WorldWideScience

Sample records for blasting machine metal

  1. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration

  2. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  3. Machine for dismantling metal parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.I.; Loginovskiy, V.I.; Yagudin, S.Z.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to reduce the outlays of time for dismantling metal parts under conditions of eliminating open gas and oil gushers in operational drilling. This goal is achieved because the machine for dismantling the metal parts is equipped with a set of clamping elements arranged on the chassis, where each of them has a drive.

  4. Metallizing of machinable glass ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigal, P.K.

    1976-02-01

    A satisfactory technique has been developed for metallizing Corning (Code 9658) machinable glass ceramic for brazing. Analyses of several bonding materials suitable for metallizing were made using microprobe analysis, optical metallography, and tensile strength tests. The effect of different cleaning techniques on the microstructure and the effect of various firing temperatures on the bonding interface were also investigated. A nickel paste, used for thick-film application, has been applied to obtain braze joints with strength in excess of 2000 psi

  5. Application of full-face round by the sequential blasting machine in tunnel excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y.D.; Park, B.K.; Lee, S.E.; Lim, H.U.

    1995-12-31

    Many methods and techniques have been developed to reduce ground vibrations. Some of them are an adoption of electric millisecond detonators with a sequential blasting machine and an improvement of initiating system with an adequate number of delay intervals. To reduce the level of ground vibration in tunnel excavation, the sequential blasting machine (S.B.M.) with decisecond detonators was adopted. A total of 134 blasts was recorded at various sites and the results were analyzed. The distances blast-to-structures were ranged from 20.3 to 42.0 meter, where charge weights were varied from 0.25 to 0.75kg per delay. It is proved that the sequential blasting in tunnel excavation is very effective to control ground vibration.

  6. Disintegration of liquid metals by low pressure water blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of disintegrating metals by a low cost system and subsequently incorporating them into grout mixtures has been demonstrated. A low pressure water blasting technique consisting of multiple nozzles and a converging-line jet stream was developed to disintegrate liquid metals and produce coarse metal powder and shot. Molten iron resulted in spherical shot, while copper, aluminum, and tin produced irregular shaped particles. The particle size was between 0.05 and 3 mm (0.002 and 0.1 in.), and about half the particles were smaller than 1 mm (0.04 in.) in all cases. The water consumption was rather low, while the production rate was relatively high. The method proved to be simple and reliable. The coarse metal powders were suspendable in grout fluids, indicating that they are probably disposable by the shale hydrofracture technique

  7. Diffuse reflectance FTIR of stains on grit blasted metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, G.L.; Hallman, R.L. Jr.; Cox, R.L. [Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technologies, TN (United States)

    1997-08-09

    Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy has been applied to the detection of oil contamination on grit-blasted metals. The object of this application is to detect and discriminate between silicone and hydrocarbon oil contamination at levels approaching 10 mg/m{sup 2}. A portable FTIR spectrometer with dedicated diffuse reflectance optics was developed for this purpose. Using translation devices positioned by instructions from the spectrometer operating system, images of macroscopic substrates were produced with millimeter spatial resolution. The pixels that comprise an image are each a full mid-infrared spectrum with excellent signal-to-noise, each determined as individual files and uniquely saved to disc. Reduced spectra amplitudes, based on peak height, area, or other chemometric techniques, mapped as a function of the spatial coordinates of the pixel are used to display the image. This paper demonstrates the application of the technique to the analysis of stains on grit-blasted metals, including the calibration of the method, the inspection of substrates, and the migration of oil contamination.

  8. Anchorage of TiO2-blasted, HA-coated, and machined implants: an experimental study with rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Wennerberg, A; Johansson, C

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histometrical and biomechanical anchorage of TiO2-blasted implants and TiO2-blasted implants coated with hydroxyapatite. The control implants were machined. Twenty-six rabbits had a total of 156 implants placed in the proximal part of the tibia. Each...... rabbit had a machined, a TiO2-blasted, and a TiO2-blasted, HA-coated implant placed in each tibia. After a healing period of 3 and 12 weeks, respectively, the implants placed in the right tibia were used for removal torque test, and the implants placed in the left tibia were used for histomorphometrical...

  9. Discrimination of Rock Fracture and Blast Events Based on Signal Complexity and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilong Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic discrimination of rock fracture and blast events is complex and challenging due to the similar waveform characteristics. To solve this problem, a new method based on the signal complexity analysis and machine learning has been proposed in this paper. First, the permutation entropy values of signals at different scale factors are calculated to reflect complexity of signals and constructed into a feature vector set. Secondly, based on the feature vector set, back-propagation neural network (BPNN as a means of machine learning is applied to establish a discriminator for rock fracture and blast events. Then to evaluate the classification performances of the new method, the classifying accuracies of support vector machine (SVM, naive Bayes classifier, and the new method are compared, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves are also analyzed. The results show the new method obtains the best classification performances. In addition, the influence of different scale factor q and number of training samples n on discrimination results is discussed. It is found that the classifying accuracy of the new method reaches the highest value when q = 8–15 or 8–20 and n=140.

  10. High-speed photography of dynamic photoelastic experiment with a highly accurate blasting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Kunihisa; Ogata, Yuji; Wada, Yuji; Hashizume, K.

    1995-05-01

    A high accurate blasting machine which could control 1 microsecond(s) was developed. At first, explosion of a bridge wire in an electric detonator was observed and next the detonations of caps were observed with a high speed camera. It is well known that a compressed stress wave reflects at the free face, it propagates to the backward as a tensile stress wave, and cracks grow when the tensile stress becomes the dynamic tensile strength. The behavior of these cracks has been discussed through the observation of the dynamic photoelastic high speed photography and the three dimensional dynamic stress analysis.

  11. Prediction of Backbreak in Open-Pit Blasting Operations Using the Machine Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Manoj; Monjezi, M.

    2013-03-01

    Backbreak is an undesirable phenomenon in blasting operations. It can cause instability of mine walls, falling down of machinery, improper fragmentation, reduced efficiency of drilling, etc. The existence of various effective parameters and their unknown relationships are the main reasons for inaccuracy of the empirical models. Presently, the application of new approaches such as artificial intelligence is highly recommended. In this paper, an attempt has been made to predict backbreak in blasting operations of Soungun iron mine, Iran, incorporating rock properties and blast design parameters using the support vector machine (SVM) method. To investigate the suitability of this approach, the predictions by SVM have been compared with multivariate regression analysis (MVRA). The coefficient of determination (CoD) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were taken as performance measures. It was found that the CoD between measured and predicted backbreak was 0.987 and 0.89 by SVM and MVRA, respectively, whereas the MAE was 0.29 and 1.07 by SVM and MVRA, respectively.

  12. Heavy metals adsorption on blast furnace sludges; Adsorcion de metales pesados sobre lodos de horno alto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Delgado, A.; Perez, C.; Lopez, F.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas. CENIM. Madrid (Spain)

    1998-10-01

    Most of industrial liquid effluents have high contents of heavy metals. The recovery of these metals is environmental and economically interesting. In this work we study the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents. The adsorption of Pb``2+, Zn``2+, Cd``2+, Cu``2+ and Cr``3+ on the sludge was investigated by determination of adsorption isotherms. The effect of time, equilibrium temperature and concentration of metal solution on sludge adsorption efficiency was evaluated. The adsorption process was analysed using the theories of Freundlich and Langumuir and the thermodynamic values {Delta}G, {Delta}H and {Delta}S corresponding to each adsorption process were calculated. Blast furnace sludge was found to be an effective sorbent for Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Cr-ions within the range of ion concentrations employed. (Author) 5 refs.

  13. Plastic Deformation of Metal Tubes Subjected to Lateral Blast Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When subjected to the dynamic load, the behavior of the structures is complex and makes it difficult to describe the process of the deformation. In the paper, an analytical model is presented to analyze the plastic deformation of the steel circular tubes. The aim of the research is to calculate the deflection and the deformation angle of the tubes. A series of assumptions are made to achieve the objective. During the research, we build a mathematical model for simply supported thin-walled metal tubes with finite length. At a specified distance above the tube, a TNT charge explodes and generates a plastic shock wave. The wave can be seen as uniformly distributed over the upper semicircle of the cross-section. The simplified Tresca yield domain can be used to describe the plastic flow of the circular tube. The yield domain together with the plastic flow law and other assumptions can finally lead to the solving of the deflection. In the end, tubes with different dimensions subjected to blast wave induced by the TNT charge are observed in experiments. Comparison shows that the numerical results agree well with experiment observations.

  14. Hot metal temperature prediction and simulation by fuzzy logic in a blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M. A.; Jimenez, J.; Mochon, J.; Formoso, A.; Bueno, F.; Menendez, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    This work describes the development and further validation of a model devoted to blast furnace hot metal temperature forecast, based on Fuzzy logic principles. The model employs as input variables, the control variables of an actual blast furnace: Blast volume, moisture, coal injection, oxygen addition, etc. and it yields as a result the hot metal temperature with a forecast horizon of forty minutes. As far as the variables used to develop the model have been obtained from data supplied by an actual blast furnaces sensors, it is necessary to properly analyse and handle such data. Especial attention was paid to data temporal correlation, fitting by interpolation the different sampling rates. In the training stage of the model the ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) and the Subtractive Clustering algorithms have been used. (Author) 9 refs

  15. Liquid Metal Machine Triggered Violin-Like Wire Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaohu; Ding, Yujie; Tan, Sicong; Yi, Liting; He, Zhizhu; Liu, Jing

    2016-10-01

    The first ever oscillation phenomenon of a copper wire embraced inside a self-powered liquid metal machine is discovered. When contacting a copper wire to liquid metal machine, it would be swallowed inside and then reciprocally moves back and forth, just like a violin bow. Such oscillation could be easily regulated by touching a steel needle on the liquid metal surface.

  16. National machine guarding program: Part 1. Machine safeguarding practices in small metal fabrication businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, David L.; Yamin, Samuel C.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G.; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background Metal fabrication workers experience high rates of traumatic occupational injuries. Machine operators in particular face high risks, often stemming from the absence or improper use of machine safeguarding or the failure to implement lockout procedures. Methods The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a translational research initiative implemented in conjunction with two workers' compensation insures. Insurance safety consultants trained in machine guarding used standardize...

  17. Hot metal temperature prediction by neural networks in the blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantera, C.; Jimenez, J.; Varela, I.; Formoso, A.

    2002-01-01

    Based on a simplified model, the underlying temperature criteria is proposed as a method to study the temperature trends in a blast furnace. As an application, a neural network able to forecast hot metal temperatures from 2 to 16 h in advance (with decreasing precision) has been built. This neural network has been designed to work at real time in a production plant. (Author)

  18. Design principles of metal-cutting machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1964-01-01

    Design Principles of Metal-Cutting Machine Tools discusses the fundamentals aspects of machine tool design. The book covers the design consideration of metal-cutting machine, such as static and dynamic stiffness, operational speeds, gearboxes, manual, and automatic control. The text first details the data calculation and the general requirements of the machine tool. Next, the book discusses the design principles, which include stiffness and rigidity of the separate constructional elements and their combined behavior under load, as well as electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic drives for the op

  19. Metal release from coffee machines and electric kettles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Frederic D; Hackethal, Christin; Schmidt, Roman; Kappenstein, Oliver; Pfaff, Karla; Luch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The release of elemental ions from 8 coffee machines and 11 electric kettles into food simulants was investigated. Three different types of coffee machines were tested: portafilter espresso machines, pod machines and capsule machines. All machines were tested subsequently on 3 days before and on 3 days after decalcification. Decalcification of the machines was performed with agents according to procedures as specified in the respective manufacturer's manuals. The electric kettles showed only a low release of the elements analysed. For the coffee machines decreasing concentrations of elements were found from the first to the last sample taken in the course of 1 day. Metal release on consecutive days showed a decreasing trend as well. After decalcification a large increase in the amounts of elements released was encountered. In addition, the different machine types investigated clearly differed in their extent of element release. By far the highest leaching, both quantitatively and qualitatively, was found for the portafilter machines. With these products releases of Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr and Zn were in the range and beyond the release limits as proposed by the Council of Europe. Therefore, a careful rinsing routine, especially after decalcification, is recommended for these machines. The comparably lower extent of release of one particular portafilter machine demonstrates that metal release at levels above the threshold that triggers health concerns are technically avoidable.

  20. A Novel Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine for Gas Utilization Ratio Prediction in Blast Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjiao Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gas utilization ratio (GUR is an important indicator used to measure the operating status and energy consumption of blast furnaces (BFs. In this paper, we present a soft-sensor approach, i.e., a novel online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM named DU-OS-ELM, to establish a data-driven model for GUR prediction. In DU-OS-ELM, firstly, the old collected data are discarded gradually and the newly acquired data are given more attention through a novel dynamic forgetting factor (DFF, depending on the estimation errors to enhance the dynamic tracking ability. Furthermore, we develop an updated selection strategy (USS to judge whether the model needs to be updated with the newly coming data, so that the proposed approach is more in line with the actual production situation. Then, the convergence analysis of the proposed DU-OS-ELM is presented to ensure the estimation of output weight converge to the true value with the new data arriving. Meanwhile, the proposed DU-OS-ELM is applied to build a soft-sensor model to predict GUR. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed DU-OS-ELM obtains better generalization performance and higher prediction accuracy compared with a number of existing related approaches using the real production data from a BF and the created GUR prediction model can provide an effective guidance for further optimization operation.

  1. A Novel Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine for Gas Utilization Ratio Prediction in Blast Furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjiao; Zhang, Sen; Yin, Yixin; Xiao, Wendong; Zhang, Jie

    2017-08-10

    Gas utilization ratio (GUR) is an important indicator used to measure the operating status and energy consumption of blast furnaces (BFs). In this paper, we present a soft-sensor approach, i.e., a novel online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) named DU-OS-ELM, to establish a data-driven model for GUR prediction. In DU-OS-ELM, firstly, the old collected data are discarded gradually and the newly acquired data are given more attention through a novel dynamic forgetting factor (DFF), depending on the estimation errors to enhance the dynamic tracking ability. Furthermore, we develop an updated selection strategy (USS) to judge whether the model needs to be updated with the newly coming data, so that the proposed approach is more in line with the actual production situation. Then, the convergence analysis of the proposed DU-OS-ELM is presented to ensure the estimation of output weight converge to the true value with the new data arriving. Meanwhile, the proposed DU-OS-ELM is applied to build a soft-sensor model to predict GUR. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed DU-OS-ELM obtains better generalization performance and higher prediction accuracy compared with a number of existing related approaches using the real production data from a BF and the created GUR prediction model can provide an effective guidance for further optimization operation.

  2. Machine learning techniques in disease forecasting: a case study on rice blast prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor Amar S

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diverse modeling approaches viz. neural networks and multiple regression have been followed to date for disease prediction in plant populations. However, due to their inability to predict value of unknown data points and longer training times, there is need for exploiting new prediction softwares for better understanding of plant-pathogen-environment relationships. Further, there is no online tool available which can help the plant researchers or farmers in timely application of control measures. This paper introduces a new prediction approach based on support vector machines for developing weather-based prediction models of plant diseases. Results Six significant weather variables were selected as predictor variables. Two series of models (cross-location and cross-year were developed and validated using a five-fold cross validation procedure. For cross-year models, the conventional multiple regression (REG approach achieved an average correlation coefficient (r of 0.50, which increased to 0.60 and percent mean absolute error (%MAE decreased from 65.42 to 52.24 when back-propagation neural network (BPNN was used. With generalized regression neural network (GRNN, the r increased to 0.70 and %MAE also improved to 46.30, which further increased to r = 0.77 and %MAE = 36.66 when support vector machine (SVM based method was used. Similarly, cross-location validation achieved r = 0.48, 0.56 and 0.66 using REG, BPNN and GRNN respectively, with their corresponding %MAE as 77.54, 66.11 and 58.26. The SVM-based method outperformed all the three approaches by further increasing r to 0.74 with improvement in %MAE to 44.12. Overall, this SVM-based prediction approach will open new vistas in the area of forecasting plant diseases of various crops. Conclusion Our case study demonstrated that SVM is better than existing machine learning techniques and conventional REG approaches in forecasting plant diseases. In this direction, we have also

  3. Dynamic Response and Optimal Design of Curved Metallic Sandwich Panels under Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu; Han, Shou-Hong; Lu, Zhen-Hua

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the effect of curvature on the blast response of curved structures so as to seek the optimal configurations of such structures with improved blast resistance. In this study, the dynamic response and protective performance of a type of curved metallic sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading were examined using LS-DYNA. The numerical methods were validated using experimental data in the literature. The curved panel consisted of an aluminum alloy outer face and a rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) steel inner face in addition to a closed-cell aluminum foam core. The results showed that the configuration of a “soft” outer face and a “hard” inner face worked well for the curved sandwich panel against air blast loading in terms of maximum deflection (MaxD) and energy absorption. The panel curvature was found to have a monotonic effect on the specific energy absorption (SEA) and a nonmonotonic effect on the MaxD of the panel. Based on artificial neural network (ANN) metamodels, multiobjective optimization designs of the panel were carried out. The optimization results revealed the trade-off relationships between the blast-resistant and the lightweight objectives and showed the great use of Pareto front in such design circumstances. PMID:25126606

  4. Dynamic response and optimal design of curved metallic sandwich panels under blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chang; Yang, Shu; Yang, Li-Jun; Han, Shou-Hong; Lu, Zhen-Hua

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the effect of curvature on the blast response of curved structures so as to seek the optimal configurations of such structures with improved blast resistance. In this study, the dynamic response and protective performance of a type of curved metallic sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading were examined using LS-DYNA. The numerical methods were validated using experimental data in the literature. The curved panel consisted of an aluminum alloy outer face and a rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) steel inner face in addition to a closed-cell aluminum foam core. The results showed that the configuration of a "soft" outer face and a "hard" inner face worked well for the curved sandwich panel against air blast loading in terms of maximum deflection (MaxD) and energy absorption. The panel curvature was found to have a monotonic effect on the specific energy absorption (SEA) and a nonmonotonic effect on the MaxD of the panel. Based on artificial neural network (ANN) metamodels, multiobjective optimization designs of the panel were carried out. The optimization results revealed the trade-off relationships between the blast-resistant and the lightweight objectives and showed the great use of Pareto front in such design circumstances.

  5. Dynamic Response and Optimal Design of Curved Metallic Sandwich Panels under Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the effect of curvature on the blast response of curved structures so as to seek the optimal configurations of such structures with improved blast resistance. In this study, the dynamic response and protective performance of a type of curved metallic sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading were examined using LS-DYNA. The numerical methods were validated using experimental data in the literature. The curved panel consisted of an aluminum alloy outer face and a rolled homogeneous armour (RHA steel inner face in addition to a closed-cell aluminum foam core. The results showed that the configuration of a “soft” outer face and a “hard” inner face worked well for the curved sandwich panel against air blast loading in terms of maximum deflection (MaxD and energy absorption. The panel curvature was found to have a monotonic effect on the specific energy absorption (SEA and a nonmonotonic effect on the MaxD of the panel. Based on artificial neural network (ANN metamodels, multiobjective optimization designs of the panel were carried out. The optimization results revealed the trade-off relationships between the blast-resistant and the lightweight objectives and showed the great use of Pareto front in such design circumstances.

  6. National Machine Guarding Program: Part 1. Machine safeguarding practices in small metal fabrication businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David L; Yamin, Samuel C; Brosseau, Lisa M; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-11-01

    Metal fabrication workers experience high rates of traumatic occupational injuries. Machine operators in particular face high risks, often stemming from the absence or improper use of machine safeguarding or the failure to implement lockout procedures. The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a translational research initiative implemented in conjunction with two workers' compensation insures. Insurance safety consultants trained in machine guarding used standardized checklists to conduct a baseline inspection of machine-related hazards in 221 business. Safeguards at the point of operation were missing or inadequate on 33% of machines. Safeguards for other mechanical hazards were missing on 28% of machines. Older machines were both widely used and less likely than newer machines to be properly guarded. Lockout/tagout procedures were posted at only 9% of machine workstations. The NMGP demonstrates a need for improvement in many aspects of machine safety and lockout in small metal fabrication businesses. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. National machine guarding program: Part 1. Machine safeguarding practices in small metal fabrication businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Samuel C.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G.; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background Metal fabrication workers experience high rates of traumatic occupational injuries. Machine operators in particular face high risks, often stemming from the absence or improper use of machine safeguarding or the failure to implement lockout procedures. Methods The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a translational research initiative implemented in conjunction with two workers' compensation insures. Insurance safety consultants trained in machine guarding used standardized checklists to conduct a baseline inspection of machine‐related hazards in 221 business. Results Safeguards at the point of operation were missing or inadequate on 33% of machines. Safeguards for other mechanical hazards were missing on 28% of machines. Older machines were both widely used and less likely than newer machines to be properly guarded. Lockout/tagout procedures were posted at only 9% of machine workstations. Conclusions The NMGP demonstrates a need for improvement in many aspects of machine safety and lockout in small metal fabrication businesses. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:1174–1183, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26332060

  8. Inhalation hazards from machining beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Finch, G.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Beryllium metal has special nuclear and structural properties that make it useful for applications in fission and fusion reactor designs. Unfortunately, concerns for its toxicity have made designers wary of using beryllium metal. The work being reported here was undertaken to characterize the aerosols produced by two very common operations performed during preparation or modification of components for use in reactor systems: sawing and milling of beryllium metal. The study also covered beryllium metal alloys to allow comparison. Information from this study is to enable better assessments of the risk of using beryllium metal in reactor designs

  9. A machine learning approach for the classification of metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossett, Eric; Perim, Eric; Toher, Cormac; Lee, Dongwoo; Zhang, Haitao; Liu, Jingbei; Zhao, Shaofan; Schroers, Jan; Vlassak, Joost; Curtarolo, Stefano

    Metallic glasses possess an extensive set of mechanical properties along with plastic-like processability. As a result, they are a promising material in many industrial applications. However, the successful synthesis of novel metallic glasses requires trial and error, costing both time and resources. Therefore, we propose a high-throughput approach that combines an extensive set of experimental measurements with advanced machine learning techniques. This allows us to classify metallic glasses and predict the full phase diagrams for a given alloy system. Thus this method provides a means to identify potential glass-formers and opens up the possibility for accelerating and reducing the cost of the design of new metallic glasses.

  10. Analysis of the Dynamic Response in Blast-Loaded CFRP-Strengthened Metallic Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs are good candidates in enhancing the blast resistant performance of vulnerable public buildings and in reinforcing old buildings. The use of CFRP in retrofitting and strengthening applications is traditionally associated with concrete structures. Nevertheless, more recently, there has been a remarkable aspiration in strengthening metallic structures and components using CFRP. This paper presents a relatively simple analytical solution for the deformation and ultimate strength calculation of hybrid metal-CFRP beams when subjected to pulse loading, with a particular focus on blast loading. The analytical model is based on a full interaction between the metal and the FRP and is capable of producing reasonable results in a dynamic loading scenario. A nonlinear finite element (FE model is also developed to reveal the full dynamic behavior of the CFRP-epoxy-steel hybrid beam, considering the detailed effects, that is, large strains, high strain rates in metal, and different failure modes of the hybrid beam. Experimental results confirm the analytical and the FE results and show a strong correlation.

  11. Ultrashort pulse laser machining of metals and alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2003-09-16

    The invention consists of a method for high precision machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of metals and alloys. By using pulses of a duration in the range of 10 femtoseconds to 100 picoseconds, extremely precise machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. Because the pulses are so short, there is negligible thermal conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond approximately 0.1-1 micron (dependent upon the particular material) from the laser machined surface. Due to the short duration, the high intensity (>10.sup.12 W/cm.sup.2) associated with the interaction converts the material directly from the solid-state into an ionized plasma. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces with negligible redeposition either within the kerf or on the surface. Since there is negligible heating beyond the depth of material removed, the composition of the remaining material is unaffected by the laser machining process. This enables high precision machining of alloys and even pure metals with no change in grain structure.

  12. Machinability studies of infrared window materials and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Morris, T.O.; Sladky, R.E.; Steger, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    Diamond machining of materials for optical applications is becoming an important fabrication process. Development work in material-removal technology to better understand the mechanics of the diamond-turning process, its limitations, and applications is described. The technique is presently limited to a select group of metals, most of which are of a face-center-cubic crystal structure. Machinability studies were done which were designed to better understand diamond compatibility and thus expand the range of applicable materials. Nonconventional methods such as ultrasonic tool stimulation were investigated. Work done to determine the machinability of infrared window materials indicates that this is a viable fabrication technique for many materials, although additional effort is needed to optimize the process for particular materials

  13. A Photometric Machine-Learning Method to Infer Stellar Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam A.

    2015-01-01

    Following its formation, a star's metal content is one of the few factors that can significantly alter its evolution. Measurements of stellar metallicity ([Fe/H]) typically require a spectrum, but spectroscopic surveys are limited to a few x 10(exp 6) targets; photometric surveys, on the other hand, have detected > 10(exp 9) stars. I present a new machine-learning method to predict [Fe/H] from photometric colors measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The training set consists of approx. 120,000 stars with SDSS photometry and reliable [Fe/H] measurements from the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). For bright stars (g' machine-learning method is similar to the scatter in [Fe/H] measurements from low-resolution spectra..

  14. A prospective 5-year study of fixed partial prostheses supported by implants with machined and TiO2-blasted surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Karlsson, U

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether there was a difference between machined and TiO(2)-blasted implants regarding survival rate and marginal bone loss during a 5-year observation period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 133 implants (Astra Tech Dental Implants; Astra Tech...... AB, Mölndal, Sweden) were placed in 50 patients at 6 centers in 4 Scandinavian countries. Forty-eight implants were installed in the maxilla and 85 implants in the mandible. A randomization and a stratification were done, so that each fixed partial prosthesis was supported by at least 1 machined...... and 1 TiO(2)-blasted implant. The implant-supported fixed partial prostheses (ISFPP) were fabricated within 2 months after postoperative healing. A total of 52 ISFPP (17 maxillary, 35 mandibular) were inserted. The patients were clinically examined once a year for 5 years. At the annual follow...

  15. Machinability of titanium metal matrix composites (Ti-MMCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, Maryam

    Titanium metal matrix composites (Ti-MMCs), as a new generation of materials, have various potential applications in aerospace and automotive industries. The presence of ceramic particles enhances the physical and mechanical properties of the alloy matrix. However, the hard and abrasive nature of these particles causes various issues in the field of their machinability. Severe tool wear and short tool life are the most important drawbacks of machining this class of materials. There is very limited work in the literature regarding the machinability of this class of materials especially in the area of tool life estimation and tool wear. By far, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tools appear to be the best choice for machining MMCs from researchers' point of view. However, due to their high cost, economical alternatives are sought. Cubic boron nitride (CBN) inserts, as the second hardest available tools, show superior characteristics such as great wear resistance, high hardness at elevated temperatures, a low coefficient of friction and a high melting point. Yet, so far CBN tools have not been studied during machining of Ti-MMCs. In this study, a comprehensive study has been performed to explore the tool wear mechanisms of CBN inserts during turning of Ti-MMCs. The unique morphology of the worn faces of the tools was investigated for the first time, which led to new insights in the identification of chemical wear mechanisms during machining of Ti-MMCs. Utilizing the full tool life capacity of cutting tools is also very crucial, due to the considerable costs associated with suboptimal replacement of tools. This strongly motivates development of a reliable model for tool life estimation under any cutting conditions. In this study, a novel model based on the survival analysis methodology is developed to estimate the progressive states of tool wear under any cutting conditions during machining of Ti-MMCs. This statistical model takes into account the machining time in

  16. Superconductor homopolar machines with liquid-metal contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyevsky, B.L.; Bazarnov, B.A.; Oktyabrsky, A.M.; Popov, N.N.; Sherstuk, A.G.; Shopen, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    Alongside with the power increase of Electric Superconductor (SC) Machines including Homopolar Machines (HM) there is a strong need of improving their working characteristics, raising the efficiency, reducing the superconductor consumption. In the paper, the results of investigating the mass, dimensional and energetic properties of SCHM are given which are illustrated by the calculation of homopolar generators in the band of nominal power per unit P n = (2-250) MW at the voltage of 12, 24, 60, 230 V and rotation frequency of 25 and 50 rps. Screened and unscreened HM of a cylindrical type with liquid-metal current collector devices (LCD) and inductor consisting of 2 opposing SC coils mounted in a fixed cryostat inside the rotating armature are investigated

  17. Analysis of the Influence of the Use of Cutting Fluid in Hybrid Processes of Machining and Laser Metal Deposition (LMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cortina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid manufacturing processes that combine additive and machining operations are gaining relevance in modern industry thanks to the capability of building complex parts with minimal material and, many times, with process time reduction. Besides, as the additive and subtractive operations are carried out in the same machine, without moving the part, dead times are reduced and higher accuracies are achieved. However, it is not clear whether the direct material deposition after the machining operation is possible or intermediate cleaning stages are required because of the possible presence of residual cutting fluids. Therefore, different Laser Metal Deposition (LMD tests are performed on a part impregnated with cutting fluid, both directly and after the removal of the coolant by techniques such as laser vaporizing and air blasting. The present work studies the influence of the cutting fluid in the LMD process and the quality of the resulting part. Resulting porosity is evaluated and it is concluded that if the part surface is not properly clean after the machining operation, deficient clad quality can be obtained in the subsequent laser additive operation.

  18. A Photometric Machine-Learning Method to Infer Stellar Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam A.

    2015-01-01

    Following its formation, a star's metal content is one of the few factors that can significantly alter its evolution. Measurements of stellar metallicity ([Fe/H]) typically require a spectrum, but spectroscopic surveys are limited to a few x 10(exp 6) targets; photometric surveys, on the other hand, have detected > 10(exp 9) stars. I present a new machine-learning method to predict [Fe/H] from photometric colors measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The training set consists of approx. 120,000 stars with SDSS photometry and reliable [Fe/H] measurements from the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). For bright stars (g' learning method is similar to the scatter in [Fe/H] measurements from low-resolution spectra..

  19. 4. Seminar on efficient metal forming and machining: papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The 4th seminar on efficient metal forming and machining was held at the CSIR conference centre in Pretoria on 16 November 1982. This conference basically discussed the forming, fabrication and machining of metals which included the different methods used as well as new developments on tools manufacturing and their applications. The topics that were discussed cover subjects such as the creep feed grinding, thermal properties of coating materials and their effect on the efficiency of coated cutting tools, economic rough and finish milling, the design and application of high speed steel cutting tools, aluminium extrusion, the manufacturing and finishing of extrusion dies, broaching techniques, cold forming in the fastener industry, finishing methods for spiral, bevel and hypoid gears, laser cutting, press tool design, and productivity in the forging industry. Another topic that were discussed, is the current status of diamond and cubic boron nitride composites, their synthesis and roll in the production of a new range of ultra hard ceramic-type materials

  20. A Photometric Machine-Learning Method to Infer Stellar Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam A.

    2015-01-01

    Following its formation, a star's metal content is one of the few factors that can significantly alter its evolution. Measurements of stellar metallicity ([Fe/H]) typically require a spectrum, but spectroscopic surveys are limited to a few x 10(exp 6) targets; photometric surveys, on the other hand, have detected > 10(exp 9) stars. I present a new machine-learning method to predict [Fe/H] from photometric colors measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The training set consists of approx. 120,000 stars with SDSS photometry and reliable [Fe/H] measurements from the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). For bright stars (g' < or = 18 mag), with 4500 K < or = Teff < or = 7000 K, corresponding to those with the most reliable SSPP estimates, I find that the model predicts [Fe/H] values with a root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) of approx.0.27 dex. The RMSE from this machine-learning method is similar to the scatter in [Fe/H] measurements from low-resolution spectra..

  1. Study on the effect of thermal property of metals in ultrasonic-assisted laser machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hu Seung; Kim, Gun Woo; Park, Jong Eun; Cho, Sung Hak; Yang, Min Yang; Park, Jong Kweon

    2015-01-01

    The laser machining process has been proposed as an advanced process for the selective fabrication of electrodes without a mask. In this study, we adapt laser machining to metals that have different thermal properties. Based on the results, the metals exhibit a different surface morphology, heat-affected zone (HAZ), and a recast layer around the machined surface according to their thermal conductivity, boiling point, and thermal diffusivity. Then, we apply ultrasonic-assisted laser machining to remove the recast layer. The ultrasonic-assisted laser machining exhibits a better surface quality in metals with higher diffusivity than those having lower diffusivity

  2. Energy Harvesting with a Liquid-Metal Microfluidic Influence Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Christopher; de Visser, Tim; Loessberg, Joshua; Sherman, Sam; Smith, Andrew; Ma, Shuo; Napoli, Maria Teresa; Pennathur, Sumita; Weld, David

    2018-04-01

    We describe and demonstrate an alternative energy-harvesting technology based on a microfluidic realization of a Wimshurst influence machine. The prototype device converts the mechanical energy of a pressure-driven flow into electrical energy, using a multiphase system composed of droplets of liquid mercury surrounded by insulating oil. Electrostatic induction between adjacent metal droplets drives charge through external electrode paths, resulting in continuous charge amplification and collection. We demonstrate a power output of 4 nW from the initial prototype and present calculations suggesting that straightforward device optimization could increase the power output by more than 3 orders of magnitude. At that level, the power efficiency of this energy-harvesting mechanism, limited by viscous dissipation, could exceed 90%. The microfluidic context enables straightforward scaling and parallelization, as well as hydraulic matching to a variety of ambient mechanical energy sources, such as human locomotion.

  3. Manufacturing and Machining Challenges of Hybrid Aluminium Metal Matix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburaja, Kammuluri; Sainadh Teja, S.; Karthik Sri, D.; Kuldeep, J.; Gowtham, V.

    2017-08-01

    Manufacturing which involves material removal processes or material addition processes or material transformation processes. One or all the processes to obtain the final desired properties for a material with desired shape which meets the required precision and accuracy values for the expected service life of a material in working conditions. Researchers found the utility of aluminium to be the second largest after steel. Aluminium and its metal matrix composite possess wide applications in various applications in aerospace industry, automobile industry, Constructions and even in kitchen utensils. Hybrid Al-MMCconsist of two different materials, and one will be from organic origin along with the base material. In this paper an attempt is made to bring out the importance of utilization of aluminium and the challenges concerned in manufacturing and machining of hybrid aluminium MMC.

  4. A numerical simulation of metallic cylindrical sandwich shells subjected to air blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jing

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of cylindrical sandwich shells with aluminum foam cores subjected to air blast loading was investigated numerically in this paper. According to KNR theory, the nonlinear compressibility of the air and finite shock conditions were taken into account in the finite element model. Numerical simulation results show that the compression strain, which plays a key role on energy absorption, increases approximately linearly with normalized impulse, and reduces with increasing relative density or the ratio of face-sheet thickness and core thickness. An increase of the impulse will delay the equalization of top and bottom face-sheet velocities of sandwich shell, but there is a maximum value in the studied bound. A limited study of weight optimization was carried out for sandwich shells with respect to the respective geometric parameters, including face-sheet thickness, core thickness and core relative density. These numerical results are of worth to theoretical prediction and engineering application of cellular metal sandwich structures.

  5. The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ånmark, Niclas; Karasev, Andrey; Jönsson, Pär Göran

    2015-02-16

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non‑metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc .) are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

  6. Abrasive blasting, a technique for the industrial decontamination of metal components and concrete blocks from decommissioning to unconditional release levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R.

    2007-01-01

    When decommissioning nuclear installations, large quantities of metal components are produced as well as significant amounts of other radioactive materials, which mostly show low surface contamination. Having been used or having been brought for a while in a controlled area marks them as 'suspected material'. In view of the very high costs for radioactive waste processing and disposal, alternatives have been considered, and much effort has gone to recycling through decontamination, melting and unconditional release of metals. In a broader context, recycling of materials can considered to be a first order ecological priority in order to limit the quantities of radioactive wastes for final disposal and to reduce the technical and economic problems involved with the management of radioactive wastes. It will help as well to make economic use of primary material and to conserve natural resources of basic material for future generations. In a demonstration programme, Belgoprocess has shown that it is economically interesting to decontaminate metal components to unconditional release levels using dry abrasive blasting techniques, the unit cost for decontamination being only 30 % of the global cost for radioactive waste treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal. As a result, an industrial dry abrasive blasting unit was installed in the Belgoprocess central decontamination infrastructure. At the end of December 2006, more than 1,128 Mg of contaminated metal has been treated as well as 313 Mg of concrete blocks. The paper gives an overview of the experience relating to the decontamination of metal material and concrete blocks at the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Dessel, Belgium as well from the decontamination of concrete containers by abrasive blasting. (authors)

  7. Research in the field of development of a new generation of metal-processing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Tanovič

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of research in the field of development of a new generation of metal-working machines for manufacturing high-precision products with dimensions of several micrometers from various materials. Presented are several new, newly created micro-machines that have the ability to manufacture products of a wide range. Studies in the field of metalworking machines and robots of a new generation with parallel kinematics, creation of machining systems for multi-axis machining, improvement and application of controllable systems, testing of processing systems in production conditions, which are conducted at the Machine-Building Faculty of the Belgrade University (Serbia are considered.

  8. Machinability study of Al-TiC metal matrix composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddappa P. N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites have emerged as an advanced class of structural materials have a combination of different, superior properties compared to an unreinforced matrix, which can result in a number of service benefits such as increased strength, higher elastic moduli, higher service temperature, low CTE, improved wear resistance, high toughness, etc. The excellent mechanical properties of these materials together with weight saving makes them very attractive for a variety of engineering applications in aerospace, automotive, electronic industries, etc. Hence, these materials provide as alternative substitutes for conventional engineering materials when specific mechanical properties necessary for required applications. In this work an attempt is made to study the machining parameters of Al6061/TiC MMC. The composite is developed by reinforcing TiC particles in varying proportions of 3, 6, 9 and 12 % weight fractions to the Al6061 matric alloy through stir casting technique. Cutting forces were measured by varying cutting speed and feed rate with constant depth of cut for different % weight fractions. The results showed that the cutting force increases with the increase of feed rate and decreases with the increase of cutting speed for all the weight fractions. Cutting parameters were optimized using Taguchi technique.

  9. Modernity Evaluation of the Machines Used During Production Process of Metal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ingaldi, Manuela; Dziuba, Szymon T.

    2015-01-01

    Most manufacturing companies realize its technologies, implemented through concrete machinery parts. They differ in terms of importance, the relevance of their selection and the level of their modernity. Modernity and efficiency of the machine are also very important during production process of the metal products. They have an influence on the quality of these products. The purpose of this article is to analyse the chosen production machine (CNC machine AFE-3D8-T) used during pro...

  10. Steel, hard metal and diamonds. The history of drilling blast holes in mining and tunneling; Stahl, Hartmetall und Diamanten. Zur Geschichte des Sprenglochbohrens im Berg- und Tunnelbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feistkorn, E. [Inst. fuer Vortrieb und Gewinnung, DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Beginning of the blasting technique in mining and tunneling during the 17th century required drilling holes to take the explosive. Following the use of hammer and wedge, drilling was done over a long period of time by hand with mallet and drillsteel. Continuously, during the 19th century the handwork was replaced by drilling machines. Technically, the evolution of drilling equipment is marked by electrohydraulic control and automatization with the assistance of microelectronics. Regarding the material, the introduction of hard metal and - in addition for rotary drilling - the development of synthetic diamond material are the main features. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit der Einfuehrung der Sprengtechnik im Bergbau und Tunnelbau im 17. Jahrhundert mussten verfahrensbedingt Bohrloecher zur Aufnahme des Sprengstoffes hergestellt werden. In Anlehnung an die Arbeit mit Schlaegel und Eisen erfolgte dies lange Zeit manuell mit dem Bohrfaeustel und Stahlbohrern. Die Handarbeit wurde waehrend der 2. Haelfte des 19. Jahrhunderts kontinuierlich durch Bohrmaschinen verdraengt. Maschinentechnisch ist die weitere Entwicklung durch elektrohydraulische Steuerungen und die Automatisierung der Bohrgeraete mit Hilfe der Mikroelektronik gekennzeichnet. Materialtechnisch stellen die Einfuehrung des Hartmetalls und beim drehenden Bohren zusaetzlich die Entwicklung synthetischer Diamantwerkstoffe die herausragenden Marksteine dar. (orig.)

  11. Low temperature wetting and cleanup of alkali metal-advanced electrical machine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gass, W.R.; Witkowski, R.E.; Burrow, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced homopolar electrical machines employing high electrical current density, liquid metal sliprings for current transfer utilize NaK/sub 78/ (78 w/o potassium, 22 w/o sodium) for the conducting fluid. Experiments have been performed to improve alkali metal/oxide clean-up procedures. Studies have also confirmed chemical and materials compatibility between barium doped NaK/sub 78/ and typical machine structural materials. 4 refs

  12. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Robert; McConnell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.

  13. Implementation of the geometrical problem in CNC metal cutting machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erokhin V.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the tasks of managing the production process (technological process and technological equip-ment, the most detailed analysis of the implementation of the geometric problem in CNC machines. The influence of the solution of the geometric CNC problem on the accuracy of workpiece machining is analyzed by implementing a certain interpolation algorithm and the values of the discreteness of the movements of the working bodies of the CNC machine. The technique of forming a given trajectory of motion of the machine's executive organ is given, by means of which it is required to ensure the coordinated movement of the shaping coordinates according to a certain law, depend-ing on the specified trajectory of the cutting edge of the tool. The advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of interpolation in CNC systems by various methods are considered, and particular attention is paid to combined meth-ods of realizing interpolation.

  14. Unipolar Electric Machines with Liquid-Metal Current Pickup,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-08

    A new homopolar motor , e4ournal of the Franklin Institute*. 1954, v. 258, Ne 1. %4 144093, Bjo.1.leTeJb H3o6peTeHxA. 1962,. 14 1. 30. X oao p o a...VIII. Motor Mode of Unipolar Electrical Machine ............... 301 Chapter IX. Bases of Theory and Calculation of Nonpolar Dynamos without...unipolar electric motors . Are examined questions of the classification of acyclic machines, their electromagnetic field, calculation of magnetic circuit

  15. Metal matrix composites synthesis, wear characteristics, machinability study of MMC brake drum

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Nanjappan; Davim, J Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This book is dedicated to composite materials, presenting different synthesis processes, composite properties and their machining behaviour. The book describes also the problems on manufacturing of metal matrix composite components. Among others, it provides procedures for manufacturing of metal matrix composites and case studies.

  16. Hot metal temperature prediction by neural networks in the blast furnace; Prediccion mediante redes neuronales de la temperatura de arrabio de un horno alto. Temperatura subyacente de arrabio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantera, C.; Jimenez, J.; Varela, I.; Formoso, A.

    2002-07-01

    Based on a simplified model, the underlying temperature criteria is proposed as a method to study the temperature trends in a blast furnace. As an application, a neural network able to forecast hot metal temperatures from 2 to 16 h in advance (with decreasing precision) has been built. This neural network has been designed to work at real time in a production plant. (Author)

  17. Hybrid metallic nanocomposites for extra wear-resistant diamond machining tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loginov, P.A.; Sidorenko, D.A.; Levashov, E.A.

    2018-01-01

    The applicability of metallic nanocomposites as binder for diamond machining tools is demonstrated. The various nanoreinforcements (carbon nanotubes, boron nitride hBN, nanoparticles of tungsten carbide/WC) and their combinations are embedded into metallic matrices and their mechanical properties...... are determined in experiments. The wear resistance of diamond tools with metallic binders modified by various nanoreinforcements was estimated. 3D hierarchical computational finite element model of the tool binder with hybrid nanoscale reinforcements is developed, and applied for the structure...

  18. Sample preparation of metal alloys by electric discharge machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G. B., II; Gordon, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electric discharge machining was investigated as a noncontaminating method of comminuting alloys for subsequent chemical analysis. Particulate dispersions in water were produced from bulk alloys at a rate of about 5 mg/min by using a commercially available machining instrument. The utility of this approach was demonstrated by results obtained when acidified dispersions were substituted for true acid solutions in an established spectrochemical method. The analysis results were not significantly different for the two sample forms. Particle size measurements and preliminary results from other spectrochemical methods which require direct aspiration of liquid into flame or plasma sources are reported.

  19. Development of a Continuous Drill and Blast Tunneling Concept, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-05-01

    A spiral drilling pattern is described which offers high efficiency drill and blast tunnelling via frequent small blasts rather than occasional large blasts. Design work is presented for a machine which would stay at the face to provide essentially c...

  20. Development of Experimental Setup of Metal Rapid Prototyping Machine using Selective Laser Sintering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. N.; Mulay, A. V.; Ahuja, B. B.

    2018-04-01

    Unlike in the traditional manufacturing processes, additive manufacturing as rapid prototyping, allows designers to produce parts that were previously considered too complex to make economically. The shift is taking place from plastic prototype to fully functional metallic parts by direct deposition of metallic powders as produced parts can be directly used for desired purpose. This work is directed towards the development of experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping machine using selective laser sintering and studies the various parameters, which plays important role in the metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique. The machine structure in mainly divided into three main categories namely, (1) Z-movement of bed and table, (2) X-Y movement arrangement for LASER movements and (3) feeder mechanism. Z-movement of bed is controlled by using lead screw, bevel gear pair and stepper motor, which will maintain the accuracy of layer thickness. X-Y movements are controlled using timing belt and stepper motors for precise movements of LASER source. Feeder mechanism is then developed to control uniformity of layer thickness metal powder. Simultaneously, the study is carried out for selection of material. Various types of metal powders can be used for metal RP as Single metal powder, mixture of two metals powder, and combination of metal and polymer powder. Conclusion leads to use of mixture of two metals powder to minimize the problems such as, balling effect and porosity. Developed System can be validated by conducting various experiments on manufactured part to check mechanical and metallurgical properties. After studying the results of these experiments, various process parameters as LASER properties (as power, speed etc.), and material properties (as grain size and structure etc.) will be optimized. This work is mainly focused on the design and development of cost effective experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique which will gives the feel of

  1. 29 CFR 1926.906 - Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) After firing an electric blast from a blasting machine, the leading wires shall be immediately... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting. 1926.906... Use of Explosives § 1926.906 Initiation of explosive charges—electric blasting. (a) Electric blasting...

  2. Development of new metal matrix composite electrodes for electrical discharge machining through powder metallurgy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mathalai Sundaram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical discharge machining (EDM is one of the widely used nontraditional machining methods to produce die cavities by the erosive effect of electrical discharges. This method is popular due to the fact that a relatively soft electrically conductive tool electrode can machine hard work piece. Copper electrode is normally used for machining process. Electrode wear rate is the major drawback for EDM researchers. This research focus on fabrication of metal matrix composite (MMC electrode by mixing copper powder with titanium carbide (TiC and Tungsten carbide (WC powder through powder metallurgy process, Copper powder is the major amount of mixing proportion with TiC and WC. However, this paper focus on the early stage of the project where powder metallurgy route was used to determine suitable mixing time, compaction pressure and sintering and compacting process in producing EDM electrode. The newly prepared composite electrodes in different composition are tested in EDM for OHNS steel.

  3. STUDY ON SOFTENING AND DROPPING PROPERTIES OF METALIZED BURDEN INSIDE BLAST FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-yang Tuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inferences of burden metallization rate on softening-melting dropping properties were investigated through softening-melting dropping test of three kinds of metalized burden pressure drop. The results indicated that the softeningmelting temperature interval of pre-reduction mixed burden is bigger than primeval mixed burden, the melting interval narrow with the rise of metallization rate of ferric burden as well as dropping temperature interval. The average pressure drop, maximum pressure drop and softening-melting dropping properties eigenvalue decrease with the rise of metallization rate of ferric burden. Besides, the dropping temperature of burden reduces with the rise of carbon content of molten iron. The combination high metalized burden and higher carbon content of molten iron is benefit to decreasing thickness of cohesive zone and improve permeability of cohesive zone.

  4. Investigation of machining damage and tool wear resulting from drilling powder metal aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, H.A. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This report documents the cutting of aluminum powder metallurgy (PM) parts for the North Carolina Manufacturing Extension Partnership. The parts, an aluminum powder metal formulation, were supplied by Sinter Metals Inc., of Conover, North Carolina. The intended use of the alloy is for automotive components. Machining tests were conducted at Y-12 in the machine shop of the Skills Demonstration Center in Building 9737. Testing was done on June 2 and June 3, 1997. The powder metal alloy tested is very abrasive and tends to wear craters and produce erosion effects on the chip washed face of the drills used. It also resulted in huge amounts of flank wear and degraded performance on the part of most drills. Anti-wear coatings on drills seemed to have an effect. Drills with the coating showed less wear for the same amount of cutting. The usefulness of coolants and lubricants in reducing tool wear and chipping/breakout was not investigated.

  5. US/DOE Man-Machine Integration program for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Zmura, A.P.; Seeman, S.E.

    1985-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Man-Machine Integration program was started in 1980 as an addition to the existing Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor safety base technology program. The overall goal of the DOE program is to enhance the operational safety of liquid metal reactors by optimum integration of humans and machines in the overall reactor plant system and by application of the principles of human-factors engineering to the design of equipment, subsystems, facilities, operational aids, procedures and environments. In the four years since its inception the program has concentrated on understanding the control process for Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs) and on applying advanced computer concepts to this process. This paper describes the products that have been developed in this program, present computer-related programs, and plans for the future

  6. Laser Direct Metal Deposition of 2024 Al Alloy: Trace Geometry Prediction via Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Caggiano, Alessandra

    2018-03-19

    Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio. A critical issue in the laser direct metal deposition process is related to the geometrical parameters of the cross-section of the deposited metal trace that should be controlled to meet the part specifications. In this research, a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is developed to find the correlation between the laser metal deposition process parameters and the output geometrical parameters of the deposited metal trace produced by laser direct metal deposition on 5-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plates. The results show that the neural network-based machine learning paradigm is able to accurately estimate the appropriate process parameters required to obtain a specified geometry for the deposited metal trace.

  7. Laser Direct Metal Deposition of 2024 Al Alloy: Trace Geometry Prediction via Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Caiazzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio. A critical issue in the laser direct metal deposition process is related to the geometrical parameters of the cross-section of the deposited metal trace that should be controlled to meet the part specifications. In this research, a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is developed to find the correlation between the laser metal deposition process parameters and the output geometrical parameters of the deposited metal trace produced by laser direct metal deposition on 5-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plates. The results show that the neural network-based machine learning paradigm is able to accurately estimate the appropriate process parameters required to obtain a specified geometry for the deposited metal trace.

  8. Two-way Valorization of Blast Furnace Slag: Synthesis of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate and Zeolitic Heavy Metal Adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Evangelos; Santos, Rafael M; Chiang, Yi Wai; Manovic, Vasilije

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this work is to present a zero-waste process for storing CO2 in a stable and benign mineral form while producing zeolitic minerals with sufficient heavy metal adsorption capacity. To this end, blast furnace slag, a residue from iron-making, is utilized as the starting material. Calcium is selectively extracted from the slag by leaching with acetic acid (2 M CH3COOH) as the extraction agent. The filtered leachate is subsequently physico-chemically purified and then carbonated to form precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) of high purity (Sodium hydroxide is added to neutralize the regenerated acetate. The morphological properties of the resulting calcitic PCC are tuned for its potential application as a filler in papermaking. In parallel, the residual solids from the extraction stage are subjected to hydrothermal conversion in a caustic solution (2 M NaOH) that leads to the predominant formation of a particular zeolitic mineral phase (detected by XRD), namely analcime (NaAlSi2O6∙H2O). Based on its ability to adsorb Ni 2+ , as reported from batch adsorption experiments and ICP-OES analysis, this product can potentially be used in wastewater treatment or for environmental remediation applications.

  9. Multiscale processing of loss of metal: a machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, G.; Gentile, M.; Vichi, R.; Bruschi, R.; Gabetta, G.

    2017-07-01

    Corrosion is one of the principal causes of degradation to failure of marine structures. In practice, localized corrosion is the most dangerous mode of attack and can result in serious failures, in particular in marine flowlines and inter-field lines, arousing serious concerns relatively to environmental impact. The progress in time of internal corrosion, the location along the route and across the pipe section, the development pattern and the depth of the loss of metal are a very complex issue: the most important factors are products characteristics, transport conditions over the operating lifespan, process fluid-dynamics, and pipeline geometrical configuration. Understanding which factors among them play the most important role is a key step to develop a model able to predict with enough accuracy the sections more exposed to risk of failure. Some factors play a crucial role at certain spatial scales while other factors at other scales. The Mutual Information Theory, intimately related to the concept of Shannon Entropy in Information theory, has been applied to detect the most important variables at each scale. Finally, the variables emerged from this analysis at each scale have been integrated in a predicting data driven model sensibly improving its performance.

  10. Metallic particles into mechanical and hydraulic systems in agricultural and construction machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jair Rosas da; Silva, Deise Paula da [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Agricola; Bormio, Marcos Roberto [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia

    2008-07-01

    The lubricant oil analysis are an indicator of the conditions how the lubricant is, may to allow the prevision of damages that occurred into machine due to the internal abrasion of hydraulic and mechanical components of the machines. The present study had the objective to determine the kind and quantity of the metallic particles that occurred into the lubricant oil of the mechanical and hydraulic compartments of the energy transmission systems of three kinds of machines: a tracked-tractor, a sugarcane harvester and a group of power-shovels. The metallic particles presents into these compartments were determined under laboratory tests and concerning to the following elements: iron, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, aluminum, silex, tin and molybdenum. About to the tracked-tractor, the metallic contaminators into to the oil charges surpasses the tolerate levels, considering the technical standards adopted in this evaluation. In the sugarcane harvester only a metallic element in excess was identified and, in a power-shovel group it was showed the need to correct air false entrances in the hydraulic or mechanical systems due the high presence of silex element. (author)

  11. Investigation on Wire Electrochemical Micro Machining of Ni-based Metallic Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Lingchao; Zeng, Yongbin; Zhu, Di

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • WECMM with nanosecond pulses is proposed firstly for fabricating micro complex components based on metallic glasses. • Applicable electrolyte for WECMM of the Ni-based MG is discussed. • Significantly uniform machined surface is achieved in H_2SO_4 solution. • High machining efficiency and stability are obtained experimentally by modifying pulse waveforms and electrolyte compositions. • Complex microstructures of Ni-based MG are fabricated by WECMM with optimized parameters. - Abstract: Metallic glasses (MGs) have been recognized as promising materials for realizing high-performance micro devices in micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) due to their excellent functional and structural characteristics. However, the applications of MGs are currently limited because of the difficulty of shaping them on the microscale. Wire electrochemical micro machining (WECMM) is increasingly recognized as a flexible and effective method to fabricate complex-shaped micro metal components with many advantages relative to the thermomechanical processing, which appears to be well suitable for micro shaping of MGs. We consider the example of a Ni-based MG, Ni_7_2Cr_1_9Si_7B_2, which has a typical passivation characteristic in 0.1 M H_2SO_4 solution. The transpassive process can be used for localized material removal when combined with nanosecond pulsed WECMM technique. In present work, the applicable electrolyte for WECMM of the Ni-based MG was discussed firstly. Then the voltage pulse waveform and electrolyte composition were modified to improve machining efficiency and stability. Several complex microstructures such as micro curved cantilever beam, micro gear, and micro square helix were machined with different optimized parameters.

  12. Hot metal temperature prediction and simulation by fuzzy logic in a blast furnace; Prediccion y simulacion, mediante logica difusa, de la temperatura de salida del arrabio en un horno alto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M. A.; Jimenez, J.; Mochon, J.; Formoso, A.; Bueno, F. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CENIM. Madrid (Spain); Menendez, J. L. [ACERALIA. Gijon Asturias (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This work describes the development and further validation of a model devoted to blast furnace hot metal temperature forecast, based on Fuzzy logic principles. The model employs as input variables, the control variables of an actual blast furnace: Blast volume, moisture, coal injection, oxygen addition, etc. and it yields as a result the hot metal temperature with a forecast horizon of forty minutes. As far as the variables used to develop the model have been obtained from data supplied by an actual blast furnaces sensors, it is necessary to properly analyse and handle such data. Especial attention was paid to data temporal correlation, fitting by interpolation the different sampling rates. In the training stage of the model the ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) and the Subtractive Clustering algorithms have been used. (Author) 9 refs.

  13. Fundamental examinations for the mechanisation of the support work in headings by blasting and by using selective cut heading machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoecker, H.M.; Luerig, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Starting from the results of a stock-taking of the support methods used up to now and from exact analyses of the situation in the heading field, a concept will be elaborated with the aim, in addition to the reduction of the well-known high physical strain by the setting of the support, of rationalization of this partial procedure in case of conventional heading. The principal item is a floor-connected transportation and erection-vehicle with electro-hydraulic drive and an adjustable erection deck, which permits a fully mechanised setting of the support inclusive the side sections. By a transversible novel drilling equipment hung up at the roof of a drift a parallelization of different procedures and therewith a rationalization effect can be reached at the same time. The concept of this realizability will be demonstrated at a volume - right and power - right heading model on a scale 1:5. The developed equipment consist of operationally approved single aggregates and for the test they can also be used separately. Therewith a gradual introduction of the system is possible. At the beginning a provisional safety equipment for the direct at the face area will be introduced for the selective cut heading machine driving. According to the actual stage of the first considerations the main disadvantage of the safety equipment is the insufficient stock safety and its outrigger at the support already set.

  14. Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The blasting operation plays a pivotal role in the overall economics of opencast mines. The blasting sub-system affects all the other associated sub-systems, i.e. loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Fragmentation control through effective blast design and its effect on productivity are the challenging tasks for practicing blasting engineer due to inadequate knowledge of actual explosive energy released in the borehole, varying initiation practice in blast design and its effect on explosive energy release characteristic. This paper describes the result of a systematic study on the impact of blast design parameters on rock fragmentation at three mines in India. The mines use draglines and shovel–dumper combination for removal of overburden. Despite its pivotal role in controlling the overall economics of a mining operation, the expected blasting performance is often judged almost exclusively on the basis of poorly defined parameters such as powder factor and is often qualitative which results in very subjective assessment of blasting performance. Such an approach is very poor substitutes for accurate assessment of explosive and blasting performance. Ninety one blasts were conducted with varying blast designs and charging patterns, and their impacts on the rock fragmentation were documented. A high-speed camera was deployed to record the detonation sequences of the blasts. The efficiency of the loading machines was also correlated with the mean fragment size obtained from the fragmentation analyses.

  15. Tunnel blasting - recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.E.

    1999-05-01

    While tunnelling machines are more efficient than previously, there are still areas where blasting is a more efficient method of advance. Drilling and design methods are increasingly sophisticated, as is choice of explosive. Explosive deployment must be carefully calculated so as to avoid desensitisation. Nitroglycerine may be used as slurries; bulk mixing on site of ANFO is also practised in mining in the UK. Electric detonators, Nonel tubes, and electronic detonators are also increasingly employed.

  16. Rapid and Accurate Machine Learning Recognition of High Performing Metal Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Michael; Boyd, Peter G; Daff, Thomas D; Aghaji, Mohammad Zein; Woo, Tom K

    2014-09-04

    In this work, we have developed quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models using advanced machine learning algorithms that can rapidly and accurately recognize high-performing metal organic framework (MOF) materials for CO2 capture. More specifically, QSPR classifiers have been developed that can, in a fraction of a section, identify candidate MOFs with enhanced CO2 adsorption capacity (>1 mmol/g at 0.15 bar and >4 mmol/g at 1 bar). The models were tested on a large set of 292 050 MOFs that were not part of the training set. The QSPR classifier could recover 945 of the top 1000 MOFs in the test set while flagging only 10% of the whole library for compute intensive screening. Thus, using the machine learning classifiers as part of a high-throughput screening protocol would result in an order of magnitude reduction in compute time and allow intractably large structure libraries and search spaces to be screened.

  17. Application of machine-learning methods to solid-state chemistry: ferromagnetism in transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landrum, G.A.Gregory A.; Genin, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    Machine-learning methods are a collection of techniques for building predictive models from experimental data. The algorithms are problem-independent: the chemistry and physics of the problem being studied are contained in the descriptors used to represent the known data. The application of a variety of machine-learning methods to the prediction of ferromagnetism in ordered and disordered transition metal alloys is presented. Applying a decision tree algorithm to build a predictive model for ordered phases results in a model that is 100% accurate. The same algorithm achieves 99% accuracy when trained on a data set containing both ordered and disordered phases. Details of the descriptor sets for both applications are also presented

  18. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from...

  19. Effect of blasting on output increase of bucket wheel excavators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, P.

    1987-12-01

    In brown coal surface mines, consolidated sediments become a problem as mining operations advance into greater depth below the original terrain. Owing to higher digging resistance, the output of bucket wheel excavators drops. This problem may be solved by blasting technology and using drilling machines with higher digging force. This paper describes the blasting operations at the Nastup Mines in Tusmice, Czechoslovakia. About 60% of blasting explosives used is a simple mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel (ANFO), the rest falls on classic blasting gelatines and blasting explosives plasticized by slurry. It is found that blasting improves output by 30% while electric energy consumption is reduced.

  20. Various aspects of ionic machining applied to metallic systems in microwave dipolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestie, J.P.; Dumontet, H.; Andrieu, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    The positive benefit of ion bombardment machining in fabricating bipolar microwave transistors is shown. Ion cleaning, especially for P type silicon with high boron concentration allows reproducible surface resistivities to be reached 10 -6 ohms/cm 2 ) and the spurious resistance of the basis to be minimized. Ionic etching of metallic layers allowed 1μm stepped geometric structures to be realized. The multilayer Ti-Pt-Au system was associated to the finest geometries through a finite number of operations [fr

  1. Machinability of Al-SiC metal matrix composites using WC, PCD and MCD inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beristain, J.; Gonzalo, O.; Sanda, A.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the machinability of aluminium-silicon carbide Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) in turning operations. The cutting tools used were hard metal (WC) with and without coating, different grades and geometries of Poly-Crystalline Diamond (PCD) and Mono-Crystalline Diamond (MCD). The work piece material was AMC225xe, composed of aluminium-copper alloy AA 2124 and 25% wt of SiC, being the size of the SiC particles around 3 {mu}m. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds and cutting parameters in facing finishing operations, measuring the surface roughness, cutting forces and tool wear. The worn surface of the cutting tool was examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was observed that the Built Up Edge (BUE) and stuck material is higher in the MCD tools than in the PCD tools. The BUE acts as a protective layer against abrasive wear of the tool. (Author)

  2. HTGR Metallic Reactor Internals Core Shell Cutting & Machining Antideformation Technique Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Huiping; Xue Song

    2014-01-01

    The reactor shell assembly of HTGR nuclear power station demonstration project metallic reactor internals is key components of reactor, remains with high-precision large component with large-sized thin-walled straight cylinder-shaped structure, and is the first manufacture in China. As compared with other reactor shell, it has a larger ID (Φ5360mm), a longer length (19000mm), a smaller wall thickness (40mm) and a higher precision requirement. During the process of manufacture, the deformation due to cutting & machining will directly affect the final result of manufacture, the control of structural deformation and cutting deformation shall be throughout total manufacture process of such assembly. To realize the control of entire core shell assembly geometry, the key is to innovate and make breakthroughs on anti-deformation technique and then provide reliable technological foundations for the manufacture of HTGR metallic reactor internals. (author)

  3. Application of wire electrodes in electric discharge machining of metal samples of reactor blocks of the operative atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozhenko, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Features of application of electroerosive methods are considered during the process of direct definition of properties of metal of the equipment of power units of the atomic power station. Results of development of a complex of the equipment for wire electric discharge machining of metal templet and its use are presented at the control of the basic metal of the main circulating pipelines over blocks of the atomic power station of Ukraine over long terms of operation

  4. CrocoBLAST: Running BLAST efficiently in the age of next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristão Ramos, Ravi José; de Azevedo Martins, Allan Cézar; da Silva Delgado, Gabrielle; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Ürményi, Turán Peter; Silva, Rosane; Koca, Jaroslav

    2017-11-15

    CrocoBLAST is a tool for dramatically speeding up BLAST+ execution on any computer. Alignments that would take days or weeks with NCBI BLAST+ can be run overnight with CrocoBLAST. Additionally, CrocoBLAST provides features critical for NGS data analysis, including: results identical to those of BLAST+; compatibility with any BLAST+ version; real-time information regarding calculation progress and remaining run time; access to partial alignment results; queueing, pausing, and resuming BLAST+ calculations without information loss. CrocoBLAST is freely available online, with ample documentation (webchem.ncbr.muni.cz/Platform/App/CrocoBLAST). No installation or user registration is required. CrocoBLAST is implemented in C, while the graphical user interface is implemented in Java. CrocoBLAST is supported under Linux and Windows, and can be run under Mac OS X in a Linux virtual machine. jkoca@ceitec.cz. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Data acquisition testing in supercritical water oxidation using machine cutting oils and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy, the Navy, and SERDP provided funding for an extensive series of testing of a Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) system. The goal of the testing was to create performance data on the process when dealing with highly chlorinated wastes containing heavy metals, and radionuclides. The testing was performed in a MODAR vessel oxidizer. Performance was measured by the ability of the process to achieve greater than 99.99% destruction of the organic content, to partition the metals and radionuclide surrogates for mass balance, and survive the highly corrosive species in the effluent. The test data has shown that these goals were accomplished. 30 gal/day of highly chlorinated machine cutting oil was treated for 130 hrs. There were no significant corrosion or solids handling problems. This machine cutting oil, TRIM reg-sign SOL was chosen by DOE for its complex nature and has proven to be one of the more refractory organic feeds encountered by MODAR. The Navy provided 8 waste streams collected from their shore facilities operation. These paints varied in solids content with wastes such as paint chips, and adhesives. The ninth test run was with all 8 series of wastes combined. The MODAR system successfully treated all of these waste streams providing performance data on the ability of SCWO to treat difficult sludges

  6. Mechanical and Acoustic Characteristics of the Weld and the Base Metal Machine Part of Career Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Alexander N.; Knjaz'kov, Victor L.; Levashova, Elena E.; Ababkov, Nikolay V.; Pimonov, Maksim V.

    2018-01-01

    Currently, many industries use foreign-made machinery. There is no opportunity to purchase quality original spare parts for which machinery. Therefore, enterprises operating this equipment are looking for producers of analogues of various parts and assemblies. Quite often, the metal of such analog components turns out to be substandard, which leads to their breakdown at a much earlier date and the enterprises incur material losses. Due to the fact that the complex of performance characteristics and the resource of products are laid at the stage of their production, it is extremely important to control the quality of the raw materials. The structure, mechanical, acoustic and magnetic characteristics of metal samples of such destroyed details of quarry transport as hydraulic cylinders and detail “axis” of an excavator are investigated. A significant spread of data on the chemical composition of metal, hardness and characteristics of non-destructive testing is established, which gives grounds to recommend to manufacturers and suppliers of parts is more responsible to approach the incoming quality control. The results of the investigation of metal samples by destructive and non-destructive methods of control are compared, which showed that the spectral-acoustic method of nondestructive testing can be used to control the quality of the responsible machine parts under conditions of import substitution.

  7. Obtainment, machining and wear of metal matrix composites processed by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Edilson Rosa Barbosa de.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was the obtainment of metal matrix composites (MMC) by the route of powder metallurgy, and the valuation of these materials with relation to their machining and wear characteristics. Firstly, were obtained pure commercial aluminium matrix composites materials, with 5, 10 and 15% volumetric fraction of silicon carbide particles. Was also obtained a material without reinforcement particles in order to verify by comparison, the influence of addition of reinforcement particles. The obtained materials were characterized physics (hydrostatic density), mechanics (hardness and tensile tests) and microstructurally (optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy). The results showed a homogeneous distribution of reinforcement particles in the composite, and improvement in the mechanical properties, mainly tensile strength (UTS) in comparison to the unreinforced material. After, tests were made to verify the materials behavior during machining and to check the performance of several tool materials (cemented carbide, ceramics and polycrystalline diamond). In these tests, values of the cutting force were measured by instrumented tool-holders. Phenomena such as tool wear, built-up edge formation and mechanism of chip formation were also observed and evaluated. The results from the cemented carbide tool tests, were utilised for the machinability index determination of each material. These results were applied to the Taylor equation and the equation constants for each material and test conditions were determined. The results showed that the inclusion of silicon carbide particles made extremely difficult the machining of the composites, and only with diamond tool, satisfactory results were obtained. At last, wear tests were performed to verify the influence of the reinforcement particles in the characteristics of wear resistance of the materials. The results obtained were utilized in the wear coefficient determination for each material. The

  8. Machinability and Tribological Properties of Stir Cast LM6/SiC/GR Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahat Montasser S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis on machining characteristics in turning of LM6/SiC/Gr hybrid metal matrix composites is made of (Al-11.8%Si/SiC/Gr hybrid metal matrix composites. The process performances such as porosity, wear rate of the composites, tool wear, tool life, specific modulus, surface roughness and material removal rate with equal weight fraction of SiC and Gr particulates of 3%, 7%, 10% and 13% reinforcement are investigated. This experimental analysis and test results on the machinability of Al/SiCMMC will provide essential guidelines to the manufacturers. Hybird metal matrix composites reinforced with graphite particles posses better machinability and tribological properties.

  9. Blast management

    OpenAIRE

    Shouraki, Mohammad Kargar; Naserkheil, Ali Asghar

    2011-01-01

    Blast Management (BM) is composed of the combination of human resources management (HRM) principles and concepts and various methods of quality management (QM) with a financial approach. BM is made up of three aspects: hard, soft and concept and BLAST means an explosive shift in organization's mindset and thought and rapid action against it. The first aspect, hard, includes a set of managerial toots and philosophies to improve the quality and productivity with a financial approach.

  10. Some regularities of structure and surface layer properties changing of metal materials after electro-erosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostyntsev, K.I.; Kuz'mina, T.S.; Kruglov, V.V.; Lukovkin, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of electoerosion machining on the surface state of pearlitic class steel of the 12KhN4MFA type, bronzes BrAMts 9-2 and BrAZhNMts 9-4-4-1, of the alloy PT-3V has been studied. As a result of electroerosion machining (EEM) a transformed layer, presenting overheated and partially melted metal, the structure and hardness of which depend on chemical composition of the materials treated, their tendency to phase transformatins and saturation with introduction elements, is formed on the surface of metal materials

  11. Some regularities of structure and surface layer properties changing of metal materials after electro-erosion machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvostyntsev, K.I.; Kuz' mina, T.S.; Kruglov, V.V.; Lukovkin, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of electoerosion machining on the surface state of pearlitic class steel of the 12KhN4MFA type, bronzes BrAMts 9-2 and BrAZhNMts 9-4-4-1, of the alloy PT-3V has been studied. As a result of electroerosion machining (EEM) a transformed layer, presenting overheated and partially melted metal, the structure and hardness of which depend on chemical composition of the materials treated, their tendency to phase transformatins and saturation with introduction elements, is formed on the surface of metal materials.

  12. Raising quality of maintenance and control of metallic structures in large-load technological machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygin, M. Yu; Kuryshkin, N. P.

    2018-01-01

    Active growth of coal extraction and underinvestment of coal mining in Russia lead to the fact that technical state of more than 86% of technological machines at opencast coal mines is unacceptable. One of the most significant problems is unacceptable state of supporting metallic structures of excavators and mine dump trucks. The analysis has shown that defects in these metallic structures had been accumulated for a long time. Their removal by the existing method of repair welding was not effective - the flaws reappeared in 2-6 months of technological machines’ service. The authors detected the prime causes that did not allow to make a good repair welding joint. A new technology of repair welding had been tested and endorsed, and this allowed to reduce the number of welded joints’ flaws by 85% without additional raising welders’ qualification. As a result the number of flaws in metallic structures of the equipment had been reduced by 35 % as early as in the first year of using the new technology.

  13. 30 CFR 56.6404 - Separation of blasting circuits from power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL... when closed to fire the blast. (b) Lead wires shall not be connected to the blasting switch until the...

  14. Analysis of acoustic emission during abrasive waterjet machining of sheet metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nazrin; Gebremariam, MA; Zohari, H.; Azhari, Azmir

    2018-04-01

    The present paper reports on the analysis of acoustic emission (AE) produced during abrasive waterjet (AWJ) machining process. This paper focuses on the relationship of AE and surface quality of sheet metals. The changes in acoustic emission signals recorded by the mean of power spectral density (PSD) via covariance method in relation to the surface quality of the cut are discussed. The test was made using two materials for comparison namely aluminium 6061 and stainless steel 304 with five different feed rates. The acoustic emission data were captured by Labview and later processed using MATLAB software. The results show that the AE spectrums correlated with different feed rates and surface qualities. It can be concluded that the AE is capable of monitoring the changes of feed rate and surface quality.

  15. Effect of reinforcement on the cutting forces while machining metal matrix composites–An experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Shoba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid metal matrix composites are of great interest for researchers in recent years, because of their attractive superior properties over traditional materials and single reinforced composites. The machinabilty of hybrid composites becomes vital for manufacturing industries. The need to study the influence of process parameters on the cutting forces in turning such hybrid composite under dry environment is essentially required. In the present study, the influence of machining parameters, e.g. cutting speed, feed and depth of cut on the cutting force components, namely feed force (Ff, cutting force (Fc, and radial force (Fd has been investigated. Investigations were performed on 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt% Silicon carbide (SiC and rice husk ash (RHA reinforced composite specimens. A comparison was made between the reinforced and unreinforced composites. The results proved that all the cutting force components decrease with the increase in the weight percentage of the reinforcement: this was probably due to the dislocation densities generated from the thermal mismatch between the reinforcement and the matrix. Experimental evidence also showed that built-up edge (BUE is formed during machining of low percentage reinforced composites at high speed and high depth of cut. The formation of BUE was captured by SEM, therefore confirming the result. The decrease of cutting force components with lower cutting speed and higher feed and depth of cut was also highlighted. The related mechanisms are explained and presented.

  16. A randomized, controlled intervention of machine guarding and related safety programs in small metal-fabrication businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David L; Brosseau, Lisa M; Samant, Yogindra; Xi, Min; Pan, Wei; Haugan, David

    2009-01-01

    Metal fabrication employs an estimated 3.1 million workers in the United States. The absence of machine guarding and related programs such as lockout/tagout may result in serious injury or death. The purpose of this study was to improve machine-related safety in small metal-fabrication businesses. We used a randomized trial with two groups: management only and management-employee. We evaluated businesses for the adequacy of machine guarding (machine scorecard) and related safety programs (safety audit). We provided all businesses with a report outlining deficiencies and prioritizing their remediation. In addition, the management-employee group received four one-hour interactive training sessions from a peer educator. We evaluated 40 metal-fabrication businesses at baseline and 37 (93%) one year later. Of the three nonparticipants, two had gone out of business. More than 40% of devices required for adequate guarding were missing or inadequate, and 35% of required safety programs and practices were absent at baseline. Both measures improved significantly during the course of the intervention. No significant differences in changes occurred between the two intervention groups. Machine-guarding practices and programs improved by up to 13% and safety audit scores by up to 23%. Businesses that added safety committees or those that started with the lowest baseline measures showed the greatest improvements. Simple and easy-to-use assessment tools allowed businesses to significantly improve their safety practices, and safety committees facilitated this process.

  17. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  18. Precision machining, sheet-metal work and welding at the heart of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From the writing of specifications and the production of high-tech components, to technology transfer and call-out work on-site, the MF group in EST Division offers CERN users a wide variety of services. Its full range of activities is presented in a new brochure. In addition to its many physicists and engineers, CERN also has teams of mechanics, welders and sheet-metalworkers whose expertise is a precious asset for the Organization. Within the MF Group (Manufacturing Facilities, EST Division) these teams perform precision machining, sheet-metal work and welding. As an example, the Group has been responsible for producing radiofrequency accelerating cells to a precision of the order of 1/100th mm and with a surface roughness of only 0.1 micron. The Group's workshops also manufactured the stainless steel vacuum chamber for the brand new n-TOF experiment (Bulletin n°47/2000), a 200-m long cylindrical chamber with a diameter of just 800 millimetres! The MF Group is assisted in its task of providing me...

  19. Brain injuries from blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Cameron R; Panzer, Matthew B; Rafaels, Karen A; Wood, Garrett; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast produces a number of conundrums. This review focuses on five fundamental questions including: (1) What are the physical correlates for blast TBI in humans? (2) Why is there limited evidence of traditional pulmonary injury from blast in current military field epidemiology? (3) What are the primary blast brain injury mechanisms in humans? (4) If TBI can present with clinical symptoms similar to those of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), how do we clinically differentiate blast TBI from PTSD and other psychiatric conditions? (5) How do we scale experimental animal models to human response? The preponderance of the evidence from a combination of clinical practice and experimental models suggests that blast TBI from direct blast exposure occurs on the modern battlefield. Progress has been made in establishing injury risk functions in terms of blast overpressure time histories, and there is strong experimental evidence in animal models that mild brain injuries occur at blast intensities that are similar to the pulmonary injury threshold. Enhanced thoracic protection from ballistic protective body armor likely plays a role in the occurrence of blast TBI by preventing lung injuries at blast intensities that could cause TBI. Principal areas of uncertainty include the need for a more comprehensive injury assessment for mild blast injuries in humans, an improved understanding of blast TBI pathophysiology of blast TBI in animal models and humans, the relationship between clinical manifestations of PTSD and mild TBI from blunt or blast trauma including possible synergistic effects, and scaling between animals models and human exposure to blasts in wartime and terrorist attacks. Experimental methodologies, including location of the animal model relative to the shock or blast source, should be carefully designed to provide a realistic blast experiment with conditions comparable to blasts on humans. If traditional blast scaling is

  20. Blast noise classification with common sound level meter metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvengros, Robert M; Valente, Dan; Nykaza, Edward T; Vipperman, Jeffrey S

    2012-08-01

    A common set of signal features measurable by a basic sound level meter are analyzed, and the quality of information carried in subsets of these features are examined for their ability to discriminate military blast and non-blast sounds. The analysis is based on over 120 000 human classified signals compiled from seven different datasets. The study implements linear and Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) support vector machines (SVM) to classify blast sounds. Using the orthogonal centroid dimension reduction technique, intuition is developed about the distribution of blast and non-blast feature vectors in high dimensional space. Recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) is then used to eliminate features containing redundant information and rank features according to their ability to separate blasts from non-blasts. Finally, the accuracy of the linear and RBF SVM classifiers is listed for each of the experiments in the dataset, and the weights are given for the linear SVM classifier.

  1. Characterizing water-metal interfaces and machine learning potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryczko, Kevin

    In this thesis, we first discuss the fundamentals of ab initio electronic structure theory and density functional theory (DFT). We also discuss statistics related to computing thermodynamic averages of molecular dynamics (MD). We then use this theory to analyze and compare the structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of liquid water next to prototypical metals including platinum, graphite, and graphene. Our results are built on Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) generated using density functional theory (DFT) which explicitly include van der Waals (vdW) interactions within a first principles approach. All calculations reported use large simulation cells, allowing for an accurate treatment of the water-electrode interfaces. We have included vdW interactions through the use of the optB86b-vdW exchange correlation functional. Comparisons with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange correlation functional are also shown. We find an initial peak, due to chemisorption, in the density profile of the liquid water-Pt interface not seen in the liquid water-graphite interface, liquid watergraphene interface, nor interfaces studied previously. To further investigate this chemisorption peak, we also report differences in the electronic structure of single water molecules on both Pt and graphite surfaces. We find that a covalent bond forms between the single water molecule and the platinum surface, but not between the single water molecule and the graphite surface. We also discuss the effects that defects and dopants in the graphite and graphene surfaces have on the structure and dynamics of liquid water. Lastly, we introduce artificial neural networks (ANNs), and demonstrate how they can be used to machine learn electronic structure calculations. As a proof of principle, we show the success of an ANN potential energy surfaces for a dimer molecule with a Lennard-Jones potential.

  2. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Metallic Surface by Wire Electrical Discharge Machining for Seamless Roll-to-Roll Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young So

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal of a direct one-step method to fabricate a multi-scale superhydrophobic metallic seamless roll mold. The mold was fabricated using the wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM technique for a roll-to-roll imprinting application to produce a large superhydrophobic surface. Taking advantage of the exfoliating characteristic of the metallic surface, nano-sized surface roughness was spontaneously formed while manufacturing the micro-sized structure: that is, a dual-scale hierarchical structure was easily produced in a simple one-step fabrication with a large area on the aluminum metal surface. This hierarchical structure showed superhydrophobicity without chemical coating. A roll-type seamless mold for the roll-to-roll process was fabricated through engraving the patterns on the cylindrical substrate, thereby enabling to make a continuous film with superhydrophobicity.

  3. The Newest Machine Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yeong Seop; Choe, Byeong Do; Bang, Meong Sung

    2005-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of machine material with classification of machine material and selection of machine material, structure and connection of material, coagulation of metal and crystal structure, equilibrium diagram, properties of metal material, elasticity and plasticity, biopsy of metal, material test and nondestructive test. It also explains steel material such as heat treatment of steel, cast iron and cast steel, nonferrous metal materials, non metallic materials, and new materials.

  4. Effect of recycling blast furnace flue dust as pellets on the sintering performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Iron and Steel Company generates a great amount of blast furnace flue dust. The recovery of metals and carbon from this flue dust becomes a very important demand due to the increase of the price of coke breeze and the decrease of the primary source of metals. At the same time, it make the environment more safe by decreasing pollution. Introducing these dust fines in the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus, this study aims at investigating the production of pellets resulting from these fines, using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of iron ore. The sintering experiments were performed using flue dust as pellets as a substitute of coke breeze. The results revealed that, sintering properties such as inter strength increases with using the flue dust pellets, while productivity of both the sinter machine and sinter machine at blast furnace yard decreases. Also the vertical velocity of the sinter machine and the weight loss during the reduction of produced the sinter by hydrogen decrease.

  5. Confirmation of the decontamination ability using the dry blasting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izuka, Hirotaka; Tsuhara, Yuuki; Ito, Hajime; Fukuda, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yasuhiro; Kanamori, Yoji

    2017-01-01

    The decontamination method of metallic waste was considered to reduce the radioactive waste in decommissioning a nuclear power plant. Stainless steel occupies most for the material of the system equipment of PWR. The contamination by radioactive materials is stuck in the surface in the equipment as the metal oxide (e.g. chromium oxide, iron oxide). The method of efficient abrasion by the dry blasting device was considered to remove metal oxide from stainless steel. The kind of blasting abrasives material and the abrasive operation condition (the blasting angle, rate) were considered to investigate the abrasion ability to stainless steel. The abrasive condition which was appropriate abrasive ability was investigated and appropriate blasting abrasives was selected to stainless steel. The decontamination test by selected blasting abrasives and abrasive operation condition was performed using samples and the relation between abrasive rate and activity concentration was confirmed. The metallic radioactive waste was confirmed to be able to decontaminate to the clearance level. (author)

  6. Fabrication of a micro-hole array on metal foil by nanosecond pulsed laser beam machining using a cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Se Won; Jee, Won Young; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Janggil

    2015-01-01

    A novel laser beam machining (LBM) method is proposed to achieve higher precision and better quality beyond the limits of a commercialized nanosecond pulsed laser system. The use of a cover plate is found to be effective for the precision machining of a thin metal foil at micro scale. For verifying the capability of cover plate laser beam machining (c-LBM) technology, a 30 by 30 array of micro-holes was fabricated on 8 µm-thick stainless steel 304 (STS) foil. As a result, thermal deformation and cracks were significantly reduced in comparison with the results using LBM without a cover plate. The standard deviation of the inscribed and circumscribed circle of the holes with a diameter of 12 µm was reduced to 33% and 81%, respectively and the average roundness improved by 77%. Moreover, the smallest diameter obtainable by c-LBM in the given equipment was found to be 6.9 µm, which was 60% less than the minimum size hole by LBM without a cover plate. (technical note)

  7. Fabrication of Biochips with Micro Fluidic Channels by Micro End-milling and Powder Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sam Park

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available For microfabrications of biochips with micro fluidic channels, a large number of microfabrication techniques based on silicon or glass-based Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS technologies were proposed in the last decade. In recent years, for low cost and mass production, polymer-based microfabrication techniques by microinjection molding and micro hot embossing have been proposed. These techniques, which require a proper photoresist, mask, UV light exposure, developing, and electroplating as a preprocess, are considered to have some problems. In this study, we propose a new microfabrication technology which consists of micro end-milling and powder blasting. This technique could be directly applied to fabricate the metal mold without any preprocesses. The metal mold with micro-channels is machined by micro end-milling, and then, burrs generated in the end-milling process are removed by powder blasting. From the experimental results, micro end-milling combined with powder blasting could be applied effectively for fabrication of the injection mold of biochips with micro fluidic channels.

  8. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be isolated and insulated from power conductors, pipelines, and railroad tracks, and...

  9. Calculation of driling and blasting parameters in blasting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Dambov, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    In all mining technology drilling and blasting parameters and works are one of the main production processes at each mine. The parameters of drilling and blasting and explosives consumption per ton of blasting mass are define economic indicators of any blasting no matter for what purpose and where mining is performed. The calculation of rock blasting should always have in mind that the methodology of calculation of all drilling and blasting parameters in blasting performance are performed for...

  10. Implementations of BLAST for parallel computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jülich, A

    1995-02-01

    The BLAST sequence comparison programs have been ported to a variety of parallel computers-the shared memory machine Cray Y-MP 8/864 and the distributed memory architectures Intel iPSC/860 and nCUBE. Additionally, the programs were ported to run on workstation clusters. We explain the parallelization techniques and consider the pros and cons of these methods. The BLAST programs are very well suited for parallelization for a moderate number of processors. We illustrate our results using the program blastp as an example. As input data for blastp, a 799 residue protein query sequence and the protein database PIR were used.

  11. US Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor man-machine interface program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.; Change, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The US LMFBR Man-Machine Interface Program is supportive to and an integral part of the LMFBR Safety Program. This paper describes the goal and objectives of the program, and the necessary research and development efforts with a logical structure for the orderly and timely implementation of the prgoram. Current status and near-term and long-term priority activities are also summarized

  12. National machine guarding program: Part 2. Safety management in small metal fabrication enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, David L.; Yamin, Samuel C.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G.; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background Small manufacturing businesses often lack important safety programs. Many reasons have been set forth on why this has remained a persistent problem. Methods The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a nationwide intervention conducted in partnership with two workers' compensation insurers. Insurance safety consultants collected baseline data in 221 business using a 33?question safety management audit. Audits were completed during an interview with the business owner or manag...

  13. Windows .NET Network Distributed Basic Local Alignment Search Toolkit (W.ND-BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Melvin J

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BLAST is one of the most common and useful tools for Genetic Research. This paper describes a software application we have termed Windows .NET Distributed Basic Local Alignment Search Toolkit (W.ND-BLAST, which enhances the BLAST utility by improving usability, fault recovery, and scalability in a Windows desktop environment. Our goal was to develop an easy to use, fault tolerant, high-throughput BLAST solution that incorporates a comprehensive BLAST result viewer with curation and annotation functionality. Results W.ND-BLAST is a comprehensive Windows-based software toolkit that targets researchers, including those with minimal computer skills, and provides the ability increase the performance of BLAST by distributing BLAST queries to any number of Windows based machines across local area networks (LAN. W.ND-BLAST provides intuitive Graphic User Interfaces (GUI for BLAST database creation, BLAST execution, BLAST output evaluation and BLAST result exportation. This software also provides several layers of fault tolerance and fault recovery to prevent loss of data if nodes or master machines fail. This paper lays out the functionality of W.ND-BLAST. W.ND-BLAST displays close to 100% performance efficiency when distributing tasks to 12 remote computers of the same performance class. A high throughput BLAST job which took 662.68 minutes (11 hours on one average machine was completed in 44.97 minutes when distributed to 17 nodes, which included lower performance class machines. Finally, there is a comprehensive high-throughput BLAST Output Viewer (BOV and Annotation Engine components, which provides comprehensive exportation of BLAST hits to text files, annotated fasta files, tables, or association files. Conclusion W.ND-BLAST provides an interactive tool that allows scientists to easily utilizing their available computing resources for high throughput and comprehensive sequence analyses. The install package for W.ND-BLAST is

  14. Application of Carbon Composite Bricks for Blast Furnace Hearth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Haibin; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Jianliang; Zhao, Yongan; Jiao, Kexin

    Traditional refractory materials for blast furnace hearth lining are mainly composed of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. However, these materials can't meet the demands for long service life design of blast furnaces. In this paper, a new refractory called carbon composite brick (CCB) was introduced, which combined the advantages of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. In this case, the resistance of the CCB against corrosion was equal to the ceramic cup and the thermal conductivity of the CCB was equal to carbon bricks. From the results of more than 20 blast furnaces, the CCB could be well used in small blast furnaces and large blast furnaces. In the bad condition of low grade burden and high smelting intensity, the CCB gave full play to the role of cooling system, and effectively resisted the erosion of hot metal to improve the service life of blast furnaces.

  15. Crystal nucleation in metallic alloys using x-ray radiography and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteta, Carlos; Lempitsky, Victor

    2018-01-01

    The crystallization of solidifying Al-Cu alloys over a wide range of conditions was studied in situ by synchrotron x-ray radiography, and the data were analyzed using a computer vision algorithm trained using machine learning. The effect of cooling rate and solute concentration on nucleation undercooling, crystal formation rate, and crystal growth rate was measured automatically for thousands of separate crystals, which was impossible to achieve manually. Nucleation undercooling distributions confirmed the efficiency of extrinsic grain refiners and gave support to the widely assumed free growth model of heterogeneous nucleation. We show that crystallization occurred in temporal and spatial bursts associated with a solute-suppressed nucleation zone. PMID:29662954

  16. Charting the energy landscape of metal/organic interfaces via machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbela, Michael; Hörmann, Lukas; Jeindl, Andreas; Obersteiner, Veronika; Hofmann, Oliver T.

    2018-04-01

    The rich polymorphism exhibited by inorganic/organic interfaces is a major challenge for materials design. In this work, we present a method to efficiently explore the potential energy surface and predict the formation energies of polymorphs and defects. This is achieved by training a machine learning model on a list of only 100 candidate structures that are evaluated via dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We demonstrate the power of this approach for tetracyanoethylene on Ag(100) and explain the anisotropic ordering that is observed experimentally.

  17. Novel in situ mechanical testers to enable integrated metal surface micro-machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follstaedt, David Martin; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-10-01

    The ability to integrate metal and semiconductor micro-systems to perform highly complex functions, such as RF-MEMS, will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity, reflectivity, and mechanical properties. Three issues have prevented the proliferation of these systems: (1) warpage of active components due to through-thickness stress gradients, (2) limited component lifetimes due to fatigue, and (3) low yield strength. To address these issues, we focus on developing and implementing techniques to enable the direct study of the stress and microstructural evolution during electrodeposition and mechanical loading. The study of stress during electrodeposition of metal thin films is being accomplished by integrating a multi-beam optical stress sensor into an electrodeposition chamber. By coupling the in-situ stress information with ex-situ microstructural analysis, a scientific understanding of the sources of stress during electrodeposition will be obtained. These results are providing a foundation upon which to develop a stress-gradient-free thin film directly applicable to the production of freestanding metal structures. The issues of fatigue and yield strength are being addressed by developing novel surface micromachined tensile and bend testers, by interferometry, and by TEM analysis. The MEMS tensile tester has a ''Bosch'' etched hole to allow for direct viewing of the microstructure in a TEM before, during, and after loading. This approach allows for the quantitative measurements of stress-strain relations while imaging dislocation motion, and determination of fracture nucleation in samples with well-known fatigue/strain histories. This technique facilitates the determination of the limits for classical deformation mechanisms and helps to formulate a new understanding of the mechanical response as the grain sizes are refined to a nanometer scale. Together, these studies will result in a science

  18. National machine guarding program: Part 2. Safety management in small metal fabrication enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Samuel C.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G.; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Background Small manufacturing businesses often lack important safety programs. Many reasons have been set forth on why this has remained a persistent problem. Methods The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a nationwide intervention conducted in partnership with two workers' compensation insurers. Insurance safety consultants collected baseline data in 221 business using a 33‐question safety management audit. Audits were completed during an interview with the business owner or manager. Results Most measures of safety management improved with an increasing number of employees. This trend was particularly strong for lockout/tagout. However, size was only significant for businesses without a safety committee. Establishments with a safety committee scored higher (55% vs. 36%) on the safety management audit compared with those lacking a committee (P management programs were frequently absent. A safety committee appears to be a more important factor than business size in accounting for differences in outcome measures. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:1184–1193, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26345591

  19. National Machine Guarding Program: Part 2. Safety management in small metal fabrication enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David L; Yamin, Samuel C; Brosseau, Lisa M; Xi, Min; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G; Stanley, Rodney

    2015-11-01

    Small manufacturing businesses often lack important safety programs. Many reasons have been set forth on why this has remained a persistent problem. The National Machine Guarding Program (NMGP) was a nationwide intervention conducted in partnership with two workers' compensation insurers. Insurance safety consultants collected baseline data in 221 business using a 33-question safety management audit. Audits were completed during an interview with the business owner or manager. Most measures of safety management improved with an increasing number of employees. This trend was particularly strong for lockout/tagout. However, size was only significant for businesses without a safety committee. Establishments with a safety committee scored higher (55% vs. 36%) on the safety management audit compared with those lacking a committee (P < 0.0001). Critical safety management programs were frequently absent. A safety committee appears to be a more important factor than business size in accounting for differences in outcome measures. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  1. Experimental improvement of the technology of cutting of high-pressure hoses with metal braid on hand cutting machine

    OpenAIRE

    Karpenko, Mykola; Bogdevicius, Marijonas; Prentkovskis, Olegas

    2016-01-01

    In the article the review of the problem of improvement of technology of high pressure hoses cutting on the hand cutting machines is analyzed. Different methods of cutting of high pressure hoses into the billets are overviewed and the quality of edge cuts of hoses is analyzed. The comparison of treatment on automatic cutting machines and on hand cutting machines is carried out. Different experimental techniques of improvement of the quality of edges cutting of high pressure hoses are prese...

  2. Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement for the design and prototyping of a machine for laser treatment of metallic vacuum chamber walls for electron cloud mitigation at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement for the design and prototyping of a machine for laser treatment of metallic vacuum chamber walls for electron cloud mitigation at the High Luminosity LHC

  3. Surface impurity removal from DIII-D graphite tiles by boron carbide grit blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.L.; Hollerbach, M.A.; Holtrop, K.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Taylor, P.L.; West, W.P.

    1993-11-01

    During the latter half of 1992, the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics (GA) underwent several modifications of its interior. One of the major tasks involved the removal of accumulated metallic impurities from the surface of the graphite tiles used to line the plasma facing surfaces inside of the tokamak. Approximately 1500 graphite tiles and 100 boron nitride tiles from the tokamak were cleaned to remove the metallic impurities. The cleaning process consisted of several steps: the removed graphite tiles were permanently marked, surface blasted using boron carbide (B 4 C) grit media (approximately 37 μm. diam.), ultrasonically cleaned in ethanol to remove loose dust, and outgassed at 1000 degrees C. Tests were done using, graphite samples and different grit blaster settings to determine the optimum propellant and abrasive media pressures to remove a graphite layer approximately 40-50 μm deep and yet produce a reasonably smooth finish. EDX measurements revealed that the blasting technique reduced the surface Ni, Cr, and Fe impurity levels to those of virgin graphite. In addition to the surface impurity removal, tritium monitoring was performed throughout the cleaning process. A bubbler system was set up to monitor the tritium level in the exhaust gas from the grit blaster unit. Surface wipes were also performed on over 10% of the tiles. Typical surface tritium concentrations of the tiles were reduced from about 500 dpm/100 cm 2 to less than 80 dpm/100 cm 2 following the cleaning. This tile conditioning, and the installation of additional graphite tiles to cover a high fraction of the metallic plasma facing surfaces, has substantially reduced metallic impurities in the plasma discharges which has allowed rapid recovery from a seven-month machine opening and regimes of enhanced plasma energy confinement to be more readily obtained. Safety issues concerning blaster operator exposure to carcinogenic metals and radioactive tritium will also be addressed

  4. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 11: Computer-Aided Manufacturing & Advanced CNC, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This document is intended to help education and training institutions deliver the Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) curriculum to a variety of individuals and organizations. MAST consists of industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for 15 occupational specialty areas within the U.S. machine tool and metals-related…

  5. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    in a canvas harness. The harness was further supported by a steel frame which was suspended from a metal beam (3.7 m off the ground) mounted on...direction of the wave propagation (Figure 5). After proper alignment of the head with respect to the center of the C4 charge, the steel frame was...further tied to four hooks cemented to the concrete ground with straps to prevent excessive motion during the blast exposure. The intensity of the two

  6. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando, E-mail: bva@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Neves; Elton Silva; Silva, Sidiney Nascimento [Companhia Siderugica Nacional (CSN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10{sup 6} ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  7. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10"6 ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  8. Data management and communication networks for Man-Machine Interface System in Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor : its functionality and design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Kyung Ho; Park, Gun Ok; Suh, Sang Moon; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kwon, Kee Choon

    1998-01-01

    The DAta management and Communication NETworks(DACONET), which it is designed as a subsystem for Man-Machine Interface System of Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor(KALIMER MMIS) and advanced design concept is approached, is described. The DACONET has its roles of providing the real-time data transmission and communication paths between MMIS systems, providing the quality data for protection, monitoring and control of KALIMER and logging the static and dynamic behavioral data during KALIMER operation. The DACONET is characterized as the distributed real-time system architecture with high performance. Future direction, in which advanced technology is being continually applied to Man-Machine Interface System development and communication networks of KALIMER MMIS

  9. Data management and communication networks for Man-Machine Interface System in Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor : its functionality and design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Kyung Ho; Park, Gun Ok; Suh, Sang Moon; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kwon, Kee Choon [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The DAta management and Communication NETworks(DACONET), which it is designed as a subsystem for Man-Machine Interface System of Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor(KALIMER MMIS) and advanced design concept is approached, is described. The DACONET has its roles of providing the real-time data transmission and communication paths between MMIS systems, providing the quality data for protection, monitoring and control of KALIMER and logging the static and dynamic behavioral data during KALIMER operation. The DACONET is characterized as the distributed real-time system architecture with high performance. Future direction, in which advanced technology is being continually applied to Man-Machine Interface System development and communication networks of KALIMER MMIS.

  10. Data management and communication networks for man-machine interface system in Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor : Its functionality and design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Kyung Ho; Park, Gun Ok; Suh, Sang Moon; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kwon, Kee Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    The DAta management and COmmunication NETworks(DACONET), which it is designed as a subsystem for Man-Machine Interface System of Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor (KALIMER MMIS) and advanced design concept is approached, is described. The DACONET has its roles of providing the real-time data transmission and communication paths between MMIS systems, providing the quality data for protection, monitoring and control of KALIMER and logging the static and dynamic behavioral data during KALIMER operation. The DACONET is characterized as the distributed real-time system architecture with high performance. Future direction, in which advanced technology is being continually applied to Man-Machine Interface System development of Nuclear Power Plants, will be considered for designing data management and communication networks of KALIMER MMIS. 9 refs., 1 fig. (Author)

  11. Data management and communication networks for man-machine interface system in Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor : Its functionality and design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Kyung Ho; Park, Gun Ok; Suh, Sang Moon; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kwon, Kee Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The DAta management and COmmunication NETworks(DACONET), which it is designed as a subsystem for Man-Machine Interface System of Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor (KALIMER MMIS) and advanced design concept is approached, is described. The DACONET has its roles of providing the real-time data transmission and communication paths between MMIS systems, providing the quality data for protection, monitoring and control of KALIMER and logging the static and dynamic behavioral data during KALIMER operation. The DACONET is characterized as the distributed real-time system architecture with high performance. Future direction, in which advanced technology is being continually applied to Man-Machine Interface System development of Nuclear Power Plants, will be considered for designing data management and communication networks of KALIMER MMIS. 9 refs., 1 fig. (Author)

  12. Seismic-safe conditions of blasting near pressure pipe-lines during power installation construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolij, N.I.; Nikitin, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Seismic-safe conditions for performing drill-blasting operations in the vicinity of underground gas pipelines when constructing thermal- or nuclear power plants are discussed. It is shown that, for the determination of seismic-safe parameters, of drill-blasting operations, the maximum permissible level of seismic loads should be specified taking into account the mechanical properties of the pipeline.metal, structural parameters of the gas pipeline and the pressure of the medium transported. Besides, the seismic effect of the blast should be considered with regard to particular conditions of blasting and rock properties. The equations and diagrams used in the calculation are given

  13. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  14. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  15. 3D FE simulation of semi-finishing machining of Ti6Al4V additively manufactured by direct metal laser sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, Stano; Rinaldi, Sergio; Raso, Antonio; Bordin, Alberto; Bruschi, Stefania; Umbrello, Domenico

    2018-05-01

    The Additive Manufacturing techniques are gaining more and more interest in various industrial fields due to the possibility of drastically reduce the material waste during the production processes, revolutionizing the standard scheme and strategies of the manufacturing processes. However, the metal parts shape produced, frequently do not satisfy the tolerances as well as the surface quality requirements. During the design phase, the finite element simulation results a fundamental tool to help the engineers in the correct decision of the most suitable process parameters, especially in manufacturing processes, in order to produce products of high quality. The aim of this work is to develop a 3D finite element model of semi-finishing turning operation of Ti6Al4V, produced via Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). A customized user sub-routine was built-up in order to model the mechanical behavior of the material under machining operations to predict the main fundamental variables as cutting forces and temperature. Moreover, the machining induced alterations are also studied by the finite element model developed.

  16. Effects of sulfur addition on pitting corrosion and machinability behavior of super duplex stainless steel containing rare earth metals: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Soon-Hyeok; Kim, Soon-Tae; Lee, In-Sung; Park, Yong-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The mechanisms on the effects of rare earth metals (REM) and sulfur (S) additions on the initiation and propagation of pitting corrosion and machinabillity of a super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) were elucidated → It was found that, in consideration of the ratio of lifetime (the resistance to pitting corrosion) to cost (machining and raw material), a costly austenitic stainless steel with high Ni , medium Mo and low N can be replaced by the high S and REM added SDSS with 7 wt.% Ni-4 wt% Mo-0.3 wt.% N → The resistance to pitting corrosion of the tested super duplex stainless steel was affected by the type of inclusions, the preferential interface areas between inclusions and the substrate, and the PREN difference between the γ-phase and the α-phase for the initiation and propagation of the pitting corrosion. - Abstract: To elucidate the effects of sulfur addition on pitting corrosion and machinability behavior of alloys containing rare earth metals, a potentiostatic polarization test, a critical pitting temperature test, a SEM-EDS analysis of inclusions, and a tool life test were conducted. As sulfur content increased, the resistance to pitting corrosion decreased due to the formation of numerous manganese sulfides deteriorating the corrosion resistance and an increase in the preferential interface areas for the initiation of the pitting corrosion. With an increase in sulfur content, the tool life increased due to the lubricating films of manganese sulfides adhering to tool surface.

  17. The BLAST experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasell, D.; Botto, T.; van den Brand, J.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The detector and experimental program were designed to study, in a systematic manner, the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems.

  18. Size-selective pulmonary dose indices for metal-working fluid aerosols in machining and grinding operations in the automobile manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskie, S R; Smith, T J; Hallock, M F; Hammond, S K; Rosenthal, F; Eisen, E A; Kriebel, D; Greaves, I A

    1994-01-01

    The current metal-working fluid exposures at three locations that manufacture automotive parts were assessed in conjunction with epidemiological studies of the mortality and respiratory morbidity experiences of workers at these plants. A rationale is presented for selecting and characterizing epidemiologic exposure groups in this environment. More than 475 full-shift personal aerosol samples were taken using a two-stage personal cascade impactor with median size cut-offs of 9.8 microns and 3.5 microns, plus a backup filter. For a sample of 403 workers exposed to aerosols of machining or grinding fluids, the mean total exposure was 706 micrograms/m3 (standard error (SE) = 21 micrograms/m3). Among 72 assemblers unexposed to machining fluids, the mean total exposure was 187 +/- 10 (SE) micrograms/m3. An analysis of variance model identified factors significantly associated with exposure level and permitted estimates of exposure for workers in the unsampled machine type/metal-working fluid groups. Comparison of the results obtained from personal impactor samples with predictions from an aerosol-deposition model for the human respiratory tract showed high correlation. However, the amount collected on the impactor stage underestimates extrathoracic deposition and overestimates tracheobronchial and alveolar deposition, as calculated by the deposition model. When both the impactor concentration and the deposition-model concentration were used to estimate cumulative thoracic concentrations for the worklives of a subset of auto workers, there was no significant difference in the rank order of the subjects' cumulative concentration. However, the cumulative impactor concentration values were significantly higher than the cumulative deposition-model concentration values for the subjects.

  19. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  20. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  1. Obtainment, machining and wear of metal matrix composites processed by powder metallurgy; Obtencao, usinagem e desgaste de materiais compositos de matriz metalica processados via metalurgia do po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Edilson Rosa Barbosa de. E-mail: erbjesus@usp.br

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was the obtainment of metal matrix composites (MMC) by the route of powder metallurgy, and the valuation of these materials with relation to their machining and wear characteristics. Firstly, were obtained pure commercial aluminium matrix composites materials, with 5, 10 and 15% volumetric fraction of silicon carbide particles. Was also obtained a material without reinforcement particles in order to verify by comparison, the influence of addition of reinforcement particles. The obtained materials were characterized physics (hydrostatic density), mechanics (hardness and tensile tests) and microstructurally (optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy). The results showed a homogeneous distribution of reinforcement particles in the composite, and improvement in the mechanical properties, mainly tensile strength (UTS) in comparison to the unreinforced material. After, tests were made to verify the materials behavior during machining and to check the performance of several tool materials (cemented carbide, ceramics and polycrystalline diamond). In these tests, values of the cutting force were measured by instrumented tool-holders. Phenomena such as tool wear, built-up edge formation and mechanism of chip formation were also observed and evaluated. The results from the cemented carbide tool tests, were utilised for the machinability index determination of each material. These results were applied to the Taylor equation and the equation constants for each material and test conditions were determined. The results showed that the inclusion of silicon carbide particles made extremely difficult the machining of the composites, and only with diamond tool, satisfactory results were obtained. At last, wear tests were performed to verify the influence of the reinforcement particles in the characteristics of wear resistance of the materials. The results obtained were utilized in the wear coefficient determination for each material. The

  2. Blasting agents and initiation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2000-01-01

    Although blasting differs between and within each industry, as a whole, the mines and quarries are making a shift from a purely ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) mixture to a blend of emulsion and ANFO on a straight emulsion. Non-electric (shock tube) initiation systems have provided a viable alternative to the electric detonator (blasting cap). Explosives manufacturers are seeing their roles changes to being blasting contractors or consultants rather than just suppliers. The article discusses these trends and gives examples of typical blasting techniques and amounts of blasting agent used at large USA surface coal mines. Electric caps are still used in blasting underground coal. The Ensign Bickford Co. (EBCo) is developing electronic detonators and has been field testing an electronic initiator, the DIGIDET detonator, for the last four years. When commercially available, electronic detonators will be accurate but will come with a hefty price tag. 2 photos.

  3. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  4. Blasting technology advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    Nitroglycerine explosives are increasingly giving way to emulsions and low cost Anfo compositions, the latter sometimes incorporating emulsion in order to improve water resistance and performance. The aim is to produce an explosive which is extremely efficient, relatively safe and can be tailored to meet user requirements. Discussion is presented of emulsion delivery systems, initiation systems, electronic detonators, computer blast modelling, directional explosives, underground automation, and the development of Soviet explosives. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeja, L. F.; Gonzalez, R.; Alfonso, A.; Barbes, M. F.

    2003-01-01

    Criteria developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid. (Author) 31 refs

  6. Morphing Metal and Elastomer Bicontinuous Foams for Reversible Stiffness, Shape Memory, and Self-Healing Soft Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meerbeek, Ilse M; Mac Murray, Benjamin C; Kim, Jae Woo; Robinson, Sanlin S; Zou, Perry X; Silberstein, Meredith N; Shepherd, Robert F

    2016-04-13

    A metal-elastomer-foam composite that varies in stiffness, that can change shape and store shape memory, that self-heals, and that welds into monolithic structures from smaller components is presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Economic lifetime of a drilling machine:a case study on mining industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hamodi, Hussan; Lundberg, Jan; Jonsson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Underground mines use many different types of machinery duringthe drift mining processes of drilling, charging, blasting, loading, scaling andbolting. Drilling machines play a critical role in the mineral extraction processand thus are important economically. However, as the machines age, theirefficiency and effectiveness decrease, negatively affecting productivity andprofitability and increasing total cost. Hence, the economic replacementlifetime of the machine is a key performance indicator...

  8. Numerical simulation of muzzle blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler-Street, M.

    2014-01-01

    Structural design methods for naval ships include environmental, operational and military load cases. One of the operational loads acting on a typical naval vessel is the muzzle blast from a gun. Simulating the muzzle blast load acting on a ship structure with CFD and ALE methods leads to large

  9. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  10. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  11. Theory and practice in machining systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes machining technology from a wider perspective by considering it within the machining space. Machining technology is one of the metal removal activities that occur at the machining point within the machining space. The machining space consists of structural configuration entities, e.g., the main spindle, the turret head and attachments such the chuck and mandrel, and also the form-generating movement of the machine tool itself. The book describes fundamental topics, including the form-generating movement of the machine tool and the important roles of the attachments, before moving on to consider the supply of raw materials into the machining space, and the discharge of swarf from it, and then machining technology itself. Building on the latest research findings “Theory and Practice in Machining System” discusses current challenges in machining. Thus, with the inclusion of introductory and advanced topics, the book can be used as a guide and survey of machining technology for students an...

  12. Control blasting of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Tetsuo

    1981-01-01

    With the need of decommissioning nuclear power plants, it is urgently required to establish its methods and standards. In Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., experimental feasibility studies have been made on explosive demolition method i.e. the controlled blasting for the massive concrete structures peculiar to nuclear power plants, considering low radiation exposure, safety and high efficiency. As such, four techniques of line drilling, cushion blasting, pre-splitting and guide hole blasting, respectively, are described with photographs. Assuming the selective demolition of activated concrete structures, the series of experiments showed the good results of clear-cut surfaces and the effect of blasting was confined properly. Moreover, the scattering of debris in blasting was able to be entirely prevented by the use of rubber belts. The generation of gas and dust was also little due to the small amount of the charge used. (J.P.N.)

  13. NCBI BLAST+ integrated into Galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Peter J A; Chilton, John M; Grüning, Björn; Johnson, James E; Soranzo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The NCBI BLAST suite has become ubiquitous in modern molecular biology and is used for small tasks such as checking capillary sequencing results of single PCR products, genome annotation or even larger scale pan-genome analyses. For early adopters of the Galaxy web-based biomedical data analysis platform, integrating BLAST into Galaxy was a natural step for sequence comparison workflows. The command line NCBI BLAST+ tool suite was wrapped for use within Galaxy. Appropriate datatypes were defined as needed. The integration of the BLAST+ tool suite into Galaxy has the goal of making common BLAST tasks easy and advanced tasks possible. This project is an informal international collaborative effort, and is deployed and used on Galaxy servers worldwide. Several examples of applications are described here.

  14. Construction of environmental risk score beyond standard linear models using machine learning methods: application to metal mixtures, oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease in NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Kyun; Zhao, Zhangchen; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2017-09-26

    There is growing concern of health effects of exposure to pollutant mixtures. We initially proposed an Environmental Risk Score (ERS) as a summary measure to examine the risk of exposure to multi-pollutants in epidemiologic research considering only pollutant main effects. We expand the ERS by consideration of pollutant-pollutant interactions using modern machine learning methods. We illustrate the multi-pollutant approaches to predicting a marker of oxidative stress (gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)), a common disease pathway linking environmental exposure and numerous health endpoints. We examined 20 metal biomarkers measured in urine or whole blood from 6 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004 to 2013-2014, n = 9664). We randomly split the data evenly into training and testing sets and constructed ERS's of metal mixtures for GGT using adaptive elastic-net with main effects and pairwise interactions (AENET-I), Bayesian additive regression tree (BART), Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR), and Super Learner in the training set and evaluated their performances in the testing set. We also evaluated the associations between GGT-ERS and cardiovascular endpoints. ERS based on AENET-I performed better than other approaches in terms of prediction errors in the testing set. Important metals identified in relation to GGT include cadmium (urine), dimethylarsonic acid, monomethylarsonic acid, cobalt, and barium. All ERS's showed significant associations with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and hypertension. For hypertension, one SD increase in each ERS from AENET-I, BART and SuperLearner were associated with odds ratios of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.15, 1.38), 1.17 (1.09, 1.25), and 1.30 (1.20, 1.40), respectively. ERS's showed non-significant positive associations with mortality outcomes. ERS is a useful tool for characterizing cumulative risk from pollutant mixtures, with accounting for statistical challenges such as high

  15. Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar Kura; Kalpalatha Kambham; Sivaramakrishnan Sangameswaran; Sandhya Potana [University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Blast from the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    1996-02-01

    Forget dynamite or hydraulic and mechanical drills. Industrial and federal researchers have started boring holes with rocket fuel. In a cooperative arrangement between Sandia National Laboratory, Global Environmental Solutions, and Universal Tech Corp., scientists and engineers extracted fuel from 200 rocket motors and used it as a mining explosive. In a demonstration completed last fall, researchers used 4950 kg of solid rocket propellant to move more than 22,500 metric tons of rock from the Lone Star Quarry in Prairie, Oklahoma. They found that the fuel improved blast energy and detonation velocity over traditional explosives, and it required fewer drill holes.

  17. Trouble shooting problem blasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konya, K.D. [Society of Explosive Engineers, Montville, OH (United States)

    1996-02-01

    There have been many occurrences of water-gel or emulsion explosives or heavy Anfo`s (ammonium nitrate and fuel oil) either not detonating in some blast holes in surface coal mining operations, or producing yellow or reddish-brown fumes upon reaction. The explosives rely on entrapped gas to detonate properly. It is important to control the size of the bubble and the dispersion of gas bubbles throughout the explosive. The article discusses and compares the use of microspheres and of gassing agents for detonation control.

  18. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Romney C; Fleming, Mark; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Gordon, Wade T; Nanos, George P; Charlton, Michael T; Ficke, James R

    2012-01-01

    The severe Dismounted Complex Blast Injury (DCBI) is characterized by high-energy injuries to the bilateral lower extremities (usually proximal transfemoral amputations) and/or upper extremity (usually involving the non-dominant side), in addition to open pelvic injuries, genitourinary, and abdominal trauma. Initial resuscitation and multidisciplinary surgical management appear to be the keys to survival. Definitive treatment follows general principals of open wound management and includes decontamination through aggressive and frequent debridement, hemorrhage control, viable tissue preservation, and appropriate timing of wound closure. These devastating injuries are associated with paradoxically favorable survival rates, but associated injuries and higher amputation levels lead to more difficult reconstructive challenges.

  19. The use of computer blast simulations to improve blast quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favreau, R.F.; Kuzyk, G.W.; Babulic, P.J.; Tienkamp, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is constructing an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) as part of a comprehensive program to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in crystalline rock formations. Careful blasting methods have been used to minimize damage to the excavation surfaces. Good wall quality is desirable in any excavation. In excavations required for nuclear waste disposal, the objective will be to minimize blast-induced fractures which may complicate the sealing requirements necessary to control subsequent movement of groundwater around a sealed disposal vault. The construction of the URL has provided an opportunity for the development of controlled blasting methods, especially for drilling accuracy and optimization of explosive loads in the perimeter and cushion holes. The work has been assisted by the use of blast simulations with the mathematical model Blaspa. This paper reviews the results of a recent project to develop a controlled method of full-face blasting, and compares the observed field results with the results of a blast simulator called Blaspa. Good agreement is found between the two, and the Blaspa results indicate quantitatively how the blasting may induce damage in the final excavation surface. In particular, the rock in the final wall may be stressed more severely by the cushion holes than by the perimeter holes. Bootleg of the rock between the perimeter and cushion rows occurs when the burst-out velocity imparted to it by the explosive loads in the perimeter holes is inadequate. In practice, these findings indicate that quantitative rock stress and rock burst-out velocity criteria can be established to minimize wall damage and bootleg. Thus, blast simulations become an efficient way to design controlled blasting and to optimize quality of the excavation surface

  20. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  1. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  2. Centrifugal shot blast system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997

  3. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO 2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO 2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO 2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  4. Influence of thermal charge preparation on coke comminution under blast-furnace operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-09-01

    Reactions of coke in the blast furnace are determined mainly by the nature of the coke itself which depends on the coal properties, its preparation and the coking conditions. In the blast furnace the coke reacts with alkali and alkaline earth metals in the burden. Preheated coal charges were found to absorb far less sodium and potassium carbonates than a conventional moist charge over an equivalent period, due to the smaller pore volume available.

  5. Tunnel boring machine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, K.K.; McDonald, R.; Saunders, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that characterization of Yucca Mountain for a potential repository requires construction of an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Mechanical excavating methods have been proposed for construction of the ESF as they offer a number of advantages over drilling and blasting at the Yucca Mountain site, including; less ground disturbance and therefore a potential for less adverse effects on the integrity of the site, creation of a more stable excavation cross section requiring less ground support, and an inherently safer and cleaner working environment. The tunnel boring machine (TBM) provides a proven technology for excavating the welded and unwelded Yucca Mountain tuffs. The access ramps and main underground tunnels form the largest part of the ESF underground construction work, and have been designed for excavation by TBM

  6. DNA-based machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  7. Optimization the machining parameters by using VIKOR and Entropy Weight method during EDM process of Al–18% SiCp Metal matrix composit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Bhuyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to optimize the process parameters by combined approach of VIKOR and Entropy weight measurement method during Electrical discharge machining (EDM process of Al-18wt.%SiCp metal matrix composite (MMC. The central composite design (CCD method is considered to evaluate the effect of three process parameters; namely pulse on time (Ton, peak current (Ip and flushing pressure (Fp on the responses like material removal rate (MRR, tool wear rate (TWR, Radial over cut (ROC and surface roughness (Ra. The Entropy weight measurement method evaluates the individual weights of each response and, using VIKOR method, the multi-objective responses are optimized to get a single numerical index known as VIKOR Index. Then the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA technique is used to determine the significance of the process parameters on the VIKOR Index. Finally, the result of the VIKOR Indexed is validated by conformation test using the liner mathematical model equation develop by responses surface methodology to identify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. EDM machinability of SiCw/Al composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramulu, M.; Taya, M.

    1989-01-01

    Machinability of high temperature composites was investigated. Target materials, 15 and 25 vol pct SiC whisker-2124 aluminum composites, were machined by electrodischarge sinker machining and diamond saw. The machined surfaces of these metal matrix composites were examined by SEM and profilometry to determine the surface finish. Microhardness measurements were also performed on the as-machined composites.

  9. Development of plastic media blasting device for stud bolt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihisa, Y.; Miyashita, T.

    1999-01-01

    Plastic media blasting is a mechanical cleaning method for removing paint, rust and/or anti-galling material etc on the surface of metal without damaging the metal surface. The method is suitable for cleaning the surface of reusable elements and parts such as bolts and nuts. Anti-galling material such as molybdenum disulfide is applied to fastening stud bolts used for the steam turbine rotor casing. It is necessary to remove this material when new anti-galling material is to be applied. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Co., and Morikawa Industries Corp., have developed a plastic media blasting device to clean the surface of stud bolt screw threads installed in the facility such as lower casing of the turbine. This paper reports the outline of the results. (author)

  10. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  11. Histomorphometric and removal torque analysis for TiO2-blasted titanium implants. An experimental study on dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Nimb, L; Hjörting-Hansen, E

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the anchorage of TiO2-blasted screw and cylindrical implants with conventionally used machine-produced screw and cylindrical implants inserted immediately in extraction sockets on dogs. 6 adult mongrel dogs had 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars extracted...... bilaterally and 24 commercial pure titanium implants were placed immediately in extraction sockets and covered with mucoperiosteum. Each dog had inserted 4 implants: 1 screw implant and 1 cylindrical implant blasted with titanium-dioxide-particles; 1 screw implant and 1 cylindrical implant with machine...

  12. The use of computer blast simulations to improve blast quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favreau, R.F.; Kuzzyk, G.W.; Babulic, P.J.; Morin, R.A.; Tienkamp, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    An underground research laboratory (URL) has been constructed as part of a comprehensive program to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in deep crystalline rock formations. Careful blasting methods have been used to minimize damage to the excavation surfaces. This paper reviews the results of the program to develop controlled blasting for the full-face method, comparing the field observed results achieved with the simulated theoretical results. The simulated results indicate how the blasting may damage the excavation surface. Results suggest that the rock around the final wall is stressed more severely by the cushion holes than by the perimeter holes and that bootleg of the rock between the perimeter and cushion rows occurs when the burst-out velocity imparted to it by the explosive loads in the perimeter holes is inadequate

  13. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Cullis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  14. BLEVE blast by expansion-controlled evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, A.C. van den; Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a new method to calculate the blast effects originating from an exploding vessel of liquefied gas. Adequate blast calculation requires full knowledge of the blast source characteristics, that is, the release and subsequent evaporation rate of the flashing liquid. Because the

  15. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires shall be... used between the blasting cable and detonator circuitry shall— (1) Be undamaged; (2) Be well insulated...

  16. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  17. Tool wear and breakage monitoring in machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madl, J.

    1992-01-01

    Risk minimization of metal cutting operations is one of the main problems of metal cutting technology. This paper describes some aspects in monitoring and control of machining processes. Tool monitoring is the fokus of machining process monitoring. Tool breakage and tool life recognition are the main problems of tool monitoring. All problems of this type of monitoring have not yet been fully solved. (orig.)

  18. Control buildings for blast resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    Offers advice on interior design for blast-resistant control buildings. Suggests that for the comfort and safety of occupants, special attention must be paid to internal finishes and color schemes. Considers external treatment (e.g. panels, cladding fixings, thermal insulation), air intakes and exhausts, internal finishes (e.g. stud lining method), and internal walls and partitions. Presents diagrams showing construction method for a control building; elimination of ''cold bridge'' at eaves level; staggering door openings to minimize blast effects; and flexure of concrete walls without affecting the inner lining.

  19. Porcine head response to blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  20. Water in the blast hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilshaw, S.R. [Pilshaw Associates, KS (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Water in the blast area is a considerable problem in US opencast coal mining. While gelatin dynamite was reasonably water resistant, Anfo is not. All potential solutions to this problem: the use of Anfo and emulsion (Heavy Anfo), pumping, draining, and the use of water bags, involve considerable extra cost. With small amounts of water an alternative solution has been formulated: the use of a self inflating gas bag to exclude water, and loading the Anfo from the water line up to the stemming level of the blasthole. Quite substantial water columns may be sealed off in this manner, with little or no deleterious effect on blast effects.

  1. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  2. FEATURES OF DRILLING-AND-BLASTING AT CONSTRUCTION OF BESKIDSKIY TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this article it is necessary to analyze the possibility of developing technology and increasing its efficiency during the Beskidskiy tunnel construction in difficult engineering and geological conditions. Methodology. The authors have performed analysis of the technological level of mining and construction works, new technique, equipment and production. One of the important issues of blasting operation is to ensure the seismic safety, acting at a distance of 30 m in the axes of single-track tunnel, as the distance to it will be 20 m from the nearest charge in the laying tunnel. This problem was solved by applying the combined blasting of blast-hole charges with delay-action and long-delay ways. Herewith the total mass of charges in the stope was divided into three groups, in which the first group is exploded by short-delay firing with, and the second one is exploded by short-delay firing too with intervals of 200…400 ms, the third is exploded by long-delay blasting at intervals of 500…10000 ms. The combined blasting of short-delay charges and delay action ones let significantly reduce seismic action at a mass explosion of charges when driving of double-track railway tunnel of a large cross-section. Findings. The paper presents the developed technology model, describing dependence of the machines from engineering and geological conditions. The methodology of drilling and blasting works at the construction of the tunnel callote and stross as well as a technique of arrangement determination and intervals of shot-delay and delay blasting of blasthole explosive charges was developed. Maximum permissible concentration of gases and vapours at blasting was presented. The calculations showed that the maximum level of gas contamination of the working area in Beskidskiy tunnel is achieved at blast operations. In accordance with this ventilation of the tunnel when driving is carried out by independent systems with mechanical ventilation by

  3. Environmental diagnosis of the washing machine motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne K. Linnet

    1997-01-01

    An environmental diagnosis of the washing machine focusing on the motor is performed. The goal of the diagnosis is to designate environmental focus points in the product. The LCA of the washing machine showed impact potentials from the life cycle of the product (see: LCA of a washing machine). Th...... up 2%, Manually disassembling and recycling of metals, Reuse of motor in a new washing machine, aluminium wire instead of copper wire in the motor....

  4. Face machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-06-01

    The article surveys latest equipment available from the world`s manufacturers of a range of machines for tunnelling. These are grouped under headings: excavators; impact hammers; road headers; and shields and tunnel boring machines. Products of thirty manufacturers are referred to. Addresses and fax numbers of companies are supplied. 5 tabs., 13 photos.

  5. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  6. Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Diane E.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists seek to develop machines that can "learn," that is, solve problems by imitating the human brain, a gold mine of information on the processes of human learning is being discovered, expert systems are being improved, and human-machine interactions are being enhanced. (SK)

  7. Nonplanar machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.

    1989-05-01

    This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs

  8. Fragment Size Distribution of Blasted Rock Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug, Jasmin; Strelec, Stjepan; Gazdek, Mario; Kavur, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Rock mass is a heterogeneous material, and the heterogeneity of rock causes sizes distribution of fragmented rocks in blasting. Prediction of blasted rock mass fragmentation has a significant role in the overall economics of opencast mines. Blasting as primary fragmentation can significantly decrease the cost of loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Blast fragmentation chiefly depends on the specific blast design (geometry of blast holes drilling, the quantity and class of explosive, the blasting form, the timing and partition, etc.) and on the properties of the rock mass (including the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock mass elastic Young modulus, the rock discontinuity characteristics and the rock density). Prediction and processing of blasting results researchers can accomplish by a variety of existing software’s and models, one of them is the Kuz-Ram model, which is possibly the most widely used approach to estimating fragmentation from blasting. This paper shows the estimation of fragmentation using the "SB" program, which was created by the authors. Mentioned program includes the Kuz-Ram model. Models of fragmentation are confirmed and calibrated by comparing the estimated fragmentation with actual post-blast fragmentation from image processing techniques. In this study, the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model has been used for an open-pit limestone quarry in Dalmatia, southern Croatia. The resulting calibrated value of the rock factor enables the quality prognosis of fragmentation in further blasting works, with changed drilling geometry and blast design parameters. It also facilitates simulation in the program to optimize blasting works and get the desired fragmentations of the blasted rock mass.

  9. Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain small volume of metals, sulfides of metals and gases. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of slag determinate their utilisation in different fields of industry.The paper presents results from the research of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag utilization in the concrete production. Pilotexperiments of the concrete production were performed, by that the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag with a fractions of 0–4mm;4–8mm; 8–16mm were used as a natural substitute. A cupola furnace slag and combination of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slagwere used in the experiments. The analysis results show that such concretes are suitable for less demanding applications.

  10. NOBLAST and JAMBLAST: New Options for BLAST and a Java Application Manager for BLAST results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagnel, Jacques; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S; Iliopoulos, Ioannis

    2009-03-15

    NOBLAST (New Options for BLAST) is an open source program that provides a new user-friendly tabular output format for various NCBI BLAST programs (Blastn, Blastp, Blastx, Tblastn, Tblastx, Mega BLAST and Psi BLAST) without any use of a parser and provides E-value correction in case of use of segmented BLAST database. JAMBLAST using the NOBLAST output allows the user to manage, view and filter the BLAST hits using a number of selection criteria. A distribution package of NOBLAST and JAMBLAST including detailed installation procedure is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/JAMBLAST/ and http://sourceforge.net/projects/NOBLAST. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. INCREASED RELIABILITY OF ELECTRIC BLASTING

    OpenAIRE

    Kashuba, Oleh Ivanovych; Skliarov, L I; Skliarov, A L

    2017-01-01

    The problems of improving reliability of an electric blasting method using electric detonators with nichrome filament bridges. It was revealed that in the calculation of the total resistance of the explosive network it is necessary to increase to 24% of the nominal value

  12. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  13. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  14. An analysis of the heap construction by long hole blasting for in-situ leaching of blasted ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shijiao

    1999-01-01

    The author establishes specific requirements for heap construction by blasting on the basis of the mechanism for in situ leaching of blasted ore, analyses the feasibility of heap construction by long hole blasting, selection of the blast plan and the relevant technological problems, and gives a case of heap construction by long hole blasting in Renhua uranium mine

  15. Machine Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  16. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  17. 77 FR 58173 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Explosive Materials and Blasting Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... information in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. This program helps to assure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Explosive Materials and Blasting Units (Pertains to Metal and...

  18. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  19. Blast-Induced Acceleration in a Shock Tube: Distinguishing Primary and Tertiary Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    injury conditions (blast and acceleration vs acceleration alone) undergo neurobehavioral and histopathological assessments to comprehensively... reversal . To facilitate mid-air blasts, a release mechanism was devised. Balls were attached to the bail of the mechanism. The blast wave would cause

  20. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lance

    Full Text Available Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study.

  1. TREATMENT OF METALS PRIOR TO ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, R.A.U.; Flint, O.

    1958-05-20

    The preparation of certain metal surfaces to receive electrodeposits is described. Surfaces of the metals are subjected to shot blasting by ferrous metal shot, and the surfaces then are given a coating of copper by displacement from a copper salt solution. The method applies to U, Zr, Ti, Ta, Ni, Mo, W, and V.

  2. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  3. Interspecies Scaling in Blast Neurotrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    and services to assist recovery . Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. Taylor, PA and Ford, CC. 2009. "Simulation of Blast-Induced Early-Time...reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite... Warden 2006). As of 2008 it was estimated that approximately 19% or 320,000 OIF/OEF veterans had sustained a TBI (Tanielian et al. 2008). In 2011 a

  4. The achievements of the Z-machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larousserie, D.

    2008-01-01

    The ZR-machine that represents the latest generation of Z-pinch machines has recently begun preliminary testing before its full commissioning in Albuquerque (Usa). During its test the machine has well operated with electrical currents whose intensities of 26 million Ampere are already 2 times as high as the intensity of the operating current of the previous Z-machine. In 2006 the Z-machine reached temperatures of 2 billions Kelvin while 100 million Kelvin would be sufficient to ignite thermonuclear fusion. In fact the concept of Z-pinch machines was imagined in the fifties but the technological breakthrough that has allowed this recent success and the reborn of Z-machine, was the replacement of gas by an array of metal wires through which the electrical current flows and vaporizes it creating an imploding plasma. It is not well understood why Z-pinch machines generate far more radiation than theoretically expected. (A.C.)

  5. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF WEDM MACHINED SURFACE WAVINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Mouralova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM an unconventional machining technology which has become indispensable in many industries. The typical morphology of a surface machined using the electrical discharge technology is characterized with a large number of craters caused by electro-spark discharges produced during the machining process. The study deals with an evaluation of the machine parameter setting on the profile parameters of surface waviness on samples made of two metal materials Al 99.5 and Ti-6Al-4V. Attention was also paid to an evaluation of the surface morphology using 3D colour filtered and non-filtered images.

  6. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012

  7. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  8. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, Markus; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  9. Machine Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  10. Blast furnace top gas and dusts; Masuunin huippukaasu ja poelyt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohi, T.K.; Mannila, P.; Karjalahti, T.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    This report is related to the `Gas Phase Reactions in a Blast Furnace` project. The aim of the project is to clarify the behaviour of gas phase in a blast furnace with high oil injection rate. The effect of blast furnace operation, iron reduction reactions, the amount of oil injected, alkalis, zinc and sulfur on the formation of top gas and dusts has been examined in this work. In addition, the gas cleaning system, i.e. the dust sack, gas scrubber, venturi scrubbers and an electric filter, of the blast furnaces of Rautaruukki Oy is presented. The composition of the top gas as well as the amount and composition of the dust from the gas cleaners were investigates in the experimental part of the research. The work has been focused on the analysis of carbon, iron, zinc, sulfur and alkalis. In addition to this, possible systematic variations caused by the discharge of hot metal were investigated. The experiments were made at blast furnaces no 1 and 2 of Rautaruukki Raahe Steel. The relationship between dust quantity and composition in the dust sack and the quantity of oil injected was analyzed on the basis of collected data. On the basis of experimental results, hot metal discharge has no effect on the composition or quantity of the top gas and dust. The composition of the dust varied between different gas cleaners. The coarsest and heaviest material remains in the dust sack. The lightest material separates at the electric filter. The main components at every gas cleaner were iron (9.4 - 38.1 %) and carbon (31.5 - 63.7 %). Particles with zinc and sulfur were separated at the venturi scrubbers (Zn = 3.0 % and S = 2.2 %) and the electric filter (Zn = 3.2 % and S = 2.6 %). Particles with alkalis were separated at the end of the gas cleaning process. The amount of sodium at the venturi scrubbers and the electric filter was 1.0 % on average. The average amount of potassium was 0.5 % at the venturi scrubber and 1.4 % at the electric filter 28 refs., 31 figs.

  11. Water in blast holes can improve blasting efficiency and cut costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Regan, G.

    1983-08-01

    Water in blast holes has been a traditional problem faced by blasting engineers and foremen in surface mining. Presently accepted techniques for blasting in water-filled holes include the use of more expensive water-gel explosives which are denser than water, dewatering of holes by pumping, and blowing out the water with a small charge before loading the main ANFO charge column. These methods involve considerable expense and delay to the normal charge-loading procedure. The author describes a method of using the water in blast holes to improve blasting efficiency and reduce the consumption of explosive.

  12. Teletherapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panyam, Vinatha S.; Rakshit, Sougata; Kulkarni, M.S.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation Standards Section (RSS), RSSD, BARC is the national metrology institute for ionizing radiation. RSS develops and maintains radiation standards for X-ray, beta, gamma and neutron radiations. In radiation dosimetry, traceability, accuracy and consistency of radiation measurements is very important especially in radiotherapy where the success of patient treatment is dependent on the accuracy of the dose delivered to the tumour. Cobalt teletherapy machines have been used in the treatment of cancer since the early 1950s and India had its first cobalt teletherapy machine installed at the Cancer Institute, Chennai in 1956

  13. Diamond turning on advanced machine tool prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Specular-quality metal mirrors are being machined for use in laser optical systems. The fabrication process incorporates special quality diamond tools and specially constructed turning machines. The machines are controlled by advanced control techniques and are housed in an environmentally controlled laboratory to insure ultimate machine stability and positional accuracy. The materials from which these mirrors are primarily produced are the softer face-center-cubic structure metals, such as gold, silver, copper, and aluminum. Mirror manufacturing by the single-point diamond machining process is in an early stage of development, but it is anticipated that this method will become the most economical way for producing high-quality metal mirrors. (U.S.)

  14. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  15. Operation and machine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report describes the GANIL (Grand accelerateur national d'ions lourds, Caen, France) operation and the machine studies realized in 1992. Metallic ions have been accelerated during 36 pc of the time; some were produced for the first time at GANIL: 125 Te, 52 Cr with ECR3, 181 Ta with ECR4. The various machine studies are: comparison of lifetimes of carbon sheets, charge exchange of very heavy ions in carbon foils and in the residual gas of the Ganil cyclotrons, commissioning of the new high intensity axial injection system for Ganil, tantalum acceleration with the new injector, a cyclotron as a mass spectrometer; other studies concerned: implementing the new control system, gettering flux measurement, energy deposited by neutrons and gamma rays in the cryogenic system of SISSI; latest developments on multicharged ECR ion sources, and an on-line isotopic separator test bench at Ganil

  16. Machine rates for selected forest harvesting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Brinker; J. Kinard; Robert Rummer; B. Lanford

    2002-01-01

    Very little new literature has been published on the subject of machine rates and machine cost analysis since 1989 when the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 296, Machine Rates for Selected Forest Harvesting Machines, was originally published. Many machines discussed in the original publication have undergone substantial changes in various aspects, not...

  17. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  18. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  19. Blast resistance behaviour of steel frame structrures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Soetens, F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a blast explosion on a typical steel frame building is investigated by means of computer simulations. The simulations help to identify possible hot spots that may lead to local or global failure. Since the blast energy is transferred to the structure by means of the façade, it is

  20. Blast resistance behaviour of steel frame structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varas, J.M.; Soetens, F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a blast explosion on a typical steel frame building is investigated by means of computer simulations. The simulations help to identify possible hot spots that may lead to local or global failure. The blast energy is transferred to the structure by means of the façade. In particular

  1. Constructal design of a blast furnace iron-making process based on multi-objective optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiong; Chen, Lingen; Feng, Huijun; Qin, Xiaoyong; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    For the fixed total raw material cost and based on constructal theory and finite time thermodynamics, a BFIM (blast furnace iron-making) process is optimized by taking a complex function as optimization objective. The complex function is integrated with HM (hot metal) yield and useful energy of the BF (blast furnace). The optimal cost distribution of raw materials (namely “generalized optimal construct”) is obtained. The effects of some parameters, such as oxygen enrichment, blast temperature and pulverized coal dosage, on the optimization results are analyzed. The results show that the HM yield, useful energy and complex function are, respectively, increased by 3.13%, 2.66% and 2.90% after generalized constructal optimization. The utilization efficiencies of the BFG (blast furnace gas) and slag are 41.3% and 57.1%, respectively, which means that the utilization potentials of the BFG and slag can be further exploited. Increasing pulverized coal dosage and decreasing the agglomerate ratio can increase the complex function. The performance the BFIM process can be improved by adjusting the oxygen enrichment, blast temperature, blast dosage, pressure ratio of the Brayton cycle's air compressor and relative pressure drop of the air compressor inlet to their optimal values, respectively, which are new findings of this paper. - Highlights: • Constructal optimization of a blast furnace iron-making process is performed. • Finite time thermodynamic model of open Brayton cycle is adopted. • Weighting function is taken as optimization objective. • Optimal cost distribution of the raw materials is obtained.

  2. Control of the refractory lining wear in blast furnaces, using a radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, G.; Vieira, J.M.; Daltro, T.F.L.; Banados Perez, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    Small metal 60 Co sources, double encapsulated with quartz and alumina, were inserted (at different depths and levels) into the refractory bricks of the blast furnace walls, and the initial radioactivity emerging at each location recorded as a reference data for future measurements. The displacement of the charge inside the blast furnace originates a progressive wear of the refractory lining and after certain time, the inner sources will begin to be scaped off from the wall and then dissolved in the molten iron. By periodically monitoring the radiation level at the points where the sources were placed, it is possible to know if some of them was removed by the wearing process. This, in turn, will indicate the thickness of refractory material lost in each location making of the blast furnace, as a function of time. The practical application of this method in the Brazilian steel industry is reported. (Author) [pt

  3. Two-material optimization of plate armour for blast mitigation using hybrid cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J.; Tan, H.; Renaud, J.; Tovar, A.

    2012-08-01

    With the increased use of improvised explosive devices in regions at war, the threat to military and civilian life has risen. Cabin penetration and gross acceleration are the primary threats in an explosive event. Cabin penetration crushes occupants, damaging the lower body. Acceleration causes death at high magnitudes. This investigation develops a process of designing armour that simultaneously mitigates cabin penetration and acceleration. The hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method of topology optimization has proven efficient and robust in problems involving large, plastic deformations such as crash impact. Here HCA is extended to the design of armour under blast loading. The ability to distribute two metallic phases, as opposed to one material and void, is also added. The blast wave energy transforms on impact into internal energy (IE) inside the solid medium. Maximum attenuation occurs with maximized IE. The resulting structures show HCA's potential for designing blast mitigating armour structures.

  4. Exploration on Wire Discharge Machining Added Powder for Metal-Based Diamond Grinding Wheel on Wire EDM Dressing and Truing of Grinding Tungsten Carbide Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, H. M.; Yang, L. D.; Lin, Y. C.; Lin, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of material removal rate and abrasive grain protrusion on the metal-based diamond grinding wheel were studied to find the optimal parameters for adding powder and wire discharge. In addition, this kind of electric discharge method to add powder on the metal-based diamond grinding wheel on line after dressing and truing will be applied on tungsten carbide to study the grinding material removal rate, grinding wheel wear, surface roughness, and surface micro-hardness.

  5. Condition for Contur Blasting use on Openpit Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Krsmanovic, I; Dambov, Risto

    2010-01-01

    For purpose of obtaining a stable final slope in open pit mines practice, the most common approach is the contour blasting method and investigation of possible applications of various primary blasting methods for purpose of gaining the optimal techno-economical effects. This paper presents one of the contour blasting methods, drilling and blasting parameters, construction of explosive charges and method of initiation.

  6. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Blasting. 780.13 Section 780.13... SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.13 Operation plan: Blasting. (a) Blasting plan. Each application shall contain a blasting plan for the proposed...

  7. Machinability evaluation of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu

    2004-03-01

    In the present study, the machinability of titanium, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6A1-7Nb, and free-cutting brass was evaluated using a milling machine. The metals were slotted with square end mills under four cutting conditions. The cutting force and the rotational speed of the spindle were measured. The cutting forces for Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb were higher and that for brass was lower than that for titanium. The rotational speed of the spindle was barely affected by cutting. The cross sections of the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb chips were more clearly serrated than those of titanium, which is an indication of difficult-to-cut metals. There was no marked difference in the surface roughness of the cut surfaces among the metals. Cutting force and the appearance of the metal chips were found to be useful as indices of machinability and will aid in the development of new alloys for dental CAD/CAM and the selection of suitable machining conditions.

  8. Anorectal injury in pelvic blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Tom G; Garner, J P

    2013-03-01

    The signature injury of the Afghanistan campaign has, amongst other things, included an increased incidence of destructive anorectal injury. There is no significant body of evidence about this type of injury on which to base management strategies. This review examines the historical military data, later civilian reports, many of which have challenged the military dogmas of Vietnam, and the spartan contemporaneous military data which does not particularly address pelviperineal blast injury. There is no evidence to support a move away from the doctrine of the four D's (diversion, distal washout, drainage and direct repair), but sound surgical judgement remains the mainstay of managing these challenging and highly morbid injuries.

  9. Demonstration experience with an abrasive blasting technique for decontaminating concrete pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Land, R.R.; Doane, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    A demonstration was performed for decontaminating a radioactivity contaminated concrete pad with a portable abrasive blasting system. The system utilizes a rotating blast wheel that scours the concrete surface with metal abrasive. The metal abrasive, pulverized concrete dust, and contaminants rebound into a separator chamber. The reusable metal abrasive is recycled, and the pulverized media are removed to an integral dust collection system. The exhaust is HEPA filtered to minimize release of airborne contaminants. However, the technique had limited success in reducing contamination around the cracks and seams in the concrete where the higher activity levels of contamination were detected during the radiological survey before the cleanup. The technique can be successful and cost-effective in decontaminating large areas of low contamination; however, careful characterization and planning are necessary. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tabs

  10. Electric machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    BASIC ELECTROMAGNETIC CONCEPTSBasic Magnetic ConceptsMagnetically Linear Systems: Magnetic CircuitsVoltage, Current, and Magnetic Field InteractionsMagnetic Properties of MaterialsNonlinear Magnetic Circuit AnalysisPermanent MagnetsSuperconducting MagnetsThe Fundamental Translational EM MachineThe Fundamental Rotational EM MachineMultiwinding EM SystemsLeakage FluxThe Concept of Ratings in EM SystemsSummaryProblemsTRANSFORMERSThe Ideal n-Winding TransformerTransformer Ratings and Per-Unit ScalingThe Nonideal Three-Winding TransformerThe Nonideal Two-Winding TransformerTransformer Efficiency and Voltage RegulationPractical ConsiderationsThe AutotransformerOperation of Transformers in Three-Phase EnvironmentsSequence Circuit Models for Three-Phase Transformer AnalysisHarmonics in TransformersSummaryProblemsBASIC MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONSSome General PerspectivesEfficiencyLoad Torque-Speed CharacteristicsMass Polar Moment of InertiaGearingOperating ModesTranslational SystemsA Comprehensive Example: The ElevatorP...

  11. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  12. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  13. Enhancing cuttings removal with gas blasts while drilling on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K. A.; Quayle, M. C.; Cooper, G. A.

    2005-04-01

    Future missions to Mars envision use of drills for subsurface exploration. Since the Martian atmosphere precludes the use of liquids for cuttings removal, proposed drilling machines utilize mechanical cuttings removal systems such as augers. However, an auger can substantially contribute to the total power requirements, and in the worst scenario it can choke. A number of experiments conducted under Martian pressures showed that intermittent blasts of gas at low differential pressures can effectively lift the cuttings out of the hole. A gas flushing system could be incorporated into the drill assembly for assistance in clearing the holes of rock cuttings or for redundancy in case of auger jamming. A number of variables such as the particle size distribution of the rock powder, the type of gas used, the bit and auger side clearances, the initial mass of cuttings, and the ambient pressure were investigated and found to affect the efficiency. In all tests the initial volume of gas was close to 1 L and the differential pressure was varied to achieve desired clearing efficiencies. Particles were being lifted out of the hole at a maximum speed of 6 m/s at a differential pressure of 25 torr and ambient pressure of 5 torr. Flushing tests lasted on average for 2 s. The power required to compress the thin Martian atmosphere to achieve a sufficient gas blast every minute or so at 10% efficiency was calculated to be of the order of a few watts.

  14. The achievements of the Z-machine; Les exploits de la Z-machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larousserie, D

    2008-03-15

    The ZR-machine that represents the latest generation of Z-pinch machines has recently begun preliminary testing before its full commissioning in Albuquerque (Usa). During its test the machine has well operated with electrical currents whose intensities of 26 million Ampere are already 2 times as high as the intensity of the operating current of the previous Z-machine. In 2006 the Z-machine reached temperatures of 2 billions Kelvin while 100 million Kelvin would be sufficient to ignite thermonuclear fusion. In fact the concept of Z-pinch machines was imagined in the fifties but the technological breakthrough that has allowed this recent success and the reborn of Z-machine, was the replacement of gas by an array of metal wires through which the electrical current flows and vaporizes it creating an imploding plasma. It is not well understood why Z-pinch machines generate far more radiation than theoretically expected. (A.C.)

  15. Some issues for blast from a structural reactive material solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.

    2018-03-01

    Structural reactive material (SRM) is consolidated from a mixture of micro- or nanometric reactive metals and metal compounds to the mixture theoretical maximum density. An SRM can thus possess a higher energy density, relying on various exothermic reactions, and higher mechanical strength and heat resistance than that of conventional CHNO explosives. Progress in SRM solid studies is reviewed specifically as an energy source for air blast through the reaction of fine SRM fragments under explosive loading. This includes a baseline SRM solid explosion characterization, material properties of an SRM solid, and its dynamic fine fragmentation mechanisms and fragment reaction mechanisms. The overview is portrayed mainly from the author's own experimental studies combined with theoretical and numerical explanation. These advances have laid down some fundamentals for the next stage of developments.

  16. Experimental Study on Environment Friendly Tap Hole Clay for Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva kumar, R.; Mohammed, Raffi; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Blast furnace (BF) is the best possible route of iron production available. Blast furnace is a high pressure vessel where iron ore is melted and liquid iron is produced. The liquid iron is tapped through the hole in Blast Furnace called tap hole. The tapped liquid metal flowing through the tap hole is plugged using a clay called tap hole clay. Tap hole clay (THC) is a unshaped refractory used to plug the tap hole. The tap hole clay extruded through the tap hole using a gun. The tap hole clay is designed to expand and plug the tap hole. The tap hole filled with clay is drilled using drill bit and the hole made through the tap hole to tap the liquid metal accumulated inside the furnace. The number of plugging and drilling varies depending on the volume of the furnace. The tap hole clay need to have certain properties to avoid problems during plugging and drilling. In the present paper tap hole clay properties in industrial use was tested and studied. The problems were identified related to tap hole clay manufacturing. Experiments were conducted in lab scale to solve the identified problems. The present composition was modified with experimental results. The properties of the modified tap hole clay were found suitable and useful for blast furnace operation with lab scale experimental results.

  17. Primary blast survival and injury risk assessment for repeated blast exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Matthew B; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Rafaels, Karin A; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce P

    2012-02-01

    The widespread use of explosives by modern insurgents and terrorists has increased the potential frequency of blast exposure in soldiers and civilians. This growing threat highlights the importance of understanding and evaluating blast injury risk and the increase of injury risk from exposure to repeated blast effects. Data from more than 3,250 large animal experiments were collected from studies focusing on the effects of blast exposure. The current study uses 2,349 experiments from the data collection for analysis of the primary blast injury and survival risk for both long- and short-duration blasts, including the effects from repeated exposures. A piecewise linear logistic regression was performed on the data to develop survival and injury risk assessment curves. New injury risk assessment curves uniting long- and short-duration blasts were developed for incident and reflected pressure measures and were used to evaluate the risk of injury based on blast over pressure, positive-phase duration, and the number of repeated exposures. The risk assessments were derived for three levels of injury severity: nonauditory, pulmonary, and fatality. The analysis showed a marked initial decrease in injury tolerance with each subsequent blast exposure. This effect decreases with increasing number of blast exposures. The new injury risk functions showed good agreement with the existing experimental data and provided a simplified model for primary blast injury risk. This model can be used to predict blast injury or fatality risk for single exposure and repeated exposure cases and has application in modern combat scenarios or in setting occupational health limits. .Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  18. A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Fries, R. J.

    2017-04-01

    Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small.

  19. Behavior of coke in large blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N

    1978-01-01

    Three blast furnaces were quenched in operation and the contents were examined; the temperature distribution was also measured, using Tempil pellets. The furnaces examined included a low productivity one, which was examined to see what was wrong. Changes in the quality of coke as it descends in the furnace, and coke behavior in the raceway and hearth are reported. The functions required of coke, and the effects of poor coke quality, are explained, together with the coke quality required in large blast furnaces. A theoretical study of the role of coke in large blast furnaces is included.

  20. A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z; Fries, R J

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small. (paper)

  1. Blast casting requires fresh assessment of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilshaw, S.R.

    1987-08-01

    The article discusses the reasons why conventional blasting operations, mainly that of explosive products, drilling and initiation methods are inefficient, and suggests new methods and materials to overcome the problems of the conventional operations. The author suggests that the use of bulk ANFO for casting, instead of high energy and density explosives with high velocity detonation is more effective in producing heave action results. Similarly the drilling of smaller blast holes than is conventional allows better loading distribution of explosives in the rock mass. The author also suggests that casting would be more efficient if the shot rows were loaded differently to produce a variable burden blasting pattern.

  2. Evaluation of Beryllium, Total Chromium and Nickel in the Surface Contaminant Layer Available for Dermal Exposure After Abrasive Blasting in a Shipyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    workers are potentially exposed to metals including cadmium, chromium, beryllium, iron, lead, nickel, tin, zinc and copper (43). 2 Potential worker...identified in the breathing zone air samples at Portsmouth NSY, coal slag was the abrasive in use. Within Portsmouth NSY, there are two main areas...where coal slag is used for blasting: the dry docks for blasting of submarines and in Building 286. Building 286 is a large bay room building where

  3. Membranes replace irradiated blast cells as growth requirement for leukemic blast progenitors in suspension culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, N.; McCulloch, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) may be considered as a renewal population, maintained by blast stem cells capable of both self-renewal and the generation of progeny with reduced or absent proliferative potential. This growth requires that two conditions be met: first, the cultures must contain growth factors in media conditioned either by phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated mononuclear leukocytes (PHA-LCM), or by cells of the continuous bladder carcinoma line HTB9 (HTB9-CM). Second, the cell density must be maintained at 10(6) blasts/ml; this may be achieved by adding irradiated cells to smaller numbers of intact blasts. The authors are concerned with the mechanism of the feeding function. They present evidence that (a) cell-cell contact is required. (b) Blasts are heterogeneous in respect to their capacity to support growth. (c) Fractions containing membranes from blast cells will substitute for intact cells in promoting the generation of new blast progenitors in culture. (d) This membrane function may be specific for AML blasts, since membranes from blasts of lymphoblastic leukemia or normal marrow cells were inactive

  4. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...... possibilities, and genre distinctions. Presenting several distinct ways of producing space photographically, this book opens a new and important field of inquiry for photography research....

  5. Shear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)

  6. Electricity of machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijeon media editorial department

    1977-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with electricity machine, which can taints from generator to motor, motor a power source of machine tool, electricity machine for machine tool such as switch in main circuit, automatic machine, a knife switch and pushing button, snap switch, protection device, timer, solenoid, and rectifier. The second part handles wiring diagram. This concludes basic electricity circuit of machine tool, electricity wiring diagram in your machine like milling machine, planer and grinding machine. The third part introduces fault diagnosis of machine, which gives the practical solution according to fault diagnosis and the diagnostic method with voltage and resistance measurement by tester.

  7. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  8. Machinability of cast commercial titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, I; Kiyosue, S; Ohkubo, C; Aoki, T; Okabe, T

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the machinability of cast orthopedic titanium (metastable beta) alloys for possible application to dentistry and compared the results with those of cast CP Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, and Ti-6Al-7Nb, which are currently used in dentistry. Machinability was determined as the amount of metal removed with the use of an electric handpiece and a SiC abrasive wheel turning at four different rotational wheel speeds. The ratios of the amount of metal removed and the wheel volume loss (machining ratio) were also evaluated. Based on these two criteria, the two alpha + beta alloys tested generally exhibited better results for most of the wheel speeds compared to all the other metals tested. The machinability of the three beta alloys employed was similar or worse, depending on the speed of the wheel, compared to CP Ti. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  10. Blast Mitigation Using Water - A Status Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kailasanath, K

    2002-01-01

    ..., and aggressive research and development', this report reviews the current knowledge base on blast mitigation using water and identifies the key issues that need to be resolved in order to develop...

  11. International blast furnace hearth and raceway symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented discussed some of the physical and chemical processes occuring in the raceway and hearths of blast furnaces. The injection of coal or fuel slurries to replace some of the coke was also covered. Fourteen papers are abstracted separately.

  12. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BLAST finds regions of similarity between biological sequences. The program compares nucleotide or protein sequences to sequence databases and calculates the...

  13. A Software Framework for Blast Event Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swensen, D. A; Denison, M. K; Guilkey, James; Harman, Todd; Goetz, Richard

    2006-01-01

    .... The BCF will provide a virtual test-bed where disparate computational models can seamlessly interact with one another to provide a unified modeling solution for blast-vehicle-occupant scenarios...

  14. Bomb blast imaging: bringing order to chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, E A; Ballard, M; Alwan-Walker, H; Kashef, E; Batrick, N; Hettiaratchy, S; Moran, C G

    2018-06-01

    Blast injuries are complex, severe, and outside of our everyday clinical practice, but every radiologist needs to understand them. By their nature, bomb blasts are unpredictable and affect multiple victims, yet require an immediate, coordinated, and whole-hearted response from all members of the clinical team, including all radiology staff. This article will help you gain the requisite expertise in blast imaging including recognising primary, secondary, and tertiary blast injuries. It will also help you understand the fundamental role that imaging plays during mass casualty attacks and how to avoid radiology becoming a bottleneck to the forward flow of severely injured patients as they are triaged and treated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. On firework blasts and qualitative parameter dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, T I

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to qualitatively simulate the progressive time-evolution of a blast from a simple firework. Estimates are made for the blast radius that one can expect for a given amount of detonation energy and pyrotechnic display material. The model balances the released energy from the initial blast pulse with the subsequent kinetic energy and then computes the trajectory of the material under the influence of the drag from the surrounding air, gravity and possible buoyancy. Under certain simplifying assumptions, the model can be solved for analytically. The solution serves as a guide to identifying key parameters that control the evolving blast envelope. Three-dimensional examples are given.

  16. Blast effects physical properties of shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book compiles a variety of experimental data on blast waves. The book begins with an introductory chapter and proceeds to the topic of blast wave phenomenology, with a discussion Rankine-Hugoniot equations and the Friedlander equation, used to describe the pressure-time history of a blast wave. Additional topics include arrival time measurement, the initiation of detonation by exploding wires, a discussion of TNT equivalency, and small scale experiments. Gaseous and high explosive detonations are covered as well. The topics and experiments covered were chosen based on the comparison of used scale sizes, from small to large. Each characteristic parameter of blast waves is analyzed and expressed versus scaled distance in terms of energy and mass. Finally, the appendix compiles a number of polynomial laws that will prove indispensable for engineers and researchers.

  17. Job Grading Standard for Machine Tool Operator, WG-3431.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard covers nonsupervisory work involved in the set up, adjustment, and operation of conventional machine tools to perform machining operations in the manufacture and repair of castings, forgings, or parts from raw stock made of various metals, metal alloys, and other materials. A general description of the job at both the WG-8 and WG-9…

  18. Automatic welding machine for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Takaichi; Iizuka, Tomio; Ito, Yoshitoshi; Takami, Katsumi.

    1978-01-01

    A remotely controlled automatic special welding machine for piping was developed. This machine is utilized for long distance pipe lines, chemical plants, thermal power generating plants and nuclear power plants effectively from the viewpoint of good quality control, reduction of labor and good controllability. The function of this welding machine is to inspect the shape and dimensions of edge preparation before welding work by the sense of touch, to detect the temperature of melt pool, inspect the bead form by the sense of touch, and check the welding state by ITV during welding work, and to grind the bead surface and inspect the weld metal by ultrasonic test automatically after welding work. The construction of this welding system, the main specification of the apparatus, the welding procedure in detail, the electrical source of this welding machine, the cooling system, the structure and handling of guide ring, the central control system and the operating characteristics are explained. The working procedure and the effect by using this welding machine, and the application to nuclear power plants and the other industrial field are outlined. The HIDIC 08 is used as the controlling computer. This welding machine is useful for welding SUS piping as well as carbon steel piping. (Nakai, Y.)

  19. Blasting at a Superfund chemical waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, Maine Drilling and Blasting of Gardiner, Maine was contracted by Cayer Corporation of Harvard, Massachusetts to drill and blast an interceptor trench at the Nyanza Chemical Superfund Site in Ashland, Massachusetts. The interceptor trench was to be 1,365 feet long and to be blasted out of granite. The trench was to be 12 feet wide at the bottom with 1/1 slopes, the deepest cut being 30 feet deep. A French drain 12 feet wide by 15 to 35 feet deep was blasted below the main trench on a 2% slope from its center to each end. A French drain is an excavation where the rock is blasted but not dug. The trench would be used as a perimeter road with any ground water flow going through the French drain flowing to both ends of the trench. Being a Superfund project turned a simple blasting project into a regulatory nightmare. The US Environmental Protection Agency performed all the chemical related functions on site. The US Army Corps of Engineers was overseeing all related excavation and construction on site, as was the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Quality Engineering, the local Hazardous Wastes Council, and the local Fire Department. All parties had some input with the blasting and all issues had to be addressed. The paper outlines the project, how it was designed and completed. Also included is an outline of the blast plan to be submitted for approval, an outline of the Safety/Hazardous Waste training and a description of all the problems which arose during the project by various regulatory agencies

  20. Decontamination of Steam Generator tube using Abrasive Blasting Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. Y.; Kim, G. N.; Choi, W. K.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    As a part of a technology development of volume reduction and self disposal for large metal waste project, We at KAERI and our Sunkwang Atomic Energy Safety (KAES) subcontractor colleagues are demonstrating radioactively contaminated steam generator tube by abrasive blasting technology at Kori-1 NPP. A steam generator is a crucial component in a PWR (pressurized Water Reactor). It is the crossing between the primary, contaminated, circuit and the secondary waste-steam circuit. The heat from the primary reactor coolant loop is transferred to the secondary side in thousands of small tubes. Due to several problems in the material of those tube, like SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking), insufficient control in water chemistry, which can be cause of tube leakage, more and more steam generators are replaced today. Only in Korea, already 2 of them are replaced and will be replaced in the near future. The retired 300 ton heavy Steam generator was stored at the storage waste building of Kori NPP site. The steam generator waste has a large volume, so that it is necessary to reduce its volume by decontamination. A waste reduction effect can be obtained through decontamination of the inner surface of a steam generator. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an optimum method for decontamination of the inner surface of bundle tubes. The dry abrasive blasting is a very interesting technology for the realization of three-dimensional microstructures in brittle materials like glass or silicon. Dry abrasive blasting is applicable to most surface materials except those that might be shattered by the abrasive. It is most effective on flat surface and because the abrasive is sprayed and can also applicable on 'hard to reach' areas such as inner tube ceilings or behind equipment. Abrasive decontamination techniques have been applied in several countries, including Belgium, the CIS, France, Germany, Japan, the UK and the USA

  1. Blasting activity of the mining industry in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, P.G. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    About 2 megatons of chemcial explosives are used annually in the U.S., principally in mining for coal and metal ores. Most of this explosive is used in surface mines rather than underground mines. On a typical work day there are about 30 explosions greater than 50 tons, including one shot greater than 200 tons. Shots in underground mines are typically much smaller, because of safety considerations. Almost all chemical explosions above 1 ton in the U.S. are ripple-fired and almost all above 10 tons are also shallow. Almost all are intended to break rock or to remove overburden, and are therefore very inefficient, relative to contained single shots, in generating seismic signals at regional ore teleseismic distances. These attributes make explosions used in industry quite different from the Non-Proliferation Experiment. There is very little correlation between the total amount of explosive used in a ripple-fired blast, and the seismic magnitude. Statistics on blasting magnitudes are of interest in the context of monitoring network. There is a blast reported with regional (or duration) magnitude 3.5 or above, in the U.S., a few tens of times a year; but it would appear that the teleseismic magnitude (m{sub b}) of such events are significantly lower than 3.5. Only about 10 to 30 chemical explosions per year in the U.S. are detected teleseismically with m{sub b}>3. Methods of routinely discriminating most chemical explosions from other seismic sources use spectra of regional phases at frequencies up to about 30 Hz, which is significantly higher than frequencies needed for recording teleseismic signals. The best discriminants appear to be the high-frequency spectral ratio of waves with P-wave energy (e.g. Pn or Pg) to waves with S-wave energy (Sn or Lg); and the use of spectrograms, which can be particularly useful in identifying ripple-firing.

  2. Blasting in hot zone - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabiullah, B.M.P.; Pingua, J.; Dhar, B.B. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1997-12-31

    A significant quantity of coking coal reserves in the country are under fire particularly in Jharia coalfield. To control the fire and prevent loss of coal, an opencast mining method is adopted. The main problem with these opencast mines is drilling in hot strata and selection of suitable explosives and blasting in the fire zone. Trial blasts were conducted at two open cast mines. The problem was tackled by quenching the hot blast holes with water. Temperature of blast holes were recorded soon after drilling, after quenching with water and just before charging with explosives. The rise in temperature of charged explosives with time was also recorded until blasting. The thermal behaviour of commercially available explosives (including slurry, emulsion, ANFO and detonating cord) was investigated in laboratory and field simulated conditions. Emulsion, slurry compositions and detonating cord were found safe to use in hot holes up to 120{degree}C for duration of two hours. This paper describes the blasting practices adopted in the fire zones. 4 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  4. The second generation of electronic blasting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammelmann, F.; Petzold, J. [Dynamit Nobel GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    8 years after the market introduction of the first commercial electronic detonator - DYNATRONIC - the paper describes a new area of electronic blasting systems Made in Germany: i-kon. The results of a joint development between Dynamit Nobel and Orica is a unique universal electronic detonator, which is as simple to use as a standard non-electric detonator. The delay time or delay interval is not factory preprogrammed and the system is not based on a numbered system like conventional detonators. The miner or Blaster decides on site which delay timing he likes to use and is programming the whole blast on site. The new i-kon system allows delay times between 0 and 8000 ms by increments of 1 ms. With the control equipment it is possible to blast up to 1600 detonators in a single blast. The paper describes the construction and functionality of this new electronic blasting system - manufactured and developed by Precision Blasting Systems, a joint venture between Orica and Dynamic Nobel. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  6. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an interlock system providing the glue between these systems. The most recent accelerator, the LHC, will operate with about 3 × 10 14 protons per beam, corresponding to an energy stored in each beam of 360 MJ. This energy can cause massive damage to accelerator equipment in case of uncontrolled beam loss, and a single accident damaging vital parts of the accelerator could interrupt operation for years. This article provides an overview of the requirements for protection of accelerator equipment and introduces the various protection systems. Examples are mainly from LHC, SNS and ESS

  7. Proceedings of the twenty-seventh annual conference on explosives and blasting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Various aspects of explosives and blasting techniques are covered. Those of particular interest to the coal industry buffer blasting versus cast blasting, post-blast cast profile shape prediction, fragmentation model to estimate ROM size distribution of soft rocks, blasting accidents, blast vibrations, ANFO explosives and carbon monoxide poisoning.

  8. DYNAMIC TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF BLAST RESISTANT DOOR USING BLAST LOAD MODELED AS IMPACT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Pranata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A blast resistant single door was designed to withstand a 0.91 bar blast pressure and 44 ms blast duration. The analysis was done using Dynamic Time History Analysis using Blast Load modeled as Impact Load for given duration. The material properties used have been modified to accommodate dynamic effects. The analysis was done using dynamic finite element method (fem for time of the blast duration, and the maximum/minimum internal forces and displacement were taken from the time history output, in order to know the behavior under blast load and estimate the safety margin of the door. Results obtained from this research indicated that the maximum z-displacement is 1.709 mm, while in the term of serviceability, the permitted is 25 mm. The maximum reaction force is 73,960 N, while the maximum anchor capacity is 82,069 N. On blast condition, the maximum frame stress is 71.71 MPa, the maximum hinge shear stress is 45.28 MPa. While on rebound condition, the maximum frame stress is 172.11 MPa, the maximum hinge shear stress is 29.46 MPa. The maximum door edge rotation is 0.44 degree, which is not exceed the permitted boundary (1.2 degree. Keywords: Dynamic time history, blast resistant door, single door, finite element method.

  9. Raydet non-electric blast initiation system for efficient and environment-friendly surface blasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, M.O. [IDL Chemicals Ltd., Hyderabad (India). Technical Services Cell

    1995-08-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of using the Raydet shock tube based blast initiation system and reviews research work carried out on release of explosive energy in the drillhole, effect of stemming retention (stemming effectiveness) and advantages of `true bottom hole initiation` of drillholes in surface blasting. Some case studies are presented. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Particle migration and gap healing around trabecular metal implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, O; Kold, S; Zippor, Berit

    2005-01-01

    Bone on-growth and peri-implant migration of polyethylene particles were studied in an experimental setting using trabecular metal and solid metal implants. Cylindrical implants of trabecular tantalum metal and solid titanium alloy implants with a glass bead blasted surface were inserted either i...

  11. Machine terms dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-04-15

    This book gives descriptions of machine terms which includes machine design, drawing, the method of machine, machine tools, machine materials, automobile, measuring and controlling, electricity, basic of electron, information technology, quality assurance, Auto CAD and FA terms and important formula of mechanical engineering.

  12. Comparison of Some Blast Vibration Predictors for Blasting in Underground Drifts and Some Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Vaibhab Pramod; Dey, Kaushik

    2016-04-01

    Drilling and blasting are the most economical excavation techniques in underground drifts driven through hard rock formation. Burn cut is the most popular drill pattern, used in this case, to achieve longer advance per blast round. The ground vibration generated due to the propagation of blast waves on the detonation of explosive during blasting is the principal cause for structural and rock damage. Thus, ground vibration is a point of concern for the blasting engineers. The ground vibration from a blast is measured using a seismograph placed at the blast monitoring station. The measured vibrations, in terms of peak particle velocity, are related to the maximum charge detonated at one instant and the distance of seismograph from the blast point. The ground vibrations from a number of blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances are monitored. A number of scaling factors of these dependencies (viz. Distance and maximum charge/delay) have been proposed by different researchers, namely, square root, cube root, CMRI, Langefors and Kihlstrom, Ghosh-Daemon, Indian standard etc. Scaling factors of desired type are computed for all the measured blast rounds. Regression analysis is carried out between the scaling factors and peak particle velocities to establish the coefficients of the vibration predictor equation. Then, the developed predictor equation is used for designing the blast henceforth. Director General of Mine Safety, India, specified that ground vibrations from eight to ten blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances should be monitored to develop a predictor equation; however, there is no guideline about the type of scaling factor to be used. Further to this, from the statistical point of view, a regression analysis on a small sample population cannot be accepted without the testing of hypothesis. To show the importance of the above, in this paper, seven scaling factors are considered for blast data set of a hard-rock underground drift using burn

  13. BLAST-EXPLORER helps you building datasets for phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The right sampling of homologous sequences for phylogenetic or molecular evolution analyses is a crucial step, the quality of which can have a significant impact on the final interpretation of the study. There is no single way for constructing datasets suitable for phylogenetic analysis, because this task intimately depends on the scientific question we want to address, Moreover, database mining softwares such as BLAST which are routinely used for searching homologous sequences are not specifically optimized for this task. Results To fill this gap, we designed BLAST-Explorer, an original and friendly web-based application that combines a BLAST search with a suite of tools that allows interactive, phylogenetic-oriented exploration of the BLAST results and flexible selection of homologous sequences among the BLAST hits. Once the selection of the BLAST hits is done using BLAST-Explorer, the corresponding sequence can be imported locally for external analysis or passed to the phylogenetic tree reconstruction pipelines available on the Phylogeny.fr platform. Conclusions BLAST-Explorer provides a simple, intuitive and interactive graphical representation of the BLAST results and allows selection and retrieving of the BLAST hit sequences based a wide range of criterions. Although BLAST-Explorer primarily aims at helping the construction of sequence datasets for further phylogenetic study, it can also be used as a standard BLAST server with enriched output. BLAST-Explorer is available at http://www.phylogeny.fr

  14. A comprehensive literature review reflecting fifteen years of debate regarding the representativity of reverse circulation vs blast hole drill sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Blast hole sampling is widely used for grade control by the mining industry all over the world, both in precious and base metal open pit mining. Blast hole (BH) samples are often regarded as inferior in comparison to “proper drill sampling” like reverse circulation (RC) and diamond (core) drilling...... (DD), and are accused of lacking representativity by the sampling community. The present paper aims at collecting all peer reviewed publications from 2000 onwards that concern open pit mine sampling performance of BH, RC and/or DD drill sampling. This will form a comprehensive literature review...

  15. Research on Effects of Blast Casting Vibration and Vibration Absorption of Presplitting Blasting in Open Cast Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact energy produced by blast casting is able to break and cast rocks, yet the strong vibration effects caused at the same time would threaten the safety of mines. Based on the theory of Janbu’s Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM, pseudo-static method has been incorporated to analyze the influence of dynamic loads of blasting on slope stability. The horizontal loads produced by blast vibrations cause an increase in sliding forces, and this leads to a lower slope stability coefficient. When the tensile stresses of the two adjacent blast holes are greater than the tensile strength of rock mass, the radical oriented cracks are formed, which is the precondition for the formation of presplit face. Thus, the formula for calculating the blast hole spacing of presplit blasting can be obtained. Based on the analysis of the principles of vibration tester and vibration pick-up in detecting blast vibrations, a detection scheme of blast vibration is worked out by taking the blast area with precrack rear and non-precrack side of the detection object. The detection and research results of blast vibration show that presplit blasting can reduce the attenuation coefficient of stress wave by half, and the vibration absorption ratio could reach 50.2%; the impact of dynamic loads on the end-wall slope stability coefficient is 1.98%, which proves that presplit blasting plays an important role in shock absorption of blast casting.

  16. Decontamination of surfaces by blasting with crystals of H2O and CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, C.E.; Parfitt, J.E.; Patton, B.D.

    1995-02-01

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy during the 1990s is site and environmental cleanup. In pursuit of this mission, numerous remediation projects are under way and many others are being planned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this report, tests using two proposed methods for decontaminating surfaces one using water ice crystals [Crystalline Ice Blast (CIB)], the other using dry ice crystals (CO 2 Cleanblast trademark) -- are described. Both methods are adaptations of the commonly used sand blasting technology. The two methods tested differ from sand blasting in that the particles are not particularly abrasive and do not accumulate as particles in the wastes. They differ from each other in that the CO 2 particles sublime during and after impact and the ice particles melt. Thus, the two demonstrations provide important information about two strong candidate decontamination methodologies. Each process was tested at ORNL using contaminated lead bricks and contaminated tools and equipment. Demonstrations with the prototype Crystalline Ice Blast and the CO 2 Cleanblast systems showed that paint, grease, and oil can be removed from metal, plastic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces. Furthermore, removal of contamination from lead bricks was highly effective. Both processes were found to be less effective, under the conditions tested, with contaminated tools and equipment that had chemically bonded contamination or contamination located in crevices since neither technology abrades the substrates or penetrates deeply into crevices to remove particulates. Some process improvements are recommended

  17. Addiction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entry into the crypt William Burroughs shared with his mother opened and shut around a failed re-enactment of William Tell’s shot through the prop placed upon a loved one’s head. The accidental killing of his wife Joan completed the installation of the addictation machine that spun melancholia as manic dissemination. An early encryptment to which was added the audio portion of abuse deposited an undeliverable message in WB. Wil- liam could never tell, although his corpus bears the in- scription of this impossibility as another form of pos- sibility. James Godley is currently a doctoral candidate in Eng- lish at SUNY Buffalo, where he studies psychoanalysis, Continental philosophy, and nineteenth-century litera- ture and poetry (British and American. His work on the concept of mourning and “the dead” in Freudian and Lacanian approaches to psychoanalytic thought and in Gothic literature has also spawned an essay on zombie porn. Since entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe in 2007, Valentin Hennig has studied in the classes of Sil- via Bächli, Claudio Moser, and Corinne Wasmuht. In 2010 he spent a semester at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts. His work has been shown in group exhibi- tions in Freiburg and Karlsruhe.

  18. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  19. Underground roadway drivage with heading machines in Indian coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, T.K.

    1983-03-01

    Heading machines have assumed a very important place in underground roadway drivage. They are not only a compromise between ''drill-and-blast'' technique and full-face machines, but are also an economic and versatile form of mechanised roadway drivage. Since the advantages gained by heading machines are considerable, the use of these machines is becoming popular in underground roadway drivage. Experience with continuous miner and heading machines in Indian coal mines is very limited compared to that of Western countries. In 1964-65, for the first time, two units of Lee Norse Miner were used at Kunostoria Colliery of Bengal Coal Company. In 1966, two units of Joy Continuous Miner were introduced at Chalkari Colliery of National Coal Development Corporation, but had to be adandoned because of heavy make of water at the installation site. A Russian PK-3 heading machine was used limitedly during the development of Banki Colliery, Madhya Pradesh. A Demag Unicorn VS-1 machine operated for the development of roadways at Jitpur and Chasnala Collieries of IISCO between 1967-70. With this machine, progress of 7 m per day was attained in level roadways and of about 2 m per day in steep raises.

  20. Method of charging instruments into liquid metal coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To alleviate the thermal shock of a reactor charging machine when charging the machine into liquid metal coolant after the machine is preheated in cover gas. Method: When a reactor fueling machine reaches at the lowermost portion the position immediately above liquid metal coolant surface level, the machine is stopped moving down. The reactor fueling machine is heated at the lowermost portion by thermal radiation from the surface of the liquid metal coolant. After the machine is thus preheated in cover gas, it is again steadily moved down by a winch and charged into the liquid metal coolant. Therefore, the thermal shock of the machine becomes low when charging the machine into the liquid metal coolant to eliminate the damage and deformation at the machine. (Yoshihara, H.)

  1. Microsecond ramp compression of a metallic liner driven by a 5 MA current on the SPHINX machine using a dynamic load current multiplier pulse shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Almeida, T.; Lassalle, F.; Morell, A.; Grunenwald, J.; Zucchini, F.; Loyen, A.; Maysonnave, T.; Chuvatin, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    SPHINX is a 6 MA, 1-μs Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) operated by the CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for imploding Z-pinch loads for radiation effects studies. Among the options that are currently being evaluated to improve the generator performances are an upgrade to a 20 MA, 1-μs LTD machine and various power amplification schemes, including a compact Dynamic Load Current Multiplier (DLCM). A method for performing magnetic ramp compression experiments, without modifying the generator operation scheme, was developed using the DLCM to shape the initial current pulse in order to obtain the desired load current profile. In this paper, we discuss the overall configuration that was selected for these experiments, including the choice of a coaxial cylindrical geometry for the load and its return current electrode. We present both 3-D Magneto-hydrodynamic and 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamic simulations which helped guide the design of the experimental configuration. Initial results obtained over a set of experiments on an aluminium cylindrical liner, ramp-compressed to a peak pressure of 23 GPa, are presented and analyzed. Details of the electrical and laser Doppler interferometer setups used to monitor and diagnose the ramp compression experiments are provided. In particular, the configuration used to field both homodyne and heterodyne velocimetry diagnostics in the reduced access available within the liner's interior is described. Current profiles measured at various critical locations across the system, particularly the load current, enabled a comprehensive tracking of the current circulation and demonstrate adequate pulse shaping by the DLCM. The liner inner free surface velocity measurements obtained from the heterodyne velocimeter agree with the hydrocode results obtained using the measured load current as the input. An extensive hydrodynamic analysis is carried out to examine information such as pressure and particle velocity history profiles or magnetic

  2. Microsecond ramp compression of a metallic liner driven by a 5 MA current on the SPHINX machine using a dynamic load current multiplier pulse shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Almeida, T.; Lassalle, F.; Morell, A.; Grunenwald, J.; Zucchini, F.; Loyen, A. [CEA, DAM, GRAMAT, F-46500 Gramat (France); Maysonnave, T. [International Technologies for High Pulsed Power, F-46500 Thégra (France); Chuvatin, A. S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-09-15

    SPHINX is a 6 MA, 1-μs Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) operated by the CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for imploding Z-pinch loads for radiation effects studies. Among the options that are currently being evaluated to improve the generator performances are an upgrade to a 20 MA, 1-μs LTD machine and various power amplification schemes, including a compact Dynamic Load Current Multiplier (DLCM). A method for performing magnetic ramp compression experiments, without modifying the generator operation scheme, was developed using the DLCM to shape the initial current pulse in order to obtain the desired load current profile. In this paper, we discuss the overall configuration that was selected for these experiments, including the choice of a coaxial cylindrical geometry for the load and its return current electrode. We present both 3-D Magneto-hydrodynamic and 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamic simulations which helped guide the design of the experimental configuration. Initial results obtained over a set of experiments on an aluminium cylindrical liner, ramp-compressed to a peak pressure of 23 GPa, are presented and analyzed. Details of the electrical and laser Doppler interferometer setups used to monitor and diagnose the ramp compression experiments are provided. In particular, the configuration used to field both homodyne and heterodyne velocimetry diagnostics in the reduced access available within the liner's interior is described. Current profiles measured at various critical locations across the system, particularly the load current, enabled a comprehensive tracking of the current circulation and demonstrate adequate pulse shaping by the DLCM. The liner inner free surface velocity measurements obtained from the heterodyne velocimeter agree with the hydrocode results obtained using the measured load current as the input. An extensive hydrodynamic analysis is carried out to examine information such as pressure and particle velocity history profiles or

  3. Microsecond ramp compression of a metallic liner driven by a 5 MA current on the SPHINX machine using a dynamic load current multiplier pulse shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Almeida, T.; Lassalle, F.; Morell, A.; Grunenwald, J.; Zucchini, F.; Loyen, A.; Maysonnave, T.; Chuvatin, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    SPHINX is a 6 MA, 1-μs Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) operated by the CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for imploding Z-pinch loads for radiation effects studies. Among the options that are currently being evaluated to improve the generator performances are an upgrade to a 20 MA, 1-μs LTD machine and various power amplification schemes, including a compact Dynamic Load Current Multiplier (DLCM). A method for performing magnetic ramp compression experiments, without modifying the generator operation scheme, was developed using the DLCM to shape the initial current pulse in order to obtain the desired load current profile. In this paper, we discuss the overall configuration that was selected for these experiments, including the choice of a coaxial cylindrical geometry for the load and its return current electrode. We present both 3-D Magneto-hydrodynamic and 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamic simulations which helped guide the design of the experimental configuration. Initial results obtained over a set of experiments on an aluminium cylindrical liner, ramp-compressed to a peak pressure of 23 GPa, are presented and analyzed. Details of the electrical and laser Doppler interferometer setups used to monitor and diagnose the ramp compression experiments are provided. In particular, the configuration used to field both homodyne and heterodyne velocimetry diagnostics in the reduced access available within the liner's interior is described. Current profiles measured at various critical locations across the system, particularly the load current, enabled a comprehensive tracking of the current circulation and demonstrate adequate pulse shaping by the DLCM. The liner inner free surface velocity measurements obtained from the heterodyne velocimeter agree with the hydrocode results obtained using the measured load current as the input. An extensive hydrodynamic analysis is carried out to examine information such as pressure and particle velocity history profiles or magnetic

  4. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  5. Blast densification trials for oilsands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Port, A. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Martens, S. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Eaton, T. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Shell Canada Muskeg River Mine External Tailings Facility (ETF) is an upstream constructed tailings facility located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Raises have incrementally stepped out over the beach since construction of the starter dam and deposition within standing water has left some parts of the beach in a loose state. In order to assess the effectiveness of blast densification, a blast densification trial program that was conducted in 2006 at the ETF. The primary purpose of the test program was to determine the effectiveness of blast densification in tailings containing layers and zones of bitumen. The paper described the site characterization and explosive compaction trial program, with particular reference to test layout; drilling methodology; and blasting and timing sequence. The paper also described the instrumentation, including the seismographs; high pressure electric piezometers; low pressure electric piezometers; vibrating wire piezometers; inclinometers; settlement gauges; and surveys. Trial observations and post-trial observations were also presented. It was concluded that controlled blasting techniques could be used to safely induce liquefaction in localized areas within the tailings deposit, with a resulting increase in the tailings density. 5 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  6. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues.

  7. Spalling of concrete walls under blast load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A common effect of the detonation of explosives in close proximity of concrete shield walls is the spalling (scabbing) of the back face of the wall. Spalling is caused by the free surface reflection of the shock wave induced in the wall by high pressure air blast and occurs whenever the dynamic tensile rupture strength is exceeded. While a complex process, reasonable analytical spall estimates can be obtained for brittle materials with low tensile strengths, such as concrete, by assuming elastic material behavior and instantaneous spall formation. Specifically, the spall thicknesses and velocities for both normal and oblique incidence of the shock wave on the back face of the wall are calculated. The complex exponential decay wave forms of the air blast are locally approximated by simple power law expressions. Variations of blast wave strength with distance to the wall, charge weight and angle of incidence are taken into consideration. The shock wave decay in the wall is also accounted for by assuming elastic wave propagation. For explosions close-in to the wall, where the reflected blast wave pressures are sufficiently high, multiple spall layers are formed. Successive spall layers are of increasing thickness, at the same time the spall velocities decrease. The spall predictions based on elastic theory are in overall agreement with experimntal results and provide a rapid means of estimating spalling trends of concrete walls subjected to air blast. (Auth.)

  8. 30 CFR 75.1316 - Preparation before blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... two working faces are approaching each other, cutting, drilling and blasting shall be done at only one... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation before blasting. 75.1316 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1316 Preparation...

  9. Divide and Conquer (DC BLAST: fast and easy BLAST execution within HPC environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Cheol Yim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics is currently faced with very large-scale data sets that lead to computational jobs, especially sequence similarity searches, that can take absurdly long times to run. For example, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST and BLAST+ suite, which is by far the most widely used tool for rapid similarity searching among nucleic acid or amino acid sequences, is highly central processing unit (CPU intensive. While the BLAST suite of programs perform searches very rapidly, they have the potential to be accelerated. In recent years, distributed computing environments have become more widely accessible and used due to the increasing availability of high-performance computing (HPC systems. Therefore, simple solutions for data parallelization are needed to expedite BLAST and other sequence analysis tools. However, existing software for parallel sequence similarity searches often requires extensive computational experience and skill on the part of the user. In order to accelerate BLAST and other sequence analysis tools, Divide and Conquer BLAST (DCBLAST was developed to perform NCBI BLAST searches within a cluster, grid, or HPC environment by using a query sequence distribution approach. Scaling from one (1 to 256 CPU cores resulted in significant improvements in processing speed. Thus, DCBLAST dramatically accelerates the execution of BLAST searches using a simple, accessible, robust, and parallel approach. DCBLAST works across multiple nodes automatically and it overcomes the speed limitation of single-node BLAST programs. DCBLAST can be used on any HPC system, can take advantage of hundreds of nodes, and has no output limitations. This freely available tool simplifies distributed computation pipelines to facilitate the rapid discovery of sequence similarities between very large data sets.

  10. Modelling and prediction of pig iron variables in the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxen, H; Laaksonen, M; Waller, M [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Heat Engineering Lab.

    1997-12-31

    The blast furnace, where pig iron for steelmaking is produced, is an extremely complicated process, with heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions between several phases. Very few direct measurements on the internal state are available in the operation of the process. A main problem in on-line analysis and modelling is that the state of the furnace may undergo spontaneous changes, which alter the dynamic behaviour of the process. Moreover, large internal disturbances frequently occur, which affect the product quality. The work in this research project focuses on a central problem in the control of the blast furnace process, i.e., short-term prediction of pig iron variables. The problem is of considerable importance for fuel economy, product quality, and for an optimal decision making in integrated steel plants. The operation of the blast furnace aims at producing a product (hot metal) with variables maintained on a stable level (close to their setpoints) without waste of expensive fuel (metallurgical coke). The hot metal temperature and composition affect the downstream (steelmaking) processes, so fluctuations in the pig iron quality must be `corrected` in the steel plant. The goal is to develop a system which predicts the evolution of the hot metal variables (temperature, chemical composition) during the next few taps, and that can be used for decision-making in the operation of the blast furnace. Because of the complicated behaviour of the process, it is considered important to include both deterministic and stochastic components in the modelling: Mathematical models, which on the basis of measurements describe the physical state of the process, and statistical (black-box) models will be combined in the system. Moreover, different models will be applied in different domains in order to capture structural changes in the dynamics of the process SULA 2 Research Programme; 17 refs.

  11. Modelling and prediction of pig iron variables in the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxen, H.; Laaksonen, M.; Waller, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Heat Engineering Lab.

    1996-12-31

    The blast furnace, where pig iron for steelmaking is produced, is an extremely complicated process, with heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions between several phases. Very few direct measurements on the internal state are available in the operation of the process. A main problem in on-line analysis and modelling is that the state of the furnace may undergo spontaneous changes, which alter the dynamic behaviour of the process. Moreover, large internal disturbances frequently occur, which affect the product quality. The work in this research project focuses on a central problem in the control of the blast furnace process, i.e., short-term prediction of pig iron variables. The problem is of considerable importance for fuel economy, product quality, and for an optimal decision making in integrated steel plants. The operation of the blast furnace aims at producing a product (hot metal) with variables maintained on a stable level (close to their setpoints) without waste of expensive fuel (metallurgical coke). The hot metal temperature and composition affect the downstream (steelmaking) processes, so fluctuations in the pig iron quality must be `corrected` in the steel plant. The goal is to develop a system which predicts the evolution of the hot metal variables (temperature, chemical composition) during the next few taps, and that can be used for decision-making in the operation of the blast furnace. Because of the complicated behaviour of the process, it is considered important to include both deterministic and stochastic components in the modelling: Mathematical models, which on the basis of measurements describe the physical state of the process, and statistical (black-box) models will be combined in the system. Moreover, different models will be applied in different domains in order to capture structural changes in the dynamics of the process SULA 2 Research Programme; 17 refs.

  12. Experience with drilling and blasting work during construction of Mochovce nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraz, M.; Vojta, A.; Podel, R.

    1986-01-01

    The results are discussed of four years of investigating the technical and economic parameters of drilling and blasting equipment employed on the building site of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. The technical and operating characteristics are given of tested breaking and drilling sets manufactured by various foreign companies. The final choice was based on output, hard currency prices, power demand, operating reliability and number of personnel required for operation. The optimal set consists of two Hausherr HBM 70 drilling systems (holes with a diameter of 130 to 150 mm) and two ROC 601-02 Atlas Copco machines (auxiliary work, breaking foundation holes for nuclear reactors). (J.C.)

  13. Electrical machining method of insulating ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, Y.; Mohri, N.; Tani, T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new electrical discharge machining method for insulating ceramics using an assisting electrode with either a sinking electrical discharge machine or a wire electrical discharge machine. In this method, the metal sheet or mesh is attached to the ceramic surface as an assisting material for the discharge generation around the insulator surface. When the machining condition changes from the attached material to the workpiece, a cracked carbon layer is formed on the workpiece surface. As this layer has an electrical conductivity, electrical discharge occurs in working oil between the tool electrode and the surface of the workpiece. The carbon is formed from the working oil during this electrical discharge. Even after the material is machined, an electrical discharge occurs in the gap region between the tool electrode and the ceramic because an electrically conductive layer is generated continuously. Insulating ceramics can be machined by the electrical discharge machining method using the above mentioned surface modification phenomenon. In this paper the authors show a machined example demonstrating that the proposed method is available for machining a complex shape on insulating ceramics. Copyright (1999) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  14. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury: a new trend of blast injury research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Zheng-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Blast injury has become the major life- and function-threatening injuries in recent warfares. There is increased research interest in the mental disorders caused by blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), which has been proved as one of the "signature wounds" in modern battlefield. We reviewed the recent progresses in bTBI-related researches and concluded that the new era of blast injury research has shifted from the traditional physical impairments to cognitive dysfunctional/mental disorders that are proved to be more related to the outcome of combat casualty care.

  15. New techniques for improved performance in surface blasting operation and optimisation of blast design parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.P. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Dept.

    1999-02-01

    Experimental blasts were conducted for optimisation of blasting parameters using separate technologies involving non-electric initiation systems, air decking accessories in conjunction with different explosive products like emulsion (cartridge and site-mixed), slurries (cartridge and site-mixed) and ANFO. The cost associated with each such technology was then compared with the conventional methods of drilling and blasting operations. The results of cost analyses are given. Theoretical and practical aspects of such technologies and their best possible usage in order to establish the desired fragmentation, muck profile, wall control and ultimately the accepted level of costs are mentioned in subsequent sections. 16 refs., 17 figs., 8 plates, 11 tabs.

  16. FastBLAST: homology relationships for millions of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan N Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All-versus-all BLAST, which searches for homologous pairs of sequences in a database of proteins, is used to identify potential orthologs, to find new protein families, and to provide rapid access to these homology relationships. As DNA sequencing accelerates and data sets grow, all-versus-all BLAST has become computationally demanding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present FastBLAST, a heuristic replacement for all-versus-all BLAST that relies on alignments of proteins to known families, obtained from tools such as PSI-BLAST and HMMer. FastBLAST avoids most of the work of all-versus-all BLAST by taking advantage of these alignments and by clustering similar sequences. FastBLAST runs in two stages: the first stage identifies additional families and aligns them, and the second stage quickly identifies the homologs of a query sequence, based on the alignments of the families, before generating pairwise alignments. On 6.53 million proteins from the non-redundant Genbank database ("NR", FastBLAST identifies new families 25 times faster than all-versus-all BLAST. Once the first stage is completed, FastBLAST identifies homologs for the average query in less than 5 seconds (8.6 times faster than BLAST and gives nearly identical results. For hits above 70 bits, FastBLAST identifies 98% of the top 3,250 hits per query. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FastBLAST enables research groups that do not have supercomputers to analyze large protein sequence data sets. FastBLAST is open source software and is available at http://microbesonline.org/fastblast.

  17. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Research and development for developing basic technologies of composite laser-aided metal machining into highly advanced system (Technology of machining process systematization for furnishing titanium and titanium alloys with advanced functions - 2nd year); 1998 nendo fukugo laser nado ni yoru kinzoku kako kiban gijutsu no kodo system ka no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Chitan oyobi chitan gokin eno kokino fuyo kako system ka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the creation of new industries and for their expansion to the consumer market, efforts are made to develop laser-aided technology of bonding titanium with other metals and CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture)-aided technology of high-precision multidimensional laser machining for titanium. In the development of technology for bonding titanium and other metals, combinations of titanium and stainless steel and titanium and copper are examined, and a dissimilar metal joint is successfully manufactured, free of cracks at a tension shear strength level of approximately 4200N/40mm and shear stress of 200MPa or higher. In the study of the mechanism of bonding, it is found that a sound weld metal is created with the formation of intermetallic compounds well inhibited by allowing titanium to be on the upper surface. In the study of laser-aided titanium cutting, a dross-free cutting process is realized by optimizing cutting conditions such as those involving laser excitation and assist gas application. Three-dimensional laser-aided cutting is carried out in compliance with a 3-dimensional laser cutting program incorporating metal pattern data, and the process is found to reduce the number of necessary dies to 1/4 to shorten and simplify the process. (NEDO)

  18. Drilling-and-blasting method of demolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyn Denis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the experience and gives the examples of dismantling and demolition of the construction structures of the buildings and facilities using the drilling-and-blasting method. The drilling-and-blasting method is widely used in construction and reconstruction. The demolition means may be classified according to impact on a material of structures to be demolished and to forces application, where, by virtue of an impact energy type, we choose the blasting method. This method is used during the complete demolition or fragmentation of concrete, reinforced concrete, masonry structures, of old buildings and facilities demolition to their base or in the intended direction. Blasting method may be used as well during the steel and reinforced concrete structures demolition to the smaller easy-to-move parts. Reviewed are the organizational-process activities, which are performed during the various structures dismantling. Given are the areas of application for the various methods of structures demolition. Given is the example of demolition of “Sevemaya” boiler house brick chimney at the territory of Murmansk DSK using the blast in confined spaces of the operating company. Subject of research: methods of construction structures demolition in alarm situations and acts of God. Objects: determination of the most efficient demolition methods in the present conditions of construction operations development. Materials and methods: the developed activities on the construction structures dismantling are given. Results: the most efficient methods and ways of construction structures demolition are defined. Conclusions: it is required for improvement of methods and ways of the structures drilling-and-blasting demolition.

  19. Machine technology: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt was made to find existing machines that have been upgraded and that could be used for large-scale decontamination operations outdoors. Such machines are in the building industry, the mining industry, and the road construction industry. The road construction industry has yielded the machines in this presentation. A review is given of operations that can be done with the machines available

  20. Machine Shop Lathes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This guide, the second in a series of five machine shop curriculum manuals, was designed for use in machine shop courses in Oklahoma. The purpose of the manual is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trade at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed so that it can be used in…

  1. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  2. Spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foglar M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents outcomes of the blast field tests of FRC and reinforced concrete specimens, which were performed in cooperation with the Czech Army corps and Police of the Czech Republic in the military training area Boletice. The numerical evaluation of the experiments focused on the spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading started after the first set of the tests, took almost 3 years and required further small-scale experiments performed in the labs of the Czech Technical University.

  3. Dry blasting decontaminating method for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Hitoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In the present invention, when abrasives are dry blasted on the surface of radioactive wastes and the recovered abrasives are classified for re-use, abrasives having a microvicker's hardness (HMV) of greater than 600 and a grain size of greater than 1mm are used in a case where the radioactive wastes to be abraded are stainless steels. This enables dry blasting decontamination for stainless steels which has been considered to be impossible. In addition since the amount of secondary wastes are reduced, it is extremely effective. (T.M.)

  4. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  5. Predictive control of thermal state of blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbasova, T. A.; Filimonova, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The work describes the structure of the model for predictive control of the thermal state of a blast furnace. The proposed model contains the following input parameters: coke rate; theoretical combustion temperature, comprising: natural gas consumption, blasting temperature, humidity, oxygen, blast furnace cooling water; blast furnace gas utilization rate. The output parameter is the cast iron temperature. The results for determining the cast iron temperature were obtained following the identification using the Hammerstein-Wiener model. The result of solving the cast iron temperature stabilization problem was provided for the calculated values of process parameters of the target area of the respective blast furnace operation mode.

  6. Low-cost blast wave generator for studies of hearing loss and brain injury: blast wave effects in closed spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Andrew J; Hayes, Sarah H; Rao, Abhiram S; Allman, Brian L; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Ding, Dalian; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lobarinas, Edward; Mollendorf, Joseph C; Salvi, Richard

    2015-03-15

    Military personnel and civilians living in areas of armed conflict have increased risk of exposure to blast overpressures that can cause significant hearing loss and/or brain injury. The equipment used to simulate comparable blast overpressures in animal models within laboratory settings is typically very large and prohibitively expensive. To overcome the fiscal and space limitations introduced by previously reported blast wave generators, we developed a compact, low-cost blast wave generator to investigate the effects of blast exposures on the auditory system and brain. The blast wave generator was constructed largely from off the shelf components, and reliably produced blasts with peak sound pressures of up to 198dB SPL (159.3kPa) that were qualitatively similar to those produced from muzzle blasts or explosions. Exposure of adult rats to 3 blasts of 188dB peak SPL (50.4kPa) resulted in significant loss of cochlear hair cells, reduced outer hair cell function and a decrease in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Existing blast wave generators are typically large, expensive, and are not commercially available. The blast wave generator reported here provides a low-cost method of generating blast waves in a typical laboratory setting. This compact blast wave generator provides scientists with a low cost device for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in blast wave injury to the rodent cochlea and brain that may model many of the damaging effects sustained by military personnel and civilians exposed to intense blasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VIGIL, MANUEL G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels

  8. A computational model of blast loading on the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Ziegler, Kimberly; Seo, Jung Hee; Ramesh, K T; Nguyen, Thao D

    2014-01-01

    Ocular injuries from blast have increased in recent wars, but the injury mechanism associated with the primary blast wave is unknown. We employ a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computational model to understand the stresses and deformations incurred by the globe due to blast overpressure. Our numerical results demonstrate that the blast wave reflections off the facial features around the eye increase the pressure loading on and around the eye. The blast wave produces asymmetric loading on the eye, which causes globe distortion. The deformation response of the globe under blast loading was evaluated, and regions of high stresses and strains inside the globe were identified. Our numerical results show that the blast loading results in globe distortion and large deviatoric stresses in the sclera. These large deviatoric stresses may be indicator for the risk of interfacial failure between the tissues of the sclera and the orbit.

  9. Consideration on local blast vibration control by delay blasting; Danpatsu happa ni yoru kyokuchiteki shindo seigyo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, Gento; Adachi, Tsuyoshi; Yamatomi, Jiro [The University of Tokyo School of Engineering Department of Geosystem Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Hoshino, Tatsuya [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-31

    In this research, local blast vibration control based on the theory of superposition of waves was investigated. Firstly, the influence of delay time errors of conventional electric detonators upon the level of local blast vibration was examined. Secondly, for a further effective local blast vibration control, a new delay blasting design concept 'combined delay blasting' that postulates the use of electronic detonators, which virtually have no delay time errors, is proposed. For a delay blasting with uniform detonation time intervals, an optimum time interval to minimize the local PPV (Peak Particle Velocity) is obtained based on the relationship between the PPV and the time interval, which is derived by superposing identical vibration time histories of each single hole shot. However, due to the scattering of the actual delay time caused by errors, PPV of a production blast seldom coincides with the estimated one. Since the expected value and the variance of PPV mainly depend on sensitivity of PPV around the nominal delay time, it is proposed that not only the optimum but also several sub-optimum candidates of delay time should be examined taking error into consideration. Concerning the 'combined delay blasting', its concept and some simulation results are presented. The estimated reduction effect of blast vibration of a delay blast based on this concept was quite favorable, indicating a possibility for further effective local blast vibration control. (author)

  10. 8 Museve NBI BombBlast.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professionals, executives, managers, semi professionals and skilled workers comprised 89.5% of the victims when ... dependants. Being inside a building and within 100 metres from the blast carried the largest risk of injury. A ... Kenya had never experienced a suicidal terrorist bombing ..... Rapid assessment of Injuries.

  11. Ice blasting device for washing pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, when the inside of a pump casing such as a recycling pump is scrubbed, since operator's safety should be ensured, it requires a large-scaled operation. Then, a cover is attached to a flange of the pump casing, in which a driving portion is disposed passing through the cover vertically movably and rotatably, an arm is disposed bendably to the top end of the arm, and a blast nozzle is disposed to the top end of the arm for jetting ice particles, with a camera being disposed to the blast nozzle. The inside of the casing can be scrubbed safely and rapidly by an ice blast method by remote operation while monitoring the state of scrubbing for the inside of the casing by a camera. Further, since the flange of the pump casing for installing the ice blast device is covered by the cover, mists are not scattered to the outside. In addition, mists may be sucked and removed by an exhaustion duct. (N.H.)

  12. Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The freeze-out temperature is chosen by comparison of calorimetry experiments (2, 3) and thermoequilibrium calculations using CHEETAH (4). The near...P.; Vitello, P. CHEETAH Users Manual; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, CA, 2012. 5. Walter, P. Introduction to Air Blast

  13. Blast Injuries: What Clinicians Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of the CDC’s Division of Injury Response, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control provides a brief overview for health care providers on how to respond and care for persons injured by an explosion or blast event.

  14. Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2011-01-21

    In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies

  15. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented. PMID:29562635

  16. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caggiano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented.

  17. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil

  18. Machining of Molybdenum by EDM-EP and EDC Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. L.; Chen, H. J.; Lee, H. M.; Lo, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Molybdenum metal (Mo) can be machined with conventional tools and equipment, however, its refractory propertytends to chip when being machined. In this study, the nonconventional processes of electrical discharge machining (EDM) and electro-polishing (EP) have been conducted to investigate the machining of Mo metal and fabrication of Mo grid. Satisfactory surface quality was obtained using appropriate EDM parameters of Ip ≦ 3A and Ton EDMed Mo metal. Experimental results proved that the appropriate parameters of Ip = 5A and Ton = 50μs at Toff = 10μs can obtain the deposit with about 60μm thickness. The major phase of deposit on machined Mo surface was SiC ceramic, while the minor phases included MoSi2 and/or SiO2 with the presence of free Si due to improper discharging parameters and the use of silicone oil as the dielectric fluid.

  19. Development of a Plastic Recycling Machine

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Daniyan,

    2017-01-01

    Plastics are not degradable materials, therefore improper disposal after use constitute environmental problem. The developed plastic recycler was fabricated using 1.5 mm mild metal sheet punched and rolled into cylindrical form. The outer peeling drum was punched inward and fixed to the machine frame while the inner peeling drum was punched outward. The inner drum was constructed using 1.5 mm galvanized metal sheet while the die was constructed using carbon steel. It has an outer diameter of ...

  20. Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, J.L.; Fletcher, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

  1. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja, L. F.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.

    Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

  2. Formation mechanism of the graphite-rich protective layer in blast furnace hearths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ke-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Liu, Feng; Liang, Li-sheng

    2016-01-01

    A long campaign life of blast furnaces is heavily linked to the existence of a protective layer in their hearths. In this work, we conducted dissection studies and investigated damage in blast furnace hearths to estimate the formation mechanism of the protective layer. The results illustrate that a significant amount of graphite phase was trapped within the hearth protective layer. Furthermore, on the basis of the thermodynamic and kinetic calculations of the graphite precipitation process, a precipitation potential index related to the formation of the graphite-rich protective layer was proposed to characterize the formation ability of this layer. We determined that, under normal operating conditions, the precipitation of graphite phase from hot metal was thermodynamically possible. Among elements that exist in hot metal, C, Si, and P favor graphite precipitation, whereas Mn and Cr inhibit this process. Moreover, at the same hot-face temperature, an increase of carbon concentration in hot metal can shorten the precipitation time. Finally, the results suggest that measures such as reducing the hot-face temperature and increasing the degree of carbon saturation in hot metal are critically important to improve the precipitation potential index.

  3. Shaft Boring Machine: A method of mechanized vertical shaft excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodell, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) is a vertical application of proven rock boring technology. The machine applies a rotating cutter wheel with disk cutters for shaft excavation. The wheel is thrust against the rock by hydraulic cylinders and slews about the shaft bottom as it rotates. Cuttings are removed by a clam shell device similar to conventional shaft mucking and the muck is hoisted by buckets. The entire machine moves down (and up) the shaft through the use of a system of grippers thrust against the shaft wall. These grippers and their associated cylinders also provide the means to maintain verticality and stability of the machine. The machine applies the same principles as tunnel boring machines but in a vertical mode. Other shaft construction activities such as rock bolting, utility installation and shaft concrete lining can be accomplished concurrent with shaft boring. The method is comparable in cost to conventional sinking to a depth of about 460 meters (1500 feet) beyond which the SBM has a clear host advantage. The SBM has a greater advantage in productivity in that it can excavate significantly faster than drill and blast methods

  4. MITS machine operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinchem, J.

    1980-01-01

    This document contains procedures which apply to operations performed on individual P-1c machines in the Machine Interface Test System (MITS) at AiResearch Manufacturing Company's Torrance, California Facility

  5. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  6. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  7. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  8. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  9. 3D, chemical and electrochemical characterization of blasted TI6Al4V surfaces: Its influence on the corrosion behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, V.; Escudero, M.L.; Garcia-Alonso, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The blasting process to increase the roughness of the surface of metallic biomaterials is widely used. As a consequence, one can produce a renewed surface with different topography and chemical composition compared to the original one, which can alter the general corrosion behaviour of the samples. With this idea, the aim of this work is not only the topographical and compositional characterization of blasted surfaces of Ti6Al4V alloy but mainly its influence on the corrosion behaviour of these modified surfaces. The surfaces of Ti6Al4V alloys were blasted with SiO 2 /ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 particles of different size in order to obtain different roughnesses. To carry out the microstructural and topographical characterization of the blasted surfaces, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), the contact profilometry method and the 3D characterization by means of stereo-Fe-SEM have been used. By means of stereo-Fe-SEM, the roughness and the real surface area of the rough surfaces have been calculated. The microstructural, topographical and compositional results have been correlated with the corrosion behaviour of the samples immersed in Hank's solution and studied by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The blasting process alters topographical and chemically the surface of the samples. These modifications induce to an increase in the capacitance values of the roughened samples due to the prevalence of the effect of electrochemically active areas of Ti6Al4V surface over the effect of the presence of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 particles on the blasted surfaces. However, the general corrosion behaviour of the samples is not drastically changed

  10. 77 FR 31878 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Blasting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... requirements designed to protect covered employees working with and around blasting operations. Inventories of... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Blasting Operations and Use of Explosives Standard ACTION: Notice... (OSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Blasting Operations and Use of...

  11. Machine protection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Macpherson, A L

    2010-01-01

    A summary of the Machine Protection System of the LHC is given, with particular attention given to the outstanding issues to be addressed, rather than the successes of the machine protection system from the 2009 run. In particular, the issues of Safe Machine Parameter system, collimation and beam cleaning, the beam dump system and abort gap cleaning, injection and dump protection, and the overall machine protection program for the upcoming run are summarised.

  12. Findings From the National Machine Guarding Program-A Small Business Intervention: Machine Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David L; Yamin, Samuel C; Xi, Min; Brosseau, Lisa M; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G; Stanley, Rodney

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this nationwide intervention was to improve machine safety in small metal fabrication businesses (3 to 150 employees). The failure to implement machine safety programs related to guarding and lockout/tagout (LOTO) are frequent causes of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) citations and may result in serious traumatic injury. Insurance safety consultants conducted a standardized evaluation of machine guarding, safety programs, and LOTO. Businesses received a baseline evaluation, two intervention visits, and a 12-month follow-up evaluation. The intervention was completed by 160 businesses. Adding a safety committee was associated with a 10% point increase in business-level machine scores (P increase in LOTO program scores (P < 0.0001). Insurance safety consultants proved effective at disseminating a machine safety and LOTO intervention via management-employee safety committees.

  13. Findings from the National Machine Guarding Program–A Small Business Intervention: Machine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Samuel C.; Xi, Min; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Gordon, Robert; Most, Ivan G.; Stanley, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this nationwide intervention was to improve machine safety in small metal fabrication businesses (3 – 150 employees). The failure to implement machine safety programs related to guarding and lockout/tagout (LOTO) are frequent causes of OSHA citations and may result in serious traumatic injury. Methods Insurance safety consultants conducted a standardized evaluation of machine guarding, safety programs, and LOTO. Businesses received a baseline evaluation, two intervention visits and a twelve-month follow-up evaluation. Results The intervention was completed by 160 businesses. Adding a safety committee was associated with a 10-percentage point increase in business-level machine scores (p< 0.0001) and a 33-percentage point increase in LOTO program scores (p <0.0001). Conclusions Insurance safety consultants proved effective at disseminating a machine safety and LOTO intervention via management-employee safety committees. PMID:26716850

  14. Dictionary of machine terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This book has introduction of dictionary of machine terms, and a compilation committee and introductory remarks. It gives descriptions of the machine terms in alphabetical order from a to Z and also includes abbreviation of machine terms and symbol table, way to read mathematical symbols and abbreviation and terms of drawings.

  15. Mankind, machines and people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugli, A

    1984-01-01

    The following questions are addressed: is there a difference between machines and men, between human communication and communication with machines. Will we ever reach the point when the dream of artificial intelligence becomes a reality. Will thinking machines be able to replace the human spirit in all its aspects. Social consequences and philosophical aspects are addressed. 8 references.

  16. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  17. HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    machine. The machine comprises six stationary HTS field windings wound from both YBCO and BiSCOO tape operated at liquid nitrogen temperature and enclosed in a cryostat, and a three phase armature winding spinning at up to 300 rpm. This design has full functionality of HTS synchronous machines. The design...

  18. Your Sewing Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  19. Safety management system during rock blasting at FRFCF construction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumaran, C.; Kandasamy, S.; Satpathy, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    Blasting is an important activity during rock excavation to reach required depth for obtaining stability of the civil structure. For the construction of various Plant Buildings of Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF), IGCAR at Kalpakkam, based on the geological survey it is required to reach a depth of 21.4 meters from existing ground level. This paper details about the procedures and precaution adopted during the rock blasting activities at FRFCF site. The volume of rock removed by blasting was 3 lakh cubic meters. The total number of blasting carried out was 304 using 105.73 tons of blasting material. The entire blasting work could be completed within 174 days without any incident. (author)

  20. Machinability of structural steels with calcium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pytel, S.; Zadecki, M.

    2003-01-01

    The machinability of the plain carbon and low alloy structural steels with carbon content of 0.1-0.6% is briefly discussed in the first part of the paper. In the experimental part a dependence between the addition of calcium and some changes in sulphide and oxide inclusions morphology is presented. The Volvo test for measurement of machinability index B i has been applied. Using the multiple regression methods two relationships between machinability index B i and stereological parameters of non-metallic inclusions as well as hardness of the steels have been calculated. The authors have reached the conclusion that owing to the changes in inclusion chemical composition and geometry as result of calcium addition the machinability index of the steel can be higher. (author)

  1. Machine for extrusion under vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, A.

    1958-01-01

    In a study of the behaviour of easily oxidised metals during the extrusion process, it is first necessary to find an effective mean of fighting corrosion, since this, even when barely detectable, has an important influence on the validity of the results recorded. The neatest and also the most efficient of all the methods tried consists in creating a vacuum around the test piece. Working on this principle, and at the same time respecting the conventional rules for extrusion tests (loading the sample after stabilisation at the testing temperature, differential measurements of lengthening, etc.) we found it necessary to construct an original machine. (author) [fr

  2. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, control of blast effects in sensitive areas, blasthole deviation, regulatory impact when blasting at Superfund sites, computer-aided blast design and monitoring, tunneling techniques, shaft excavations, video camera analysis of blasting operations, soil densification, cost optimization, mine blasting accidents, non-electric initiation systems, and delay detonators. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  3. Pathological Fingerprints, Systems Biology and Biomarkers of Blast Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    changes after blast injury. J. Trauma 56, 393–403. Murthy, J.M., Chopra, J.S., and Gulati, D.R. (1979). Subdural hematoma in an adult following a blast...neuronal damage), diffuse brain injury, and subdural hemorrhage. It is still controversial whether primary blast forces directly damage the brain, and if...emboli, leading to infarction (Guy et al., 2000a; Guy et al., 2000b). The most common types of TBI are diffuse axonal injury, contusion, and subdural

  4. Size reduction machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users

  5. Virtual machine performance benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Steve G; French, Todd

    2011-10-01

    The attractions of virtual computing are many: reduced costs, reduced resources and simplified maintenance. Any one of these would be compelling for a medical imaging professional attempting to support a complex practice on limited resources in an era of ever tightened reimbursement. In particular, the ability to run multiple operating systems optimized for different tasks (computational image processing on Linux versus office tasks on Microsoft operating systems) on a single physical machine is compelling. However, there are also potential drawbacks. High performance requirements need to be carefully considered if they are to be executed in an environment where the running software has to execute through multiple layers of device drivers before reaching the real disk or network interface. Our lab has attempted to gain insight into the impact of virtualization on performance by benchmarking the following metrics on both physical and virtual platforms: local memory and disk bandwidth, network bandwidth, and integer and floating point performance. The virtual performance metrics are compared to baseline performance on "bare metal." The results are complex, and indeed somewhat surprising.

  6. A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

    2006-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

  7. Quantum machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-13

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  8. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Botvinnik, M M

    1964-01-01

    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  9. Proceedings of the eighteenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This edition of the Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques is the eighteenth in a series published by the International Society of Explosives Engineers. The papers cover a wide variety of explosives and blasting techniques, including: rock mechanics, rock drilling, perimeter control handling and documenting blasting complaints, blast vibration frequencies, blasting techniques for surface and underground coal mines, explosives for permafrost blasting, lightning detection, use of slow motion video to analyze blasts, tunneling, and close-in blasting control. Papers have been processed individually for inclusion on the data base

  10. Experimental Study and Engineering Practice of Pressured Water Coupling Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overburden strata movement in large space stope is the major reason that induces the appearance of strong mining pressure. Presplitting blasting for hard coal rocks is crucial for the prevention and control of strong pressure in stope. In this study, pressured water coupling blasting technique was proposed. The process and effect of blasting were analyzed by orthogonal test and field practice. Results showed that the presence of pressure-bearing water and explosive cartridges in the drill are the main influence factors of the blasting effect of cement test block. The high load-transmitting performance of pore water and energy accumulation in explosive cartridges were analyzed. Noxious substances produced during the blasting process were properly controlled because of the moistening, cooling, and diluting effect of pore water. Not only the goal of safe and static rock fragmentation by high-explosive detonation but also a combination of superdynamic blast loading and static loading effect of the pressured water was achieved. Then the practice of blasting control of hard coal rocks in Datong coal mine was analyzed to determine reasonable parameters of pressured water coupling blasting. A good presplitting blasting control effect was achieved for the hard coal rocks.

  11. Assessment of Blasting Operations Effects During Highway Tunnel Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valašková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blasting operations are one of the fundamental parts of daily civil engineering. Drilling and blasting still remain the only possible ways of tunnelling in very adverse geological conditions. However, this method is a source of various disadvantages, the main one being tremors propagating through the geological environment which not only affect buildings, but also disturb the comfort of living in the vicinity of the source. Designing this procedure is mostly done using standardized empirical relations. This article shows the possibility of using a FEM technique in predicting blast effects. This approach is demonstrated in a simple case study on the impact of blasting operations on steel pipes.

  12. Collapse of rocks by blasting. Razrusheniye gornykh porod Vzryvom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A F; Kutuzov, B N

    1983-01-01

    Information is provided about drilling boreholes and wells, explosives and the means for initiating them, storage, transporting and calculation of the explosive materials. Physical essence of the destructive, scientific and air effect of the blast are presented, principles of arrangement and calculation of the charges, reasons for malfunctions and methods of eliminating them, measures for protecting the surrounding objects from harmful effect of the industrial blast. Questions are examined of planning, organization and safety of the blasting operations. The second edition (first edition 1967) has been revised with regard for changes that occurred in the field of blasting operations.

  13. Water-Depth-Based Prediction Formula for the Blasting Vibration Velocity of Lighthouse Caused by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lighthouses are the most important hydraulic structures that should be protected during underwater drilling blasting. Thus, the effect of blasting vibration on lighthouse should be studied. On the basis of the dimensional analysis, we deduced a revised formula for water depth based on Sodev’s empirical formula and established the linear fitting model. During the underwater reef project in the main channel of Shipu Harbor in the Ningbo–Zhoushan Port, the blasting vibration data of the lighthouse near the underwater blasting area were monitored. The undetermined coefficient, resolvable coefficient, and F value of the two formulas were then obtained. The comparison of the data obtained from the two formulas showed that they can effectively predict the blasting vibration on the lighthouse. The correction formula that considers water depth can obviously reduce prediction errors and accurately predict blasting vibration.

  14. Blast Injuries: What Clinicians Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of the CDC’s Division of Injury Response, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control provides a brief overview for health care providers on how to respond and care for persons injured by an explosion or blast event.  Created: 11/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 11/6/2008.

  15. Blast vibration monitoring, July to December, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The complexity of the vibration waveforms produced appears at this stage to preclude simple comparison of different blasts. A modelling approach is indicated from the preliminary experiments. The required elemental charge length and the steady state column length of ANFO in 381 mm holes must be determined for further development of a model. This information may be acquired by firing a number of charges of varying lengths with all other variables held constant.

  16. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer

  17. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Langner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae, which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17 reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases.

  18. D-BLAST OFDM with Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Jianxuan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO systems formed by multiple transmit and receive antennas can improve performance and increase capacity of wireless communication systems. Diagonal Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time (D-BLAST structure offers a low-complexity solution for realizing the attractive capacity of MIMO systems. However, for broadband wireless communications, channel is frequency-selective and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM has to be used with MIMO techniques to reduce system complexity. In this paper, we investigate D-BLAST for MIMO-OFDM systems. We develop a layerwise channel estimation algorithm which is robust to channel variation by exploiting the characteristic of the D-BLAST structure. Further improvement is made by subspace tracking to considerably reduce the error floor. Simulation results show that the layerwise estimators require 1 dB less signal-to-noise ratio (SNR than the traditional blockwise estimator for a word error rate (WER of when Doppler frequency is 40 Hz. Among the layerwise estimators, the subspace-tracking estimator provides a 0.8 dB gain for WER with 200 Hz Doppler frequency compared with the DFT-based estimator.

  19. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Thorsten; Białas, Aleksandra; Kamoun, Sophien

    2018-04-17

    Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae ), which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17) reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases. Copyright © 2018 Langner et al.

  20. Verification of wet blasting decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Sachito; Murayama, Kazunari; Yoshida, Hirohisa; Igei, Shigemitsu; Izumida, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Macoho Co., Ltd. participated in the projects of 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Ministry of the Environment' and 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Cabinet Office.' And we tested verification to use a wet blasting technology for decontamination of rubble and roads contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a results of the verification test, the wet blasting decontamination technology showed that a decontamination rate became 60-80% for concrete paving, interlocking, dense-grated asphalt pavement when applied to the decontamination of the road. When it was applied to rubble decontamination, a decontamination rate was 50-60% for gravel and approximately 90% for concrete and wood. It was thought that Cs-134 and Cs-137 attached to the fine sludge scraped off from a decontamination object and the sludge was found to be separated from abrasives by wet cyclene classification: the activity concentration of the abrasives is 1/30 or less than the sludge. The result shows that the abrasives can be reused without problems when the wet blasting decontamination technology is used. (author)

  1. Water-Depth-Based Prediction Formula for the Blasting Vibration Velocity of Lighthouse Caused by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Wenbin; Wang, Zhenxiong; Liu, Jianqing; Xu, Jinglin; Liu, Xin; Cao, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Lighthouses are the most important hydraulic structures that should be protected during underwater drilling blasting. Thus, the effect of blasting vibration on lighthouse should be studied. On the basis of the dimensional analysis, we deduced a revised formula for water depth based on Sodev’s empirical formula and established the linear fitting model. During the underwater reef project in the main channel of Shipu Harbor in the Ningbo–Zhoushan Port, the blasting vibration data of the lighthou...

  2. Influence of thermal charge preparation on coke comminution under blast-furnace operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation is described for the study of structural breakdown of coke by thermochemical action of alkali and alkaline-earth metal vapors under blast furnace operating conditions. Bench-scale test facilities are described in which a pair of coke samples are exposed to the metal vapors then subjected to gasification. Structural strength tests were performed before and after each experiment. Coke samples were obtained in either moist or thermally prepared condition. The value of thermal charge preparation (heat treatment of the coal at 150/sup 0/C in a fluidized bed) was established, since it shifts the pore size distribution to the smaller size, thereby retarding adsorption of the metal vapors. 16 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Numerical Investigation of Structural Response of Corrugated Blast Wall Depending on Blast Load Pulse Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Sohn

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbon explosions are one of most hazardous events for workers on offshore platforms. To protect structures against explosion loads, corrugated blast walls are typically installed. However, the profiles of real explosion loads are quite different depending on the congestion and confinement of Topside structures. As the level of congestion and confinement increases, the explosion load increases by up to 8 bar, and the rising time of the load decreases. This study primarily aims to investigate the structural behavior characteristics of corrugated blast walls under different types of explosion loadings. Four loading shapes were applied in the structural response analysis, which utilized a dynamic nonlinear finite element method.

  4. Evaluation of Blast Resistance of Fiber Reinforced Composite Specimens under Contact Blast Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janota, O.; Foglar, M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents results of experimental programme which took place in 2014, 2015 and 2016. Experiments were focused on the resistance of full scale concrete panels subjected to contact blast loading. Specimens were loaded by contact blast by plastic explosive. All specimens were reinforced concrete slabs made of fiber concrete. Basalt mesh and textile sheets were added to some of the experiments for creating more heterogeneous material to achieve better resistance of the specimens. Evaluation of experiments was mainly focused on the damaged area on the contact side and soffit of the specimens. Dependency of the final damage of concrete panels on the weight of explosive and concrete strength was assessed.

  5. Effects of heat treatments of coal on coke destruction under blast furnace conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-09-01

    This paper discusses results of investigations on effects of chemical reactions in a blast furnace on coke disintegration and destruction. The investigations were carried out by the VUKhIN Institute branch in Kuznetsk. Effects of silicates and carbonates of sodium, potassium and zinc on mechanical coke properties were investigated under laboratory conditions. Coke samples were placed in a reactor and were treated by vapors of metal compounds. Coke produced from a coal mixture with conventional moisture content and from preheated coal mixture was used. Coal properties are given in a table. Design of laboratory equipment used for tests is shown in 2 schemes. Heat treatments influenced coke porosity and its structural strength. Proportion of large pores accessible to sodium and potassium in coke from preheated coal was 4.5 times lower than in coke from a conventional mixture. Adsorption of sodium and potassium on coke from preheated charge was lower (from 0.22% to 0.24%) than on coke from a conventional mixture (from 2.5% to 2.9%). Adsorption of alkali metals on coke reduced its structural strength and increased coke oxidation rate by carbon dioxide. Use of heat treatments of coal for coking reduced adsorption of alkali metals on coke in a blast furnace, increased coke structural strength and reduced coke oxidation rate by carbon dioxide. (16 refs.) (In Russian)

  6. Studies to overcome the manufacturing problems in blast furnace tap hole clay of Integrated Steel Plants: Experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva kumar, R.; Mohammed, Raffi; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Integrated Steel Plants commonly uses Blast Furnace route for iron production which accounts for over 60 % of the world iron output. Blast Furnace runs for ten to twenty years without repairing hearth walls and Tap Hole (TH). Tap hole is an outlet for hot metal produced in a Blast Furnace and run from the shell of the furnace into the interior allowing access to the molten material. Tapping is the term used for drilling a hole through the tap hole which allows the molten iron and slag to flow out. In Iron making process, removal of liquid iron from furnace and sending it for steel making is known as cast house practice. For tapping liquid iron and operating the tap hole requires a special type of clay. Tap hole clay (THC) used to stop the flow of liquid iron and slag from the blast furnace. Present work deals with the study on manufacturing of THC at Visakhapatnam Steel Plant and problems related to manufacturing. Experiments were conducted to solve the identified problems and results are furnished in detail. The findings can improve the manufacturing process and improve the productivity of tap hole clay.

  7. Application of Electro Chemical Machining for materials used in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandilov, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Electro-Chemical Machining (ECM) is the generic term for a variety of electrochemical processes. ECM is used to machine work pieces from metal and metal alloys irrespective of their hardness, strength or thermal properties, through the anodic dissolution, in aerospace, automotive, construction, medical equipment, micro-systems and power supply industries. The Electro Chemical Machining is extremely suitable for machining of materials used in extreme conditions. General overview of the Electro-Chemical Machining and its application for different materials used in extreme conditions is presented.

  8. Blasting Standards for the Ghanaian Mining Industry | Amegbey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana is a well known mining nation and hard rock mining has been going on since the 10th century. Mining companies in Ghana are well aware of the regulatory requirements to carry out blasting activities such that neighbouring communities are protected from excessive impact as a result of blast vibrations amongst other ...

  9. Liquid flow in the hearth of the blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauje, P.; Nicolle, R.; Steiler, J.M.; Venturini, M.J.; Libralesso, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The hearth of a blast furnace is poorly known. Our approach to characterize the hearth involves classical methods of chemical engineering, assessing the flow conditions by means of radioactive tracer techniques. The most important feature of this study is to combine measurements on industrial blast furnaces, experiments on a small scale model and flow model. calculations. 8 refs., 16 figs

  10. Implementation of a user defined mine blast model in LSDYNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler-Street, M.; Leerdam, P.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    A user defined mine blast model has been developed and implemented into the explicit finite element code LS-DYNA to provide a numerically efficient method for simulating an antivehicular mine blast. The objective is to provide a simple and robust numerical method which is able to represent both the

  11. Inheritance of blast resistance and identification of SSR marker ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-08-02

    Aug 2, 2013 ... arm of chromosome 6 and in close proximity of blast resis- ... resistance to a M. oryzae race in a gene-for-gene manner. DNA markers have been ... order to identify the new sources of resistance against blast, there is need for ...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for use so long as the present approval is maintained. (e) Electric detonators shall be compatible... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310...

  13. Equipment Specific Optimum Blast-Design Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Upadhyay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Design of blasting parameters plays an important role in the optimization of mining cost as well as cost of subsequent processing of ore. Drilling and handling costs are the major mining cost. This work presents an indirect optimization model for mining cost through optimization of blasting parameters for a particular set of drilling and loading equipment.

  14. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  15. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  16. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  17. Introduction to machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Baştanlar, Yalın; Özuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning app...

  18. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  19. Reducing Drill and Blast Cost through Blast Optimisation – A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Case Study* ... using the proposed blast parameters increased by 14.3 to 50.0% for ore zones and 12.5 ... of gold, compels technologists in the industry to .... 127. Bench Height (H), m. 4. 4. 4.5. 4.5. 4.5. 4.5. Sub-drill (U), m. 0.5.

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Blast Loading Descriptors as Occupant Injury Predictors for Underbody Blast Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the DoD, and shall not be used for advertising or...Trembelay, J., “Validation of a Loading Model for Simulating Blast Mine Effects on Armoured Vehicles,” 7th International LS-DYNA Users Conference

  1. Blasting and Blast Effects in Cold Regions. Part 3. Explosions in Ground Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    121- York, Ontario: Technical Marketing Services- 123. Explosives, Canadian Industries, 6th edition. Gaffney, E.S. (1984b) Hugoniot of water ice. In...Mines, blasting. U.S. Bureau of Nlines , Report of Insesti- Report of lnsestigations RI 7751. gations 8507. Piekutoiski. A.J. (1974) I.aborator,, scale

  2. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  3. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  4. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented. PMID:23558425

  5. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  6. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sidorenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance.

  7. Machine listening intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    This manifesto paper will introduce machine listening intelligence, an integrated research framework for acoustic and musical signals modelling, based on signal processing, deep learning and computational musicology.

  8. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Written as a tutorial to explore and understand the power of R for machine learning. This practical guide that covers all of the need to know topics in a very systematic way. For each machine learning approach, each step in the process is detailed, from preparing the data for analysis to evaluating the results. These steps will build the knowledge you need to apply them to your own data science tasks.Intended for those who want to learn how to use R's machine learning capabilities and gain insight from your data. Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning, but have never used R; or

  9. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  10. Are there intelligent Turing machines?

    OpenAIRE

    Bátfai, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new computing model based on the cooperation among Turing machines called orchestrated machines. Like universal Turing machines, orchestrated machines are also designed to simulate Turing machines but they can also modify the original operation of the included Turing machines to create a new layer of some kind of collective behavior. Using this new model we can define some interested notions related to cooperation ability of Turing machines such as the intelligence quo...

  11. Effect of Surface Blasting on Subway Tunnels- A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Entezari Zarch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During wars and crises, the underground tunnels are used as a safe space. Therefore, the stability and safety of them under a blast is of particular importance. In this paper, the Finite Difference Method has been used to study the influence of the change in geotechnical parameters and depth on surface blasting on subway tunnels. Results showed that increasing the internal friction angle, modulus of elasticity and cohesion of the soil reduced the effects of blast loads on the vertical displacement and bending moment in the center of tunnel crown. Furthermore, the results showed that increasing the depth of the tunnel reduced the effects of blast loading. Comparing all parameters collectively showed that the increase in the modulus of elasticity of the soil and depth of the tunnel is the most effective in reducing the influence of the blast loads on the vertical displacement and bending moment of the tunnel crown, respectively.

  12. Attenuation of blast pressure behind ballistic protective vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Shridharani, Jay K; Matthews, Kyle A; Capehart, Bruce P; Myers, Barry S; Bass, Cameron R

    2013-02-01

    Clinical studies increasingly report brain injury and not pulmonary injury following blast exposures, despite the increased frequency of exposure to explosive devices. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of personal body armour use on the potential for primary blast injury and to determine the risk of brain and pulmonary injury following a blast and its impact on the clinical care of patients with a history of blast exposure. A shock tube was used to generate blast overpressures on soft ballistic protective vests (NIJ Level-2) and hard protective vests (NIJ Level-4) while overpressure was recorded behind the vest. Both types of vest were found to significantly decrease pulmonary injury risk following a blast for a wide range of conditions. At the highest tested blast overpressure, the soft vest decreased the behind armour overpressure by a factor of 14.2, and the hard vest decreased behind armour overpressure by a factor of 56.8. Addition of body armour increased the 50th percentile pulmonary death tolerance of both vests to higher levels than the 50th percentile for brain injury. These results suggest that ballistic protective body armour vests, especially hard body armour plates, provide substantial chest protection in primary blasts and explain the increased frequency of head injuries, without the presence of pulmonary injuries, in protected subjects reporting a history of blast exposure. These results suggest increased clinical suspicion for mild to severe brain injury is warranted in persons wearing body armour exposed to a blast with or without pulmonary injury.

  13. Survey of rice blast race identity for blast resistance gene identification in the USA and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease is a significant threat to stable rice production in the USA and worldwide. The major resistance gene (Pi-ta) located within a cluster of resistance genes on rice chromosome 12 has been demonstrated to confer resistance to the rice blast disease. Katy, a rice cultivar released in ...

  14. Experimental investigation of blast mitigation and particle-blast interaction during the explosive dispersal of particles and liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontalier, Q.; Loiseau, J.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    The attenuation of a blast wave from a high-explosive charge surrounded by a layer of inert material is investigated experimentally in a spherical geometry for a wide range of materials. The blast wave pressure is inferred from extracting the blast wave velocity with high-speed video as well as direct measurements with pressure transducers. The mitigant consists of either a packed bed of particles, a particle bed saturated with water, or a homogeneous liquid. The reduction in peak blast wave overpressure is primarily dependent on the mitigant to explosive mass ratio, M/ C, with the mitigant material properties playing a secondary role. Relative peak pressure mitigation reduces with distance and for low values of M/ C (compaction, deformation, and fracture of the powders plays an important role. The difference in scaled arrival time of the blast and material fronts increases with M/ C and scaled distance, with solid particles giving the largest separation between the blast wave and cloud of particles. Surrounding a high-explosive charge with a layer of particles reduces the positive-phase blast impulse, whereas a liquid layer has no influence on the impulse in the far field. Taking the total impulse due to the blast wave and material impact into account implies that the damage to a nearby structure may actually be augmented for a range of distances. These results should be taken into consideration in the design of explosive mitigant systems.

  15. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, ground vibrations and blast effects, design for explosive fracturing of rock, sequential timing for blasting control, design for production optimization, use of blasting for abandoned mine reclamation, chemical explosives, lightning warning systems, magazine security, fire safety, and drilling equipment. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  16. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps... blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not include the following articles: (a) Electric squibs. (b) No. 6 and No. 8 blasting caps, including electric...

  17. Problem and design drawing for solution of precision design drawing and machine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gil

    1982-04-01

    The contents of this book are basic of design drawing, problem of machine design, problem of precision design drawing, problem of planar figure of sheet metal, design drawing for solution of machine design, design drawing for solution of precision design drawing and design drawing for planar figure of sheet metal. It tells of the problems and gives the solutions on precision design drawing and machine design.

  18. Rock breaking methods to replace blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huisheng; Xie, Xinghua; Feng, Yuqing

    2018-03-01

    The method of breaking rock by blasting has a high efficiency and the cost is relatively low, but the associated vibration, flyrock, production of toxic gases since the 1970’s, the Western developed countries began to study the safety of breaking rock. This paper introduces different methods and their progress to safely break rock. Ideally, safe rock breaking would have little vibration, no fly stone, and no toxic gases, which can be widely used in municipal engineering, road excavation, high-risk mining, quarrying and complex environment.

  19. Explosive and accessories in rock blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingua, B.M.P.; Nabiullah, M.; Jagdish, S.; Mishra, G.D.; Singh, T.N. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1999-02-01

    Chemical explosives are commonly used in the mining industry. Those used in India include nitroglycerine (NG) base, ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixture (ANFO), slurry emulsion and liquid oxygen (LOX). Examples of each type and their general properties are lighted. The electric and non-electric detonating systems used are described. Two Indian companies are producing non-electric in-hole delay system. Raydet (IDL-make) and Excel (ICI-make). Their firing characteristics are listed. Tables are given for burden for different density of rock and explosive strength. Causes of bad blast are itemised. 7 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Reliability of engineered basements as blast shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinow, A.; Mohammadi, J.; Robinson, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    A method for predicting the probability of failure of structures by considering multiple failure modes was formulated. It was applied to the analysis of a reinforced concrete slab when subjected to a uniformly distributed blast load over its surface. Currently available criteria for failure due to flexure and shear were used in predicting the probability of failure. This method is capable of considering all major components of a structure, the respective failure modes of each component, and of predicting the probability of failure of the structure as a whole

  1. Design of blast simulators for nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, A.; Opalka, K.O.; Kitchens, C.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A quasi-one-dimensional computational technique is used to model the flow of a large, complicated shock tube. The shock tube, or Large Blast Simulator, is used to simulate conventional or nuclear explosions by shaping the pressure history. Results from computations show favorable agreement when compared with data taken in the facility at Gramat, France. Such future shock tubes will include a thermal irradiation capability to better simulate a nuclear event. The computations point to the need for venting of the combustion products since the pressure history will be considerably altered as the shock propagates through these hot gases

  2. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    influence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the shock wave response 3. Development of the geometric model for the head of a 23 55-kg Yucatan pig 4...of Tissue-Tek® optimum cutting compound and 20% sucrose (w/v) and frozen in a stream of liquid nitrogen (Saljo et al, 2008). The frozen blocks will...review of current models of the pig head under air blast loading 2. Development of a 2-D pig head FE model to study the influence of cerebrospinal fluid

  3. Microsoft Azure machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mund, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    The book is intended for those who want to learn how to use Azure Machine Learning. Perhaps you already know a bit about Machine Learning, but have never used ML Studio in Azure; or perhaps you are an absolute newbie. In either case, this book will get you up-and-running quickly.

  4. The Hooey Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how students can make and use Hooey Machines to learn how mechanical energy can be transferred from one object to another within a system. The Hooey Machine is made using a pencil, eight thumbtacks, one pushpin, tape, scissors, graph paper, and a plastic lid. (PR)

  5. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials...

  6. A nucleonic weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The design and operation of a nucleonic weighing machine fabricated for continuous weighing of material over conveyor belt are described. The machine uses a 40 mCi cesium-137 line source and a 10 litre capacity ionization chamber. It is easy to maintain as there are no moving parts. It can also be easily removed and reinstalled. (M.G.B.)

  7. An asymptotical machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristallini, Achille

    2016-07-01

    A new and intriguing machine may be obtained replacing the moving pulley of a gun tackle with a fixed point in the rope. Its most important feature is the asymptotic efficiency. Here we obtain a satisfactory description of this machine by means of vector calculus and elementary trigonometry. The mathematical model has been compared with experimental data and briefly discussed.

  8. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning but have never used R, or perhaps you know a little R but are new to machine learning. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic programming concepts, but no prior experience is required.

  9. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...

  10. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  11. Impact of Drill and Blast Excavation on Repository Performance Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Francis, N.; Houseworth, J.; Kramer, N.

    2000-01-01

    There has been considerable work accomplished internationally examining the effects of drill and blast excavation on rock masses surrounding emplacement openings of proposed nuclear waste repositories. However, there has been limited discussion tying the previous work to performance confirmation models such as those proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper addresses a possible approach to joining the available information on drill and blast excavation and performance confirmation. The method for coupling rock damage data from drill and blast models to performance assessment models for fracture flow requires a correlation representing the functional relationship between the peak particle velocity (PPV) vibration levels and the potential properties that govern water flow rates in the host rock. Fracture aperture and frequency are the rock properties which may be most influenced by drill and blast induced vibration. If it can be shown (using an appropriate blasting model simulation) that the effect of blasting is far removed from the waste package in an emplacement drift, then disturbance to the host rock induced in the process of drill and blast excavation may be reasonably ignored in performance assessment calculations. This paper proposes that the CANMET (Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology) Criterion, based on properties that determine rock strength, may be used to define a minimum PPV. This PPV can be used to delineate the extent of blast induced damage. Initial applications have demonstrated that blasting models can successfully be coupled with this criterion to predict blast damage surrounding underground openings. The Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain has used a blasting model to generate meaningful estimates of near-field vibration levels and damage envelopes correlating to data collected from pre-existing studies conducted. Further work is underway to expand this application over a statistical distribution of geologic

  12. Efficacy of dry-ice blasting in preventive maintenance of auto robotic assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluch, Nazim; Mohtar, Shahimi; Abdullah, Che Sobry

    2016-08-01

    Welding robots are extensively applied in the automotive assemblies and `Spot Welding' is the most common welding application found in the auto stamping assembly manufacturing. Every manufacturing process is subject to variations - with resistance welding, these include; part fit up, part thickness variations, misaligned electrodes, variations in coating materials or thickness, sealers, weld force variations, shunting, machine tooling degradation; and slag and spatter damage. All welding gun tips undergo wear; an elemental part of the process. Though adaptive resistance welding control automatically compensates to keep production and quality up to the levels needed as gun tips undergo wear so that the welds remain reliable; the system cannot compensate for deterioration caused by the slag and spatter on the part holding fixtures, sensors, and gun tips. To cleanse welding robots of slag and spatter, dry-ice blasting has proven to be an effective remedy. This paper describes Spot welding process, analyses the slag and spatter formation during robotic welding of stamping assemblies, and concludes that the dry ice blasting process's utility in cleansing of welding robots in auto stamping plant operations is paramount and exigent.

  13. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  14. Introduction to machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  15. LHC Report: machine development

    CERN Multimedia

    Rogelio Tomás García for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Machine development weeks are carefully planned in the LHC operation schedule to optimise and further study the performance of the machine. The first machine development session of Run 2 ended on Saturday, 25 July. Despite various hiccoughs, it allowed the operators to make great strides towards improving the long-term performance of the LHC.   The main goals of this first machine development (MD) week were to determine the minimum beam-spot size at the interaction points given existing optics and collimation constraints; to test new beam instrumentation; to evaluate the effectiveness of performing part of the beam-squeezing process during the energy ramp; and to explore the limits on the number of protons per bunch arising from the electromagnetic interactions with the accelerator environment and the other beam. Unfortunately, a series of events reduced the machine availability for studies to about 50%. The most critical issue was the recurrent trip of a sextupolar corrector circuit –...

  16. Blast-Resistant Improvement of Sandwich Armor Structure with Aluminum Foam Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shu; Qi, Chang

    2013-01-01

    Sandwich armor structures with aluminum foam can be utilized to protect a military vehicle from harmful blast load such as a landmine explosion. In this paper, a system-level dynamic finite element model is developed to simulate the blast event and to evaluate the blast-resistant performance of the sandwich armor structure. It is found that a sandwich armor structure with only aluminum foam is capable of mitigating crew injuries under a moderate blast load. However, a severe blast load causes...

  17. Control of City Shallow Buried Tunnel Blasting Hazard to Surface Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining with the blasting test of an under-construction tunnel, this paper optimizes the overall blasting construction scheme. The optimized blasting scheme is used in the site construction test and the peak particle vibration velocity is strictly controlled under working conditions through blasting vibration monitoring to ensure the safety of surrounding buildings and structures in the construction process. The corresponding control measures are proposed to reduce the blasting vibration which brings certain guiding significance to the following construction project.

  18. Development of decontamination system for radioactive matter on paved road using dry ice blast method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Haruo; Wakayama, Masanori; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    As a decontamination method for paved road surface, the 'Dry Ice Blast Decontamination System' has been developed. This decontamination system has characteristic as follows; 1) Generation of decontamination waste is extremely small, 2) not using water, 3) not damaging the pavement surface. In actual decontamination work, more than 60% average (maximum 84%) reduction rate of the radiation counting rate has been achieved. In addition to these features, this system prevent the diffusion into the surrounding and the radiation exposure of workers by sucking waste quickly using attached dust collecting function. This system is also characterized in that it does not cause a difference in skill by the operator because of faceted decontamination using repetitive motion by concatenating three pellet injection nozzle and self-propelled decontamination machine. (author)

  19. Determination of Destress Blasting Effectiveness Using Seismic Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtecki, Łukasz; Mendecki, Maciej J.; Zuberek, Wacaław M.

    2017-12-01

    Underground mining of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is currently performed under difficult geological and mining conditions. The mining depth, dislocations (faults and folds) and mining remnants are responsible for rockburst hazard in the highest degree. This hazard can be minimized by using active rockburst prevention, where destress blastings play an important role. Destress blastings in coal seams aim to destress the local stress concentrations. These blastings are usually performed from the longwall face to decrease the stress level ahead of the longwall. An accurate estimation of active rockburst prevention effectiveness is important during mining under disadvantageous geological and mining conditions, which affect the risk of rockburst. Seismic source parameters characterize the focus of tremor, which may be useful in estimating the destress blasting effects. Investigated destress blastings were performed in coal seam no. 507 during its longwall mining in one of the coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin under difficult geological and mining conditions. The seismic source parameters of the provoked tremors were calculated. The presented preliminary investigations enable a rapid estimation of the destress blasting effectiveness using seismic source parameters, but further analysis in other geological and mining conditions with other blasting parameters is required.

  20. Evaluation of blast-induced vibration effects on structures 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Rim; Jeon, Gyu Shick; Lee, Dae Soo; Joo, Kwang Ho; Lee, Woong Keon [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chang Ha; Chung, So Keul; Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Hee Soon; Chun, Sun Woo; Park, Yeon Jun; Synn, Joong Ho; Choi, Byung Hee [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Due to the difficulties of obtaining construction site for new plants, following ones are inevitably being built in the site adjacent to existing power plants. Therefore considerable thought has been recently given to the dynamic loading generated by blasting works near the plants to maintain the safety of structures and facilities in power plants. Our own standard for safety level of blast vibration is not prepared yet, and foreign standards have been generally employed without theoretical and experimental verification. Safety-related structures of power plants and facilities have to be protected against the effects of possible hazards due to blast vibration. Earthquakes have been considered a major dynamic design loading as a requirement of plant design, but the effects of blast-induced vibration are not. In order to ensure the safety, rational safe criterion should be established and blast design should be satisfy it, which requires the development of a model for prediction of vibration level through more systematic measurement and analysis. The main objectives of the study are : to provide background data for establishing the rational safe vibration limits, to develop models for prediction of blast vibration level, to establish safe blast design criterion, and to accumulate techniques for field measurements, data acquisition and analysis (author). 80 refs., 347 figs.

  1. Spectrum of abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type is always challenging for diagnosis. Air containing abdominal viscera is most vulnerable to effects of primary blast injury. In any patient exposed to a primary blast wave who presents with an acute abdomen, an abdominal organ injury is to be kept in a clinical suspicion. Aim Study various abdominal organ injuries occurring in a primary type of blast injury. Material and methods: All those who had exploratory laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries after a primary blast injury for a period of 10 years from January 1998 - January 2008 were included in this retrospective study. Results Total 154 patients had laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries with a primary blast type of injury. Small intestine was damaged in 48 patients (31.1% followed by spleen in 22.7% cases. 54 patients (35.06% had more than one organ injured. Liver laceration was present in 30 patients (19.48%. Multiple small gut perforations were present in 37 patients (77.08%. Negative laparotomy was found in 5 patients (3.24% whereas 3 (1.94% had re-exploration. Mortality was present in 6 patients (3.89%. Conclusions Primary blast injury causes varied abdominal organ injuries. Single or multiple organ damage can be there. Small intestine is commonest viscera injured. Laparotomy gives final diagnosis.

  2. Machine for extrusion under vacuum; Machine de fluage sous vide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    In a study of the behaviour of easily oxidised metals during the extrusion process, it is first necessary to find an effective mean of fighting corrosion, since this, even when barely detectable, has an important influence on the validity of the results recorded. The neatest and also the most efficient of all the methods tried consists in creating a vacuum around the test piece. Working on this principle, and at the same time respecting the conventional rules for extrusion tests (loading the sample after stabilisation at the testing temperature, differential measurements of lengthening, etc.) we found it necessary to construct an original machine. (author) [French] L'etude du comportement au fluage des materiaux facilement oxydables exige, en premier lieu, une lutte efficace contre la corrosion qui, meme a peine decelable, prend une part preponderante quant a la validite des resultats enregistres. La solution la plus elegante, et, a vrai dire, la plus energique parmi toutes les methodes essayees, consiste a realiser le vide autour de l'eprouvette d'essai. Partant de ce principe, et pour sauvegarder les regles classiques de l'essai de fluage (mise en charge de l'eprouvette apres stabilisation en temperature d'essai, mesures differentielles des allongements, etc.) nous nous sommes trouves dans la necessite de construire une machine inedite. (auteur)

  3. Machine for extrusion under vacuum; Machine de fluage sous vide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    In a study of the behaviour of easily oxidised metals during the extrusion process, it is first necessary to find an effective mean of fighting corrosion, since this, even when barely detectable, has an important influence on the validity of the results recorded. The neatest and also the most efficient of all the methods tried consists in creating a vacuum around the test piece. Working on this principle, and at the same time respecting the conventional rules for extrusion tests (loading the sample after stabilisation at the testing temperature, differential measurements of lengthening, etc.) we found it necessary to construct an original machine. (author) [French] L'etude du comportement au fluage des materiaux facilement oxydables exige, en premier lieu, une lutte efficace contre la corrosion qui, meme a peine decelable, prend une part preponderante quant a la validite des resultats enregistres. La solution la plus elegante, et, a vrai dire, la plus energique parmi toutes les methodes essayees, consiste a realiser le vide autour de l'eprouvette d'essai. Partant de ce principe, et pour sauvegarder les regles classiques de l'essai de fluage (mise en charge de l'eprouvette apres stabilisation en temperature d'essai, mesures differentielles des allongements, etc.) nous nous sommes trouves dans la necessite de construire une machine inedite. (auteur)

  4. Disintegration and size reduction of slags and metals after melt refining of contaminated metallic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    Melting under an oxidizing slag is an attractive method of decontaminating and reducing the volume of radioactively contaminated metal scrap. The contaminants are concentrated in a relatively small volume of slag, which leaves the metal essentially clean. A potential method of permanently disposing of the resulting slags (and metals if necessary) is emplacing them into deep shale by grout hydrofracture. Suspension in grout mixtures requires that the slag and metal be granular. The feasibility of size-reducing slags and disintegrating metals and subsequently incorporating both into grout mixtures was demonstrated. Various types of slags were crushed with a small jaw crusher into particles smaller than 3 mm. Several metals were also melted and water-blasted into coarse metal powder or shot ranging in size from 0.05 to 3 mm. A simple low-pressure water atomizer having a multiple nozzle with a converging-line jet stream was developed and used for this purpose. No significant slag dust and steam were generated during slag crushing and liquid-metal water-blasting tests, indicating that contamination can be well contained within the system. The crushed slags and the coarse metal powders were suspendable in group fluids, which indicates probable disposability by shale hydrofracture. The granulation of slags and metals facilitates their containment, transport, and storage

  5. Oil analysis in machine diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaehaeoja, P.

    2006-07-01

    This study concentrates on developing and tuning various oil analysis methods to meet the requirements of modern industry and environmental analytics. Oil analysis methods form a vital part of techniques used to monitor the condition of machines and may help to improve the overall equipment effectiveness value of a factory in a significant manner. Worm gears are used in various production machines, and their breakdowns may cause significant production losses. Wearing of these gears is relatively difficult to monitor with vibration analysis. Analysis of two indicator metals, copper and iron, may reveal wearing phenomena of worm gears effectively, and savings can be significant. Effective wear metal analysis requires good tools. ICP-OES with kerosene dilution is widely used in wear metal analysis, but purchasing and using of ICP-OES is expensive. A cheaper FAAS technique with similar pre-treatment of oil samples was tested and it proved to be useful especially in analyzing small amounts of samples. The accuracy of FAAS was sufficient for quantitative work in machine diagnostics and waste oil characterization. Solid debris analyses are useful in oil contamination control as well as in detection of wearing mechanisms. Membrane filtration, optical microscopy, SEM and automatic particle counting were applied in analysis of rolling and gear oils. Particle counting is an effective way to detect oil contamination, but in the studied cases even larger particles than those detected in normal ISO classes would be informative. However, membrane filtration and optical microscopy may reveal the wearing machine element exactly. Additives provide oils with desired properties thus they should be monitored intensively. A FTIR method for quantitative analysis of fatty alcohols and fatty acid esters in machinery oils was developed during this work. It has already been used successfully in quantitative and qualitative analysis of machinery oil samples. Various kinds of oils may be

  6. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  7. Machine learning and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. High-speed measurement of firearm primer blast waves

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Daviscourt, Joshua; Eng, Jonathan; Courtney, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of firearm primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Key findings are: 1) Most of the lead styphnate based primer models tested show 5.2-11.3% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) In contrast, lead-free diazodinitrophenol (DDNP) based primers had standard deviations of the peak blast p...

  9. The tank's dynamic response under nuclear explosion blast wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mei; Wang Lianghou; Li Xiaotian; Yu Suyuan; Zhang Zhengming; Wan Li

    2005-01-01

    To weapons and equipment, blast wave is the primary destructive factor. In this paper, taken the real model-59 tank as an example, we try to transform the damage estimation problem into computing a fluid structure interaction problem with finite element method. The response of tank under nuclear explosion blast wave is computed with the general-coupling algorithm. Also, the dynamical interaction of blast wave and tank is reflected in real time. The deformation of each part of the tank is worked out and the result corresponds to the real-measured data. (authors)

  10. Lateral blasts at Mount St. Helens and hazard zonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, D.R.; Hoblitt, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Lateral blasts at andesitic and dacitic volcanoes can produce a variety of direct hazards, including ballistic projectiles which can be thrown to distances of at least 10 km and pyroclastic density flows which can travel at high speed to distances of more than 30 km. Indirect effect that may accompany such explosions include wind-borne ash, pyroclastic flows formed by the remobilization of rock debris thrown onto sloping ground, and lahars. Two lateral blasts occurred at a lava dome on the north flank of Mount St. Helens about 1200 years ago; the more energetic of these threw rock debris northeastward across a sector of about 30?? to a distance of at least 10 km. The ballistic debris fell onto an area estimated to be 50 km2, and wind-transported ash and lapilli derived from the lateral-blast cloud fell on an additional lobate area of at least 200 km2. In contrast, the vastly larger lateral blast of May 18, 1980, created a devastating pyroclastic density flow that covered a sector of as much as 180??, reached a maximum distance of 28 km, and within a few minutes directly affected an area of about 550 km2. The May 18 lateral blast resulted from the sudden, landslide-induced depressurization of a dacite cryptodome and the hydrothermal system that surrounded it within the volcano. We propose that lateral-blast hazard assessments for lava domes include an adjoining hazard zone with a radius of at least 10 km. Although a lateral blast can occur on any side of a dome, the sector directly affected by any one blast probably will be less than 180??. Nevertheless, a circular hazard zone centered on the dome is suggested because of the difficulty of predicting the direction of a lateral blast. For the purpose of long-term land-use planning, a hazard assessment for lateral blasts caused by explosions of magma bodies or pressurized hydrothermal systems within a symmetrical volcano could designate a circular potential hazard area with a radius of 35 km centered on the volcano

  11. Protecting the lower extremity against a/p blast mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Dyk, T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available the Lower Extremity against a/p Blast Mines J T van Dyk DEFENCE, PEACE, SAFETY AND SECURITY LANDWARDS SCIENCES COMPETENCY AREA Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Contents • R&D overview • Effect of a/p blast mines • Basic... explosive principles – Shock effect (brisance) – Blast effect • Test methods • Protection concepts • Test results Slide 3 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Goals: Compare LEAP study results with field injuries Investigate energy...

  12. Scale testing of a partially confined blast chamber

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundling, W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available in pressure readings. A scale model of the blast chamber, Emily, was constructed with the addition of a pendulum plate hanging concentrically covering 65% of the open area. PURPOSE OF SCALED BLAST CHAMBER The purpose of this particular test is to evaluate... PHASE Illustrated in Figure 3 and 4 are the results obtained during testing of the scaled blast chamber. In both cases the pressure dissipates over time, showing pulsating behaviour as the shockwaves reflect off the chamber walls. By looking...

  13. Fundamentals of machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Karaszewski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    A forum of researchers, educators and engineers involved in various aspects of Machine Design provided the inspiration for this collection of peer-reviewed papers. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchange of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field will make the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The book reflects the cooperative efforts made in seeking out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of machines and machine parts and for extending

  14. Machine Learning for Hackers

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, Drew

    2012-01-01

    If you're an experienced programmer interested in crunching data, this book will get you started with machine learning-a toolkit of algorithms that enables computers to train themselves to automate useful tasks. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White help you understand machine learning and statistics tools through a series of hands-on case studies, instead of a traditional math-heavy presentation. Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you'll learn how to analyz

  15. Creativity in Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recent machine learning techniques can be modified to produce creative results. Those results did not exist before; it is not a trivial combination of the data which was fed into the machine learning system. The obtained results come in multiple forms: As images, as text and as audio. This paper gives a high level overview of how they are created and gives some examples. It is meant to be a summary of the current work and give people who are new to machine learning some starting points.

  16. Machining of glass fiber reinforced polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The machinability of a 30 wt% glass fiber reinforced polyamide (PA was investigated by means of drilling tests. A disk was cut from an extruded rod and drilled on the flat surface: thrust was acquired during drilling at different drilling speed, feed rate and drill diameter. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and indentation were used to characterize PA so as to evaluate the intrinsic lack of homogeneity of the extruded material. In conclusion, it was observed that the chip formation mechanism affects the thrust dependence on the machining parameters. A traditional modeling approach is able to predict thrust only in presence of a continuous chip. In some conditions, thrust increases as drilling speed increases and feed rate decreases; this evidence suggests not to consider the general scientific approach which deals the machining of plastics in analogy with metals. Moreover, the thrust can be significantly affected by the workpiece fabrication effect, as well as by the machining parameters; therefore, the fabrication effect is not negligible in the definition of an optimum for the machining process.

  17. Massive injection of coal and superoxygenated blast into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toxopeus, H.L.; Danloy, G.; Franssen, R.; Havelange, O. [Corus, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present project was to demonstrate the industrial feasibility of a massive injection of coal, {+-}270 kg/tHM, combined with a high O{sub 2} enrichment of the blast. The coke rate would thus be reduced to well below 250 kg/tHM. A reference level of 200-220 kg coal/tHM was successfully accomplished. However, the technical condition of the blast furnace hearths overruled all ambitions, the anticipated trial scheme had to be abandoned and no further trials were performed. A very short trial was aborted shortly after reaching an injection level of around 265 coal/tHM, due to excessive generation of very fine sludge originating from incomplete combustion. This forced the operators to investigate the merits of combustion more in depth. At the aimed low coke-rate detailed information about the gas distribution is of utmost importance. Therefore, in conjunction with the industrial tests, CRM designed a gas tracing method. Measurement of the transfer time between the injection point (a tuyere) and the sampling points (on an above-burden probe) would allow deduction of the radial gas distribution. CRM made the design and the start-up of an installation built by Hoogovens on blast furnace 7 of IJmuiden. Since then, repeated measurements have shown that the gas transfer time profiles are consistent with the data measured at the blast furnace top and at the wall. The modifications of the moveable armour position are reflected better and faster on the gas distribution as measured by helium tracing than on the skin flow temperatures.

  18. Experimental investigation of blast mitigation and particle-blast interaction during the explosive dispersal of particles and liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontalier, Q.; Loiseau, J.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    The attenuation of a blast wave from a high-explosive charge surrounded by a layer of inert material is investigated experimentally in a spherical geometry for a wide range of materials. The blast wave pressure is inferred from extracting the blast wave velocity with high-speed video as well as direct measurements with pressure transducers. The mitigant consists of either a packed bed of particles, a particle bed saturated with water, or a homogeneous liquid. The reduction in peak blast wave overpressure is primarily dependent on the mitigant to explosive mass ratio, M/C, with the mitigant material properties playing a secondary role. Relative peak pressure mitigation reduces with distance and for low values of M/C (pressure levels in the mid-to-far field. Solid particles are more effective at mitigating the blast overpressure than liquids, particularly in the near field and at low values of M/C, suggesting that the energy dissipation during compaction, deformation, and fracture of the powders plays an important role. The difference in scaled arrival time of the blast and material fronts increases with M/C and scaled distance, with solid particles giving the largest separation between the blast wave and cloud of particles. Surrounding a high-explosive charge with a layer of particles reduces the positive-phase blast impulse, whereas a liquid layer has no influence on the impulse in the far field. Taking the total impulse due to the blast wave and material impact into account implies that the damage to a nearby structure may actually be augmented for a range of distances. These results should be taken into consideration in the design of explosive mitigant systems.

  19. Application of alternating current for dimensionally electrochemical machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacheev, M.K.; Kovalev, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    The results of comparative experimental investigations in dimensionally electrochemical machining of 1Kh18N9T steel using alternating and direct currents are presented. The effect of the electrolyte rate in the inter-electrode clearance, electrode voltage and oscillation amplitude of the electrode-tool on the metal output from the electrodes and the relief of the machined surface is studied. It is shown that the a.c. electrochemical machining permits to achieve the greater dimensional accuracy than the d.c. machining when choosing the proper voltage and electrolyte composition. It is connected with the fact that the prevailing part of the metal output is obtained in the impulse-asymmetrical regime when the inter-electrode clearance is minimum

  20. Environmental problems associated with blasting in mines: public apprehensions of damage due to blast vibrations - case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhi, S.N. [DGMS, Bhubaneswar (India)

    1994-12-31

    Blast vibrations may be felt in intensities as small as 1/100 of that required to cause any damage to structures. Therefore, the public response and thus complaints regarding damages are often imaginary. The paper deals with three case studies, involving alleged damage from blasting in surface and underground coal mines where public litigations and agitations resulted due to such apprehensions. The paper is written in simple technical language as the situations warranted that the blast vibration studies should be understood by the general public. 7 tabs.

  1. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...... and uncertainty during coordinate measurements, 3) Digitalisation and Reverse Engineering. This document contains a short description of each step in the exercise and schemes with room for taking notes of the results.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  2. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  3. Enter the machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palittapongarnpim, Pantita; Sanders, Barry C.

    2018-05-01

    Quantum tomography infers quantum states from measurement data, but it becomes infeasible for large systems. Machine learning enables tomography of highly entangled many-body states and suggests a new powerful approach to this problem.

  4. Introduction to AC machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, Thomas A

    2018-01-01

    AC electrical machine design is a key skill set for developing competitive electric motors and generators for applications in industry, aerospace, and defense. This book presents a thorough treatment of AC machine design, starting from basic electromagnetic principles and continuing through the various design aspects of an induction machine. Introduction to AC Machine Design includes one chapter each on the design of permanent magnet machines, synchronous machines, and thermal design. It also offers a basic treatment of the use of finite elements to compute the magnetic field within a machine without interfering with the initial comprehension of the core subject matter. Based on the author's notes, as well as after years of classroom instruction, Introduction to AC Machine Design: * Brings to light more advanced principles of machine design--not just the basic principles of AC and DC machine behavior * Introduces electrical machine design to neophytes while also being a resource for experienced designers * ...

  5. Linking blast physics to biological outcomes in mild traumatic brain injury: Narrative review and preliminary report of an open-field blast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hailong; Cui, Jiankun; Simonyi, Agnes; Johnson, Catherine E; Hubler, Graham K; DePalma, Ralph G; Gu, Zezong

    2018-03-15

    Blast exposures are associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and blast-induced TBIs are common injuries affecting military personnel. Department of Defense and Veterans Administration (DoD/VA) reports for TBI indicated that the vast majority (82.3%) has been mild TBI (mTBI)/concussion. mTBI and associated posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) have been called "the invisible injury" of the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. These injuries induce varying degrees of neuropathological alterations and, in some cases, chronic cognitive, behavioral and neurological disorders. Appropriate animal models of blast-induced TBI will not only assist the understanding of physical characteristics of the blast, but also help to address the potential mechanisms. This report provides a brief overview of physical principles of blast, injury mechanisms related to blast exposure, current blast animal models, and the neurological behavioral and neuropathological findings related to blast injury in experimental settings. We describe relationships between blast peak pressures and the observed injuries. We also report preliminary use of a highly reproducible and intensity-graded blast murine model carried out in open-field with explosives, and describe physical and pathological findings in this experimental model. Our results indicate close relationships between blast intensities and neuropathology and behavioral deficits, particularly at low level blast intensities relevant to mTBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Superconducting machines. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is given of the principles of superconductivity and superconductors. The properties of Nb-Ti superconductors and the method of flux stabilization are described. The basic features of superconducting d.c. machines are illustrated by the use of these machines for ship propulsion, steel-mill drives, industrial drives, aluminium production, and other d.c. power supplies. Superconducting a.c. generators and their design parameters are discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Quantum Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Romero García, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    [EN] In a world in which accessible information grows exponentially, the selection of the appropriate information turns out to be an extremely relevant problem. In this context, the idea of Machine Learning (ML), a subfield of Artificial Intelligence, emerged to face problems in data mining, pattern recognition, automatic prediction, among others. Quantum Machine Learning is an interdisciplinary research area combining quantum mechanics with methods of ML, in which quantum properties allow fo...

  8. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  9. Some relations between quantum Turing machines and Turing machines

    OpenAIRE

    Sicard, Andrés; Vélez, Mario

    1999-01-01

    For quantum Turing machines we present three elements: Its components, its time evolution operator and its local transition function. The components are related with the components of deterministic Turing machines, the time evolution operator is related with the evolution of reversible Turing machines and the local transition function is related with the transition function of probabilistic and reversible Turing machines.

  10. Reactor refueling machine simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohosky, T.L.; Swidwa, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes in combination: a nuclear reactor; a refueling machine having a bridge, trolley and hoist each driven by a separate motor having feedback means for generating a feedback signal indicative of movement thereof. The motors are operable to position the refueling machine over the nuclear reactor for refueling the same. The refueling machine also has a removable control console including means for selectively generating separate motor signals for operating the bridge, trolley and hoist motors and for processing the feedback signals to generate an indication of the positions thereof, separate output leads connecting each of the motor signals to the respective refueling machine motor, and separate input leads for connecting each of the feedback means to the console; and a portable simulator unit comprising: a single simulator motor; a single simulator feedback signal generator connected to the simulator motor for generating a simulator feedback signal in response to operation of the simulator motor; means for selectively connecting the output leads of the console to the simulator unit in place of the refueling machine motors, and for connecting the console input leads to the simulator unit in place of the refueling machine motor feedback means; and means for driving the single simulator motor in response to any of the bridge, trolley or hoist motor signals generated by the console and means for applying the simulator feedback signal to the console input lead associated with the motor signal being generated by the control console

  11. Seismic stations with GSM telemetry for registration of quarry blasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Milan; Číž, Radim; Málek, Jiří; Žanda, Libor

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 2000, 16 (118) (2000), s. 25-32 ISSN 1211-1910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : blasting * seismic station * GSM mobile modem Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  12. Analysing Blast and Fragment Penetration Effects on Composite Helicopter Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van't Hof, C; Herlaar, K; Luyten, J. M; van der Jagt, M. J

    2005-01-01

    .... The last decades the threat of helicopters has increased in military circumstances. Consequently the helicopters will be exposed to weapon effects like high blast loads and fragment impact more frequently...

  13. Gene interactions and genetics of blast resistance and yield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-11

    Aug 11, 2014 ... of chemical measures for the control and management of blast, which are not .... tion of genetic components of variation, epistasis model and gene effects in two .... and environmental variance is estimated from mean variance.

  14. Seismic safety in conducting large-scale blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashukov, I. V.; Chaplygin, V. V.; Domanov, V. P.; Semin, A. A.; Klimkin, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    In mining enterprises to prepare hard rocks for excavation a drilling and blasting method is used. With the approach of mining operations to settlements the negative effect of large-scale blasts increases. To assess the level of seismic impact of large-scale blasts the scientific staff of Siberian State Industrial University carried out expertise for coal mines and iron ore enterprises. Determination of the magnitude of surface seismic vibrations caused by mass explosions was performed using seismic receivers, an analog-digital converter with recording on a laptop. The registration results of surface seismic vibrations during production of more than 280 large-scale blasts at 17 mining enterprises in 22 settlements are presented. The maximum velocity values of the Earth’s surface vibrations are determined. The safety evaluation of seismic effect was carried out according to the permissible value of vibration velocity. For cases with exceedance of permissible values recommendations were developed to reduce the level of seismic impact.

  15. Measurement and Modelling of Blast Movement to Reduce Ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    geologists at Newmont Ahafo Mine have realised the impact of blast movement on ore losses and dilution and have ... Movement to Reduce Ore Losses and Dilution at Ahafo Gold Mine in Ghana”, Ghana Mining Journal, pp. .... classification.

  16. Evaluation of Grade 120 Granulated Ground blast Furnace Slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    This study evaluates Grade 120 Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and its effect on the properties of hydraulic cement concretes used in structural and pavement construction. Several mix designs, structural and pavement, were used for this ...

  17. Assessment of Environmental Effects of Post-Blasted Explosive on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Assessment of Environmental Effects of Post-Blasted Explosive on the Ecosystem of Old ... intensity and temperature of explosive dissolution in the mine environment shows that TNT ... based on their physical/chemical properties as: gelatin.

  18. An Operational Model for the Prediction of Jet Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    This paper presents an operational model for the prediction of jet blast. The model was : developed based upon three modules including a jet exhaust model, jet centerline decay : model and aircraft motion model. The final analysis was compared with d...

  19. Blast Impact Prediction Studies at Ghana Manganese Company ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Keywords: Blast impact, Environment, Prediction, Regulatory threshold. 1 Introduction ... Noise is an environmental nuisance. .... explosion energy released into the ground generates vibration waves within the rock. Several.

  20. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  2. Blast Load Response of Steel Sandwich Panels with Liquid Encasement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Karr; Marc Perlin; Benjamin Langhorst; Henry Chu

    2009-10-01

    We describe an experimental investigation of the response of hybrid blast panels for protection from explosive and impact forces. The fundamental notion is to dissipate, absorb, and redirect energy through plastic collapse, viscous dissipation, and inter-particle forces of liquid placed in sub-structural compartments. The panels are designed to absorb energy from an impact or air blast by elastic-plastic collapse of the panel substructure that includes fluid-filled cavities. The fluid contributes to blast effects mitigation by providing increased initial mass and resistance, by dissipation of energy through viscosity and fluid flow, and by redirecting the momentum that is imparted to the system from the impact and blast impulse pressures. Failure and deformation mechanisms of the panels are described.

  3. Diamond machining of micro-optical components and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläbe, Ralf; Riemer, Oltmann

    2010-05-01

    Diamond machining originates from the 1950s to 1970s in the USA. This technology was originally designed for machining of metal optics at macroscopic dimensions with so far unreached tolerances. During the following decades the machine tools, the monocrystalline diamond cutting tools, the workpiece materials and the machining processes advanced to even higher precision and flexibility. For this reason also the fabrication of small functional components like micro optics at a large spectrum of geometries became technologically and economically feasible. Today, several kinds of fast tool machining and multi axis machining operations can be applied for diamond machining of micro optical components as well as diffractive optical elements. These parts can either be machined directly as single or individual component or as mold insert for mass production by plastic replication. Examples are multi lens arrays, micro mirror arrays and fiber coupling lenses. This paper will give an overview about the potentials and limits of the current diamond machining technology with respect to micro optical components.

  4. In vitro color evaluation of esthetic coatings for metallic dental implants and implant prosthetic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecnik, Christina M; Roos, Malgorzata; Muff, Daniel; Spolenak, Ralph; Sailer, Irena

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the optical properties of newly developed esthetic coatings for metallic implants and components for an improved peri-implant soft tissue appearance. Pig maxillae (n = 6) were used for the in vitro color evaluation of coated and uncoated samples. Three different coating systems (Ti-ZrO(2), Ti-Al-ZrO(2), and Ti-Ag-ZrO(2)) were deposited on titanium substrates, which exhibited different roughness (polished, machined, and sand-blasted) and interference colors (pink, yellow, and white). Spectrophotometric measurements were made of samples below three different mucosa thicknesses (1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm) and titanium served as negative control. Color difference ΔE was calculated using ΔL, Δa, and Δb values for each sample (in total 30 samples). ΔE values were significantly above the threshold value of 3.70 for sand-blasted Ti and Ti-ZrO(2) samples when tested below 1 mm thick soft tissue, hence resulted in a dark appearance of the soft tissues. In contrast, Ti-Al-ZrO(2) and Ti-Ag-ZrO(2) samples showed significant ΔL values below 1 mm, which indicates a brightening of the covering tissue. In general, ΔE values decreased with increasing thickness of the tissue. At 3 mm thick tissue, ΔE values were significantly below 3.70 for Ti-Al-ZrO(2) and Ti-Ag-ZrO(2) samples. The preferable substrate surface should be machined due increased color brightness, good soft tissue integration and improved adhesion between coating and substrates. Improvement of the optical appearance of the metal was achieved with the coating systems Ti-Al-ZrO(2) and Ti-Ag-ZrO(2). Darkening effects could not be observed for these systems, and partially light brightening of the tissue was observed. Advantageous colors were suggested to be pink and yellow. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Welding and brazing of the JET machine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walravens, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    The report covers the techniques used for joining the various parts of the machine. The difficulties encountered during the welding and brazing of similar and dissimilar metals are underlined and the solutions adopted to solve them are indicated. The vast experience gained by those involved in the processes of joining the various parts of the JET machine components, and the lessons learnt are summarized in this report. (author)

  6. Blast response of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslamimajd, Alireza; RahbarRanji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Numerical results for one- and both-sided corroded steel plates subjected to blast loading are presented. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS software, is employed to determine the deformation and stress distributions. The results for the case of triangular pulse pressure on un-corroded plates are validated against literature-based data and then, detailed parametric studies are carried-out. The effects of influential parameters including, plate aspect ratio, degree of pit and different ratio of pit depth at each sides of the plate are investigated. The results show that position of pitted surface in respect to applied pressure is the most influential parameter on reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity of pitted plates. By increasing degree of pitting, reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity decrease more.

  7. Blasting detonators incorporating semiconductor bridge technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The enormity of the coal mine and extraction industries in Russia and the obvious need in both Russia and the US for cost savings and enhanced safety in those industries suggests that joint studies and research would be of mutual benefit. The author suggests that mine sites and well platforms in Russia offer an excellent opportunity for the testing of Sandia`s precise time-delay semiconductor bridge detonators, with the potential for commercialization of the detonators for Russian and other world markets by both US and Russian companies. Sandia`s semiconductor bridge is generating interest among the blasting, mining and perforation industries. The semiconductor bridge is approximately 100 microns long, 380 microns wide and 2 microns thick. The input energy required for semiconductor bridge ignition is one-tenth the energy required for conventional bridgewire devices. Because semiconductor bridge processing is compatible with other microcircuit processing, timing and logic circuits can be incorporated onto the chip with the bridge. These circuits can provide for the precise timing demanded for cast effecting blasting. Indeed tests by Martin Marietta and computer studies by Sandia have shown that such precise timing provides for more uniform rock fragmentation, less fly rock, reduce4d ground shock, fewer ground contaminants and less dust. Cost studies have revealed that the use of precisely timed semiconductor bridges can provide a savings of $200,000 per site per year. In addition to Russia`s vast mineral resources, the Russian Mining Institute outside Moscow has had significant programs in rock fragmentation for many years. He anticipated that collaborative studies by the Institute and Sandia`s modellers would be a valuable resource for field studies.

  8. Remote operated vehicle with carbon dioxide blasting (ROVCO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnick, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Remote Operated Vehicle with Carbon Dioxide Blasting (ROVCO 2 ), as shown in a front view, is a six-wheeled remote land vehicle used to decontaminate concrete floors. The remote vehicle has a high pressure Cryogenesis blasting subsystem, Oceaneering Technologies (OTECH) developed a CO 2 xY Orthogonal Translational End Effector (COYOTEE) subsystem, and a vacuum/filtration and containment subsystem. Figure 2 shows a block diagram with the various subsystems labeled

  9. Investigations of primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, T. W.; Josey, T.; Wang, Y.; Villanueva, M.; Ritzel, D. V.; Nelson, P.; Lee, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    The development of an advanced blast simulator (ABS) has enabled the reproducible generation of single-pulse shock waves that simulate free-field blast with high fidelity. Studies with rodents in the ABS demonstrated the necessity of head restraint during head-only exposures. When the head was not restrained, violent global head motion was induced by pressures that would not produce similar movement of a target the size and mass of a human head. This scaling artefact produced changes in brain function that were reminiscent of traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to impact-acceleration effects. Restraint of the rodent head eliminated these, but still produced subtle changes in brain biochemistry, showing that blast-induced pressure waves do cause brain deficits. Further experiments were carried out with rat brain cell aggregate cultures that enabled the conduct of studies without the gross movement encountered when using rodents. The suspension nature of this model was also exploited to minimize the boundary effects that complicate the interpretation of primary blast studies using surface cultures. Using this system, brain tissue was found not only to be sensitive to pressure changes, but also able to discriminate between the highly defined single-pulse shock waves produced by underwater blast and the complex pressure history exposures experienced by aggregates encased within a sphere and subjected to simulated air blast. The nature of blast-induced primary TBI requires a multidisciplinary research approach that addresses the fidelity of the blast insult, its accurate measurement and characterization, as well as the limitations of the biological models used.

  10. OPTIMALIZATION OF BLASTING IN »LAKOVIĆI« LIMESTONE QUARRY

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Božić; Karlo Braun

    1992-01-01

    The optimalization of exploitation in »Lakovići« limestone quarry is described. Based on determined discontinuities in the rock mass and their densities, the best possible working site have been located in order to obtain the best possible sizes of blasted rocks and work slope stability. Optimal lowest resistance line size for the quarry has been counted and proved experimentally. New blasting parameters have resulted in considerable saving of drilling and explosive (the paper is published in...

  11. The Pre-Blast Concept for use on Armour Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    distribution is displayed. The (1 1 1) pole figure for TWIP steel (FCC crystal structure) is shown representatively, while (1 0 0) is chosen for Dual...avoid the blasted plates impacting the ceiling of the blast chamber. A type ‘k’ thermocouple was then welded to a corner on the top side of the plates...angle distribution is displayed. The (1 1 1) pole figure for TWIP steel (FCC crystal structure) is shown representatively, while (1 0 0) is chosen

  12. Study of wet blasting of components in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.

    1999-12-01

    This report looks at the method of wet blasting radioactive components in nuclear power stations. The wet blaster uses pearl shaped glass beads with the dimensions of 150-250 μm mixed with water as blasting media. The improved design, providing outer operator's positions with proper radiation protection and more efficient blasting equipment has resulted in a lesser dose taken by the operators. The main reason to decontaminate components in nuclear power plants is to enable service on these components. On components like valves, pump shafts, pipes etc. oxides form and bind radiation. These components are normally situated at some distance from the reactor core and will mainly suffer from radiation from so called activation products. When a component is to be decontaminated it can be decontaminated to a radioactive level where it will be declassified. This report has found levels ranging from 150-1000 Bq/kg allowing declassification of radioactive materials. This difference is found between different countries and different organisations. The report also looks at the levels of waste generated using wet blasting. This is done by tracking the contamination to determine where it collects. It is either collected in the water treatment plant or collected in the blasting media. At Barsebaeck the waste levels, from de-contaminating nearly 800 components in one year, results in a waste volume of about 0,250 m 3 . This waste consists of low and medium level waste and will cost about 3 600 EURO to store. The conclusions of the report are that wet blasting is an indispensable way to treat contaminated components in modern nuclear power plants. The wet blasting equipment can be improved by using a robot enabling the operators to remotely treat components from the outer operator's positions. There they will benefit from better radiation protection thus further reduce their taken dose. The wet blasting equipment could also be used to better control the levels of radioactivity on

  13. PaperBLAST: Text Mining Papers for Information about Homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Morgan N; Arkin, Adam P

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale genome sequencing has identified millions of protein-coding genes whose function is unknown. Many of these proteins are similar to characterized proteins from other organisms, but much of this information is missing from annotation databases and is hidden in the scientific literature. To make this information accessible, PaperBLAST uses EuropePMC to search the full text of scientific articles for references to genes. PaperBLAST also takes advantage of curated resources (Swiss-Prot, GeneRIF, and EcoCyc) that link protein sequences to scientific articles. PaperBLAST's database includes over 700,000 scientific articles that mention over 400,000 different proteins. Given a protein of interest, PaperBLAST quickly finds similar proteins that are discussed in the literature and presents snippets of text from relevant articles or from the curators. PaperBLAST is available at http://papers.genomics.lbl.gov/. IMPORTANCE With the recent explosion of genome sequencing data, there are now millions of uncharacterized proteins. If a scientist becomes interested in one of these proteins, it can be very difficult to find information as to its likely function. Often a protein whose sequence is similar, and which is likely to have a similar function, has been studied already, but this information is not available in any database. To help find articles about similar proteins, PaperBLAST searches the full text of scientific articles for protein identifiers or gene identifiers, and it links these articles to protein sequences. Then, given a protein of interest, it can quickly find similar proteins in its database by using standard software (BLAST), and it can show snippets of text from relevant papers. We hope that PaperBLAST will make it easier for biologists to predict proteins' functions.

  14. Application of Grid Planning Method in Drilling-Blasting Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Spasovski, Orce

    2012-01-01

    The problem occurs almost every day in operation and causes troubles to mining engineers. The right performance of drilling-blasting work is important for the successful operation of the entire excavation. The aim of the paper is to point out the importance of planning and how it can contribute to the right organization and make drilling-blasting and other mining activities in mine operations easier. Defining the activities and practical example that has been given are carried out by the u...

  15. CO2 pellet blasting literature search and decontamination scoping tests report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.

    1993-12-01

    Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using current decontamination techniques. Chemical decontamination flushes have provided a satisfactory level of decontamination. However, this method generates large amounts of sodium-bearing secondary waste. Steam jet cleaning has also been used with a great deal of success but cannot be used on concrete or soft materials. With the curtailment of reprocessing at the ICPP, the focus of decontamination is shifting from maintenance for continued operation of the facilities to decommissioning. Treatment of sodium-bearing waste is a particularly difficult problem due to the high content of alkali metals in the sodium-bearing liquid waste. It requires a very large volume of cold chemical additive for calcination. In addition, the sodium content of the sodium-bearing waste exceeds the limit that can be incorporated into vitrified waste without the addition of glass-forming compounds (primarily silicon) to produce an acceptable immobilized waste form. The primary initiatives of the Decontamination Development Program is the development of methods to eliminate/minimize the use of sodium-bearing decontamination chemicals and to minimize all liquid decontamination wastes. One method chosen for cold scoping studies during FY-93 was CO 2 pellet blasting. CO 2 pellet blasting has been used extensively by commercial industries for general cleaning. However, using this method for decontamination of nuclear materials is a fairly new concept. The following report discusses the research and scoping tests completed on CO 2 pellet blasting

  16. BLAST-based structural annotation of protein residues using Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder; Raghava, Gajendra P S

    2016-01-25

    In the era of next-generation sequencing where thousands of genomes have been already sequenced; size of protein databases is growing with exponential rate. Structural annotation of these proteins is one of the biggest challenges for the computational biologist. Although, it is easy to perform BLAST search against Protein Data Bank (PDB) but it is difficult for a biologist to annotate protein residues from BLAST search. A web-server StarPDB has been developed for structural annotation of a protein based on its similarity with known protein structures. It uses standard BLAST software for performing similarity search of a query protein against protein structures in PDB. This server integrates wide range modules for assigning different types of annotation that includes, Secondary-structure, Accessible surface area, Tight-turns, DNA-RNA and Ligand modules. Secondary structure module allows users to predict regular secondary structure states to each residue in a protein. Accessible surface area predict the exposed or buried residues in a protein. Tight-turns module is designed to predict tight turns like beta-turns in a protein. DNA-RNA module developed for predicting DNA and RNA interacting residues in a protein. Similarly, Ligand module of server allows one to predicted ligands, metal and nucleotides ligand interacting residues in a protein. In summary, this manuscript presents a web server for comprehensive annotation of a protein based on similarity search. It integrates number of visualization tools that facilitate users to understand structure and function of protein residues. This web server is available freely for scientific community from URL http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/starpdb .

  17. TECHNOLOGY OF REVERSE-BLAST CORROSION CLEANING OF STEEL SHEETS PRIOR TO LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zguk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of surface cleaning against corrosion influences on efficiency in realization of a number of technological processes. While using bentonite clays in power fluid reverse-blast cleaning ensures formation of anticorrosion protective coating with light absorbing properties on the cleaned surface and prevents formation of the repeated corrosion. The paper presents results of the investigations pertaining to influence of reverse-blast cleaning parameters of steel sheets on quality of the cleaned surface prior to laser cutting. Processing conditions, applied compositions of power fluid and also properties of the protective film coatings on the cleaned surface have been given in the paper. The paper considers topography, morphology and chemical composition of the given coating while applying complex metal micrographic, X-ray diffraction and electronic and microscopic investigations. A complex of laser cutting (refer to gas lasers with output continuous capacity of 2.5/4.0 kW has been applied for experimental works to evaluate influence of the formed surface quality on efficiency of laser cutting process. Specimens having dimension 120×120 mm, made of steel Ст3пс, with thickness from 3 to 10 mm have been prepared for the experiments. An analysis has shown that the application of reverse-blast cleaning ensures higher speed in laser cutting by a mean of 10–20 %. The investigations have made it possible to determine optimum cleaning modes: distance from a nozzle to the surface to be cleaned, jet velocity, pressure. It has been revealed that after drying of the specimens processed by power fluid based on water with concentrations of bentonite clay and calcined soda a protective film coating with thickness of some 5–7 µm has been formed on the whole cleaned specimen surfaces. Chemical base of the coating has been formed by the elements which are included in the composition of bentonite clay being the basic component of the power fluid. 

  18. Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

  19. [A new machinability test machine and the machinability of composite resins for core built-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, N

    2001-06-01

    A new machinability test machine especially for dental materials was contrived. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of grinding conditions on machinability of core built-up resins using this machine, and to confirm the relationship between machinability and other properties of composite resins. The experimental machinability test machine consisted of a dental air-turbine handpiece, a control weight unit, a driving unit of the stage fixing the test specimen, and so on. The machinability was evaluated as the change in volume after grinding using a diamond point. Five kinds of core built-up resins and human teeth were used in this study. The machinabilities of these composite resins increased with an increasing load during grinding, and decreased with repeated grinding. There was no obvious correlation between the machinability and Vickers' hardness; however, a negative correlation was observed between machinability and scratch width.

  20. Technology of high-speed combined machining with brush electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, O. N.; Smolentsev, V. P.; Yukhnevich, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    The new method was proposed for high-precision dimensional machining with a brush electrode when the true position of bundles of metal wire is adjusted by means of creating controlled centrifugal forces appeared due to the increased frequency of rotation of a tool. There are the ultimate values of circumferential velocity at which the bundles are pressed against a machined area of a workpiece in a stable manner despite the profile of the machined surface and variable stock of the workpiece. The special aspects of design of processing procedures for finishing standard parts, including components of products with low rigidity, are disclosed. The methodology of calculation and selection of processing modes which allow one to produce high-precision details and to provide corresponding surface roughness required to perform finishing operations (including the preparation of a surface for metal deposition) is presented. The production experience concerned with the use of high-speed combined machining with an unshaped tool electrode in knowledge-intensive branches of the machine-building industry for different types of production is analyzed. It is shown that the implementation of high-speed dimensional machining with an unshaped brush electrode allows one to expand the field of use of the considered process due to the application of a multipurpose tool in the form of a metal brush, as well as to obtain stable results of finishing and to provide the opportunities for long-term operation of the equipment without its changeover and readjustment.

  1. Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of the Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Tang, Guangwu; Wang, Jichao; Fu, Dong; Okosun, Tyamo; Silaen, Armin; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Blast furnaces are counter-current chemical reactors, widely utilized in the ironmaking industry. Hot reduction gases injected from lower regions of the furnace ascend, reacting with the descending burden. Through this reaction process, iron ore is reduced into liquid iron that is tapped from the furnace hearth. Due to the extremely harsh environment inside the blast furnace, it is difficult to measure or observe internal phenomena during operation. Through the collaboration between steel companies and the Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation, multiple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to simulate the complex multiphase reacting flow in the three regions of the furnace, the shaft, the raceway, and the hearth. The models have been used effectively to troubleshoot and optimize blast furnace operations. In addition, the CFD models have been integrated with virtual reality. An interactive virtual blast furnace has been developed for training purpose. This paper summarizes the developments and applications of blast furnace CFD models and the virtual blast furnace.

  2. Characterization of viscoelastic materials for low-magnitude blast mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W.

    2014-05-01

    Recent research indicates that exposure to low amplitude blast waves, such as IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficiently protecting warfighters from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the blast mitigating behavior of current helmet materials and new materials designed for blast mitigation using a test fixture recently developed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division for use with an existing gas gun. The 40-mm-bore gas gun was used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 0.5 to 2 bar) in the test fixture mounted on the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve was used to release helium gas from the breech which formed into a blast wave and impacted instrumented targets in the test fixture. Blast attenuation of selected materials was determined through the measurement of stress data in front of and behind the target. Materials evaluated in this research include polyurethane foam from currently fielded US Army and Marine Corps helmets, polyurea 1000, and three hardnesses of Sorbothane (48, 58, and 70 durometer, Shore 00). Polyurea 1000 and 6061-T6 aluminum were used to calibrate the stress gauges.

  3. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  4. The Buttonhole Machine. Module 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bottonhole machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (parts and purpose) and performing special operations on the buttonhole machine (gauged buttonholes). For each topic these components are…

  5. prfectBLAST: a platform-independent portable front end for the command terminal BLAST+ stand-alone suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Sotelo, Perfecto; Ramirez-Prado, Jorge Humberto

    2012-11-01

    prfectBLAST is a multiplatform graphical user interface (GUI) for the stand-alone BLAST+ suite of applications. It allows researchers to do nucleotide or amino acid sequence similarity searches against public (or user-customized) databases that are locally stored. It does not require any dependencies or installation and can be used from a portable flash drive. prfectBLAST is implemented in Java version 6 (SUN) and runs on all platforms that support Java and for which National Center for Biotechnology Information has made available stand-alone BLAST executables, including MS Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. It is free and open source software, made available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GPLv3) and can be downloaded at www.cicy.mx/sitios/jramirez or http://code.google.com/p/prfectblast/.

  6. Prediction of tunnel boring machine performance using machine and rock mass data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastgir, G.

    2012-01-01

    Performance of the tunnel boring machine and its prediction by different methods has been a hot issue since the first TBM came into being. For the sake of safe and sound transport, improvement of hydro-power, mining, civil and many other tunneling projects that cannot be driven efficiently and economically by conventional drill and blast, TBMs are quite frequently used. TBM parameters and rock mass properties, which heavily influence machine performance, should be estimated or known before choice of TBM-type and start of excavation. By applying linear regression analysis (SPSS19), fuzzy logic tools and a special Math-Lab code on actual field data collected from seven TBM driven tunnels (Hieflau expansion, Queen water tunnel, Vereina, Hemerwald, Maen, Pieve and Varzo tunnel), an attempt was made to provide prediction of rock mass class (RMC), rock fracture class (RFC), penetration rate (PR) and advance rate (AR). For detailed analysis of TBM performance, machine parameters (thrust, machine rpm, torque, power etc.), machine types and specification and rock mass properties (UCS, discontinuity in rock mass, RMC, RFC, RMR, etc.) were analyzed by 3-D surface plotting using statistical software R. Correlations between machine parameters and rock mass properties which effectively influence prediction models, are presented as well. In Hieflau expansion tunnel AR linearly decreases with increase of thrust due to high dependence of machine advance rate upon rock strength. For Hieflau expansion tunnel three types of data (TBM, rock mass and seismic data e.g. amplitude, pseudo velocity etc.) were coupled and simultaneously analyzed by plotting 3-D surfaces. No appreciable correlation between seismic data (Amplitude and Pseudo velocity) and rock mass properties and machine parameters could be found. Tool wear as a function of TBM operational parameters was analyzed which revealed that tool wear is minimum if applied thrust is moderate and that tool wear is high when thrust is

  7. Numerical analysis of blast flow-field of baffle type muzzle brake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.H. [Graduate School, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Ko, S. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-11-01

    A three-dimensional unsteady, inviscid blast flow-field of a baffle type muzzle brake has been simulated by solving the Euler equation. The blast flow-field includes the effect of the free air blast, precursor blast flow and the propellant blast gas flow. Chimera grid scheme was used to generate 9 multi-block volume grids for the complex geometry. The evolution of the blast flow-field is presented by showing the contours of pressure, density and Mach number for certain time step. The comparison of the calculated and measured peak pressures on the surfaces of the muzzle brake is also presented. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Numerical Investigation of Novel Oxygen Blast Furnace Ironmaking Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoyang; Kuang, Shibo; Yu, Aibing; Gao, Jianjun; Qi, Yuanhong; Yan, Dingliu; Li, Yuntao; Mao, Xiaoming

    2018-04-01

    Oxygen blast furnace (OBF) ironmaking process has the potential to realize "zero carbon footprint" production, but suffers from the "thermal shortage" problem. This paper presents three novel OBF processes, featured by belly injection of reformed coke oven gas, burden hot-charge operation, and their combination, respectively. These processes were studied by a multifluid process model. The applicability of the model was confirmed by comparing the numerical results against the measured key performance indicators of an experimental OBF operated with or without injection of reformed coke oven gas. Then, these different OBF processes together with a pure OBF were numerically examined in aspects of in-furnace states and global performance, assuming that the burden quality can be maintained during the hot-charge operation. The numerical results show that under the present conditions, belly injection and hot charge, as auxiliary measures, are useful for reducing the fuel rate and increasing the productivity for OBFs but in different manners. Hot charge should be more suitable for OBFs of different sizes because it improves the thermochemical states throughout the dry zone rather than within a narrow region in the case of belly injection. The simultaneous application of belly injection and hot charge leads to the best process performance, at the same time, lowering down hot-charge temperature to achieve the same carbon consumption and hot metal temperature as that achieved when applying the hot charge alone. This feature will be practically beneficial in the application of hot-charge operation. In addition, a systematic study of hot-charge temperature reveals that optimal hot-charge temperatures can be identified according to the utilization efficiency of the sensible heat of hot burden.

  9. Performance of a Horizontal Triple Cylinder Type Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Pulping process usually uses a machine which constructed by wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processing. One of the weaknesses of a horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is higher in broken beans. Broken bean is one of mayor aspects in defect system that contribute to low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine which resulted in 12.6—21.4% of broken beans. To reduce percentage of broken beans, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and tested a horizontal triple cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine. Material tested was fresh mature Robusta coffee cherries, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content; has classified on 3 levels i.e. unsorted, small and medium, and clean from metal and foreign materials. The result showed that the machine produced 6,340 kg/h in optimal capacity for operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 55.5% whole parchment coffee, 3.66% broken beans, and 1% beans in wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  10. Virtual Machine in Automation Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Virtual machine, as an engineering tool, has recently been introduced into automation projects in Tetra Pak Processing System AB. The goal of this paper is to examine how to better utilize virtual machine for the automation projects. This paper designs different project scenarios using virtual machine. It analyzes installability, performance and stability of virtual machine from the test results. Technical solutions concerning virtual machine are discussed such as the conversion with physical...

  11. Non-conventional electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzoug, Abderrezak

    2013-01-01

    The developments of electrical machines are due to the convergence of material progress, improved calculation tools, and new feeding sources. Among the many recent machines, the authors have chosen, in this first book, to relate the progress in slow speed machines, high speed machines, and superconducting machines. The first part of the book is dedicated to materials and an overview of magnetism, mechanic, and heat transfer.

  12. Full-scale testing of leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room exposed to external air blast loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, R.; Ambrosini, D.

    2018-03-01

    For the last few decades, the effects of blast loading on structures have been studied by many researchers around the world. Explosions can be caused by events such as industrial accidents, military conflicts or terrorist attacks. Urban centers have been prone to various threats including car bombs, suicide attacks, and improvised explosive devices. Partially vented constructions subjected to external blast loading represent an important topic in protective engineering. The assessment of blast survivability inside structures and the development of design provisions with respect to internal elements require the study of the propagation and leakage of blast waves inside buildings. In this paper, full-scale tests are performed to study the effects of the leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room that is subjected to different external blast loadings. The results obtained may be useful for proving the validity of different methods of calculation, both empirical and numerical. Moreover, the experimental results are compared with those computed using the empirical curves of the US Defense report/manual UFC 3-340. Finally, results of the dynamic response of the front masonry wall are presented in terms of accelerations and an iso-damage diagram.

  13. Advanced SLARette delivery machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    SLARette 1 equipment, comprising of a SLARette Delivery Machine, SLAR Tools, SLAR power supplies and SLAR Inspection Systems was designed, developed and manufactured to service fuel channels of CANDU 6 stations during the regular yearly station outages. The Mark 2 SLARette Delivery Machine uses a Push Tube system to provide the axial and rotary movements of the SLAR Tool. The Push Tubes are operated remotely but must be attached and removed manually. Since this operation is performed at the Reactor face, there is radiation dose involved for the workers. An Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine which incorporates a computer controlled telescoping Ram in the place of the Push Tubes has been recently designed and manufactured. Utilization of the Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine significantly reduces the amount of radiation dose picked up by the workers because the need to have workers at the face of the Reactor during the SLARette operation is greatly reduced. This paper describes the design, development and manufacturing process utilized to produce the Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine and the experience gained during the Gentilly-2 NGS Spring outage. (author)

  14. The Bearingless Electrical Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

  15. Asymmetric quantum cloning machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerf, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    A family of asymmetric cloning machines for quantum bits and N-dimensional quantum states is introduced. These machines produce two approximate copies of a single quantum state that emerge from two distinct channels. In particular, an asymmetric Pauli cloning machine is defined that makes two imperfect copies of a quantum bit, while the overall input-to-output operation for each copy is a Pauli channel. A no-cloning inequality is derived, characterizing the impossibility of copying imposed by quantum mechanics. If p and p ' are the probabilities of the depolarizing channels associated with the two outputs, the domain in (√p,√p ' )-space located inside a particular ellipse representing close-to-perfect cloning is forbidden. This ellipse tends to a circle when copying an N-dimensional state with N→∞, which has a simple semi-classical interpretation. The symmetric Pauli cloning machines are then used to provide an upper bound on the quantum capacity of the Pauli channel of probabilities p x , p y and p z . The capacity is proven to be vanishing if (√p x , √p y , √p z ) lies outside an ellipsoid whose pole coincides with the depolarizing channel that underlies the universal cloning machine. Finally, the tradeoff between the quality of the two copies is shown to result from a complementarity akin to Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  16. Performance of Process Damping in Machining Titanium Alloys at Low Cutting Speed with Different Helix Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharun, M A; Yusoff, A R; Reza, M S; Jalal, K A

    2012-01-01

    Titanium is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant and transition metal with a silver color to produce strong lightweight alloys for industrial process, automotive, medical instruments and other applications. However, it is very difficult to machine the titanium due to its poor machinability. When machining titanium alloys with the conventional tools, the wear rate of the tool is rapidly accelerate and it is generally difficult to achieve at high cutting speed. In order to get better understanding of machining titanium alloy, the interaction between machining structural system and the cutting process which result in machining instability will be studied. Process damping is a useful phenomenon that can be exploited to improve the limited productivity of low speed machining. In this study, experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of process damping of milling under different tool helix geometries. The results showed that the helix of 42° angle is significantly increase process damping performance in machining titanium alloy.

  17. Properties and application of carbon composite brick for blast furnace hearth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao K.X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of carbon composite brick was produced via the microporous technique using natural flack graphite, α-Al2O3 and high-quality bauxite chamotte (Al2O3≥87 mass% as raw materials with fine silicon powder as additive. The composition and microstructure of the obtained carbon composite were characterized using chemical analysis, XRD and SEM with EDS. The high temperature properties of thermal conductivity, oxidization and corrosion by molten slag and hot metal of the composite were analyzed. Based on these, the type of carbon composite brick worked in a blast furnace hearth for six years was further sampled at different positions. The protective layer was found and its chemical composition and microscopic morphology were investigated. It is found that the carbon composite brick combines the good properties of both the conventional carbon block and ceramic cup refractory. The protective layer near the hot face consists of two separated sublayers, i.e. the slag layer and the carbon layer. A certain amount of slag phase is contained in the carbon layer, which is caused by the reaction of coke ash with the refractory. No obvious change in the chemical composition of the protective layer along the depth of the sidewall is found. This work provides a useful guidance for the extension of the lifetime of blast furnace hearths.

  18. A Novel Technique for Making Cold Briquettes for Charging in Blast Furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, M K; Mishra, S; Sarkar, S; Samal, S K; Mishra, B

    2016-01-01

    Different metallurgical wastes are generated during pyro processing of iron ore, which is used for making sponge iron or hot metal and for producing steel. Apart from these wastes, coke fines are generated during the coke making, and iron ore fines are generated during mining of iron ore. Although iron ore fines are used for making pellet after beneficiation still, it generates a huge quantity of iron ore waste during beneficiation with comparatively lower iron content. In the present study, briquettes are made by a stiff extrusion process from metallurgical waste like iron ore fines and coke fines with the addition of Portland cement as a binder and clay as a rheology modifier. Physical properties of the briquettes are evaluated, and reducibility of the briquettes is studied in comparison to lumpy iron ore. Phase analysis and microstructural analysis of the briquettes and lumpy iron ore are carried out after firing at different temperatures in the simulated blast furnace condition. Physical and mineralogical properties are correlated with the reducibility of the briquettes and lumpy iron ore. Briquettes made by a stiff extrusion process show a better mechanical strength fired at a different temperature to take the load of burden and better reducibility than lumpy iron ore. The briquettes after self-curing are charged to a 23 mt3 blast furnace which shows encouraging results. (paper)

  19. Human-Machine Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbrot, J.E.; Nihlwing, Ch.; Svengren, H.

    2005-01-01

    New requirements for enhanced safety and design changes in process systems often leads to a step-wise installation of new information and control equipment in the control room of older nuclear power plants, where nowadays modern digital I and C solutions with screen-based human-machine interfaces (HMI) most often are introduced. Human factors (HF) expertise is then required to assist in specifying a unified, integrated HMI, where the entire integration of information is addressed to ensure an optimal and effective interplay between human (operators) and machine (process). Following a controlled design process is the best insurance for ending up with good solutions. This paper addresses the approach taken when introducing modern human-machine communication in the Oskarshamn 1 NPP, the results, and the lessons learned from this work with high operator involvement seen from an HF point of view. Examples of possibilities modern technology might offer for the operators are also addressed. (orig.)

  20. Machines and Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Martínez García-Posada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The edition La ley del reloj. Arquitectura, máquinas y cultura moderna (Cátedra, Madrid, 2016 registers the useful paradox of the analogy between architecture and technique. Its author, the architect Eduardo Prieto, also a philosopher, professor and writer, acknowledges the obvious distance from machines to buildings, so great that it can only be solved using strange comparisons, since architecture does not move nor are the machines habitable, however throughout the book, from the origin of the metaphor of the machine, with clarity in his essay and enlightening erudition, he points out with certainty some concomitances of high interest, drawing throughout history a beautiful cartography of the fruitful encounter between organics and mechanics.