejiri, Yuki; Ohsugi, Takashi; Komatsu, Tomoyuki; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Nagae, Osamu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yamanaka, Masayuki [Kwasan Observatory, Kyoto University, 17-1 Kitakazan-ohmine-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Nakaya, Hidehiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sato, Shuji, E-mail: sasada@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    The gamma-ray-detected blazar 3C 454.3 exhibits dramatic flux and polarization variations in the optical and near-infrared bands. In 2010 December, the object emitted a very bright outburst. We monitored it for approximately four years (including the 2010 outburst) by optical and near-infrared photopolarimetry. During the 2010 outburst, the object emitted two rapid, redder brightenings, at which the polarization degrees (PDs) in both bands increased significantly and the bands exhibited a frequency-dependent polarization. The observed frequency-dependent polarization leads us to propose that the polarization vector is composed of two vectors. Therefore, we separate the observed polarization vectors into short- and long-term components that we attribute to the emissions of the rapid brightenings and the outburst that varied the timescale of days and months, respectively. The estimated PD of the short-term component is greater than the maximum observed PD and is close to the theoretical maximum PD. We constrain the bulk Lorentz factors and inclination angles between the jet axis and the line of sight from the estimated PDs. In this case, the inclination angle of the emitting region of short-term component from the first rapid brightening should be equal to 90°, because the estimated PD of the short-term component was approximately equal to the theoretical maximum PD. Thus, the Doppler factor at the emitting region of the first rapid brightening should be equal to the bulk Lorentz factor.

  20. Multi-Frequency Observations of Gamma-Ray Blazar 1633+382

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. G. Jorstad; A. P. Marscher; I. Agudo; P. S. Smith; V. M. Larionov; A. Lähteenmäki

    2011-03-01

    We perform monthly monitoring of the quasar 1633+382 (4C+38.41) within a sample of -ray blazars with the VLBA at 43 GHz along with optical photometric and polarimetric observations. We construct the -ray light curve of 1633+382 using data obtained by the Fermi LAT. We find that a high -ray state of the quasar starting in 2009 September is simultaneous with an increase of the flux in the mm-wave VLBI core. We resolve a superluminal feature on the VLBA images that appears to be responsible for the mm-wave flux increase. We find a strong correlation between optical and -ray light curves with a delay of -ray variations of 5 ± 3 days, as well as a strong correlation between optical flux and degree of polarization during the high -ray state. Comparison between the optical polarization position angle and that in the VLBI core supports the idea that in the quasar 1633+382 a high -ray state is connected with processes originating near the mm-VLBI core.