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Sample records for blastomyces

  1. Red Fox as Sentinel for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, G. Douglas; Oesterle, Paul T.; Shirose, Lenny; McEwen, Beverly; Jardine, Claire M.

    2016-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a fungus that can cause fatal infection in humans and other mammals, is not readily recoverable from soil, its environmental reservoir. Because of the red fox’s widespread distribution, susceptibility to B. dermatitidis, close association with soil, and well-defined home ranges, this animal has potential utility as a sentinel for this fungus. PMID:27314650

  2. Red Fox as Sentinel for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Campbell, G Douglas; Oesterle, Paul T; Shirose, Lenny; McEwen, Beverly; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-07-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a fungus that can cause fatal infection in humans and other mammals, is not readily recoverable from soil, its environmental reservoir. Because of the red fox's widespread distribution, susceptibility to B. dermatitidis, close association with soil, and well-defined home ranges, this animal has potential utility as a sentinel for this fungus. PMID:27314650

  3. Effective method for the heat inactivation of Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth M; McTaggart, Lisa R; Low, Donald E; Richardson, Susan E

    2014-10-01

    Manipulation of Blastomyces dermatitidis requires the use of containment level 3 (CL3) practices. However, access to CL3 laboratories is limited and working conditions are restrictive. We describe the validation of a "heat-killing" method to inactivate B. dermatitidis, thus allowing cellular material to be removed from the CL3 laboratory for subsequent DNA isolation that is suitable for genetic applications. PMID:25049039

  4. Ecologic Niche Modeling of Blastomyces dermatitidis in Wisconsin

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Kurt D.; Meece, Jennifer K.; Archer, John R.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2008-01-01

    Background Blastomycosis is a potentially fatal mycosis that is acquired by inhaling infectious spores of Blastomyces dermatitidis present in the environment. The ecology of this pathogen is poorly understood, in part because it has been extremely difficult to identify the niche(s) it occupies based on culture isolation of the organism from environmental samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ecology of blastomycosis by performing maximum entropy modeling of exposure site...

  5. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a cryptic species Blastomyces gilchristii, sp. nov. within the human pathogenic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of the population genetic structure of microbial species is of fundamental importance to many scientific disciplines because it can identify cryptic species, reveal reproductive mode, and elucidate processes that contribute to pathogen evolution. Here, we examined the population genetic structure and geographic differentiation of the sexual, dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent of blastomycosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Criteria for Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR applied to seven nuclear loci (arf6, chs2, drk1, fads, pyrF, tub1, and its-2 from 78 clinical and environmental isolates identified two previously unrecognized phylogenetic species. Four of seven single gene phylogenies examined (chs2, drk1, pyrF, and its-2 supported the separation of Phylogenetic Species 1 (PS1 and Phylogenetic Species 2 (PS2 which were also well differentiated in the concatenated chs2-drk1-fads-pyrF-tub1-arf6-its2 genealogy with all isolates falling into one of two evolutionarily independent lineages. Phylogenetic species were genetically distinct with interspecific divergence 4-fold greater than intraspecific divergence and a high Fst value (0.772, P<0.001 indicative of restricted gene flow between PS1 and PS2. Whereas panmixia expected of a single freely recombining population was not observed, recombination was detected when PS1 and PS2 were assessed separately, suggesting reproductive isolation. Random mating among PS1 isolates, which were distributed across North America, was only detected after partitioning isolates into six geographic regions. The PS2 population, found predominantly in the hyper-endemic regions of northwestern Ontario, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, contained a substantial clonal component with random mating detected only among unique genotypes in the population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These analyses provide evidence for a genetically divergent clade within

  6. Phylogeographic Analysis of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii Reveals an Association with North American Freshwater Drainage Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Lisa R.; Brown, Elizabeth M.; Richardson, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii are dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause serious pulmonary and systemic infections in humans. Although their natural habitat is in the environment, little is known about their specific ecologic niche(s). Here, we analyzed 25 microsatellite loci from 169 strains collected from various regions throughout their known endemic range in North America, representing the largest and most geographically diverse collection of isolates studied to date. Genetic analysis of multilocus microsatellite data divided the strains into four populations of B. dermatitidis and four populations of B. gilchristii. B. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from areas throughout North America, while the B. gilchristii strains were restricted to Canada and some northern US states. Furthermore, the populations of both species were associated with major freshwater drainage basins. The four B. dermatitidis populations were partitioned among (1) the Nelson River drainage basin, (2) the St. Lawrence River and northeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins, (3) the Mississippi River System drainage basin, and (4) the Gulf of Mexico Seaboard and southeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins. A similar partitioning of the B. gilchristii populations was observed among the more northerly drainage basins only. These associations suggest that the ecologic niche where the sexual reproduction, growth, and dispersal of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii occur is intimately linked to freshwater systems. For most populations, sexual reproduction was rare enough to produce significant linkage disequilibrium among loci but frequent enough that mating-type idiomorphic ratios were not skewed from 1:1. Furthermore, the evolutionary divergence of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii was estimated at 1.9 MYA during the Pleistocene epoch. We suggest that repeated glaciations during the Pleistocene period and resulting biotic refugia may have provided the

  7. Phylogeographic Analysis of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii Reveals an Association with North American Freshwater Drainage Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Lisa R; Brown, Elizabeth M; Richardson, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii are dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause serious pulmonary and systemic infections in humans. Although their natural habitat is in the environment, little is known about their specific ecologic niche(s). Here, we analyzed 25 microsatellite loci from 169 strains collected from various regions throughout their known endemic range in North America, representing the largest and most geographically diverse collection of isolates studied to date. Genetic analysis of multilocus microsatellite data divided the strains into four populations of B. dermatitidis and four populations of B. gilchristii. B. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from areas throughout North America, while the B. gilchristii strains were restricted to Canada and some northern US states. Furthermore, the populations of both species were associated with major freshwater drainage basins. The four B. dermatitidis populations were partitioned among (1) the Nelson River drainage basin, (2) the St. Lawrence River and northeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins, (3) the Mississippi River System drainage basin, and (4) the Gulf of Mexico Seaboard and southeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins. A similar partitioning of the B. gilchristii populations was observed among the more northerly drainage basins only. These associations suggest that the ecologic niche where the sexual reproduction, growth, and dispersal of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii occur is intimately linked to freshwater systems. For most populations, sexual reproduction was rare enough to produce significant linkage disequilibrium among loci but frequent enough that mating-type idiomorphic ratios were not skewed from 1:1. Furthermore, the evolutionary divergence of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii was estimated at 1.9 MYA during the Pleistocene epoch. We suggest that repeated glaciations during the Pleistocene period and resulting biotic refugia may have provided the

  8. Phylogeographic Analysis of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii Reveals an Association with North American Freshwater Drainage Basins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R McTaggart

    Full Text Available Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii are dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause serious pulmonary and systemic infections in humans. Although their natural habitat is in the environment, little is known about their specific ecologic niche(s. Here, we analyzed 25 microsatellite loci from 169 strains collected from various regions throughout their known endemic range in North America, representing the largest and most geographically diverse collection of isolates studied to date. Genetic analysis of multilocus microsatellite data divided the strains into four populations of B. dermatitidis and four populations of B. gilchristii. B. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from areas throughout North America, while the B. gilchristii strains were restricted to Canada and some northern US states. Furthermore, the populations of both species were associated with major freshwater drainage basins. The four B. dermatitidis populations were partitioned among (1 the Nelson River drainage basin, (2 the St. Lawrence River and northeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins, (3 the Mississippi River System drainage basin, and (4 the Gulf of Mexico Seaboard and southeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins. A similar partitioning of the B. gilchristii populations was observed among the more northerly drainage basins only. These associations suggest that the ecologic niche where the sexual reproduction, growth, and dispersal of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii occur is intimately linked to freshwater systems. For most populations, sexual reproduction was rare enough to produce significant linkage disequilibrium among loci but frequent enough that mating-type idiomorphic ratios were not skewed from 1:1. Furthermore, the evolutionary divergence of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii was estimated at 1.9 MYA during the Pleistocene epoch. We suggest that repeated glaciations during the Pleistocene period and resulting biotic refugia may have

  9. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia.

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    José F Muñoz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated tracts of low GC-content sequence. These GC-poor isochore-like regions are enriched for gypsy elements, are variable in total size between isolates, and are least expanded in the avirulent B. dermatitidis strain ER-3 as compared with the virulent B. gilchristii strain SLH14081. The lack of similar regions in related species suggests these isochore-like regions originated recently in the ancestor of the Blastomyces lineage. While gene content is highly conserved between Blastomyces and related fungi, we identified changes in copy number of genes potentially involved in host interaction, including proteases and characterized antigens. In addition, we studied gene expression changes of B. dermatitidis during the interaction of the infectious yeast form with macrophages and in a mouse model. Both experiments highlight a strong antioxidant defense response in Blastomyces, and upregulation of dioxygenases in vivo suggests that dioxide produced by antioxidants may be further utilized for amino acid metabolism. We identify a number of functional categories upregulated exclusively in vivo, such as secreted proteins, zinc acquisition proteins, and cysteine and tryptophan metabolism, which may include critical virulence factors missed before in in vitro studies. Across the dimorphic fungi, loss of certain zinc acquisition genes and differences in amino acid metabolism suggest unique adaptations of Blastomyces to its host environment. These results reveal the dynamics

  10. Ecologic niche modeling of Blastomyces dermatitidis in Wisconsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt D Reed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blastomycosis is a potentially fatal mycosis that is acquired by inhaling infectious spores of Blastomyces dermatitidis present in the environment. The ecology of this pathogen is poorly understood, in part because it has been extremely difficult to identify the niche(s it occupies based on culture isolation of the organism from environmental samples. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the ecology of blastomycosis by performing maximum entropy modeling of exposure sites from 156 cases of human and canine blastomycosis to provide a regional-scale perspective of the geographic and ecologic distribution of B. dermatitidis in Wisconsin. Based on analysis with climatic, topographic, surface reflectance and other environmental variables, we predicted that ecologic conditions favorable for maintaining the fungus in nature occur predominantly within northern counties and counties along the western shoreline of Lake Michigan. Areas of highest predicted occurrence were often in proximity to waterways, especially in northcentral Wisconsin, where incidence of infection is highest. Ecologic conditions suitable for B. dermatitidis are present in urban and rural environments, and may differ at the extremes of distribution of the species in the state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide a framework for a more informed search for specific environmental factors modulating B. dermatitidis occurrence and transmission and will be useful for improving public health awareness of relative exposure risks.

  11. Activation, binding, and processing of complement component 3 (C3) by Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, M X; B. Klein(Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium)

    1997-01-01

    Complement plays a key role in phagocyte recognition and killing of Blastomyces dermatitidis, but little is known about how complement components interact with the yeast. We report the characteristics of activation, binding, and processing of C3 by B. dermatitidis. In pooled normal human serum (NHS), deposition of C3 on the yeast was detectable within 2 min, whereas in NHS containing MgEGTA, deposition was delayed by 6 min, indicating that the yeast activates C3 by both classical and alternat...

  12. Novel Role for Albumin in Innate Immunity: Serum Albumin Inhibits the Growth of Blastomyces dermatitidis Yeast Form In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Steven; Czuprynski, Charles

    2003-01-01

    In this study we found that serum inhibitory activity against Blastomyces dermatitidis was principally mediated by albumin. This was confirmed in experiments using albumin from several mammalian species. Analbuminemic rat serum did not inhibit B. dermatitidis growth in vivo; however, the addition of albumin restored inhibitory activity. Inhibitory activity does not require albumin domain III and appears to involve binding of a low-molecular-weight yeast-derived growth factor.

  13. Diagnostic Dilemma in Primary Blastomyces dermatitidis Meningitis: Role of Neurosurgical Biopsy

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    Desmond A. Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old male on chronic prednisone for polymyalgia rheumatica presented with a subacute history of headaches, nausea, phonophobia, intermittent diplopia and gait instability. He was hospitalized 2 weeks prior to presentation with extensive evaluations only notable for leptomeningeal inflammation on MRI. His symptoms progressively worsened and he developed aphasia. He was transferred to our facility where extensive spinal fluid examinations were repeated and were again nondiagnostic. Ultimately, a diagnostic skull-based biopsy was performed which demonstrated Blastomyces dermatitidis fungal meningitis. Despite extensive sampling and cultures, only 1 of the intraoperative samples yielded diagnostic results. This underscores the low sensitivity of current methods to diagnose CNS blastomycosis. This case suggests that a neurosurgical biopsy may be necessary and should be considered early in the diagnostic process, especially if a definitive diagnosis is elusive. If a biopsy is performed, sampling should be ample and from multiple areas. Following the diagnosis, our patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B and then voriconazole with a good clinical response.

  14. Diagnostic Dilemma in Primary Blastomyces dermatitidis Meningitis: Role of Neurosurgical Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Desmond A; Whealy, Mark A; Van Gompel, Jamie J; Williams, Lindsy N; Klaas, James P

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old male on chronic prednisone for polymyalgia rheumatica presented with a subacute history of headaches, nausea, phonophobia, intermittent diplopia and gait instability. He was hospitalized 2 weeks prior to presentation with extensive evaluations only notable for leptomeningeal inflammation on MRI. His symptoms progressively worsened and he developed aphasia. He was transferred to our facility where extensive spinal fluid examinations were repeated and were again nondiagnostic. Ultimately, a diagnostic skull-based biopsy was performed which demonstrated Blastomyces dermatitidis fungal meningitis. Despite extensive sampling and cultures, only 1 of the intraoperative samples yielded diagnostic results. This underscores the low sensitivity of current methods to diagnose CNS blastomycosis. This case suggests that a neurosurgical biopsy may be necessary and should be considered early in the diagnostic process, especially if a definitive diagnosis is elusive. If a biopsy is performed, sampling should be ample and from multiple areas. Following the diagnosis, our patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B and then voriconazole with a good clinical response. PMID:25960731

  15. Mannose Receptor Is Required for Optimal Induction of Vaccine-Induced T-Helper Type 17 Cells and Resistance to Blastomyces dermatitidis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huafeng; LeBert, Vanessa; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Galles, Kevin; Klein, Bruce; Wüthrich, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    We investigated how innate sensing by the mannose receptor (MR) influences the development of antifungal immunity. We demonstrate that MR senses mannan on the surface of attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis vaccine yeast and that MR(-/-) mice demonstrate impaired vaccine immunity against lethal experimental blastomycosis, compared with wild-type control mice. Using naive Blastomyces-specific transgenic CD4(+) T cells, we found that MR regulates differentiation of naive T cells into T-helper type 17 (Th17) effector cells, which are essential in vaccine immunity against systemic dimorphic fungi. Thus, MR regulates differentiation of Th17 cells and is required to induce vaccine immunity against lethal pulmonary blastomycosis. PMID:26931447

  16. Interleukin 1 enhances vaccine-induced antifungal T-helper 17 cells and resistance against Blastomyces dermatitidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Marcel; LeBert, Vanessa; Galles, Kevin; Hu-Li, Jane; Ben-Sasson, Shlomo Z; Paul, William E; Klein, Bruce S

    2013-10-01

    Vaccine-induced T-helper 17 (Th17) cells are necessary and sufficient to protect against fungal infection. Although live fungal vaccines are efficient in driving protective Th17 responses and immunity, attenuated fungi may not be safe for human use. Heat-inactivated formulations and subunit vaccines are safer but less potent and require adjuvant to increase their efficacy. Here, we show that interleukin 1 (IL-1) enhances the capacity of weak vaccines to induce protection against lethal Blastomyces dermatitidis infection in mice and is far more effective than lipopolysaccharide. While IL-1 enhanced expansion and differentiation of fungus-specific T cells by direct action on those cells, cooperation with non-T cells expressing IL-1R1 was necessary to maximize protection. Mechanistically, IL-17 receptor signaling was required for the enhanced protection induced by IL-1. Thus, IL-1 enhances the efficacy of safe but inefficient vaccines against systemic fungal infection in part by increasing the expansion of CD4(+) T cells, allowing their entry into the lungs, and inducing their differentiation to protective Th17 cells.

  17. The C-Type Lectin Receptor MCL Mediates Vaccine-Induced Immunity against Infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huafeng; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Klein, Bruce; Wüthrich, Marcel

    2015-12-14

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are essential in shaping the immune response to fungal pathogens. Vaccine-induced resistance requires Dectin-2 to promote differentiation of antifungal Th1 and Th17 cells. Since Dectin-2 and MCL heterodimerize and both CLRs use FcRγ as the signaling adaptor, we investigated the role of MCL in vaccine immunity to the fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis. MCL(-/-) mice showed impaired vaccine resistance against B. dermatitidis infection compared to that of wild-type animals. The lack of resistance correlated with the reduced recruitment of Th17 cells to the lung upon recall following experimental challenge and impaired interleukin-17 (IL-17) production by vaccine antigen-stimulated splenocytes in vitro. Soluble MCL fusion protein recognized and bound a water-soluble ligand from the cell wall of vaccine yeast, but the addition of soluble Dectin-2 fusion protein did not augment ligand recognition by MCL. Taken together, our data indicate that MCL regulates the development of vaccine-induced Th17 cells and protective immunity against lethal experimental infection with B. dermatitidis.

  18. Isolation, purification, and radiolabeling of a novel 120-kD surface protein on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts to detect antibody in infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No well-defined Blastomyces-specific antigens are currently available. We used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify immunologically active molecules in the cell wall of B. dermatitidis. A major immunoreactive 120-kD protein (WI-1) was present in all five strains studied and comprised 5% of the protein in the cell wall extract obtained after freezing and thawing yeast cells. WI-1 was recognized by serum from all 10 patients with blastomycosis but by none of those from 5 patients with histoplasmosis. It was purified by electroelution, radiolabeled with 125I, and incorporated into a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for serodiagnosis of blastomycosis. Antibody to WI-1 was detected in 58 (85%) of 68 patients with blastomycosis (geometric mean titer, 1:2,981), in two (3%) of 73 patients with histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, sporotrichosis, or candidiasis (titers, 1:86 and 1:91) and in none of 44 healthy persons. WI-1 was shown to be a surface molecule abundant on B. dermatitidis yeasts that were indirectly stained with serum from a rabbit immunized with WI-1. Approximately 0.93 pg of WI-1 or 4.7 x 10(6) WI-1 molecules were found on the surface of an individual yeast using an antigen-inhibition RIA; none was found on Histoplasma capsulatum or Candida albicans yeasts. We conclude that WI-1 is a novel, immunologically active surface molecule on the invasive form of B. dermatitidis and that WI-1 can be used to reliably detect antibody and study the immunopathogenesis of blastomycosis

  19. Isolation, purification, and radiolabeling of a novel 120-kD surface protein on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeasts to detect antibody in infected patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, B.S.; Jones, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    No well-defined Blastomyces-specific antigens are currently available. We used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify immunologically active molecules in the cell wall of B. dermatitidis. A major immunoreactive 120-kD protein (WI-1) was present in all five strains studied and comprised 5% of the protein in the cell wall extract obtained after freezing and thawing yeast cells. WI-1 was recognized by serum from all 10 patients with blastomycosis but by none of those from 5 patients with histoplasmosis. It was purified by electroelution, radiolabeled with 125I, and incorporated into a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for serodiagnosis of blastomycosis. Antibody to WI-1 was detected in 58 (85%) of 68 patients with blastomycosis (geometric mean titer, 1:2,981), in two (3%) of 73 patients with histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, sporotrichosis, or candidiasis (titers, 1:86 and 1:91) and in none of 44 healthy persons. WI-1 was shown to be a surface molecule abundant on B. dermatitidis yeasts that were indirectly stained with serum from a rabbit immunized with WI-1. Approximately 0.93 pg of WI-1 or 4.7 x 10(6) WI-1 molecules were found on the surface of an individual yeast using an antigen-inhibition RIA; none was found on Histoplasma capsulatum or Candida albicans yeasts. We conclude that WI-1 is a novel, immunologically active surface molecule on the invasive form of B. dermatitidis and that WI-1 can be used to reliably detect antibody and study the immunopathogenesis of blastomycosis.

  20. Systemic Blastomycosis Diagnosed by Prostate Needle Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Peter M.; Nikolai, Anne

    2008-01-01

    A healthy 51-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of lower urinary tract irritative symptoms. Urinalysis was suggestive of infection, and the patient was treated with multiple antibiotics without relief of symptoms.A urological exam demonstrated abnormal induration of the prostate gland. Biopsy of the prostate gland revealed Blastomyces dermatitidis. In areas where Blastomyces dermatitidis is endemic, clinicians should be aware of the presence of this fungus and possible sites of inf...

  1. Computed Tomographic Scan Evaluation of Pulmonary Blastomycosis

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    Suzanne Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blastomycosis is an uncommon granulomatous pulmonary and extrapulmonary infectious disease caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. Diagnosis may be delayed or difficult because of varied presentation. The characteristics of blastomycosis on computed tomographic (CT scan of the chest are not well characterized.

  2. Comparative Phylogenomics of Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Species

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Whiston; Taylor, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The Ascomycete Onygenales order embraces a diverse group of mammalian pathogens, including the yeast-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides spp. and Blastomyces dermatitidis, the dermatophytes Microsporum spp. and Trichopyton spp., the spherule-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens in the genus Coccidioides, and many nonpathogens. Although genomes for all of the aforementioned pathogenic species are available, only one nonpathogen had been sequenced. Here, we...

  3. Vaccine-induced protection against 3 systemic mycoses endemic to North America requires Th17 cells in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Gern, Benjamin; Hung, Chiung Yu; Ersland, Karen; Rocco, Nicole; Pick-Jacobs, John; Galles, Kevin; Filutowicz, Hanna; Warner, Thomas; Evans, Michael; Cole, Garry; Klein, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide rates of systemic fungal infections, including three of the major pathogens responsible for such infections in North America (Coccidioides posadasii, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Blastomyces dermatitidis), have soared recently, spurring interest in developing vaccines. The development of Th1 cells is believed to be crucial for protective immunity against pathogenic fungi, whereas the role of Th17 cells is vigorously debated. In models of primary fungal infection, some studies have sh...

  4. Virulence Factors IN Fungi OF Systemic Mycoses

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Sugizaki, Maria Fátima; PERAÇOLI Maria Terezinha Serrão

    1998-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi that cause systemic mycoses retain several factors which allow their growth in adverse conditions provided by the host, leading to the establishment of the parasitic relationship and contributing to disease development. These factors are known as virulence factors which favor the infection process and the pathogenesis of the mycoses. The present study evaluates the virulence factors of pathogenic fungi such as Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neofo...

  5. Epidemiology and management of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Leenders, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    textabstractFungal infections in man usually are divided into three categories based upon their major pathophysiological characteristics: superficial and cutaneous, subcutaneous and, systemic infections. The last category consists of two separate entities. First there are the so called "endemic mycoses" caused by dimorphic fungi including Coccidioides immiiis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsula tum and Blastomyces dermatitidis which occur in patients who live in, or have trave...

  6. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification

    OpenAIRE

    O′Guinn, Devon J.; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. Presentation of case A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative ma...

  7. Blastomycosis in a Young African Man Presenting with a Pleural Effusion

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    GG Alvarez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus endemic to northwestern Ontario, Manitoba and some parts of the United States. The fungus is also endemic to parts of Africa. Pulmonary and extrapulmonary findings of a 24-year-old African man who presented with weight loss, dry cough and chronic pneumonia not resolving with antibiotic treatment are presented. The unusual occurrence of pulmonary blastomycosis associated with skin lesions and a moderate pleural effusion is reported.

  8. C-type lectin receptors differentially induce Th17 cells and vaccine immunity to the endemic mycosis of North America

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huafeng; LeBert, Vanessa; Hung, Chiung Yu; Galles, Kevin; Saijo, Shinobu; Lin, Xin; Cole, Garry T.; Bruce S Klein; Wüthrich, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine immunity to the endemic mycoses of North America requires Th17 cells, but the pattern recognition receptors and signaling pathways that drive these protective responses have not been defined. We show that C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) exert divergent contributions to the development of anti-fungal Th17 cells and vaccine resistance against Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum and Coccidioides posadasii. Acquired immunity to B. dermatitidis requires Dectin-2, whereas vaccin...

  9. Agents of endemic mycoses

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Tadeja

    2015-01-01

    Med najpomembnejše povzročitelje endemskih mikoz, za katerimi zbolevajo tudi zdravi posamezniki z normalnim imunskim odgovorom, sodijo Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Coccidioides immitis. Za vse naštete glive je značilen temperaturni dimorfizem. Najdemo jih na omejenih geografskih področjih sveta in za okužbamiz njimi zbolevajo ljudje, ki stalno ali začasno živijo na teh področjih. Ker je naravna ekološ ka niša večine povzročiteljev endemski...

  10. Tc17 Cells Mediate Vaccine Immunity against Lethal Fungal Pneumonia in Immune Deficient Hosts Lacking CD4+ T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Som Gowda Nanjappa; Erika Heninger; Marcel Wüthrich; David Joseph Gasper; Bruce S Klein

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines may help reduce the growing incidence of fungal infections in immune-suppressed patients. We have found that, even in the absence of CD4(+) T-cell help, vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells persist and confer resistance against Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum. Type 1 cytokines contribute to that resistance, but they also are dispensable. Although the role of T helper 17 cells in immunity to fungi is debated, IL-17 producing CD8(+) T cells (Tc17 cells) have not been inve...

  11. [Bacteriologic and serologic diagnosis of enteral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelmann, R

    1988-09-01

    Infections of the gastrointestinal tract still are numerous, ranging on the second place after infections of the respiratory tract. Some of them show quite severe or prolonged course. In contrast to other infections, especially those of the urinary tract, laboratory diagnostic of enteritis is only scarcely ordered. During the last ten years new methods and knowledge of etiologic germs like Campylobacter, Yersinia, various types of E. coli, Clostridium difficile, Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Giardia, Blastomyces and Cryptosporidia have been accumulated. A better etiologic diagnosis of these infections should enable the clinician to start a more precise and therefore more effective therapy.

  12. Systemic blastomycosis in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Julia H; Olson, Erik J; Haugen, Edward W; Hunt, Luanne M; Johnson, Jennifer L; Hayden, David W

    2006-11-01

    Progressive multisystemic disease caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis was diagnosed in a 17-year-old Quarter horse broodmare. The mare had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics for mastitis 3 months postpartum. The disease progressed to exudative cutaneous lesions affecting the ventrum, pectoral region, and limbs accompanied by weight loss across several months. Yeast bodies were observed in swabs of the cutaneous exudate, suggesting a clinical diagnosis of blastomycosis. Following referral, pleural effusion, cavitated lung lesions, and hyperproteinemia were identified, and the mare was euthanized because of poor prognosis. Necropsy revealed extensive pyogranulomas in the mammary gland, skin, subcutaneous tissues, and lungs, accompanied by thrombi in major blood vessels of the lungs and hind limbs. Histologically, pyogranulomatous inflammation was evident in many tissues, and fungal organisms were seen in sections of mammary gland, skin, subcutis, pericardium, and lung. Blastomyces dermatitidis was cultured from mammary tissue, lungs, lymph node, and an inguinal abscess. Although blastomycosis is endemic in the area of origin of the mare in northwestern Wisconsin, the disease is extremely rare in horses and hence easily misdiagnosed. Unique features of this case included the extent of mammary gland involvement and the presence of thrombi in multiple sites. PMID:17121096

  13. Blastomycosis in Northwestern Ontario, 2004 to 2014

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    Daniel Dalcin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blastomycosis is an invasive fungal disease caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis and the recently discovered Blastomyces gilchristii. The medical charts of 64 patients with confirmed cases of blastomycosis in northwestern Ontario during a 10-year period (2004 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The number of patients diagnosed with blastomycosis in Ontario was observed to have increased substantially compared with before 1990, when blastomycosis was removed from the list of reportable diseases. Aboriginals were observed to be disproportionately represented in the patient population. Of the patients whose smoking status was known, 71.4% had a history of smoking. 59.4% of patients had underlying comorbidities and a higher comorbidity rate was observed among Aboriginal patients. The case-fatality rate from direct complications of blastomycosis disease was calculated to be 20.3%; this case-fatality rate is the highest ever to be reported in Canada and more than double that of previously published Canadian studies. The clinical characteristics of 64 patients diagnosed with blastomycosis are summarized.

  14. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant, genetically engineered, live-attenuated vaccine against canine blastomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Krajaejun, Theerapong; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Bass, Chris; Filutowicz, Hanna I; Legendre, Alfred M; Klein, Bruce S

    2011-05-01

    Blastomycosis is a severe, commonly fatal infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis in dogs that live in the United States, Canada, and parts of Africa. The cost of treating an infection can be expensive, and no vaccine against this infection is commercially available. A genetically engineered live-attenuated strain of B. dermatitidis lacking the major virulence factor BAD-1 successfully vaccinates against lethal experimental infection in mice. Here we studied the safety, toxicity, and immunogenicity of this strain as a vaccine in dogs, using 25 beagles at a teaching laboratory and 78 foxhounds in a field trial. In the beagles, escalating doses of live vaccine ranging from 2 × 10⁴ to 2 × 10⁷ yeast cells given subcutaneously were safe and did not disseminate to the lung or induce systemic illness, but a dose of vaccine dose of 10⁵ yeast cells was also well tolerated in vaccinated foxhounds who had never had blastomycosis; however, vaccinated dogs with prior infection had more local reactions at the vaccine site. The draining lymph node cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes from vaccinated dogs demonstrated gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) specifically in response to stimulation with Blastomyces antigens. Thus, the live-attenuated vaccine against blastomycosis studied here proved safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic in dogs and merits further studies of vaccine efficacy.

  15. Lymphocyte transformation in presumed ocular histoplasmosis

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    Ganley, J.P.; Nemo, G.J.; Comstock, G.W.; Brody, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    Lymphocytes from individuals with inactive macular disciform lesions of presumed ocular histoplasmosis challenged with three histoplasmin antigens incorporated tritiated thymidine at a significantly higher rate than histoplasmin-stimulated lymphocytes of matched control and peripheral scar groups. This finding is consistent with the etiologic association of the disciform ocular syndrome and previous systemic infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The disciform group had a higher mean response than the other two groups to pokeweed mitogen but not to phytohemagglutinin and had higher mean counts per minute to the specific antigens Toxoplasma gondii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M battery, and M gaus, but not to Candida albicans. These data would suggest that individuals with the disciform lesion of presumed ocular histoplasmosis have a hyperreactive cellular immune response; this response may play an important role in the development of the disciform.

  16. Thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis in a horse.

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    Toribio, R E; Kohn, C W; Lawrence, A E; Hardy, J; Hutt, J A

    1999-05-01

    A 5-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined because of lethargy, fever, and weight loss of 1 month's duration. Thoracic auscultation revealed decreased lung sounds cranioventrally. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed bilateral anechoic areas with hyperechoic strands, consistent with pleural effusion and fibrin tags. A large amount of free fluid was evident during abdominal ultrasonography. Abnormalities included anemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Thoracic radiography revealed alveolar infiltrates in the cranial and caudoventral lung fields. A cavitary mass, consistent with an abscess, could be seen caudodorsal to the crura of the diaphragm. Ultrasonographic evaluation of this area revealed a hypoechoic mass with septations. Bilateral thoracocentesis was performed. Bacterial culture of the pleural fluid did not yield growth, but Blastomyces dermatitidis was isolated from pleural fluid, abdominal fluid, and an aspirate of the abscess. The mare was euthanatized, and a diagnosis of thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:10319179

  17. Virulence Factors IN Fungi OF Systemic Mycoses

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    KUROKAWA Cilmery Suemi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi that cause systemic mycoses retain several factors which allow their growth in adverse conditions provided by the host, leading to the establishment of the parasitic relationship and contributing to disease development. These factors are known as virulence factors which favor the infection process and the pathogenesis of the mycoses. The present study evaluates the virulence factors of pathogenic fungi such as Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in terms of thermotolerance, dimorphism, capsule or cell wall components as well as enzyme production. Virulence factors favor fungal adhesion, colonization, dissemination and the ability to survive in hostile environments and elude the immune response mechanisms of the host. Both the virulence factors presented by different fungi and the defense mechanisms provided by the host require action and interaction of complex processes whose knowledge allows a better understanding of the pathogenesis of systemic mycoses.

  18. Fungal osteomyelitis and septic arthritis.

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    Bariteau, Jason T; Waryasz, Gregory R; McDonnell, Matthew; Fischer, Staci A; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Christopher T

    2014-06-01

    Management of fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis is challenging, especially in the setting of immunodeficiency and conditions that require immunosuppression. Because fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis are rare conditions, study of their pathophysiology and treatment has been limited. In the literature, evidence-based treatment is lacking and, historically, outcomes have been poor. The most common offending organisms are Candida and Aspergillus, which are widely distributed in humans and soil. However, some fungal pathogens, such as Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Sporothrix, have more focal areas of endemicity. Fungal bone and joint infections result from direct inoculation, contiguous infection spread, or hematogenous seeding of organisms. These infections may be difficult to diagnose and eradicate, especially in the setting of total joint arthroplasty. Although there is no clear consensus on treatment, guidelines are available for management of many of these pathogens.

  19. Probable Pulmonary Blastomycosis in a Wild Coyote (Canis latrans

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    Luis E. Rodríguez-Tovar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A female coyote (Canis latrans was fatally injured by a vehicle on a road in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Because of deteriorating clinical signs, the animal was euthanized. Postmortem examination of the lungs showed numerous small multifocal white nodules (0.5–1 cm diameter disseminated throughout. Histopathologic examination revealed multifocal coalescing granulomas with abundant macrophages, numerous neutrophils, fibroblasts, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. Abundant intracellular and extracellular thick-walled, refractile, spherical yeasts (10–15 μm were observed within the granulomas. The yeasts were intensely PAS-positive, with granular protoplasm. Broad-based single budding yeasts were occasionally present. Based on the microscopic findings of the pulmonary lesions and the morphological features of the organism, a diagnosis of chronic pyogranulomatous pneumonia caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis was made. To our knowledge, the case described herein is the first report of pulmonary blastomycosis in a wild coyote.

  20. Blastomycosis Presenting as Multiple Splenic Abscesses: Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Sami Al-Nassar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old Canadian Aboriginal man from northwestern Ontario presented with left upper quadrant pain and a tender left upper quadrant mass. Evaluation with a computed tomography scan showed multiple lesions within the spleen, a collection between the splenic tip and splenic flexure of the colon, and several small adrenal lesions. Computed tomographic-guided needle biopsy showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and multinucleated giant cells. Gomori’s methenamine silver stain showed broad-based budding yeast consistent with Blastomyces dermatitidis. Abdominal symptoms resolved after two months of oral itraconazole. Multiple splenic abscesses are a rare presentation of blastomycosis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of left upper quadrant abdominal pain in a patient with a history of travel or residence in a region endemic for B dermatitidis.

  1. Blastomycosis and Pregnancy: An Unusual Postpartum Disease Course

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    David Surprenant

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Blastomyces dermatitidis is responsible for systemic mycoses. It is predominantly caused by inhalation of spores and often manifests as pneumonia, which can potentially disseminate; however, direct cutaneous inoculation may also occur. Blastomycosis in the perigravid period is exceedingly rare. The partial immunosuppressive state induced by pregnancy can engender more severe infections and is associated with a risk of vertical transmission. Published cases describe postpartum symptomatic improvement accompanying immune reconstitution, even in the absence of treatment. We present a 31-year-old gravid female with multifocal cutaneous blastomycosis. After delivering a healthy full-term infant with no evidence of congenital infection, the patient's cutaneous lesions continued to worsen. At 6 weeks postpartum she was treated with oral itraconazole and demonstrated clinical improvement after 5 months of therapy. This case highlights the importance of prompt disease recognition, understanding of risk factors and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy of blastomycotic infection occurring in the unique setting of pregnancy.

  2. Blastomycosis and Pregnancy: An Unusual Postpartum Disease Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surprenant, David; Kaniszewska, Monika; Hutchens, Kelli; Go, Christine; O'Keefe, Paul; Swan, James; Tung, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis is responsible for systemic mycoses. It is predominantly caused by inhalation of spores and often manifests as pneumonia, which can potentially disseminate; however, direct cutaneous inoculation may also occur. Blastomycosis in the perigravid period is exceedingly rare. The partial immunosuppressive state induced by pregnancy can engender more severe infections and is associated with a risk of vertical transmission. Published cases describe postpartum symptomatic improvement accompanying immune reconstitution, even in the absence of treatment. We present a 31-year-old gravid female with multifocal cutaneous blastomycosis. After delivering a healthy full-term infant with no evidence of congenital infection, the patient's cutaneous lesions continued to worsen. At 6 weeks postpartum she was treated with oral itraconazole and demonstrated clinical improvement after 5 months of therapy. This case highlights the importance of prompt disease recognition, understanding of risk factors and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy of blastomycotic infection occurring in the unique setting of pregnancy. PMID:26120305

  3. Clinical analysis of systemic fungal infection in ICU%医院内深部真菌感染的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单艳华; 张勇刚; 王喜梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究ICU深部真菌感染的临床及病原学特点.方法 收集78例ICU深部真菌患者的血、痰、粪便、尿、腹腔引流液培养结果及其临床资料.结果 78例ICU深部真菌患者中共分离出95株真菌,以白色念珠菌及光滑念珠菌为主,其中白色念珠菌占54.74%,光滑念珠菌占22.11%,感染部位以呼吸道感染最常见,占72.63%,其次为尿路感染,占11.58%.结论 ICU深部真菌感染菌种和部位有自己的特点,并且有一定的诱发因素,该病重在预防.%Objective To investigate clinic status,feature of pathogens of systemic fungal infection in ICU. Methods Cultivation results of blood, sputum, dejecta, uria, abdominal draining juice and clinic data were collected from 78 systemic fungal infection patients. Results 95 strains of fungus were abstracted from 78 systemic fungal infection patients. The major pathogens were Blastomyces albicans and Smooth Candida. Blastomyces albicans counted 53. 84% and Smooth Candida counted 20. 51%. The respiratory tract was found to be the most common infective location, which counted 72.63%. Secondary infective location was the urinary tract,which counted 11.58%. Conclusions The strain and location of systemic fungal infection in ICU had its own charactermistics, and there was determinate causative factor. The disease focuses on the prevention.

  4. The endemic mimic: blastomycosis an illness often misdiagnosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradsher, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    One of the endemic fungi, Blastomyces dermatitidis, can cause epidemics of infection with multiple persons involved in a point source outbreak but more commonly causes sporadic cases of infection within the areas of endemicity. Blastomycosis can present as an acute pneumonia which is often misdiagnosed as acute pneumococcal pneumonia or the infection may present as a chronic pneumonia along with weight loss, night sweats, hemoptysis, and a lung mass suggesting tuberculosis or carcinoma of the lung. Extrapulmonary infection with B. dermatitidis is protean with many different manifestations. Most commonly, skin or subcutaneous lesions are found with either a verrucous or warty appearance or in an ulcerative form. Cases have been misidentified as keratoacanthoma, pyoderma gangrenosum, carcinoma, or as Weber-Christian panniculitis if there are nodular subcutaneous lesions. Essentially any site or organ can have lesions of disseminated blastomycosis. In our series, cases of laryngeal carcinoma, adrenal insufficiency, thyroid nodules, granulomatous hypercalcemia, abnormal mammograms thought to represent breast carcinoma, otitis media with cranial extension, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and hemolytic anemia of unknown cause have been misdiagnosed and blastomycosis subsequently identified as the cause. This infection causes manifestations which mimic many other more commonly diagnosed conditions and must always be considered by clinicians practicing in the endemic region. PMID:25125734

  5. Effect of karst rocky desertification on soil fungal communities in Southwest China.

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    Wang, P C; Mo, B T; Chen, Y; Zeng, Q F; Wang, L B

    2016-01-01

    Karst mountainous ecosystems are associated with karst rocky desertification (KRD), which can greatly impact soil structure and function. Despite the importance of soil microbes as a major factor maintaining ecosystem stability, we know little about the effect on soil fungal communities of KRD in karst regions. We investigated this relationship across a gradient of KRD soils from Guizhou, China by polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Fungal diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener, richness, and evenness) significantly differed (P < 0.05) based on KRD severity, being lowest in moderately affected areas. Cluster analysis showed that the five sites examined clustered into two main groups according to KRD grade (high and low). Moreover, a homology search using sequences recovered from PCR-DGGE bands showed that the dominant fungi in each community varied remarkably, and included Aspergillus, Aphanoascus, Blastomyces, Fusarium, Glomus, Geomyces, Gibberella, Mortierella, Tetracladium, and Tumularia species, and an unclassified group. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that KRD has a significant impact on soil fungal communities. PMID:27525893

  6. Isolation of Aureimonas altamirensis, a Brucella canis-like bacterium, from an edematous canine testicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Wennerdahl, Laura A; Williams, Fred; Evans, Tim J; Ganjam, Irene K; Bowman, Jesse W; Fales, William H

    2014-11-01

    Microbiological and histological analysis of a sample from a swollen testicle of a 2-year-old Border Collie dog revealed a mixed infection of the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis and the Gram-negative bacterium Aureimonas altamirensis. When subjected to an automated microbial identification system, the latter isolate was provisionally identified as Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, but the organism shared several biochemical features with Brucella canis and exhibited agglutination, albeit weakly, with anti-B. canis antiserum. Unequivocal identification of the organism was only achieved by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, ultimately establishing the identity as A. altamirensis. Since its first description in 2006, this organism has been isolated infrequently from human clinical samples, but, to the authors' knowledge, has not been reported from a veterinary clinical sample. While of unknown clinical significance with respect to the pathology observed for the polymicrobial infection described herein, it highlights the critical importance to unambiguously identify the microbe for diagnostic, epidemiological, infection control, and public health purposes. PMID:25292192

  7. Regulation of filamentation in the human fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis.

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    Zhang, Qiuyu; Tao, Li; Guan, Guobo; Yue, Huizhen; Liang, Weihong; Cao, Chengjun; Dai, Yu; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-02-01

    The yeast-filament transition is essential for the virulence of a variety of fungi that are pathogenic to humans. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a potent inducer of filamentation in Candida albicans and thermally dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis. However, GlcNAc suppresses rather than promotes filamentation in Candida tropicalis, a fungal species that is closely related to C. albicans. Despite the intensive study in C. albicans, the regulatory mechanism of filamentation is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that the cAMP signaling pathway plays a central role in the regulation of filamentation in C. tropicalis. By screening an overexpression library of 156 transcription factors, we have identified approximately 40 regulators of filamentous growth. Although most of the regulators (e.g., Tec1, Gat2, Nrg1, Sfl1, Sfl2 and Ash1) demonstrate a conserved role in the regulation of filamentation, similar to their homologues in C. albicans or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a number of transcription factors (e.g., Wor1, Bcr1, Stp4, Efh1, Csr1 and Zcf17) play a specific role in C. tropicalis. Our findings indicate that multiple interconnected signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of filamentation in C. tropicalis. These mechanisms have conserved and divergent features among different Candida species. PMID:26466925

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization and differential expression of DRK1 in Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Binbin; Zhang, Zhenying; Zheng, Fangliang; Liu, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    The dimorphism of Sporothrix schenckii (S. schenckii) reflects a developmental switch in morphology and lifestyle that is necessary for virulence. DRK1, a hybrid histidine kinase, functions as a global regulator of dimorphism and virulence in Blastomyces dermatitidis (B. dermatitidis) and Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum). The partial cDNA sequence of DRK1 of S. schenckii, designated SsDRK1, was obtained using degenerate primers based on the conserved domain of the DRK1 of other fungi. The complete cDNA sequence of SsDRK1 was obtained by 5' and 3' RACE. The full-length cDNA is 4743 bp in size and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 4071 bp, encoding 1356 amino acid residues. The predicted molecular mass of SsDRK1 is 147.3 kDa with an estimated theoretical isoelectric point of 5.46. The deduced amino acid sequence of SsDRK1 shows 65% identity to that of B. dermatitidis. The SsDRK1 was predicted to be a soluble histidine kinase and to contain three parts: sensor domain, linker domain and functional domain. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that SsDRK1 was more highly expressed in the yeast stage compared with that in the mycelial stage, which indicated that the SsDRK1 may be involved in the dimorphic switch in S. schenckii.

  9. Posaconazole: An Update of Its Clinical Use

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    Simon Leung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Posaconazole (PCZ is a relatively new addition to the azole antifungals. It has fungicidal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, selected Candida species, Crytopcoccus neoformans, and Trichosporon. PCZ also has fungistatic activities against Candida, Coccidioides, selected Fusarium spp., Histoplasma, Scedosporium and Zygomycetes. In addition, combining the drug with caspofungin or amphotericin B results in a synergistic interaction against A. fumigatus, C. glabrata and C. neoformans. The absorption of PCZ suspension is enhanced when given with food, nutritional supplements, and carbonated beverages. Oral administration of PCZ in divided doses also increases its bioavailability. PCZ has a large volume of distribution and is highly protein bound (>95%. The main elimination route of PCZ is fecal. PCZ is an inhibitor of the CYP3A4 enzyme; therefore, monitoring for drug-drug interactions is warranted with other CYP3A4 substrates/inhibitors/inducers. The most common adverse effects include headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and elevated hepatic enzymes. PCZ, with its unique antifungal activities, expands the azole class of antifungal agents. Because of its limit in formulation, PCZ oral suspension is recommended in immunocompromised patients with functional gastrointestinaltracts who fail conventional antifungal therapies or who are suspected to have a breakthrough fungal infection. However, a delayed-release tablet formulation and intravenous (IV injection became available in 2014, expanding the use of PCZ in other patient populations, including individuals who are unable to take oral formulations.

  10. Could Histoplasma capsulatum Be Related to Healthcare-Associated Infections?

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    Laura Elena Carreto-Binaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections (HAI are described in diverse settings. The main etiologic agents of HAI are bacteria (85% and fungi (13%. Some factors increase the risk for HAI, particularly the use of medical devices; patients with severe cuts, wounds, and burns; stays in the intensive care unit, surgery, and hospital reconstruction works. Several fungal HAI are caused by Candida spp., usually from an endogenous source; however, cross-transmission via the hands of healthcare workers or contaminated devices can occur. Although other medically important fungi, such as Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and Histoplasma capsulatum, have never been considered nosocomial pathogens, there are some factors that point out the pros and cons for this possibility. Among these fungi, H. capsulatum infection has been linked to different medical devices and surgery implants. The filamentous form of H. capsulatum may be present in hospital settings, as this fungus adapts to different types of climates and has great dispersion ability. Although conventional pathogen identification techniques have never identified H. capsulatum in the hospital environment, molecular biology procedures could be useful in this setting. More research on H. capsulatum as a HAI etiologic agent is needed, since it causes a severe and often fatal disease in immunocompromised patients.

  11. Unusual osseous presentation of blastomycosis in an immigrant child: a challenge for European pediatricians

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    Codifava Margherita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blastomycosis, caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis is a systemic pyogranulomatous infection, endemic in United States and Canada, with few reported cases in Africa and Asia. It is uncommon among children and adolescents, ranging from 3% to 10%. Clinical features vary from asymptomatic spontaneously healing pneumonia, through acute or chronic pneumonia, to a malignant appearing lung mass. Blastomycosis can originate a "metastatic disease" in the skin, bones, genitourinary tract and central nervous system. Bone is the third most common site of blastomycotic lesions, after lung and skin. Bones may be involved in 14-60% of cases of blastomycosis. Direct visualization of single broadbased budding yeast with specific stains in sputum or tissue samples at microscopy is the primary method for diagnosis, while culture is timeconsuming and other methods are unreliable. Case presentation We report a case of severe osteoarticular Blastomycosis occurring in a 3-years-old presented to our Emergency Department with pain and swelling of the left knee, successfully treated with surgical curettage and antifungal therapy. To our knowledge this is the first case reported in Europe. Conclusions Blastomycosis represents a challenge for European physicians, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained infections in patients coming from endemic areas.

  12. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease

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    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  13. Fungal Infections in Some Economically Important Freshwater Fishes

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    Zafar Iqbal*, Uzma Sheikh and Rabia Mughal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigate fungal infections in four species of carps including goldfish, Carassius (C. auratus L.; silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys (H. molitrix Richardsons; rahu, Labeo (L. rohita Hamilton and Ctenopharyngodon (C. idella Valenciennes. Nine specimens of each species were studied for the presence of fungal infections. Infected fishes showed clinical signs such as fungal growth on skin, fins, eyes, eroded fins and scales, hemorrhages on body surface and abdominal distension. The specimens from infected organs of fish were inoculated on each, malt extract, Sabouraud dextrose and potato dextrose agars. The fungal colonies of white, black, green, grey and brown colors were observed in the agar plates. Slides were prepared and stained with 0.05% Trypan blue in lactophenol. C. auratus showed the highest infection rate (44.4% followed by H. molitrix and L. rohita (11.1% each. Five fungal species viz. Aspergillus (33.3%, Penicillium (22.2%, Alternaria (27.7%, Blastomyces spp (11.1% and Rhizopus (5.5% were isolated. Posterior part of the fish had significantly (P=0.05 higher (62.5% infection as compared to anterior part (37.5%. The caudal fin with 31.25% infection was the single most affected area. This study showed that most of the fungi isolated from fishes are considered as normal mycoflora, yet many fungi can cause natural infections in ponds and aquarium.

  14. C-type lectin receptors differentially induce th17 cells and vaccine immunity to the endemic mycosis of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huafeng; LeBert, Vanessa; Hung, Chiung Yu; Galles, Kevin; Saijo, Shinobu; Lin, Xin; Cole, Garry T; Klein, Bruce S; Wüthrich, Marcel

    2014-02-01

    Vaccine immunity to the endemic mycoses of North America requires Th17 cells, but the pattern recognition receptors and signaling pathways that drive these protective responses have not been defined. We show that C-type lectin receptors exert divergent contributions to the development of antifungal Th17 cells and vaccine resistance against Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Coccidioides posadasii. Acquired immunity to B. dermatitidis requires Dectin-2, whereas vaccination against H. capsulatum and C. posadasii infection depends on innate sensing by Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, but not Mincle. Tracking Ag-specific T cells in vivo established that the Card9 signaling pathway acts indispensably and exclusively on differentiation of Th17 cells, while leaving intact their activation, proliferation, survival, and migration. Whereas Card9 signaling is essential, C-type lectin receptors offer distinct and divergent contributions to vaccine immunity against these endemic fungal pathogens. Our work provides new insight into innate immune mechanisms that drive vaccine immunity and Th17 cells. PMID:24391211

  15. 河北省张家口地区育龄期妇女阴道炎病原体分布、耐药性特征及危险因素分析%Analysis of pathogenic bacteria, drug resistance and risk factors in patients with vaginitis in Zhangjiakou area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣琴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate characteristics of pathogen distribution and drug resistance,and to analyze risk factors of the infection in patients with vaginitis in Zhangjiakou area.Methods Vaginal secretion specimen from 368 patients with vaginitis were collected and then processed by germiculture,identification and drug sensitivity tests.Risk factors of infection were identified among age,marriage history,first sexual intercourse age,education,childbearing history,abortion history,contraception,householding et al by single factor x2 analysis and Logistic regression analysis.Results Blastomyces albicans,ureaplasma urealyticum,escherichia coli,enterococcus faecalis and gardner vaginal bacteria listed top 5 of composition of infection rate in patients with vaginitis.Blastomyces albicans was sensitive to multiple antifungal agent; escherichia coli and gardner vaginal bacteria were resistant to multiple antibiotics but sensitive to imipenem;ureaplasma urealyticum was resistant to multiple antibiotics but sensitive to josamycin and clarithromycin;enterococcus faecalis was strongly resisted to SMZ and erythromycin.Age ranging from 31 ~40y,application of IUD,positive abortion history and first sex intercourse before 23y were identified as risk factors for infection in patients with vaginitis.Conclusion Infection characteristics and risk factors could be utilized as indicators in considering treatment programs for patients with vaginitis.%目的 探讨张家口地区育龄期妇女阴道炎病原体分布、耐药性特征,并对其危险因素进行分析.方法 收集368例阴道炎患者阴道分泌物进行病原体培养与鉴定,并进行药敏试验;采用单因素x2检验及Logistic回归分析在年龄、婚否、初交年龄、文化、生育史、流产史、避孕方式、家庭居住地等因素中确定阴道炎病原体感染的危险因素.结果 阴道炎患者病原体感染率前五位分别为白色念珠菌、解脲支原体、大肠埃希菌、粪

  16. Comparative Phylogenomics of Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Species

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    Emily Whiston

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ascomycete Onygenales order embraces a diverse group of mammalian pathogens, including the yeast-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides spp. and Blastomyces dermatitidis, the dermatophytes Microsporum spp. and Trichopyton spp., the spherule-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens in the genus Coccidioides, and many nonpathogens. Although genomes for all of the aforementioned pathogenic species are available, only one nonpathogen had been sequenced. Here, we enhance comparative phylogenomics in Onygenales by adding genomes for Amauroascus mutatus, Amauroascus niger, Byssoonygena ceratinophila, and Chrysosporium queenslandicum—four nonpathogenic Onygenales species, all of which are more closely related to Coccidioides spp. than any other known Onygenales species. Phylogenomic detection of gene family expansion and contraction can provide clues to fungal function but is sensitive to taxon sampling. By adding additional nonpathogens, we show that LysM domain-containing proteins, previously thought to be expanding in some Onygenales, are contracting in the Coccidioides-Uncinocarpus clade, as are the self-nonself recognition Het loci. The denser genome sampling presented here highlights nearly 800 genes unique to Coccidiodes, which have significantly fewer known protein domains and show increased expression in the endosporulating spherule, the parasitic phase unique to Coccidioides spp. These genomes provide insight to gene family expansion/contraction and patterns of individual gene gain/loss in this diverse order—both major drivers of evolutionary change. Our results suggest that gene family expansion/contraction can lead to adaptive radiations that create taxonomic orders, while individual gene gain/loss likely plays a more significant role in branch-specific phenotypic changes that lead to adaptation for species or genera.

  17. Comparative Phylogenomics of Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiston, Emily; Taylor, John W

    2016-02-01

    The Ascomycete Onygenales order embraces a diverse group of mammalian pathogens, including the yeast-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides spp. and Blastomyces dermatitidis, the dermatophytes Microsporum spp. and Trichopyton spp., the spherule-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens in the genus Coccidioides, and many nonpathogens. Although genomes for all of the aforementioned pathogenic species are available, only one nonpathogen had been sequenced. Here, we enhance comparative phylogenomics in Onygenales by adding genomes for Amauroascus mutatus, Amauroascus niger, Byssoonygena ceratinophila, and Chrysosporium queenslandicum--four nonpathogenic Onygenales species, all of which are more closely related to Coccidioides spp. than any other known Onygenales species. Phylogenomic detection of gene family expansion and contraction can provide clues to fungal function but is sensitive to taxon sampling. By adding additional nonpathogens, we show that LysM domain-containing proteins, previously thought to be expanding in some Onygenales, are contracting in the Coccidioides-Uncinocarpus clade, as are the self-nonself recognition Het loci. The denser genome sampling presented here highlights nearly 800 genes unique to Coccidiodes, which have significantly fewer known protein domains and show increased expression in the endosporulating spherule, the parasitic phase unique to Coccidioides spp. These genomes provide insight to gene family expansion/contraction and patterns of individual gene gain/loss in this diverse order--both major drivers of evolutionary change. Our results suggest that gene family expansion/contraction can lead to adaptive radiations that create taxonomic orders, while individual gene gain/loss likely plays a more significant role in branch-specific phenotypic changes that lead to adaptation for species or genera. PMID:26613950

  18. Tc17 cells mediate vaccine immunity against lethal fungal pneumonia in immune deficient hosts lacking CD4+ T cells.

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    Som Gowda Nanjappa

    Full Text Available Vaccines may help reduce the growing incidence of fungal infections in immune-suppressed patients. We have found that, even in the absence of CD4(+ T-cell help, vaccine-induced CD8(+ T cells persist and confer resistance against Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum. Type 1 cytokines contribute to that resistance, but they also are dispensable. Although the role of T helper 17 cells in immunity to fungi is debated, IL-17 producing CD8(+ T cells (Tc17 cells have not been investigated. Here, we show that Tc17 cells are indispensable in antifungal vaccine immunity in hosts lacking CD4(+ T cells. Tc17 cells are induced upon vaccination, recruited to the lung on pulmonary infection, and act non-redundantly in mediating protection in a manner that requires neutrophils. Tc17 cells did not influence type I immunity, nor did the lack of IL-12 signaling augment Tc17 cells, indicating a distinct lineage and function. IL-6 was required for Tc17 differentiation and immunity, but IL-1R1 and Dectin-1 signaling was unexpectedly dispensable. Tc17 cells expressed surface CXCR3 and CCR6, but only the latter was essential in recruitment to the lung. Although IL-17 producing T cells are believed to be short-lived, effector Tc17 cells expressed low levels of KLRG1 and high levels of the transcription factor TCF-1, predicting their long-term survival and stem-cell like behavior. Our work has implications for designing vaccines against fungal infections in immune suppressed patients.

  19. Tc17 cells mediate vaccine immunity against lethal fungal pneumonia in immune deficient hosts lacking CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjappa, Som Gowda; Heninger, Erika; Wüthrich, Marcel; Gasper, David Joseph; Klein, Bruce S

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines may help reduce the growing incidence of fungal infections in immune-suppressed patients. We have found that, even in the absence of CD4(+) T-cell help, vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells persist and confer resistance against Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum. Type 1 cytokines contribute to that resistance, but they also are dispensable. Although the role of T helper 17 cells in immunity to fungi is debated, IL-17 producing CD8(+) T cells (Tc17 cells) have not been investigated. Here, we show that Tc17 cells are indispensable in antifungal vaccine immunity in hosts lacking CD4(+) T cells. Tc17 cells are induced upon vaccination, recruited to the lung on pulmonary infection, and act non-redundantly in mediating protection in a manner that requires neutrophils. Tc17 cells did not influence type I immunity, nor did the lack of IL-12 signaling augment Tc17 cells, indicating a distinct lineage and function. IL-6 was required for Tc17 differentiation and immunity, but IL-1R1 and Dectin-1 signaling was unexpectedly dispensable. Tc17 cells expressed surface CXCR3 and CCR6, but only the latter was essential in recruitment to the lung. Although IL-17 producing T cells are believed to be short-lived, effector Tc17 cells expressed low levels of KLRG1 and high levels of the transcription factor TCF-1, predicting their long-term survival and stem-cell like behavior. Our work has implications for designing vaccines against fungal infections in immune suppressed patients.

  20. Blastomycosis in Quebec (1981–90: Report of 23 Cases and Review of Published Cases from Quebec

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    G St-Germain

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three cases of blastomycosis were reported in a survey conducted in the province of Quebec from 1981–90. Thirteen patients resided south of the St Lawrence River and the other 10, north. Two small geographical clusters were apparent in and around the cities of Sherbrooke and Quebec. The male to female ratio was 1.6:1 and the median age was 47 years (range 26 to 77. Lung involvement was observed in 19 cases and was the only site involved in 11. Cutaneous manifestations were reported in 11 cases while bone infection (three cases and central nervous system (CNS infections were also noted. Diagnosis was confirmed by culture in 21 cases and by histopathology in two cases. Of the 21 culture-positive cases, 12 strains of Blastomyces dermatitidis were isolated from lungs, nine from skin, and one each from bone and brain. Serodiagnostic tests by immunodiffusion or complement fixation were positive for only one of the 10 patients known to have been tested. Ten patients were treated with amphotericin B, 11 with ketoconazole, one with fluconazole and eight underwent surgery. While amphotericin B was used in eight of the 10 earliest treated cases, ketoconazole was administered in 10 of the 13 more recent cases. Of the patients for whom follow-up data have been obtained, 21 are reported cured (one of whom was not treated and one patient died of another cause. This survey confirms that blastomycosis is a rare disease in this endemic area and that patterns of therapy are changing.

  1. A few shared up-regulated genes may influence conidia to yeast transformation in dimorphic fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Theo N

    2016-08-01

    The small number of fungi that commonly cause disease in normal people share the capacity to grow as mycelia in the soil at 25°C and as yeast (or spherules) in mammals at 37°C. This remarkable conversion has long been a topic of interest in medical mycology. The conidia to yeast conversion has been studied by transcription profiling in several fungal species, including Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Coccidioides spp., Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Talaromyces marneffei One limitation of transcriptional profiling is determining which genes are involved in the process of conversion to yeast as opposed to a result of conversion to yeast. If there are genes that are up-regulated in the yeast phase of more than one dimorphic, pathogenic fungus they might be required for conversion to yeast (or spherules). To address this issue, 24 up-regulated genes common to Coccidioides spp spherules and H. capsulatum yeasts were identified. Four homologs of these genes were also found in P. brasiliensis, B. dermatitidis or T. marneffei genes that were up-regulated in yeast. 4-hydroxyphenylpurvate dioxygenase, a gene involved in tyrosine metabolism and melanin synthesis that has been shown to be required for yeast conversion, is conserved and up-regulated in yeast in all five species. Another up-regulated gene that is conserved in all five species is a MFS sugar porter. These results suggest that a minority of up-regulated yeast (or spherule) genes are conserved across species and raises the possibility that conserved up-regulated genes may be of special interest for differentiation of mycelium into yeast. PMID:27118798

  2. A conserved dimorphism-regulating histidine kinase controls the dimorphic switching in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Alison F A; Navarro, Marina V; Castilho, Daniele G; Calado, Juliana C P; Conceição, Palloma M; Batista, Wagner L

    2016-08-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii, thermally dimorphic fungi, are the causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Paracoccidioides infection occurs when conidia or mycelium fragments are inhaled by the host, which causes the Paracoccidioides cells to transition to the yeast form. The development of disease requires conidia inside the host alveoli to differentiate into yeast cells in a temperature-dependent manner. We describe the presence of a two-component signal transduction system in P. brasiliensis, which we investigated by expression analysis of a hypothetical protein gene (PADG_07579) that showed high similarity with the dimorphism-regulating histidine kinase (DRK1) gene of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum This gene was sensitive to environmental redox changes, which was demonstrated by a dose-dependent decrease in transcript levels after peroxide stimulation and a subtler decrease in transcript levels after NO stimulation. Furthermore, the higher PbDRK1 levels after treatment with increasing NaCl concentrations suggest that this histidine kinase can play a role as osmosensing. In the mycelium-yeast (M→Y) transition, PbDRK1 mRNA expression increased 14-fold after 24 h incubation at 37°C, consistent with similar observations in other virulent fungi. These results demonstrate that the PbDRK1 gene is differentially expressed during the dimorphic M→Y transition. Finally, when P. brasiliensis mycelium cells were exposed to a histidine kinase inhibitor and incubated at 37°C, there was a delay in the dimorphic M→Y transition, suggesting that histidine kinases could be targets of interest for PCM therapy. PMID:27268997

  3. Comparative genomics allowed the identification of drug targets against human fungal pathogens

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    Martins Natalia F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs has increased steadily worldwide in the last few decades. Particularly, there has been a global rise in the number of infections among immunosuppressed people. These patients present severe clinical forms of the infections, which are commonly fatal, and they are more susceptible to opportunistic fungal infections than non-immunocompromised people. IFIs have historically been associated with high morbidity and mortality, partly because of the limitations of available antifungal therapies, including side effects, toxicities, drug interactions and antifungal resistance. Thus, the search for alternative therapies and/or the development of more specific drugs is a challenge that needs to be met. Genomics has created new ways of examining genes, which open new strategies for drug development and control of human diseases. Results In silico analyses and manual mining selected initially 57 potential drug targets, based on 55 genes experimentally confirmed as essential for Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus and other 2 genes (kre2 and erg6 relevant for fungal survival within the host. Orthologs for those 57 potential targets were also identified in eight human fungal pathogens (C. albicans, A. fumigatus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Paracoccidioides lutzii, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Of those, 10 genes were present in all pathogenic fungi analyzed and absent in the human genome. We focused on four candidates: trr1 that encodes for thioredoxin reductase, rim8 that encodes for a protein involved in the proteolytic activation of a transcriptional factor in response to alkaline pH, kre2 that encodes for α-1,2-mannosyltransferase and erg6 that encodes for Δ(24-sterol C-methyltransferase. Conclusions Our data show that the comparative genomics analysis of eight fungal pathogens enabled the identification of

  4. Pulmonary Blastomycosis in Vilas County, Wisconsin: Weather, Exposures and Symptoms

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    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blastomycosis is a serious fungal infection contracted by inhalation of Blastomyces spores from the environment. Case occurrence in dogs in Vilas County, Wisconsin, has been associated with antecedent weather. We aimed to explore the effects of weather on the occurrence of human pulmonary blastomycosis in this area, and update exposure factors and symptoms since last published reports. Methods: Mandatory case reports were reviewed. Chi-square test was used for categorical data of exposures, comparing 1979–1996 (n=101 versus 1997–June 2013 (n=95. Linear regression was used to model local weather data (available 1990–2013; n=126; Southern Oscillation Index (SOI, North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI, and Wisconsin River water discharge (WRD from the adjacent county (all available for 1984–2013; n=174; and case counts of known onset by warm (April–September and cold (October–March 6-month periods. Results: Distribution of pulmonary blastomycosis cases did not vary by season. Environmental exposures for the 1997–June 2013 group (mean age 45, 59% male were: residence(76%, excavation (42% and gardening (31%, all similar to the 1979–1996 group. Fishing (23% vs. 37%; P=0.09 and hunting (15% vs. 26%; P=0.13 exposures were less common in 1997–June 2013, but not significantly different. Overall, 69% of cases recalled some prior soil-disturbing activities. Considering the 6-month warm/cold periods, 19% of variation is explained by a direct relationship with total precipitation from two periods prior (P=0.005. There was no association of case occurrence with SOI, NAOI or WRD. Estimated annual incidence of blastomycosis for 1997–June 2013 was 27/100,000 compared with 44/100,000 for 1984–1996. Several symptoms were significantly less frequent in 2002–June 2013 compared to earlier years. Conclusions: As with dogs, human pulmonary blastomycosis occurrence is partially determined by antecedent precipitation. It is unclear if

  5. Study on skin toxicity and antibacterial activity in vitro of Zibing Cream%紫冰霜皮肤毒性实验及体外抑菌活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩; 姚鸿萍; 董亚琳; 马瑛

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察紫冰霜对动物皮肤的毒性作用及体外抑菌作用。方法采用健康家兔进行皮肤急性毒性实验和皮肤刺激性实验;采用豚鼠进行皮肤致敏性实验;采用纸片法进行体外抑菌实验。结果紫冰霜对家兔完整皮肤和破损皮肤无急性毒性和刺激性;对豚鼠完整皮肤无致敏作用;对金黄色葡萄球菌、溶血性链球菌、大肠杆菌、铜绿假单胞菌、白色假丝酵母菌具有体外抑菌作用。结论紫冰霜对上述致病菌有一定的抑菌作用,并在治疗过程中具有较好的安全性。%Objective To observe the toxicity and antibacterial activity in vitro of Zibing Cream on animal skin .Methods The acute toxicity and irritation experiments of skin were studied on healthy rabbits .The hypersensitivity experiment of skin was performed on guinea pigs .The test of antibacterial activity in vitro was performed with paper disk method .Results Zibing Cream had no a-cute toxicity and irritation on the intact skin and damaged skin of rabbit ,and had no hypersensitive effects on the intact skin of guinea pig .Zibing Cream can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus ,Streptococcus hemolyticus ,Escherichia coli ,Pseudo-monas aeruginosa and Blastomyces albicans in vitro .Conclusion Zibing Cream was safe in the treatments of sebum eczema ,local scleroderma ,exfoliative cheilitis ,senile dry skin ,chapped hand and foot ,the first or second-degree burn ,scald ,wound infec-tions ,bed sores and other skin diseases .

  6. 侵袭性真菌病的非培养实验室诊断方法%Non-cultural methods for the laboratory diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨启文; 徐英春

    2014-01-01

    侵袭性真菌病的非培养实验室检测方法主要包括真菌抗原检测、真菌抗体血清学检测以及分子生物学检测。真菌抗原检测包括(1,3)-β-D-葡聚糖检测、半乳甘露聚糖检测、隐球菌荚膜多糖抗原检测以及念珠菌甘露聚糖抗原检测等。不同的抗原用于诊断不同的真菌感染。抗真菌抗体的血清学检测主要包括荚膜组织胞浆菌、粗球孢子菌/副球孢子菌以及皮炎芽生菌的相应血清抗体的检测。分子生物学检测则包括非扩增的核酸检测技术、核酸扩增检测技术、直接测序以及基质辅助激光解吸电离飞行时间质谱( MALDI-TOF MS)技术。尽管分子生物学检测的方法尚未标准化,但其是未来侵袭性真菌病非培养检测的重要发展方向。(中华检验医学杂志,2014,37:721-724)%Non-cultural laboratory diagnostic methods include fungal antigen detection, anti-fungal antibody detection and molecular methods. Fungal antigen detection aim at ( 1, 3 )-β-D-glucan, galactomannan, cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen and candida mannan antigen.Different antigen is used to diagnose different fungal infection.Antifungal antibody include antibody against Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis/Paracoccidiodes and Blastomyces dermatitidis.Molecular methods include non-amplification nucleic acid detection, nucleic acid amplification test, direct sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF MS ) technology.Even though molecular methods are limited because of no standardization, the future of its usage is promising.

  7. 细菌或真菌对UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪红细胞检测的影响%Influence of different bacteria or fungi on the determination of urinary sediments by UF-1000i urinary sediment analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑沁; 赵儒; 黄茜; 熊明; 粟军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨不同浓度不同种类细菌或真菌对UF-1000i尿沉渣分析仪(简称UF-1000i)红细胞(RBC)测定结果的影响,以对泌尿系统疾病诊断、评估提供更可靠的实验室依据.方法 健康体检者尿液标本制作成混合尿基质,将不同浓度泌尿系统感染常见细菌和真菌菌液加入制备混合尿基质,用UF-1000i检测各种浓度菌尿RBC.收集各种RBC浓度梯度病理血尿标本,加入白念珠菌菌液,调整真菌终浓度后用UF-1000i检测各种浓度菌尿RBC.每份标本同时进行显微镜镜检.结果 泌尿系统感染常见革兰阴性杆菌(大肠埃希菌、铜绿假单胞菌、肺炎克雷伯菌)、革兰阳性球菌(金黄色葡萄球菌)和低浓度的白念珠菌(<106/mL)对UF-1000i RBC测定结果无明显影响.粪肠球菌制备菌尿中,细菌浓度为109/mL时UF-1000i检测结果显示尿RBC假阳性.白念珠菌制备菌尿中,真菌浓度从106/mL开始UF-1000i检测结果显示尿RBC假阳性.真菌浓度增至108/mL时,导致血尿标本RBC定量结果显著假性增高 (P=0.006).结论 UF-1000i具有独立的双检测通道,在很大程度上减少了细菌对尿RBC检测的干扰.但并不能有效避免高浓度真菌对RBC检测结果的影响,易造成尿RBC检测假阳性结果而影响实验室检测质量,需进行显微镜镜检校正以保证检验结果的准确性.%Objective To study the influence of different bacteria or fungi with different levels on the determination of urinary red blood cell(RBC) count by UF-1000i urinary sediment analyzer (UF-l000i) ,so as to provide more reliable laboratory evidence in the diagnosis and follow-up of urinary tract diseases. Methods The urine RBC counts were analyzed by UF-l000i from urine mixture specimens and hematuria specimens with Blastomyces albicans,in parallel with manual microscopy respectively. Results The Granmegative bacilli ( Escherichia coli,Klebsiella,pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive cocci

  8. 复方蛇床子灌注液对奶牛乳房炎6种主要致病菌的抑杀作用%The inhibition activity of compound Fructus cnidii perfusate on six main pathogens of cow mastitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠艳; 唐亮; 韩春杨; 章孝荣; 赵宏坤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To confirm the inhibitory effect of Fufang Shechuangzi (compound Fructus cnidii) perfusate on pathogenic bacteria of cow mastitis Method Fufang Shechuangzi perfusate was used as a subject drug. Six pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcusaureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Blastomyces albicans and Candida tropicalis) caused cow mastitis were used as experimental strains. The inhibition activities of Fufang Shechuangzi perfusate in vitro were evaluated by the agar plate diffusion method measuring inhibition zone and the solid medium of drug measuring the minimal inhibitory concentration. Result Fufang Shechuangzi perfusate showed better inhibitory activity to these six bacteria. The concentration of 0. 1 g/mL Fufang Shechuangzi perfusate had strong inhibitory activity to Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus ( MIC value 0. 0015 g/mL) and the sizes of inhibition zone were 33 mm and 28 mm, respectively. Conclusion Fufang Shechuangzi perfusate has strong inhibition activities on six main pathogens of cow mastitis with extensive antibacterial spectrum, and the concentration of the drugs is positively correlated with the inhibition effects.%目的 通过实验证明复方蛇床子灌注液对奶牛乳房炎病原菌的抑杀作用.方法 复方蛇床子灌注液为受试药物,6种引起奶牛乳房炎的常见病原菌(金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠埃希菌、无乳链球菌、停乳链球菌、白色念珠菌和热带假丝酵母菌)为实验菌株,采用测定抑菌圈的琼脂平板扩散法和测定最小抑菌浓度(MIC)的药物固体培养基法来评价复方蛇床子灌注液的体外抗菌活性.结果 复方蛇床子灌注液对6种供试菌株均有较好的抑菌作用,其中0.1 g/mL的原药液对无乳链球菌和金黄色葡萄球菌表现了强大的抑制作用(MIC值达0.0015 g/mL).抑菌圈直径分别高达33mm和28 mm.结论 复方蛇床子灌注液对奶牛乳房炎6种主要致病菌

  9. 糖尿病足合并感染患者754株病原菌分布及耐药性分析%Clinical distribution and antimicrobial resistance analysis of 754 pathogenic bacteria in diabetic foot infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈秋燕; 林迪妮; 朱虹; 葛胜洁; 吴文俊; 潘晓燕; 顾雪疆; 谷雪梅; 沈飞霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the microbiological profiles and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of organisms isolated from diabetic foot ulcers so as to provide selection rationales of antibiotics.Methods A retrospective study was conducted on the microbiological profiles and antibiotic susceptibilities in 754 strains of pathogens isolated from 519 patients with diabetic foot ulcers at our hospital from January 2010 to August 2013.The inter-group data were compared by Chi-square test.Results There were 322 (62.0%)males and 197 (38.0%) females.Their mean age was (67.7 ± 12.3) (30-93) years,duration of diabetes 10 (0-40) years,duration of lower-limb lesion 1.0 (0.0-72.0) months and HbA1c (9.09% ± 2.28%).Among 444 (85.5%) cases,a total of 754 strains of pathogens were isolated.Gram-positive aerobes were the most frequently isolated (47.3%,357 strains) and followed by gram-negative aerobes and fungus (40.3% vs 12.3%,304 vs 93 strains respectively).With rising Wagner's grades,bacterial floras transformed from Gram-positive cocci to Gram-negative rods while fungus and composite infections increased.And 122 strains were of multi drug resistant organisms (MDRO).Among 357 strains of Gram-positive bacteria,Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis were dominating floras.Staphylococcus was highly resistant to penicillin G,erythromycin,and oxacillin while vancomycin and linezolid were the most effective agents against gram-positive bacteria.Among 304 strains of gram-negative bacteria,enterobacteria were the most prevalent,including 48 strains of Escherichia coli,34 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 31 strains of Proteus vulgaris.And there were 29 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Enterobacteria were highly resistant to ampicillin,followed by bactrim and furadantin while meropenem,imipenem,piperacillin/sulbactam,sulperazone and cefepime were the most effective agents.The predominant fungus was Blastomyces albicans.Conclusions In

  10. Phamacodynamic Studies of Jingdekang Spray%净得康喷雾剂的抗菌、止痒、抗炎作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元; 韦焕英; 黄凤娇

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the mainly pharmacological effects of Jingdekang Spray. Method:Pharmacological effects of Jingdekang Spray on in vitro antibacterial action. The rat model of vaginitis infected with blastomyces albicans or baeteria were established,then the rats were randomly divided into four groups( 10 in each)and two groups were treated with Jingdekang Spray 2.0 g · kg - 1 and 0. 5 g· kg - 1 ( 1 mL· kg - 1 ), one group was treated with Fuyanping capsule 0. 5 g· kg - 1, and the last group was treated with distilled water. The therapeutic effects of Jingdekang Spray on vaginosis rats were observed. The cavia cobaya model of topical pruritus caused by histamine phosphate was used to observe the relieving itching effect of Jingdekang Spray, which were divided as mentioned above. The mouse model of ear swelling induced by croton oil was used to study the antiinfiammatory effect of Jingdekang Spray, which were randomly divided into four groups, 10 rats in each group, and two groups of the extender of croton oil in mouse's ear were treated with Jingdekang Spray 10.0, 2. 5 g· kg-1. Result: Jingdekang Spray could inhibit the growth of bacteria which caused vagina infection;restrain the bacterial and mycotic vaginitis evident. The inhibitory rate for bacterial vaginitis was 82.6%. The curative ratio of mycotica vaginitis was 90%.The spray could restrain the pruritus of cavy by histamine phosphate obviously,the inhibitory rate was 51.2%. The inhibitory rate of extender of croton oil in mouse's ear was 15.8%. Conclusion :Jingdekang Spray has effects of antibacterial, relieve itching and anti-inflammation.%目的:观察净得康喷雾剂的主要药效学作用.方法:采用体外抗菌;细菌致大鼠阴道炎模型、霉菌致大鼠阴道炎模型,取造模成功的大鼠随机分为4组,每组10只.其中2个组分别阴道给予净得康喷雾剂生药2.0,0.5g·kg-1(给药体积为1 mL·kg-1);1个组阴道给予妇炎平胶囊0.5 g·kg-1;余1组为模