Modeling of aqueous foam blast wave attenuation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Domergue L.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The use of aqueous foams enables the mitigation of blast waves induced by the explosion of energetic materials. The two-phase confinement gives rise to interphase interactions between the gaseous and liquid phases, which role have been emphasized in shock-tube studies with solid foams [1, 2]. Multifluid formalism enables the thermo-mechanical disequilibria between phases to be taken into account. The flow model ensures the correct estimation of the acoustic impedance of the two-phase media. As for the numerical scheme, Riemann solvers are used to describe the microscopic fluid interactions, the summation of which provides the multiphase flux. The role of the different transfer mechanisms is evaluated in the case where the liquid ligaments of the foam matrix have been shattered into droplets by the shock impingement. Characteristics of blast waves in heterogeneous media leads to a decrease of overpressure. The numerical results have been compared favorably to experimental data [3, 4].
Needham, Charles E
2010-01-01
The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...
Numerical simulations of blast wave characteristics with a two-dimensional axisymmetric room model
Sugiyama, Y.; Homae, T.; Wakabayashi, K.; Matsumura, T.; Nakayama, Y.
2017-01-01
This paper numerically visualizes explosion phenomena in order to discuss blast wave characteristics with a two-dimensional axisymmetric room model. After the shock wave exits via an opening, the blast wave propagates into open space. In the present study, a parametric study was conducted to determine the blast wave characteristics from the room exit by changing the room shape and the mass of the high explosive. Our results show that the blast wave characteristics can be correctly estimated using a scaling factor proposed in the present paper that includes the above parameters. We conducted normalization of the peak overpressure curve using the shock overpressure at the exit and the length scale of the room volume. In the case where the scaling factor has the same value, the normalized peak overpressure curve does not depend on the calculation conditions, and the scaling factor describes the blast wave characteristics emerging from the current room model.
Model for small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation in air
Aguilar, Juan R.; Desai, Sachi V.
2011-11-01
Accurate modeling of small firearms muzzle blast wave propagation in the far field is critical to predict sound pressure levels, impulse durations and rise times, as functions of propagation distance. Such a task being relevant to a number of military applications including the determination of human response to blast noise, gunfire detection and localization, and gun suppressor design. Herein, a time domain model to predict small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation is introduced. The model implements a Friedlander wave with finite rise time which diverges spherically from the gun muzzle. Additionally, the effects in blast wave form of thermoviscous and molecular relaxational processes, which are associated with atmospheric absorption of sound were also incorporated in the model. Atmospheric absorption of blast waves is implemented using a time domain recursive formula obtained from numerical integration of corresponding differential equations using a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme. Theoretical predictions from our model were compared to previously recorded real world data of muzzle blast wave signatures obtained by shooting a set different sniper weapons of varying calibers. Recordings containing gunfire acoustical signatures were taken at distances between 100 and 600 meters from the gun muzzle. Results shows that predicted blast wave slope and exponential decay agrees well with measured data. Analysis also reveals the persistency of an oscillatory phenomenon after blast overpressure in the recorded wave forms.
Evolution of blast wave profiles in simulated air blasts: experiment and computational modeling
Chandra, N.; Ganpule, S.; Kleinschmit, N. N.; Feng, R.; Holmberg, A. D.; Sundaramurthy, A.; Selvan, V.; Alai, A.
2012-09-01
Shock tubes have been extensively used in the study of blast traumatic brain injury due to increased incidence of blast-induced neurotrauma in Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. One of the important aspects in these studies is how to best replicate the field conditions in the laboratory which relies on reproducing blast wave profiles. Evolution of the blast wave profiles along the length of the compression-driven air shock tube is studied using experiments and numerical simulations with emphasis on the shape and magnitude of pressure time profiles. In order to measure dynamic pressures of the blast, a series of sensors are mounted on a cylindrical specimen normal to the flow direction. Our results indicate that the blast wave loading is significantly different for locations inside and outside of the shock tube. Pressure profiles inside the shock tube follow the Friedlander waveform fairly well. Upon approaching exit of the shock tube, an expansion wave released from the shock tube edges significantly degrades the pressure profiles. For tests outside the shock tube, peak pressure and total impulse reduce drastically as we move away from the exit and majority of loading is in the form of subsonic jet wind. In addition, the planarity of the blast wave degrades as blast wave evolves three dimensionally. Numerical results visually and quantitatively confirm the presence of vortices, jet wind and three-dimensional expansion of the planar blast wave near the exit. Pressure profiles at 90° orientation show flow separation. When cylinder is placed inside, this flow separation is not sustained, but when placed outside the shock tube this flow separation is sustained which causes tensile loading on the sides of the cylinder. Friedlander waves formed due to field explosives in the intermediate-to far-field ranges are replicated in a narrow test region located deep inside the shock tube.
Blast wave injury prediction models for complex scenarios
Teland, J.A.; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van
2012-01-01
Blast waves from explosions can cause lethal injuries to humans. Development of injury criteria has been ongoing for many years, but with the main focus on free field conditions. However, with terrorist actions as a new threat, explosions in urban areas have become of much more interest. Urban areas
Blast wave injury prediction models for complex scenarios
Teland, J.A.; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van
2012-01-01
Blast waves from explosions can cause lethal injuries to humans. Development of injury criteria has been ongoing for many years, but with the main focus on free field conditions. However, with terrorist actions as a new threat, explosions in urban areas have become of much more interest. Urban areas
Tan, X. G.; Przekwas, A. J.; Gupta, R. K.
2017-07-01
The modeling of human body biomechanics resulting from blast exposure poses great challenges because of the complex geometry and the substantial material heterogeneity. We developed a detailed human body finite element model representing both the geometry and the materials realistically. The model includes the detailed head (face, skull, brain and spinal cord), the neck, the skeleton, air cavities (lungs) and the tissues. Hence, it can be used to properly model the stress wave propagation in the human body subjected to blast loading. The blast loading on the human was generated from a simulated C4 explosion. We used the highly scalable solvers in the multi-physics code CoBi for both the blast simulation and the human body biomechanics. The meshes generated for these simulations are of good quality so that relatively large time-step sizes can be used without resorting to artificial time scaling treatments. The coupled gas dynamics and biomechanics solutions were validated against the shock tube test data. The human body models were used to conduct parametric simulations to find the biomechanical response and the brain injury mechanism due to blasts impacting the human body. Under the same blast loading condition, we showed the importance of inclusion of the whole body.
Miles, Aaron
2004-11-01
In this talk we discuss the nature of late-time, broad-banded instability development at an interface when a strong blast wave travels from a heavier to lighter fluid, as is the case in a supernova explosion. After a short period of Richtmyer-Meshkov growth, the interface is unstable via the Rayleigh-Taylor mechanism, which rapidly becomes the dominant energy source for growth. This situation is distinct from the classical case in two important ways, both of which can be understood in terms of a bubble merger model we have developed for blast-wave-driven systems. Rather than the constant acceleration feeding the instability to spawn ever larger scales and accelerate the growth, the decaying acceleration in the blast-wave case leads to a decay in the RT growth rate, and a freezing in of a preferred largest scale, which is dependent on the precise details of the system. In the language of bubble-merger models, this can be understood in terms of the time for the generation of the next largest scale being longer than the lifetime of the blast wave. Secondly, the continual expansion behind the blast front precludes the emergence of a self-similar regime, independent of the initial conditions, in the planar case. Self-similarity may be recovered in diverging systems but may be difficult to observe in reality because of rather restrictive conditions that must be met. These observations are borne out by hi-resolution numerical simulations using the higher order Godunov AMR hydrocode Raptor in 2 and 3D, and explain other simulations of instability growth in supernovae explosions; the initial "interfacial" structure is likely very important in determining the late-time growth. The model predictions are also consistent with numerous images of natural and manmade explosions.
A viscous blast-wave model for relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Jaiswal, Amaresh
2015-01-01
Using a viscosity-based survival scale for geometrical perturbations formed in the early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, we model the radial flow velocity during freeze-out. Subsequently, we employ the Cooper-Frye freeze-out prescription, with first-order viscous corrections to the distribution function, to obtain the transverse momentum distribution of particle yields and flow harmonics. For initial eccentricities, we use the results of Monte Carlo Glauber model. We fix the blast-wave model parameters by fitting the transverse momentum spectra of identified particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and demonstrate that this leads to a fairly good agreement with transverse momentum distribution of elliptic and triangular flow for various centralities. Within this viscous blast-wave model, we estimate the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio $\\eta/s\\simeq 0.24$ at the LHC.
Beam energy dependence of Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii from a blast-wave model
Zhang, S; Chen, J H; Zhong, C
2016-01-01
Beam energy dependence of correlation lengths (Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii) is calculated by using a blast-wave model and the results are comparable with those from RHIC-STAR beam energy scan data as well as the LHC-ALICE measurements. The parameters for the blast-wave model as a function of beam energy are configured by fitting Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii at each energy point. Transverse momentum dependence of Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii are presented with the extracted parameters for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = $ 200 GeV and 2.76 TeV. From the results it can be found that particle emission duration can not be ignored while calculating Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii with the same parameters. And tuning kinetic freeze-out temperature in a range will result in system lifetime changing in reverse direction as that in RHIC-STAR measurements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Taylor, Paul Allen
2008-02-01
The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm{sup 3} voxels), 5 material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female dataset. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior and lateral directions. Three dimensional plots of maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric (shear) stress within the first 2 milliseconds of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 msec time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yi-kai FAN; Zu-yu CHEN; Xiang-qian LIANG; Xue-dong ZHANG; Xin HUANG
2012-01-01
This paper presents the explosion cratering effects and their propagation laws of blast waves in dry standard sands using a 450 g-t geotechnical centrifuge apparatus.Ten centrifuge model tests were completed with various ranges of explosive mass,burial depth and centrifuge accelerations.Eleven accelerometers were installed to record the acceleration response in sand.The dimensions of the explosion craters were measured after the tests.The results demonstrated that the relationship between the dimensionless parameters of cratering efficiency and gravity scaled yield is a power regression function.Three specific function equations were obtained.The results are in general agreement with those obtained by other studies.A scaling law based on the combination of the r terms was used to fit the results of the ten model tests with a correlation coefficient of 0.931.The relationship can be conveniently used to predict the cratering effects in sand.The results also showed that the peak acceleration is a power increasing function of the acceleration level.An empirical exponent relation between the proportional peak acceleration and distance is proposed.The propagation velocity of blast waves is found to be ranged between 200 and 714 m/s.
A viscous blast-wave model for high energy heavy-ion collisions
Jaiswal, Amaresh; Koch, Volker
2016-07-01
Employing a viscosity-based survival scale for initial geometrical perturbations formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, we model the radial flow velocity at freeze-out. Subsequently, we use the Cooper-Frye freeze-out prescription, with viscous corrections to the distribution function, to extract the transverse momentum dependence of particle yields and flow harmonics. We fit the model parameters for central collisions, by fitting the spectra of identified particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and estimate them for other centralities using simple hydrodynamic relations. We use the results of Monte Carlo Glauber model for initial eccentricities. We demonstrate that this improved viscous blast-wave model leads to good agreement with transverse momentum distribution of elliptic and triangular flow for all centralities and estimate the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio η/s ≃ 0.24 at the LHC.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shushi Kabu
Full Text Available Blast-associated shock wave-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI remains a persistent risk for armed forces worldwide, yet its detailed pathophysiology remains to be fully investigated. In this study, we have designed and characterized a laboratory-scale shock tube to develop a rodent model of bTBI. Our blast tube, driven by a mixture of oxygen and acetylene, effectively generates blast overpressures of 20-130 psi, with pressure-time profiles similar to those of free-field blast waves. We tested our shock tube for brain injury response to various blast wave conditions in rats. The results show that blast waves cause diffuse vascular brain damage, as determined using a sensitive optical imaging method based on the fluorescence signal of Evans Blue dye extravasation developed in our laboratory. Vascular leakage increased with increasing blast overpressures and mapping of the brain slices for optical signal intensity indicated nonhomogeneous damage to the cerebral vasculature. We confirmed vascular leakage due to disruption in the blood-brain barrier (BBB integrity following blast exposure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in the brain also increased with increasing blast pressures and with time post-blast wave exposure. Immunohistochemical analysis of the brain sections analyzed at different time points post blast exposure demonstrated astrocytosis and cell apoptosis, confirming sustained neuronal injury response. The main advantages of our shock-tube design are minimal jet effect and no requirement for specialized equipment or facilities, and effectively generate blast-associated shock waves that are relevant to battle-field conditions. Overall data suggest that increased oxidative stress and BBB disruption could be the crucial factors in the propagation and spread of neuronal degeneration following blast injury. Further studies are required to determine the interplay between increased ROS activity and BBB disruption to develop effective
Blast Wave Characteristics and Equivalency
Sochet, Isabelle; Schneider, Helmut
2010-01-01
ISBN 978-5-94588-079-5; The characteristics of blast waves generated by detonation of gas clouds are studies theoretically and validated by both small-scale and large-scale experiments with ethylene-air mixtures of different equivalence ratio. The mixtures were confined in hemispherical or spherical balloons made from thin polyethylene foils of 0.75 m³ and 15 m³ in volume. The detonation of gas mixtures was initiated by a solid explosive. The characteristics of the blast wave in terms of over...
Cygnus Loop Supernova Blast Wave
1993-01-01
This is an image of a small portion of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, which marks the edge of a bubble-like, expanding blast wave from a colossal stellar explosion, occurring about 15,000 years ago. The HST image shows the structure behind the shock waves, allowing astronomers for the first time to directly compare the actual structure of the shock with theoretical model calculations. Besides supernova remnants, these shock models are important in understanding a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, from winds in newly-formed stars to cataclysmic stellar outbursts. The supernova blast is slamming into tenuous clouds of insterstellar gas. This collision heats and compresses the gas, causing it to glow. The shock thus acts as a searchlight revealing the structure of the interstellar medium. The detailed HST image shows the blast wave overrunning dense clumps of gas, which despite HST's high resolution, cannot be resolved. This means that the clumps of gas must be small enough to fit inside our solar system, making them relatively small structures by interstellar standards. A bluish ribbon of light stretching left to right across the picture might be a knot of gas ejected by the supernova; this interstellar 'bullet' traveling over three million miles per hour (5 million kilometres) is just catching up with the shock front, which has slowed down by ploughing into interstellar material. The Cygnus Loop appears as a faint ring of glowing gases about three degrees across (six times the diameter of the full Moon), located in the northern constellation, Cygnus the Swan. The supernova remnant is within the plane of our Milky Way galaxy and is 2,600 light-years away. The photo is a combination of separate images taken in three colors, oxygen atoms (blue) emit light at temperatures of 30,000 to 60,000 degrees Celsius (50,000 to 100,000 degrees Farenheit). Hydrogen atoms (green) arise throughout the region of shocked gas. Sulfur atoms (red) form when the gas cools to
Modeling blast waves, gas and particles dispersion in urban and hilly ground areas.
Hank, S; Saurel, R; Le Métayer, O; Lapébie, E
2014-09-15
The numerical simulation of shock and blast waves as well as particles dispersion in highly heterogeneous media such as cities, urban places, industrial plants and part of countries is addressed. Examples of phenomena under study are chemical gas products dispersion from damaged vessels, gas dispersion in urban places under explosion conditions, shock wave propagation in urban environment. A three-dimensional simulation multiphase flow code (HI2LO) is developed in this aim. To simplify the consideration of complex geometries, a heterogeneous discrete formulation is developed. When dealing with large scale domains, such as countries, the topography is considered with the help of elevation data. Meteorological conditions are also considered, in particular regarding complex temperature and wind profiles. Heat and mass transfers on sub-scale objects, such as buildings, trees and other obstacles are considered as well. Particles motion is addressed through a new turbulence model involving a single parameter to describe accurately plumes. Validations against experiments in basic situations are presented as well as examples of industrial and environmental computations.
Biomechanical modeling for the response of human thorax to blast waves
Zhou, Jie; Tao, Gang
2015-08-01
A simplified finite element model of a human thorax had been developed for probing into the mechanical response in simple and complex blast environments. The human thorax model was first created by CT images with blast loading applied via a coupled arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method, allowing for a variety of loads to be considered. The goal is to analyze the maximum stress distributions of lung tissue and peak inward thorax wall velocity and to know the possible regions and levels of lung injury. In parallel, a mathematical model has been modified from the Lobdell model to investigate the detailed percentage of lung injury at each level. The blast loadings around the human thorax were obtained from the finite element model, and were then applied in the mathematical model as the boundary conditions to predict the normalized work of the human thorax lung. The present results are found in agreement with the modified Bowen curves and the results predicted by Axelsson's model.
Laboratory blast wave driven instabilities
Kuranz, Carolyn
2008-11-01
This presentation discusses experiments involving the evolution of hydrodynamic instabilities in the laboratory under high-energy-density (HED) conditions. These instabilities are driven by blast waves, which occur following a sudden, finite release of energy, and consist of a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. When a blast wave crosses an interface with a decrease in density, hydrodynamic instabilities will develop. Instabilities evolving under HED conditions are relevant to astrophysics. These experiments include target materials scaled in density to the He/H layer in SN1987A. About 5 kJ of laser energy from the Omega Laser facility irradiates a 150 μm plastic layer that is followed by a low-density foam layer. A blast wave structure similar to those in supernovae is created in the plastic layer. The blast wave crosses an interface having a 2D or 3D sinusoidal structure that serves as a seed perturbation for hydrodynamic instabilities. This produces unstable growth dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the nonlinear regime. We have detected the interface structure under these conditions using x-ray backlighting. Recent advances in our diagnostic techniques have greatly improved the resolution of our x-ray radiographic images. Under certain conditions, the improved images show some mass extending beyond the RT spike and penetrating further than previously observed or predicted by current simulations. The observed effect is potentially of great importance as a source of mass transport to places not anticipated by current theory and simulation. I will discuss the amount of mass in these spike extensions, the associated uncertainties, and hypotheses regarding their origin We also plan to show comparisons of experiments using single mode and multimode as well as 2D and 3D initial conditions. This work is sponsored by DOE/NNSA Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058 (Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliances) and DE-FG52-04NA00064 (National Laser User
Device for Underwater Laboratory Simulation of Unconfined Blast Waves
Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael
2015-01-01
Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source.
Sparrow, Victor Ward
1990-01-01
This study has concerned the propagation of finite amplitude, i.e. weakly non-linear, acoustical blast waves from explosions over hard and porous media models of outdoor ground surfaces. The nonlinear acoustic propagation effects require a numerical solution in the time domain. To model a porous ground surface, which in the frequency domain exhibits a finite impedance, the linear phenomenological porous model of Morse and Ingard was used. The phenomenological equations are solved in the time domain for coupling with the time domain propagation solution in the air. The numerical solution is found through the method of finite differences. The second-order in time and fourth -order in space MacCormack method was used in the air, and the second-order in time and space MacCormack method was used in the porous medium modeling the ground. Two kinds of numerical absorbing boundary conditions were developed for the air propagation equations to truncate the physical domain for solution on a computer. Radiation conditions first were used on those sides of the domain where there were outgoing waves. Characteristic boundary conditions secondly are employed near the acoustic source. The numerical model agreed well with the Pestorius algorithm for the propagation of electric spark pulses in the free field, and with a result of Pfriem for normal plane reflection off a hard surface. In addition, curves of pressure amplification versus incident angle for waves obliquely incident on the hard and porous surfaces were produced which are similar to those in the literature. The model predicted that near grazing finite amplitude acoustic blast waves decay with distance over hard surfaces as r to the power -1.2. This result is consistent with the work of Reed. For propagation over the porous ground surface, the model predicted that this surface decreased the decay rate with distance for the larger blasts compared to the rate expected in the linear acoustics limit.
Effects of blast wave to main steam piping under high energy line break condition by TNT model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Seung Hyun; Lee, Eung Seok; Chang, Yoon Suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
The aim of this study is to examine effect of the blast wave according to pipe break position through FE (Finite Element) analyses. If HELB (High Energy Line Break) accident occurs in nuclear power plants, not only environmental effect such as release of radioactive material but also secondary structural defects should be considered. Sudden pipe rupture causes ejection of high temperature and pressure fluid, which acts as a blast wave around the break location. The blast wave caused by the HELB has a possibility to induce structural defects around the components such as safe-related injection pipes and other structures.
High-speed measurement of firearm primer blast waves
Courtney, Michael; Eng, Jonathan; Courtney, Amy
2012-01-01
This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of firearm primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Key findings are: 1) Most of the lead styphnate based primer models tested show 5.2-11.3% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) In contrast, lead-free diazodinitrophenol (DDNP) based primers had standard deviations of the peak blast pressure of 8.2-25.0%. 3) Combined with smaller blast waves, these large variations in peak blast pressure of DDNP-based primers led to delayed ignition and failure to fire in brief field tests.
Experimental Investigation of a Novel Blast Wave Mitigation Device
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Zhenbi Su
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A novel blast wave mitigation device was investigated experimentally in this paper. The device consists of a piston-cylinder assembly. A shock wave is induced within the cylinder when a blast wave impacts on the piston. The shock wave propagates inside the device and is reflected repeatedly. The shock wave propagation process inside the device lengthens the duration of the force on the base of the device to several orders of magnitude of the duration of the blast wave, while it decreases the maximum pressure over an order of magnitude. Two types of experiments were carried out to study the blast wave mitigation device. The first type of experiments was done with honeycomb structures protected by the blast wave mitigation device. Experimental results show that the device can adequately protect the honeycomb structure. A second type of experiments was done using a Hopkinson bar to measure the pressure transmitted through the blast wave mitigation device. The experimental results agree well with results from a theoretical model.
2007-06-01
radiation flows upward, it passes though a 1.7-mm high, tapered, 25-μm thick gold wall cone that is filled 20 ± 3 mg/cm3 silica aerogel (SiO2). Above...this cone is a 20 ± 3 mg/cm3 silica aerogel filled, 1-mm high, 2.4-mm inner diameter, 25-μm thick gold wall cylinder. On the cylinder rests a 4-mm...diameter gold platform that supports a higher density (40-60 mg/cm3) silica aerogel . This aerogel is the region where the blast wave forms after
Blast wave mitigation by dry aqueous foam: numerical modelling and experimental investigation
Counilh, Denis; Ballanger, Felix; Rambert, Nicolas; Haas, Jean-Francois; Chinnayya, Aschwin; Lefrancois, Alexandre
2016-11-01
Dry aqueous foams (two-phase media with water liquid fraction lower than 5%) are known to mitigate blast wave effects induced by an explosion. The CEA has calibrated his numerical multiphase code MOUSSACA from shock tube and high-explosive experiments. The shock tube experiments have highlighted the foam fragmentation into droplets and the momentum transfer between the liquid and gas phases of the foam. More recently, experiments with hemispheric explosive charges from 3 g to 120 g have provided more findings about the pressure and impulse mitigation properties of foams. We have also taken into account the heat and mass transfer, as well as the droplets secondary breakup, characterized by the Weber number, ratio of inertia over surface tension. Good agreement is found between the calculation and the experiments. co-supervisor of the Felix Ballanger 's doctoral thesis.
Analysis of Blast Wave Propagation Inside Tunnel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Jingbo; YAN Qiushi; WU Jun
2008-01-01
The explosion inside tunnel would generate blast wave which transmits through the longi tudinal tunnel.Because of the close-in effects of the tunnel and the reflection by the confining tunnel structure,blast wave propagation inside tunnel is distinguished from that in air.When the explosion happens inside tunnel,the overpressure peak is higher than that of explosion happening in air.The continuance time of the biast wave also becomes longer.With the help of the numerical simu lation finite element software LS-DYNA.a three-dimensional nonlinear dynamic simulation analysis for an explosion experiment inside tunnel was carried out.LS-DYNA is a fully integrated analysis program specifically designed for nonlinear dynamics and large strain problems.Compared with the experimental results.the simulation results have made the material parameters of numerical simulation model available.By using the model and the same material parameters,many results were adopted by calculating the model under different TNT explosion dynamites.Then the method of dimensional analysis was Used for the Simulation resufts.AS Overpressures of the explosion biast wave are the governing factor in fhe tunnel responses.a formula for the explosion biast wave overpressure at a certain distance from the detonation center point inside the tunnel was de rived by using the dimensional analysis theory.By cornparing the results computed by the fromula with experimental results which were obtained before.the formula was proved to be very applicable at some instance.The research may be helpful to estimate rapidly the effect of internal explosion of tunnel on the structure.
Blast-Induced Damage on Millisecond Blasting Model Test with Multicircle Vertical Blastholes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qin-yong Ma
2015-01-01
Full Text Available To investigate the blast-induced damage effect on surrounding rock in vertical shaft excavation, 4 kinds of millisecond blasting model tests with three-circle blastholes were designed and carried out with excavation blasting in vertical shaft as the background. The longitudinal wave velocity on the side of concrete model was also measured before and after blasting. Then blast damage factor was then calculated by measuring longitudinal wave velocity before and after blasting. The test results show that the blast-induced damage factor attenuated gradually with the centre of three-circle blastholes as centre. With the threshold value of 0.19 for blast-induced damage factor, blast-induced damage zones for 4 kinds of model tests are described and there is an inverted cone blast-induced damage zone in concrete model. And analyses of cutting effect and blast-induced damage zone indicate that in order to minimize the blast-induced damage effect and ensure the cutting effect the reasonable blasting scheme for three-circle blastholes is the inner two-circle blastholes initiated simultaneously and the outer third circle blastholes initiated in a 25 ms delay.
Zuckerman, Amitai; Ram, Omri; Ifergane, Gal; Matar, Michael A; Sagi, Ram; Ostfeld, Ishay; Hoffman, Jay R; Kaplan, Zeev; Sadot, Oren; Cohen, Hagit
2017-01-01
The intense focus in the clinical literature on the mental and neurocognitive sequelae of explosive blast-wave exposure, especially when comorbid with post-traumatic stress-related disorders (PTSD) is justified, and warrants the design of translationally valid animal studies to provide valid complementary basic data. We employed a controlled experimental blast-wave paradigm in which unanesthetized animals were exposed to visual, auditory, olfactory, and tactile effects of an explosive blast-wave produced by exploding a thin copper wire. By combining cognitive-behavioral paradigms and ex vivo brain MRI to assess mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) phenotype with a validated behavioral model for PTSD, complemented by morphological assessments, this study sought to examine our ability to evaluate the biobehavioral effects of low-intensity blast overpressure on rats, in a translationally valid manner. There were no significant differences between blast- and sham-exposed rats on motor coordination and strength, or sensory function. Whereas most male rats exposed to the blast-wave displayed normal behavioral and cognitive responses, 23.6% of the rats displayed a significant retardation of spatial learning acquisition, fulfilling criteria for mTBI-like responses. In addition, 5.4% of the blast-exposed animals displayed an extreme response in the behavioral tasks used to define PTSD-like criteria, whereas 10.9% of the rats developed both long-lasting and progressively worsening behavioral and cognitive "symptoms," suggesting comorbid PTSD-mTBI-like behavioral and cognitive response patterns. Neither group displayed changes on MRI. Exposure to experimental blast-wave elicited distinct behavioral and morphological responses modelling mTBI-like, PTSD-like, and comorbid mTBI-PTSD-like responses. This experimental animal model can be a useful tool for elucidating neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of blast-wave-induced mTBI and PTSD and comorbid mTBI-PTSD.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chenzhi Wang
Full Text Available Human exposure to blast waves without any fragment impacts can still result in primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI. To investigate the mechanical response of human brain to primary blast waves and to identify the injury mechanisms of bTBI, a three-dimensional finite element head model consisting of the scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, nasal cavity, and brain was developed from the imaging data set of a human female. The finite element head model was partially validated and was subjected to the blast waves of five blast intensities from the anterior, right lateral, and posterior directions at a stand-off distance of one meter from the detonation center. Simulation results show that the blast wave directly transmits into the head and causes a pressure wave propagating through the brain tissue. Intracranial pressure (ICP is predicted to have the highest magnitude from a posterior blast wave in comparison with a blast wave from any of the other two directions with same blast intensity. The brain model predicts higher positive pressure at the site proximal to blast wave than that at the distal site. The intracranial pressure wave invariably travels into the posterior fossa and vertebral column, causing high pressures in these regions. The severities of cerebral contusions at different cerebral locations are estimated using an ICP based injury criterion. Von Mises stress prevails in the cortex with a much higher magnitude than in the internal parenchyma. According to an axonal injury criterion based on von Mises stress, axonal injury is not predicted to be a cause of primary brain injury from blasts.
Close-in Blast Waves from Spherical Charges*
Howard, William; Kuhl, Allen
2011-06-01
We study the close-in blast waves created by the detonation of spherical high explosives (HE) charges, via numerical simulations with our Arbitrary-Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (200 μm per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in air, and the reflection of the blast wave from an ideal surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and air were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. The results were analyzed to evaluate the: (i) free air pressure-range curves: Δps (R) , (ii) free air impulse curves, (iii) reflected pressure-range curves, and (iv) reflected impulse-range curves. A variety of explosives were studied. Conclusions are: (i) close-in (R Heat of Detonation'' of the explosive (because close-in, there is not enough time to fully couple the chemical energy to the air via piston work); (iii) instead they are related to the detonation conditions inside the charge. Scaling laws will be proposed for such close-in blast waves.
A Thoracic Mechanism of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Blast Pressure Waves
Courtney, Amy; 10.1016/j.mehy.2008.08.015
2008-01-01
The mechanisms by which blast pressure waves cause mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are an open question. Possibilities include acceleration of the head, direct passage of the blast wave via the cranium, and propagation of the blast wave to the brain via a thoracic mechanism. The hypothesis that the blast pressure wave reaches the brain via a thoracic mechanism is considered in light of ballistic and blast pressure wave research. Ballistic pressure waves, caused by penetrating ballistic projectiles or ballistic impacts to body armor, can only reach the brain via an internal mechanism and have been shown to cause cerebral effects. Similar effects have been documented when a blast pressure wave has been applied to the whole body or focused on the thorax in animal models. While vagotomy reduces apnea and bradycardia due to ballistic or blast pressure waves, it does not eliminate neural damage in the brain, suggesting that the pressure wave directly affects the brain cells via a thoracic mechanism. ...
A $55 Shock Tube for Simulated Blast Waves
Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael
2015-01-01
Shock tubes are commonly employed to test candidate armor materials, validate numerical models, and conduct simulated blast experiments in animal models. As DoD interests desire to field wearable sensors as blast dosimeters, shock tubes may also serve for calibration and testing of these devices. The high blast pressures needed for experimental testing of candidate armors are unnecessary to test these sensors. An inexpensive, efficient, and easily available way of testing these pressure sensors is desirable. It is known that releasing compressed gas suddenly can create a repeatable shock front, and the pressures can be finely tuned by changing the pressure to which the gas is compressed. A Crosman 0.177 caliber air pistol was used (without loading any pellets) to compress and release air in one end of a 24 inch long 3/4 inch diameter standard pipe nipple to simulate a blast wave at the other end of the tube. A variable number of pumps were used to vary the peak blast pressure. As expected, the trials where 10...
Antiknock Performance of Interlayered High-Damping-Rubber Blast Door under Thermobaric Shock Wave
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiudi Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The long duration and high impulse shock wave of thermobaric bomb threatens the security of underground structures. To obtain high resistance blast door against thermobaric shock wave, firstly, the dynamic mechanic property of high damping rubber was studied by split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB equipment and the stress-strain relationship of high damping rubber under average strain rate of 5200/s was obtained. Secondly, the numerical model of interlayered high-damping-rubber blast door was established with ANSYS/LS-DYNA code based on test results, and the antiknock performance of interlayered high-damping-rubber blast door under thermobaric shock wave was analyzed by contrast with ordinary blast door. The results showed that the midspan displacement of the blast door decreased firstly and then increased with the increase of thickness of the high-damping-rubber interlayer, and the optimal thickness of the high-damping-rubber interlayer for energy consuming was 150 mm in the calculation condition of this paper. With the increase of the distance between the interlayer and the front surface of the door, the midspan displacement of the blast door decreased continually. The midspan maximum displacement of interlayered high-damping-rubber blast door decreased 74.5% in comparison to ordinary blast door. It showed that the high-damping-rubber structure can effectively improve the antiknock performance of blast door under thermobaric shock wave.
Blast Loading Experiments of Surrogate Models for Tbi Scenarios
Alley, M. D.; Son, S. F.
2009-12-01
This study aims to characterize the interaction of explosive blast waves through simulated anatomical models. We have developed physical models and a systematic approach for testing traumatic brain injury (TBI) mechanisms and occurrences. A simplified series of models consisting of spherical PMMA shells housing synthetic gelatins as brain simulants have been utilized. A series of experiments was conducted to compare the sensitivity of the system response to mechanical properties of the simulants under high strain-rate explosive blasts. Small explosive charges were directed at the models to produce a realistic blast wave in a scaled laboratory test cell setting. Blast profiles were measured and analyzed to compare system response severity. High-speed shadowgraph imaging captured blast wave interaction with the head model while particle tracking captured internal response for displacement and strain correlation. The results suggest amplification of shock waves inside the head near material interfaces due to impedance mismatches. In addition, significant relative displacement was observed between the interacting materials suggesting large strain values of nearly 5%. Further quantitative results were obtained through shadowgraph imaging of the blasts confirming a separation of time scales between blast interaction and bulk movement. These results lead to the conclusion that primary blast effects could cause TBI occurrences.
Simulation of the Reflected Blast Wave froma C-4 Charge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Howard, W M; Kuhl, A L; Tringe, J W
2011-08-01
The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 {micro}m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 8 ranges (GR = 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 inches) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 2 inches), which were dominated by jetting effects.
High-speed measurement of rifle primer blast waves
Courtney, Michael
2011-01-01
This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of rifle primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Our key findings are: 1) Most of the primer models tested show 5-12% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) For most primer types tested, peak pressure magnitudes are well correlated with measured primer masses so that significant reductions in standard deviation are expected to result from sorting primers by mass. 3) A range of peak pressures from below 200 psi to above 500 psi is available in different primer types.
Moon, C.; Fan, X.; Ha, K.; Kim, D.
2017-01-01
We have generated planar blast waves over the large area using carbon nanotubes(CNT)-poly-dimethylsiloxane(PDMS) optoacoustic transducer. Pulse laser is absorbed by CNT and converted to heat, and the heat is transferred to PDMS inducing its thermal expansion and blast wave generation. To theoretically describe the planar blast wave generation, we build one-dimensional simulation model and find analytical solutions for temperature and pressure distributions. The analytical solution validated by the experimental data sheds light on how to improve the performance of the new transducer. Resonance of acoustic waves inside the transducer is also discussed. The new optoacoustic transducer optimized based on the fundamental understandings will be useful in generating high quality blast waves for research and industrial applications.
Shock tubes and blast injury modeling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ya-Lei Ning; Yuan-Guo Zhou
2015-01-01
Explosive blast injury has become the most prevalent injury in recent military conflicts and terrorist attacks.The magnitude of this kind of polytrauma is complex due to the basic physics of blast and the surrounding environments.Therefore,development of stable,reproducible and controllable animal model using an ideal blast simulation device is the key of blast injury research.The present review addresses the modeling of blast injury and applications of shock tubes.
Source model for blasting vibration
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DING; Hua(丁桦); ZHENG; Zhemin(郑哲敏)
2002-01-01
By analyzing and comparing the experimental data, the point source moment theory and the cavity theory, it is concluded that the vibrating signals away from the blasting explosive come mainly from the natural vibrations of the geological structures near the broken blasting area. The source impulses are not spread mainly by the inelastic properties (such as through media damping, as believed to be the case by many researchers) of the medium in the propagation pass, but by this structure. Then an equivalent source model for the blasting vibrations of a fragmenting blasting is proposed, which shows the important role of the impulse of the source's time function under certain conditions. For the purpose of numerical simulation, the model is realized in FEM, The finite element results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Analytical Solution of the Blast Wave Problem in a Non-Ideal Gas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
L. P. Singh; S. D. Ram; D. B. Singh
2011-01-01
An analytical approach is used to construct the exact solution of the blast wave problem with generalized geometries in a non-ideal medium. It is assumed that the density ahead of the shock front varies according to a power of distance from the source of the blast wave. Also, an analytical expression for the total energy in a non-ideal medium is derived.%An analytical approach is used to construct the exact solution of the blast wave problem with generalized geometries in a non-ideal medium.It is assumed that the density ahead of the shock front varies according to a power of distance from the source of the blast wave.Also,an analytical expression for the total energy in a non-ideal medium is derived.Blast waves are common occurrences in the Earth's atmosphere.They result from a sudden release of a relatively large amount of energy.Typical examples are lightening and chemical or nuclear explosions.Assume that we have an explosion,following which there may exist a very small region filled with hot matter at high pressure in a duration,which starts to expand outwards with its front headed by a strong shock.The process generally takes place in a very short time after which a forward-moving shock wave develops,which continuously assimilates the ambient air into the blast wave.Although some of the explosive material may still remain near the center,the amount of the air absorbed increases with time,and the later behavior of the blast wave may well be represented by the model of the shock wave at the front and a purely gasdynamic treatment for the motion of the air inside,which may be assumed to have ideal and non-viscous adiabatic heat exponent.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dengfeng Su
2016-01-01
Full Text Available As one of the most serious “side effects” of blast excavation, blast-induced vibration must be controlled for existing buildings and human beings. This paper proposes a method for blast-induced vibration reduction with water jet assistance according to the cutting characters of low-noised, environment-friendly water jet. The mechanism of vibration-isolation with water jet assistance was analyzed, and the stress wave energy attenuation models were established based on blasting theory and stress wave theory. Influence law on shock wave attenuation by vibration-isolation slot was studied by numerical simulation. Simulation results agree with the theoretical analysis roughly. The results of this study put forward a method for blast-induced vibration near blasting source and provide a certain theoretical basis.
Modelling and Testing of Blast Effect On the Structures
Figuli, Lucia; Jangl, Štefan; Papán, Daniel
2016-10-01
As a blasting agent in the blasting and mining engineering, has been using one of so called new generation of explosives which offer greater flexibility in their range and application, and such explosive is ANFO. It is type of explosive consists of an oxidiser and a fuel (ammonium nitrate and fuel oil). One of such ANFO explosives which are industrially made in Slovakia is POLONIT. The explosive is a mixture of ammonium nitrate, methyl esters of higher fatty acids, vegetable oil and red dye. The paper deals with the analysis of structure subjected to the blast load created by the explosion of POLONIT charge. First part of paper is describing behaviour and characteristic of blast wave generated from the blast (detonation characteristics, physical characteristics, time-history diagram etc.) and the second part presents the behaviour of such loaded structures, because of the analysis of such dynamical loaded structure is required knowing the parameters of blast wave, its effect on structure and the tools for the solution of dynamic analysis. The real field tests of three different weight of charges and two different structures were done. The explosive POLONIT was used together with 25 g of ignition explosive PLNp10. Analytical and numerical model of blast loaded structure is compared with the results obtained from the field tests (is compared with the corresponding experimental accelerations). For the modelling structures were approximated as a one-degree system of freedom (SDOF), where the blast wave was estimated with linear decay and exponential decay using positive and negative phase of blast wave. Numerical solution of the steel beam dynamic response was performed via FEM (Finite Element Method) using standard software Visual FEA.
1985-05-01
SUB-GROUP06 217• 06 2 19, ABSTRACT (Conltiwe on rever Ni nftwy wf’, mbbr )y p 20. DISTRIIUTION IAVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21. AOSTRACT SECURITY...35 4.1.1 Treatments of Lumped Material Properties on the FEN Model ................................ .s......s....... 35 4.1.2 Material...points of those elements describing the internal organs. This treatment brings the contributions of rib cage and muscle layer Into consideration. It
Spike Penetration in Blast-Wave-Driven Instabilities
Drake, R. Paul
2010-05-01
Recent experiments by C. Kuranz and collaborators, motivated by structure in supernovae, have studied systems in which planar blast waves encounter interfaces where the density decreases. During the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) phase of such experiments, they observed greater penetration of the RT spikes than tends to be seen in simulations. Here we seek to employ semi-analytic theory to understand the general nature and regimes of spike penetration for blast-wave-driven instabilities. This problem is not trivial as one must account for the initial vorticity deposition at the interface, for its time-dependent deceleration, for the expansion of the shocked material in time and space, and for the drag on the broadened tips of the spikes. We offer here an improved evaluation of the material expansion in comparison to past work. The goal is to use such models to increase our ability to interpret the behavior of simulations of such systems, in both the laboratory and astrophysics. Supported by the US DOE NNSA under the Predictive Sci. Academic Alliance Program by grant DE-FC52-08NA28616, the Stewardship Sci. Academic Alliances program by grant DE-FG52-04NA00064, and the Nat. Laser User Facility by grant DE-FG03-00SF22021.
Blast Loading Experiments of Developed Surrogate Models for TBI Scenarios
Alley, Matthew; Son, Steven
2009-06-01
This study aims to characterize the interaction of explosive blast waves through simulated anatomical systems. We have developed physical models and a systematic approach for testing traumatic brain injury (TBI) mechanisms and occurrences. A simplified series of models consisting of spherical PMMA shells followed by SLA prototyped skulls housing synthetic gelatins as brain simulants have been utilized. A series of experiments was conducted with the simple geometries to compare the sensitivity of the system response to mechanical properties of the simulants under high strain-rate explosive blasts. Small explosive charges were directed at the models to produce a realistic blast wave in a scaled laboratory setting. Blast profiles were measured and analyzed to compare system response severity. High-speed shadowgraph imaging captured blast wave interaction with the head model while particle tracking captured internal response for displacement and strain correlation. The results suggest amplification of shock waves inside the head due to impedance mismatches. Results from the strain correlations added to the theory of internal shearing between tissues.
Energy spectrum analysis of blast waves based on an improved Hilbert-Huang transform
Li, L.; Wang, F.; Shang, F.; Jia, Y.; Zhao, C.; Kong, D.
2016-07-01
Using the improved Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), this paper investigates the problems of analysis and interpretation of the energy spectrum of a blast wave. It has been previously established that the energy spectrum is an effective feature by which to characterize a blast wave. In fact, the higher the energy spectra in a frequency band of a blast wave, the greater the damage to a target in the same frequency band. However, most current research focuses on analyzing wave signals in the time domain or frequency domain rather than considering the energy spectrum. We propose here an improved HHT method combined with a wavelet packet to extract the energy spectrum feature of a blast wave. When applying the HHT, the signal is first roughly decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by empirical mode decomposition. The wavelet packet method is then performed on each IMF to eliminate noise on the energy spectrum. Second, a coefficient is introduced to remove unrelated IMFs. The energy of each instantaneous frequency can be derived through the Hilbert transform. The energy spectrum can then be obtained by adding up all the components after the wavelet packet filters and screens them through a coefficient to obtain the effective IMFs. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by 12 groups of experimental data, and an energy attenuation model is established based on the experimental data. The improved HHT is a precise method for blast wave signal analysis. For other shock wave signals from blasting experiments, an energy frequency time distribution and energy spectrum can also be obtained through this method, allowing for more practical applications.
On the magnetisation of gamma-ray burst blast waves
Lemoine, Martin; Wang, Xiang-Yu
2013-01-01
The origin of magnetic fields that permeate the blast waves of gamma-ray bursts is a long-standing problem. The present paper argues that in four GRBs revealing extended emission at >100 MeV, with follow-up in the radio, optical and X-ray domains at later times, this magnetisation can be described as the partial decay of the microturbulence that is generated in the shock precursor. Assuming that the extended high energy emission can be interpreted as synchrotron emission of shock accelerated electrons, we model the multi-wavelength light curves of GRB 090902B, GRB 090323, GRB 090328 and GRB 110731A, using a simplified then a full synchrotron calculation with power law decaying microturbulence \\epsilon_B \\propto t^{\\alpha_t} (t denotes the time since injection through the shock, in the comoving blast frame). We find that these models point to a consistent value of the decay exponent -0.5 < \\alpha_t < -0.4.
Triple-layer Absorptive Structures for Shock Wave Blast Protection
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Triple-layer absorptive structure is designed to reinforce a missile silo against shock wave blasts. An energy-absorbing layer and a cushion layer overlay the circular silo cover made of reinforced concrete. The dynamic stress analysis is performed by ABAQUS/Explicit. The mesoscopic structure of the energy absorbing layer is designed as an assembly of ductile tubes containing crushable cellular ceramics. Combined mesoscopic and macroscopic simulations indicate that the structure can enhance the survivability of a missile silo against blast waves.
Oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes for studying blast wave effects.
Courtney, Amy C; Andrusiv, Lubov P; Courtney, Michael W
2012-04-01
This paper describes the development and characterization of modular, oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes. Such tools are needed to produce realistic blast waves in a laboratory setting. The pressure-time profiles measured at 1 MHz using high-speed piezoelectric pressure sensors have relevant durations and show a true shock front and exponential decay characteristic of free-field blast waves. Descriptions are included for shock tube diameters of 27-79 mm. A range of peak pressures from 204 kPa to 1187 kPa (with 0.5-5.6% standard error of the mean) were produced by selection of the driver section diameter and distance from the shock tube opening. The peak pressures varied predictably with distance from the shock tube opening while maintaining both a true blast wave profile and relevant pulse duration for distances up to about one diameter from the shock tube opening. This shock tube design provides a more realistic blast profile than current compression-driven shock tubes, and it does not have a large jet effect. In addition, operation does not require specialized personnel or facilities like most blast-driven shock tubes, which reduces operating costs and effort and permits greater throughput and accessibility. It is expected to be useful in assessing the response of various sensors to shock wave loading; assessing the reflection, transmission, and absorption properties of candidate armor materials; assessing material properties at high rates of loading; assessing the response of biological materials to shock wave exposure; and providing a means to validate numerical models of the interaction of shock waves with structures. All of these activities have been difficult to pursue in a laboratory setting due in part to lack of appropriate means to produce a realistic blast loading profile.
Nonlinear propagation of high-frequency energy from blast waves as it pertains to bat hearing
Loubeau, Alexandra
Close exposure to blast noise from military weapons training can adversely affect the hearing of both humans and wildlife. One concern is the effect of high-frequency noise from Army weapons training on the hearing of endangered bats. Blast wave propagation measurements were conducted to investigate nonlinear effects on the development of blast waveforms as they propagate from the source. Measurements were made at ranges of 25, 50, and 100 m from the blast. Particular emphasis was placed on observation of rise time variation with distance. Resolving the fine shock structure of blast waves requires robust transducers with high-frequency capability beyond 100 kHz, hence the limitations of traditional microphones and the effect of microphone orientation were investigated. Measurements were made with a wide-bandwidth capacitor microphone for comparison with conventional 3.175-mm (⅛-in.) microphones with and without baffles. The 3.175-mm microphone oriented at 90° to the propagation direction did not have sufficient high-frequency response to capture the actual rise times at a range of 50 m. Microphone baffles eliminate diffraction artifacts on the rise portion of the measured waveform and therefore allow for a more accurate measurement of the blast rise time. The wide-band microphone has an extended high-frequency response and can resolve shorter rise times than conventional microphones. For a source of 0.57 kg (1.25 lb) of C-4 plastic explosive, it was observed that nonlinear effects steepened the waveform, thereby decreasing the shock rise time, from 25 to 50 m. At 100m, the rise times had increased slightly. For comparison to the measured blast waveforms, several models of nonlinear propagation are applied to the problem of finite-amplitude blast wave propagation. Shock front models, such as the Johnson and Hammerton model, and full-waveform marching algorithms, such as the Anderson model, are investigated and compared to experimental results. The models
Simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, Paul Allen; Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)
2008-04-01
U.S. soldiers are surviving blast and impacts due to effective body armor, trauma evacuation and care. Blast injuries are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in military personnel returning from combat. Understanding of Primary Blast Injury may be needed to develop better means of blast mitigation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of blast direction and strength on the resulting mechanical stress and wave energy distributions generated in the brain.
Supernova-blast waves in wind-blown bubbles, turbulent, and power-law ambient media
Haid, Sebastian; Naab, Thorsten; Seifried, Daniel; Mackey, Jonathan; Gatto, Andrea
2016-01-01
Supernova (SN) blast waves inject energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM), control its turbulent multiphase structure and the launching of galactic outflows. Accurate modelling of the blast wave evolution is therefore essential for ISM and galaxy formation simulations. We present an efficient method to compute the input of momentum, thermal energy, and the velocity distribution of the shock-accelerated gas for ambient media with uniform (and with stellar wind blown bubbles), power-law, and turbulent density distributions. Assuming solar metallicity cooling, the blast wave evolution is followed to the beginning of the momentum conserving snowplough phase. The model recovers previous results for uniform ambient media. The momentum injection in wind-blown bubbles depend on the swept-up mass and the efficiency of cooling, when the blast wave hits the wind shell. For power-law density distributions with $n(r) \\sim$ $r^{-2}$ (for $n(r) > n_{_{\\rm floor}}$) the amount of momentum injection is solely r...
Indoor propagation and assessment of blast waves from weapons using the alternative image theory
Kong, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Jung, S.; Song, K. H.
2016-03-01
Blast waves generated from the muzzles of various weapons might have significant effects on the human body, and these effects are recognized as being more severe when weapons are fired indoors. The risk can be assessed by various criteria, such as waveform, exposed energy, and model-based types. This study introduces a prediction model of blast wave propagation for estimating waveform parameters related to damage risk assessment. To simulate indoor multiple reflections in a simple way, the model is based on the alternative image theory and discrete wavefront method. The alternative theory is a kind of modified image theory, but it uses the image space concept from a receiver's perspective, so that it shows improved efficiency for indoor problems. Further, the discrete wavefront method interprets wave propagation as the forward movement of a finite number of wavefronts. Even though the predicted results show slight differences from the measured data, the locations of significant shock waves indicate a high degree of correlation between them. Since the disagreement results not from the proposed techniques but from the assumptions used, it is concluded that the model is appropriate for analysis of blast wave propagation in interior spaces.
Measurement of the decay rate of single-frequency perturbations on blast waves.
Edens, A D; Ditmire, T; Hansen, J F; Edwards, M J; Adams, R G; Rambo, P K; Ruggles, L; Smith, I C; Porter, J L
2005-12-09
To explore the validity of theories forwarded to explain the dynamics of hydrodynamic perturbations on high Mach number blast waves, we have studied the decay rate of perturbations on blast waves traveling through nitrogen gas. In our experiments, 1 kJ pulses from the Z-Beamlet laser at Sandia National Laboratories illuminated solid targets immersed in gas and created blast waves. The polytropic index implied by comparing experiment to theoretical predictions is compared to simulation results.
Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Chandra, Namas
2014-01-01
Detonation of a high-explosive produces shock-blast wave, shrapnel, and gaseous products. While direct exposure to blast is a concern near the epicenter, shock-blast can affect subjects, even at farther distances. When a pure shock-blast wave encounters the subject, in the absence of shrapnels, fall, or gaseous products the loading is termed as primary blast loading and is the subject of this paper. The wave profile is characterized by blast overpressure, positive time duration, and impulse and called herein as shock-blast wave parameters (SWPs). These parameters in turn are uniquely determined by the strength of high explosive and the distance of the human subjects from the epicenter. The shape and magnitude of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects. As shown in some of our recent works (1-3), the profile not only determines the survival of the subjects (e.g., animals) but also the acute and chronic biomechanical injuries along with the following bio-chemical sequelae. It is extremely important to carefully design and operate the shock tube to produce field-relevant SWPs. Furthermore, it is vital to identify and eliminate the artifacts that are inadvertently introduced in the shock-blast profile that may affect the results. In this work, we examine the relationship between shock tube adjustable parameters (SAPs) and SWPs that can be used to control the blast profile; the results can be easily applied to many of the laboratory shock tubes. Further, replication of shock profile (magnitude and shape) can be related to field explosions and can be a standard in comparing results across different laboratories. Forty experiments are carried out by judiciously varying SAPs such as membrane thickness, breech length (66.68-1209.68 mm), measurement location, and type of driver gas (nitrogen, helium). The effects SAPs have on the resulting shock-blast profiles are shown. Also, the shock-blast profiles of a TNT explosion from ConWep software is compared
GRB Afterglow Blast Wave Encountering Sudden Circumburst Density Change Produces No Flares
Gat, Ilana; MacFadyen, Andrew
2013-01-01
Afterglows of gamma-ray bursts are observed to produce light curves with the flux following power law evolution in time. However, recent observations reveal bright flares at times on the order of minutes to days. One proposed explanation for these flares is the interaction of a relativistic blast wave with a circumburst density transition. In this paper, we model this type of interaction computationally in one and two dimensions, using a relativistic hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement called ram, and analytically in one dimension. We simulate a blast wave traveling in a stellar wind environment that encounters a sudden change in density, followed by a homogeneous medium, and compute the observed radiation using a synchrotron model. We show that flares are not observable for an encounter with a sudden density increase, such as a wind termination shock, nor for an encounter with a sudden density decrease. Furthermore, by extending our analysis to two dimensions, we are able to resolve the spreadin...
No flares from GRB afterglow blast waves encountering sudden circumburst density change
Gat, Ilana; MacFadyen, Andrew
2013-01-01
Afterglows of gamma-ray bursts are observed to produce light curves with the flux following power law evolution in time. However, recent observations reveal bright flares at times on the order of minutes to days. One proposed explanation for these flares is the interaction of a relativistic blast wave with a circumburst density transition. In this paper, we model this type of interaction computationally in one and two dimensions, using a relativistic hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement called RAM, and analytically in one dimension. We simulate a blast wave traveling in a stellar wind environment that encounters a sudden change in density, followed by a homogeneous medium, and compute the observed radiation using a synchrotron model. We show that flares are not observable for an encounter with a sudden density increase, such as a wind termination shock, nor for an encounter with a sudden density decrease. Furthermore, by extending our analysis to two dimensions, we are able to resolve the spreadin...
Information modeling system for blast furnace control
Spirin, N. A.; Gileva, L. Y.; Lavrov, V. V.
2016-09-01
Modern Iron & Steel Works as a rule are equipped with powerful distributed control systems (DCS) and databases. Implementation of DSC system solves the problem of storage, control, protection, entry, editing and retrieving of information as well as generation of required reporting data. The most advanced and promising approach is to use decision support information technologies based on a complex of mathematical models. The model decision support system for control of blast furnace smelting is designed and operated. The basis of the model system is a complex of mathematical models created using the principle of natural mathematical modeling. This principle provides for construction of mathematical models of two levels. The first level model is a basic state model which makes it possible to assess the vector of system parameters using field data and blast furnace operation results. It is also used to calculate the adjustment (adaptation) coefficients of the predictive block of the system. The second-level model is a predictive model designed to assess the design parameters of the blast furnace process when there are changes in melting conditions relative to its current state. Tasks for which software is developed are described. Characteristics of the main subsystems of the blast furnace process as an object of modeling and control - thermal state of the furnace, blast, gas dynamic and slag conditions of blast furnace smelting - are presented.
Modelling and Dynamic Response of Steel Reticulated Shell under Blast Loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ximei Zhai
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Explicit finite element programme LS-DYNA was used to simulate a long-span steel reticulated shell under blast loading to investigate the structural dynamic responses in this paper. The elaborate finite element model of the Kiewitt-8 single-layer reticulated shell with span of 40 m subjected to central blast loading was established and all the process from the detonation of the explosive charge to the demolition, including the propagation of the blast wave and its interaction with structure was reproduced. The peak overpressure from the numerical analysis was compared with empirical formulas to verify the credibility and applicability of numerical simulation for blast loading. The dynamic responses of the structure under blast loading with different TNT equivalent weights of explosive and rise-span ratios were obtained. In addition, the response types of Kiewitt-8 single-layer reticulated shell subjected to central explosive blast loading were defined.
Blast wave attenuation by lightly destructable granular materials
Golub, V. V.; Lu, F. K.; Medin, S. A.; Mirova, O. A.; Parshikov, A. N.; Petukhov, V. A.; Volodin, V. V.
Terrorist bombings are a dismal reality nowadays. One of the most effective ways for protection against blast overpressure is the use of lightly compacted materials such as sand [1] and aqueous foam [2] as a protective envelope or barrier. According to [1], shock wave attenuation in a mine tunnel (one-dimensional case) behind a destroyed object is given by q_e ≈ q {1}/{1 + 4(S/q)^{1/6} bρ _{mat} /L^{1/3} }where qe — effective charge, S — exposed area of the obstacle, q — TNT equivalent (grams), L — distance between charge and obstacle, b — obstacle thickness and ρ mat — material density. This empirical equation is applicable only in a one-dimensional case but not for a less confined environment. Another way of protecting a structure against blast is to coat the surface with a sacrificial layer. In [3] full-scale experiments were carried out to investigate the behaviour of a covering of aluminum foam under the effect of a blast wave.
Development of Experimental Tissue Models for Blast Injury
Butler, Benjamin; Bo, Chiara; Williams, Alun; Jardine, Andy; Brown, Katherine
2013-06-01
There is a pressing need to better understand the relationship between the intensity of a blast wave and the clinical consequences for victims of an explosion. In order to quantitatively study how these factors correlate with one another, blast injury tissue models are being developed. Sections of larynx, trachea and pulmonary tissue were excised from a recently sacrificed pig and maintained on ice prior to testing. The samples were subjected to strain rates of between 0.001 s-1 and 1000 s-1 in the laboratory by using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar and quasi-static testing apparatus. During high strain rate testing, samples were housed in a polycarbonate chamber which permitted experimentation on tissue held in fluid. Data were analysed using 1, 2 and 3 wave analysis software in Matlab to yield information about the material properties of both undamaged and damaged tissues. In addition, macroscopic changes in tissue organization were also visualized using histopathological techniques. This work is being extended to cellular and animal models to derive more detailed information about the underlying molecular changes relating to blast-induced damage and repair. The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies.
Supernova blast waves in wind-blown bubbles, turbulent, and power-law ambient media
Haid, S.; Walch, S.; Naab, T.; Seifried, D.; Mackey, J.; Gatto, A.
2016-08-01
Supernova (SN) blast waves inject energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM), control its turbulent multiphase structure and the launching of galactic outflows. Accurate modelling of the blast wave evolution is therefore essential for ISM and galaxy formation simulations. We present an efficient method to compute the input of momentum, thermal energy, and the velocity distribution of the shock-accelerated gas for ambient media (densities of 0.1 ≥ n0 [cm- 3] ≥ 100) with uniform (and with stellar wind blown bubbles), power-law, and turbulent (Mach numbers M from 1to100) density distributions. Assuming solar metallicity cooling, the blast wave evolution is followed to the beginning of the momentum conserving snowplough phase. The model recovers previous results for uniform ambient media. The momentum injection in wind-blown bubbles depend on the swept-up mass and the efficiency of cooling, when the blast wave hits the wind shell. For power-law density distributions with n(r) ˜ r-2 (for n(r) > nfloor) the amount of momentum injection is solely regulated by the background density nfloor and compares to nuni = nfloor. However, in turbulent ambient media with lognormal density distributions the momentum input can increase by a factor of 2 (compared to the homogeneous case) for high Mach numbers. The average momentum boost can be approximated as p_{turb}/{p_{{0}}} =23.07 (n_{{0,turb}}/1 cm^{-3})^{-0.12} + 0.82 (ln (1+b2{M}2))^{1.49}(n_{{0,turb}}/1 cm^{-3})^{-1.6}. The velocity distributions are broad as gas can be accelerated to high velocities in low-density channels. The model values agree with results from recent, computationally expensive, three-dimensional simulations of SN explosions in turbulent media.
Modelling Blast Effects on a Reinforced Concrete Bridge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markellos Andreou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The detailed investigation of blast phenomena and their catastrophic effects on existing structures are the main objectives of the present paper. It is well known that blast phenomena may be characterized by significant complexity, often involving complicated wave propagation effects as well as distinguishable material behaviors. Considering the above and in an attempt to provide a simplified modelling approach for the simulation of blast effects, a novel procedure is presented herein based on well-established methodologies and common engineering practices. In the above framework, firstly, the “predominant” deformation shape of the structure is estimated based on elastic finite element simulations under blast loads and then the structural response of the system is evaluated as a result of common computational beam-element tools such as displacement-based pushover analysis. The proposed methodology provides an immediate first estimation of the structural behavior under blast loads, based on familiar engineering procedures. A two-span reinforced concrete bridge was thoroughly investigated and the results provide insightful information regarding the damage patterns and localization.
Simulation of the reflected blast wave from a C-4 charge
Howard, W. Michael; Kuhl, Allen L.; Tringe, Joseph
2012-03-01
The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 μm per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 7 ranges (GR = 0, 5.08, 10.16, 15.24, 20.32, 25.4, and 30.48 cm) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 5 cm), which were dominated by jetting effects.
Dynamics and stability of relativistic gamma-ray-bursts blast waves
Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.
2010-01-01
Aims. In gamma-ray-bursts (GRBs), ultra-relativistic blast waves are ejected into the circumburst medium. We analyse in unprecedented detail the deceleration of a self-similar Blandford-McKee blast wave from a Lorentz factor 25 to the nonrelativistic Sedov phase. Our goal is to determine the stabili
Heating of X-Ray Hot Gas in Groups by Blast Waves
Fujita, Y
2001-01-01
In order to find the conditions which determine whether X-Ray hot gas in galaxy groups (intragroup gas; IGG) is heated externally or internally, we investigate the evolution of blast waves in galaxy groups growing on a hierarchical clustering scenario. We find that the blast waves driven by quasars are confined in groups and heat the IGG internally at z~ 1, they expel the IGG from groups; the expelled gas may fall back into the groups later as externally heated gas. Moreover, this may explain the observed low metal abundance of IGG. For blast waves driven by strong starbursts, the shift of the fate of blast waves occurs at z~ 3. On the other hand, although blast waves driven by weak starbursts do not expel IGG from groups, the heating efficiency decreases at z>~ 3 because of radiative cooling. It will be useful to compare these results with XMM-Newton observations.
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Gwen B. Effgen
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Due to the prominent role of improvised explosive devices (IEDs in wounding patterns of U.S. war-fighters in Iraq and Afghanistan, blast injury has risen to a new level of importance and is recognized to be a major cause of injuries to the brain. However, an injury risk-function for microscopic, macroscopic, behavioral, and neurological deficits has yet to be defined. While operational blast injuries can be very complex and thus difficult to analyze, a simplified blast injury model would facilitate studies correlating biological outcomes with blast biomechanics to define tolerance criteria. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI results from the translation of a shock wave in air, such as that produced by an IED, into a pressure wave within the skull-brain complex. Our blast injury methodology recapitulates this phenomenon in vitro, allowing for control of the injury biomechanics via a compressed-gas shock tube used in conjunction with a custom-designed, fluid-filled receiver that contains the living culture. The receiver converts the air shock wave into a fast-rising pressure transient with minimal reflections, mimicking the intracranial pressure history in blast. We have developed an organotypic hippocampal slice culture model that exhibits cell death when exposed to a 530 17.7 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.026 ± 0.017 ms duration and 190 ± 10.7 kPa-ms impulse in-air. We have also injured a simplified in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier, which exhibits disrupted integrity immediately following exposure to 581 10.0 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.067 ms ± 0.006 ms duration and 222 ± 6.9 kPa-ms impulse in-air. To better prevent and treat bTBI, both the initiating biomechanics and the ensuing pathobiology must be understood in greater detail. A well-characterized, in vitro model of bTBI, in conjunction with animal models, will be a powerful tool for developing strategies to mitigate the risks of bTBI.
Dynamics and Afterglow Light Curves of GRB Blast Waves with a Long-lived Reverse Shock
Uhm, Z Lucas; Hascoet, Romain; Daigne, Frederic; Mochkovitch, Robert; Park, Il H
2012-01-01
We perform a detailed study on the dynamics of a relativistic blast wave with the presence of a long-lived reverse shock (RS). Although a short-lived RS has been widely considered, the RS is believed to be long-lived as a consequence of a stratification expected on the ejecta Lorentz factors. The existence of a long-lived RS makes the forward shock (FS) dynamics to deviate from a self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. Employing the "mechanical model" that correctly incorporates the energy conservation for such blast waves with a long-lived RS, we present an accurate solution for both the FS and RS dynamics. We conduct a sophisticated calculation of the afterglow emission. Adopting a Lagrangian description of the blast wave, we keep track of an adiabatic evolution of numerous shells between the FS and RS. An evolution of the electron spectrum is also followed individually for every shell. We then find the FS and RS light curves by integrating over the entire FS and RS shocked regions, respectively. In particul...
Blasting Damage Predictions by Numerical Modeling in Siahbishe Pumped Storage Powerhouse
Eslami, Majid; Goshtasbi, Kamran
2017-04-01
One of the popular methods of underground and surface excavations is the use of blasting. Throughout this method of excavation, the loading resulted from blasting can be affected by different geo-mechanical and structural parameters of rock mass. Several factors affect turbulence in underground structures some of which are explosion, vibration, and stress impulses caused by the neighbouring blasting products. In investigating the blasting mechanism one should address the processes which expand with time and cause seismic events. To protect the adjoining structures against any probable deconstruction or damage, it is very important to model the blasting process prior to any actual operation. Efforts have been taken in the present study to demonstrate the potentiality of numerical methods in predicting the specified parameters in order to prevent any probable destruction. For this purpose the blasting process was modeled, according to its natural implementation, in one of the tunnels of Siahbishe dam by the 3DEC and AUTODYN 3D codes. 3DEC was used for modeling the blasting environment as well as the blast holes and AUTODYN 3D for modeling the explosion process in the blast hole. In this process the output of AUTODYN 3D, which is a result of modeling the blast hole and is in the form of stress waves, is entered into 3DEC. For analyzing the amount of destruction made by the blasting operation, the key parameter of Peak Particle Velocity was used. In the end, the numerical modeling results have been compared with the data recorded by the seismographs planted through the tunnel. As the results indicated 3DEC and AUTODYN 3D proved appropriate for analyzing such an issue. Therefore, by means of these two softwares one can analyze explosion processes prior to their implementation and make close estimation of the damage resulting from these processes.
Self-similar ultra-relativistic jetted blast wave
Keshet, Uri
2015-01-01
Following a suggestion that a directed relativistic explosion may have a universal intermediate asymptotic, we derive a self-similar solution for an ultra-relativistic jetted blast wave. The solution involves three distinct regions: an approximately paraboloid head where the Lorentz factor $\\gamma$ exceeds $\\sim1/2$ of its maximal, nose value; a geometrically self-similar, expanding envelope slightly narrower than a paraboloid; and an axial core in which the radial flow $U$ converges inward towards the axis. Most ($\\sim 80\\%$) of the energy lies well beyond the head. Here, a radial cross section shows a maximal $\\gamma$ (separating the core and the envelope), a sign reversal in $U$, and a minimal $\\gamma$, at respectively $\\sim 1/6$, $\\sim1/4$, and $\\sim3/4$ of the shock radius. The solution is apparently unique, and approximately agrees with previous simulations, of different initial conditions, that resolved the head. This suggests that unlike a spherical relativistic blast wave, our solution is an attracto...
Developments in vapour cloud explosion blast modeling
Mercx, W.P.M.; Berg, A.C. van den; Hayhurst, C.J.; Robertson, N.J.; Moran, K.C.
2000-01-01
TNT Equivalency methods are widely used for vapour cloud explosion blast modeling. Presently, however, other types of models are available which do not have the fundamental objections TNT Equivalency models have. TNO Multi-Energy method is increasingly accepted as a more reasonable alternative to be
Codina, R.; Ambrosini, D.
2017-06-01
For the last few decades, the effects of blast loading on structures have been studied by many researchers around the world. Explosions can be caused by events such as industrial accidents, military conflicts or terrorist attacks. Urban centers have been prone to various threats including car bombs, suicide attacks, and improvised explosive devices. Partially vented constructions subjected to external blast loading represent an important topic in protective engineering. The assessment of blast survivability inside structures and the development of design provisions with respect to internal elements require the study of the propagation and leakage of blast waves inside buildings. In this paper, full-scale tests are performed to study the effects of the leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room that is subjected to different external blast loadings. The results obtained may be useful for proving the validity of different methods of calculation, both empirical and numerical. Moreover, the experimental results are compared with those computed using the empirical curves of the US Defense report/manual UFC 3-340. Finally, results of the dynamic response of the front masonry wall are presented in terms of accelerations and an iso-damage diagram.
The Blast-Wave-Driven Instability as a Vehicle for Understanding Supernova Explosion Structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miles, A R
2008-05-27
Blast-wave-driven instabilities play a rich and varied role throughout the evolution of supernovae from explosion to remnant, but interpreting their role is difficult due to the enormous complexity of the stellar systems. We consider the simpler and fundamental hydrodynamic instability problem of a material interface between two constant-density fluids perturbed from spherical and driven by a divergent central Taylor-Sedov blast wave. The existence of unified solutions at high Mach number and small density ratio suggests that general conclusions can be drawn about the likely asymptotic structure of the mixing zone. To this end we apply buoyancy-drag and bubble merger models modified to include the effects of divergence and radial velocity gradients. In general, these effects preclude the true self-similar evolution of classical Raleigh-Taylor, but can be incorporated into a quasi-self-similar growth picture. Loss of memory of initial conditions can occur in the quasi-self-similar model, but requires initial mode numbers higher than those predicted for pre-explosion interfaces in Type II SNe, suggesting that their late-time structure is likely strongly influenced by details of the initial perturbations. Where low-modes are dominant, as in the Type Ia Tycho remnant, they result from initial perturbations rather than generation from smaller scales. Therefore, structure observed now contains direct information about the explosion process. When large-amplitude modes are present in the initial conditions, the contribution to the perturbation growth from the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is significant or dominant compared to Rayleigh-Taylor. Such Richtmyer-Meshkov growth can yield proximity of the forward shock to the growing spikes and structure that strongly resembles that observed in the Tycho. Laser-driven high-energy-density laboratory experiments offer a promising avenue for testing model and simulation descriptions of blast-wave-driven instabilities and making
Current Status of Blast Wave Theory and Computations. Volume 2. The Quasi-Similar Solution
1984-03-01
0.02 0.04 y Fig. IV.4.17 - 260 - SIV.5. ANALYSIS OF REACTIVE BLAST WAVES PROPAGATING THROUGH GASEOUS MIXTURES WITH A SPATIALLY VARYING HEAT OF DETONATION * i...a Spatially Varying Heat of Detonation " Paper Presented at the 8th International Colloquium on Gasdynamics of Ex- plosions and Reactive Systems... of Detonation 260 6. Blast Waves in a Detonating Medium with Transport Properties Taken into Account 287 REFERENCES 326 iii CHAPTER I NON-SELF-SIMILAR
Mesh Size Effect in Numerical Simulation of Blast Wave Propagation and Interaction with Structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHI Yanchao; LI Zhongxian; HAO Hong
2008-01-01
Numerical method is popular in analysing the blast wave propagation and interaction with structures.However, because of the extremely short duration of blast wave and energy transmission between different grids, the numerical results are sensitive to the finite element mesh size.Previous numerical simulations show that a mesh size acceptable to one blast scenario might not be proper for another case, even though the difference between the two scenarios is very small,indicating a simple numerical mesh size convergence test might not be enough to guarantee accurate numerical results.Therefore, both coarse mesh and fine mesh were used in different blast scenarios to investigate the mesh size effect on numerical results of blast wave propagation and interaction with structures.Based on the numerical results and their comparison with field test results and the design charts in TM5-1300, a numerical modification method was proposed to correct the influence of the mesh size on the simulated results.It can be easily used to improve the accuracy of the numerical results of blast wave propagation and blast loads on structures.
Mathematical models of blast induced TBI: current status, challenges and prospects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raj K Gupta
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI has become a signature wound of recent military activities and is the leading cause of death and long-term disability among U.S. soldiers. The current limited understanding of brain injury mechanisms impedes the development of protection, diagnostic and treatment strategies. We believe mathematical models of blast wave brain injury biomechanics and neurobiology, complemented with in vitro and in vivo experimental studies, will enable a better understanding of injury mechanisms and accelerate the development of both protective and treatment strategies. The goal of this paper is to review the current state of the art in mathematical and computational modeling of blast induced TBI, identify research gaps and recommend future developments. A brief overview of blast wave physics, injury biomechanics and the neurobiology of brain injury is used as a foundation for a more detailed discussion of multiscale mathematical models of primary biomechanics and secondary injury and repair mechanisms. The paper also presents a discussion of model development strategies, experimental approaches to generate benchmark data for model validation and potential applications of the model for prevention and protection against blast wave TBI.
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Hibah Omar Awwad
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Physiological alterations, anxiety and cognitive disorders are strongly associated with blast-induced traumatic brain injury (blast TBI and are common symptoms in service personnel exposed to blasts. Since 2006, 25-30,000 new TBI cases are diagnosed annually in U.S. Service members; increasing evidence confirms that primary blast exposure causes diffuse axonal injury and is often accompanied by altered behavioral outcomes. Behavioral and acute metabolic effects resulting from blast to the head in the absence of thoracic contributions from the periphery were examined following a single blast wave directed to the head of male Sprague-Dawley rats protected by a lead shield over the torso. An 80 psi head blast produced cognitive deficits that were detected in working memory. Blast TBI rats displayed increased anxiety as determined by elevated plus maze at day 9 post-blast compared to sham rats; blast TBI rats spent significantly more time than the sham controls in the closed arms (p<0.05; n=8-11. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms were absent at days 22 and 48 post-blast. Instead, blast TBI rats displayed hyperactivity and increased rearing behavior at day 48 post-blast compared to sham rats. Blast TBI rats also exhibited suppressed acoustic startle responses, but similar pre-pulse inhibition at day 15 post-blast compared to sham rats. Acute physiological alterations in cerebral glucose metabolism were determined by positron emission tomography 1 and 9 days post-blast using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose. Global glucose uptake in blast TBI rat brains increased at day 1 post-blast (p<0.05; n=4-6 and returned to sham levels by day 9. Our results indicate a transient increase in cerebral metabolism following a blast injury. Markers for reactive astrogliosis and neuronal damage were noted by immunoblotting motor cortex tissue from day 10 post-blast in blast TBI rats compared to sham controls (p<0.05; n=5-6.
Blast shock wave mitigation using the hydraulic energy redirection and release technology.
Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi
2012-01-01
A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel.
Thermodynamic modeling of lead blast furnace
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TAN Peng-fu
2005-01-01
A thermodynamic model was developed to predict the distribution behavior of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,and the heat balance in a lead blast furnace.The modeling results are validated by the plant data of a lead smelter in Kazakhstan.The model can be used to predict any set of controllable process parameters such as feed composition,smelting temperature,degree of oxygen enrichment and volume of oxygen-enriched air.The effects of the blast air,industrial oxygen,and coke charge on the distribution of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,the heat balance,and the lead loss in slag,were presented and discussed.
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Qingwen Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the tunnel and underground space engineering, the blasting wave will attenuate from shock wave to stress wave to elastic seismic wave in the host rock. Also, the host rock will form crushed zone, fractured zone, and elastic seismic zone under the blasting loading and waves. In this paper, an accurate mathematical dynamic loading model was built. And the crushed zone as well as fractured zone was considered as the blasting vibration source thus deducting the partial energy for cutting host rock. So this complicated dynamic problem of segmented differential blasting was regarded as an equivalent elastic boundary problem by taking advantage of Saint-Venant’s Theorem. At last, a 3D model in finite element software FLAC3D accepted the constitutive parameters, uniformly distributed mutative loading, and the cylindrical attenuation law to predict the velocity curves and effective tensile curves for calculating safety criterion formulas of surrounding rock and tunnel liner after verifying well with the in situ monitoring data.
Analysis of reflected blast wave pressure profiles in a confined room
Sauvan, P. E.; Sochet, I.; Trélat, S.
2012-05-01
To understand the blast effects of confined explosions, it is necessary to study the characteristic parameters of the blast wave in terms of overpressure, impulse and arrival time. In a previous study, experiments were performed using two different scales of a pyrotechnic workshop. The main purpose of these experiments was to compare the TNT equivalent for solid and gaseous explosives in terms of mass to define a TNT equivalent in a reflection field and to validate the similitude between real and small scales. To study the interactions and propagations of the reflected shock waves, the present study was conducted by progressively building a confined volume around the charge. In this way, the influence of each wall and the origins of the reflected shock waves can be determined. The purpose of this paper is to report the blast wave interactions that resulted from the detonation of a stoichiometric propane-oxygen mixture in a confined room.
Prospects for studying how high-intensity compression waves cause damage in human blast injuries
Brown, Katherine; Bo, Chiara; Ramaswamy, Arul; Masouros, Spiros; Newell, Nicolas; Hill, Adam; Clasper, Jon; Bull, Anthony; Proud, William
2011-06-01
Blast injuries arising from improvised explosive devices are often complex leading to long-term disability in survivors. There is an urgent need to mitigate against the effects of blast that lead to these injuries, and to also improve post-traumatic therapeutic treatments related to problems associated with damage and healing processes and infections. We have initiated multidisciplinary studies to develop experimental facilities and strategies for analyzing the effects blast waves upon the human body, from cellular through to skeletal functions. This work is supported by the Atomic Weapons Establishment and the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, UK.
Analysis of reflected blast wave pressure profiles in a confined room
Sochet, Isabelle; Sauvan, Pierre-Emmanuel; Trelat, Sophie
2012-01-01
International audience; To understand the blast effects of confined explosions, it is necessary to study the characteristic parameters of the blast wave in terms of overpressure, impulse and arrival time. In a previous study, experiments were performed using two different scales of a pyrotechnic workshop. The main purpose of these experiments was to compare the TNT equivalent for solid and gaseous explosives in terms of mass to define a TNT equivalent in a reflection field and to validate the...
Mathematical model and software for control of commissioning blast furnace
Spirin, N. A.; Onorin, O. P.; Shchipanov, K. A.; Lavrov, V. V.
2016-09-01
Blowing-in is a starting period of blast furnace operation after construction or major repair. The current approximation methods of blowing-in burden analysis are based on blowing-in practice of previously commissioned blast furnaces. This area is theoretically underexplored; there are no common scientifically based methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters. The purpose of this paper is development and scientific substantiation of the methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters in the blast furnace during the blowing-in period. Research methods are based on physical regularities of main processes running in the blast furnace, system analysis, and application of modern principles for development and construction of mathematical models, algorithms and software designed for automated control of complex production processes in metallurgy. As consequence of the research made by the authors the following results have been achieved: 1. A set of mathematical models for analysis of burden arrangement throughout the height of the blast furnace and for selection of optimal blast and gas dynamic parameters has been developed. 2. General principles for selection of the blowing-in burden composition and blast and gas dynamic parameters have been set up. 3. The software for the engineering and process staff of the blast furnace has been developed and introduced in the industry.
POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON PROCESSING IN THE BLAST WAVE OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT N132D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tappe, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-72, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rho, J. [SOFIA Science Mission Operations/USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Boersma, C. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Micelotta, E. R., E-mail: atappe@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)
2012-08-01
We present Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph 14-36 {mu}m mapping observations of the supernova remnant N132D in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This study focuses on the processing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that we previously identified in the southern blast wave. The mid-infrared spectra show strong continuum emission from shock-heated dust and a unique, nearly featureless plateau in the 15-20 {mu}m region, which we attribute to PAH molecules. The typical PAH emission bands observed in the surrounding interstellar medium ahead of the blast wave disappear, which indicates shock processing of PAH molecules. The PAH plateau appears most strongly at the outer edge of the blast wave and coincides with diffuse X-ray emission that precedes the brightest X-ray and optical filaments. This suggests that PAH molecules in the surrounding medium are swept up and processed in the hot gas of the blast wave shock, where they survive the harsh conditions long enough to be detected. We also observe a broad emission feature at 20 {mu}m appearing with the PAH plateau. We speculate that this feature is either due to FeO dust grains or connected to the processing of PAHs in the supernova blast wave shock.
Experimental animal models for studies on the mechanisms of blast induced neurotrauma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mårten eRisling
2012-04-01
Full Text Available A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED in current military conflicts. Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal. BINT is characterized by extreme forces and their complex propagation. Modern body protection and the development of armored military vehicles can be assumed to have changed the outcome of BINT. Primary blast injuries are caused by overpressure waves whereas secondary, tertiary and quaternary blast injuries can have more varied origins such as the impact of fragments, abnormal movements or heat. The characteristics of the blast wave can be assumed to be significantly different in open field detonations compared to explosions in a confined space, such an armored vehicle. Important parameters include peak pressure, duration and shape of the pulse. Reflections from walls and armor can make the prediction of effects in individual cases very complex. Epidemiological data do not contain information of the relative importance of the different blast mechanisms. It is therefore important to generate data in carefully designed animal models. Such models can be selective reproductions of a primary blast, penetrating injuries from fragments, acceleration movements or combinations of such mechanisms. It is of crucial importance that the physical parameters of the employed models are well characterized so that the experiments can be reproduced in different laboratory settings. Ideally, pressure recordings should be calibrated by using the same equipment in several laboratories. With carefully designed models and thoroughly evaluated animal data it should be possible to achieve a translation of data between animal and clinical data. Imaging and computer simulation represent a possible link
Courtney, Elya; Summer, Peter David; Courtney, Michael
2014-01-01
Results are presented for lead free primers based on diazodinitrophenol (DDNP)compared with tests on lead styphnate based primers. First, barrel friction measurements in 5.56 mm NATO are presented. Second, shot to shot variations in blast waves are presented as determined by detonating primers in a 7.62x51mm rifle chamber with a firing pin, but without any powder or bullet loaded and measuring the blast wave at the muzzle with a high speed pressure transducer. Third, variations in primer blast waves, muzzle velocities, and ignition delay are presented after environmental conditioning (150 days) for two lead based and two DDNP based primers under cold and dry (-25 deg C,0% relative humidity), ambient (20 deg C, 50% relative humidity), and hot & humid (50 deg C, 100% relative humidity) conditions in 5.56 mm NATO. Taken together, these results indicate that DDNP based primers are not sufficiently reliable for service use.
Oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes for studying blast wave effects
Courtney, Michael
2011-01-01
Instrumentation is needed to produce realistic blast waves in a laboratory setting. This paper describes the development and characterization of oxy-acetylene driven, laboratory scale shock tubes for use in studying blast injury, candidate armor materials, and material properties at blast loading rates. The pressure-time profiles show a true shock front and exponential decay characteristic of blast waves and have relevant durations. The modular design includes shock tube diameters of 27 mm and 41 mm, and a selection of peak pressures from 204 kPa to 920 kPa can be produced by selection of the driver section diameter and placement of the test sample. Characterization studies of several driver/driven section combinations showed consistent results, with peak pressures having 0.8 - 6.9 percent uncertainty in the mean. This shock tube design provides a more realistic blast profile than current air-driven shock tubes. In addition, operation does not require specialized personnel or facilities like most blast-driven...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, I.; Quevedo, H. J.; Feldman, S.; Bang, W.; Serratto, K.; McCormick, M.; Aymond, F.; Dyer, G.; Bernstein, A. C.; Ditmire, T. [Center for High Energy Density Science, Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, C1510, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)
2013-12-15
Radiative blast waves were created by irradiating a krypton cluster source from a supersonic jet with a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. It was found that the radiation from the shock surface is absorbed in the optically thick upstream medium creating a radiative heat wave that travels supersonically ahead of the main shock. As the blast wave propagates into the heated medium, it slows and loses energy, and the radiative heat wave also slows down. When the radiative heat wave slows down to the transonic regime, a secondary shock in the ionization precursor is produced. This paper presents experimental data characterizing both the initial and secondary shocks and numerical simulations to analyze the double-shock dynamics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aravind eSundaramurthy
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Detonation of a high explosive produces shock-blast wave, shrapnel, and gaseous products. While direct exposure to blast is a concern near the epicenter, shock-blast can affect subjects even at farther distances, which is termed as primary blast injury, which is the theme of this work. The shock-blast profile is characterized with blast overpressure, positive time duration, and impulse as shock-blast wave parameters (SWPs. These parameters in turn are a function of field factors, such as the strength of high explosive and the distance of the human subjects from the epicenter. The shape and magnitude of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects. As shown in some of our recent works (Chandra et al., 2011;Sundaramurthy et al., 2012;Skotak et al., 2013, the profile not only determines the survival of the animal but also the acute and chronic biomechanical injuries along with the following bio-chemical sequelae. It is extremely important to carefully design and operate the shock tube to produce field relevant SWPs. Furthermore, it is vital to identify and eliminate the artifacts that are inadvertently introduced in the shock-blast profile that may affect the results. In this work, we examine the relationship between shock tube adjustable parameters (SAPs and SWPs that can be used to control the blast profile; the results can be easily applied to many of the laboratory shock tubes. Further, exact replication of shock profile (magnitude and shape can be related to field explosions and can be a standard in comparing results across different laboratories. 40 experiments are carried out by judiciously varying SAPs such as membrane thickness, breech length (66.68 to 1209.68 mm, measurement location, and type of driver gas (nitrogen, helium. The relationships between SAPs and the resulting shock-blast profiles are characterized. Finally, shock-blast profiles of a TNT explosion from ConWep software is compared with the profiles obtained
Frequency-Dependent Attenuation of Blasting Vibration Waves
Zhou, Junru; Lu, Wenbo; Yan, Peng; Chen, Ming; Wang, Gaohui
2016-10-01
The dominant frequency, in addition to the peak particle velocity, is a critical factor for assessing adverse effects of the blasting vibration on surrounding structures; however, it has not been fully considered in blasting design. Therefore, the dominant frequency-dependent attenuation mechanism of blast-induced vibration is investigated in the present research. Starting with blasting vibration induced by a spherical charge propagating in an infinite viscoelastic medium, a modified expression of the vibration amplitude spectrum was derived to reveal the frequency dependency of attenuation. Then, ground vibration induced by more complex and more commonly used cylindrical charge that propagates in a semi-infinite viscoelastic medium was analyzed by numerical simulation. Results demonstrate that the absorptive property of the medium results in the frequency attenuation versus distance, whereas a rapid drop or fluctuation occurs during the attenuation of ground vibration. Fluctuation usually appears at moderate to far field, and the dominant frequency generally decreases to half the original value when rapid drop occurs. The decay rate discrepancy between different frequency components and the multimodal structure of vibration spectrum lead to the unsmooth frequency-dependent attenuation. The above research is verified by two field experiments. Furthermore, according to frequency-based vibration standards, frequency drop and fluctuation should be considered when evaluating blast safety. An optimized piecewise assessment is proposed for more accurate evaluation: With the frequency drop point as the breakpoint, the assessment is divided into two independent sections along the propagating path.
Li, X. D.; Hu, Z. M.; Jiang, Z. L.
2017-03-01
Bio-shock tubes (BSTs) can approximately simulate the typical blast waves produced by nuclear or chemical charge explosions for use in biological damage studies. The profile of an ideal blast wave in air is characterized by the overpressure, the negative pressure, and the positive pressure duration, which are determined by the geometric configurations of BSTs. Numerical experiments are carried out using the Eulerian equations by the dispersion-controlled dissipative scheme to investigate the effect of different structural components on ideal blast waveforms. The results show that cylindrical and conical frustum driver sections with an appropriate length can produce typical blast wave profiles, but a flattened peak pressure may appear when using a tube of a longer length. Neither a double-expansion tube nor a shrinkage tube set in BSTs is practical for the production of an ideal blast waveform. In addition, negative pressure recovery will occur, exceeding the ambient pressure with an increase in pressure in the vacuum section.
Li, X. D.; Hu, Z. M.; Jiang, Z. L.
2017-09-01
Bio-shock tubes (BSTs) can approximately simulate the typical blast waves produced by nuclear or chemical charge explosions for use in biological damage studies. The profile of an ideal blast wave in air is characterized by the overpressure, the negative pressure, and the positive pressure duration, which are determined by the geometric configurations of BSTs. Numerical experiments are carried out using the Eulerian equations by the dispersion-controlled dissipative scheme to investigate the effect of different structural components on ideal blast waveforms. The results show that cylindrical and conical frustum driver sections with an appropriate length can produce typical blast wave profiles, but a flattened peak pressure may appear when using a tube of a longer length. Neither a double-expansion tube nor a shrinkage tube set in BSTs is practical for the production of an ideal blast waveform. In addition, negative pressure recovery will occur, exceeding the ambient pressure with an increase in pressure in the vacuum section.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Timofeev, E.V.; Saito, T.; Takayama, K. [Tohoku Univ., Inst. of Fluid Science, Shock Wave Research Center, Sendai (Japan)]. E-mail: timo@ceres.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp; Voinovich, P.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Supercomputer Center at the A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Galyukov. A.O. [Soft-Impact Ltd., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tahir, R.B.; Molder, S. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
2002-07-01
The problem of blast wave propagation and attenuation have always been of considerable basic and practical interest. Due to diffraction effects, reflections and possible focusing, blast wave intensity may vary considerably even at the same distance from the explosion center. From the computational point of view, these problems deal typically with computational domains of complex geometry, often requiring the resolution of gas dynamics phenomena having characteristic scales much smaller than the scale of a computational domain. This paper presents experiences and capabilities in applying the above techniques to various practical problems involving blast wave propagation and attenuation.
An Analytic Solution to the Propagation of Cylindrical Blast Waves in a Radiative Gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B.G Verma
1977-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have obtained a set of non-similarity in closed forms for the propagation of a cylindrical blast wave in a radiative gas. An explosion in a gas of constant density and pressure has been considered by assuming the existence of an initial uniform magnetic field in the axial direction. The disturbance is supposed to be headed by a shock surface of variable strength and the total energy of the wave varies with time.
Booij, S.M.; Absil, L.H.J.; Bruinsma, A.J.A.; Braat, J.J.M.; Brug, H. van
1999-01-01
An optical study of blast wave propagation and interaction with multiple structures is presented, as well as a method for obtaining quantitative information on the pressure distribution from a number of phase-stepped images. The blast load distribution on buildings is studied by scaling down the bui
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianguo Ning
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Artificial explosions are commonly used to prevent rockburst in deep roadways. However, the dissipation of the impact stress wave within the artificial blasting damage zone (ABDZ of the rocks surrounding a deep roadway has not yet been clarified. The surrounding rocks were divided into the elastic zone, blasting damage zone, plastic zone, and anchorage zone in this research. Meanwhile, the ABDZ was divided into the pulverizing area, fractured area, and cracked area from the inside out. Besides, the model of the normal incidence of the impact stress waves in the ABDZ was established; the attenuation coefficient of the amplitude of the impact stress waves was obtained after it passed through the intact rock mass, and ABDZ, to the anchorage zone. In addition, a numerical simulation was used to study the dynamic response of the vertical stress and impact-induced vibration energy in the surrounding rocks. By doing so, the dissipation of the impact stress waves within the ABDZ of the surrounding rocks was revealed. As demonstrated in the field application, the establishment of the ABDZ in the surrounding rocks reduced the effect of the impact-induced vibration energy on the anchorage support system of the roadway.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul
The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...
Blast Wave Dynamics at the Cornea as a Function of Eye Protection Form and Fit.
Williams, Steven T; Harding, Thomas H; Statz, J Keegan; Martin, John S
2017-03-01
A shock tube and anthropomorphic headforms were used to investigate eye protection form and fit using eyewear on the Authorized Protective Eyewear List in primary ocular blast trauma experiments. Time pressure recordings were obtained from highly linear pressure sensors mounted at the cornea of instrumented headforms of different sizes. A custom shock tube produced highly reliable shock waves and pressure recordings were collected as a function of shock wave orientation and protective eyewear. Eyewear protection coefficients were calculated as a function of a new metric of eyewear fit. In general, better protection was correlated with smaller gaps between the eyewear and face. For oblique angles, most spectacles actually potentiated the blast wave by creating higher peak pressures at the cornea. Installing foam around the perimeter of the spectacle lens to close the gap between the lens and face resulted in significantly lower pressure at the cornea. In conclusion, current eye protection, which was designed to reduce secondary and tertiary blast injuries, provides insufficient protection against primary blast injury. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Shock Tube Design for High Intensity Blast Waves for Laboratory Testing of Armor and Combat Materiel
Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael
2015-01-01
Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from ~1 MPa to ~5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods were investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral priming section which works by increasing the turbulent flow of the deflagration wave, thus increasing its speed and pressure. This approach increased the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (Friedlander waveform). The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increased the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. Using a 1...
Ainalis, Daniel; Kaufmann, Olivier; Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Verlinden, Olivier; Kouroussis, Georges
2017-01-01
The mining and construction industries have long been faced with considerable attention and criticism in regard to the effects of blasting. The generation of ground vibrations is one of the most significant factors associated with blasting and is becoming increasingly important as mining sites are now regularly located near urban areas. This is of concern to not only the operators of the mine but also residents. Mining sites are subjected to an inevitable compromise: a production blast is designed to fragment the utmost amount of rock possible; however, any increase in the blast can generate ground vibrations which can propagate great distances and cause structural damage or discomfort to residents in surrounding urban areas. To accurately predict the propagation of ground vibrations near these sensitive areas, the blasting process and surrounding environment must be characterised and understood. As an initial step, an accurate model of the source of blast-induced vibrations is required. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the approaches to model the blasting source in order to critically evaluate developments in the field. An overview of the blasting process and description of the various factors which influence the blast performance and subsequent ground vibrations are also presented. Several approaches to analytically model explosives are discussed. Ground vibration prediction methods focused on seed waveform and charge weight scaling techniques are presented. Finally, numerical simulations of the blasting source are discussed, including methods to estimate blasthole wall pressure time-history, and hydrodynamic codes.
Experimental animal models for studies on the mechanisms of blast-induced neurotrauma.
Risling, Mårten; Davidsson, Johan
2012-01-01
A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED) in current military conflicts. Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal. Extreme forces and their complex propagation characterize BINT. Modern body protection and the development of armored military vehicles can be assumed to have changed the outcome of BINT. Primary blast injuries are caused by overpressure waves whereas secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries can have more varied origins such as the impact of fragments, abnormal movements, or heat. The characteristics of the blast wave can be assumed to be significantly different in open field detonations compared to explosions in a confined space, such an armored vehicle. Important parameters include peak pressure, duration, and shape of the pulse. Reflections from walls and armor can make the prediction of effects in individual cases very complex. Epidemiological data do not contain information of the comparative importance of the different blast mechanisms. It is therefore important to generate data in carefully designed animal models. Such models can be selective reproductions of a primary blast, penetrating injuries from fragments, acceleration movements, or combinations of such mechanisms. It is of crucial importance that the physical parameters of the employed models are well characterized so that the experiments can be reproduced in different laboratory settings. Ideally, pressure recordings should be calibrated by using the same equipment in several laboratories. With carefully designed models and thoroughly evaluated animal data it should be possible to achieve a translation of data between animal and clinical data. Imaging and computer simulation represent a possible link between experiments
A Blast Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Swine
2009-05-01
public release; distribution unlimited Although blast-induced traumatic brain injury (BI- TBI ) is a significant cause of morbidity and behavioral...survival model of BI- TBI in swine. Traumatic Brain Injury , Swine, Blast, Model Development U U U 7 USAMRMC W81XWH-08-2-0082... Injury , TBI Scientific Advisor, Defense Center of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury ) and Dr. Tamara Crowder at the DoD
Hummel, David; Ivan, Lucian
2017-03-15
A "dirty bomb" is a type of radiological dispersal device (RDD) that has been the subject of significant safety and security concerns given the disruption that would result from a postulated terrorist attack. Assessing the risks of radioactive dose in a hypothetical scenario requires models that can accurately predict dispersion in a realistic environment. Modelling a RDD is complicated by the fact that the most important phenomena occur over vastly disparate spatial and temporal length scales. Particulate dispersion in the air is generally considered on scales of hundreds to thousands of meters, and over periods of minutes and hours. Dispersion models are extremely sensitive, however, to the particle size and source characterization, which are determined in distances measured in micrometers to meters, over milliseconds or less. This study examines the extent to which the explosive blast determines the transport of contaminant particles relative to the atmospheric wind over distances relevant to "near-field" dispersion problems (i.e., hundreds of meters), which are relevant to urban environments. Our results indicate that whether or not the effect of the blast should be included in a near-field dispersion model is largely dependent on the size of the contaminant particle. Relatively large particles (i.e., >40 μm in diameter), which are most likely to be produced by a RDD, penetrate the leading shock front, thereby avoiding the reverse blast wind. Consequently, they travel much farther than suspended aerosols (<10 μm) before approaching the ambient wind velocity. This suggests that, for these "near-field" dispersion problems in urban environments, the transport of contaminants from the blast wave may be integral to accurately predicting their dispersion.
Shock tube design for high intensity blast waves for laboratory testing of armor and combat materiel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elijah Courtney
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from ∼1 MPa to ∼5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods are experimentally investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral priming section which supports a deflagration to detonation transition. This approach increases the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (near Friedlander waveform. The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increases the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. A 103 mm driving section is used to increase peak pressure to 2.64 MPa. The third method, adding solid fuel to the driving section with the oxy-acetylene, results in a peak pressure increasing to 1.70 MPa.
Shock tube design for high intensity blast waves for laboratory testing of armor and combat materiel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Elijah COURTNEY; Amy COURTNEY; Michael COURTNEY
2014-01-01
Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from w1 MPa to w5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods are experimentally investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral prim-ing section which supports a deflagration to detonation transition. This approach increases the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (near Friedlander waveform). The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increases the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. A 103 mm driving section is used to increase peak pressure to 2.64 MPa. The third method, adding solid fuel to the driving section with the oxy-acetylene, results in a peak pressure increasing to 1.70 MPa.
Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of the Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process
Zhou, Chenn; Tang, Guangwu; Wang, Jichao; Fu, Dong; Okosun, Tyamo; Silaen, Armin; Wu, Bin
2016-05-01
Blast furnaces are counter-current chemical reactors, widely utilized in the ironmaking industry. Hot reduction gases injected from lower regions of the furnace ascend, reacting with the descending burden. Through this reaction process, iron ore is reduced into liquid iron that is tapped from the furnace hearth. Due to the extremely harsh environment inside the blast furnace, it is difficult to measure or observe internal phenomena during operation. Through the collaboration between steel companies and the Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation, multiple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to simulate the complex multiphase reacting flow in the three regions of the furnace, the shaft, the raceway, and the hearth. The models have been used effectively to troubleshoot and optimize blast furnace operations. In addition, the CFD models have been integrated with virtual reality. An interactive virtual blast furnace has been developed for training purpose. This paper summarizes the developments and applications of blast furnace CFD models and the virtual blast furnace.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miles, A
2004-04-27
In core-collapse supernovae, strong blast waves drive interfaces susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. In addition, perturbation growth can result from material expansion in large-scale velocity gradients behind the shock front. Laser-driven experiments are designed to produce a strongly shocked interface whose evolution is a scaled version of the unstable hydrogen-helium interface in core-collapse supernovae such as SN 1987A. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities and the resulting transition to turbulence on supernovae observables that remain as yet unexplained. In this dissertation, we present a computational study of unstable systems driven by high Mach number shock and blast waves. Using multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics codes and theoretical models, we consider the late nonlinear instability evolution of single mode, few mode, and multimode interfaces. We rely primarily on 2D calculations but present recent 3D results as well. For planar multimode systems, we show that compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self-similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions (IC's) by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. The loss of transverse spectral information is demonstrated, however, along with the existence of a quasi-self-similar regime over short time intervals. Aspects of the IC's are shown to have a strong effect on the time to transition to the quasi-self-similar regime. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for establishment of the self-similar state, but achieving it requires very high initial characteristic mode number and high Mach number for the incident blast wave. We point to recent stellar calculations that predict IC's we find incompatible with self-similarity, and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miles, Aaron R. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
2004-01-01
In core-collapse supernovae, strong blast waves drive interfaces susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. In addition, perturbation growth can result from material expansion in large-scale velocity gradients behind the shock front. Laser-driven experiments are designed to produce a strongly shocked interface whose evolution is a scaled version of the unstable hydrogen-helium interface in core-collapse supernovae such as SN 1987A. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop an understanding of the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities and the resulting transition to turbulence on supernovae observables that remain as yet unexplained. In this dissertation, we present a computational study of unstable systems driven by high Mach number shock and blast waves. Using multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics codes and theoretical models, we consider the late nonlinear instability evolution of single mode, few mode, and multimode interfaces. We rely primarily on 2D calculations but present recent 3D results as well. For planar multimode systems, we show that compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self-similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions (IC's) by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. The loss of transverse spectral information is demonstrated, however, along with the existence of a quasi-self-similar regime over short time intervals. Aspects of the IC's are shown to have a strong effect on the time to transition to the quasi-self-similar regime. With higher-dimensional blast waves, divergence restores the properties necessary for establishment of the self-similar state, but achieving it requires very high initial characteristic mode number and high Mach number for the incident blast wave. We point to recent stellar calculations that predict IC's we find incompatible with self-similarity, and
Efficacy of visor and helmet for blast protection assessed using a computational head model
Singh, D.; Cronin, D. S.
2017-06-01
Head injury resulting from blast exposure has been identified as a challenge that may be addressed, in part, through improved protective systems. Existing detailed head models validated for blast loading were applied to investigate the influence of helmet visor configuration, liner properties, and shell material stiffness. Response metrics including head acceleration and intracranial pressures (ICPs) generated in brain tissue during primary blast exposure were used to assess and compare helmet configurations. The addition of a visor was found to reduce peak head acceleration and positive ICPs. However, negative ICPs associated with a potential for injury were increased when a visor and a foam liner were present. In general, the foam liner material was found to be more significant in affecting the negative ICP response than positive ICP or acceleration. Shell stiffness was found to have relatively small effects on either metric. A strap suspension system, modeled as an air gap between the head and helmet, was more effective in reducing response metrics compared to a foam liner. In cases with a foam liner, lower-density foam offered a greater reduction of negative ICPs. The models demonstrated the "underwash" effect in cases where no foam liner was present; however, the reflected pressures generated between the helmet and head did not translate to significant ICPs in adjacent tissue, when compared to peak ICPs from initial blast wave interaction. This study demonstrated that the efficacy of head protection can be expressed in terms of load transmission pathways when assessed with a detailed computational model.
Finite element modeling of blast lung injury in sheep.
Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon
2015-04-01
A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep.
Impulsive dispersion of a granular layer by a weak blast wave
Rodriguez, V.; Saurel, R.; Jourdan, G.; Houas, L.
2017-03-01
The dispersion of particles by blast or shock waves induces the formation of coherent structures taking the shape of particle jets. In the present study, a blast wave, issued from an open shock tube, is generated at the center of a granular ring initially confined in a Hele-Shaw cell. With the present experimental setup, solid particle jet formation is clearly observed in a quasi-two-dimensional configuration. In all instances, the jets are initially generated inside the particle ring and thereafter expelled outward. Furthermore, thanks to the two-dimensional experimental configuration, a general study of the main parameters involved in these types of flows can be performed. Among them, the particle diameter, the density of the particles, the initial size of the ring, the shape of the overpressure generated and the surface friction of the Hele-Shaw cell are investigated. Empirical relationships are deduced from experimental results.
Kinematics of ICMEs/shocks: blast wave reconstruction using type II emissions
Corona-Romero, P; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E; de-la-Luz, V; Mejia-Ambriz, J C
2015-01-01
We present a physical methodology to reconstruct the trajectory of interplanetary shocks using type II radio emission data. This technique calculates the shock trajectory assuming that the disturbance propagates as a blast wave in the interplanetary medium. We applied this Blast Wave Reconstruction (BWR) technique to analyze eight fast Earth-directed ICMEs/shocks associated with type II emissions. The technique deduces a shock trajectory that reproduces the type II frequency drifts, and calculates shock onset speed, shock transit time and shock speed at 1~AU. There were good agreements comparing the BWR results with the type II spectra, with data from coronagraph images, {\\it in situ} measurements, and interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations. Perturbations on the type II data affect the accuracy of the BWR technique. This methodology could be applied to track interplanetary shocks causing TII emissions in real-time, to predict the shock arrival time and shock speed at 1~AU.
Quick Estimates of Peak Overpressure from Two Simultaneous Blast Waves
1977-12-01
C. S. Knauth, Nuclear Blast Standard (1 kT), Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Krtland A-r Force Base, New Mexico , AFWL-TR-73-55, (Revised) 1975. 6 C. E...Needham, Private Communication, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico , November 1977. 36i If 1I * I I| ~~’.0 DISTRIBUTION...for Ops. & Plans Defense Communications Agency ATTN: Dep. Dir. for Nuc. Chem. Matters ATTN: Code 930 ATTN: MOCA -ADL ATTN: CCTC/C672, F. Moore Deputy
Water Temperature and Concentration Measurements Within the Expanding Blast Wave of a High Explosive
2011-03-15
housing was made of 1018 steel , and the gauge roof was extended to shield the opto- mechanical components from the primary blast wave. The input fiber...regions of each image indicate the steel frame and support crossbars of the gauge. This set of images provides a sense of the speed with which the shock was...University Press) [3] Peuker J M, Lynch P, Krier H and Glumac N 2009 Optical depth measurements of fireballs from aluminized high explosives Opt
Numerical simulation of long-duration blast wave evolution in confined facilities
Togashi, F.; Baum, J. D.; Mestreau, E.; Löhner, R.; Sunshine, D.
2010-10-01
The objective of this research effort was to investigate the quasi-steady flow field produced by explosives in confined facilities. In this effort we modeled tests in which a high explosive (HE) cylindrical charge was hung in the center of a room and detonated. The HEs used for the tests were C-4 and AFX 757. While C-4 is just slightly under-oxidized and is typically modeled as an ideal explosive, AFX 757 includes a significant percentage of aluminum particles, so long-time afterburning and energy release must be considered. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)-produced thermo-chemical equilibrium algorithm, “Cheetah”, was used to estimate the remaining burnable detonation products. From these remaining species, the afterburning energy was computed and added to the flow field. Computations of the detonation and afterburn of two HEs in the confined multi-room facility were performed. The results demonstrate excellent agreement with available experimental data in terms of blast wave time of arrival, peak shock amplitude, reverberation, and total impulse (and hence, total energy release, via either the detonation or afterburn processes.
Velocities and Displacements of Shrapnel and a Shock Wave during Blast
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO De-hui; TIAN Da-zhan; XU Jin-yu; ZHANG Hai-rong
2007-01-01
It is important to minimize the destruction of defense works when blasted. In our opinion,information in the available literature is very deficient. We now present our research results on better and simpler formulas for calculating the velocities and displacements of shrapnel and a shock wave;these formulas are indispensable for understanding the destruction of blast. Formulas now available in China are too complicated. In this paper, we derive Equation (13) as the formula for calculating the velocity of shrapnel and Equation (18) as that for calculating the velocity of a shock wave. We used the test data of Denver Research Institute, as reported in Reference 4, as numerical example and found that our Equations (13) and (18) give calculated results that agree well with their test data in two respects: (1) both test data and our calculations show that at first a shock wave is ahead of shrapnel,then their displacements are equal, and finally shrapnel is ahead of the shock wave; (2) when the displacements of shrapnel and shock wave are equal, the time is 0.34 s according to test data and 0.31 s according to our calculations.
Mishra, Vikas; Skotak, Maciej; Schuetz, Heather; Heller, Abi; Haorah, James; Chandra, Namas
2016-06-01
Injury severity in blast induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI) increases with blast overpressure (BOP) and impulse in dose-dependent manner. Pure primary blast waves were simulated in compressed gas shock-tubes in discrete increments. Present work demonstrates 24 hour survival of rats in 0–450 kPa (0–800 Pa•s impulse) range at 10 discrete levels (60, 100, 130, 160, 190, 230, 250, 290, 350 and 420 kPa) and determines the mortality rate as a non-linear function of BOP. Using logistic regression model, predicted mortality rate (PMR) function was calculated, and used to establish TBI severities. We determined a BOP of 145 kPa as upper mild TBI threshold (5% PMR). Also we determined 146–220 kPa and 221–290 kPa levels as moderate and severe TBI based on 35%, and 70% PMR, respectively, while BOP above 290 kPa is lethal. Since there are no standards for animal bTBI injury severity, these thresholds need further refinements using histopathology, immunohistochemistry and behavior. Further, we specifically investigated mild TBI range (0–145 kPa) using physiological (heart rate), pathological (lung injury), immuno-histochemical (oxidative/nitrosative and blood-brain barrier markers) as well as blood borne biomarkers. With these additional data, we conclude that mild bTBI occurs in rats when the BOP is in the range of 85–145 kPa.
Modelling of turbulent combustion in the blast furnace raceway
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karvinen, R.; Maekiranta, R. [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering
1996-12-31
The phenomena concerning coke-gas -suspension and simultaneous combustion of solid coke particles and residual fuel oil in a blast furnace raceway are modelled. The flow field of suspension is predicted by using the two fluid model, which is based on the Eulerian method, in the Phoenics code. The standard k-e -model of turbulence is used. Pyrolysis of oil droplets is calculated with the own coded subroutine, which is based on the Lagrangian approach. Gas phase reaction rate is assumed to be controlled by chemical kinetics. Radiative heat transfer is calculated by using the six-flux method. Heterogenous surface reactions are used for the coke particles. Calculations without coke combustion show that due to a poor mixing in the hot blast, pyrolysis gases of residual fuel oil have not time enough to react with oxygen. It is obvious that if combustion of coke particles is taken into account, the oxygen content in the blast decreases to such a level, that unburnt pyrolysis gases can flow out of the raceway causing problems. The distribution of coke void fraction has been succeeded to predict in the raceway domain. Coke particles fall from the upper part of the raceway to the hot blast forming locally high concentrations, which affect very strongly the oxygen distribution of the hot blast. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.
Modeling and Simulating Blast Effects on Electric Substations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F. Jeffers; Kent E. McGillivary; Tony D. Paul; Ryan Jacobson
2009-05-01
A software simulation tool was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to estimate the fragility of electric substation components subject to an explosive blast. Damage caused by explosively driven fragments on a generic electric substation was estimated by using a ray-tracing technique to track and tabulate fragment impacts and penetrations of substation components. This technique is based on methods used for assessing vulnerability of military aircraft and ground vehicles to explosive blasts. An open-source rendering and ray-trace engine was used for geometric modeling and interactions between fragments and substation components. Semi-empirical material interactions models were used to calculate blast parameters and simulate high-velocity material interactions between explosively driven fragments and substation components. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was added to model the random nature of fragment generation allowing a skilled analyst to predict failure probabilities of substation components.
Blast Load Simulator Experiments for Computational Model Validation: Report 2
2017-02-01
O’Daniel, 2016. Blast load simulator experiments for computational model validation – Report 1. ERDC/GSL TR-16-27. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer ...ER D C/ G SL T R- 16 -2 7 Blast Load Simulator Experiments for Computational Model Validation Report 2 G eo te ch ni ca l a nd S tr uc...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest
A Numerical Study on the Screening of Blast-Induced Waves for Reducing Ground Vibration
Park, Dohyun; Jeon, Byungkyu; Jeon, Seokwon
2009-06-01
Blasting is often a necessary part of mining and construction operations, and is the most cost-effective way to break rock, but blasting generates both noise and ground vibration. In urban areas, noise and vibration have an environmental impact, and cause structural damage to nearby structures. Various wave-screening methods have been used for many years to reduce blast-induced ground vibration. However, these methods have not been quantitatively studied for their reduction effect of ground vibration. The present study focused on the quantitative assessment of the effectiveness in vibration reduction of line-drilling as a screening method using a numerical method. Two numerical methods were used to analyze the reduction effect toward ground vibration, namely, the “distinct element method” and the “non-linear hydrocode.” The distinct element method, by particle flow code in two dimensions (PFC 2D), was used for two-dimensional parametric analyses, and some cases of two-dimensional analyses were analyzed three-dimensionally using AUTODYN 3D, the program of the non-linear hydrocode. To analyze the screening effectiveness of line-drilling, parametric analyses were carried out under various conditions, with the spacing, diameter of drill holes, distance between the blasthole and line-drilling, and the number of rows of drill holes, including their arrangement, used as parameters. The screening effectiveness was assessed via a comparison of the vibration amplitude between cases both with and without screening. Also, the frequency distribution of ground motion of the two cases was investigated through fast Fourier transform (FFT), with the differences also examined. From our study, it was concluded that line-drilling as a screening method of blast-induced waves was considerably effective under certain design conditions. The design details for field application have also been proposed.
Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance
2013-11-01
The freeze-out temperature is chosen by comparison of calorimetry experiments (2, 3) and thermoequilibrium calculations using CHEETAH (4). The near...P.; Vitello, P. CHEETAH Users Manual; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, CA, 2012. 5. Walter, P. Introduction to Air Blast
Starling, R. L. C.; vanderHorst, A. J.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Curran, P. A.; Weltervrede, P.
2008-01-01
We constrain blast wave parameters and the circumburst media ofa subsample of 10 BeppoSAX gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). For this sample we derive the values of the injected electron energy distribution index, p, and the density structure index of the circumburst medium, k, from simultaneous spectral fits to their X-ray, optical, and NIR afterglow data. The spectral fits have been done in count space and include the effects ofmetallicity, and are compared with the previously reported optical and X-ray temporal behavior. Using the blast wave model and some assumptions which include on-axis viewing and standard jet structure, constant blast wave energy, and no evolution of the microphysical parameters, we find a mean value ofp for the sample as a whole of 9.... oa -0.003.0" 2 a_ statistical analysis of the distribution demonstrates that the p-values in this sample are inconsistent with a single universal value forp at the 3 _ level or greater, which has significant implications for particle acceleration models. This approach provides us with a measured distribution ofcircumburst density structures rather than considering only the cases of k ----0 (homogeneous) and k - 2 (windlike). We find five GRBs for which k can be well constrained, and in four of these cases the circumburst medium is clearly windlike. The fifth source has a value of 0 medium.
Blast Valve Design and Related Studies : A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. K. Sharma
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The protective structures required for performing critical operations are vulnerable to the blast and shock loads of advanced weapons. A blast valve is an important component of such structures for ventilation during normal conditions and for protection from blast/ shock during explosion. In this paper, various aspects of blast valve design and related studies are briefly reviewed. The concept and effects of blast wave, blast impact, numerical modelling and deformation of circular plate (one of the critical components of blast valve have been discussed. The merits and demerits of sensing mechanisms viz. remote and direct sensing are discussed. The leakage of blast pressure during finite closing period of the valve (one of the critical problems and the shock tube as a major experimental facility for testing of blast valves are briefly discussed.
Kashchenko, Serguey
2015-01-01
This monograph examines in detail models of neural systems described by delay-differential equations. Each element of the medium (neuron) is an oscillator that generates, in standalone mode, short impulses also known as spikes. The book discusses models of synaptic interaction between neurons, which lead to complex oscillatory modes in the system. In addition, it presents a solution to the problem of choosing the parameters of interaction in order to obtain attractors with predetermined structure. These attractors are represented as images encoded in the form of autowaves (wave memory). The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but it will also be beneficial for graduate students.
Application of Wavelet Analysis in Signal De-noising of Blast Shock Wave Overpressure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian-wei JIANG; Yu-jun FANG; Li-zhen WAN; Jian-bing MEN
2010-01-01
It's a problem to be solved how to de-noise the signal of blast shock wave overpressure.In the conventional methods,the high frequency of the signal is cut directly by some mathematics algorithms,such as Fourier Transform,but some of the useful signal will be cut together.We adopt a new method for the signal de-noising of shock wave overpressure by wavelet analysis.There are four steps in this method.Firstly,the original signal is de-cpmposed.Then the time-frequency features of the signal and noise are analyzed.Thirdly,the noise is separated from the signal by only cutting its frequency while the useful signal frequency is reserved as much as possible.Lastly,the useful signal with least loss of information is recovered by reconstruction process.To verify this method,a blast shock wave signal is de-noised with FFT to make a comparison.The results show that the signal de-noised by wavelet analysis approximates the ideal signal well.
Physical Modelling of Mine Blast Impact on Armoured Vehicles
Bochorishvili, Nika; Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Mataradze, Edgar; Akhvlediani, Irakli
2016-10-01
Studies related to the impact of a mine blast on armoured vehicles focus on aspects such as i) dynamic loads acting on the armoured vehicle at the moment of mine blast; ii) armoured vehicle response under the impact of a dynamic load; iii) dynamic loads acting on the crew and the assessment of potential human traumas. The paper presents similarity criteria for physical modelling of the mine blast under the armoured vehicle and the results of modelling of dynamic behaviour of vehicles. Similarity criteria, established as a result of the analysis of the governing parameters and similarity theory, are adequate to the processes of blast impact on the vehicle. Modelling experiments were conducted in the underground experimental base of the Mining Institute especially designed for the study of explosion processes. Physical modelling can be used for preliminary studies with the purpose of the evaluation of the protective level of armoured vehicles as well as for pre-testing experiments in accordance with STANAG 4569 requirements.
Blast Overpressure Studies with Animals and Man: Biological Response to Complex Blast Waves
1993-10-31
armored vehicle. 4. To investigate the relative importance of the quasi- static pressure rise component of complex waves in I producing trauma by...were to be protected were blocked with a selected I earplug. Each sheep received a preanesthetic intramuscular (IM) injection of atropine sulfate (0.44...ketamine hydrochloride (22 mg/kg), exsanguinated by severing the jugular veins and carotid I arteries, and necropsied. Each animal was assessed for
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew B Panzer
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The loading conditions used in some current in vivo and in vitro blast-induced neurotrauma models may not be representative of real-world blast conditions. To address these limitations, we developed a compressed-gas driven shock tube with different driven lengths that can generate Friedlander-type blasts. The shock tube can generate overpressures up to 650 kPa with durations between 0.3 and 1.1 ms using compressed helium driver gas, and peak overpressures up to 450 kPa with durations between 0.6 and 3 ms using compressed nitrogen. This device is used for short duration blast overpressure loading for small animal in vivo injury models, and contrasts the more frequently used long duration/high impulse blast overpressures in the literature. We also developed a new apparatus that is used with the shock tube to recreate the in vivo intracranial overpressure response for loading in vitro culture preparations. The receiver device surrounds the culture with materials of similar impedance to facilitate the propagation of a single overpressure pulse through the tissue. This method prevents pressure waves reflecting off the tissue that can cause unrealistic deformation and injury. The receiver performance was characterized using the longest helium-driven shock tube, and produced in-fluid overpressures up to 1500 kPa at the location where a culture would be placed. This response was well correlated with the overpressure conditions from the shock tube (R2 = 0.97. Finite element models of the shock tube and receiver were developed and validated to better elucidate the mechanics of this methodology. A demonstration exposing a culture to the loading conditions created by this system suggest tissue strains less than 5% for all pressure levels simulated, which was well below functional deficit thresholds for strain rates less than 50 s-1. This novel system is not limited to a specific type of culture model and can be modified to reproduce more complex pressure
Description of Muzzle Blast by Modified Ideal Scaling Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin S. Fansler
1998-01-01
Full Text Available Gun blast data from a large variety of weapons are scaled and presented for both the instantaneous energy release and the constant energy deposition rate models. For both ideal explosion models, similar amounts of data scatter occur for the peak overpressure but the instantaneous energy release model correlated the impulse data significantly better, particularly for the region in front of the gun. Two parameters that characterize gun blast are used in conjunction with the ideal scaling models to improve the data correlation. The gun-emptying parameter works particularly well with the instantaneous energy release model to improve data correlation. In particular, the impulse, especially in the forward direction of the gun, is correlated significantly better using the instantaneous energy release model coupled with the use of the gun-emptying parameter. The use of the Mach disc location parameter improves the correlation only marginally. A predictive model is obtained from the modified instantaneous energy release correlation.
Synchrotron signature of a relativistic blast wave with decaying microturbulence
Lemoine, M
2012-01-01
Microphysics of weakly magnetized relativistic collisionless shock waves, corroborated by recent high performance numerical simulations, indicate the presence of a microturbulent layer of large magnetic field strength behind the shock front, which must decay beyond some hundreds of skin depths. The present paper discusses the dynamics of such microturbulence, borrowing from these same numerical simulations, and calculates the synchrotron signature of a powerlaw of shock accelerated particles. The decaying microturbulent layer is found to leave distinct signatures in the spectro-temporal evolution of the spectrum $F_\
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Scott A Heldt
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, which we have used to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25-40 psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50-60 psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2-8 weeks after blast, 50-60 psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, however, and only scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50-60 psi mice 3-8 weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50-60 psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to diffuse axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI.
Absorption Phenomena and a Probable Blast Wave in the 13 July 2004 Eruptive Event
Grechnev, V V; Slemzin, V A; Chertok, I M; Kuzmenko, I V; Shibasaki, K; 10.1007/s11207-008-9178-8
2008-01-01
We present a case study of the 13 July 2004 solar event, in which disturbances caused by eruption of a filament from an active region embraced a quarter of the visible solar surface. Remarkable are absorption phenomena observed in the SOHO/EIT 304 A channel; they were also visible in the EIT 195 A channel, in the H-alpha line, and even in total radio flux records. Coronal and Moreton waves were also observed. Multi-spectral data allowed reconstructing an overall picture of the event. An explosive filament eruption and related impulsive flare produced a CME and blast shock, both of which decelerated and propagated independently. Coronal and Moreton waves were kinematically close and both decelerated in accordance with an expected motion of the coronal blast shock. The CME did not resemble a classical three-component structure, probably, because some part of the ejected mass fell back onto the Sun. Quantitative evaluations from different observations provide close estimates of the falling mass, ~3 10^15 g, whic...
Collimation and asymmetry of the hot blast wave from the recurrent nova V745 Scorpii
Drake, Jeremy J; Laming, J Martin; Starrfield, Sumner; Kashyap, Vinay; Orlando, Salvatore; Page, Kim L; Hernanz, M; Ness, J-U; Gehrz, R D; van Rossum, Daan; Woodward, Charles E
2016-01-01
The recurrent symbiotic nova V745 Sco exploded on 2014 February 6 and was observed on February 22 and 23 by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Transmission Grating Spectrometers. By that time the supersoft source phase had already ended and Chandra spectra are consistent with emission from a hot, shock-heated circumstellar medium with temperatures exceeding 10^7K. X-ray line profiles are more sharply peaked than expected for a spherically-symmetric blast wave, with a full width at zero intensity of approximately 2400 km/s, a full width at half maximum of 1200 +/- 30 km/s and an average net blueshift of 165 +/- 10 km/s. The red wings of lines are increasingly absorbed toward longer wavelengths by material within the remnant. We conclude that the blast wave was sculpted by an aspherical circumstellar medium in which an equatorial density enhancement plays a role, as in earlier symbiotic nova explosions. Expansion of the dominant X-ray emitting material is aligned close to the plane of the sky and most consistent wit...
VISAR Unfold Analysis of MagLIF Laser Blast Wave Experiments
Hess, Mark; Peterson, Kyle; Harvey-Thompson, Adam
2015-06-01
MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion) is a fusion energy scheme, which utilizes a short laser pulse to preheat a fuel, and a magnetically driven cylindrical liner to compress the fuel to high energy density plasma conditions. Recently, a set of successful experiments have been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of our preheat process in MagLIF using the Z-Beamlet laser at Sandia. The fuel is preheated in the liner, with no compression from the Z-machine, and a VISAR diagnostic was fielded on the outer surface of the liner to measure velocity of the liner due to the pressure of the laser blast wave on the inner surface of the liner. In support of this program, we developed a fast unfold method of the VISAR data using semi-analytical techniques/numerical methods. The method incorporates appropriate boundary conditions at both edges of the VISAR foil, realistic EOS tables, and an additional pressure pulse time-delay feature for accurately unfolding the time-dependent pressure from the VISAR data. Our fully automated method can produce high-quality unfolds of the laser blast wave in under a minute. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Orlando, S; Miceli, M
2016-01-01
The symbiotic nova V745 Sco was observed in outburst on 2014 February 6. Its observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory at days 16 and 17 have revealed a spectrum characterized by asymmetric and blue-shifted emission lines. Here we investigate the origin of these asymmetries through three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations describing the outburst during the first 20 days of evolution. The model takes into account thermal conduction and radiative cooling and assumes a blast wave propagates through an equatorial density enhancement. From the simulations, we synthesize the X-ray emission and derive the spectra as they would be observed with Chandra. We find that both the blast wave and the ejecta distribution are efficiently collimated in polar directions due to the presence of the equatorial density enhancement. The majority of the X-ray emission originates from the interaction of the blast with the equatorial density enhancement and is concentrated on the equatorial plane as a ring-like structure. Our "be...
Lumped mass modeling of overburden motion during explosive blasting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schamaun, J. T.
1981-02-01
The in situ extraction of oil from most oil shale beds is highly dependent upon explosive fracturing and rubbling of rock in a controlled and predictable manner. Besides the rubbling requirement, it is also important that the surrounding rock remain competent to minimize fluid leakage during processing. For rubbling concepts in which the overburden is explosively lifted to provide the required void in an oil shale zone, an engineering lumped mass model has been devised to describe the motion of the overburden. The model simulates the overburden as an array of interacting lumped masses which are loaded from below with a time-dependent force to approximate the explosive load. Correlation with experimental data obtained from field blasting operations shows that this model will provide an adequate approximation of overburden behavior. The basic features of the model are described in the report along with the correlations with field data. Results from several parametric studies are also presented which were used to aid in blast design. This lumped mass model can be extended to include other parameters and has potential for the study of other related blasting situations.
Monte Carlo simulation as a tool to predict blasting fragmentation based on the Kuz Ram model
Morin, Mario A.; Ficarazzo, Francesco
2006-04-01
Rock fragmentation is considered the most important aspect of production blasting because of its direct effects on the costs of drilling and blasting and on the economics of the subsequent operations of loading, hauling and crushing. Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the development of new technologies for blasting applications. These technologies include increasingly sophisticated computer models for blast design and blast performance prediction. Rock fragmentation depends on many variables such as rock mass properties, site geology, in situ fracturing and blasting parameters and as such has no complete theoretical solution for its prediction. However, empirical models for the estimation of size distribution of rock fragments have been developed. In this study, a blast fragmentation Monte Carlo-based simulator, based on the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model, has been developed to predict the entire fragmentation size distribution, taking into account intact and joints rock properties, the type and properties of explosives and the drilling pattern. Results produced by this simulator were quite favorable when compared with real fragmentation data obtained from a blast quarry. It is anticipated that the use of Monte Carlo simulation will increase our understanding of the effects of rock mass and explosive properties on the rock fragmentation by blasting, as well as increase our confidence in these empirical models. This understanding will translate into improvements in blasting operations, its corresponding costs and the overall economics of open pit mines and rock quarries.
Numerical simulation of the fluid-structure interaction between air blast waves and soil structure
Umar, S.; Risby, M. S.; Albert, A. Luthfi; Norazman, M.; Ariffin, I.; Alias, Y. Muhamad
2014-03-01
Normally, an explosion threat on free field especially from high explosives is very dangerous due to the ground shocks generated that have high impulsive load. Nowadays, explosion threats do not only occur in the battlefield, but also in industries and urban areas. In industries such as oil and gas, explosion threats may occur on logistic transportation, maintenance, production, and distribution pipeline that are located underground to supply crude oil. Therefore, the appropriate blast resistances are a priority requirement that can be obtained through an assessment on the structural response, material strength and impact pattern of material due to ground shock. A highly impulsive load from ground shocks is a dynamic load due to its loading time which is faster than ground response time. Of late, almost all blast studies consider and analyze the ground shock in the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) because of its influence on the propagation and interaction of ground shock. Furthermore, analysis in the FSI integrates action of ground shock and reaction of ground on calculations of velocity, pressure and force. Therefore, this integration of the FSI has the capability to deliver the ground shock analysis on simulation to be closer to experimental investigation results. In this study, the FSI was implemented on AUTODYN computer code by using Euler-Godunov and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE). Euler-Godunov has the capability to deliver a structural computation on a 3D analysis, while ALE delivers an arbitrary calculation that is appropriate for a FSI analysis. In addition, ALE scheme delivers fine approach on little deformation analysis with an arbitrary motion, while the Euler-Godunov scheme delivers fine approach on a large deformation analysis. An integrated scheme based on Euler-Godunov and the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian allows us to analyze the blast propagation waves and structural interaction simultaneously.
Nemeth, A.A.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Damme, van R.M.J.
2003-01-01
Sand waves form a prominent regular pattern in the offshore seabeds of sandy shallow seas. A two dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of these sand waves has been developed. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water su
Wave groups in uni-directional surface-wave models
Groesen, van E.
1998-01-01
Uni-directional wave models are used to study wave groups that appear in wave tanks of hydrodynamic laboratories; characteristic for waves in such tanks is that the wave length is rather small, comparable to the depth of the layer. In second-order theory, the resulting Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) eq
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-07-01
Previous to this project a scale model 1:50 of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon was built by the Danish Maritime Institute and tested in a wave tank at Aalborg University (AAU). The test programs investigated the movements of the floating structure, mooring forces and forces in the reflectors. The first test was followed by test establishing the efficiency in different sea states. The scale model has also been extensively tested in the EU Joule Craft project JOR-CT98-7027 (Low-Pressure Turbine and Control Equipment for Wave Energy Converters /Wave Dragon) at University College Cork, Hydraulics and Maritime Research Centre, Ireland. The results of the previous model tests have formed the basis for a redesign of the WEC. In this project a reconstruction of the scale 1:50 model and sequential tests of changes to the model geometry and mass distribution parameters will be performed. AAU will make the modifications to the model based on the revised Loewenmark design and perform the tests in their wave tank. Grid connection requirements have been established. A hydro turbine with no movable parts besides the rotor has been developed and a scale model 1:3.5 tested, with a high efficiency over the whole head range. The turbine itself has possibilities for being used in river systems with low head and variable flow, an area of interest for many countries around the world. Finally, a regulation strategy for the turbines has been developed, which is essential for the future deployment of Wave Dragon.The video includes the following: 1. Title, 2. Introduction of the Wave Dragon, 3. Model test series H, Hs = 3 m, Rc = 3 m, 4. Model test series H, Hs = 5 m, Rc = 4 m, 5. Model test series I, Hs = 7 m, Rc = 1.25 m, 6. Model test series I, Hs = 7 m, Rc = 4 m, 7. Rolling title. On this VCD additional versions of the video can be found in the directory 'addvideo' for playing the video on PC's. These versions are: Model testing of Wave Dragon, DVD version
Numerical modeling of water waves
Lin, Pengzhi
2008-01-01
Modelling large-scale wave fields and their interaction with coastal and offshore structures has become much more feasible over the last two decades with increases in computer speeds. Wave modelling can be viewed as an extension of wave theory, a mature and widely published field, applied to practical engineering through the use of computer tools. Information about the various wave models which have been developed is often widely scattered in the literature, and consequently this is one of the first books devoted to wave models and their applications. At the core of the book is an introduction to various types of wave models. For each model, the theoretical assumptions, the application range, and the advantages and limitations are elaborated. The combined use of different wave models from large-scale to local-scale is highlighted with a detailed discussion of the application and matching of boundary conditions. At the same time the book provides a grounding in hydrodynamics, wave theory, and numerical methods...
Modeling of signal propagation and sensor performance for infrasound and blast noise
Glaser, Danney R.; Wilson, D. Keith; Waldrop, Lauren E.; Hart, Carl R.; White, Michael J.; Nykaza, Edward T.; Swearingen, Michelle E.
2017-05-01
This paper describes a comprehensive modeling approach for infrasonic (sub-audible acoustic) signals, which starts with an accurate representation of the source spectrum and directivity, propagates the signals through the environment, and senses and processes the signals at the receiver. The calculations are implemented within EASEE (Environmental Awareness for Sensor and Emitter Employment), which is a general software framework for modeling the impacts of terrain and weather on target signatures and the performance of a diverse range of battlefield sensing systems, including acoustic, seismic, RF, visible, and infrared. At each stage in the modeling process, the signals are described by realistic statistical distributions. Sensor performance is quantified using statistical metrics such as probability of detection and target location error. To extend EASEE for infrasonic calculations, new feature sets were created including standard octaves and one-third octaves. A library of gunfire and blast noise spectra and directivity functions was added from ERDC's BNOISE (Blast Noise) and SARNAM (Small Arms Range Noise Assessment Model) software. Infrasonic propagation modeling is supported by extension of several existing propagation algorithms, including a basic ground impedance model, and the Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE), which provides accurate numerical solutions for wave propagation in a refractive atmosphere. The BNOISE propagation algorithm, which is based on tables generated by a fast-field program (FFP), was also added. Finally, an extensive library of transfer functions for microphones operating in the infrasonic range were added, which interface to EASEE's sensor performance algorithms. Example calculations illustrate terrain and atmospheric impacts on infrasonic signal propagation and the directivity characteristics of blast noise.
Simulations of Magnetic Field Generation in Laser-Produced Blast Waves
Lamb, D.; Fatenejad, M.; Gregori, G.; Miniati, F.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B.; Ravasio, A.; Koenig, M.; Murphy, C. D.
2011-10-01
Magnetic fields are ubiquitous in the Universe. The origin of these fields and process by which they are amplified are not fully understood, although amplification is thought to involve turbulence. Experiments being conducted at medium-scale laser facilities (such as the LULI laser the Janus laser) can investigate the self-generation of magnetic fields under conditions that resemble astrophysical shocks. In these experiments, two 527 nm, 1.5 ns long laser beams are focused onto a 500 μm diameter graphite rod producing an explosion and asymmetric blast wave into a Helium filled chamber. A variety of diagnostics measure the velocity, electron density, and show that a large scale magnetic field is produced. We report preliminary hydrodynamic and MHD simulations using FLASH of a simplified version of the experiment. The results provide insights into the origin and generation of the magnetic field. This work was partially supported by the US DOE, the European Research Council, and Laserlab Europe.
Study of radiative blast waves generated on the Z-beamlet laser.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edens, Aaron D.; Schwarz, Jens
2012-02-01
This document describes the original goals of the project to study the Vishniac Overstability on blast waves produced using the Z-Beamlet laser facility as well as the actual results. The proposed work was to build on earlier work on the facility and result in the best characterized set of data for such phenomena in the laboratory. To accomplish the goals it was necessary to modify the existing probe laser at the facility so that it could take multiple images over the course of 1-2 microseconds. Troubles with modifying the probe laser are detailed as well as the work that went into said modifications. The probe laser modification ended up taking the entire length of the project and were the major accomplishment of the research.
Supernovae and their expanding blast waves during the early evolution of Galactic globular clusters
Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Cassisi, Santi
2015-01-01
Our arguments deal with the early evolution of Galactic globular clusters and show why only a few of the supernovae products were retained within globular clusters and only in the most massive cases ($M \\ge 10^6$ Msol), while less massive clusters were not contaminated at all by supernovae. Here we show that supernova blast waves evolving in a steep density gradient undergo blowout and end up discharging their energy and metals into the medium surrounding the clusters. This inhibits the dispersal and the contamination of the gas left over from a first stellar generation. Only the ejecta from well centered supernovae, that evolve into a high density medium available for a second stellar generation in the most massive clusters would be retained. These are likely to mix their products with the remaining gas, leading in these cases eventually to an Fe contaminated second stellar generation.
SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR EXPANDING BLAST WAVES DURING THE EARLY EVOLUTION OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico); Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain); Cassisi, Santi, E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cmt@iac.es, E-mail: cassisi@oa-teramo.inaf.it [INAF—Astronomical Observatory of Collurania, via M. Maggini, I-64100 Teramo (Italy)
2015-11-20
Our arguments deal with the early evolution of Galactic globular clusters and show why only a few of the supernovae (SNe) products were retained within globular clusters and only in the most massive cases (M ≥ 10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}), while less massive clusters were not contaminated at all by SNe. Here, we show that SN blast waves evolving in a steep density gradient undergo blowout and end up discharging their energy and metals into the medium surrounding the clusters. This inhibits the dispersal and the contamination of the gas left over from a first stellar generation. Only the ejecta from well-centered SNe that evolve into a high-density medium available for a second stellar generation (2SG) in the most massive clusters would be retained. These are likely to mix their products with the remaining gas, eventually leading in these cases to an Fe-contaminated 2SG.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gengfen Han
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because the characteristics of blast waves in water are different from those in air and because kinetic energy is liberated by a pressure wave at the water-air interface, thoracic injuries from mine blasts in shoals may be serious. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics and mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury caused by mine blasts in shoals. METHODS: To study the characteristics of cardiopulmonary injury, 56 animals were divided randomly into three experimental groups (12 animals in the sham group, 22 animals in the land group and 22 animals in the shoal group. To examine the biomechanics of injury, 20 animals were divided randomly into the land group and the shoal group. In the experimental model, the water surface was at the level of the rabbit's xiphoid process, and paper electric detonators (600 mg RDX were used to simulate mines. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were conducted, and arterial blood gases, serum levels of cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB and other physiologic parameters were measured over a 12-hour period after detonation. Pressures in the thorax and abdomen and the acceleration of the thorax were measured. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that severe cardiopulmonary injury and dysfunction occur following exposure to mine blasts in shoals. Therefore, the mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury may result from shear waves that produce strain at the water-air interface. Another mechanism of injury includes the propagation of the shock wave from the planta to the thorax, which causes a much higher peak overpressure in the abdomen than in the thorax; as a result, the abdominal organs and diaphragm are thrust into the thorax, damaging the lungs and heart.
Simard, J Marc; Pampori, Adam; Keledjian, Kaspar; Tosun, Cigdem; Schwartzbauer, Gary; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr
2014-07-15
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by an explosive blast (blast-TBI) is postulated to result, in part, from transvascular transmission to the brain of a hydrodynamic pulse (a.k.a., volumetric blood surge, ballistic pressure wave, hydrostatic shock, or hydraulic shock) induced in major intrathoracic blood vessels. This mechanism of blast-TBI has not been demonstrated directly. We tested the hypothesis that a blast wave impacting the thorax would induce a hydrodynamic pulse that would cause pathological changes in the brain. We constructed a Thorax-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (TOBIA) and a Jugular-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (JOBIA). TOBIA delivered a collimated blast wave to the right lateral thorax of a rat, precluding direct impact on the cranium. JOBIA delivered a blast wave to the fluid-filled port of an extracorporeal intravenous infusion device whose catheter was inserted retrograde into the jugular vein, precluding lung injury. Long Evans rats were subjected to sublethal injury by TOBIA or JOBIA. Blast injury induced by TOBIA was characterized by apnea and diffuse bilateral hemorrhagic injury to the lungs associated with a transient reduction in pulse oximetry signals. Immunolabeling 24 h after injury by TOBIA showed up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha, ED-1, sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1), and glial fibrillary acidic protein in veins or perivenular tissues and microvessels throughout the brain. The perivenular inflammatory effects induced by TOBIA were prevented by ligating the jugular vein and were reproduced using JOBIA. We conclude that blast injury to the thorax leads to perivenular inflammation, Sur1 up-regulation, and reactive astrocytosis resulting from the induction of a hydrodynamic pulse in the vasculature.
Kuriakose, Matthew; Skotak, Maciej; Misistia, Anthony; Kahali, Sudeepto; Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Chandra, Namas
2016-01-01
The end plate mounted at the mouth of the shock tube is a versatile and effective implement to control and mitigate the end effects. We have performed a series of measurements of incident shock wave velocities and overpressures followed by quantification of impulse values (integral of pressure in time domain) for four different end plate configurations (0.625, 2, 4 inches, and an open end). Shock wave characteristics were monitored by high response rate pressure sensors allocated in six positions along the length of 6 meters long 229 mm square cross section shock tube. Tests were performed at three shock wave intensities, which was controlled by varying the Mylar membrane thickness (0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 inch). The end reflector plate installed at the exit of the shock tube allows precise control over the intensity of reflected waves penetrating into the shock tube. At the optimized distance of the tube to end plate gap the secondary waves were entirely eliminated from the test section, which was confirmed by pressure sensor at T4 location. This is pronounced finding for implementation of pure primary blast wave animal model. These data also suggest only deep in the shock tube experimental conditions allow exposure to a single shock wave free of artifacts. Our results provide detailed insight into spatiotemporal dynamics of shock waves with Friedlander waveform generated using helium as a driver gas and propagating in the air inside medium sized tube. Diffusion of driver gas (helium) inside the shock tube was responsible for velocity increase of reflected shock waves. Numerical simulations combined with experimental data suggest the shock wave attenuation mechanism is simply the expansion of the internal pressure. In the absence of any other postulated shock wave decay mechanisms, which were not implemented in the model the agreement between theory and experimental data is excellent.
Wave Generation in Physical Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter
The present book describes the most important aspects of wave generation techniques in physical models. Moreover, the book serves as technical documentation for the wave generation software AwaSys 6, cf. Aalborg University (2012). In addition to the two main authors also Tue Hald and Michael...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Jun; LIU Jingbo; YAN Qiushi
2008-01-01
The loads of shock wave effect on fabricated anti-blast wall and distribution law around the wall were investigated by using near surface explosion test method and FEM.The pressure-time histories and variety law on the foreside and backside of the anti-blast wall were adopted in the tests of variety of different explosion distances and dynamites,as well as in the comparison between the test and numerical calculation.The test results show that the loads of shock wave effect on the anti-blast wall were essen-tially consistent with calculation results using criterion under surface explosion when explosion distances exceed 2 m,the distribution of overpressure behind wall was gained according to variety law based on small-large-small.It is also demonstrated that the peak overpressure behind wall had commonly appeared in wall height by 1.5--2.5 multiples,and the peak overpressures of protective building behind wall could be reduced effectively by using the fabricated anti-blast wall.
Trend analysis and comparison of basic parameters for tunnel blast design models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Khalili Soroush; Yavary Mehdi; Ebrahimabadi Arash
2015-01-01
One of the most important factors influencing on a tunnel blast efficiency is the proper design of blasting pattern. Among blasting parameters, blasthole diameter and tunnel face area are more significant so that any change in these parameters could finally affect on specific charge and specific drilling. There are mainly two groups of methods for tunnel blast design categorized based on the parallel cuts and angular cuts. In this research, a software for tunnel blast design was developed to analyze the effect and sensi-tiveness of blasthole diameter and the tunnel face area on blasting results in different blast design mod-els. Using the software, it is quickly possible to determine specific charge, specific drilling and number of blastholes for each blast design model. The relations between both of blasthole diameters and the tunnel face area with the above parameters in different blast design models were then investigated to yield a set of equations with the highest correlations to compare the methods. The results showed that angular method requires more blasthole numbers than parallel method in similar condition (blasthole diameter and tunnel face area). Moreover, the specific charge values yielded by the two methods are approximately the same and very close together.
Abnormal Waves Modelled as Second-order Conditional Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2005-01-01
The paper presents results for the expected second order short-crested wave conditional of a given wave crest at a specific point in time and space. The analysis is based on the second order Sharma and Dean shallow water wave theory. Numerical results showing the importance of the spectral density......, the water depth and the directional spreading on the conditional mean wave profile are presented. Application of conditional waves to model and explain abnormal waves, e.g. the well-known New Year Wave measured at the Draupner platform January 1st 1995, is discussed. Whereas the wave profile can be modelled...... quite well by the second order conditional wave including directional spreading and finite water depth the probability to encounter such a wave is still, however, extremely rare. The use of the second order conditional wave as initial condition to a fully non-linear three-dimensional analysis...
Near Shore Wave Modeling and applications to wave energy estimation
Zodiatis, G.; Galanis, G.; Hayes, D.; Nikolaidis, A.; Kalogeri, C.; Adam, A.; Kallos, G.; Georgiou, G.
2012-04-01
The estimation of the wave energy potential at the European coastline is receiving increased attention the last years as a result of the adaptation of novel policies in the energy market, the concernsfor global warming and the nuclear energy security problems. Within this framework, numerical wave modeling systems keep a primary role in the accurate description of wave climate and microclimate that is a prerequisite for any wave energy assessment study. In the present work two of the most popular wave models are used for the estimation of the wave parameters at the coastline of Cyprus: The latest parallel version of the wave model WAM (ECMWF version), which employs new parameterization of shallow water effects, and the SWAN model, classically used for near shore wave simulations. The results obtained from the wave models near shores are studied by an energy estimation point of view: The wave parameters that mainly affect the energy temporal and spatial distribution, that is the significant wave height and the mean wave period, are statistically analyzed,focusing onpossible different aspects captured by the two models. Moreover, the wave spectrum distribution prevailing in different areas are discussed contributing, in this way, to the wave energy assessmentin the area. This work is a part of two European projects focusing on the estimation of the wave energy distribution around Europe: The MARINA platform (http://www.marina-platform.info/ index.aspx) and the Ewave (http://www.oceanography.ucy.ac.cy/ewave/) projects.
Numerical Calculation of Concrete Slab Response to Blast Loading
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Xiaoqing; HAO Hong; KUZNETSOV Valerian A; WASCHL John
2006-01-01
In the present paper,a dynamic plastic damage model for concrete has been employed to estimate responses of a reinforced concrete slab subjected to blast loading.The interaction between the blast wave and the concrete slab is considered in 3D simulation.In the first stage,the initial detonation and blast wave propagation is modelled in 2D simulation before the blast wave reaches the concrete slab,then the results obtained from 2D calculation are remapped to a 3D model.The calculated blast load is compared with that obtained from TM5-1300.Numerical results of the concrete slab response are compared with the explosive test carried out in the Weapons System Division,Defence Science and Technology Organisation,Department of Defence,Australia.
Orlando, Salvatore; Drake, Jeremy J.; Miceli, Marco
2017-02-01
The symbiotic nova V745 Sco was observed in outburst on 2014 February 6. Its observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory at days 16 and 17 have revealed a spectrum characterized by asymmetric and blueshifted emission lines. Here we investigate the origin of these asymmetries through 3D hydrodynamic simulations describing the outburst during the first 20 d of evolution. The model takes into account thermal conduction and radiative cooling, and assumes that a blast wave propagates through an equatorial density enhancement (EDE). From these simulations, we synthesize the X-ray emission and derive the spectra as they would be observed with Chandra. We find that both the blast wave and the ejecta distribution are efficiently collimated in polar directions due to the presence of the EDE. The majority of the X-ray emission originates from the interaction of the blast with the EDE and is concentrated on the equatorial plane as a ring-like structure. Our `best-fitting' model requires a mass of ejecta in the outburst Mej ≈ 3 × 10-7 M⊙ and an explosion energy Eb ≈ 3 × 1043 erg, and reproduces the distribution of emission measure versus temperature and the evolution of shock velocity and temperature inferred from the observations. The model predicts asymmetric and blueshifted line profiles similar to those observed and explains their origin as due to substantial X-ray absorption of redshifted emission by ejecta material. The comparison of predicted and observed Ne and O spectral line ratios reveals no signs of strong Ne enhancement and suggests that the progenitor is a CO white dwarf.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brahma, K.C.; Pal, B.K.; Das, C. [CMPDI, Bhubaneswar (India)
2005-07-01
Different models of vibration studies are examined. A case analysis to determine the parameters governing the prediction of blast vibration in an opencast coal mine is described. A regression model was developed to evaluate peak particle velocity (PPV) of the blast. The results are applicable to forecasting ground vibration before blasting and to the design of various parameters in controlled blasting. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
A blast absorber test: measurement and model results
Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den; Hof, J. van 't; Arkel, E. van
2006-01-01
A blast absorber test was conducted at the Aberdeen Test Centre from 13 to 17 June 2005. The test was set up to determine the absorbing and shielding effect of a gravel pile, of 1.5 meters high and 15 by 15 meters wide, on blasts from large weapons: e.g. armor, artillery or demolition. The blast was
A multi-mode shock tube for investigation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury.
Reneer, Dexter V; Hisel, Richard D; Hoffman, Joshua M; Kryscio, Richard J; Lusk, Braden T; Geddes, James W
2011-01-01
Blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has become increasingly common in recent military conflicts. The mechanisms by which non-impact blast exposure results in bTBI are incompletely understood. Current small animal bTBI models predominantly utilize compressed air-driven membrane rupture as their blast wave source, while large animal models use chemical explosives. The pressure-time signature of each blast mode is unique, making it difficult to evaluate the contributions of the different components of the blast wave to bTBI when using a single blast source. We utilized a multi-mode shock tube, the McMillan blast device, capable of utilizing compressed air- and compressed helium-driven membrane rupture, and the explosives oxyhydrogen and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX, the primary component of C-4 plastic explosives) as the driving source. At similar maximal blast overpressures, the positive pressure phase of compressed air-driven blasts was longer, and the positive impulse was greater, than those observed for shockwaves produced by other driving sources. Helium-driven shockwaves more closely resembled RDX blasts, but by displacing air created a hypoxic environment within the shock tube. Pressure-time traces from oxyhydrogen-driven shockwaves were very similar those produced by RDX, although they resulted in elevated carbon monoxide levels due to combustion of the polyethylene bag used to contain the gases within the shock tube prior to detonation. Rats exposed to compressed air-driven blasts had more pronounced vascular damage than those exposed to oxyhydrogen-driven blasts of the same peak overpressure, indicating that differences in blast wave characteristics other than peak overpressure may influence the extent of bTBI. Use of this multi-mode shock tube in small animal models will enable comparison of the extent of brain injury with the pressure-time signature produced using each blast mode, facilitating evaluation of the blast wave components
Modeling fluctuations in scattered waves
Jakeman, E
2006-01-01
Fluctuations in scattered waves limit the performance of imaging and remote sensing systems that operate on all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. To better understand these fluctuations, Modeling Fluctuations in Scattered Waves provides a practical guide to the phenomenology, mathematics, and simulation of non-Gaussian noise models and discusses how they can be used to characterize the statistics of scattered waves.Through their discussion of mathematical models, the authors demonstrate the development of new sensing techniques as well as offer intelligent choices that can be made for system analysis. Using experimental results and numerical simulation, the book illustrates the properties and applications of these models. The first two chapters introduce statistical tools and the properties of Gaussian noise, including results on phase statistics. The following chapters describe Gaussian processes and the random walk model, address multiple scattering effects and propagation through an extended med...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李秀地; 耿振刚; 苗朝阳; 杨森
2016-01-01
为研究温压弹爆炸冲击波作用下防护门的破坏模式，利用 ANSYS ／LS-DYNA 软件建立了考虑材料应变率效应的分离式钢筋混凝土防护门数值计算模型。对防护门加载温压弹爆炸冲击波波形，分析了防护门的挠度、转角和剪应力，并与 TNT 的作用结果进行了对比。结果表明：温压弹爆炸冲击波作用下，随着距爆炸源距离的增加，防护门的破坏模式由直剪破坏、弯剪耦合破坏逐渐变为弯曲破坏；防护门的响应与温压弹爆炸冲击波的高冲量有关，温压弹爆炸冲击波作用下防护门的破坏程度大于 TNT 的作用结果；防护门跨中速度值可以用来快速评估防护门的破坏模式。%To reveal the failure mode of a blast door subjected to the explosion wave of a thermobaric bomb,a separate reinforced concrete numerical model considering strain rate effects of a blast door was established with the dynamic finite element software ANSYS /LS-DYNA.The explosion wave of a thermobaric bomb was loaded on the blast door and the deflection and shear stress of the blast door were analyzed and compared with the shock wave of TNT.The results show that with the distance from explosion increasing,the failure mode of blast door under the thermobaric bomb gradually changes from punching shear failure and mixed flexural-shear failure to flexural failure.The dynamic response of the blast door is related to the high impulse of the thermobaric bomb,and the damage of the blast door under the thermobaric bomb is more serious than that under TNT.The velocity of the mid span can be used to estimate the failure mode of the blast door.
Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up: Regular Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez, Jorge; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke;
2011-01-01
Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...
Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up: Regular Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez, Jorge; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke
2011-01-01
Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...
Cassam-Chenai, Gamil; Reynoso, Estela M; Badenes, Carles; Moffett, David
2008-01-01
Using radio, X-ray and optical observations, we present evidence for morphological changes due to efficient cosmic ray ion acceleration in the structure of the southeastern region of the supernova remnant SN 1006. SN 1006 has an apparent bipolar morphology in both the radio and high-energy X-ray synchrotron emission. In the optical, the shock front is clearly traced by a filament of Balmer emission in the southeast. This optical emission enables us to trace the location of the blast wave (BW) even in places where the synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons is either absent or too weak to detect. The contact discontinuity (CD) is traced using images in the low-energy X-rays (oxygen band) which we argue reveals the distribution of shocked ejecta. We interpret the azimuthal variations of the ratio of radii between the BW and CD plus the X-ray and radio synchrotron emission at the BW using CR-modified hydrodynamic models. We assumed different azimuthal profiles for the injection rate of particles into th...
Computer Simulation of Blast Waves in a Tunnel with Sudden Decrease in Cross Section
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glenn, L. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Neuscamman, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2011-08-22
The case of an explosion in a tunnel where the blast wave encounters a sudden decrease in cross section is studied with quasi-one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional axisymmetric codes (2D) and the results are compared to experimental data. It is found that the numerical results from both codes are in good agreement until the interface at the change in cross section is encountered. Thereafter, however, the peak pressure derived with the codes is found to be significantly higher than the experimental results although the agreement between the 2D result and the experiment improves with increasing distance down the tunnel. Peak pressure and impulse per unit area obtained downstream of the interface with the 1D analysis are found to be substantially higher than with either the experiment or the 2D results. The reason for this is the time delay for the shock reflecting off the (vertical) rigid wall between the inner and outer tunnel radii to interact with the (supersonic) core flow into the decreased cross section. In the 1D case the reflected and transmitted shocks are formed instantaneously across the entire cross section resulting in higher pressure and increased shock speed downstream of the interface.
Tango waves in a bidomain model of fertilization calcium waves
Li, Yue-Xian
2003-12-01
Fertilization of an egg cell is marked by one or several Ca 2+ waves that travel across the intra-cellular space, called fertilization Ca 2+ waves. Patterns of Ca 2+ waves observed in mature or immature oocytes include traveling fronts and pulses as well as concentric and spiral waves. These patterns have been studied in other excitable media in physical, chemical, and biological systems. Here, we report the discovery of a new wave phenomenon in the numerical study of a bidomain model of fertilization Ca 2+ waves. This wave is a front that propagates in a back-and-forth manner that resembles the movement of tango dancers, thus is called a tango wave. When the medium is excitable, a forward-moving tango wave can generate traveling pulses that propagate down the space without reversal. The study shows that the occurrence of tango waves is related to spatial inhomogeneity in the local dynamics. This is tested and confirmed by simulating similar waves in a medium with stationary spatial inhomogeneity. Similar waves are also obtained in a FitzHugh-Nagumo system with a linear spatial ramp. In both the bidomain model of Ca 2+ waves and the FitzHugh-Nagumo system, the front is stable when the slope of a linear ramp is large. As the slope decreases beyond a critical value, front oscillations occur. The study shows that tango waves facilitate the dispersion of localized Ca 2+. Key features of the bidomain model underlying the occurrence of tango waves are revealed. These features are commonly found in egg cells of a variety of species. Thus, we predict that tango waves can occur in real egg cells provided that a slowly varying inhomogeneity does occur following the sperm entry. The observation of tango wave-like waves in nemertean worm and ascidian eggs seems to support such a prediction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashok K Shetty
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI resulting from exposure to blast shock waves (BSWs is one of the most predominant causes of illnesses among veterans who served in the recent Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Such mTBI can also happen to civilians if exposed to shock waves of bomb attacks by terrorists. While cognitive problems, memory dysfunction, depression, anxiety and diffuse white matter injury have been observed at both early and/or delayed time-points, an initial brain pathology resulting from exposure to BSWs appears to be the dysfunction or disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. Studies in animal models suggest that exposure to relatively milder BSWs (123 kPa initially induces free radical generating enzymes in and around brain capillaries, which enhances oxidative stress resulting in loss of tight junction proteins, edema formation, and leakiness of BBB with disruption or loss of its components pericytes and astrocyte end-feet. On the other hand, exposure to more intense BSWs (145-323 kPa causes acute disruption of the BBB with vascular lesions in the brain. Both of these scenarios lead to apoptosis of endothelial and neural cells and neuroinflammation in and around capillaries, which may progress into chronic traumatic encephalopathy and/or a variety of neurological impairments, depending on brain regions that are afflicted with such lesions. This review discusses studies that examined alterations in the brain milieu causing dysfunction or disruption of the BBB and neuroinflammation following exposure to different intensities of BSWs. Furthermore, potential of early intervention strategies capable of easing oxidative stress, repairing the BBB or blocking inflammation for minimizing delayed neurological deficits resulting from exposure to BSWs is conferred.
Evaluation of Blast-Resistant Performance Predicted by Damaged Plasticity Model for Concrete
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUAN Yi; FANG Qin; CHEN Li; ZHANG Yadong
2008-01-01
In order to evaluate the capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) structures subjected to blast Ioadings, the damaged plasticity model for concrete was used in the analysis of the dynamic responses of blast-loaded RC structures, and all three failure modes were numerically simulated by the finite element software ABAQUS.Simulation results agree with the experimental observations.It is demonstrated that the damaged plasticity model for concrete in the finite element software ABAQUS can predict dynamic responses and typical flexure, flexure-shear and direct shear failure modes of the blast-loaded RC structures.
Rogue waves in a wave tank: experiments and modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Lechuga
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In past decades theoretical studies have been carried out with the double aim of improving the knowledge of rogue wave main characteristics and of attempting to predict its sudden appearance. As an effort on this topic we tried the generation of rogue waves in a water wave tank using a symmetric spectrum (Akhmediev et al., 2011a as input on the wave maker. To go on further the next step has been to apply a theoretical model to the envelope of these waves. After some considerations the best model has been an analogue of the Ginzburg–Landau equation.
Prediction of blast-induced air overpressure: a hybrid AI-based predictive model.
Jahed Armaghani, Danial; Hajihassani, Mohsen; Marto, Aminaton; Shirani Faradonbeh, Roohollah; Mohamad, Edy Tonnizam
2015-11-01
Blast operations in the vicinity of residential areas usually produce significant environmental problems which may cause severe damage to the nearby areas. Blast-induced air overpressure (AOp) is one of the most important environmental impacts of blast operations which needs to be predicted to minimize the potential risk of damage. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) optimized by the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) for the prediction of AOp induced by quarry blasting. For this purpose, 95 blasting operations were precisely monitored in a granite quarry site in Malaysia and AOp values were recorded in each operation. Furthermore, the most influential parameters on AOp, including the maximum charge per delay and the distance between the blast-face and monitoring point, were measured and used to train the ICA-ANN model. Based on the generalized predictor equation and considering the measured data from the granite quarry site, a new empirical equation was developed to predict AOp. For comparison purposes, conventional ANN models were developed and compared with the ICA-ANN results. The results demonstrated that the proposed ICA-ANN model is able to predict blast-induced AOp more accurately than other presented techniques.
Wave Numerical Model for Shallow Water
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐福敏; 严以新; 张长宽; 宋志尧; 茅丽华
2000-01-01
The history of forecasting wind waves by wave energy conservation equation is briefly described. Several currently used wave numerical models for shallow water based on different wave theories are discussed. Wave energy conservation models for the simulation of shallow water waves are introduced,with emphasis placed on the SWAN model, which takes use of the most advanced wave research achievements and has been applied to several theoretical and field conditions. The characteristics and applicability of the model, the finite difference numerical scheme of the action balance equation and its source terms computing methods are described in detail. The model has been verified with the propagation refraction numerical experiments for waves propagating in following and opposing currents; finally, the model is applied to the Haian Gulf area to simulate the wave height and wave period field there, and the results are compared with observed data.
RESEARCH AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF DRILLING AND BLASTING TECHNOLOGY PENETRATIONS OF VERTICAL SHAFTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. I. Rubleva
2007-10-01
Full Text Available The model of destruction of rocks by explosion in vertical shafts is presented. On its basis the most important parameters of technical-and-economical indices of the drilling-and-blasting technology are calculated.
Studies on blast traumatic brain injury using in-vitro model with shock tube.
Arun, Peethambaran; Spadaro, John; John, Jennifer; Gharavi, Robert B; Bentley, Timothy B; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P
2011-06-11
One of the major limitations in studying the mechanisms of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) or screening therapeutics for protection is the lack of suitable laboratory model systems that can closely mimic the complex blast exposure. Although animal models of bTBI that use shock tubes to mimic blast exposure are available, no high throughput shock tube-based in-vitro models have been reported. Here, we report an in-vitro bTBI model using a compressed air-driven shock tube and mouse neuroblastoma/rat glioblastoma hybrid cells (NG108-15) or SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells in tissue culture plates. Our data showed significant neurobiological effects with decreased adenosine triphosphate levels, increased cellular injury, lactate dehydrogenase release, and reactive oxygen species formation after blast exposure.
Acute Blast Injury Reduces Brain Abeta in Two Rodent Species
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rita eDe Gasperi
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. How the primary blast wave affects the brain is not well understood. In particular, it is unclear whether blast injures the brain through mechanisms similar to those found in non-blast closed impact injuries (nbTBI. The β-amyloid (Aβ peptide associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD is elevated acutely following TBI in humans as well as in experimental animal models of nbTBI. We examined levels of brain Aβ following experimental blast injury using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Aβ 40 and 42. In both rat and mouse models of blast injury, rather than being increased, endogenous rodent brain Aβ levels were decreased acutely following injury. Levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP were increased following blast exposure although there was no evidence of axonal pathology based on APP immunohistochemical staining. Unlike the findings in nbTBI animal models, levels of the β-secretase, BACE-1, and the γ-secretase component presenilin-1 were unchanged following blast exposure. These studies have implications for understanding the nature of blast injury to the brain. They also suggest that strategies aimed at lowering Aβ production may not be effective for treating acute blast injury to the brain.
Voluntary Alcohol Intake following Blast Exposure in a Rat Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Lim, Yi Wei; Meyer, Nathan P.; Shah, Alok S.; Budde, Matthew D.; Stemper, Brian D.; Olsen, Christopher M.
2015-01-01
Alcoholism is a frequent comorbidity following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), even in patients without a previous history of alcohol dependence. Despite this correlational relationship, the extent to which the neurological effects of mTBI contribute to the development of alcoholism is unknown. In this study, we used a rodent blast exposure model to investigate the relationship between mTBI and voluntary alcohol drinking in alcohol naïve rats. We have previously demonstrated in Sprague Dawley rats that blast exposure leads to microstructural abnormalities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions that progress from four to thirty days. The mPFC is a brain region implicated in alcoholism and drug addiction, although the impact of mTBI on drug reward and addiction using controlled models remains largely unexplored. Alcohol naïve Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a blast model of mTBI (or sham conditions) and then tested in several common measures of voluntary alcohol intake. In a seven-week intermittent two-bottle choice alcohol drinking test, sham and blast exposed rats had comparable levels of alcohol intake. In a short access test session at the conclusion of the two-bottle test, blast rats fell into a bimodal distribution, and among high intake rats, blast treated animals had significantly elevated intake compared to shams. We found no effect of blast when rats were tested for an alcohol deprivation effect or compulsive drinking in a quinine adulteration test. Throughout the experiment, alcohol drinking was modest in both groups, consistent with other studies using Sprague Dawley rats. In conclusion, blast exposure had a minimal impact on overall alcohol intake in Sprague Dawley rats, although intake was increased in a subpopulation of blast animals in a short access session following intermittent access exposure. PMID:25910266
Reproduction of an animal model of landmine blast injuries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sen ZHANG
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Objective To reproduce an animal model of landmine blast injuries for studying its mechanism and characteristics. Methods Fifteen healthy New Zealand white rabbits (body weight 1.9-2.4 kg were prepared as experimental animals. Punctiform burster was used to simulate the landmine, and it was electrically detonated far away to produce landmine blast injuries on unilateral hind limb of rabbits in upright state. The vital signs before and 5min, 15min, 30min, 45min, 1h, 2h, 3h, 6h, 9h and 12h after injuries were recorded. Autopsy of dead animals was performed immediately and the survivors were sacrificed for pathological examination 6h and 12h after the injury. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in the injured limb and distant organs were observed. Fifteen random adult body weights were generated by random number table, and the explosive energy of M14 landmine (about 29g TNT explosive energy was simulated, to compare the ratio of explosive force equivalent to weight calculated between experimental animals and randomly selected adults. Results No significant change in blood pressure was observed at different time points before and after injuries. A broom-like change was found in the injured limb by the general observation. The subareas and pathological changes of injured limb coincided with the typical limb injuries produced by landmine explosion. Damage in different degrees was found in distant organs, and the wound characteristics and injury of major organs were in accordance with the reports of relevant literature. The ratio of explosive equivalent to weight of experimental animals (0.50±0.04g TNT/kg was similar to that of randomly selected adults (0.51±0.05g TNT/kg. Conclusion The present animal model could simulate the landmine explosive injuries, and may be used in research of landmine explosive injuries. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.14
Improvements on Mean Free Wave Surface Modeling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
董国海; 滕斌; 程亮
2002-01-01
Some new results of the modeling of mean free surface of waves or wave set-up are presented. The stream function wave theory is applied to incident short waves. The limiting wave steepness is adopted as the wave breaker index in the calculation of wave breaking dissipation. The model is based on Roelvink (1993), but the numerical techniques used in the solution are based on the Weighted-Average Flux (WAF) method (Watson et al., 1992), with Time-Operator-Splitting (TOS) used for the treatment of the source terms. This method allows a small number of computational points to be used, and is particularly efficient in modeling wave set-up. The short wave (or incident primary wave) energy equation issolved by use of a traditional Lax-Wendroff technique. The present model is found to be satisfactory compared with the measurements conducted by Stive (1983).
A Wave Modulation Model of Ripples over Long Surface Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CONG Peixiu; ZHENG Guizhen
2011-01-01
A study is presented on the modulation of ripples induced by a long surface wave (LW) and a new theoretical modulation model is proposed. In this model, the wind surface stress modulation is related to the modulation of tipple spectrum. The model results show that in the case of LW propagating in the wind direction with the wave age parameter of LW increasing, the area with enhanced shear stress shifts from the region near the LW crest on the upwind slope to the LW trough. With a smaller wave age parameter of LW, the tipple modulation has the maximum on the upwind slope in the vicinity of LW crest, while with a larger parameter the enhancement of ripple spectrum does not occur in that region. At low winds the amplitude of ripple modulation transfer function (MTF) is larger in the gravity wave range, while at moderate or high winds it changes little in the range from short gravity waves to capillary waves.
Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A New Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design
Moss, William C; Blackman, Eric G
2008-01-01
Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become the signature injury of current military conflicts. The debilitating effects of TBI on society are long-lasting and costly. Although the mechanisms by which impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. Various mechanisms, including impacts caused by the blast, have been investigated, but blast-induced deformation of the skull has been neglected. Through the use of hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient flexure of the skull to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even if no impact occurs. This mechanism has implications for the diagnosis of TBI in soldiers and the design of protective equipment such as helmets.
Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Verdeja, L. F.
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.
Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.
Overview of Wave to Wire Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Ferri, Francesco
A “Wave to Wire” (W2W) model is a numerical tool that can calculate the power output from a specified Wave Energy Converter (WEC), under specified ocean wave conditions. The tool can be used to assess and optimize the performance of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) design and provide knowledge of th...
Kasimov, Aslan R.
2013-03-08
We propose the following model equation, ut+1/2(u2−uus)x=f(x,us) that predicts chaotic shock waves, similar to those in detonations in chemically reacting mixtures. The equation is given on the half line, x<0, and the shock is located at x=0 for any t≥0. Here, us(t) is the shock state and the source term f is taken to mimic the chemical energy release in detonations. This equation retains the essential physics needed to reproduce many properties of detonations in gaseous reactive mixtures: steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation thanks to an interplay between the nonlinearity of the inviscid Burgers equation and a novel forcing term that is nonlocal in nature and has deep physical roots in reactive Euler equations.
Improved blasting results with precise initiation:Numerical simulation of sublevel caving blasting
Yi, Changping
2013-01-01
A series of numerical simulations of rock blasting using LS-DYNA software havebeen conducted to investigate the effect of short delay time on the fragmentation inunderground mines. The purpose was to test the hypothesis proposed by Rossmaniththat stress wave interaction could result in finer fragmentation by controlling theinitiation times. The blasted rock was simulated with RHT material model. After thecalculation, the elements with damage level above 0.6 were removed to simulate thefractur...
Modelling the behaviour of composite sandwich structures when subject to air-blast loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Arora
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Large-scale glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP sandwich structures (1.6 m x 1.3 m were subject to explosive air blast (100 kg TNT equivalent at stand-off distances of 14 m. Digital image correlation (DIC was used to obtain full-field data for the rear-face of each deforming target. A steel plate of comparable mass per unit area was also subjected to the same blast conditions for comparison. The experimental data was then verified with finite element models generated in Abaqus/Explicit. Close agreement was obtained between the numerical and experimental results, confirming that the CFRP panels had a superior blast performance to the GFRP panels. Moreover all composite targets sustained localised failures (that were more severe in the GFRP targets but retained their original shape post blast. The rear-skins remained intact for each composite target with core shear failure present.
Dispersive internal long wave models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camassa, R.; Choi, W.; Holm, D.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levermore, C.D.; Lvov, Y. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
1998-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This work is a joint analytical and numerical study of internal dispersive water wave propagation in a stratified two-layer fluid, a problem that has important geophysical fluid dynamics applications. Two-layer models can capture the main density-dependent effects because they can support, unlike homogeneous fluid models, the observed large amplitude internal wave motion at the interface between layers. The authors have derived new model equations using multiscale asymptotics in combination with the method they have developed for vertically averaging velocity and vorticity fields across fluid layers within the original Euler equations. The authors have found new exact conservation laws for layer-mean vorticity that have exact counterparts in the models. With this approach, they have derived a class of equations that retain the full nonlinearity of the original Euler equations while preserving the simplicity of known weakly nonlinear models, thus providing the theoretical foundation for experimental results so far unexplained.
Measurement and Modelling of Blast Movement to Reduce Ore ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
growth both from new discoveries and the develop- ment of Subika ... search have developed innovative tools and tech- niques to .... 7 Histogram of Horizontal Blast Displace ment from All Five .... Better QA/QC along the ore/waste boundaries.
Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ian G. Cullis
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.
Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ian G. CULLIS; Nikos NIKIFORAKIS; Peter FRANKL; Philip BLAKELY; Paul BENNETT; Paul GREENWOOD
2016-01-01
The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length-and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.
Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke;
2011-01-01
Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...
Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke
2011-01-01
Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...
Chemical-reaction model for Mexican wave
Nagatani, Takashi
2003-05-01
We present a chemical-reaction model to describe the Mexican wave ( La Ola) in football stadia. The spectator's action is described in terms of chemical reactions. The model is governed by three reaction rates k 1, k 2, and k3. We study the nonlinear waves on one- and two-dimensional lattices. The Mexican wave is formulated as a clockwise forwardly propagating wave. Waves are growing or disappear, depending on the values of reaction rates. In the specific case of k1= k2= k3=1, the nonlinear-wave equation produces a propagating pulse like soliton.
Skull flexure from blast waves: a mechanism for brain injury with implications for helmet design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G
2009-04-14
Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts. The debilitating effects of TBI are long-lasting and costly. Although the mechanisms by which impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. Various possibilities have been investigated, but blast-induced deformation of the skull has been neglected. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that nonlethal blasts can induce sufficient flexure of the skull to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even if no impact occurs. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for the diagnosis of soldiers and the design of protective equipment such as helmets.
Wave chaotic experiments and models for complicated wave scattering systems
Yeh, Jen-Hao
Wave scattering in a complicated environment is a common challenge in many engineering fields because the complexity makes exact solutions impractical to find, and the sensitivity to detail in the short-wavelength limit makes a numerical solution relevant only to a specific realization. On the other hand, wave chaos offers a statistical approach to understand the properties of complicated wave systems through the use of random matrix theory (RMT). A bridge between the theory and practical applications is the random coupling model (RCM) which connects the universal features predicted by RMT and the specific details of a real wave scattering system. The RCM gives a complete model for many wave properties and is beneficial for many physical and engineering fields that involve complicated wave scattering systems. One major contribution of this dissertation is that I have utilized three microwave systems to thoroughly test the RCM in complicated wave systems with varied loss, including a cryogenic system with a superconducting microwave cavity for testing the extremely-low-loss case. I have also experimentally tested an extension of the RCM that includes short-orbit corrections. Another novel result is development of a complete model based on the RCM for the fading phenomenon extensively studied in the wireless communication fields. This fading model encompasses the traditional fading models as its high-loss limit case and further predicts the fading statistics in the low-loss limit. This model provides the first physical explanation for the fitting parameters used in fading models. I have also applied the RCM to additional experimental wave properties of a complicated wave system, such as the impedance matrix, the scattering matrix, the variance ratio, and the thermopower. These predictions are significant for nuclear scattering, atomic physics, quantum transport in condensed matter systems, electromagnetics, acoustics, geophysics, etc.
Numerical simulation of wave propagation in a realistic model of the human external ear.
Fadaei, Mohaddeseh; Abouali, Omid; Emdad, Homayoun; Faramarzi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Goodarz
2015-01-01
In this study, a numerical investigation is performed to evaluate the effects of high-pressure sinusoidal and blast wave's propagation around and inside of a human external ear. A series of computed tomography images are used to reconstruct a realistic three-dimensional (3D) model of a human ear canal and the auricle. The airflow field is then computed by solving the governing differential equations in the time domain using a computational fluid dynamics software. An unsteady algorithm is used to obtain the high-pressure wave propagation throughout the ear canal which is validated against the available analytical and numerical data in literature. The effects of frequency, wave shape, and the auricle on pressure distribution are then evaluated and discussed. The results clearly indicate that the frequency plays a key role on pressure distribution within the ear canal. At 4 kHz frequency, the pressure magnitude is much more amplified within the ear canal than the frequencies of 2 and 6 kHz, for the incident wave angle of 90° investigated in this study, attributable to the '4-kHz notch' in patients with noise-induced hearing loss. According to the results, the pressure distribution patterns at the ear canal are very similar for both sinusoidal pressure waveform with the frequency of 2 kHz and blast wave. The ratio of the peak pressure value at the eardrum to that at the canal entrance increases from about 8% to 30% as the peak pressure value of the blast wave increases from 5 to 100 kPa for the incident wave angle of 90° investigated in this study. Furthermore, incorporation of the auricle to the ear canal model is associated with centerline pressure magnitudes of about 50% and 7% more than those of the ear canal model without the auricle throughout the ear canal for sinusoidal and blast waves, respectively, without any significant effect on pressure distribution pattern along the ear canal for the incident wave angle of 90° investigated in this study.
Modeling water waves beyond perturbations
Clamond, Didier
2015-01-01
In this chapter, we illustrate the advantage of variational principles for modeling water waves from an elementary practical viewpoint. The method is based on a `relaxed' variational principle, i.e., on a Lagrangian involving as many variables as possible, and imposing some suitable subordinate constraints. This approach allows the construction of approximations without necessarily relying on a small parameter. This is illustrated via simple examples, namely the Serre equations in shallow water, a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in deep water and how to unify these equations in arbitrary depth. The chapter ends with a discussion and caution on how this approach should be used in practice.
Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G
2009-04-30
Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts, with debilitating, costly, and long-lasting effects. Although mechanisms by which head impacts cause TBI have been well-researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient skull flexure to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even without a head impact. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for injury diagnosis and armor design.
Verification of A Numerical Harbour Wave Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A numerical model for wave propagation in a harbour is verified by use of physical models. The extended time-dependent mild slope equation is employed as the governing equation, and the model is solved by use of ADI method containing the relaxation factor. Firstly, the reflection coefficient of waves in front of rubble-mound breakwaters under oblique incident waves is determined through physical model tests, and it is regarded as the basis for simulating partial reflection boundaries of the numerical model. Then model tests on refraction, diffraction and reflection of waves in a harbour are performed to measure wave height distribution. Comparative results between physical and numerical model tests show that the present numerical model can satisfactorily simulate the propagation of regular and irregular waves in a harbour with complex topography and boundary conditions.
An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment.
Jean, Aurélie; Nyein, Michelle K; Zheng, James Q; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, John D; Radovitzky, Raúl
2014-10-28
Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans.
Experimental study of blast-induced traumatic brain injury using a physical head model.
Zhang, Jiangyue; Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Gennarelli, Thomas A; Son, Steven F
2009-11-01
This study was conducted to quantify intracranial biomechanical responses and external blast overpressures using physical head model to understand the biomechanics of blast traumatic brain injury and to provide experimental data for computer simulation of blast-induced brain trauma. Ellipsoidal-shaped physical head models, made from 3-mm polycarbonate shell filled with Sylgard 527 silicon gel, were used. Six blast tests were conducted in frontal, side, and 45 degrees oblique orientations. External blast overpressures and internal pressures were quantified with ballistic pressure sensors. Blast overpressures, ranging from 129.5 kPa to 769.3 kPa, were generated using a rigid cannon and 1.3 to 3.0 grams of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) plastic sheet explosive (explosive yield of 13.24 kJ and TNT equivalent mass of 2.87 grams for 3 grams of material). The PETN plastic sheet explosive consisted of 63% PETN powder, 29% plasticizer, and 8% nitrocellulose with a density of 1.48 g/cm3 and detonation velocity of 6.8 km/s. Propagation and reflection of the shockwave was captured using a shadowgraph technique. Shockwave speeds ranging from 423.3 m/s to 680.3 m/s were recorded. The model demonstrated a two-stage response: a pressure dominant (overpressure) stage followed by kinematic dominant (blast wind) stage. Positive pressures in the brain simulant ranged from 75.1 kPa to 1095 kPa, and negative pressures ranged from -43.6 kPa to -646.0 kPa. High- and normal-speed videos did not reveal observable deformations in the brain simulant from the neutral density markers embedded in the midsagittal plane of the head model. Amplitudes of the internal positive and negative pressures were found to linearly correlate with external overpressure. Results from the current study suggested a pressure-dominant brain injury mechanism instead of strain injury mechanism under the blast severity of the current study. These quantitative results also served as the validation and calibration
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
伍细如
2015-01-01
proton emits energy wave, electron could sits any position away from nucleus, but be the most stable just when it sits at the trough of energy wave, and this position accords with Bohr radius and Schr?dinger equation.
An atmospheric blast/thermal model for the formation of high-latitude pedestal craters
Wrobel, Kelly; Schultz, Peter; Crawford, David
2006-10-01
Although tenuous, the atmosphere of Mars affects the evolution of impact-generated vapor. Early-time vapor from a vertical impact expands symmetrically, directly transferring a small percentage of the initial kinetic energy of impact to the atmosphere. This energy, in turn, induces a hemispherical shock wave that propagates outward as an intense airblast (due to high-speed expansion of vapor) followed by a thermal pulse of extreme atmospheric temperatures (from thermal energy of expansion). This study models the atmospheric response to such early-time energy coupling using the CTH hydrocode written at Sandia National Laboratories. Results show that the surface surrounding a 10 km diameter crater (6 km "apparent" diameter) on Mars will be subjected to intense winds (˜200 m/s) and extreme atmospheric temperatures. These elevated temperatures are sufficient to melt subsurface volatiles at a depth of several centimeters for an ice-rich substrate. Ensuing surface signatures extend to distal locations (˜4 apparent crater diameters for a case of 0.1% energy coupling) and include striations, thermally armored surfaces, and/or ejecta pedestals—all of which are exhibited surrounding the freshest high-latitude craters on Mars. The combined effects of the atmospheric blast and thermal pulse, resulting in the generation of a crater-centered erosion-resistant armored surface, thus provide a new, very plausible formation model for high-latitude Martian pedestal craters.
Modeling Water Waves with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
2013-09-30
flows, such as undertow, longshore currents, and rip currents. APPROACH The approach is based on improving various aspects of the SPH code ...Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics ( SPH ) is a meshless numerical method that is being developed for the study of nearshore waves and other Navy needs. The...Lagrangian nature of SPH allows the modeling of wave breaking, surf zones, ship waves, and wave-structure interaction, where the free surface becomes
Modelling and Simulation of Wave Loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle
A simple model of the wave load on slender members of offshore structures is described. The wave elevation of the sea state is modelled by a stationary Gaussian process. A new procedure to simulate realizations of the wave loads is developed. The simulation method assumes that the wave particle...... velocity can be approximated by a Gaussian Markov process. Known approximate results for the first-passage density or equivalently, the distribution of the extremes of wave loads are presented and compared with rather precise simulation results. It is demonstrated that the approximate results...
Modelling and Simulation of Wave Loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle
1985-01-01
A simple model of the wave load on stender members of offshore structures is described . The wave elevation of the sea stateis modelled by a stationary Gaussian process. A new procedure to simulate realizations of the wave loads is developed. The simulation method assumes that the wave particle...... velocity can be approximated by a Gaussian Markov process. Known approximate results for the first passage density or equivalently, the distribution of the extremes of wave loads are presented and compared with rather precise simulation results. It is demonstrated that the approximate results...
Numerical Simulation of Innovative Operation of Blast Furnace Based on Multi-Fluid Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHU Man-sheng; YANG Xue-feng; SHEN Feng-man; YAGI Jun-ichiro; NOGAMI Hiroshi
2006-01-01
A multi-fluid blast furnace model was simply introduced and was used to simulate several innovative iron-making operations. The simulation results show that injecting hydrogen bearing materials, especially injecting natural gas and plastics, the hydrogen reduction is enhanced, and the furnace performance is improved simultaneously. Total heat input shows obvious decrease due to the decrease of heat consumption in direct reduction, solution loss and silicon transfer reactions. If carbon composite agglomerates are charged into the furnace, the temperature of thermal reserve zone will obviously decrease, and the reduction of iron-bearing burden materials will be retarded. However, the efficiency of blast furnace is improved just due to the decrease in heat requirements for solution loss, sinter reduction, and silicon transfer reactions, and less heat loss through top gas and furnace wall. Finally, the model is used to investigate the performance of blast furnace under the condition of top gas recycling together with plastics injection, cold oxygen blasting and carbon composite agglomerate charging. The lower furnace temperature, extremely accelerated reduction rate, drastically decreased CO2 emission and remarkably enhanced heat efficiency were obtained by using the innovative operations, and the blast furnace operation with superhigh efficiency can be realized.
Circulation in blast driven instabilities
Henry de Frahan, Marc; Johnsen, Eric
2016-11-01
Mixing in many natural phenomena (e.g. supernova collapse) and engineering applications (e.g. inertial confinement fusion) is often initiated through hydrodynamic instabilities. Explosions in these systems give rise to blast waves which can interact with perturbations at interfaces between different fluids. Blast waves are formed by a shock followed by a rarefaction. This wave profile leads to complex time histories of interface acceleration. In addition to the instabilities induced by the acceleration field, the rarefaction from the blast wave decompresses the material at the interface, further increasing the perturbation growth. After the passage of the wave, circulation circulation generated by the blast wave through baroclinic vorticity continues to act upon the interface. In this talk, we provide scaling laws for the circulation and amplitude growth induced by the blast wave. Numerical simulations of the multifluid Euler equations solved using a high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin method are used to validate the theoretical results.
Travelling waves in hybrid chemotaxis models
Franz, Benjamin; Painter, Kevin J; Erban, Radek
2013-01-01
Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant) which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybr...
Vibration Superposition in Tunnel Blasting with Millisecond Delay
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Jun-jie; LOU Xiao-ming; LUO De-pi
2009-01-01
According to explosion dynamics and elastic wave theory,the models of particle vibration velocity for simultaneous blasting and millisecond blasting are built.In the models,influential factors such as delay interval and charge quantity,are considered.The calculated vibration velocity is compared with the field test results,which shows that the theoretical values are close to the experimental ones.Meanwhile,the particle vibration velocity decreases quickly with time due to the damping of rock mass and has a harmonic motion,and the particle vibration velocity of millisecond blasting has short interval.The superposition of particle vibration velocities may reduce vibration because of wave interference,or magnify the surrounding rock response to the blasting-induced vibration.
Model-based internal wave processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Candy, J.V.; Chambers, D.H.
1995-06-09
A model-based approach is proposed to solve the oceanic internal wave signal processing problem that is based on state-space representations of the normal-mode vertical velocity and plane wave horizontal velocity propagation models. It is shown that these representations can be utilized to spatially propagate the modal (dept) vertical velocity functions given the basic parameters (wave numbers, Brunt-Vaisala frequency profile etc.) developed from the solution of the associated boundary value problem as well as the horizontal velocity components. Based on this framework, investigations are made of model-based solutions to the signal enhancement problem for internal waves.
Mud-Wave Interaction: A Viscoelastic Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
This study is devoted to the interaction between water surface waves and a thin layer of viscoelastic mud on the bottom. On the assumption that the mud layer is comparable in thickness with the wave boundary layer and is much smaller than the wavelength, a two-layer Stokes boundary layer model is adopted to determine the mud motions under the waves. Analytical expressions are derived for the near-bottom water and mud velocity fields, surface wave-damping rate, and interface wave amplitude and phase lag. Examined in particular is how these kinematic quantities may depend on the viscous and elastic properties of the mud.
Opdriftsbaserede modeller for Wave Star
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kramer, Morten
Formålet med dette skrift er at få en forhåndsvurdering af mulige effektforøgelser for Wave Star ved anvendelse af aktiv akkumulatordrift. Disse vurderinger baseres på simuleringsmodeller for driften af Wave Star i uregelmæssige bølger. Modellen er udarbejdet i programmeringssproget Delphi og er en...
A mouse model of ocular blast injury that induces closed globe anterior and posterior pole damage
Hines-Beard, Jessica; Marchetta, Jeffrey; Gordon, Sarah; Chaum, Edward; Geisert, Eldon E.; Rex, Tonia S.
2012-01-01
We developed and characterized a mouse model of primary ocular blast injury. The device consists of: a pressurized air tank attached to a regulated paintball gun with a machined barrel; a chamber that protects the mouse from direct injury and recoil, while exposing the eye; and a secure platform that enables fine, controlled movement of the chamber in relation to the barrel. Expected pressures were calculated and the optimal pressure transducer, based on the predicted pressures, was positioned to measure output pressures at the location where the mouse eye would be placed. Mice were exposed to one of three blast pressures (23.6, 26.4, or 30.4psi). Gross pathology, intraocular pressure, optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity were assessed 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after exposure. Contralateral eyes and non-blast exposed mice were used as controls. We detected increased damage with increased pressures and a shift in the damage profile over time. Gross pathology included corneal edema, corneal abrasions, and optic nerve avulsion. Retinal damage was detected by optical coherence tomography and a deficit in visual acuity was detected by optokinetics. Our findings are comparable to those identified in Veterans of the recent wars with closed eye injuries as a result of blast exposure. In summary, this is a relatively simple system that creates injuries with features similar to those seen in patients with ocular blast trauma. This is an important new model for testing the short-term and long-term spectrum of closed globe blast injuries and potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:22504073
Assessment of the Effect of Blast Hole Diameter on the Number of Oversize Boulders Using ANN Model
Dhekne, Prakash; Pradhan, Manoj; Jade, Ravi Krishnarao
2016-04-01
Now-a-days, blasts are planned using large diameter blast holes. The loading density (kg/m) and subsequently the energy available for the breakage of the rockmass increase with the diameter. The in-hole velocity of detonation (VoD) of non-ideal explosive also boosts up with the increase in diameter till the optimum diameter is reached. The increase in the energy content and in-hole VoD cause a sizable effect on the rock fragmentation. The effect can be assessed by counting the number of oversize boulders. This paper explains as to how the technique of artificial neural network modeling was used to predict the number of oversize boulders resulting from ANFO and SME blasts with blast holes of different diameters. The results from ANFO blasts indicated that there was no significant variation in the number of oversize boulders with the diameter whereas a perceptible variation was noticed in case of SME blasts with the change in the diameter. The change in the number of oversize boulders in ANFO blasts was negligible because mean energy factor remained almost same even when the diameter of the blast holes was altered. The decrease in the number of oversize boulders in SME blasts was on account of increase in mean energy factor when the blast hole diameter was increased. The increase in the in-hole VoD due to increase in the diameter of the hole was not found to have an effect on the generation of oversize boulders as this increase was not substantial both in SME and ANFO blasts.
Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.
Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D
2015-11-01
Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading
Sari, Mehmet; Ghasemi, Ebrahim; Ataei, Mohammad
2014-03-01
Backbreak is an undesirable side effect of bench blasting operations in open pit mines. A large number of parameters affect backbreak, including controllable parameters (such as blast design parameters and explosive characteristics) and uncontrollable parameters (such as rock and discontinuities properties). The complexity of the backbreak phenomenon and the uncertainty in terms of the impact of various parameters makes its prediction very difficult. The aim of this paper is to determine the suitability of the stochastic modeling approach for the prediction of backbreak and to assess the influence of controllable parameters on the phenomenon. To achieve this, a database containing actual measured backbreak occurrences and the major effective controllable parameters on backbreak (i.e., burden, spacing, stemming length, powder factor, and geometric stiffness ratio) was created from 175 blasting events in the Sungun copper mine, Iran. From this database, first, a new site-specific empirical equation for predicting backbreak was developed using multiple regression analysis. Then, the backbreak phenomenon was simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) method. The results reveal that stochastic modeling is a good means of modeling and evaluating the effects of the variability of blasting parameters on backbreak. Thus, the developed model is suitable for practical use in the Sungun copper mine. Finally, a sensitivity analysis showed that stemming length is the most important parameter in controlling backbreak.
Progressive collapse analysis using updated models for alternate path analysis after a blast
Eskew, Edward; Jang, Shinae; Bertolaccini, Kelly
2016-04-01
Progressive collapse is of rising importance within the structural engineering community due to several recent cases. The alternate path method is a design technique to determine the ability of a structure to sustain the loss of a critical element, or elements, and still resist progressive collapse. However, the alternate path method only considers the removal of the critical elements. In the event of a blast, significant damage may occur to nearby members not included in the alternate path design scenarios. To achieve an accurate assessment of the current condition of the structure after a blast or other extreme event, it may be necessary to reduce the strength or remove additional elements beyond the critical members designated in the alternate path design method. In this paper, a rapid model updating technique utilizing vibration measurements is used to update the structural model to represent the real-time condition of the structure after a blast occurs. Based upon the updated model, damaged elements will either have their strength reduced, or will be removed from the simulation. The alternate path analysis will then be performed, but only utilizing the updated structural model instead of numerous scenarios. After the analysis, the simulated response from the analysis will be compared to failure conditions to determine the buildings post-event condition. This method has the ability to incorporate damage to noncritical members into the analysis. This paper will utilize numerical simulations based upon a unified facilities criteria (UFC) example structure subjected to an equivalent blast to validate the methodology.
Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation
Zemskov, S.V.; Ahmad, B.; Copuroglu, O.; Vermolen, F.J.
2013-01-01
In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate, whi
Blast effects of external explosions
Sochet, Isabelle
2010-01-01
International audience; Security considerations for industrial production and storage require characterization of the mechanical effects caused by blast waves resulting from a detonation or deflagration. This paper evaluates current analytical methods to determine the characteristic parameters of a blast wave with respect to the pressure, impulse and duration of the positive phase of the blast. In the case of a detonation, the trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent-based method determines the mass ...
Lappa, Marcello; Drikakis, Dimitris; Kokkinakis, Ioannis
2017-03-01
This paper concerns the propagation of shock waves in an enclosure filled with dusty gas. The main motivation for this problem is to probe the effect on such dynamics of solid particles dispersed in the fluid medium. This subject, which has attracted so much attention over recent years given its important implications in the study of the structural stability of systems exposed to high-energy internal detonations, is approached here in the framework of a hybrid numerical two-way coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian methodology. In particular, insights are sought by considering a relatively simple archetypal setting corresponding to a shock wave originating from a small spherical region initialized on the basis of available analytic solutions. The response of the system is explored numerically with respect to several parameters, including the blast intensity (via the related value of the initial shock Mach number), the solid mass fraction (mass load), and the particle size (Stokes number). Results are presented in terms of pressure-load diagrams. Beyond practical applications, it is shown that a kaleidoscope of fascinating patterns is produced by the "triadic" relationships among multiple shock reflection events and particle-fluid and particle-wall interaction dynamics. These would be of great interest to researchers and scientists interested in fundamental problems relating to the general theory of pattern formation in complex nonlinear multiphase systems.
Directional wave measurements and modelling
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; Bhat, S.S.; SanilKumar, V.
Some of the results obtained from analysis of the monsoon directional wave data measured over 4 years in shallow waters off the west coast of India are presented. The directional spectrum computed from the time series data seems to indicate...
Baroclinic stationary waves in aquaplanet models
Lucarini, V.; Zappa, G.
2012-04-01
An aquaplanet model is used to study the nature of the highly persistent low frequency waves that have been observed in models forced by zonally symmetric boundary conditions. Using the Hayashi spectral analysis of the extratropical waves, we find that a quasi-stationary (QS) wave five belongs to a wave packet obeying a well defined dispersion relation with eastward group velocity. The components of the dispersion relation with k>5 baroclinically convert eddy available potential energy into eddy kinetic energy, while those with kinverse energy cascade, which had been previously proposed as a main forcing for this type of waves, only acts as a positive feedback on its predominantly baroclinic energetics. The QS wave is reinforced by a phase lock to an analogous pattern in the tropical convection, which provides further amplification to the wave. We also find that the Pedlosky bounds on the phase speed of unstable waves provide guidance in explaining the latitudinal structure of the energy conversion, which is shown to be more enhanced where the zonal westerly surface wind is weaker. The wave energy is then trapped in the wave guide created by the upper tropospheric jet stream. In agreement with Green's theory, as the equator to pole SST difference is reduced the stationary marginally stable component shifts toward higher wavenumbers, while the wave five becomes neutral and westward propagating. Some properties of the aquaplanet QS waves are found in interesting agreement with a low frequency wave observed by Salby (1982) in the southern hemisphere DJF, so that this perspective on low frequency variability might be, apart from its value in terms of basic geophysical fluid dynamics, of specific interest for studying the Earth's atmosphere.
Efficient Focusing Models for Generation of Freak Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Xi-zeng; SUN Zhao-chen; LIANG Shu-xiu
2009-01-01
Four focusing models for generation of freak waves are presented. An extreme wave focusing model is presented on the basis of the enhanced High-Order Spectral (HOS) method and the importance of the nonlinear wave-wave interaction is evaluated by comparison of the calculated results with experimental and theoretical data. Based on the modification of the Longuet-Higgins model, four wave models for generation of freak waves (a. Extreme wave model + random wave model; b. Extreme wave model + regular wave model; c. Phase interval modulation wave focusing model; d. Number modulation wave focusing model with the same phase) are proposed. By use of different energy distribution techniques in the four models, freak wave events are obtained with different H_(max)/H_s in finite space and time.
Probing inflation models with gravitational waves
Domcke, Valerie
2016-01-01
A direct detection of primordial gravitational waves is the ultimate probe for any inflation model. While current CMB bounds predict the generic scale-invariant gravitational wave spectrum from slow-roll inflation to be below the reach of upcoming gravitational wave interferometers, this prospect may dramatically change if the inflaton is a pseudoscalar. In this case, a coupling to any abelian gauge field leads to a tachyonic instability for the latter and hence to a new source of gravitational waves, directly related to the dynamics of inflation. In this contribution we discuss how this setup enables the upcoming gravitational wave interferometers advanced LIGO/VIRGO and eLISA to probe the microphysics of inflation, distinguishing between different universality classes of single-field slow-roll inflation models. We find that the prime candidate for an early detection is a Starobinsky-like model.
A Review of Current Researches on Blast Load Effects on Building Structures in China
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Zhongxian; DU Hao; BAO Chunxiao
2006-01-01
The damages of building structures subjected to multifarious explosions cause huge losses of lives and property.It is the reason why the blast resistance and explosion protection of building structures become an important research topic in the civil engineering field all over the world.This paper provides an overview of the research work in China on blast loads effect on building structures.It includes modeling blast shock wave propagation and their effects,the dynamic responses of various building structures under blast loads and the measures to strengthen the building structures against blast loads.The paper also discusses the achievements and further work that needs be done for a better understanding of the blast loads' effects on building structures,and for deriving effective and economic techniques to design new or to strengthen existing structures.
Quantification of Aleatory Uncertainty in Blast Wave Problem%爆炸波问题中偶然不确定度的量化
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁霄; 王瑞利
2016-01-01
As uncertainty always exists in the modeling and simulation of complex engineering problems, the identification and analysis of its source and the quantification of its degrees play an important role in assessing the credibility of the modeling and simulation results.In this paper,the concept of uncertainty as well as uncertainty quantification process was presented in the modeling and simulation,with the blast wave problem used as a typical example to illustrate the detailed process for the quantification of the aleatory uncertainty.The expectations and variances of density,pressure,velocity and internal energy were calculated and,moreover,the probability density function of the shock wave position was obtained using the Monte-Carlo and the non-intrusive polynomial chaos (NIPC).The results were consistent with each other,which verified that the NIPC method is an efficient approach in the uncertainty quantification of a complex nonlinear system.%复杂工程建模与模拟中始终存在不确定度，分析与辨识不确定度的来源及量化不确定度对建模与模拟可信度评估具有重要意义。为此，给出了建模与模拟中误差与不确定度的概念以及不确定度量化的过程，并以爆炸波问题为例说明量化偶然不确定度的过程，得到了爆炸波问题的期望和标准差以及激波位置的概率密度函数，验证了非嵌入多项式混沌方法在复杂非线性系统不确定度量化中的有效性。
Data-driven modeling based on volterra series for multidimensional blast furnace system.
Gao, Chuanhou; Jian, Ling; Liu, Xueyi; Chen, Jiming; Sun, Youxian
2011-12-01
The multidimensional blast furnace system is one of the most complex industrial systems and, as such, there are still many unsolved theoretical and experimental difficulties, such as silicon prediction and blast furnace automation. For this reason, this paper is concerned with developing data-driven models based on the Volterra series for this complex system. Three kinds of different low-order Volterra filters are designed to predict the hot metal silicon content collected from a pint-sized blast furnace, in which a sliding window technique is used to update the filter kernels timely. The predictive results indicate that the linear Volterra predictor can describe the evolvement of the studied silicon sequence effectively with the high percentage of hitting the target, very low root mean square error and satisfactory confidence level about the reliability of the future prediction. These advantages and the low computational complexity reveal that the sliding-window linear Volterra filter is full of potential for multidimensional blast furnace system. Also, the lack of the constructed Volterra models is analyzed and the possible direction of future investigation is pointed out.
THE DIABATIC WAVES IN BAROTROPIC MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The equations of barotropic model are used to discuss the effects of diabatic factors such as heating of convective condensation, evaporation-wind feedback and CISK on the Rossby wave and the Kelvin wave. In low latitudes we have obtained the angular frequency and analyzed the period and stability of waves. The result shows the existence of the diabatic factors not only enlarges the period of adiabatic waves but also changes the stability of waves. Thus we think that the so-called intraseasonal oscillation and some other low-frequency oscillations are a kind of diabatic waves which are important factors producing the long-term weather changes and short-term climatic evolution.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ambühl, Simon; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2015-01-01
Wave models used for site assessments are subjected to model uncertainties, which need to be quantified when using wave model results for probabilistic reliability assessments. This paper focuses on determination of wave model uncertainties. Four different wave models are considered, and validation...... uncertainties can be implemented in probabilistic reliability assessments....
Mathematical modeling of the burden distribution in the blast furnace shaft
Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hun-Je; Jo, Min-Kyu; Oh, Han-Sang; Han, Jeong-Whan
2011-06-01
Process efficiency in the blast furnace is influenced by the gas flow pattern, which is dictated by the burden profile. Therefore, it is important to control the burden distribution so as to achieve reasonable gas flow in the blast furnace operation. Additionally, the charging pattern selection is important as it affects the burden trajectory and stock profile. For analysis of the burden distribution, a new analysis model was developed by use of the spreadsheet program, Microsoft® Office Excel, based on visual basic. This model is composed of the falling burden trajectory and a stock model. The burden trajectory is determined by the burden type, batch weight, rotating velocity of the chute, tilting angle, and friction coefficient. After falling, stock lines are formed by the angle of repose, which is affected by the burden trajectory and the falling velocity. The mathematical formulas for developing this model were modified by a scaled model experiment and DEM simulation.
Baroclinic stationary waves in aquaplanet models
Zappa, Giuseppe; Navarra, Antonio; 10.1175/2011JAS3573.1
2011-01-01
An aquaplanet model is used to study the nature of the highly persistent low frequency waves that have been observed in models forced by zonally symmetric boundary conditions. Using the Hayashi spectral analysis of the extratropical waves, we find that a quasi-stationary (QS) wave five belongs to a wave packet obeying a well defined dispersion relation with eastward group velocity. The components of the dispersion relation with k>5 baroclinically convert eddy available potential energy into eddy kinetic energy, while those with k<5 are baroclinically neutral. In agreement with the Green's model of baroclinic instability, the wave five is weakly unstable, and the inverse energy cascade, which had been previously proposed as a main forcing for this type of waves, only acts as a positive feedback on its predominantly baroclinic energetics. The QS wave is reinforced by a phase lock to an analogous pattern in the tropical convection, which provides further amplification to the wave. We also find that the Pedlos...
温压弹爆炸冲击波作用下防护门的动力响应%Dynamic Response of Blast Door Subjected to Explosion Wave of Thermobaric Bomb
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
苗朝阳; 李秀地; 孙伟; 杨森; 王起帆
2015-01-01
The explosion wave of thermobaric bomb has the characteristics of long duration and high im-pulse. To reveal the destruction mechanism of blast door subjected to explosion wave of thermobaric bomb, separate reinforced concrete numerical model of the dynamic response of blast door was established with the dynamic finite element software ANSYS / LS-DYNA,and the dependability of the numerical model was ver-ified by the experimental data. On this base,results of the deflection and shear stress and the failure mode of the blast door were analyzed and compared with the shock wave of TNT according to the characteristics of the thermobaric bomb. The results show that the deflection,rotation angle and deformation of blast door subjected to thermpbaric bomb are bigger than that to TNT,and the dynamic response of blast door is not only related to the impulse of thermobaric bomb but also to the decay rate of shock wave,and the failure mode under thermobaric bomb is mainly shear bending coupling failure,while the failure mode of blast door under TNT is mainly shear failure.%温压弹爆炸冲击波具有持续时间长、冲量高的特点。为揭示温压弹爆炸冲击波作用下防护门的破坏机理，利用大型有限元软件 ANSYS/ LS-DYNA 建立了分离式钢筋混凝土防护门动力响应的数值计算模型，并用试验实测数据验证了计算模型的可靠性。在此基础上，针对温压弹冲击波的特点，分析了防护门的挠度、剪应力及其破坏模式，并与 TNT 冲击波的作用结果进行了对比。数值计算结果表明：温压弹冲击波作用下防护门的挠度、转角及变形均大于TNT 冲击波作用的结果；防护门的动力响应不仅与温压弹冲击波的冲量大小有关，还与温压弹冲击波的衰减速率有关；温压弹冲击波作用下防护门的破坏模式主要为弯剪耦合破坏，而 TNT 冲击波作用下防护门的破坏模式主要为剪切破坏。
Travelling Waves in Hybrid Chemotaxis Models
Franz, Benjamin
2013-12-18
Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant), which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybrid models shows good agreement in the case of weak chemotaxis and qualitative agreement for the strong chemotaxis case. In the case of slow cell adaptation, we detect oscillating behaviour of the wave, which cannot be explained by mean-field approximations. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.
Variational modelling of nonlinear water waves
Kalogirou, Anna; Bokhove, Onno
2015-11-01
Mathematical modelling of water waves is demonstrated by investigating variational methods. A potential flow water wave model is derived using variational techniques and extented to include explicit time-dependence, leading to non-autonomous dynamics. As a first example, we consider the problem of a soliton splash in a long wave channel with a contraction at its end, resulting after a sluice gate is removed at a finite time. The removal of the sluice gate is included in the variational principle through a time-dependent gravitational potential. A second example involving non-autonomous dynamics concerns the motion of a free surface in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell. Explicit time-dependence now enters the model through a linear damping term due to the effect of wall friction and a term representing the motion of an artificially driven wave pump. In both cases, the model is solved numerically using a Galerkin FEM and the numerical results are compared to wave structures observed in experiments. The water wave model is also adapted to accommodate nonlinear ship dynamics. The novelty is this case is the coupling between the water wave dynamics, the ship dynamics and water line dynamics on the ship. For simplicity, we consider a simple ship structure consisting of V-shaped cross-sections.
The synchrotron-self-Compton spectrum of relativistic blast waves at large Y
Lemoine, M
2015-01-01
Recent analyses of multiwavelength light curves of gamma-ray bursts afterglows point to values of the magnetic turbulence well below the canonical $\\sim1\\,$\\% of equipartition, in agreement with theoretical expectations of a micro-turbulence generated in the shock precursor, which then decays downstream of the shock front through collisionless damping. As a direct consequence, the Compton parameter $Y$ can take large values in the blast. In the presence of decaying micro-turbulence and/or as a result of the Klein-Nishina suppression of inverse Compton cooling, the $Y$ parameter carries a non-trivial dependence on the electron Lorentz factor, which modifies the spectral shape of the synchrotron and inverse Compton components. This paper provides detailed calculations of this synchrotron-self-Compton spectrum in this large $Y$ regime, accounting for the possibility of decaying micro-turbulence. It calculates the expected temporal and spectral indices $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ customarily defined by $F_\
Hydraulic Model Tests on Modified Wave Dragon
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hald, Tue; Lynggaard, Jakob
A floating model of the Wave Dragon (WD) was built in autumn 1998 by the Danish Maritime Institute in scale 1:50, see Sørensen and Friis-Madsen (1999) for reference. This model was subjected to a series of model tests and subsequent modifications at Aalborg University and in the following...... are found in Hald and Lynggaard (2001). Model tests and reconstruction are carried out during the phase 3 project: ”Wave Dragon. Reconstruction of an existing model in scale 1:50 and sequentiel tests of changes to the model geometry and mass distribution parameters” sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency...
On the modelling of equatorial waves
Constantin, A.
2012-03-01
The present theory of geophysical waves that either raise or lower the equatorial thermocline, based on the reduced-gravity shallow-water equations on the β-plane, ignores vertical variations of the flow. In particular, the vertical structure of the Equatorial Undercurrent is absent. As a remedy we propose a simple approach by modeling this geophysical process as a wave-current interaction in the f-plane approximation, the underlying current being of positive constant vorticity. The explicit dispersion relation allows us to conclude that, despite its simplicity, the proposed model captures to a reasonable extent essential features of equatorial waves.
Elder, Gregory A; Dorr, Nathan P.; De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A.; Shaughness, Michael C.; Maudlin-Jeronimo, Eric; Hall, Aaron A; McCarron, Richard M.; Ahlers, Stephen T
2012-01-01
Blast related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major cause of injury in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. A striking feature of the mild TBI (mTBI) cases has been the prominent association with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, because of the overlapping symptoms, distinction between the two disorders has been difficult. We studied a rat model of mTBI in which adult male rats were exposed to repetitive blast injury while under anesthesia. Blast exposure induced a variety ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G
2011-01-21
that the headform locally experiences a nearly planar blast wave. Also, the positive phase durations and blast impulses are much larger than those of (1). Consequently, the blast model used in (1) is spatially and temporally very different from a military blast. It would be useful to repeat the calculations using military blast parameters. Finally, (1) overlooks a significant part of (5). On page 1 and on page 3, (1) states that (5) did not consider helmet pads. But pages pages 3 and 4 of (5) present simulations of blast wave propagation across an ACH helmeted head form with and without pads. (5) states that when the pads are present, the 'underwash' of air under the helmet is blocked when compared to the case without. (1) reaches this same conclusion, but reports it as a new result rather than a confirmation of that already found in (5).
Exit from inflation with a first-order phase transition and a gravitational wave blast
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amjad Ashoorioon
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In double-field inflation, which exploits two scalar fields, one of the fields rolls slowly during inflation whereas the other field is trapped in a meta-stable vacuum. The nucleation rate from the false vacuum to the true one becomes substantial enough that triggers a first order phase transition and ends inflation. We revisit the question of first order phase transition in an “extended” model of hybrid inflation, realizing the double-field inflationary scenario, and correctly identify the parameter space that leads to a first order phase transition at the end of inflation. We compute the gravitational wave profile which is generated during this first order phase transition. Assuming instant reheating, the peak frequency falls in the 1 GHz to 10 GHz frequency band and the amplitude varies in the range 10−11≲ΩGWh2≲10−8, depending on the value of the cosmological constant in the false vacuum. For a narrow band of vacuum energies, the first order phase transition can happen after the end of inflation via the violation of slow-roll, with a peak frequency that varies from 1 THz to 100 THz. For smaller values of cosmological constant, even though inflation can end via slow-roll violation, the universe gets trapped in a false vacuum whose energy drives a second phase of eternal inflation. This range of vacuum energies do not lead to viable inflationary models, unless the value of the cosmological constant is compatible with the observed value, M∼10−3 eV.
Blasting Vibration Generated by Breaking-Blasting Large Barriers with EBBLB
Wang Zhen-xiong; Gu Wen-bin; Liang Ting; Liu Jian-qing; Xu Jing-lin; Liu Xin
2016-01-01
Equipment for breaking and blasting large barriers (EBBLB) is new break-blast equipment, which inevitably induces ground vibration and may cause substantial damage to rock mass and nearby structures as well as human beings. The ground vibration induced by break-blast is one of the inevitable outcomes. By monitoring vibration at measuring points at different distances from blasting center, time history curve of vibrating velocity can be obtained; it can be drawn that blasting seismic waves are...
Study on Solitary Waves of a General Boussinesq Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In this paper, we employ the bifurcation method of dynamical systems to study the solitary waves and periodic waves of a generalized Boussinesq equations. All possible phase portraits in the parameter plane for the travelling wave systems are obtained. The possible solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions and cusp waves for the general Boussinesq type fluid model are also investigated.
-Advanced Models for Tsunami and Rogue Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. W. Pravica
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A wavelet , that satisfies the q-advanced differential equation for , is used to model N-wave oscillations observed in tsunamis. Although q-advanced ODEs may seem nonphysical, we present an application that model tsunamis, in particular the Japanese tsunami of March 11, 2011, by utilizing a one-dimensional wave equation that is forced by . The profile is similar to tsunami models in present use. The function is a wavelet that satisfies a q-advanced harmonic oscillator equation. It is also shown that another wavelet, , matches a rogue-wave profile. This is explained in terms of a resonance wherein two small amplitude forcing waves eventually lead to a large amplitude rogue. Since wavelets are used in the detection of tsunamis and rogues, the signal-analysis performance of and is examined on actual data.
A Novel Preclinical Model of Moderate Primary Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury.
Divani, Afshin A; Murphy, Amanda J; Meints, Joyce; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Nordberg, Jessica; Monga, Manoj; Low, Walter C; Bhatia, Prerana M; Beilman, Greg J; SantaCruz, Karen S
2015-07-15
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the "signature" injury of the recent Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Here, we present a novel method to induce bTBI using shock wave (SW) lithotripsy. Using a lithotripsy machine, Wistar rats (N = 70; 408.3 ± 93 g) received five SW pulses to the right side of the frontal cortex at 24 kV and a frequency of 60 Hz. Animals were then randomly divided into three study endpoints: 24 h (n = 25), 72 h (n = 19) and 168 h (n = 26). Neurological and behavioral assessments (Garcia's test, beam walking, Rotarod, and elevated plus maze) were performed at the baseline, and further assessments followed at 3, 6, 24, 72, and 168 h post-injury, if applicable. We performed digital subtraction angiography (DSA) to assess presence of cerebral vasospasm due to induced bTBI. Damage to brain tissue was assessed by an overall histological severity (OHS) score based on depth of injury, area of hemorrhage, and extent of axonal injury. Except for beam walking, OHS was significantly correlated with the other three outcome measures with at least one of their assessments during the first 6 h after the experiment. OHS manifested the highest absolute correlation coefficients with anxiety at the baseline and 6 h post-injury (r(baseline) = -0.75, r(6hrs) = 0.85; p<0.05). Median hemispheric differences for contrast peak values (obtained from DSA studies) for 24, 72, and 168 h endpoints were 3.45%, 3.05% and 0.2%, respectively, with statistically significant differences at 1 versus 7 d (p<0.05) and 3 versus 7 d (p<0.01). In this study, we successfully established a preclinical rat model of bTBI with characteristics similar to those observed in clinical cases. This new method may be useful for future investigations aimed at understanding bTBI pathophysiology.
Roh, Soonyoung; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Inoue, Tsuyoshi
2016-01-01
Supernova remnants (SNRs) are one of the most energetic astrophysical events and are thought to be the dominant source of Galactic cosmic rays (CRs). A recent report on observations from the Fermi satellite has shown a signature of pion decay in the gamma-ray spectra of SNRs. This provides strong evidence that high-energy protons are accelerated in SNRs. The actual gamma-ray emission from pion decay should depend on the diffusion of CRs in the interstellar medium. In order to quantitatively analyse the diffusion of high-energy CRs from acceleration sites, we have performed test particle numerical simulations of CR protons using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of an interstellar medium swept-up by a blast wave. We analyse the diffusion of CRs at a length scale of order a few pc in our simulated SNR, and find the diffusion of CRs is precisely described by a Bohm diffusion, which is required for efficient acceleration at least for particles with energies above 30 TeV for a realistic interstellar medium. Although we find the possibility of a superdiffusive process (travel distance ∝ t0.75) in our simulations, its effect on CR diffusion at the length scale of the turbulence in the SNR is limited.
Infrared and X-Ray Evidence for Circumstellar Grain Destruction by the Blast Wave of Supernova 1987A
Dwek, E; Bouchet, P; Burrows, D N; Challis, P; Danziger, I J; De Buizer, J M; Gehrz, R D; Kirshner, R P; McCray, R; Park, S; Polomski, E F; Woodward, C E
2007-01-01
Multiwavelength observations of supernova remnant (SNR) 1987A show that its morphology and luminosity are rapidly changing at X-ray, optical, infrared, and radio wavelengths as the blast wave from the explosion expands into the circumstellar equatorial ring, produced by mass loss from the progenitor star. The observed infrared (IR) radiation arises from the interaction of dust grains that formed in mass outflow with the soft X-ray emitting plasma component of the shocked gas. Spitzer IRS spectra at 5 - 30 microns taken on day 6190 since the explosion show that the emission arises from ~ 1.1E-6 Msun of silicate grains radiating at a temperature of ~180+20-15 K. Subsequent observations on day 7137 show that the IR flux had increased by a factor of 2 while maintaining an almost identical spectral shape. The observed IR-to-X-ray flux ratio (IRX) is consistent with that of a dusty plasma with standard Large Magellanic Cloud dust abundances. IRX has decreased by a factor of ~ 2 between days 6190 and 7137, providing...
Roh, Soonyoung; Inoue, Tsuyoshi
2015-01-01
Supernova remnants (SNRs) are one of the most energetic astrophysical events and are thought to be the dominant source of Galactic cosmic rays (CRs). A recent report on observations from the Fermi satellite has shown a signature of pion decay in the gamma-ray spectra of SNRs. This provides strong evidence that high-energy protons are accelerated in SNRs. The actual gamma-ray emission from pion decay should depend on the diffusion of CRs in the interstellar medium. In order to quantitatively analyse the diffusion of high-energy CRs from acceleration sites, we have performed test particle numerical simulations of CR protons using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of an interstellar medium swept-up by a blast wave. We analyse the diffusion of CRs at a length scale of order a few pc in our simulated SNR, and find the diffusion of CRs is precisely described by a Bohm diffusion, which is required for efficient acceleration at least for particles with energies above 30 TeV for a realistic int...
An experimental investigation of blast driven turbulence
Musci, Benjamin; Ranjan, Devesh
2016-11-01
In the Georgia Tech Shock and Advanced Mixing Lab, a facility is being built to study blast driven turbulence. Motivated by the discrepancies observed between actual and modeled supernovae, this facility aims to resolve the important spatial scales in the extensive mixing of the outer layers. These outer layers will be modeled by subjecting two-three gases of varying density to a blast wave generated by Exploding Bridge Wires. The blast wave's interaction with perturbations at the gaseous, membrane-less, interfaces will induce the Richtmeyer-Meshkov or Rayleigh Taylor Instability, depending on the acceleration history and perturbation amplitude. Through the use of simultaneous Particle Image Velocimetry, and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence, this project aims to determine the effect of interface initial conditions on turbulence. A 2D Diverging Wedge and 3D Diverging Conical Tube are being built to enable repeatable blast-wave production, continuous optical viewing of the flow, reproducible multi-layer interface creation, and the collection of simultaneous density-velocity measurements to directly measure turbulent quantities. The preliminary analysis informing the design of this facility, the construction progress, and updates on newly realized design constraints are presented.
Turbulent Spot Pressure Fluctuation Wave Packet Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-05-01
Wave packet analysis provides a connection between linear small disturbance theory and subsequent nonlinear turbulent spot flow behavior. The traditional association between linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave form is developed via the method of stationary phase whereby asymptotic (simplified) mean flow solutions are used to estimate dispersion behavior and stationary phase approximation are used to invert the associated Fourier transform. The resulting process typically requires nonlinear algebraic equations inversions that can be best performed numerically, which partially mitigates the value of the approximation as compared to a more complete, e.g. DNS or linear/nonlinear adjoint methods. To obtain a simpler, closed-form analytical result, the complete packet solution is modeled via approximate amplitude (linear convected kinematic wave initial value problem) and local sinusoidal (wave equation) expressions. Significantly, the initial value for the kinematic wave transport expression follows from a separable variable coefficient approximation to the linearized pressure fluctuation Poisson expression. The resulting amplitude solution, while approximate in nature, nonetheless, appears to mimic many of the global features, e.g. transitional flow intermittency and pressure fluctuation magnitude behavior. A low wave number wave packet models also recover meaningful auto-correlation and low frequency spectral behaviors.
Effects Of Primary Blast Overpressure On Retina And Optic Tract In Rats
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James eDemar
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Blast has been the leading cause of injury, particularly traumatic brain injury and visual system injury, in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. We determined the effect of shock tube-generated primary blast on retinal electrophysiology and on retinal and brain optic tract histopathology in a rat model.The amplitude of a- and b- waves on the electroretinogram (ERG for both right and left eyes were measured prior to a battlefield-simulation Friedlander-type blast wave and on 1, 7, and 14 days thereafter. Histopathologic findings of the right and left retina and the right and left optic tracts (2.8 mm post-optic chiasm were evaluated 14 days after the blast.For two experiments in which the right eye was oriented to the blast, the amplitude of ERG a- and b-waves at 7 days post-blast on the right side but not on the left side was diminished compared to that of sham animals (P=0.005-0.01 Histopathologic injury scores at 14 days post-blast for the right retina but not the left retina were higher than for sham animals (P=0.01, and histopathologic injury scores at 14 days for both optic tracts were markedly higher than for shams (P < 0.0001. Exposure of one eye to a blast wave, comparable to that causing human injury, produced injury to the retina as determined by ERG and histopathology, and to both post-chiasmatic optic tracts as determined by histopathology. This model may be useful for analyzing the effect of therapeutic interventions on retinal damage due to primary blast waves.
Modelling and prediction of pig iron variables in the blast furnace
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saxen, H.; Laaksonen, M.; Waller, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Heat Engineering Lab.
1996-12-31
The blast furnace, where pig iron for steelmaking is produced, is an extremely complicated process, with heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions between several phases. Very few direct measurements on the internal state are available in the operation of the process. A main problem in on-line analysis and modelling is that the state of the furnace may undergo spontaneous changes, which alter the dynamic behaviour of the process. Moreover, large internal disturbances frequently occur, which affect the product quality. The work in this research project focuses on a central problem in the control of the blast furnace process, i.e., short-term prediction of pig iron variables. The problem is of considerable importance for fuel economy, product quality, and for an optimal decision making in integrated steel plants. The operation of the blast furnace aims at producing a product (hot metal) with variables maintained on a stable level (close to their setpoints) without waste of expensive fuel (metallurgical coke). The hot metal temperature and composition affect the downstream (steelmaking) processes, so fluctuations in the pig iron quality must be `corrected` in the steel plant. The goal is to develop a system which predicts the evolution of the hot metal variables (temperature, chemical composition) during the next few taps, and that can be used for decision-making in the operation of the blast furnace. Because of the complicated behaviour of the process, it is considered important to include both deterministic and stochastic components in the modelling: Mathematical models, which on the basis of measurements describe the physical state of the process, and statistical (black-box) models will be combined in the system. Moreover, different models will be applied in different domains in order to capture structural changes in the dynamics of the process SULA 2 Research Programme; 17 refs.
Biomechanical model of the thorax under blast loading: a three dimensional numerical study.
Goumtcha, Aristide Awoukeng; Thoral-Pierre, Karine; Roth, Sébastien
2014-12-01
Injury mechanisms due to high speed dynamic loads, such as blasts, are not well understood. These research fields are widely investigated in the literature, both at the experimental and numerical levels, and try to answer questions about the safety and efficiency of protection devices or biomechanical traumas. At a numerical level, the development of powerful mathematical models tends to study tolerance limits and injury mechanisms in order to avoid experimental tests which cannot be easily conducted. In a military framework, developing a fighter/soldier numerical model can help to the understanding of many traumas which are specific to soldier injuries, like mines, ballistic impacts or blast traumas. The aim of this study is to investigate the consequences of violent loads in terms of human body response, submitting a developed and validated three-dimensional thorax finite element (FE) model to blast loadings. Specific formulations of FE methods are used to simulate this loading, and its consequence on the biomechanical model. Mechanical parameters such as pressure in the air field and also in internal organs are observed, and these values are compared to the experimental data in the literature. This study gives encouraging results and allows going further in soldier trauma investigations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Modelling and analysis of blast furnace performance for efficient utilization of energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rasul, M.G.; Tanty, B.S.; Mohanty, B. [Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). Faculty of Sciences, Engineering and Health
2007-07-01
A simple model is presented to assess thermal performance of blast furnace (BF) for efficient utilisation of energy with an integrated view to improving the productivity of the plant. The model is developed using the mass, energy and availability balance equations and is applied to an existing iron and steel industry in India. A comparison of the actual operation of the BF is made with that of the model prediction. The model provides a reasonable agreement with the real time data of the BF operation. The predicted values of BF coke rate and blast rate are 8.6% and 5.11% higher than that of the actual values, respectively. The First and Second Law efficiencies of BF operating system were found to be 77.3% and 39.13%, respectively. irreversibility of the actual operation of BF was found to be 18.9%, which included the irreversibility due to the transformation of chemical energy and promoting of reduction reactions. The main cause of the irreversibility in the process was the conversion of chemical energy of the fuel to thermal energy. The effect of the changing operating parameters on the plant productivity is also investigated. This study suggests that the plant productivity can be improved by increasing the hot air blast temperature, reducing hot metal silicon level, reducing coke ash level and increasing sinter volume in the charge. 20 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.
Mesoscale Wind Predictions for Wave Model Evaluation
2016-06-07
N0001400WX20041(B) http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil LONG TERM GOALS The long-term goal is to demonstrate the significance and importance of high...ocean waves by an appropriate wave model. OBJECTIVES The main objectives of this project are to: 1. Build the infrastructure to generate the...temperature for all COAMPS grids at the resolution of each of these grids. These analyses are important for the proper 2 specification of the lower
Primary Blast Injury Criteria for Animal/Human TBI Models using Field Validated Shock Tubes
2016-09-01
differential equations for the conservation of momentum, mass and energy along with the material constitutive equations and the equations defining the initial...BOP. Using logistic regression model, predicted mortality rate (PMR) function was calculated, and used to establish TBI severities. We determined a...helped identify loading pathways through which blast overpressure ‘leaks’ into the brain leading to differential loading of the tissue in various
Analysis of structural response under blast loads using the coupled SPH-FEM approach
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jun-xiang XU; Xi-la LIU
2008-01-01
A numerical model using the coupled smoothed particle hydrodynamics-finite element method(SPH-FEM)approach is presented for analysis of structures under blast loads.The analyses on two numerical cases,one for free field explosive and the other for structural response under blast loads,are performed to model the whole processes from the propagation of the pressure wave to the response of structures.Based on the simulation,it is concluded that this model can be used for reasonably accurte explosive analysis of structures.The resulting information would be valuable for protecting structures under blast loads.
Wave Modeling of the Solar Wind.
Ofman, Leon
The acceleration and heating of the solar wind have been studied for decades using satellite observations and models. However, the exact mechanism that leads to solar wind heating and acceleration is poorly understood. In order to improve the understanding of the physical mechanisms that are involved in these processes a combination of modeling and observational analysis is required. Recent models constrained by satellite observations show that wave heating in the low-frequency (MHD), and high-frequency (ion-cyclotron) range may provide the necessary momentum and heat input to coronal plasma and produce the solar wind. This review is focused on the results of several recent solar modeling studies that include waves explicitly in the MHD and the kinetic regime. The current status of the understanding of the solar wind acceleration and heating by waves is reviewed.
Modeling the effect of wave-vegetation interaction on wave setup
van Rooijen, A. A.; McCall, R. T.; van Thiel de Vries, J. S. M.; van Dongeren, A. R.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Roelvink, J. A.
2016-06-01
Aquatic vegetation in the coastal zone attenuates wave energy and reduces the risk of coastal hazards, e.g., flooding. Besides the attenuation of sea-swell waves, vegetation may also affect infragravity-band (IG) waves and wave setup. To date, knowledge on the effect of vegetation on IG waves and wave setup is lacking, while they are potentially important parameters for coastal risk assessment. In this study, the storm impact model XBeach is extended with formulations for attenuation of sea-swell and IG waves, and wave setup effects in two modes: the sea-swell wave phase-resolving (nonhydrostatic) and the phase-averaged (surfbeat) mode. In surfbeat mode, a wave shape model is implemented to capture the effect of nonlinear wave-vegetation interaction processes on wave setup. Both modeling modes are verified using data from two flume experiments with mimic vegetation and show good skill in computing the sea-swell and IG wave transformation, and wave setup. In surfbeat mode, the wave setup prediction greatly improves when using the wave shape model, while in nonhydrostatic mode (nonlinear) intrawave effects are directly accounted for. Subsequently, the model is used for a range of coastal geomorphological configurations by varying bed slope and vegetation extent. The results indicate that the effect of wave-vegetation interaction on wave setup may be relevant for a range of typical coastal geomorphological configurations (e.g., relatively steep to gentle slope coasts fronted by vegetation).
Evaluation of Burden Descent Model for Burden Distribution in Blast Furnace
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ping ZHOU; Peng-yu SHI; Yan-po SONG; Kai-le TANG; Dong FU; Chenn QZHOU
2016-01-01
Mathematical models for burden descending process have been applied to obtain whole burden structures in blast furnace,whereas the accuracy of those burden descent models has not been sufficiently investigated.Special evaluation method based on timeline burden profiles was established to quantitatively evaluate the error between ex-perimental and modeled burden structures.Four existing burden descent models were utilized to describe the burden structure of a 1/20 scaled warm blast furnace.Input modeling conditions including initial burden profile,descending volumes in each time interval,and normalized descending velocity distribution were determined via special image pro-cessing technology.Modeled burden structures were evaluated combined with the published experimental data.It is found that all the models caught the main profile of the burden structure.Furthermore,the improved nonuniform de-scent model (Model IV)shows the highest level of precision especially when burden descends with unstable velocity distribution tendency.Meanwhile,the traditional nonuniform descent model (Model III)may also be desirable to model the burden descending process when the burden descending velocity presents a linear tendency.Finally,the uni-form descent model (Model I)might be the first option for roughly predicting burden structure.
Simple opdriftsbaserede modeller for Wave Star
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kramer, Morten
Wave Star modellen er udarbejdet i programmeringssproget Delphi. Modellerne er en videre udarbejdelse af tidligere anvendte Excel-modeller. I forhold til Excelmodellerne udmærker de nye Dephi-modeller sig ved at beregningerne udføres mange gange hurtigere og modellerne kan håndtere lange tidsserier...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao-xi XU
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI caused by blast shock waves (BSWs is one of the most common injuries among soldiers in the war. Such mTBI can also happen in civilians if exposed to shock waves of accidental explosion disasters, bomb attacks by terrorists and so on. This injury often results in cognitive problems, memory dysfunction and emotional disorder, and these neurological deficits are closely related to the dysfunction or disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The present paper discusses mainly the relationship between dysfunction or disruption of BBB and inflammatory reaction in mild brain injury associated with explosive shock wave and effects of early intervention of oxidative stress injury, repairing the BBB and blocking inflammation on relieving delayed neurological deficits. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.05.15
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Karami Alireza; Afiuni-Zadeh Somaieh
2013-01-01
One of the most important characters of blasting, a basic step of surface mining, is rock fragmentation because it directly effects on the costs of drilling and economics of the subsequent operations of loading, hauling and crushing in mines. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and radial basis function (RBF) show potentials for modeling the behavior of complex nonlinear processes such as those involved in fragmentation due to blasting of rocks. We developed ANFIS and RBF methods for modeling of sizing of rock fragmentation due to bench blasting by estimation of 80%passing size (K80) of Golgohar iron mine of Sirjan, Iran. Comparing the results of ANFIS and RBF models shows that although the statistical parame-ters RBF model is acceptable but ANFIS proposed model is superior and also simpler because ANFIS model is constructed using only two input parameters while seven input parameters used for construction of RBF model.
Study on blast furnace cooling stave for various refractory linings based on numerical modeling
Mohanty, T. R.; Sahoo, S. K.; Moharana, M. K.
2016-02-01
Cooling technology for refractory lining of blast furnace is very important for the metallurgical industry, because it can substantially increase output and operation life of furnaces. A three dimensional mathematical model for the temperature field of the blast furnace stave cooler with refractory lining has been developed and analyzed. The temperature and heat dissipated by stave cooler is examined by using the finite element method. The cast steel stave is studied and computational analysis is made to know the effect of the cooling water velocity, temperature, and the lining material on the maximum temperature of the stave hot surface. The refractory lining materials, which are used in this experiment, are high alumina bricks with different stave materials (copper, aluminum and cast iron). The obtained numerical calculations are compared with that obtained from experiments performed at Rourkela Steel Plant, Odisha taking a stave in belly zone having maximum heat load shows very good agreement.
Non-linear collisionless damping of Weibel turbulence in relativistic blast waves
Lemoine, Martin
2014-01-01
The Weibel/filamentation instability is known to play a key role in the physics of weakly magnetized collisionless shock waves. From the point of view of high energy astrophysics, this instability also plays a crucial role because its development in the shock precursor populates the downstream with a small-scale magneto-static turbulence which shapes the acceleration and radiative processes of suprathermal particles. The present work discusses the physics of the dissipation of this Weibel-generated turbulence downstream of relativistic collisionless shock waves. It calculates explicitly the first-order non-linear terms associated to the diffusive nature of the particle trajectories. These corrections are found to systematically increase the damping rate, assuming that the scattering length remains larger than the coherence length of the magnetic fluctuations. The relevance of such corrections is discussed in a broader astrophysical perspective, in particular regarding the physics of the external relativistic ...
Modeling of random wave transformation with strong wave-induced coastal currents
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zheng Jinhai; H. Mase; Li Tongfei
2008-01-01
The propagation and transformation of multi-directional and uni-directional random waves over a coast with complicated bathymetric and geometric features are studied experimentally and numerically. Laboratory investigation indicates that wave energy convergence and divergence cause strong coastal currents to develop and inversely modify the wave fields. A coastal spectral wave model, based on the wave action balance equation with diffraction effect (WABED), is used to simulate the transformation of random waves over the complicated bathymetry. The diffraction effect in the wave model is derived from a parabolic approximation of wave theory, and the mean energy dissipation rate per unit horizontal area due to wave breaking is parameterized by the bore-based formulation with a breaker index of 0.73. The numerically simulated wave field without considering coastal currents is different from that of experiments, whereas model results considering currents clearly reproduce the intensification of wave height in front of concave shorelines.
-Advanced Models for Tsunami and Rogue Waves
Pravica, D. W.; Randriampiry, N.; Spurr, M. J.
2012-01-01
A wavelet ${K}_{q}(t)$ , that satisfies the q-advanced differential equation ${K}_{q}^{\\prime }(t)={K}_{q}(qt)$ for $q>1$ , is used to model N-wave oscillations observed in tsunamis. Although q-advanced ODEs may seem nonphysical, we present an application that model tsunamis, in particular the Japanese tsunami of March 11, 2011, by utilizing a one-dimensional wave equation that is forced by ${F}_{q}(t,x)={K}_{q}{(t)}_{q}\\text{S}\\text{i}\\text{n}(x)$ . The profile ${F}_{q}$ is similar to tsunam...
An Energy-Based Safety Evaluation Index of Blast Vibration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingsheng Zhao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The combined peak particle velocity (PPV and frequency safety criterion for blast vibration is widely used in blasting engineering. However, some field investigations are inconsistent with this criterion. On the basis of field investigations, it is found that there are two failure modes of structures subjected to blasting seismic waves, that is, first-excursion failure and cumulative plastic damage failure. Moreover, the nature of structural responses under blast vibrations is a process of energy input, transformation, and dissipation. Therefore, an energy-based dual safety standard is proposed in this work to more comprehensively explain all failure modes of structures under blast vibrations. To this end, structures are simplified into elastic-plastic single degree of freedom (SDOF systems with bilinear restoring force models, and energy responses of SDOF systems are then determined using the Newmark-β method. From the energy responses, the maximum instantaneous input energy and hysteretic energy are selected as the basis of the dual safety criterion, because they can reflect first-excursion failure and cumulative plastic damage failure, respectively. Finally, field investigations in a blasting site in Zunyi, Guizhou province, China, are used to prove that compared to the PPV-frequency criterion the proposed energy-based dual safety criterion is more capable of assessing the damage potential of blast vibrations.
A Comparison of Nature Waves and Model Waves with Special Reference to Wave Grouping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, Hans F.
This paper represents a comparative analyses of the occurrence of wave grouping in field storm waves and laboratory waves with similar power spectra and wave height distribution.......This paper represents a comparative analyses of the occurrence of wave grouping in field storm waves and laboratory waves with similar power spectra and wave height distribution....
Model for predicting mountain wave field uncertainties
Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe; Plougonven, Riwal
2017-04-01
Studying the propagation of acoustic waves throughout troposphere requires knowledge of wind speed and temperature gradients from the ground up to about 10-20 km. Typical planetary boundary layers flows are known to present vertical low level shears that can interact with mountain waves, thereby triggering small-scale disturbances. Resolving these fluctuations for long-range propagation problems is, however, not feasible because of computer memory/time restrictions and thus, they need to be parameterized. When the disturbances are small enough, these fluctuations can be described by linear equations. Previous works by co-authors have shown that the critical layer dynamics that occur near the ground produces large horizontal flows and buoyancy disturbances that result in intense downslope winds and gravity wave breaking. While these phenomena manifest almost systematically for high Richardson numbers and when the boundary layer depth is relatively small compare to the mountain height, the process by which static stability affects downslope winds remains unclear. In the present work, new linear mountain gravity wave solutions are tested against numerical predictions obtained with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. For Richardson numbers typically larger than unity, the mesoscale model is used to quantify the effect of neglected nonlinear terms on downslope winds and mountain wave patterns. At these regimes, the large downslope winds transport warm air, a so called "Foehn" effect than can impact sound propagation properties. The sensitivity of small-scale disturbances to Richardson number is quantified using two-dimensional spectral analysis. It is shown through a pilot study of subgrid scale fluctuations of boundary layer flows over realistic mountains that the cross-spectrum of mountain wave field is made up of the same components found in WRF simulations. The impact of each individual component on acoustic wave propagation is discussed in terms of
Elder, Gregory A; Dorr, Nathan P; De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A; Shaughness, Michael C; Maudlin-Jeronimo, Eric; Hall, Aaron A; McCarron, Richard M; Ahlers, Stephen T
2012-11-01
Blast related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major cause of injury in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. A striking feature of the mild TBI (mTBI) cases has been the prominent association with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, because of the overlapping symptoms, distinction between the two disorders has been difficult. We studied a rat model of mTBI in which adult male rats were exposed to repetitive blast injury while under anesthesia. Blast exposure induced a variety of PTSD-related behavioral traits that were present many months after the blast exposure, including increased anxiety, enhanced contextual fear conditioning, and an altered response in a predator scent assay. We also found elevation in the amygdala of the protein stathmin 1, which is known to influence the generation of fear responses. Because the blast overpressure injuries occurred while animals were under general anesthesia, our results suggest that a blast-related mTBI exposure can, in the absence of any psychological stressor, induce PTSD-related traits that are chronic and persistent. These studies have implications for understanding the relationship of PTSD to mTBI in the population of veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mengdong eLiu
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In current military conflicts and civilian terrorism, blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI is the primary cause of neurotrauma. However, the effects and mechanisms of bTBI are poorly understood. Although previous researchers have made significant contributions to establishing animal models for the simulation of bTBI, the precision and controllability of blast-induced injury in animal models must be improved. Therefore, we established a novel rat model to simulate blast-wave injury to the brain. To simulate different extents of bTBI injury, the animals were divided into moderate and severe injury groups. The miniature spherical explosives (PETN used in each group were of different sizes (2.5 mm diameter in the moderate injury group and 3.0 mm diameter in the severe injury group. A specially designed apparatus was able to precisely adjust the positions of the miniature explosives and create eight rats with bTBI simultaneously, using a single electric detonator. Neurological functions, gross pathologies, histopathological changes and the expression levels of various biomarkers were examined after the explosion. Compared with the moderate injury group, there were significantly more neurological dysfunctions, cortical contusions, intraparenchymal hemorrhages, cortical expression of S-100β, MBP, NSE, IL-8, IL-10, iNOS and HIF-1α in the severe injury group. These results demonstrate that we have created a reliable and reproducible bTBI model in rats. This model will be helpful for studying the mechanisms of bTBI and developing strategies for clinical bTBI treatment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ambühl, Simon; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2014-01-01
Wave models used for site assessments are subject to model uncertainties, which need to be quantified when using wave model results for probabilistic reliability assessments. This paper focuses on determination of wave model uncertainties. Considered are four different wave models and validation...... data is collected from published scientific research. The bias, the root-mean-square error as well as the scatter index are considered for the significant wave height as well as the mean zero-crossing wave period. Based on an illustrative generic example it is shown how the estimated uncertainties can...
Modeling of Rayleigh wave dispersion in Iberia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Badal
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Phase and group velocities of 15–70 s Rayleigh waves propagating across the Iberian Peninsula have been transformed into local dispersion curves by linear inversion of travel times. The procedure permits that the waveform dispersion to be obtained as a continuous period-dependent velocity function at grid points belonging to the area probed by the waves, thus providing phase- and group-velocity contour maps for several periods within the interval of interest. The regionalization process rests on a homogeneous initial data set in which the number of observations remains almost constant for all periods of reference. Damped least-squares inversion of the local dispersion curves for shear-wave velocity structure is performed to obtain depth-dependent S-wave velocity profiles at the grid points covering the model region. The reliability of the results should improve significantly owing to the use of phase and group velocities simultaneously. On this basis, we have built horizontal depth sections that give an updated view of the seismic velocity structure of the peninsula at lithospheric and upper mantle depths (20–200 km. After averaging all the pure-path S-wave velocities previously determined at each grid point, the velocity-depth models so obtained for major tectonic units allow the comparison between the Hercynian basement and other areas of Mesozoic folding and Tertiary basins.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵根; 季荣; 郑晓宁; 王文辉; 吴从清
2011-01-01
In the process of underwater blasting, the adobe blasting method was usually used to cut and demolish underwater metallic structure, sympathatic detonation of suspicious explosive object, etc. When blast area near by the culture area and protection of aquatic wildlife, it needs to consider the factor of water wave. In this paper, the propagation empirical formula of water wave is discussed. Through the blast test and arialysis on the monitored data, the propagation rules of water wave by high-energy and common emulsion explosives underwater blasting are obtained.%在水下工程爆破中,通常采用裸露药包爆破法,进行水下金属构件的切割与拆除、水下可疑爆炸物的诱爆等,当爆破区域附近有养殖区、野生保护水生物时,就需考虑炸药爆炸产生的水中冲击波影响问题.对水中冲击波传播规律的公式形式进行了探讨,通过爆破试验以及对监测资料的分析,得到了高能、普通乳化炸药的水中爆炸冲击波传播规律.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐润生; 张建良; 左海滨; 李克江; 宋腾飞; 邵久刚
2015-01-01
The combustion process of pulverized coal injected into blast furnace involves a lot of physical and chemical reactions. Based on the combustion behaviors of pulverized coal, the conception of coal effective calorific value representing the actual thermal energy provided for blast furnace was proposed. A cost performance evaluation model of coal injection was built up for the optimal selection of various kinds of coal based on effective calorific value. The model contains two indicators: coal effective calorific value which has eight sub-indicators and coal injection cost which includes four sub-indicators. In addition, the calculation principle and application of cost performance evaluation model in a Chinese large-scale iron and steel company were comprehensively introduced. The evaluation results finally confirm that this novel model is of great significance to the optimal selection of blast furnace pulverized coal.
Wave climatology of the Indian Ocean derived from altimetry and wave model
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Vethamony, P.; Rao, L.V.G.; Kumar, R.; Sarkar, A.; Mohan, M.; Sudheesh, K.; Karthikeyan, S.B.
month. Similar procedure is followed for Geosat data for comparison purpose. The wave model, WAVEIN has been run using ECMWF winds to hindcast waves over the Indian Ocean and to compare with Geosat wave parameters. As altimeter does not provide wave...
Hybrid S2/Carbon Epoxy Composite Armours Under Blast Loads
Dolce, F.; Meo, Michele; Wright, A.; French, M.; Bernabei, M.
2012-06-01
Civil and military structures, such as helicopters, aircrafts, naval ships, tanks or buildings are susceptible to blast loads as terroristic attacks increases, therefore there is the need to design blast resistant structures. During an explosion the peak pressure produced by shock wave is much greater than the static collapse pressure. Metallic structures usually undergo large plastic deformations absorbing blast energy before reaching equilibrium. Due to their high specific properties, fibre-reinforced polymers are being considered for energy absorption applications in blast resistant armours. A deep insight into the relationship between explosion loads, composite architecture and deformation/fracture behaviour will offer the possibility to design structures with significantly enhanced energy absorption and blast resistance performance. This study presents the results of a numerical investigation aimed at understanding the performance of a hybrid composite (glass/carbon fibre) plate subjected to blast loads using commercial LS-DYNA software. In particular, the paper deals with numerical 3D simulations of damages caused by air blast waves generated by C4 charges on two fully clamped rectangular plates made of steel and hybrid (S2/Carbon) composite, respectively. A Multi Materials Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (MMALE) formulation was used to simulate the shock phenomenon. For the steel plates, the Johnson-Cook material model was employed. For the composite plates both in-plane and out-of-plane failure criteria were employed. In particular, a contact tiebreak formulation with a mixed mode failure criteria was employed to simulate delamination failure. As for the steel plates the results showed that excellent correlation with the experimental data for the two blast load conditions in terms of dynamic and residual deflection for two different C4 charges. For the composite plates the numerical results showed that, as expected, a wider delamination damage was observed
Effects of low-level blast exposure on the nervous system: Is there really a controversy?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregory A Elder
2014-12-01
Full Text Available High-pressure blast waves can cause extensive CNS injury in humans. However, in combat settings such as Iraq and Afghanistan, lower level exposures associated with mild TBI (mTBI or subclinical exposure have been much more common. Yet controversy exists concerning what traits can be attributed to low-level blast, in large part due to the difficulty of distinguishing blast-related mTBI from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We describe how TBI is defined in humans and the problems posed in using current definitions to recognize blast-related mTBI. We next consider the problem of applying definitions of human mTBI to animal models, in particular that TBI severity in humans is defined in relation to alteration of consciousness at the time of injury, which typically cannot be assessed in animals. However, based on outcome assessments a condition of low-level blast exposure can be defined in animals that likely approximates human mTBI or subclinical exposure. We review blast injury modeling in animals noting that inconsistencies in experimental approach have contributed to uncertainty over the effects of low-level blast. Yet animal studies show that low-level blast pressure waves are transmitted to the brain. In brain low-level blast exposures cause behavioral, biochemical, pathological and physiological effects on the nervous system including the induction of PTSD-related behavioral traits in the absence of a psychological stressor. We review the relationship of blast exposure to chronic neurodegenerative diseases noting the paradoxical lowering of Abeta by blast, which along with other observations suggest that blast-related TBI is pathophysiologically distinct from non-blast TBI. Human neuroimaging studies show that blast-related mTBI is associated with a variety of chronic effects that are unlikely to be explained by co-morbid PTSD. We conclude that abundant evidence supports low-level blast as having long-term effects on the nervous system.
A Boussinesq Equation-Based Model for Nearshore Wave Breaking
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
余建星; 张伟; 王广东; 杨树清
2004-01-01
Based on the wave breaking model by Li and Wang (1999), this work is to apply Dally' s analytical solution to the wave-height decay irstead of the empirical and semi-empirical hypotheses of wave-height distribution within the wave breaking zone. This enhances the applicability of the model. Computational results of shoaling, location of wave breaking, wave-height decay after wave breaking, set-down and set-up for incident regular waves are shown to have good agreement with experimental and field data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nordstroem, T.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Group
1996-12-31
The objective of this work has been to investigate the soot formation in a blast furnace fired with heavy fuel oil, using detailed kinetic modelling. This work has been concentrated on parameter studies that could explain under which conditions soot is formed and how that formation could be avoided. The parameters investigated were temperature, pressure, stoichiometric ratio, pyrolysis gas composition and reactor model. The calculations were based on a reaction mechanism that consists of 100 species and 446 reactions including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAM) up to 7 aromatic rings SULA 2 Research Programme; 4 refs.
Discrete particle modelling of granular roll waves
Tsang, Jonathan; Dalziel, Stuart; Vriend, Nathalie
2016-11-01
A granular current flowing down an inclined chute or plane can undergo an instability that leads to the formation of surface waves, known as roll waves. Examples of roll waves are found in avalanches and debris flows in landslides, and in many industrial processes. Although related to the Kapitza instability of viscous fluid films, granular roll waves are not yet as well understood. Laboratory experiments typically measure the surface height and velocity of a current as functions of position and time, but they do not give insight into the processes below the surface: in particular, the possible formation of a boundary layer at the free surface as well as the base. To overcome this, we are running discrete particle model (DPM) simulations. Simulations are validated against our laboratory experiments, but they also allow us to examine a much larger range of parameters, such as material properties, chute geometry and particle size dispersity, than that which is possible in the lab. We shall present results from simulations in which we vary particle size and dispersity, and examine the implications on roll wave formation and propagation. Future work will include simulations in which the shape of the chute is varied, both cross-sectionally and in the downstream direction. EPSRC studentship (Tsang) and Royal Society Research Fellowship (Vriend).
Rock blasting and explosives engineering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Persson, P.-A.; Holmberg, R.; Lee, J. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Research Center for Energetic Materials)
1994-01-01
The book covers the practical engineering aspects of different kinds of rock blasting. It includes a thorough analysis of the cost of the entire process of tunneling by drilling and blasting compared with full-face boring. It covers the economics of the entire rock blasting operation and its dependence on the size of excavation. The book highlights the fundamentals of rock mechanics, shock waves and detonation, initiation and mechanics of rock motion. It describes the engineering design principles and computational techniques for many separate mining methods and rock blasting operations. 274 refs.
Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries
2014-07-01
curvature changes. Figure 38. Locations with element disconnect issues 2. Modeling air blast wave propagation using a 2-D to 3-D mapping...sagittal sinus, transverse sinus, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), hemispheres of the cerebrum with distinct white and gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem...brain and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) were meshed and defined with Lagrangian formulation-based elements. The CSF fills the subarachnoid space
Improved CFD Model to Predict Flow and Temperature Distributions in a Blast Furnace Hearth
Komiyama, Keisuke M.; Guo, Bao-Yu; Zughbi, Habib; Zulli, Paul; Yu, Ai-Bing
2014-10-01
The campaign life of a blast furnace is limited by the erosion of hearth refractories. Flow and temperature distributions of the liquid iron have a significant influence on the erosion mechanism. In this work, an improved three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is developed to simulate the flow and heat transfer phenomena in the hearth of BlueScope's Port Kembla No. 5 Blast Furnace. Model improvements feature more justified input parameters in turbulence modeling, buoyancy modeling, wall boundary conditions, material properties, and modeling of the solidification of iron. The model is validated by comparing the calculated temperatures with the thermocouple data available, where agreements are established within ±3 pct. The flow distribution in the hearth is discussed for intact and eroded hearth profiles, for sitting and floating coke bed states. It is shown that natural convection affects the flow in several ways: for example, the formation of (a) stagnant zones preventing hearth bottom from eroding or (b) the downward jetting of molten liquid promoting side wall erosion, or (c) at times, a vortex-like peripheral flow, promoting the "elephant foot" type erosion. A significant influence of coke bed permeability on the macroscopic flow pattern and the refractory temperature is observed.
Phase Diagram of a Holographic Superconductor Model with s-wave and d-wave
Nishida, Mitsuhiro
2014-01-01
We consider a holographic model with a scalar field, a tensor field and a direct coupling between them as a superconductor with an s-wave and a d-wave. We find a rich phase structure in our model. Depending on the direct coupling, the model exhibits coexistence of the s-wave and the d-wave, and/or order competition, and has a triple point.
CMS-Wave Model: Part 5. Full-plane Wave Transformation and Grid Nesting
2012-04-01
are available in previous reports and CHETNs (Lin et al. 2006; Demirbilek et al. 2007). CMS -Wave is part of the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ...the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (USACE) Surface-water Modeling System (SMS). The CMS -Wave FP option is available in SMS Version 11.1 and higher...ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-81 April 2012 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. CMS -Wave Model: Part 5. Full-plane Wave Transformation
Wound Ballistics Modeling for Blast Loading Blunt Force Impact and Projectile Penetration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, Paul A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cooper, Candice Frances [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnett, Damon J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-09-01
Light body armor development for the warfighter is based on trial-and-error testing of prototype designs against ballistic projectiles. Torso armor testing against blast is virtually nonexistent but necessary to ensure adequate protection against injury to the heart and lungs. In this report, we discuss the development of a high-fidelity human torso model, it's merging with the existing Sandia Human Head-Neck Model, and development of the modeling & simulation (M&S) capabilities necessary to simulate wound injury scenarios. Using the new Sandia Human Torso Model, we demonstrate the advantage of virtual simulation in the investigation of wound injury as it relates to the warfighter experience. We present the results of virtual simulations of blast loading and ballistic projectile impact to the tors o with and without notional protective armor. In this manner, we demonstrate the ad vantages of applying a modeling and simulation approach to the investigation of wound injury and relative merit assessments of protective body armor without the need for trial-and-error testing.
A Model to Simulate Titanium Behavior in the Iron Blast Furnace Hearth
Guo, Bao-Yu; Zulli, Paul; Maldonado, Daniel; Yu, Ai-Bing
2010-08-01
The erosion of hearth refractory is a major limitation to the campaign life of a blast furnace. Titanium from titania addition in the burden or tuyere injection can react with carbon and nitrogen in molten pig iron to form titanium carbonitride, giving the so-called titanium-rich scaffold or buildup on the hearth surface, to protect the hearth from subsequent erosion. In the current article, a mathematical model based on computational fluid dynamics is proposed to simulate the behavior of solid particles in the liquid iron. The model considers the fluid/solid particle flow through a packed bed, conjugated heat transfer, species transport, and thermodynamic of key chemical reactions. A region of high solid concentration is predicted at the hearth bottom surface. Regions of solid formation and dissolution can be identified, which depend on the local temperature and chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity to the key model parameters for the solid phase is analyzed. The model provides an insight into the fundamental mechanism of solid particle formation, and it may form a basic model for subsequent development to study the formation of titanium scaffold in the blast furnace hearth.
Lasting retinal injury in a mouse model of blast-induced trauma
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure is currently the most prevalent of war injuries. While secondary ocular blast injuries due to flying debris are more common, primary ocular blast exposure has been reported among survivors of explosions, but with limited understanding of the resulti...
Elastomeric Polymer-by-Design for Blast-Induced Shock-Wave Management
2015-06-01
continuum scale ), is reported. At the nanoscale, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed with the accurate COMPASS potential for...dependent dynamic scaling function calibrated to match the self -diffusion of the atomistic and coarse-grained models. Master curves computed from the...characteristics at moleeular/nano-, micro-, meso- and macro- scales . An integrated approach was used to address the fabrication, modeling, and characterization
Wave-to-wire Modelling of Wave Energy Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ferri, Francesco
, but talking about renewable energy partially ravels the problem out. Wave energy is a large, mostly untapped, renewable energy resource. It has the potential to contribute significantly to the future energy mix, but the sector has not yet rolled off into the market in consequence of a number of technical...... and non-technical issues. These can be efficiently summarised in the cost of the energy produced by the various wave energy converters: If compared with other renewable energy technologies the cost of energy from the ocean waves is still significantly higher. Holding the comparison it also important...... to noticed that there is not a clear front runner in the wave energy sector, which fades effort and funding over a too broad frame. In order to assist efficient development and analysis of wave energy converters and therefore to accelerate the sector progression towards commercialisation, a generally...
Generative Modeling for Machine Learning on the D-Wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thulasidasan, Sunil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Information Sciences Group
2016-11-15
These are slides on Generative Modeling for Machine Learning on the D-Wave. The following topics are detailed: generative models; Boltzmann machines: a generative model; restricted Boltzmann machines; learning parameters: RBM training; practical ways to train RBM; D-Wave as a Boltzmann sampler; mapping RBM onto the D-Wave; Chimera restricted RBM; mapping binary RBM to Ising model; experiments; data; D-Wave effective temperature, parameters noise, etc.; experiments: contrastive divergence (CD) 1 step; after 50 steps of CD; after 100 steps of CD; D-Wave (experiments 1, 2, 3); D-Wave observations.
Sarvghad-Moghaddam, H.; Rezaei, A.; Ziejewski, M.; Karami, G.
2017-09-01
Upon impingement of blast waves on the head, stress waves generated at the interface of the skull are transferred into the cranium and the brain tissue and may cause mild to severe blast traumatic brain injury. The intensity of the shock front, defined by the blast overpressure (BoP), that is, the blast-induced peak static overpressure, significantly affects head kinematics as well as the tissue responses of the brain. While evaluation of global linear and rotational accelerations may be feasible, an experimental determination of dynamic responses of the brain in terms of intracranial pressure (ICP), maximum shear stress (MSS), and maximum principal strain (MPS) is almost impossible. The main objective of this study is to investigate possible correlations between head accelerations and the brain's ICP, MSS, and MPS. To this end, three different blasts were simulated by modeling the detonation of 70, 200, and 500 g of TNT at a fixed distance from the head, corresponding to peak BoPs of 0.52, 1.2, and 2 MPa, respectively. A nonlinear multi-material finite element algorithm was implemented in the LS-DYNA explicit solver. Fluid-solid interaction between the blast waves and head was modeled using a penalty-based method. Strong correlations were found between the brain's dynamic responses and both global linear and rotational accelerations at different blast intensities (R^{2 }≥ 98%), implying that global kinematic parameters of the head might be strong predictors of brain tissue biomechanical parameters.
Astrophysical Model Selection in Gravitational Wave Astronomy
Adams, Matthew R.; Cornish, Neil J.; Littenberg, Tyson B.
2012-01-01
Theoretical studies in gravitational wave astronomy have mostly focused on the information that can be extracted from individual detections, such as the mass of a binary system and its location in space. Here we consider how the information from multiple detections can be used to constrain astrophysical population models. This seemingly simple problem is made challenging by the high dimensionality and high degree of correlation in the parameter spaces that describe the signals, and by the complexity of the astrophysical models, which can also depend on a large number of parameters, some of which might not be directly constrained by the observations. We present a method for constraining population models using a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach which simultaneously infers the source parameters and population model and provides the joint probability distributions for both. We illustrate this approach by considering the constraints that can be placed on population models for galactic white dwarf binaries using a future space-based gravitational wave detector. We find that a mission that is able to resolve approximately 5000 of the shortest period binaries will be able to constrain the population model parameters, including the chirp mass distribution and a characteristic galaxy disk radius to within a few percent. This compares favorably to existing bounds, where electromagnetic observations of stars in the galaxy constrain disk radii to within 20%.
A WEAKLY NONLINEAR WATER WAVE MODEL TAKING INTO ACCOUNT DISPERSION OF WAVE PHASE VELOCITY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李瑞杰; 李东永
2002-01-01
This paper presents a weakly nonlinear water wave model using a mild slope equation and a new explicit formulation which takes into account dispersion of wave phase velocity, approximates Hedges' (1987) nonlinear dispersion relationship, and accords well with the original empirical formula. Comparison of the calculating results with those obtained from the experimental data and those obtained from linear wave theory showed that the present water wave model considering the dispersion of phase velocity is rational and in good agreement with experiment data.
Detailed modeling of mountain wave PSCs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Fueglistaler
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play a key role in polar ozone depletion. In the Arctic, PSCs can occur on the mesoscale due to orographically induced gravity waves. Here we present a detailed study of a mountain wave PSC event on 25-27 January 2000 over Scandinavia. The mountain wave PSCs were intensively observed by in-situ and remote-sensing techniques during the second phase of the SOLVE/THESEO-2000 Arctic campaign. We use these excellent data of PSC observations on 3 successive days to analyze the PSCs and to perform a detailed comparison with modeled clouds. We simulated the 3-dimensional PSC structure on all 3 days with a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP model and a microphysical box model (using best available nucleation rates for ice and nitric acid trihydrate particles. We show that the combined mesoscale/microphysical model is capable of reproducing the PSC measurements within the uncertainty of data interpretation with respect to spatial dimensions, temporal development and microphysical properties, without manipulating temperatures or using other tuning parameters. In contrast, microphysical modeling based upon coarser scale global NWP data, e.g. current ECMWF analysis data, cannot reproduce observations, in particular the occurrence of ice and nitric acid trihydrate clouds. Combined mesoscale/microphysical modeling may be used for detailed a posteriori PSC analysis and for future Arctic campaign flight and mission planning. The fact that remote sensing alone cannot further constrain model results due to uncertainities in the interpretation of measurements, underlines the need for synchronous in-situ PSC observations in campaigns.
Applicability of WaveWatch-III wave model to fatigue assessment of offshore floating structures
Zou, Tao; Kaminski, Miroslaw Lech
2016-09-01
In design and operation of floating offshore structures, one has to avoid fatigue failures caused by action of ocean waves. The aim of this paper is to investigate the applicability of WaveWatch-III wave model to fatigue assessment of offshore floating structures. The applicability was investigated for Bluewaters' FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) which had been turret moored at Sable field for half a decade. The waves were predicted as sea-state time series consisting of one wind sea and one swell. The predicted waves were compared with wave data obtained from ERA-interim and buoy measurements. Furthermore, the fatigue calculations were also carried out for main deck and side shell locations. It has been concluded that predicted fatigue damages of main deck using WaveWatch-III are in a very good agreement regardless of differences in predicted wind waves and swells caused by differences in wave system partitioning. When compared to buoy measurements, the model underestimates fatigue damages of side shell by approximately 30 %. The reason for that has been found in wider directional spreading of actual waves. The WaveWatch-III wave model has been found suitable for the fatigue assessment. However, more attention should be paid on relative wave directionality, wave system partitioning and uncertainty analysis in further development.
Deterministic combination of numerical and physical coastal wave models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, H.W.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas; Jakobsen, K.P.
2007-01-01
A deterministic combination of numerical and physical models for coastal waves is developed. In the combined model, a Boussinesq model MIKE 21 BW is applied for the numerical wave computations. A piston-type 2D or 3D wavemaker and the associated control system with active wave absorption provides...
Model of Draining of the Blast Furnace Hearth with an Impermeable Zone
Saxén, Henrik
2015-02-01
Due to demands of lower costs and higher productivity in the steel industry, the volume of operating blast furnaces has grown during the last decades. As the height is limited by the allowable pressure drop, the hearth diameter has grown considerably and, along with this, also draining-related problems. In this paper a mathematical model is developed for simulating the drainage in the case where an impermeable region exists in the blast furnace hearth. The model describes the quasi-stationary drainage process of a hearth with two operating tapholes, where the communication between the two pools of molten slag and iron can be controlled by parameterized expressions. The model also considers the case where the buoyancy of the liquids is sufficient for lifting the coke bed. The implications of different size of the liquid pools, communication between the pools, bed porosity, etc. are studied by simulation, and conclusions concerning their effect on the drainage behavior and evolution of the liquid levels in the hearth are drawn. The simulated liquid levels are finally demonstrated to give rise to a pressure profile acting on the hearth which agrees qualitatively with signals from strain gauges mounted in the hearth wall of an industrial ironmaking process.
Improvement of the Blast Furnace Viscosity Prediction Model Based on Discrete Points Data
Guo, Hongwei; Zhu, Mengyi; Li, Xinyu; Guo, Jian; Du, Shen; Zhang, Jianliang
2015-02-01
Viscosity is considered to be a significant indicator of the metallurgical property of blast furnace slag. An improved model for viscosity prediction based on the Chou model was presented in this article. The updated model has optimized the selection strategy of distance algorithm and negative weights at the reference points. Therefore, the extensionality prediction disadvantage in the original model was ameliorated by this approach. The model prediction was compared with viscosity data of slags of compositions typical to BF operations obtained from a domestic steel plant. The results show that the approach can predict the viscosity with average error of 9.23 pct and mean standard deviation of 0.046 Pa s.
A Table-top Blast Driven Shock Tube
Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy
2011-01-01
The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The d...
Impact of surface waves in a Regional Climate Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rutgersson, Anna; Sætra, Oyvind; Semedo, Alvaro
2010-01-01
A coupled regional atmosphere-wave model system is developed with the purpose of investigating the impact of climate changes on the wave field, as well as feed-back effects of the wave field on the atmospheric parameters. This study focuses on the effects of introducing a two-way atmosphere-wave...... coupling on the atmosphere as well as on wave parameters. The model components are the regional climate model RCA, and the third generation wave model WAM. Two different methods are used for the coupling, using the roughness length and only including the effect of growing sea, and using the wave age...... and introducing the reduction of roughness due to decaying sea (swell). Introducing a two-way coupling results in an altered frequency distribution of wind speed and wave heights. When only including growing sea the impact of waves on the long term mean atmospheric parameters is limited, inducing a reduction...
High-low-blasting technology and its application in methane dynamic disaster prevention
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xian-zhong; LIN Bai-quan; YANG Wei; NI Guan-hua; LI Quan-gui
2011-01-01
The gas cooperative control model combined local pressure-relief with regional pressure-relief was established,based on the theory of multi-parameters cooperative.For the status of high gas contents,high in-situ stress and low-permeability of Ji-15 seam of No.12 coal mine in Pingmei Group.The law of detonation wave propagation and ground-stress change distribution were simulated by means of the finite element analysis software.The technology of high-low-blasting,composed of high blasting(deep crossing hole controlled hydraulic blasting) and low blasting (special roadway deep hole controlled blasting) were developed.The research shows that around control hole produce maximum tension fracture failure,and result in directional and controlled blasting,when the distance between control hole and blasting hole is 1.2 m.The theory makes blasting force and hydraulic force advantage superimpose,which raises the effect of pressure relief and permeability enhancements compared with general blasting.High blasting influence radius and low blasting influence radius superimposed with each other,that prevents methane dynamic disaster.The result of type approval test shows that the technology can increase gas permeability as high as 22.7～36.2 ratio,decrease gas pressure from 2.85 MPa to 0.30 MPa,increase drilling influence radius to about 9 m.The technology realizes regional overall permeability improvement,that provides a new technical measure for methane dynamic disaster prevention.
Modeling Pancake Formation with a Coupled Wave-Ice Model
Veeramony, J.; Orzech, M.; Shi, F.; Bateman, S. P.; Calantoni, J.
2016-12-01
Recent results from the ONR-sponsored Arctic Sea State DRI cruise (Thomson et al., 2016, EOS, in press) suggest that small-scale pancake ice formation is an important process in the initial recovery and refreezing of the Arctic pack ice each autumn. Ocean surface waves and ambient temperature play significant roles in shaping and/or limiting the pancake growth patterns, which may either facilitate or delay the recovery of the ice pack. Here we apply a phase-resolving, coupled wave-ice system, consisting of a CFD wave model (NHWAVE) and a discrete-element ice model (LIGGGHTS), to investigate the formation processes of pancake ice under different conditions. A series of simulations is run, each beginning with a layer of disconnected ice particles floating on the ocean surface. Wave conditions and ice bonding properties are varied to examine the effects of mild versus stormy conditions, wind waves versus swell, and warmer versus colder temperatures. Model runs are limited to domains of O(1 sq km). Initial tests have shown some success in replicating qualitative results from the Sea State cruise, including the formation of irregularly shaped pancakes from the "frazil" ice layer, changes in formation processes caused by varying ambient temperature (represented through variations in ice bonding strength), occasional rafting of one pancake on top of another, and increased wave attenuation as pancakes grow larger.
Air blast circuit breaker noise and hearing loss: a multifactorial model for risk assessment.
McBride, D I; Williams, S
2000-04-01
The assessment of the risk to hearing from impulse noise exposure may be a problem for the occupational physician because existing legislative and international noise exposure standards deal primarily with continuous noise, and are not valid in excess of the peak exposure limit of 200 pa (140 dB). Noise exposure in excess of this level, for example that due to firearms, is frequently perceived as harmful, but this is not necessarily the case, as impulse noise standards do, in fact, allow exposure with a maximum in the order of 6.3 kPa (170 dB). To illustrate this, a cross-sectional group of electrical transmission workers have been studied who were exposed to significant levels of impulse noise from air blast circuit breakers and firearms. Important hearing loss factors have been identified by means of a specially designed questionnaire. Using the Health & Safety Executive definition, the risk of hearing loss was determined by calculating prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for exposure to these factors. The OR for those with fewer than eight unprotected air blast circuit breaker exposures was 2.27 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-5.08), whilst for those with more than eight exposures the OR was 2.10 (95% CI, 0.97-4.54). For firearm exposure, ORs of 1.61 (95% CI, 0.95-2.74) were noted in the medium exposure group and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.08-3.86) in the high exposure group. When all the factors were included in the model, the most significant factor was age. The study gives support to the impulse noise exposure criteria, confirming the borderline risk from air blast circuit breaker noise exposure and the relative safety of moderate gunfire exposure.
Underwater Noise Modelling of Wave Energy Devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2009-07-01
Future large-scale implementation of wave energy converts (WECs) will introduce an anthropogenic activity in the ocean which may contribute to underwater noise. The Ocean houses several marine species with acoustic sensibility; consequently the potential impact of the underwater noise needs to be addressed. At present, there are no acoustic impact studies based on acquired data. The WEAM project (Wave Energy Acoustic Monitoring) aims at developing an underwater noise monitoring plan for WECs. The development of an acoustic monitoring plan must consider the sound propagation in the ocean, identify noise sources, understand the operational characteristics and select adequate instrumentation. Any monitoring strategy must involve in-situ measurements. However, the vast distances which sound travels within the ocean, can make in-situ measurements covering the entire area of interest, impracticable. This difficulty can be partially overcome through acoustic numerical modelling. This paper presents a synthetic study, on the application of acoustic forward modelling and the evaluation of the impact of noise produced by wave energy devices on marine mammals using criteria based on audiograms of dolphins, or other species. The idea is to illustrate the application of that methodology, and to show to what extent it allows for estimating distances of impacts due to acoustic noise.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.P. Honkanadavar
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Riverbed modeled rockfill material from Noa Dehing dam project, Arunachal Pradesh, India and blasted quarried modeled rockfill material from Kol dam project, Himachal Pradesh, India were considered for this research. Riverbed rockfill material is rounded to sub-rounded and quarried rockfill material is angular to sub-angular in shape. Prototype rockfill materials were modeled into maximum particle size (dmax of 4.75 mm, 10 mm, 19 mm, 25 mm, 50 mm and 80 mm for testing in the laboratory. Consolidated drained triaxial tests were conducted on modeled rockfill materials with a specimen size of 381 mm in diameter and 813 mm in height to study the stress–strain–volume change behavior for both rockfill materials. Index properties, i.e. uncompacted void content (UVC and uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, were determined for both rockfill materials in association with material parameters. An elastoplastic hardening soil (HS constitutive model was used to predict the behavior of modeled rockfill materials. Comparing the predicted and observed stress–strain–volume change behavior, it is found that both observed and predicted behaviors match closely. The procedures were developed to predict the shear strength and elastic parameters of rockfill materials using the index properties, i.e. UCS, UVC and relative density (RD, and predictions were made satisfactorily. Comparing the predicted and experimentally determined shear strengths and elastic parameters, it is observed that both values match closely. Then these procedures were used to predict the elastic and shear strength parameters of large-size prototype rockfill materials. Correlations were also developed between index properties and material strength parameters (dilatancy angle, ψ, and initial void ratio, einit, required for HS model of modeled rockfill materials and the same correlations were used to predict the strength parameters for the prototype rockfill materials. Using the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
N.P. Honkanadavar; K.G. Sharma
2016-01-01
Riverbed modeled rockfill material from Noa Dehing dam project, Arunachal Pradesh, India and blasted quarried modeled rockfill material from Kol dam project, Himachal Pradesh, India were considered for this research. Riverbed rockfill material is rounded to sub-rounded and quarried rockfill material is angular to sub-angular in shape. Prototype rockfill materials were modeled into maximum particle size (dmax) of 4.75 mm, 10 mm, 19 mm, 25 mm, 50 mm and 80 mm for testing in the laboratory. Consolidated drained triaxial tests were conducted on modeled rockfill materials with a specimen size of 381 mm in diameter and 813 mm in height to study the stressestrainevolume change behavior for both rockfill materials. Index properties, i.e. uncompacted void content (UVC) and uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), were determined for both rockfill materials in association with material parameters. An elasto-plastic hardening soil (HS) constitutive model was used to predict the behavior of modeled rockfill materials. Comparing the predicted and observed stressestrainevolume change behavior, it is found that both observed and predicted behaviors match closely. The procedures were developed to predict the shear strength and elastic parameters of rockfill materials using the index properties, i.e. UCS, UVC and relative density (RD), and predictions were made satisfactorily. Comparing the predicted and experi-mentally determined shear strengths and elastic parameters, it is observed that both values match closely. Then these procedures were used to predict the elastic and shear strength parameters of large-size prototype rockfill materials. Correlations were also developed between index properties and ma-terial strength parameters (dilatancy angle, j, and initial void ratio, einit, required for HS model) of modeled rockfill materials and the same correlations were used to predict the strength parameters for the prototype rockfill materials. Using the predicted material parameters
Inflationary gravitational waves in collapse scheme models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mariani, Mauro, E-mail: mariani@carina.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); León, Gabriel, E-mail: gleon@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria – Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2016-01-10
The inflationary paradigm is an important cornerstone of the concordance cosmological model. However, standard inflation cannot fully address the transition from an early homogeneous and isotropic stage, to another one lacking such symmetries corresponding to our present universe. In previous works, a self-induced collapse of the wave function has been suggested as the missing ingredient of inflation. Most of the analysis regarding the collapse hypothesis has been solely focused on the characteristics of the spectrum associated to scalar perturbations, and within a semiclassical gravity framework. In this Letter, working in terms of a joint metric-matter quantization for inflation, we calculate, for the first time, the tensor power spectrum and the tensor-to-scalar ratio corresponding to the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves resulting from considering a generic self-induced collapse.
Inflationary gravitational waves in collapse scheme models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauro Mariani
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The inflationary paradigm is an important cornerstone of the concordance cosmological model. However, standard inflation cannot fully address the transition from an early homogeneous and isotropic stage, to another one lacking such symmetries corresponding to our present universe. In previous works, a self-induced collapse of the wave function has been suggested as the missing ingredient of inflation. Most of the analysis regarding the collapse hypothesis has been solely focused on the characteristics of the spectrum associated to scalar perturbations, and within a semiclassical gravity framework. In this Letter, working in terms of a joint metric-matter quantization for inflation, we calculate, for the first time, the tensor power spectrum and the tensor-to-scalar ratio corresponding to the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves resulting from considering a generic self-induced collapse.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chipman, V D
2011-09-20
Two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic models were developed using GEODYN to simulate the propagation of air blasts resulting from a series of high explosive detonations conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base in August and September of 2007. Dubbed Humble Redwood I (HR-1), these near-surface chemical high explosive detonations consisted of seven shots of varying height or depth of burst. Each shot was simulated numerically using GEODYN. An adaptive mesh refinement scheme based on air pressure gradients was employed such that the mesh refinement tracked the advancing shock front where sharp discontinuities existed in the state variables, but allowed the mesh to sufficiently relax behind the shock front for runtime efficiency. Comparisons of overpressure, sound speed, and positive phase impulse from the GEODYN simulations were made to the recorded data taken from each HR-1 shot. Where the detonations occurred above ground or were shallowly buried (no deeper than 1 m), the GEODYN model was able to simulate the sound speeds, peak overpressures, and positive phase impulses to within approximately 1%, 23%, and 6%, respectively, of the actual recorded data, supporting the use of numerical simulation of the air blast as a forensic tool in determining the yield of an otherwise unknown explosion.
Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Bouchet, Patrice; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Danziger, I. John; De Buizer, James M.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Park, Sangwook; Polomski, Elisha F.;
2010-01-01
We have used the Spitzer satellite to monitor the laid-IR evolution of SN 1987A over a 5 year period spanning the epochs between days 6000 and 8000 since the explosion. The supernova (SN) has evolved into a supernova remnant (SNR) and its radiative output, is dominated by the interaction of the SN blast wave with the pre-existing equatorial ring (ER). The mid-IR spectrum is dominated by emission from approximately 180 K silicate dust, collisionally-heated by the hot X-ray emitting gas with a temperature and density of 5 x 10(exp 6) K and approximately 3 x 10(exp 4) per cubic centimeter, respectively. The mass of the radiating dust is approximately 1.2 x 10(exp -6) solar mass on day 7554, and scales linearly with IR flux. Comparison of the IR data with the soft X-ray flux derived from Chandra observations shows that the IR-to-X-ray flux ratio, IRX, is roughly constant with a value of 2.5. Gas-grain collisions therefore dominate the cooling of the shocked gas. The constancy of IRX is most consistent with the scenario that very little grain processing or gas cooling have occurred throughout this epoch. The shape of the dust spectrum remained unchanged during the observations while the total flux increased by a factor of approximately 5 with a time dependence of t(sup '0.87 plus or minus 0.20), t' being the time since the first encounter between the blast wave and the ER. These observations are consistent with the transitioning of the blast wave from free expansion to a Sedov phase as it propagates into the main body of the ER, as also suggested by X-ray observations. The constant spectral shape of they IR, emission provides strong constraints on the density and temperature of the shocked gas in which the interaction takes place. The IR spectra also suggest the presence of a secondary population of very small, hot (T greater than or equal to 350 K), featureless dust. If these grains spatially coexists with the silicates, then they must have shorter lifetimes. The data
WEMo (Wave Exposure Model): Formulation, Procedures and Validation
Malhotra, Amit; Mark S. Fonseca
2007-01-01
This report describes the working of National Centers for Coastal Ocean Service (NCCOS) Wave Exposure Model (WEMo) capable of predicting the exposure of a site in estuarine and closed water to local wind generated waves. WEMo works in two different modes: the Representative Wave Energy (RWE) mode calculates the exposure using physical parameters like wave energy and wave height, while the Relative Exposure Index (REI) empirically calculates exposure as a unitless index. Detailed working of th...
Transport and mixing of r-process elements in neutron star binary merger blast waves
Montes, Gabriela; Naiman, Jill; Shen, Sijing; Lee, William H
2016-01-01
The r-process nuclei are robustly synthesized in the material ejected during a neutron star binary merger (NSBM), as tidal torques transport angular momentum and energy through the outer Lagrange point in the form of a vast tidal tail. If NSBM are indeed solely responsible for the solar system r- process abundances, a galaxy like our own would require to host a few NSBM per million years, with each event ejecting, on average, about 5x10^{-2} M_sun of r-process material. Because the ejecta velocities in the tidal tail are significantly larger than in ordinary supernovae, NSBM deposit a comparable amount of energy into the interstellar medium (ISM). In contrast to extensive efforts studying spherical models for supernova remnant evolution, calculations quantifying the impact of NSBM ejecta in the ISM have been lacking. To better understand their evolution in a cosmological context, we perform a suite of three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with optically-thin radiative cooling of isolated NSBM ejecta expa...
Surface-wave mode coupling : modelling and inverting waveforms including body-wave phases
Marquering, H.A.
1996-01-01
This thesis is concerned with a similar problem as addressed by Li & Tanimoto (1993) in the surfacewave mode approach. In this thesis it is shown that surface-wave mode coupling is required when body-wave phases in laterally heterogeneous media are modelled by surface-wave mode summation. An efficie
Wave equation modelling using Julia programming language
Kim, Ahreum; Ryu, Donghyun; Ha, Wansoo
2016-04-01
Julia is a young high-performance dynamic programming language for scientific computations. It provides an extensive mathematical function library, a clean syntax and its own parallel execution model. We developed 2d wave equation modeling programs using Julia and C programming languages and compared their performance. We used the same modeling algorithm for the two modeling programs. We used Julia version 0.3.9 in this comparison. We declared data type of function arguments and used inbounds macro in the Julia program. Numerical results showed that the C programs compiled with Intel and GNU compilers were faster than Julia program, about 18% and 7%, respectively. Taking the simplicity of dynamic programming language into consideration, Julia can be a novel alternative of existing statically typed programming languages.
Optimization of multi-model ensemble forecasting of typhoon waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shun-qi Pan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Accurately forecasting ocean waves during typhoon events is extremely important in aiding the mitigation and minimization of their potential damage to the coastal infrastructure, and the protection of coastal communities. However, due to the complex hydrological and meteorological interaction and uncertainties arising from different modeling systems, quantifying the uncertainties and improving the forecasting accuracy of modeled typhoon-induced waves remain challenging. This paper presents a practical approach to optimizing model-ensemble wave heights in an attempt to improve the accuracy of real-time typhoon wave forecasting. A locally weighted learning algorithm is used to obtain the weights for the wave heights computed by the WAVEWATCH III wave model driven by winds from four different weather models (model-ensembles. The optimized weights are subsequently used to calculate the resulting wave heights from the model-ensembles. The results show that the Optimization is capable of capturing the different behavioral effects of the different weather models on wave generation. Comparison with the measurements at the selected wave buoy locations shows that the optimized weights, obtained through a training process, can significantly improve the accuracy of the forecasted wave heights over the standard mean values, particularly for typhoon-induced peak waves. The results also indicate that the algorithm is easy to implement and practical for real-time wave forecasting.
Horizontal circulation and jumps in Hamiltonian wave models
Gagarina, E.; Vegt, van der J.; Bokhove, O.
2013-01-01
We are interested in the numerical modeling of wave-current interactions around surf zones at beaches. Any model that aims to predict the onset of wave breaking at the breaker line needs to capture both the nonlinearity of the wave and its dispersion. We have therefore formulated the Hamiltonian dyn
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xiuhua; DUAN Zhongdong; ZHANG Chunwei
2008-01-01
The progressive collapse of steel frame structures under the blast load was investigated using LS-DYNA.The multi-material Eulerian and Lagrangian coupling algorithm was adopted.A fluid-structure coupling finite element model was established which consists of Lagrange element for simulating steel frame structures and concrete ground,multiple ALE element for simulating air and TNT explosive material.Numerical simulations of the blast pressure wave propagation,structural dynamic responses and deformation,and progressive collapse of a five-story steel frame structure in the event of an explosion near above ground were performed.The numerical analysis showed that the Lagrangian and Eulerian coupling algorithm gave good simulations of the shock wave propagation in the mediums and blast load effects on the structure.The columns subjected to blast load may collapse by shear yielding rather than by flexural deformation.The columns and joints of steel beam to column in the front steel frame structure generated enormous plastic deformation subjected to intensive blast waves,and columns lost carrying capacity,subsequently leading to the collapse of the whole structure.The approach coupling influence between structural deformation and fluid load well simulated the progressive collapse process of structures,and provided an effective tool for analyzing the collapse mechanism of the steel frame structure under blast load.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dr. Chenn Zhou
2008-10-15
Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.
Control of spiral waves and turbulent states in a cardiac model by travelling-wave perturbations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王鹏业; 谢平; 尹华伟
2003-01-01
We propose a travelling-wave perturbation method to control the spatiotemporal dynamics in a cardiac model.It is numerically demonstrated that the method can successfully suppress the wave instability(alternans in action potential duration) in the one-dimensional case and convert spiral waves and turbulent states to the normal travelling wave states in the two-dimensional case.An experimental scheme is suggested which may provide a new design for a cardiac defibrillator.
Neurotransmitter Systems in a Mild Blast Traumatic Brain Injury Model: Catecholamines and Serotonin.
Kawa, Lizan; Arborelius, Ulf P; Yoshitake, Takashi; Kehr, Jan; Hökfelt, Tomas; Risling, Mårten; Agoston, Denes
2015-08-15
Exposure to improvised explosive devices can result in a unique form of traumatic brain injury--blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). At the mild end of the spectrum (mild bTBI [mbTBI]), there are cognitive and mood disturbances. Similar symptoms have been observed in post-traumatic stress disorder caused by exposure to extreme psychological stress without physical injury. A role of the monoaminergic system in mood regulation and stress is well established but its involvement in mbTBI is not well understood. To address this gap, we used a rodent model of mbTBI and detected a decrease in immobility behavior in the forced swim test at 1 d post-exposure, coupled with an increase in climbing behavior, but not after 14 d or later, possibly indicating a transient increase in anxiety-like behavior. Using in situ hybridization, we found elevated messenger ribonucleic acid levels of both tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 in the locus coeruleus and the dorsal raphe nucleus, respectively, as early as 2 h post-exposure. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis 1 d post-exposure primarily showed elevated noradrenaline levels in several forebrain regions. Taken together, we report that exposure to mild blast results in transient changes in both anxiety-like behavior and brain region-specific molecular changes, implicating the monoaminergic system in the pathobiology of mbTBI.
Measurement and modeling of bed shear stress under solitary waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Jayakumar, S.; Guard, P.A.; Baldock, T.E.
convolution integration methods forced with the free stream velocity and incorporating a range of eddy viscosity models. Wave friction factors were estimated from skin shear stress at different instances over the wave (viz., time of maximum positive total...
Gorbunov, N V; McFaul, S J; Januszkiewicz, A; Atkins, J L
2005-01-01
Impact of blast shock waves (SW) with the body wall produces blast lung injuries characterized by bilateral traumatic hemorrhages. Such injuries often have no external signs, are difficult to diagnose, and therefore, are frequently underestimated. Predictive assessment of acute respiratory distress syndrome outcome in SW-related accidents should be based on experimental data from appropriate animal models. Blood plasma transferrin is a major carrier of blood iron essential for proliferative "emergency" response of hematopoietic and immune systems as well as injured tissue in major trauma. Iron-transferrin complexes (Fe3+ TRF) can be quantitatively analyzed in blood and tissue samples with low-temperature EPR techniques. We hypothesized that use of EPR techniques in combination with assays for pro-inflammatory cytokines and granulocytes in the peripheral blood and BAL would reveal a pattern of systemic sequestration of (Fe3+)TRF that could be useful for development of biomarkers of the systemic inflammatory response to lung injury. With this goal we (i) analyzed time-dependent dynamics of (Fe3+)TRF in the peripheral blood of rats after impacts of SW generated in a laboratory shock-tube and (ii) assayed the fluctuation of granulocyte (PMN) counts and expression of CD11b adhesion molecules on the surface of PMNs during the first 24 h after SW induced injury. Sham-treated animals were used as control. Exposure to SW led to a significant decrease in the amount of blood (Fe3+)TRF that correlated with the extent of lung injury and developed gradually during the first 24 h. Thus, sequestration of (Fe3+)TRF occurred as early as 3 h post-exposure. At that time, the steady state concentration of (Fe3+)TRF in blood samples decreased from 19.7+/-0.6 microM in controls to 7.5+/-1.3 microM in exposed animals. The levels of (Fe3+)TRF remained decreased throughout the entire study period. PMN counts increased 5-fold and 3.5-fold over controls respectively, at 3 and 6 h postexposure
3D mmWave Channel Model Proposal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomas, Timothy; Nguyen, Huan Cong; R. MacCartney Jr., George
2014-01-01
There is growing interest in using millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies for future access communications based on the enormous amount of available spectrum. To characterize the mmWave channel in urban areas, wideband propagation measurements at 73 GHz have recently been made in New York City. Using...... mmWave channel model is developed with special emphasis on using the ray tracer to determine elevation model parameters. The channel model includes distance-dependent elevation modeling which is critical for the expected 2D arrays which will be employed at mmWave....
A new statistical model of wave heights based on the concept of wave breaking critical zone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Jiaxuan; LI Xunqiang; ZHU Shouxian; ZHANG Wenjing; WANG Lei
2015-01-01
When waves propagate from deep water to shallow water, wave heights and steepness increase and then waves roll back and break. This phenomenon is called surf. Currently, the present statistical calculation model of surf was derived mainly from the wave energy conservation equation and the linear wave dispersion relation, but it cannot reflect accurately the process which is a rapid increasing in wave height near the broken point. So, the concept of a surf breaking critical zone is presented. And the nearshore is divided as deep water zone, shallow water zone, surf breaking critical zone and after breaking zone. Besides, the calculation formula for the height of the surf breaking critical zone has founded based on flume experiments, thereby a new statistical calculation model on the surf has been established. Using the new model, the calculation error of wave height maximum is reduced from 17.62% to 6.43%.
Lamb wave propagation modeling for structure health monitoring
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiaoyue ZHANG; Shenfang YUAN; Tong HAO
2009-01-01
This study aims to model the propagation of Lamb waves used in structure health monitoring. A number of different numerical computational techniques have been developed for wave propagation studies. The local interaction simulation approach, used for modeling sharp interfaces and discontinuities in complex media (LISA/SIM theory), has been effectively applied to numerical simulations of elastic wave interaction. This modeling is based on the local interaction simulation approach theory and is finally accomplished through the finite elements software Ansys11. In this paper, the Lamb waves propagating characteristics and the LISA/SIM theory are introduced. The finite difference equations describing wave propagation used in the LISA/SIM theory are obtained. Then, an anisotropic metallic plate model is modeled and a simulating Lamb waves signal is loaded on. Finally, the Lamb waves propagation modeling is implemented.
WAVE ATTENUATION OVER MUD BED: A PSEUDO-PLASTIC MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Qing-he; Onyx W.H. Wai; Joseph H. W. Lee
2003-01-01
A two-layer model, with the upper layer being the perfect fluid and the lower layer being the pseudo-plastic fluid describing water wave attenuation over mud bed, was established. A simplified method based on the principle of equivalent work was applied to solve the boundary value problems. The computational results of the model show that the two-layer perfect fluid model and the perfect-viscous fluid model are all special cases of the present model. The complex nonlinear properties of wave attenuation over mud bed, can be explained by the present model, e.g., the wave dissipation rate decreases with the wave height in certain cases, while the small wave propagates over mud bed with less energy dissipation and large wave attenuates rapidly in other cases. Other factors influencing the wave attenuation were also discussed.
Rogue waves in a water tank: Experiments and modeling
Lechuga, Antonio
2013-04-01
Recently many rogue waves have been reported as the main cause of ship incidents on the sea. One of the main characteristics of rogue waves is its elusiveness: they present unexpectedly and disappear in the same wave. Some authors (Zakharov and al.2010) are attempting to find the probability of their appearances apart from studyingthe mechanism of the formation. As an effort on this topic we tried the generation of rogue waves in a water wave tank using a symmetric spectrum(Akhmediev et al. 2011) as input on the wave maker. The produced waves were clearly rogue waves with a rate (maximum wave height/ Significant wave height) of 2.33 and a kurtosis of 4.77 (Janssen 2003, Onorato 2006). These results were already presented (Lechuga 2012). Similar waves (in pattern aspect, but without being extreme waves) were described as crossing waves in a water tank(Shemer and Lichter1988). To go on further the next step has been to apply a theoretical model to the envelope of these waves. After some considerations the best model has been an analogue of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. This apparently amazing result is easily explained: We know that the Ginzburg-Landau model is related to some regular structures on the surface of a liquid and also in plasmas, electric and magnetic fields and other media. Another important characteristic of the model is that their solutions are invariants with respectto the translation group. The main aim of this presentation is to extract conclusions of the model and the comparison with the measured waves in the water tank.The nonlinear structure of waves and their regularity make suitable the use of the Ginzburg-Landau model to the envelope of generated waves in the tank,so giving us a powerful tool to cope with the results of our experiment.
Finite Element Model to Reduce Fire and Blast Vulnerability
2013-01-01
fit the existing spine model, Figure 2. The ribs were connected by the use of rigid body constraints between the rib ends and the thoracic vertebrae ... cervical , lumbar and thoracic spine that was used in this program underwent a rigorous verification and validation process. However, the other components...and Uncertainty Quantification Applied to Cervical Spine Injury Assessment”. NATO AVT Symposium on Computational Uncertainty in Military Vehicle
Experimental Modeling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik
2011-01-01
The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is currently facing a precommercial phase. At this stage of development a reliable overtopping model is highly required, in order to predict the performance of the device at possible deployment locations. A model formulation derived for an overtopping device...... with general geometry has been used so far. The paper presents an updated formulation drawn through the tank testing of a scaled model the Wave Dragon. The sensitivity analysis of the main features influencing the overtopping flow led to an updated model formulation which can be specifically suited...... for the Wave Dragon....
Experimental Modeling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik
2011-01-01
The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is currently facing a precommercial phase. At this stage of development a reliable overtopping model is highly required, in order to predict the performance of the device at possible deployment locations. A model formulation derived for an overtopping device...... with general geometry has been used so far. The paper presents an updated formulation drawn through the tank testing of a scaled model the Wave Dragon. The sensitivity analysis of the main features influencing the overtopping flow led to an updated model formulation which can be specifically suited...... for the Wave Dragon....
A Reaction-Diffusion Model of Cholinergic Retinal Waves
Lansdell, Benjamin; Ford, Kevin; Kutz, J. Nathan
2014-01-01
Prior to receiving visual stimuli, spontaneous, correlated activity in the retina, called retinal waves, drives activity-dependent developmental programs. Early-stage waves mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) manifest as slow, spreading bursts of action potentials. They are believed to be initiated by the spontaneous firing of Starburst Amacrine Cells (SACs), whose dense, recurrent connectivity then propagates this activity laterally. Their inter-wave interval and shifting wave boundaries are the result of the slow after-hyperpolarization of the SACs creating an evolving mosaic of recruitable and refractory cells, which can and cannot participate in waves, respectively. Recent evidence suggests that cholinergic waves may be modulated by the extracellular concentration of ACh. Here, we construct a simplified, biophysically consistent, reaction-diffusion model of cholinergic retinal waves capable of recapitulating wave dynamics observed in mice retina recordings. The dense, recurrent connectivity of SACs is modeled through local, excitatory coupling occurring via the volume release and diffusion of ACh. In addition to simulation, we are thus able to use non-linear wave theory to connect wave features to underlying physiological parameters, making the model useful in determining appropriate pharmacological manipulations to experimentally produce waves of a prescribed spatiotemporal character. The model is used to determine how ACh mediated connectivity may modulate wave activity, and how parameters such as the spontaneous activation rate and sAHP refractory period contribute to critical wave size variability. PMID:25474327
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McMichael, L D; Noble, C R; Margraf, J D; Glascoe, L G
2009-03-26
Structural failures, such as the MacArthur Maze I-880 overpass in Oakland, California and the I-35 bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, are recent examples of our national infrastructure's fragility and serve as an important reminder of such infrastructure in our everyday lives. These two failures, as well as the World Trade Center's collapse and the levee failures in New Orleans, highlight the national importance of protecting our infrastructure as much as possible against acts of terrorism and natural hazards. This paper describes a process for evaluating the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to large blast loads using a fully-coupled finite element approach. A description of the finite element software and modeling technique is discussed along with the experimental validation of the numerical tools. We discuss how such an approach can be used for specific problems such as modeling the progressive collapse of a building.
Modelling the Slab Failure of an Open Structure Acted by External Blast Loads
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nica George Bogdan
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The explosion of bombs near buildings generally yields severe damages to the structures. Explosion resistant standards and requirements are constantly being developed and upgraded. This paper focuses on the damages which occur toa RC slab due to blast action. The numerical model replicates a ¼ scale experiment. The analysis is conducted using a software based on the recently developed Applied Element Method. This numerical method is able to model accurately all the structural behavior stages up to failure. The results are compared to experimental data available in the literature. The analysis reveals that the slab failure due to uplift pressures may be avoided by some simple reinforcing details, as they are listed in the Romanian National Annex – accidental loads of the Eurocode EN 1991-1-7.
Coupling atmospheric and ocean wave models for storm simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Jianting
This thesis studies the wind-wave interactions through the coupling between the atmospheric model and ocean surface wave models. Special attention is put on storm simulations in the North Sea for wind energy applications in the coastal zones. The two aspects, namely storm conditions and coastal...... areas, are challenging for the wind-wave coupling system because: in storm cases, the wave field is constantly modified by the fast varying wind field; in coastal zones, the wave field is strongly influenced by the bathymetry and currents. Both conditions have complex, unsteady sea state varying...... with time and space that challenge the current coupled modeling system. The conventional approach of estimating the momentum exchange is through parameterizing the aerodynamic roughness length (z0) with wave parameters such as wave age, steepness, significant wave height, etc. However, it is found in storm...
Visualisation of a mathematical model of blast furnace operation for distance learning purposes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Babich, A.
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Advanced educational technologies like Virtual Laboratories are being developed and launched in order to equip customers from higher education institutions, research and industry with efficient tools, supporting their work and operating new skills-training methods. Visual Model "Blast Furnace" based on a mathematical balance model of the blast furnace process has been developed for distance learning (DL purposes. It processes entered parameters and outputs both operating and learning results. The model simulates also sinter and pellets manufacture as well as operation of hot stove. The teacher and learners can interact with each other using software interface which allows to monitor the activity of the learners, answer their questions, and analyse the learning results. The model is an ingredient of the "Virtual Lab Ironmaking".
Se desarrollan y presentan tecnologías avanzadas de educación, como los Laboratorios Virtuales, para suministrar a los clientes de las instituciones de educación superior, investigación e industria, en apoyo de su trabajo, nuevos y eficientes métodos de operación y técnicas especiales de adiestramiento. Se ha desarrollado el Modelo Visual de "Horno Alto" basado en un modelo matemático del balance del proceso del horno alto, para fines de educación a distancia. Procesa los parámetros de entrada y salida en operación y los resultados de la enseñanza. El modelo también simula la fabricación de sinter y pelets, además de la operación de las estufas. El profesor y alumnos pueden interactuar entre sí usando un software que permite seguir la marcha de la actividad de los alumnos, responder a sus preguntas y analizar los resultados del aprendizaje. El modelo es parte del "Laboratorio Virtual de Fabricación de Arrabio".
Expansion of a radial plasma blast shell into an ambient plasma
Dieckmann, M. E.; Doria, D.; Ahmed, H.; Romagnani, L.; Sarri, G.; Folini, D.; Walder, R.; Bret, A.; Borghesi, M.
2017-09-01
The expansion of a radial blast shell into an ambient plasma is modeled with a particle-in-cell simulation. The unmagnetized plasma consists of electrons and protons. The formation and evolution of an electrostatic shock is observed, which is trailed by ion-acoustic solitary waves that grow on the beam of the blast shell ions in the post-shock plasma. In spite of the initially radial symmetric outflow, the solitary waves become twisted and entangled and, hence, they break the radial symmetry of the flow. The waves and their interaction with the shocked ambient ions slow down the blast shell protons and bring the post-shock plasma closer to equilibrium.
Faraday pilot-wave dynamics: modelling and computation
Milewski, Paul A.; Galeano-Rios, Carlos A.; Nachbin, André; Bush, John W. M.
2015-01-01
A millimetric droplet bouncing on the surface of a vibrating fluid bath can self-propel by virtue of a resonant interaction with its own wave field. This system represents the first known example of a pilot-wave system of the form envisaged by Louis de Broglie in his double-solution pilot-wave theory. We here develop a fluid model of pilot-wave hydrodynamics by coupling recent models of the droplet’s bouncing dynamics with a more realistic model of weakly viscous quasi-potential wave generati...
Competition between the s-wave and p-wave superconductivity phases in a holographic model
Nie, Zhang-Yu; Gao, Xin; Zeng, Hui
2013-01-01
We build a holographic superconductor model with a scalar triplet charged under an SU(2) gauge field in the bulk. In this model, the s-wave and p-wave condensates can be consistently realized. We find that there are totally four phases in this model, namely, the normal phase without any condensate, s-wave phase, p-wave phase and the s+p coexisting phase. By calculating Gibbs free energy, the s+p coexisting phase turns out to be thermodynamically favored once it can appear. The phase diagram with the dimension of the scalar operator and temperature is drawn. The temperature range for the s+p coexisting phase is very narrow, which shows the competition between the s-wave and p-wave orders in the superconductor model.
Wind waves in tropical cyclones: satellite altimeter observations and modeling
Golubkin, Pavel; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir; Chapron, Bertrand
2016-04-01
Results of investigation of wind-wave generation by tropical cyclones using satellite altimeter data are presented. Tropical cyclones are generally relatively small rapidly moving low pressure systems that are capable of generating severe wave conditions. Translation of a tropical cyclone leads to a prolonged period of time surface waves in the right sector remain under high wind forcing conditions. This effect has been termed extended fetch, trapped fetch or group velocity quasi-resonance. A tropical cyclone wave field is thus likely more asymmetrical than the corresponding wind field: wind waves in the tropical cyclone right sector are more developed with larger heights than waves in the left one. A dataset of satellite altimeter intersections of the Western Pacific tropical cyclones was created for 2010-2013. Data from four missions were considered, i.e., Jason-1, Jason-2, CryoSat-2, SARAL/AltiKa. Measurements in the rear-left and front-right sectors of tropical cyclones were examined for the presence of significant wave asymmetry. An analytical model is then derived to efficiently describe the wave energy distribution in a moving tropical cyclone. The model essentially builds on a generalization of the self-similar wave growth model and the assumption of a strongly dominant single spectral mode in a given quadrant of the storm. The model provides a criterion to anticipate wave enhancement with the generation of trapped abnormal waves. If forced during a sufficient timescale interval, also defined from this generalized self-similar wave growth model, waves can be trapped and large amplification of the wave energy will occur in the front-right storm quadrant. Remarkably, the group velocity and corresponding wavelength of outrunning wave systems will become wind speed independent and solely relate to the translating velocity. The resulting significant wave height also only weakly depends on wind speed, and more strongly on the translation velocity. Satellite
2011-06-27
Team Leader Risa Scherer Blast Mitigation Interior and Laboratory Team Leader Blast Technologies POC’s Government Point Of Contacts (POCs): To...to yield injury assessments at higher fidelities and with higher confidence UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Risa Scherer Blast Mitigation Interior and
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Chang-bin; XU Guo-yuan; ZUO Yu-jun
2006-01-01
According to the main characters of overlapping underground chambers, the roof (floor) of two adjacent underground chambers is simplified to the mechanical model that is the beam with build-in ends. And vibration load due to blasting is simplified to harmonic wave. The catastrophic model of double cusp for underground chambers destabilization induced by blasting vibration has been established under the circumstances of considering deadweight of the beam, and the condition of destabilization has been worked out. The critical safety thickness of the roof (floor) of underground chambers has been confirmed according to the destabilization condition. The influence of amplitude and frequency of blasting vibration load on the critical safety thickness has been analyzed, and the quantitative relation between velocity, frequency of blasting vibration and critical safety thickness has been determined. Research results show that the destabilization of underground chambers is not only dependent on the amplitude and frequency of blasting vibration load, but also related to deadweight load and intrinsic attribute. It is accordant to testing results and some related latest research results of blasting seismic effect. With increasing amplitude, the critical safety thickness of underground chambers decreases gradually. And the possibility of underground chambers destabilization increases. When the frequency of blasting vibration is equal to or very close to the frequency of beam, resonance effect will take place in the system. Then the critical safety thickness will turn to zero, underground chambers will be damaged severely, and its loading capacity will lose on the whole.
Modeling Technology in Traveling-Wave Fault Location
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tang Jinrui
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Theoretical research and equipment development of traveling-wave fault location seriously depend on digital simulation. Meanwhile, the fault-generated transient traveling wave must be transferred through transmission line, mutual inductor and secondary circuit before it is used. So this paper would maily analyze and summarize the modeling technology of transmission line and mutual inductor on the basis of the research achievement. Firstly several models of transmission line (multiple Π or T line model, Bergeron line model and frequency-dependent line model are compared in this paper with analysis of wave-front characteristics and characteristic frequency of traveling wave. Then modeling methods of current transformer, potential transformer, capacitive voltage transformer, special traveling-wave sensor and secondary cable are given. Finally, based on the difficult and latest research achievements, the future trend of modeling technology in traveling-wave fault location is prospected.
Numerical modelling in wave energy conversion systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Marjani, A. [Labo. de Turbomachines, Ecole Mohammadia d' Ingenieurs (EMI), Universite Mohammed V Agdal, Av Ibn Sina, B.P. 765 Agdal, Rabat (Morocco); Castro Ruiz, F.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Parra Santos, M.T. [Depto. de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)
2008-08-15
This paper deals with a numerical modelling devoted to predict the flow characteristics in the components of an oscillating water column (OWC) system used for the wave energy capture. In the present paper, the flow behaviour is modelled by using the FLUENT code. Two numerical flow models have been elaborated and tested independently in the geometries of an air chamber and a turbine, which is chosen of a radial impulse type. The flow is assumed to be three-dimensional (3D), viscous, turbulent and unsteady. The FLUENT code is used with a solver of the coupled conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy, with an implicit time scheme and with the adoption of the dynamic mesh and the sliding mesh techniques in areas of moving surfaces. Turbulence is modelled with the k-{epsilon} model. The obtained results indicate that the developed models are well suitable to analyse the air flows both in the air chamber and in the turbine. The performances associated with the energy transfer processes have been well predicted. For the turbine, the numerical results of pressure and torque were compared to the experimental ones. Good agreements between these results have been observed. (author)
Modeling the Buoyancy System of a Wave Energy Power Plant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.
2009-01-01
A nonlinear dynamic model of the buoyancy system in a wave energy power plant is presented. The plant ("Wave Dragon") is a floating device using the potential energy in overtopping waves to produce power. A water reservoir is placed on top of the WD, and hydro turbines lead the water to the sea...
Modelling wave transformation across a fringing reef using swash
Zijlema, M.
2012-01-01
This paper presents the application of the open source non-hydrostatic wave-flow model SWASH to wave propagation over a fringing reef, and the results are discussed and compared with observations obtained from a laboratory experiment subjected to various incident wave conditions. This study focus no
Modelling wave transformation across a fringing reef using SWASH
Zijlema, M.
2012-01-01
This paper presents the application of the open source non-hydrostatic wave-flow model SWASH to wave propagation over a fringing reef, and the results are discussed and compared with observations obtained from a laboratory experiment subjected to various incident wave conditions. This study focus no
Modeling the Buoyancy System of a Wave Energy Power Plant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.
2009-01-01
A nonlinear dynamic model of the buoyancy system in a wave energy power plant is presented. The plant ("Wave Dragon") is a floating device using the potential energy in overtopping waves to produce power. A water reservoir is placed on top of the WD, and hydro turbines lead the water to the sea...
Primordial gravitational waves from the space-condensate inflation model
Koh, Seoktae; Tumurtushaa, Gansukh
2015-01-01
We consider the space-condensate inflation model to study the primordial gravitational waves generated in the early Universe. We calculate the energy spectrum of gravitational waves induced by the space-condensate inflation model for full frequency range with assumption that the phase transition between two consecutive regimes to be abrupt during evolution of the Universe. The suppression of energy spectrum is found in our model for the decreasing frequency of gravitational waves depending on the model parameter. To realize the suppression of energy spectrum of the primordial gravitational waves, we study an existence of the early phase transition during inflation for the space-condensate inflation model.
Optimal parametric modelling of measured short waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Mandal, S.
The spectral analysis of measured short waves can efficiently be carried out by the fast Fourier transform technique. Even though many present techniques can be used for the simulation of time series waves, these may not provide accurate...
Numerical modelling of nearshore wave transformation
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; SanilKumar, V.
A software has been developed for numerical refraction study based on finite amplitude wave theories. Wave attenuation due to shoaling, bottom friction, bottom percolation and viscous dissipation has also been incorporated. The software...
Weakly nonlinear models for internal waves: inverse scattering transform and solitary wave contents
Chen, Shengqian
2016-01-01
The time evolution emanating from ``internal dam-break'' initial conditions is studied for a class of models of stratified Euler fluids in configurations close to two-homogeneous layers separated by a thin diffused interface. Direct numerical simulations and experiments in wave tanks show that such initial conditions eventually give rise to coherent structures that are close to solitary-wave solutions moving ahead of a region of dispersive wave motion and turbulent mixing close to the location of the initial dam step. A priori theoretical predictions of the main features of these solitary waves, such as their amplitudes and speeds, appear to be unavailable, even for simplified models of wave evolution in stratified fluids. With the aim of providing estimates of the existence, amplitude and speed of such solitary waves, an approach based on Inverse Scattering Transform (IST) for completely integrable models is developed here and tested against direct numerical simulations of Euler fluids and some of their mode...
Accurate finite element modeling of acoustic waves
Idesman, A.; Pham, D.
2014-07-01
In the paper we suggest an accurate finite element approach for the modeling of acoustic waves under a suddenly applied load. We consider the standard linear elements and the linear elements with reduced dispersion for the space discretization as well as the explicit central-difference method for time integration. The analytical study of the numerical dispersion shows that the most accurate results can be obtained with the time increments close to the stability limit. However, even in this case and the use of the linear elements with reduced dispersion, mesh refinement leads to divergent numerical results for acoustic waves under a suddenly applied load. This is explained by large spurious high-frequency oscillations. For the quantification and the suppression of spurious oscillations, we have modified and applied a two-stage time-integration technique that includes the stage of basic computations and the filtering stage. This technique allows accurate convergent results at mesh refinement as well as significantly reduces the numerical anisotropy of solutions. We should mention that the approach suggested is very general and can be equally applied to any loading as well as for any space-discretization technique and any explicit or implicit time-integration method.
A full-wave Helmholtz model for continuous-wave ultrasound transmission.
Huttunen, Tomi; Malinen, Matti; Kaipio, Jari P; White, Phillip Jason; Hynynen, Kullervo
2005-03-01
A full-wave Helmholtz model of continuous-wave (CW) ultrasound fields may offer several attractive features over widely used partial-wave approximations. For example, many full-wave techniques can be easily adjusted for complex geometries, and multiple reflections of sound are automatically taken into account in the model. To date, however, the full-wave modeling of CW fields in general 3D geometries has been avoided due to the large computational cost associated with the numerical approximation of the Helmholtz equation. Recent developments in computing capacity together with improvements in finite element type modeling techniques are making possible wave simulations in 3D geometries which reach over tens of wavelengths. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a full-wave solution of the 3D Helmholtz equation for modeling of continuous-wave ultrasound fields in an inhomogeneous medium. The numerical approximation of the Helmholtz equation is computed using the ultraweak variational formulation (UWVF) method. In addition, an inverse problem technique is utilized to reconstruct the velocity distribution on the transducer which is used to model the sound source in the UWVF scheme. The modeling method is verified by comparing simulated and measured fields in the case of transmission of 531 kHz CW fields through layered plastic plates. The comparison shows a reasonable agreement between simulations and measurements at low angles of incidence but, due to mode conversion, the Helmholtz model becomes insufficient for simulating ultrasound fields in plates at large angles of incidence.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Karami Alireza; Afiuni-Zadeh Somaieh
2012-01-01
One of the most important characters of blasting,a basic step of surface mining,is rock fragmentation.It directly effects on the costs of drilling and economics of the subsequent operations of loading,hauling and crushing in mines.Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and radial basis function (RBF)show potentials for modeling the behavior of complex nonlinear processes such as those involved in fragmentation due to blasting of rocks.In this paper we developed ANFIS and RBF methods for modeling of sizing of rock fragmentation due to bench blasting by estimation of 80％ passing size (K80) of Golgohar iron ore mine of Sir jan,Iran.Comparing the results of ANFIS and RBF models shows that although the statistical parameters RBF model is acceptable but the ANFIS proposed model is superior and also simpler because the ANFIS model is constructed using only two input parameters while seven input parameters used for construction of the RBF model.
Wound Ballistics Modeling for Blast Loading Blunt Force Impact and Projectile Penetration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, Paul A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-11-01
Light body armor development for the warfighter is based on trial-and-error testing of prototype designs against ballistic projectiles. Torso armor testing against blast is nonexistent but necessary to protect the heart and lungs. In tests against ballistic projectiles, protective apparel is placed over ballistic clay and the projectiles are fired into the armor/clay target. The clay represents the human torso and its behind-armor, permanent deflection is the principal metric used to assess armor protection. Although this approach provides relative merit assessment of protection, it does not examine the behind-armor blunt trauma to crucial torso organs. We propose a modeling and simulation (M&S) capability for wound injury scenarios to the head, neck, and torso of the warfighter. We will use this toolset to investigate the consequences of, and mitigation against, blast exposure, blunt force impact, and ballistic projectile penetration leading to damage of critical organs comprising the central nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. We will leverage Sandia codes and our M&S expertise on traumatic brain injury to develop virtual anatomical models of the head, neck, and torso and the simulation methodology to capture the physics of wound mechanics. Specifically, we will investigate virtual wound injuries to the head, neck, and torso without and with protective armor to demonstrate the advantages of performing injury simulations for the development of body armor. The proposed toolset constitutes a significant advance over current methods by providing a virtual simulation capability to investigate wound injury and optimize armor design without the need for extensive field testing.
A Continuum Model of Actin Waves in Dictyostelium discoideum
Khamviwath, Varunyu; Hu, Jifeng; Othmer, Hans G.
2013-01-01
Actin waves are complex dynamical patterns of the dendritic network of filamentous actin in eukaryotes. We developed a model of actin waves in PTEN-deficient Dictyostelium discoideum by deriving an approximation of the dynamics of discrete actin filaments and combining it with a signaling pathway that controls filament branching. This signaling pathway, together with the actin network, contains a positive feedback loop that drives the actin waves. Our model predicts the structure, composition, and dynamics of waves that are consistent with existing experimental evidence, as well as the biochemical dependence on various protein partners. Simulation suggests that actin waves are initiated when local actin network activity, caused by an independent process, exceeds a certain threshold. Moreover, diffusion of proteins that form a positive feedback loop with the actin network alone is sufficient for propagation of actin waves at the observed speed of . Decay of the wave back can be caused by scarcity of network components, and the shape of actin waves is highly dependent on the filament disassembly rate. The model allows retraction of actin waves and captures formation of new wave fronts in broken waves. Our results demonstrate that a delicate balance between a positive feedback, filament disassembly, and local availability of network components is essential for the complex dynamics of actin waves. PMID:23741312
Modelling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parmeggiani, Stefano; Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter
2010-01-01
The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter of the overtopping type, which is facing now the last phase of development before the commercial exploitation: the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator. In this phase a modelling tool allowing for accurate predictions of the perf......The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter of the overtopping type, which is facing now the last phase of development before the commercial exploitation: the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator. In this phase a modelling tool allowing for accurate predictions...
Model Predictive Control of a Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergård; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard;
2015-01-01
In this paper reactive control and Model Predictive Control (MPC) for a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) are compared. The analysis is based on a WEC from Wave Star A/S designed as a point absorber. The model predictive controller uses wave models based on the dominating sea states combined with a model...... connecting undisturbed wave sequences to sequences of torque. Losses in the conversion from mechanical to electrical power are taken into account in two ways. Conventional reactive controllers are tuned for each sea state with the assumption that the converter has the same efficiency back and forth. MPC...
Analysis of MINIE2013 Explosion Air-Blast Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schnurr, Julie M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Rodgers, Arthur J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kim, Keehoon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ford, Sean R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramirez, Abelardo L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-10-14
We report analysis of air-blast overpressure measurements from the MINIE2013 explosive experiments. The MINIE2013 experiment involved a series of nearly 70 near-surface (height-ofburst, HOB, ranging from -1 to +4 m) low-yield (W=2-20 kg TNT equivalent) chemical highexplosives tests that were recorded at local distances (230 m – 28.5 km). Many of the W and HOB combinations were repeated, allowing for quantification of the variability in air-blast features and corresponding yield estimates. We measured canonical signal features (peak overpressure, impulse per unit area, and positive pulse duration) from the air-blast data and compared these to existing air-blast models. Peak overpressure measurements showed good agreement with the models at close ranges but tended to attenuate more rapidly at longer range (~ 1 km), which is likely caused by upward refraction of acoustic waves due to a negative vertical gradient of sound speed. We estimated yields of the MINIE2013 explosions using the Integrated Yield Determination Tool (IYDT). Errors of the estimated yields were on average within 30% of the reported yields, and there were no significant differences in the accuracy of the IYDT predictions grouped by yield. IYDT estimates tend to be lower than ground truth yields, possibly because of reduced overpressure amplitudes by upward refraction. Finally, we report preliminary results on a development of a new parameterized air-blast waveform.
Trajkovski, J.; Kunc, R.; Prebil, I.
2017-07-01
Light armored vehicles (LAVs) can be exposed to blast loading by landmines or improvised explosive devices (IEDs) during their lifetime. The bottom hull of these vehicles is usually made of a few millimeters of thin armored plate that is the vehicle's weak point in a blast-loading scenario. Therefore, blast resistance and blast load redirection are very important characteristics in providing adequate vehicle as well as occupant protection. Furthermore, the eccentric nature of loading caused by landmines was found to be omitted in the studies of simplified structures like beams and plates. For this purpose, blast wave dispersion and blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped plates are examined using a combined finite-element-smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (FE-SPH) model. The results showed that V-shaped plates better disperse blast waves for any type of loading and, therefore, can be successfully applied in LAVs. Based on the results of the study and the geometry of a typical LAV 6× 6, the minimum angle of V-shaped plates is also determined.
Trajkovski, J.; Kunc, R.; Prebil, I.
2016-12-01
Light armored vehicles (LAVs) can be exposed to blast loading by landmines or improvised explosive devices (IEDs) during their lifetime. The bottom hull of these vehicles is usually made of a few millimeters of thin armored plate that is the vehicle's weak point in a blast-loading scenario. Therefore, blast resistance and blast load redirection are very important characteristics in providing adequate vehicle as well as occupant protection. Furthermore, the eccentric nature of loading caused by landmines was found to be omitted in the studies of simplified structures like beams and plates. For this purpose, blast wave dispersion and blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped plates are examined using a combined finite-element-smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (FE-SPH) model. The results showed that V-shaped plates better disperse blast waves for any type of loading and, therefore, can be successfully applied in LAVs. Based on the results of the study and the geometry of a typical LAV 6× 6 , the minimum angle of V-shaped plates is also determined.
Wave Prediction Model To Study On The Wave Height Variation In Terengganu Coast Of Malaysia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nur Amalina Abdul Latif
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this study the significant wave height at the Terengganu and the change of wave height at Kuala Terengganu to Merang shoreline were simulated by using the 2D Near-Shore Wave 2D NSW model. The significant wave height by the 2D NSW model at Kuala Terengganu to Merang shoreline from 2008-2012 were simulated. The model was forced by ECMWF European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast data. The simulated significant wave height by the 2D NSW model at Airport Kuala Terengganu AWAC station was compared with the observed significant wave height. The mean annual significant wave height indicate the higher wave height with average mean value in a range of 1.08-1.10 m in Kuala Terengganu to Batu Rakit area and lower in Merang area with average mean value in a range of 0.74 m. The detailed 5 years simulation period demonstrates that the strong variability of wave height exists during North-East monsoon. The findings of this study could be useful for the erosive calculation shoreline protection and coastal zone management activities.
Simulation of Typhoon-Driven Waves in the Yangtze Estuary with Multiple-Nested Wave Models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Fu-min; Will Perrie; ZHANG Jun-lun; SONG Zhi-yao; Bechara Toulany
2005-01-01
Typhoon-generated waves are simulated with two numerical wave models, the SWAN model for the coastal and Yangtze Estuary domain, nested within the WAVEWATCHIII (WW3) for the basin-scale East China Sea domain. Typhoon No. 8114 is chosen because it was very strong, and generated high waves in the Estuary. WW3 was implemented for the East China Sea coarse-resolution computational domain, to simulate the waves over a large spatial scale and provide boundary conditions for SWAN model simulations, implemented on a fine-resolution nested domain for the Yangtze Estuary area. The Takahashi wind model is applied to the simulation of the East China Sea scale (3-hourly) and Yangtze Estuary scale (1-hourly) winds. Simulations of significant wave heights in the East China Sea show that the highest waves are on the right side of the storm track, and maxima tend to occur at the eastern deep-water open boundary of the Yangtze Estuary. In the Yangtze Estuary, incoming swell is dominant over locally generated waves before the typhoon approaches the Estuary. As the typhoon approaches the Estuary, wind waves and swell coexist, and the wave direction is mainly influenced by the swell direction and the complex topography.
Yong, Peng; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchun; Liao, Wenyuan; Qu, Luping; Li, Qingyang; Liu, Peijun
2017-02-01
In finite-difference (FD) method, numerical dispersion is the dominant factor influencing the accuracy of seismic modelling. Various optimized FD schemes for scalar wave modelling have been proposed to reduce grid dispersion, while the optimized time-space domain FD schemes for elastic wave modelling have not been fully investigated yet. In this paper, an optimized FD scheme with Equivalent Staggered Grid (ESG) for elastic modelling has been developed. We start from the constant P- and S-wave speed elastic wave equations and then deduce analytical plane wave solutions in the wavenumber domain with eigenvalue decomposition method. Based on the elastic plane wave solutions, three new time-space domain dispersion relations of ESG elastic modelling are obtained, which are represented by three equations corresponding to P-, S- and converted-wave terms in the elastic equations, respectively. By using these new relations, we can study the dispersion errors of different spatial FD terms independently. The dispersion analysis showed that different spatial FD terms have different errors. It is therefore suggested that different FD coefficients to be used to approximate the three spatial derivative terms. In addition, the relative dispersion error in L2-norm is minimized through optimizing FD coefficients using Newton's method. Synthetic examples have demonstrated that this new optimal FD schemes have superior accuracy for elastic wave modelling compared to Taylor-series expansion and optimized space domain FD schemes.
Bauman, Richard A; Ling, Geoffrey; Tong, Lawrence; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Agoston, Dennis; Delanerolle, Nihal; Kim, Young; Ritzel, Dave; Bell, Randy; Ecklund, James; Armonda, Rocco; Bandak, Faris; Parks, Steven
2009-06-01
Explosive blast has been extensively used as a tactical weapon in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and more recently in Operation Enduring Freedom(OEF). The polytraumatic nature of blast injuries is evidence of their effectiveness,and brain injury is a frequent and debilitating form of this trauma. In-theater clinical observations of brain-injured casualties have shown that edema, intracranial hemorrhage, and vasospasm are the most salient pathophysiological characteristics of blast injury to the brain. Unfortunately, little is known about exactly how an explosion produces these sequelae as well as others that are less well documented. Consequently, the principal objective of the current report is to present a swine model of explosive blast injury to the brain. This model was developed during Phase I of the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) PREVENT (Preventing Violent Explosive Neurotrauma) blast research program. A second objective is to present data that illustrate the capabilities of this model to study the proximal biomechanical causes and the resulting pathophysiological, biochemical,neuropathological, and neurological consequences of explosive blast injury to the swine brain. In the concluding section of this article, the advantages and limitations of the model are considered, explosive and air-overpressure models are compared, and the physical properties of an explosion are identified that potentially contributed to the in-theater closed head injuries resulting from explosions of improvised explosive devices (IEDs).
Wave climatology of Lake Erie based on an unstructured-grid wave model
Niu, Qianru; Xia, Meng
2016-10-01
Hindcast of wave dynamics in Lake Erie during 2002 to 2012 was conducted using a state-of-art finite-volume coastal ocean surface wave model (FVCOM-SWAVE). After model calibration, the surface gravity wave dynamics were examined from the aspects of wave climate and seasonality, inter-basin wave interactions, as well as its potential susceptibility to regional climate change. Compared to the Central and Eastern Basins, the Western Basin has relatively gentle wave climate. The Western Basin and the nearshore areas are most susceptible to the wave-induced bottom orbital oscillations on the seasonal mean scale, and the offshore Central Basin is sensitive to them as well during episodic events. Profound seasonality was found in both mean and extreme wave dynamics during ice-free cycles. Mean significant wave height (SWH) is highest during fall with more occurrences of extreme events (SWH > 3.1 m) and is lowest during summer, which is controlled by wind speed and direction collectively. Besides, swells generated in the Central and Eastern Basins could interact with each other under various wind directions, whereas wave generated in the Central Basin could hardly propagate into the Western Basin. In addition, the regression analysis of surrounding meteorological stations indicates increasing SWH in the Western Basin and decreasing SWH in the Eastern Basin.
Wave Climate and Wave Mixing in the Marginal Ice Zones of Arctic Seas, Observations and Modelling
2015-09-30
PROJECTS Section). With the group of Rogers, observation/modeling study of an energetic wave event in the Arctic marginal zone was conducted ...floe. (right) Surface elevation in the lee of a 5 mm thick polypropylene floe (thick black curves) and incident wave (grey), normalised with respect...Toffoli, A., Marusic, I., Klewicki, J., Hutchins, N., Suslov, S., Walker, D., Chung, D., “A Thermally Stratified Sea-Ice-Wave Interaction Facility”, ARC
An Efficient Hydrodynamic Model for Surface Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Kun; JIN Sheng; LU Gang
2009-01-01
In the present study,a semi-implicit finite difference model for non-bydrostatic,free-surface flows is analyzed and discussed.The governing equations are the three-dimensional free-surface Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations defined on a general,irregular domain of arbitrary scale.At outflow,a combination of a sponge layer technique and a radiation boundary condition is applied to minimize wave reflection.The equations are solved with the fractional step method where the hydrostatic pressure component is determined first,while the non-hydrostatic component of the pressure is computed from the pressure Poisson equation in which the coefficient matrix is positive definite and symmetric.The advectiou and horizontal viscosity terms are discretized by use of a semi-Lagrangian approach.The resulting model is computationally efficient and unrestricted to the CFL condition.The developed model is verified against analytical solutions and experimental data,with excellent agreement.
KINEMATIC WAVE PROPERTIES OF ANISOTROPIC DYNAMICS MODEL FOR TRAFFIC FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姜锐; 吴清松; 朱祚金
2002-01-01
The analyses of kinematic wave properties of a new dynamics model for traffic flow are carried out. The model does not exhibit the problem that one characteristic speed is always greater than macroscopic traffic speed, and therefore satisfies the requirement that traffic flow is anisotropic. Linear stability analysis shows that the model is stable under certain condition and the condition is obtained. The analyses also indicate that the model has a hierarchy of first-and second-order waves, and allows the existence of both smooth traveling wave and shock wave. However, the model has a distinctive criterion of shock wave compared with other dynamics models, and the distinction makes the model more realistic in dealing with some traffic problems such as wrong-way travel analysis.
A hydrodynamic model of nearshore waves and wave-induced currents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Khaled Seif
2011-09-01
Full Text Available In This study develops a quasi-three dimensional numerical model of wave driven coastal currents with accounting the effects of the wave-current interaction and the surface rollers. In the wave model, the current effects on wave breaking and energy dissipation are taken into account as well as the wave diffraction effect. The surface roller associated with wave breaking was modeled based on a modification of the equations by Dally and Brown (1995 and Larson and Kraus (2002. Furthermore, the quasi-three dimensional model, which based on Navier-Stokes equations, was modified in association with the surface roller effect, and solved using frictional step method. The model was validated by data sets obtained during experiments on the Large Scale Sediment Transport Facility (LSTF basin and the Hazaki Oceanographical Research Station (HORS. Then, a model test against detached breakwater was carried out to investigate the performance of the model around coastal structures. Finally, the model was applied to Akasaki port to verify the hydrodynamics around coastal structures. Good agreements between computations and measurements were obtained with regard to the cross-shore variation in waves and currents in nearshore and surf zone.
Pulsar average wave forms and hollow-cone beam models
Backer, D. C.
1976-01-01
Pulsar wave forms have been analyzed from observations conducted over a wide radio-frequency range to assess the wave-form morphologies and to measure wave-form widths. The results of the analysis compare favorably with the predictions of a model with a hollow-cone beam of fixed dimensions and with random orientation of both the observer and the cone axis with respect to the pulsar spin axis. A class of three-component wave forms is included in the model by adding a central pencil beam to the hollow-cone hypothesis. The consequences of a number of discrepancies between observations and quantitative predictions of the model are discussed.
Modeling of Internal State and Performance of an Ironmaking Blast Furnace: Slot vs Sector Geometries
Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing
2016-04-01
Mathematical modeling is a cost-effective method to understand internal state and predict performance of ironmaking blast furnace (BF) for improving productivity and maintaining stability. In the past studies, both slot and sector geometries were used for BF modeling. In this paper, a mathematical model is described for simulating the complex behaviors of solid, gas and liquid multiphase flow, heat and mass transfers, and chemical reactions in a BF. Then the model is used to compare different model configurations, viz. slot and sector geometries by investigating their effects on predicted behaviors, in terms of two aspects: (i) internal state including cohesive zone, velocity, temperature, components concentration, reduction degree, gas utilization, and (ii) performance indicators including liquid output at the bottom and gas utilization rate at the furnace top. The comparisons show that on one hand, predictions of internal state of the furnace such as fluid flow and thermo-chemical phenomena using the slot and sector geometries are qualitatively comparable but quantitatively different. Both sector and slot geometries give a similar cohesive zone shape but the sector geometry gives a higher cohesive zone near the wall and faster reduction. On the other hand, the two geometries can produce similar performance indicators including gas utilization at the furnace top and liquid output at the bottom. Such a study is useful in selecting geometry for numerically examining BF operation with respect to different needs.
Ramasamy, Arul; Newell, N; Masouros, S
2014-06-01
A key weapon in the insurgents' armamentarium against coalition and local security forces in Iraq and Afghanistan has been the use of anti-vehicle mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Often directed against vehicle-borne troops, these devices, once detonated, transfer considerable amounts of energy through the vehicle to the occupants. This results in severe lower limb injuries that are frequently limb threatening. Fundamental to designing novel mitigation strategies is a requirement to understand the injury mechanism by developing appropriate injury modelling tools that are underpinned by the analysis of contemporary battlefield casualty data. This article aims to summarise our understanding of the clinical course of lower limb blast injuries from IEDs and its value in developing unique injury modelling test-beds to evaluate and produce the next generation of protective equipment for reducing the devastating effects of blast injury.
Modeling deflagration waves out of hot spots
Partom, Yehuda
2017-01-01
It is widely accepted that shock initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives comes about by a two-step process known as ignition and growth. In the first step a shock sweeping through an explosive cell (control volume) creates hot spots that become ignition sites. In the second step, deflagration waves (or burn waves) propagate out of those hot spots and transform the reactant in the cell into reaction products. The macroscopic (or average) reaction rate of the reactant in the cell depends on the speed of those deflagration waves and on the average distance between neighboring hot spots. Here we simulate the propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots on the mesoscale in axial symmetry using a 2D hydrocode, to which we add heat conduction and bulk reaction. The propagation speed of the deflagration waves may depend on both pressure and temperature. It depends on pressure for quasistatic loading near ambient temperature, and on temperature at high temperatures resulting from shock loading. From the simulation we obtain deflagration fronts emanating out of the hot spots. For 8 to 13 GPa shocks, the emanating fronts propagate as deflagration waves to consume the explosive between hot spots. For higher shock levels deflagration waves may interact with the sweeping shock to become detonation waves on the mesoscale. From the simulation results we extract average deflagration wave speeds.
Experimental Update of the Overtopping Model Used for the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik
2013-01-01
An overtopping model specifically suited for Wave Dragon is needed in order to improve the reliability of its performance estimates. The model shall be comprehensive of all relevant physical processes that affect overtopping and flexible to adapt to any local conditions and device configuration....... An experimental investigation is carried out to update an existing formulation suited for 2D draft-limited, low-crested structures, in order to include the effects on the overtopping flow of the wave steepness, the 3D geometry of Wave Dragon, the wing reflectors, the device motions and the non-rigid connection...... of which can be measured in real-time. Instead of using new fitting coefficients, this approach allows a broader applicability of the model beyond the Wave Dragon case, to any overtopping WEC or structure within the range of tested conditions. Predictions reliability of overtopping over Wave Dragon...
A Holographic P-wave Superconductor Model
Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Li-Fang
2014-01-01
We study a holographic p-wave superconductor model in a four dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-complex vector field theory with a negative cosmological constant. The complex vector field is charged under the Maxwell field. We solve the full coupled equations of motion of the system and find black hole solutions with the vector hair. The vector hairy black hole solutions are dual to a thermal state with the U(1) symmetry as well as the spatial rotational symmetry breaking spontaneously. Depending on two parameters, the mass and charge of the vector field, we find a rich phase structure: zeroth order, first order and second order phase transitions can happen in this model. We also find "retrograde condensation" in which the hairy black hole solution exists only for the temperatures above a critical value with the free energy much larger than the black hole without hair. We construct the phase diagram for this system in terms of the temperature and charge of the vector field.
Toxicology of blast overpressure.
Elsayed, N M
1997-07-25
Blast overpressure (BOP) or high energy impulse noise, is the sharp instantaneous rise in ambient atmospheric pressure resulting from explosive detonation or firing of weapons. Blasts that were once confined to military and to a lesser extent, occupational settings, are becoming more universal as the civilian population is now increasingly at risk of exposure to BOP from terrorist bombings that are occurring worldwide with greater frequency. Exposure to incident BOP waves can cause auditory and non-auditory damage. The primary targets for BOP damage are the hollow organs, ear, lung and gastrointestinal tract. In addition, solid organs such as heart, spleen and brain can also be injured upon exposure. However, the lung is more sensitive to damage and its injury can lead to death. The pathophysiological responses, and mortality have been extensively studied, but little attention, was given to the biochemical manifestations, and molecular mechanism(s) of injury. The injury from BOP has been, generally, attributed to its external physical impact on the body causing internal mechanical damage. However, a new hypothesis has been proposed based on experiments conducted in the Department of Respiratory Research, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and later in the Department of Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh. This hypothesis suggests that subtle biochemical changes namely, free radical-mediated oxidative stress occur and contribute to BOP-induced injury. Understanding the etiology of these changes may shed new light on the molecular mechanism(s) of injury, and can potentially offer new strategies for treatment. In this symposium. BOP research involving auditory, non-auditory, physiological, pathological, behavioral, and biochemical manifestations as well as predictive modeling and current treatment modalities of BOP-induced injury are discussed.
High order Hamiltonian water wave models with wave-breaking mechanism
Kurnia, R.; Groesen, van E.
2014-01-01
Based on the Hamiltonian formulation of water waves, using Hamiltonian consistent modelling methods, we derive higher order Hamiltonian equations by Taylor expansions of the potential and the vertical velocity around the still water level. The polynomial expansion in wave height is mixed with pseudo
Experimental Modelling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter
The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter (WEC) of the overtopping type. Oncoming waves are focused by two wing reflectors towards the ramp of the device, surge-up and overtop into a reservoir placed at a higher level than the surface of the sea. The energy production takes...... place as the water is led back to the sea through a set of low-head hydro-turbines. After many years of development, Wave Dragon (WD) is now facing the phase of pre-commercial demonstration. In this phase it is very important to be able to use the available data to predict the performances of the device...... at different scales and locations. A flexible and comprehensive modelling tool is therefore highly required. Wave Dragon produces power through different steps of energy conversion: 1. Primary energy conversion: overtopping – The energy content of the wave (partly in the kinetic and partly in the potential...
The use of a wave boundary layer model in SWAN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Jianting; Bolaños, Rodolfo; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo
2017-01-01
A Wave Boundary Layer Model (WBLM) is implemented in the third-generation ocean wave model SWAN to improve the wind-input source function under idealized, fetch-limited condition. Accordingly, the white capping dissipation parameters are re-calibrated to fit the new wind-input source function...
Development of a coupled wave-flow-vegetation interaction model
Beudin, Alexis; Kalra, Tarandeep; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Warner, John C.
2017-01-01
Emergent and submerged vegetation can significantly affect coastal hydrodynamics. However, most deterministic numerical models do not take into account their influence on currents, waves, and turbulence. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a wave-flow-vegetation module into a Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system that includes a flow model (ROMS) and a wave model (SWAN), and illustrate various interacting processes using an idealized shallow basin application. The flow model has been modified to include plant posture-dependent three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and production of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy to parameterize vertical mixing. The coupling framework has been updated to exchange vegetation-related variables between the flow model and the wave model to account for wave energy dissipation due to vegetation. This study i) demonstrates the validity of the plant posture-dependent drag parameterization against field measurements, ii) shows that the model is capable of reproducing the mean and turbulent flow field in the presence of vegetation as compared to various laboratory experiments, iii) provides insight into the flow-vegetation interaction through an analysis of the terms in the momentum balance, iv) describes the influence of a submerged vegetation patch on tidal currents and waves separately and combined, and v) proposes future directions for research and development.
Development of a coupled wave-flow-vegetation interaction model
Beudin, Alexis; Kalra, Tarandeep S.; Ganju, Neil K.; Warner, John C.
2017-03-01
Emergent and submerged vegetation can significantly affect coastal hydrodynamics. However, most deterministic numerical models do not take into account their influence on currents, waves, and turbulence. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a wave-flow-vegetation module into a Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system that includes a flow model (ROMS) and a wave model (SWAN), and illustrate various interacting processes using an idealized shallow basin application. The flow model has been modified to include plant posture-dependent three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and production of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy to parameterize vertical mixing. The coupling framework has been updated to exchange vegetation-related variables between the flow model and the wave model to account for wave energy dissipation due to vegetation. This study i) demonstrates the validity of the plant posture-dependent drag parameterization against field measurements, ii) shows that the model is capable of reproducing the mean and turbulent flow field in the presence of vegetation as compared to various laboratory experiments, iii) provides insight into the flow-vegetation interaction through an analysis of the terms in the momentum balance, iv) describes the influence of a submerged vegetation patch on tidal currents and waves separately and combined, and v) proposes future directions for research and development.
Modeling and Control Of Surface Acoustic Wave Motors
Feenstra, P.J.
2005-01-01
This thesis introduces Rayleigh waves and describes the generation of Rayleigh waves. Furthermore, the principle of operation of a SAW motor is analyzed. The analysis is based on a contact model, which describes the behavior between slider and stator. Due to the contact model, the microscopic and
A consistent collinear triad approximation for operational wave models
Salmon, J. E.; Smit, P. B.; Janssen, T. T.; Holthuijsen, L. H.
2016-08-01
In shallow water, the spectral evolution associated with energy transfers due to three-wave (or triad) interactions is important for the prediction of nearshore wave propagation and wave-driven dynamics. The numerical evaluation of these nonlinear interactions involves the evaluation of a weighted convolution integral in both frequency and directional space for each frequency-direction component in the wave field. For reasons of efficiency, operational wave models often rely on a so-called collinear approximation that assumes that energy is only exchanged between wave components travelling in the same direction (collinear propagation) to eliminate the directional convolution. In this work, we show that the collinear approximation as presently implemented in operational models is inconsistent. This causes energy transfers to become unbounded in the limit of unidirectional waves (narrow aperture), and results in the underestimation of energy transfers in short-crested wave conditions. We propose a modification to the collinear approximation to remove this inconsistency and to make it physically more realistic. Through comparison with laboratory observations and results from Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed modified collinear model is consistent, remains bounded, smoothly converges to the unidirectional limit, and is numerically more robust. Our results show that the modifications proposed here result in a consistent collinear approximation, which remains bounded and can provide an efficient approximation to model nonlinear triad effects in operational wave models.
Modelling of Performance of Caisson Type Breakwaters under Extreme Waves
Güney Doǧan, Gözde; Özyurt Tarakcıoǧlu, Gülizar; Baykal, Cüneyt
2016-04-01
Many coastal structures are designed without considering loads of tsunami-like waves or long waves although they are constructed in areas prone to encounter these waves. Performance of caisson type breakwaters under extreme swells is tested in Middle East Technical University (METU) Coastal and Ocean Engineering Laboratory. This paper presents the comparison of pressure measurements taken along the surface of caisson type breakwaters and obtained from numerical modelling of them using IH2VOF as well as damage behavior of the breakwater under the same extreme swells tested in a wave flume at METU. Experiments are conducted in the 1.5 m wide wave flume, which is divided into two parallel sections (0.74 m wide each). A piston type of wave maker is used to generate the long wave conditions located at one end of the wave basin. Water depth is determined as 0.4m and kept constant during the experiments. A caisson type breakwater is constructed to one side of the divided flume. The model scale, based on the Froude similitude law, is chosen as 1:50. 7 different wave conditions are applied in the tests as the wave period ranging from 14.6 s to 34.7 s, wave heights from 3.5 m to 7.5 m and steepness from 0.002 to 0.015 in prototype scale. The design wave parameters for the breakwater were 5m wave height and 9.5s wave period in prototype. To determine the damage of the breakwater which were designed according to this wave but tested under swell waves, video and photo analysis as well as breakwater profile measurements before and after each test are performed. Further investigations are carried out about the acting wave forces on the concrete blocks of the caisson structures via pressure measurements on the surfaces of these structures where the structures are fixed to the channel bottom minimizing. Finally, these pressure measurements will be compared with the results obtained from the numerical study using IH2VOF which is one of the RANS models that can be applied to simulate
Maasberg, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting is the first proprietary manual for cleaning and rehabilitation through pressure-washing, hydro-blasting and ultra high pressure water jetting (UHP). It examines the cleaning, restoration and rehabilitation of statuary and historical structures; manufacturing hardware; and application technologies for residential, commercial and industrial areas, structures and buildings. Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting contains over 450 applications from agricultural, marine, municipal, food processing, paper-pulp, pharmaceutical and cosmetic, industrial and power generating maintenance areas. It includes gear lists to help readers easily identify the appropriate tooling and equipment for each specific application and industry. Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting supplies readers with the tools to create a successful business model for re...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘帆; 杜红棉; 范锦彪; 赖富文; 焦耀晗; 苗松珍; 岳掌宽; 闫鹏飞
2014-01-01
为了评估炮口冲击波对相关操作人员及设备造成的损伤和破坏程度，将存储测试技术应用到炮口冲击波测试中，并结合无线传输技术，使得测试主控制台可以在一定距离外进行有效监控。通过对测试系统进行的激波管动态校准，符合国军标对炮口冲击波超压测试的基本要求。测试装置在无线触发状态和多次重触发状态进行了测试试验，均成功获取到炮口冲击波超压曲线。试验结果表明所设计的炮口冲击波无线存储测试系统能有效工作，同时具有操作简单等优点，具有良好的应用前景。%In order to evaluate the damage of relevant operators and equipments caused by muzzle blast wave,The muzzle blast wave test system applied Storage testing technology combined with Wireless transmission technology,to make the main test console monitoring effectively in a certain distance. The results of dynamic calibration based on shock tube showed the test system meets the basic requirements of military specifications on the muzzle blast wave overpressure test. The test devices in both wireless trigger state and multiple re-trigger state obtained the curves of the muzzle blast wave overpressure successfully. The results show that the designed muzzle blast wave wireless storage test system can work effectively,has the advantage of easy operation and has a good application prospect.
Improving Short Wave Breaking Behavior In Surfbeat Models
Roelvink, J.; Daly, C.; Vandongeren, A. R.; van Thiel de Vries, J.; McCall, R.
2009-12-01
In present surfzone modeling three approaches are widely applied: short-wave resolving models, ‘surfbeat’ models, which resolve wave energy modulations on the time-scale of wave groups and their associated infragravity waves, and wave averaged models. In all three approaches, wave breaking is a process that is highly schematized and governed by several empirical coefficients. In this presentation we will focus on the breaking process in ‘surfbeat’ models, such as XBeach (Roelvink et al, 2009). These models need to describe the short wave dissipation by breaking as a function of the slowly-varying short wave energy or wave height. The model usually applied is that by Roelvink (1993), which combines a probability that waves are breaking as function of wave heigth over water depth ratio H/h with a bore-type dissipation formulation similar to that by Battjes and Janssen (1978). A drawback of such a formulation is that there is no ‘memory’ in the breaking process, and the amount of breaking instantly varies with the water depth (though the wave height itself does have a memory). For cases with bichromatic waves, or for long-period swell, this does not reflect reality enough: waves that start breaking do not instantly stop breaking once the water depth increases, but continue until some lower threshold is reached. This concept was captured in Dally’s (1992) wave-by-wave approach, where individual waves are tracked in a probabilistic setting. We have now implemented a similar formulation in XBeach, where the property that waves are breaking is tracked; it is switched on when H/h exceeds a first criterion; this property is propagated using an advection equation and when H/h gets below a second criterion breaking is switched off. This formulation can do two things the previous one can’t: maintain groupiness inside the surf zone and have a maximum of wave breaking in the trough after a steep bar, as was observed for instance in Arcilla et al’s (1994) test 1
Rogue wave variational modelling through the interaction of two solitary waves
Gidel, Floriane; Bokhove, Onno
2016-04-01
The extreme and unexpected characteristics of Rogue waves have made them legendary for centuries. It is only on the 1st of January 1995 that these mariners' tales started to raise scientist's curiosity, when such a wave was recorded in the North Sea; a sudden wall of water hit the Draupner offshore platform, more than twice higher than the other waves, providing evidence of the existence of rogue or freak waves. Since then, studies have shown that these surface gravity waves of high amplitude (at least twice the height of the other sea waves [Dyste et al., 2008]) appear in non-linear dispersive water motion [Drazin and Johnson, 1989], at any depth, and have caused a lot of damage in recent years [Nikolkina and Didenkulova, 2011 ]. So far, most of the studies have tried to determine their probability of occurrence, but no conclusion has been achieved yet, which means that we are currently unenable to predict or avoid these monster waves. An accurate mathematical and numerical water-wave model would enable simulation and observation of this external forcing on boats and offshore structures and hence reduce their threat. In this work, we aim to model rogue waves through a soliton splash generated by the interaction of two solitons coming from different channels at a specific angle. Kodama indeed showed that one way to produce extreme waves is through the intersection of two solitary waves, or one solitary wave and its oblique reflection on a vertical wall [Yeh, Li and Kodama, 2010 ]. While he modelled Mach reflection from Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) theory, we aim to model rogue waves from the three-dimensional potential flow equations and/or their asymptotic equivalent described by Benney and Luke [Benney and Luke, 1964]. These theories have the advantage to allow wave propagation in several directions, which is not the case with KP equations. The initial solitary waves are generated by removing a sluice gate in each channel. The equations are derived through a
Experimental Animal Models for Studies on the Mechanisms of Blast-Induced Neurotrauma
Risling, Mårten; Davidsson, Johan
2012-01-01
A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED) in current military conflicts. Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal. Extreme forces and their complex propagation characterize BINT. Modern body protection and the development of armored mil...
Travelling wave analysis of a mathematical model of glioblastoma growth.
Gerlee, Philip; Nelander, Sven
2016-06-01
In this paper we analyse a previously proposed cell-based model of glioblastoma (brain tumour) growth, which is based on the assumption that the cancer cells switch phenotypes between a proliferative and motile state (Gerlee and Nelander, 2012). The dynamics of this model can be described by a system of partial differential equations, which exhibits travelling wave solutions whose wave speed depends crucially on the rates of phenotypic switching. We show that under certain conditions on the model parameters, a closed form expression of the wave speed can be obtained, and using singular perturbation methods we also derive an approximate expression of the wave front shape. These new analytical results agree with simulations of the cell-based model, and importantly show that the inverse relationship between wave front steepness and speed observed for the Fisher equation no longer holds when phenotypic switching is considered.
quality of computerized blast load simulation for non-linear dynamic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
STRANCOM
purpose, commercial software system ... the analysis model of choice and the stand-off ... This paper addresses the blast-load simulation .... effectively design structures under blast loads. .... Fig. 4: Distribution of Blast Load on Structural Elements.
Ground Signatures of EMIC Waves obtained From a 3D Global Wave Model
Rankin, R.; Sydorenko, D.; Zong, Q.; Zhang, L.
2016-12-01
EMIC waves generated in the inner magnetosphere are important drivers of radiation belt particle loss. Van Allen Probes and ground observations of EMIC waves suggest that localized magnetospheric sources inject waves that are guided along geomagnetic field lines and then reflected and refracted in the low altitude magnetosphere [Kim, E.-H., and J. R. Johnson (2016), Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 13-21, doi:10.1002/2015GL066978] before entering the ionosphere. The waves then spread horizontally within the F-region waveguide and propagate to the ground. To understand the observed properties of EMIC waves, a global 3D model of ULF waves in Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and neutral atmosphere has been developed. The simulation domain extends from Earth's surface to a spherical boundary a few tens of thousands of km in radius. The model uses spherical coordinates and incorporates an overset Yin-Yang grid that eliminates the singularity at the polar axis and improves uniformity of the grid in the polar areas [Kageyama, A., and T. Sato (2004), Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 5, Q09005, doi:10.1029/2004GC000734]. The geomagnetic field in the model is general, but is dipole in this study. The plasma is described as a set of electron and multiple species ion conducting fluids. Realistic 3D density profiles of various ion species as well as thermospheric parameters are provided by the Canadian Ionosphere Atmosphere Model (C-IAM) [Martynenko O.V. et al. (2014), J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 120, 51-61, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2014.08.014]. The global ULF wave model is applied to study propagation of EMIC waves excited in the equatorial plane near L=7. Wave propagation along field lines, reflection and refraction in the zone of critical frequencies, and further propagation through the ionosphere to the ground are discussed.
Toyinbo, Peter A; Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Belanger, Heather G; Spehar, Andrea M; Lapcevic, William A; Scott, Steven G
2017-01-15
We sought to further define the epidemiology of the complex, multiple injuries collectively known as polytrauma/blast-related injury (PT/BRI). Using a systems science approach, we performed Bayesian network modeling to find the most accurate representation of the complex system of PT/BRI and identify key variables for understanding the subsequent effects of blast exposure in a sample of Florida National Guard members (1,443 deployed to Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom and 1,655 not deployed) who completed an online survey during the period from 2009 to 2010. We found that postdeployment symptoms reported as present at the time of the survey were largely independent of deployment per se. Blast exposure, not mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), acted as the primary military deployment-related driver of PT/BRI symptoms. Blast exposure was indirectly linked to mild TBI via other deployment-related traumas and was a significant risk for a high level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) arousal symptoms. PTSD arousal symptoms and tinnitus were directly dependent upon blast exposure, with both acting as bridge symptoms to other postdeployment mental health and physical symptoms, respectively. Neurobehavioral or postconcussion-like symptoms had no significant dependence relationship with mild TBI, but they were synergistic with blast exposure in influencing PTSD arousal symptoms. A replication of this analysis using a larger PT/BRI database is warranted.
Sediment mathematical model for sand ridges and sand waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Daming; WANG Xiao; WANG Xin; LI Yangyang
2016-01-01
A new theoretical model is formulated to describe internal movement mechanisms of the sand ridges and sand waves based on the momentum equation of a solid-liquid two-phase flow under a shear flow. Coupling this equation with two-dimensional shallow water equations and wave reflection-diffraction equation of mild slope, a two-dimensional coupling model is established and a validation is carried out by observed hydrogeology, tides, waves and sediment. The numerical results are compared with available observations. Satisfactory agreements are achieved. This coupling model is then applied to the Dongfang 1-1 Gas Field area to quantitatively predict the movement and evolution of submarine sand ridges and sand waves. As a result, it is found that the sand ridges and sand waves movement distance increases year by year, but the development trend is stable.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gao Hongtao
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Floating-type wave energy converter has the advantages of high wave energy conversion efficiency, strong shock resistance ability in rough sea and stable output power. So it is regarded as a promising energy utilization facility. The research on hydrodynamic performance of wave capture buoys is the precondition and key to the wave energy device design and optimization. A simplified motion model of the buoys in the waves is established. Based on linear wave theory, the equations of motion of buoys are derived according to Newton’s second law. The factors of wave and buoys structural parameters on wave energy absorption efficiency are discussed in the China’s Bohai Sea with short wave period and small wave height. The results show that the main factor which affects the dynamic responses of wave capture buoys is the proximity of the natural frequency of buoys to the wave period. And the incoming wave power takes a backseat role to it at constant wave height. The buoys structural parameters such as length, radius and immersed depth, influence the wave energy absorption efficiency, which play significant factors in device design. The effectiveness of this model is validated by the sea tests with small-sized wave energy devices. The establishment methods of motion model and analysis results are expected to be helpful for designing and manufacturing of floating-type wave energy converter.
Experimental Update of the Overtopping Model Used for the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parmeggiani, Stefano [Wave Dragon Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Kofoed, Jens Peter [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Department of Civil Engineering; Friis-Madsen, Erik [Wave Dragon Ltd., London (United Kingdom)
2013-04-15
An overtopping model specifically suited for Wave Dragon is needed in order to improve the reliability of its performance estimates. The model shall be comprehensive of all relevant physical processes that affect overtopping and flexible to adapt to any local conditions and device configuration. An experimental investigation is carried out to update an existing formulation suited for 2D draft-limited, low-crested structures, in order to include the effects on the overtopping flow of the wave steepness, the 3D geometry of Wave Dragon, the wing reflectors, the device motions and the non-rigid connection between platform and reflectors. The study is carried out in four phases, each of them specifically targeted at quantifying one of these effects through a sensitivity analysis and at modeling it through custom-made parameters. These are depending on features of the wave or the device configuration, all of which can be measured in real-time. Instead of using new fitting coefficients, this approach allows a broader applicability of the model beyond the Wave Dragon case, to any overtopping WEC or structure within the range of tested conditions. Predictions reliability of overtopping over Wave Dragon increased, as the updated model allows improved accuracy and precision respect to the former version.
Experimental Update of the Overtopping Model Used for the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erik Friis-Madsen
2013-04-01
Full Text Available An overtopping model specifically suited for Wave Dragon is needed in order to improve the reliability of its performance estimates. The model shall be comprehensive of all relevant physical processes that affect overtopping and flexible to adapt to any local conditions and device configuration. An experimental investigation is carried out to update an existing formulation suited for 2D draft-limited, low-crested structures, in order to include the effects on the overtopping flow of the wave steepness, the 3D geometry of Wave Dragon, the wing reflectors, the device motions and the non-rigid connection between platform and reflectors. The study is carried out in four phases, each of them specifically targeted at quantifying one of these effects through a sensitivity analysis and at modeling it through custom-made parameters. These are depending on features of the wave or the device configuration, all of which can be measured in real-time. Instead of using new fitting coefficients, this approach allows a broader applicability of the model beyond the Wave Dragon case, to any overtopping WEC or structure within the range of tested conditions. Predictions reliability of overtopping over Wave Dragon increased, as the updated model allows improved accuracy and precision respect to the former version.
Modeling sheet-flow sand transport under progressive surface waves
Kranenburg, W.M.
2013-01-01
In the near-shore zone, energetic sea waves generate sheet-flow sand transport. In present day coastal models, wave-induced sheet-flow sand transport rates are usually predicted with semi-empirical transport formulas, based on extensive research on this phenomenon in oscillatory flow tunnels. Howeve
Modeling radar backscatter from breaking waves on the surface
Melief, H.W.; Greidanus, H.S.F.; Hoogeboom, P.; Genderen, P. van
2003-01-01
A model for describing radar sea clutter is proposed. It consists of two parts, an oceanographic and an electromagnetic one. The former contains swell, small capillary and gravity waves as well as breaking wave events. The latter combines ray tracing, Bragg scattering and the Method of Moments. It i
Numerical Modelling of Wind Waves. Problems, Solutions, Verifications, and Applications
Polnikov, Vladislav
2011-01-01
The time-space evolution of the field is described by the transport equation for the 2-dimensional wave energy spectrum density, S(x,t), spread in the space, x, and time, t. This equation has the forcing named the source function, F, depending on both the wave spectrum, S, and the external wave-making factors: local wind, W(x, t), and local current, U(x, t). The source function contains certain physical mechanisms responsible for a wave spectrum evolution. It is used to distinguish three terms in function F: the wind-wave energy exchange mechanism, In; the energy conservative mechanism of nonlinear wave-wave interactions, Nl; and the wave energy loss mechanism, Dis. Differences in mathematical representation of the source function terms determine general differences between wave models. The problem is to derive analytical representations for the source function terms said above from the fundamental wave equations. Basing on publications of numerous authors and on the last two decades studies of the author, th...
Attenuation of surface waves due to monsoon rains: A model study for the north Indian Ocean
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Vethamony, P.; Kumar, B.P.; Sarma, Y.V.B.
The dynamic interaction of intense rain with waves based on momentum exchange is applied to a second generation wave model to predict wave attenuation during monsoon. The scheme takes into account the characteristics of rain and wave parameters...
Scroll wave dynamics in a model of the heterogeneous heart
Konovalov, P. V.; Pravdin, S. F.; Solovyova, O. E.; Panfilov, A. V.
2016-07-01
Scroll waves are found in physical, chemical and biological systems and underlie many significant processes including life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The theory of scroll waves predicts scroll wave dynamics should be substantially affected by heterogeneity of cardiac tissue together with other factors including shape and anisotropy. In this study, we used our recently developed analytical model of the human ventricle to identify effects of shape, anisotropy, and regional heterogeneity of myocardium on scroll wave dynamics. We found that the main effects of apical-base heterogeneity were an increased scroll wave drift velocity and a shift towards the region of maximum action potential duration. We also found that transmural heterogeneity does not substantially affect scroll wave dynamics and only in extreme cases changes the attractor position.
Statistical model on the surface elevation of waves with breaking
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
In the surface wind drift layer with constant momentum flux, two sets of the consistent surface eleva- tion expressions with breaking and occurrence conditions for breaking are deduced from the first in- tegrals of the energy and vortex variations and the kinetic and mathematic breaking criterions, then the expression of the surface elevation with wave breaking is established by using the Heaviside function. On the basis of the form of the sea surface elevation with wave breaking and the understanding of small slope sea waves, a triple composite function of real sea waves is presented including the func- tions for the breaking, weak-nonlinear and basic waves. The expression of the triple composite func- tion and the normal distribution of basic waves are the expected theoretical model for surface elevation statistics.
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Samiksha, S.V.; Polnikov, V.G.; Vethamony, P.; Rashmi, R.; Pogarskii, F.; Sudheesh, K.
for the model comparison. Based on the error estimates of significant wave heights and spectral wave energy, improvement achieved in wave prediction using ModWAM is demonstrated. We find that the ModWAM improved the accuracy of significant wave height prediction...
Stochastic waves in a Brusselator model with nonlocal interaction.
Biancalani, Tommaso; Galla, Tobias; McKane, Alan J
2011-08-01
We show that intrinsic noise can induce spatiotemporal phenomena such as Turing patterns and traveling waves in a Brusselator model with nonlocal interaction terms. In order to predict and to characterize these stochastic waves we analyze the nonlocal model using a system-size expansion. The resulting theory is used to calculate the power spectra of the stochastic waves analytically and the outcome is tested successfully against simulations. We discuss the possibility that nonlocal models in other areas, such as epidemic spread or social dynamics, may contain similar stochastically induced patterns.
Coupling model for waves propagating over a porous seabed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C.C. Liao
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The wave–seabed interaction issue is of great importance for the design of foundation around marine infrastructures. Most previous investigations for such a problem have been limited to uncoupled or one-way coupled methods connecting two separated wave and seabed sub models with the continuity of pressures at the seabed surface. In this study, a strongly coupled model was proposed to realize both wave and seabed processes in a same program and to calculate the wave fields and seabed response simultaneously. The information between wave fields and seabed fields were strongly shared and thus results in a more profound investigation of the mechanism of the wave–seabed interaction. In this letter, the wave and seabed models were validated with previous experimental tests. Then, a set of application of present model were discussed in prediction of the wave-induced seabed response. Numerical results show the wave-induced liquefaction area of coupled model is smaller than that of uncoupled model.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
文潮; 王占江; 李运良; 门朝举; 陈立强
2012-01-01
由于裂隙或者沟槽对炸药爆炸引起的震动具有良好的隔震作用,所以用现场试验的方法对比研究了用导爆索爆炸形成减震沟槽和人工开挖沟槽的减震效果.用3发50 g TNT当量、lm埋深的爆炸实验,研究了爆破成形和人工开挖预制的两种沟槽的隔震效果.实验结果表明,在爆破成形沟槽的两边存在一定宽度的裂隙区.两种沟槽均有效地降低了爆破震动的幅度并改变了地震波的频谱,而爆破成形沟槽的减震效果优于人工开挖的.离减震沟槽越近,隔震效果越明显.减震沟槽对中远区地震波低频部分隔震效果明显.%Cap or slot has an important effect on reduction of blasting vibration. The effect of vibration isolation and damping of gap or slot, which formed by detonation of the blasting fuse and excavation through manual work, is studied in this paper. In order to investigate the action of gap or slot, three underground explosion experiments were carried out an the north side of gap or slot, whose equivalent is 50g TNT and embedded depth is 1 m. The Pre-split crack zone exists in both sides of gap or slot formed by detonation of the blasting fuse. The experimental results show that the effects of gap or slot on reduction of blasting vibration are distinct and the explosion earthquake wave frequency spectrum characteristics are changed. The effect of gap or slot formed by detonation of the blasting fuse is superior to that of men-made gap or slot. The closer to gap or slot excavation face, the better the effect on reduction of blasting vibration is; The effects on vibration reduction are distinct to low frequency seismic wave at far distance from the gap or slot excavation face.
Transient Response Model of Standing Wave Piezoelectric Linear Ultrasonic Motor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHI Yunlai; CHEN Chao; ZHAO Chunsheng
2012-01-01
A transient response model for describing the starting and stopping characteristics of the standing wave piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor was presented.Based on the contact dynamic model,the kinetic equation of the motor was derived.The starting and stopping characteristics of the standing wave piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor according to different loads,contact stiffness and inertia mass were described and analyzed,respectively.To validate the transient response model,a standing wave piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor based on in-plane modes was used to carry out the simulation and experimental study.The corresponding results showed that the simulation of the motor performances based on the proposed model agreed well with the experimental results.This model will helpful to improve the stepping characteristics and the control flexibility of the standing wave piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor.
Modelling wave-boundary layer interaction for wind power applications
Jenkins, A. D.; Barstad, I.; Gupta, A.; Adakudlu, M.
2012-04-01
Marine wind power production facilities are subjected to direct and indirect effects of ocean waves. Direct effects include forces due to wave orbital motions and slamming of the water surface under breaking wave conditions, corrosion and icing due to sea spray, and the effects of wave-generated air bubbles. Indirect effects include include the influence of waves on the aerodynamic sea-surface roughness, air turbulence, the wind velocity profile, and air velocity oscillations, wave-induced currents and sediment transport. Field observations within the boundary layers from floating measurement may have to be corrected to account for biases induced as a result of wave-induced platform motions. To estimate the effect of waves on the atmospheric boundary layer we employ the WRF non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmosphere model, using the default YSU planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme and the WAM spectral wave model, running simultaneously and coupled using the open-source coupler MCEL which can interpolate between different model grids and timesteps. The model is driven by the WRF wind velocity at 10 m above the surface. The WRF model receives from WAM updated air-sea stress fields computed from the wind input source term, and computes new fields for the Charnock parameter and marine surface aerodynamic roughness. Results from a North Atlantic and Nordic Seas simulation indicate that the two-way coupling scheme alters the 10 metre wind predicted by WRF by up to 10 per cent in comparison with a simulation using a constant Charnock parameter. The changes are greatest in developing situations with passages of fronts, moving depressions and squalls. This may be directly due to roughness length changes, or may be due to changes in the timing of front/depression/squall passages. Ongoing work includes investigating the effect of grid refinement/nesting, employing different PBL schemes, and allowing the wave field to change the direction of the total air-sea stress.
Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic
Berg, Peter; Woods, Andrew
2001-03-01
Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137].
On the modeling of wave-enhanced turbulence nearshore
Moghimi, Saeed; Thomson, Jim; Özkan-Haller, Tuba; Umlauf, Lars; Zippel, Seth
2016-07-01
A high resolution k-ω two-equation turbulence closure model, including surface wave forcing was employed to fully resolve turbulence dissipation rate profiles close to the ocean surface. Model results were compared with observations from Surface Wave Instrument Floats with Tracking (SWIFTs) in the nearshore region at New River Inlet, North Carolina USA, in June 2012. A sensitivity analysis for different physical parameters and wave and turbulence formulations was performed. The flux of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) prescribed by wave dissipation from a numerical wave model was compared with the conventional prescription using the wind friction velocity. A surface roughness length of 0.6 times the significant wave height was proposed, and the flux of TKE was applied at a distance below the mean sea surface that is half of this roughness length. The wave enhanced layer had a total depth that is almost three times the significant wave height. In this layer the non-dimensionalized Terray scaling with power of - 1.8 (instead of - 2) was applicable.
Solvable Model of Spiral Wave Chimeras
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martens, Erik Andreas; Laing, Carlo R.; Strogatz, Steven H.
2010-01-01
Spiral waves are ubiquitous in two-dimensional systems of chemical or biological oscillators coupled locally by diffusion. At the center of such spirals is a phase singularity, a topological defect where the oscillator amplitude drops to zero. But if the coupling is nonlocal, a new kind of spiral...... can occur, with a circular core consisting of desynchronized oscillators running at full amplitude. Here, we provide the first analytical description of such a spiral wave chimera and use perturbation theory to calculate its rotation speed and the size of its incoherent core....
Matda, Y.; Crawford, F. W.
1974-01-01
An economical low noise plasma simulation model is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation, to establish the low noise features and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 0.000,001 of the plasma thermal energy. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories. The additional phenomena of sideband instability and satellite growth, stimulated by large amplitude wave propagation and the resulting particle trapping, are described.
Modeling of Mud-Wave Interaction: Mud-Induced Wave Transport & Wave-Induced Mud Transport
2007-11-01
seabed. This can be a fairly rapid process (i.e. of the order of tens of seconds, up to a few minutes at most, e.g. Foda and Zhang (1994); Lindenberg...response of cohesive sediments to water waves, PhD-dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, USA. Chou, H.-T., M.A. Foda and J.R. Hunt, 1993...Dingemans, M.W., 1997, Water wave propagation over uneven bottoms; Part I & II, World Scientific, Singapore. Foda , M.A. and S.-Y. Tzang, 1994
Stochastic analysis and modeling of abnormally large waves
Kuznetsov, Konstantin; Shamin, Roman; Yudin, Aleksandr
2016-04-01
In this work stochastics of amplitude characteristics of waves during the freak waves formation was estimated. Also amplitude characteristics of freak wave was modeling with the help of the developed Markov model on the basis of in-situ and numerical experiments. Simulation using the Markov model showed a great similarity of results of in-situ wave measurements[1], results of directly calculating the Euler equations[2] and stochastic modeling data. This work is supported by grant of Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) n°16-35-00526. 1. K. I. Kuznetsov, A. A. Kurkin, E. N. Pelinovsky and P. D. Kovalev Features of Wind Waves at the Southeastern Coast of Sakhalin according to Bottom Pressure Measurements //Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2014, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 213-220. DOI: 10.1134/S0001433814020066. 2. R.V. Shamin, V.E. Zakharov, A.I. Dyachenko. How probability for freak wave formation can be found // THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL - SPECIAL TOPICS Volume 185, Number 1, 113-124, DOI: 10.1140/epjst/e2010-01242-y 3.E. N. Pelinovsky, K. I. Kuznetsov, J. Touboul, A. A. Kurkin Bottom pressure caused by passage of a solitary wave within the strongly nonlinear Green-Naghdi model //Doklady Physics, April 2015, Volume 60, Issue 4, pp 171-174. DOI: 10.1134/S1028335815040035
Nonlinear Pressure Wave Analysis by Concentrated Mass Model
Ishikawa, Satoshi; Kondou, Takahiro; Matsuzaki, Kenichiro
A pressure wave propagating in a tube often changes to a shock wave because of the nonlinear effect of fluid. Analyzing this phenomenon by the finite difference method requires high computational cost. To lessen the computational cost, a concentrated mass model is proposed. This model consists of masses, connecting nonlinear springs, connecting dampers, and base support dampers. The characteristic of a connecting nonlinear spring is derived from the adiabatic change of fluid, and the equivalent mass and equivalent damping coefficient of the base support damper are derived from the equation of motion of fluid in a cylindrical tube. Pressure waves generated in a hydraulic oil tube, a sound tube and a plane-wave tube are analyzed numerically by the proposed model to confirm the validity of the model. All numerical computational results agree very well with the experimental results carried out by Okamura, Saenger and Kamakura. Especially, the numerical analysis reproduces the phenomena that a pressure wave with large amplitude propagating in a sound tube or in a plane tube changes to a shock wave. Therefore, it is concluded that the proposed model is valid for the numerical analysis of nonlinear pressure wave problem.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
石秉良; 周孔亢; 张云; 祁涛
2016-01-01
In order to explore the response of vehicle cab bottom under the non-contact blast wave of improvised explosive device, mine, etc. smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) algorithm is employed. The energy, stress contours and destruction form of a square plate restricted by four sides under blast wave with SPH algorithm are analyzed, and the results is highly comparable with empirical formula and the classical method arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE), the SPH algorithm is available for the transient dynamic response analysis of structure under blast wave. The SPH algorithm is employed to analyze the response of vehicle bottom under explosive blast wave, and the response of fuel tank, battery support, cabin floor and chassis, etc. are validated with physical test. A conclusion can be made that SPH needs simpler model and lower cost, and the result is more accurate. So SPH can be used to predict the vehicle cab bottom shell structure’s response under the blast wave, and provide a reference to the anti-explosion design of vehicle bottom structure.%针对地雷等简易爆炸装置在车辆驾驶室底部非接触爆炸问题，引入无网格光滑粒子流体动力学(Smoothed particle hydrodynamics, SPH)算法模拟爆炸冲击波作用下车辆底部结构的响应。以四边约束靶板为研究对象，分析靶板在爆炸冲击下的能量、应力变化和破坏形态，通过与传统的任意拉格朗日欧拉(Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian, ALE)固流耦合分析法和经验公式计算结果对比，验证SPH算法应用于处理此类问题的可行性；利用SPH算法对爆炸冲击波作用下驾驶室底部结构进行数值仿真，分析车辆底部的油箱、电瓶支架、驾驶室地板、车架等关键结构的冲击响应，并与试验做出对比验证。仿真结果表明，基于 SPH 算法的爆炸仿真分析具有精度较高、建模简单、耗费计算资源少等优势，能够应用于爆炸冲击波作用下驾驶室底部板
Effect of Foam Cladding for Blast Mitigation: Numerical Simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Guowei; YE Ziqing; ZHANG Xingui
2006-01-01
Two numerical simulations were performed to investigate the protective effect of the foam cladding.One simulation is based on a previous experimental study,which is a ballistic pendulum with and without a foam cladding subjected to close-range blast loading.The other model is a steel beam with and without a foam cladding under blast loading.The overpressure due to the blast event can be calculated by the empirical function ConWep or by an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE)coupling model.The first approach is relatively simple and widely used.The second approach can model the propagation of the blast wave in the air and the interaction between the air and the solid.Itis found that the pendulum with the foam cladding always swings to a larger rotation angel compared to a bare pendulum.However,the steel beam with an appropriate foam cladding has a smaller deflection compared to the bare beam without a foam cladding.It is concluded that the protective effect of the foam cladding depends on the properties of the foam and the protected structure.
Effect of casing yield stress on bomb blast impulse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hutchinson M.D.
2012-08-01
Full Text Available An equation to predict blast effects from cased charges was first proposed by U. Fano in 1944 and revised by E.M. Fisher in 1953 [1]. Fisher’s revision provides much better matches to available blast impulse data, but still requires empirical parameter adjustments. A new derivation [2], based on the work of R.W. Gurney [3] and G.I. Taylor [4], has resulted in an equation which nearly matches experimental data. This new analytical model is also capable of being extended, through the incorporation of additional physics, such as the effects of early case fracture, finite casing thickness, casing metal strain energy dissipation, explosive gas escape through casing fractures and the comparative dynamics of blast wave and metal fragment impacts. This paper will focus on the choice of relevant case fracture strain criterion, as it will be shown that this allows the explicit inclusion of the dynamic properties of the explosive and casing metal. It will include a review and critique of the most significant earlier work on this topic, contained in a paper by Hoggatt and Recht [5]. Using this extended analytical model, good matches can readily be made to available free-field blast impulse data, without any empirical adjustments being needed. Further work will be required to apply this model to aluminised and other highly oxygen-deficient explosives.
Numerical Modelling of Solitary Wave Experiments on Rubble Mound Breakwaters
Guler, H. G.; Arikawa, T.; Baykal, C.; Yalciner, A. C.
2016-12-01
Performance of a rubble mound breakwater protecting Haydarpasa Port, Turkey, has been tested under tsunami attack by physical model tests conducted at Port and Airport Research Institute (Guler et al, 2015). It is aimed to understand dynamic force of the tsunami by conducting solitary wave tests (Arikawa, 2015). In this study, the main objective is to perform numerical modelling of solitary wave tests in order to verify accuracy of the CFD model IHFOAM, developed in OpenFOAM environment (Higuera et al, 2013), by comparing results of the numerical computations with the experimental results. IHFOAM is the numerical modelling tool which is based on VARANS equations with a k-ω SST turbulence model including realistic wave generation, and active wave absorption. Experiments are performed using a Froude scale of 1/30, measuring surface elevation and flow velocity at several locations in the wave channel, and wave pressure around the crown wall of the breakwater. Solitary wave tests with wave heights of H=7.5 cm and H=10 cm are selected which represent the results of the experiments. The first test (H=7.5 cm) is the case that resulted in no damage whereas the second case (H=10 cm) resulted in total damage due to the sliding of the crown wall. After comparison of the preliminary results of numerical simulations with experimental data for both cases, it is observed that solitary wave experiments could be accurately modeled using IHFOAM focusing water surface elevations, flow velocities, and wave pressures on the crown wall of the breakwater (Figure, result of sim. at t=29.6 sec). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe authors acknowledge developers of IHFOAM, further extend their acknowledgements for the partial supports from the research projects MarDiM, ASTARTE, RAPSODI, and TUBITAK 213M534. REFERENCESArikawa (2015) "Consideration of Characteristics of Pressure on Seawall by Solitary Waves Based on Hydraulic Experiments", Jour. of Japan. Soc. of Civ. Eng. Ser. B2 (Coast. Eng.), Vol 71, p I
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaorui Sun
2013-01-01
Full Text Available During the construction of newly built tunnel (NBT adjacent to the existing service tunnel (EST, stability of the EST with small interval is affected by vibration waves which are caused by blasting load. The support structures of the EST will be cracked and damaged, while the unreasonable blast-excavation methods are adopted. Presently, the studies on behavior of support structure in the EST under blasting load are not totally clear, especially for the bolts system. Besides, the responses of support structure on blasting load are lacking comprehensive research. In this paper, New Zuofang tunnel is taken as a study case to study the influence of step blast-excavation in NBT on support structures of the EST through field experiment and numerical simulation. Some data, such as blasting vibration velocity (BVV and frequency of support structures, are obtained through field measurement. Based on these data, the formula of BVVs is obtained. Research on stability of tunnel support structures affected by step blast-excavation is conducted using numerical simulation method. The dynamic-plastic constitutive model is adopted in the software ABAQUS to assess safety of support structures. The range and degree of damage for the support structures are obtained. In addition, change laws of axial force and stress with time for the bolts are analyzed.
Morphodynamic modeling of an embayed beach under wave group forcing
Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Roelvink, J. A.; Thornton, E. B.
2004-01-01
The morphodynamic response of the nearshore zone of an embayed beach induced by wave groups is examined with a numerical model. The model utilizes the nonlinear shallow water equations to phase resolve the mean and infragravity motions in combination with an advection-diffusion equation for the sediment transport. The sediment transport associated with the short-wave asymmetry is accounted for by means of a time-integrated contribution of the wave nonlinearity using stream function theory. The two-dimensional (2-D) computations consider wave group energy made up of directionally spread, short waves with a zero mean approach angle with respect to the shore normal, incident on an initially alongshore uniform barred beach. Prior to the 2-D computations, the model is calibrated with prototype flume measurements of waves, currents, and bed level changes during erosive and accretive conditions. The most prominent feature of the 2-D model computations is the development of an alongshore quasi-periodic bathymetry of shoals cut by rip channels. Without directional spreading, the smallest alongshore separation of the rip channels is obtained, and the beach response is self-organizing in nature. Introducing a small amount of directional spreading (less than 2°) results in a strong increase in the alongshore length scales as the beach response changes from self-organizing to being quasi-forced. A further increase in directional spreading leads again to smaller length scales. The hypothesized correlation between the observed rip spacing and wave group forced edge waves over the initially alongshore uniform bathymetry is not found. However, there is a correlation between the alongshore length scales of the wave group-induced quasi-steady flow circulations and the eventual alongshore spacing of the rip channels. This suggests that the scouring associated with the quasi-steady flow induced by the initial wave groups triggers the development of rip channels via a positive feedback
Tracing Distortion Product (DP) Waves in a Cochlear Model
de Boer, Egbert; Shera, Christopher A.; Nuttall, Alfred L.
2013-01-01
In many cases a cochlear model suffices to explain (by simulation) the properties of waves in the cochlea. This is not so in the case of a distortion product (DP) set up by presenting two primary tones to the cochlea. A three-dimensional model predicts, apart from a DP wave traveling in the apical direction, a DP wave that travels from the region of overlap of the two tone patterns towards the stapes—setting the stapes in motion so as to produce an otoacoustic emission at the DP frequency. Experimental research has shown, however, that the actual DP wave in the cochlea appears to travel in the opposite direction, from near the stapes to the overlap region. This feature has been termed “inverted direction of wave propagation” (IDWP). The forward wave could result from an unknown process such as a “hidden source” near the stapes. In the present study we have disproved this notion, by using a one-dimensional model of the cochlea. It is found that both reverse and forward waves are set up by the source of nonlinearity, in the same way as has been published in an earlier work. The present results reveal that IDWP in the data corresponds to the region where the DP wave, originally created as a reverse wave but reflected from the stapes, has received so much amplification that it starts to dominate over the reverse wave. Hence we conclude that IDWP in a one-dimensional model is a direct manifestation of cochlear amplification. PMID:25284909
US Navy Global and Regional Wave Modeling
2014-09-01
source terms still include some empirical coefficients, required by limitations on current theory and observational capabilities, simplifying...assumptions (e.g., linear wave theory , linear superposition of sinusoids, local homogeneity), and generally chaotic nature of the real ocean. A particular...terms, including the effects of bottom friction, bottom scattering, sea ice, reflection from icebergs and steep shorelines, surf breaking
An Investigation of the Mechanism of Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Blast in the Open Field
Feng, Ke
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a signature wound of modern warfare. The current incomplete understanding of its injury mechanism impedes the development of strategies for effective protection of bTBI. Despite a considerable amount of experimental animal studies focused on the evaluation of brain neurotrauma caused by blast exposure, there is very limited knowledge on the biomechanical responses of the gyrenecephalic brain subjected to primary free-field blast waves imposed in vivo, and the correlation analysis between the biomechanical responses and its injury outcomes. Such information is crucial to the development of injury criteria of bTBI. This study aims to evaluate the external and internal mechanical responses of the brain against different levels of blast loading with Yucatan swine in free field, and to conduct correlational studies with brain tissue damage. To better understand primary bTBI, we have implemented an open field experimental model to apply controlled shock waves on swine head. The applied pressure levels of shock waves were predicted by finite element modeling and verified with calibrated testing. Biomechanical responses of primary blasts such as intracranial pressure (ICP), head kinetics, strain rate of skull, were measured in vivo during the blasts. A positive correlation between incident overpressure (IOP) and its corresponding biomechanical responses of the brain was observed. A parallel group of non-instrumented animals were used to collect injury data 72 hours post experiment. Cellular responses governed by primary blasts, such as neuronal degeneration and apoptosis were studied via immunohistochemistry. Representative fluorescent-stained images were examined under microscope. A positive correlation was found between the amount of degenerative neurons and the blast level. Significant elevation of apoptosis was found in the high-level blast. Comparisons between brains with varies ICP readings demonstrate differences of the
Alfven Wave Solar Model: Part 1, Coronal Heating
van der Holst, Bart; Meng, Xing; Jin, Meng; Manchester, Ward B; Toth, Gabor; Gombosi, Tamas I
2013-01-01
We present the new Alfven Wave Solar Model (AWSoM), a global model from the upper chromosphere to the corona and the heliosphere. The coronal heating and solar wind acceleration are addressed with low-frequency Alfven wave turbulence. The injection of Alfven wave energy at the inner boundary is such that the Poynting flux is proportional to the magnetic field strength. The three-dimensional magnetic field topology is simulated using data from photospheric magnetic field measurements. This model does not impose open-closed magnetic field boundaries; those develop self-consistently. The physics includes: (1) The model employs three different temperatures, namely the isotropic electron temperature and the parallel and perpendicular ion temperatures. The firehose, mirror, and ion-cyclotron instabilities due to the developing ion temperature anisotropy are accounted for. (2) The Alfven waves are partially reflected by the Alfven speed gradient and the vorticity along the field lines. The resulting counter-propagat...
Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)
2013-11-15
Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.
Measurement and modelling of bed shear induced by solitary waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
JayaKumar, S.
to combined waves and current. Ocean Engineering, 29(7): 753-768. Coussot, P., 1997. Mudflow rheology and dynamics, xvi, Balkema, Rotterdam, 255 pp. DHI, 2009. Mike21 flow model - hydrodynamic module - scientific documentation. DHI, Denmark, 60 pp...
Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)
2013-11-15
Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.
Fully Coupled Electromechanical Elastodynamic Model for Guided Wave Propagation Analysis
Borkowski, Luke; Chattopadhyay, Aditi
2013-01-01
Physics-based computational models play a key role in the study of wave propagation for structural health monitoring (SHM) and the development of improved damage detection methodologies. Due to the complex nature of guided waves, accurate and efficient computation tools are necessary to investigate the mechanisms responsible for dispersion, coupling, and interaction with damage. In this paper, a fully coupled electromechanical elastodynamic model for wave propagation in a heterogeneous, anisotropic material system is developed. The final framework provides the full three dimensional displacement and electrical potential fields for arbitrary plate and transducer geometries and excitation waveform and frequency. The model is validated theoretically and proven computationally efficient. Studies are performed with surface bonded piezoelectric sensors to gain insight into the physics of experimental techniques used for SHM. Collocated actuation of the fundamental Lamb wave modes is modeled over a range of frequenc...
A minimalist pilot-wave model for quantum electrodynamics
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
W Struyve; H Westman
2007-01-01
We present a way to construct a pilot-wave model for quantum electrodynamics. The idea is to introduce beables corresponding only to the bosonic and not to the fermionic degrees of freedom of the quantum state...
Gidel, Floriane; Bokhove, Onno; Kalogirou, Anna
2017-01-01
In this work, we model extreme waves that occur due to Mach reflection through the intersection of two obliquely incident solitary waves. For a given range of incident angles and amplitudes, the Mach stem wave grows linearly in length and amplitude, reaching up to 4 times the amplitude of the incident waves. A variational approach is used to derive the bidirectional Benney-Luke equations, an asymptotic equivalent of the three-dimensional potential-flow equations modelling water waves. This nonlinear and weakly dispersive model has the advantage of allowing wave propagation in two horizontal directions, which is not the case with the unidirectional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation used in most previous studies. A variational Galerkin finite-element method is applied to solve the system numerically in Firedrake with a second-order Störmer-Verlet temporal integration scheme, in order to obtain stable simulations that conserve the overall mass and energy of the system. Using this approach, we are able to get close to the 4-fold amplitude amplification predicted by Miles.
An improved wave-vector frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave modeling.
Jing, Yun; Tao, Molei; Cannata, Jonathan
2014-03-01
In this paper, a recently developed wave-vector frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave modeling is improved and verified by numerical simulations and underwater experiments. Higher order numeric schemes are proposed that significantly increase the modeling accuracy, thereby allowing for a larger step size and shorter computation time. The improved algorithms replace the left-point Riemann sum in the original algorithm by the trapezoidal or Simpson's integration. Plane waves and a phased array were first studied to numerically validate the model. It is shown that the left-point Riemann sum, trapezoidal, and Simpson's integration have first-, second-, and third-order global accuracy, respectively. A highly focused therapeutic transducer was then used for experimental verifications. Short high-intensity pulses were generated. 2-D scans were conducted at a prefocal plane, which were later used as the input to the numerical model to predict the acoustic field at other planes. Good agreement is observed between simulations and experiments.
Ocean wave prediction using numerical and neural network models
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Mandal, S.; Prabaharan, N.
for first-generation and second- generation models. The updated source function components (second-generation) are established based on extensive analysis and field measurements of wave growth under uni- form fetch-limited wind condition [27... are computed over period where observed data is also available [31]. Three hourly values of Significant wave height (Hs), zero-crossing period, Maximum energy and peak period computed by hindcast model and those based on measured data seems to be quite...
An Arctic Ice/Ocean Coupled Model with Wave Interactions
2015-09-30
ocean waves and sea ice interact, for use in operational models of the Arctic Basin and the adjacent seas; – improve the forecasting capacities of...spectra and modify their directional spread. Being the primary focus of the current project, we are developing innovative methods to model these...during WIFAR (Waves-in-Ice Forecasting for Arctic Operators), a partnership between the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NERSC) in
A Leptonic-Hadronic Model for the Afterglow of Gamma-Ray Burst 090510
2010-11-20
rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. A LEPTONIC– HADRONIC MODEL FOR THE AFTERGLOW OF GAMMA-RAY BURST 090510 Soebur Razzaque1 Space Science Division...combined leptonic– hadronic model of synchrotron radiation from an adiabatic blast wave. High-energy, !100 MeV, emission in our model is dominated by...escape the blast wave at early time, and their detection can provide evidence of a hadronic emission component dominating at high energies. Key words
Modelling of blast-induced damage in tunnels using a hybrid finite-discrete numerical approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amichai Mitelman
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a hybrid finite-discrete element method to study blast-induced damage in circular tunnels. An extensive database of field tests of underground explosions above tunnels is used for calibrating and validating the proposed numerical method; the numerical results are shown to be in good agreement with published data for large-scale physical experiments. The method is then used to investigate the influence of rock strength properties on tunnel durability to withstand blast loads. The presented analysis considers blast damage in tunnels excavated through relatively weak (sandstone and strong (granite rock materials. It was found that higher rock strength will increase the tunnel resistance to the load on one hand, but decrease attenuation on the other hand. Thus, under certain conditions, results for weak and strong rock masses are similar.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Ma
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The impact energy produced by blast casting is able to break and cast rocks, yet the strong vibration effects caused at the same time would threaten the safety of mines. Based on the theory of Janbu’s Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM, pseudo-static method has been incorporated to analyze the influence of dynamic loads of blasting on slope stability. The horizontal loads produced by blast vibrations cause an increase in sliding forces, and this leads to a lower slope stability coefficient. When the tensile stresses of the two adjacent blast holes are greater than the tensile strength of rock mass, the radical oriented cracks are formed, which is the precondition for the formation of presplit face. Thus, the formula for calculating the blast hole spacing of presplit blasting can be obtained. Based on the analysis of the principles of vibration tester and vibration pick-up in detecting blast vibrations, a detection scheme of blast vibration is worked out by taking the blast area with precrack rear and non-precrack side of the detection object. The detection and research results of blast vibration show that presplit blasting can reduce the attenuation coefficient of stress wave by half, and the vibration absorption ratio could reach 50.2%; the impact of dynamic loads on the end-wall slope stability coefficient is 1.98%, which proves that presplit blasting plays an important role in shock absorption of blast casting.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gullerud, Arne S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haulenbeek, Kimberly K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reu, Phillip L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-06-01
The work presented in this report concerns the response and failure of thin 2024- T3 aluminum alloy circular plates to a blast load produced by the detonation of a nearby spherical charge. The plates were fully clamped around the circumference and the explosive charge was located centrally with respect to the plate. The principal objective was to conduct a numerical model validation study by comparing the results of predictions to experimental measurements of plate deformation and failure for charges with masses in the vicinity of the threshold between no tearing and tearing of the plates. Stereo digital image correlation data was acquired for all tests to measure the deflection and strains in the plates. The size of the virtual strain gage in the measurements, however, was relatively large, so the strain measurements have to be interpreted accordingly as lower bounds of the actual strains in the plate and of the severity of the strain gradients. A fully coupled interaction model between the blast and the deflection of the structure was considered. The results of the validation exercise indicated that the model predicted the deflection of the plates reasonably accurately as well as the distribution of strain on the plate. The estimation of the threshold charge based on a critical value of equivalent plastic strain measured in a bulge test, however, was not accurate. This in spite of efforts to determine the failure strain of the aluminum sheet under biaxial stress conditions. Further work is needed to be able to predict plate tearing with some degree of confidence. Given the current technology, at least one test under the actual blast conditions where the plate tears is needed to calibrate the value of equivalent plastic strain when failure occurs in the numerical model. Once that has been determined, the question of the explosive mass value at the threshold could be addressed with more confidence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roberts, Jesse D.; Chang, Grace; Jones, Craig
2014-09-01
The numerical model, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) , was used to simulate wave conditions in Kaneohe Bay, HI in order to determine the effects of wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices on the propagation of waves into shore. A nested SWAN model was validated then used to evaluate a range of initial wave conditions: significant wave heights (H s ) , peak periods (T p ) , and mean wave directions ( MWD) . Differences between wave height s in the presence and absence of WEC device s were assessed at locations in shore of the WEC array. The maximum decrease in wave height due to the WEC s was predicted to be approximately 6% at 5 m and 10 m water depths. Th is occurred for model initiation parameters of H s = 3 m (for 5 m water depth) or 4 m (10 m water depth) , T p = 10 s, and MWD = 330deg . Subsequently, bottom orbital velocities were found to decrease by about 6%.
A Stochastic Nonlinear Water Wave Model for Efficient Uncertainty Quantification
Bigoni, Daniele; Eskilsson, Claes
2014-01-01
A major challenge in next-generation industrial applications is to improve numerical analysis by quantifying uncertainties in predictions. In this work we present a stochastic formulation of a fully nonlinear and dispersive potential flow water wave model for the probabilistic description of the evolution waves. This model is discretized using the Stochastic Collocation Method (SCM), which provides an approximate surrogate of the model. This can be used to accurately and efficiently estimate the probability distribution of the unknown time dependent stochastic solution after the forward propagation of uncertainties. We revisit experimental benchmarks often used for validation of deterministic water wave models. We do this using a fully nonlinear and dispersive model and show how uncertainty in the model input can influence the model output. Based on numerical experiments and assumed uncertainties in boundary data, our analysis reveals that some of the known discrepancies from deterministic simulation in compa...
Boussinesq modeling of wave-induced hydrodynamics in coastal wetlands
Chakrabarti, Agnimitro; Brandt, Steven R.; Chen, Qin; Shi, Fengyan
2017-05-01
In this paper, an improved formulation of the vegetation drag force, applicable for the fully nonlinear Boussinesq equations and based on the use of the depth-varying, higher-order expansion of the horizontal velocity, in the quadratic vegetation drag law has been presented. The model uses the same numerical schemes as FUNWAVE TVD but is based on the CACTUS framework. The model is validated for wave height and setup, against laboratory experiments with and without vegetation cover. The wave attenuation results using the improved formulation were compared with those using the first-order reference velocity as well as with analytical solutions using linear wave theory. The analytical solution using the depth-varying velocity, predicted by the linear wave theory, was shown to match the model results with the fully expanded velocity approach very well for all wave cases, except under near-emergent and emergent conditions (when the ratio of stem height to water depth is greater than 0.75) and when the Ursell (Ur) number is less than 5. Simulations during peak storm waves, during Hurricane Isaac, showed that vegetation is very effective in reducing setup on platforms and in reducing the wave energy within the first few hundred meters.
Holographic p-wave superconductor models with Weyl corrections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Lu [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Pan, Qiyuan, E-mail: panqiyuan@126.com [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, São Paulo 05315-970 (Brazil); Jing, Jiliang, E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)
2015-04-09
We study the effect of the Weyl corrections on the holographic p-wave dual models in the backgrounds of AdS soliton and AdS black hole via a Maxwell complex vector field model by using the numerical and analytical methods. We find that, in the soliton background, the Weyl corrections do not influence the properties of the holographic p-wave insulator/superconductor phase transition, which is different from that of the Yang–Mills theory. However, in the black hole background, we observe that similarly to the Weyl correction effects in the Yang–Mills theory, the higher Weyl corrections make it easier for the p-wave metal/superconductor phase transition to be triggered, which shows that these two p-wave models with Weyl corrections share some similar features for the condensation of the vector operator.
A Coupled Atmospheric and Wave Modeling System for Storm Simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Jianting; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Bolanos, R.
2015-01-01
to parametrize z0. The results are validated through QuikScat data and point measurements from an open ocean site Ekosk and a coastal, relatively shallow water site Horns Rev. It is found that the modeling system captures in general better strong wind and strong wave characteristics for open ocean condition than...... Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model with the thirdgeneration ocean wave modelSWAN. This study investigates mainly two issues: spatial resolution and the wind-wave interface parameter roughness length(z0). To study the impact of resolution, the nesting function for both WRF and SWAN is used, with spatial...... (1991) z0 expression gives better results of the signicant wave hight under high sea state conditions....
Analysis of kinematic waves arising in diverging traffic flow models
Jin, Wen-Long
2010-01-01
Diverging junctions are important network bottlenecks, and a better understanding of diverging traffic dynamics has both theoretical and practical implications. In this paper, we first introduce a continuous multi-commodity kinematic wave model of diverging traffic and then present a new framework for constructing kinematic wave solutions to its Riemann problem with jump initial conditions. In supply-demand space, the solutions on a link consist of an interior state and a stationary state, subject to admissible conditions such that there are no positive and negative kinematic waves on the upstream and downstream links respectively. In addition, the solutions have to satisfy entropy conditions consistent with various discrete diverge models. In the proposed analytical framework, kinematic waves on each link can be uniquely determined by the stationary and initial conditions, and we prove that the stationary states and boundary fluxes exist and are unique for the Riemann problem of diverge models when all or pa...
Holographic p-wave superconductor models with Weyl corrections
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lu Zhang
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We study the effect of the Weyl corrections on the holographic p-wave dual models in the backgrounds of AdS soliton and AdS black hole via a Maxwell complex vector field model by using the numerical and analytical methods. We find that, in the soliton background, the Weyl corrections do not influence the properties of the holographic p-wave insulator/superconductor phase transition, which is different from that of the Yang–Mills theory. However, in the black hole background, we observe that similarly to the Weyl correction effects in the Yang–Mills theory, the higher Weyl corrections make it easier for the p-wave metal/superconductor phase transition to be triggered, which shows that these two p-wave models with Weyl corrections share some similar features for the condensation of the vector operator.
Holographic p-wave superconductor models with Weyl corrections
Zhang, Lu; Jing, Jiliang
2015-01-01
We study the effect of the Weyl corrections on the holographic p-wave dual models in the backgrounds of AdS soliton and AdS black hole via a Maxwell complex vector field model by using the numerical and analytical methods. We find that, in the soliton background, the Weyl corrections do not influence the properties of the holographic p-wave insulator/superconductor phase transition, which is different from that of the Yang-Mills theory. However, in the black hole background, we observe that similar to the Weyl correction effects in the Yang-Mills theory, the higher Weyl corrections make it easier for the p-wave metal/superconductor phase transition to be triggered, which shows that these two p-wave models with Weyl corrections share some similar features for the condensation of the vector operator.
Extended models of nonlinear waves in liquid with gas bubbles
Kudryashov, Nikolay A
2016-01-01
In this work we generalize the models for nonlinear waves in a gas--liquid mixture taking into account an interphase heat transfer, a surface tension and a weak liquid compressibility simultaneously at the derivation of the equations for nonlinear waves. We also take into consideration high order terms with respect to the small parameter. Two new nonlinear differential equations are derived for long weakly nonlinear waves in a liquid with gas bubbles by the reductive perturbation method considering both high order terms with respect to the small parameter and the above mentioned physical properties. One of these equations is the perturbation of the Burgers equation and corresponds to main influence of dissipation on nonlinear waves propagation. The other equation is the perturbation of the Burgers--Korteweg--de Vries equation and corresponds to main influence of dispersion on nonlinear waves propagation.
Antiferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity in the Hubbard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krahl, H.C.
2007-07-25
The two-dimensional Hubbard model is a promising effective model for the electronic degrees of freedom in the copper-oxide planes of high temperature superconductors. We present a functional renormalization group approach to this model with focus on antiferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity. In order to make the relevant degrees of freedom more explicitly accessible on all length scales, we introduce composite bosonic fields mediating the interaction between the fermions. Spontaneous symmetry breaking is reflected in a non-vanishing expectation value of a bosonic field. The emergence of a coupling in the d-wave pairing channel triggered by spin wave fluctuations is demonstrated. Furthermore, the highest temperature at which the interaction strength for the electrons diverges in the renormalization flow is calculated for both antiferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity over a wide range of doping. This ''pseudo-critical'' temperature signals the onset of local ordering. Moreover, the temperature dependence of d-wave superconducting order is studied within a simplified model characterized by a single coupling in the d-wave pairing channel. The phase transition within this model is found to be of the Kosterlitz-Thouless type. (orig.)
1982-07-01
and incorporates them into the interpretation of the accuracy of the model specifications. In addition, rapid spatial and temporal variations of...rapid spatial and temporal variations of actual waves that are not reproduced by the model are documented; and possible errors in the specification of...wave clima - tology without incurring prohibitive costs. "The indexing algorithm, which is the heart of the retrival system, uses sub- projection
Forecasting ocean wave energy: A Comparison of the ECMWF wave model with time series methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reikard, Gordon; Pinson, Pierre; Bidlot, Jean
2011-01-01
days. In selecting a method, the forecaster has a choice between physics-based models and statistical techniques. A further idea is to combine both types of models. This paper analyzes the forecasting properties of a well-known physics-based model, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts......Recently, the technology has been developed to make wave farms commercially viable. Since electricity is perishable, utilities will be interested in forecasting ocean wave energy. The horizons involved in short-term management of power grids range from as little as a few hours to as long as several...... energy flux. In the initial tests, the ECMWF model and the statistical models are compared directly. The statistical models do better at short horizons, producing more accurate forecasts in the 1–5 h range. The ECMWF model is superior at longer horizons. The convergence point, at which the two methods...
Vaporization wave model for ion-ion central collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baldo, M.; Giansiracusa, G.; Piccitto, G. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy))
1983-09-24
We propose a simple model for central or nearly central ion-ion collisions at intermediate energies. It is based on the ''vaporization wave model'' developed by Bennett for macroscopic objects. The model offers a simple explanation of the observed deuteron/proton abundancy ratio as a function of the beam energy.
Vaporization wave model for ion-ion central collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baldo, M.; Giansiracusa, G.; Piccitto, G. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)
1983-09-24
A simple model for central or nearly central ion-ion collisions at intermediate energies is proposed. It is based on the ''vaporization wave model'' developed by Bennet for macroscopic objects. The model offers a simple explanation of the observed deuteron/proton abundancy ratio as a function of the beam energy.
On frequency and time domain models of traveling wave tubes
Théveny, Stéphane; Elskens, Yves
2016-01-01
We discuss the envelope modulation assumption of frequency-domain models of traveling wave tubes (TWTs) and test its consistency with the Maxwell equations. We compare the predictions of usual frequency-domain models with those of a new time domain model of the TWT.
Characteristics of laser-induced shock wave injury to the inner ear of rats
Kurioka, Takaomi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Niwa, Katsuki; Tamura, Atsushi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Yasushi; Sato, Shunichi; Shiotani, Akihiro
2014-12-01
Recently, the number of blast injuries of the inner ear has increased in the general population. In blast-induced inner ear injury, a shock wave (SW) component in the blast wave is considered to play an important role in sensorineural hearing loss. However, the mechanisms by which an SW affects inner ear tissue remain largely unknown. We aimed to establish a new animal model for SW-induced inner ear injury by using laser-induced SWs (LISWs) on rats. The LISWs were generated by irradiating an elastic laser target with 694-nm nanosecond pulses of a ruby laser. After LISW application to the cochlea through bone conduction, auditory measurements revealed the presence of inner ear dysfunction, the extent of which depended on LISW overpressure. A significantly lower survival rate of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons, as well as severe oxidative damage, were observed in the inner ear exposed to an LISW. Although considerable differences in the pressure characteristics exist between LISWs and SWs in real blast waves, the functional and morphological changes shown by the present LISW-based model were similar to those observed in real blast-induced injury. Thus, our animal model is expected to be useful for laboratory-based research of blast-induced inner ear injury.
Lagrangian modelling of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar wave measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fouques, Sebastien
2005-07-01
The present thesis is concerned with the estimation of the ocean wave spectrum from synthetic aperture radar imaging and the modelling of ocean surface waves using the Lagrangian formalism. The first part gives a short overview of the theories of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) whereas the second part consists of five independent publications. The first two articles investigate the influence of the radar backscatter model on the SAR imaging of ocean waves. In Article I, Monte Carlo simulations of SAR images of the ocean surface are carried out using a nonlinear backscatter model that include both specular reflection and Bragg scattering and the results are compared to simulations from the classical Hasselmann integral transform (Hasselmann and Hasselmann, 1991). It is shown that nonlinearities in the backscatter model strongly influence the imaging of range-travelling waves and that the former can suppress the range-splitting effect (Bruning et al., 1988). Furthermore, in Article II a database of Envisat-ASAR Wave Mode products co-located with directional wave spectra from the numerical model WAM and which contains range-travelling wave cases only, is set up. The WAM spectra are used as input to several ocean-to-SAR integral transforms, with various real aperture radar (RAR) models and the obtained SAR image cross-spectra are compared to the Envisat-ASAR observations. A first result is that the use of a linear backscatter model leads to a high proportion of non-physical negative backscatter values in the RAR image, as suggested by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2001). Then, a comparison between the observed SAR cross-spectra and the ones simulated through Hasselmann's integral transform reveals that only twenty percents of the observations show a range-splitting effect as strong as in the simulations. A much better agreement is obtained when using the integral transform by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2003), which is based on a nonlinear hackscatter model
Modelling Acoustic Wave Propagation in Axisymmetric Varying-Radius Waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten
2008-01-01
A computationally fast and accurate model (a set of coupled ordinary differential equations) for fluid sound-wave propagation in infinite axisymmetric waveguides of varying radius is proposed. The model accounts for fluid heat conduction and fluid irrotational viscosity. The model problem is solved...... by expanding solutions in terms of cross-sectional eigenfunctions following Stevenson’s method. A transfer matrix can be easily constructed from simple model responses of a given waveguide and later used in computing the response to any complex wave input. Energy losses due to heat conduction and viscous...
Experimental bounds on collapse models from gravitational wave detectors
Carlesso, Matteo; Bassi, Angelo; Falferi, Paolo; Vinante, Andrea
2016-12-01
Wave function collapse models postulate a fundamental breakdown of the quantum superposition principle at the macroscale. Therefore, experimental tests of collapse models are also fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. Here, we compute the upper bounds on the collapse parameters, which can be inferred by the gravitational wave detectors LIGO, LISA Pathfinder, and AURIGA. We consider the most widely used collapse model, the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) model. We show that these experiments exclude a huge portion of the CSL parameter space, the strongest bound being set by the recently launched space mission LISA Pathfinder. We also rule out a proposal for quantum-gravity-induced decoherence.
Self-organized Criticality Model for Ocean Internal Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Gang; LIN Min; QIAO Fang-Li; HOU Yi-Jun
2009-01-01
In this paper, we present a simple spring-block model for ocean internal waves based on the self-organized criticality (SOC). The oscillations of the water blocks in the model display power-law behavior with an exponent of-2 in the frequency domain, which is similar to the current and sea water temperature spectra in the actual ocean and the universal Garrett and Munk deep ocean internal wave model [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 2 (1972) 225; J. Geophys. Res. 80 (1975) 291]. The influence of the ratio of the driving force to the spring coefficient to SOC behaviors in the model is also discussed.
African wave disturbances in a general circulation model
Estoque, M. A.; Jiing, J. G.; Shukla, J.
1983-01-01
Evidence is presented to show that African wave disturbances are reproduced in a general circulation simulation. The model used is the general circulation model developed by the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency. The model was integrated in order to simulate the summer of 1974. A synoptic analysis of the simulated data over Africa for the month of July was done. The results of the analysis show that wave disturbances are generated by the model; the behavior and the structure of the simulated disturbances are similar to those observed over tropical Africa during the northern summer.
Dynamical models for sand ripples beneath surface waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ken Haste; Chabanol, M.-L.; v. Hecke, M.
2001-01-01
We introduce order parameter models for describing the dynamics of sand ripple patterns under oscillatory flow. A crucial ingredient of these models is the mass transport between adjacent ripples, which we obtain from detailed numerical simulations for a range of ripple sizes. Using this mass...... transport function, our models predict the existence of a stable band of wave numbers limited by secondary instabilities. Small ripples coarsen in our models and this process leads to a sharply selected final wave number, in agreement with experimental observations....
Blast from explosive evaporation of carbon dioxide: experiment, modeling and physics
Van der Voort, M.M.; Van den berg, A.C.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.; Xie, M.; De Bruijn, P.C.J.
2012-01-01
Explosive evaporation of a superheated liquid is a relevant hazard in the process industry. A vessel rupture during storage, transport or handling may lead to devastating blast effects. In order to assess the risk associated with this hazard or to design protective measures, an accurate prediction m
Blast from explosive evaporation of carbon dioxide: Experiment, modeling and physics
Voort, M.M. van der; Berg, A.C. van den; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.; Xie, M.; Bruijn, P.C.J. de
2012-01-01
Explosive evaporation of a superheated liquid is a relevant hazard in the process industry. A vessel rupture during storage, transport or handling may lead to devastating blast effects. In order to assess the risk associated with this hazard or to design protective measures, an accurate prediction m
Acoustic Gravity Wave Chemistry Model for the RAYTRACE Code.
2014-09-26
AU)-AI56 850 ACOlUSTIC GRAVITY WAVE CHEMISTRY MODEL FOR THE IAYTRACE I/~ CODE(U) MISSION RESEARCH CORP SANTA BARBIARA CA T E OLD Of MAN 84 MC-N-SlS...DNA-TN-S4-127 ONAOOI-BO-C-0022 UNLSSIFIlED F/O 20/14 NL 1-0 2-8 1111 po 312.2 1--I 11111* i •. AD-A 156 850 DNA-TR-84-127 ACOUSTIC GRAVITY WAVE...Hicih Frequency Radio Propaoation Acoustic Gravity Waves 20. ABSTRACT (Continue en reveree mide if tteceeemr and Identify by block number) This
Lagrangian modelling of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar wave measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fouques, Sebastien
2005-07-01
The present thesis is concerned with the estimation of the ocean wave spectrum from synthetic aperture radar imaging and the modelling of ocean surface waves using the Lagrangian formalism. The first part gives a short overview of the theories of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) whereas the second part consists of five independent publications. The first two articles investigate the influence of the radar backscatter model on the SAR imaging of ocean waves. In Article I, Monte Carlo simulations of SAR images of the ocean surface are carried out using a nonlinear backscatter model that include both specular reflection and Bragg scattering and the results are compared to simulations from the classical Hasselmann integral transform (Hasselmann and Hasselmann, 1991). It is shown that nonlinearities in the backscatter model strongly influence the imaging of range-travelling waves and that the former can suppress the range-splitting effect (Bruning et al., 1988). Furthermore, in Article II a database of Envisat-ASAR Wave Mode products co-located with directional wave spectra from the numerical model WAM and which contains range-travelling wave cases only, is set up. The WAM spectra are used as input to several ocean-to-SAR integral transforms, with various real aperture radar (RAR) models and the obtained SAR image cross-spectra are compared to the Envisat-ASAR observations. A first result is that the use of a linear backscatter model leads to a high proportion of non-physical negative backscatter values in the RAR image, as suggested by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2001). Then, a comparison between the observed SAR cross-spectra and the ones simulated through Hasselmann's integral transform reveals that only twenty percents of the observations show a range-splitting effect as strong as in the simulations. A much better agreement is obtained when using the integral transform by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2003), which is based on a nonlinear hackscatter model
Model Predictive Control of Buoy Type Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soltani, Mohsen N.; Sichani, Mahdi T.; Mirzaei, Mahmood
2014-01-01
The paper introduces the Wavestar wave energy converter and presents the implementation of model predictive controller that maximizes the power generation. The ocean wave power is extracted using a hydraulic electric generator which is connected to an oscillating buoy. The power generator...... is an additive device attached to the buoy which may include damping, stiffness or similar terms hence will affect the dynamic motion of the buoy. Therefore such a device can be seen as a closed-loop controller. The objective of the wave energy converter is to harvest as much energy from sea as possible....... This approach is then taken into account and an MPC controller is designed for a model wave energy converter and implemented on a numerical example. Further, the power outtake of this controller is compared to the optimal controller as an indicator of the performance of the designed controller....
The Wave Dragon: tests on a modified model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinelli, Luca; Frigaard, Peter
1999-09-01
A modified floating model of the Wave Dragon was tested for movements, overtopping and forces on critical positions. The modifications and consequent testing of the model are part of a R and D programme. 18 tests (repetitions included) were carried out during May 1999. Forces in 7 different positions and movements for three degrees of freedom (heave, pitch and surge) were recorded for 7 wave situations. Total overtopping was measured for 5 different wave situations. Furthermore influence of crest freeboard was tested. Sensitivity to the energy spreading in multidirectional seas was investigated. A typical exponential equation describing overtopping was fitted to the data in case of frequent wave conditions. The formula is compared to the present tests. (au)
Improved Wave-vessel Transfer Functions by Uncertainty Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Fønss Bach, Kasper; Iseki, Toshio
2016-01-01
This paper deals with uncertainty modelling of wave-vessel transfer functions used to calculate or predict wave-induced responses of a ship in a seaway. Although transfer functions, in theory, can be calculated to exactly reflect the behaviour of the ship when exposed to waves, uncertainty in input...... variables, notably speed, draft and relative wave eading, often compromises results. In this study, uncertling is applied to improve theoretically calculated transfer functions, so they better fit the corresponding experimental, full-scale ones. Based on a vast amount of full-scale measurements data......, it is shown that uncertainty modelling can be successfully used to improve accuracy (and reliability) of theoretical transfer functions....
Suppression of Spiral Wave in Modified Orengonator Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Jun; JIN Wu-Yin; YI Ming; WANG Chun-Ni
2008-01-01
In this paper, a spatial perturbation scheme is proposed to suppress the spiral wave in the modified Orengonator model, which is used to describe the chemical reaction in the light-sensitive media. The controllable external illumination Φ is perturbed with a spatial linear function. In our numerical simulation, the scheme is investigated by imposing the external controllable illumination on the space continuously and/or intermittently. The numerical simulation results confirm that the stable rotating spiral wave still can be removed with the scheme proposed in this paper even if the controllable Φ changed vs. time and space synchronously. Then the scheme is also used to control the spiral wave and turbulence in the modified Fitzhugh-Nagumo model It is found that the scheme is effective to remove the sable rotating and meandering spiral wave but it costs long transient period and intensity of the gradient parameter to eliminate the spiral turbulence.
Identification and modeling of internal waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Murty, T.V.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, M.M.M.; SujithKumar, S.; Maneesha, K.; Sandhya, K.S.; Prakash, S.S.; Chandramouli, P.; Murthy, K.S.R.
,salanity,density,Bruntvaisala frequencyandsoundvelocityunderdifferentseasons 2.2 Currents 2.3 IdentificationofInternalWaves 2.4 CharactersticsofInternalwavesfromCTDandSpectrumanalysis 2.5 Internalwavefieldgeneration 2.6 ModellingofInternalwaves 2.7 Internalwavesimulation 3. Conclusion Contributors to the project 1.... Dr.T.V.Ramana Murty Co-investigator 2. Dr.Y.Sadhuram Member 3. Dr.M.M.Malleswara Rao Member 4. Mr.S.Sujith Kumar Member 5. Mr.S.Surya Prakash Member 6. Mr...
2016-11-01
simulator experiments for computational model validation – Report 1. ERDC/GSL TR-16-27. Vicksburg MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development...The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops...innovative solutions in civil and military engineering , geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army, the Department of
Morrissey, M. M.; Savage, W. Z.; Wieczorek, G. F.
1999-10-01
The July 10, 1996, Happy Isles rockfall in Yosemite National Park, California, released 23,000 to 38,000 m3 of granite in four separate events. The impacts of the first two events which involved a 550-m free fall, generated seismic waves and atmospheric pressure waves (air blasts). We focus on the dynamic behavior of the second air blast that downed over 1000 trees, destroyed a bridge, demolished a snack bar, and caused one fatality and several injuries. Calculated velocities for the air blast from a two-phase, finite difference model are compared to velocities estimated from tree damage. From tornadic studies of tree damage, the air blast is estimated to have traveled Happy Isles air blast (weak shock wave) traveled with an initial velocity above the local sound speed. The size and location of the first impact are thought to have injected <50 wt% dust into the atmosphere. This amount of dust lowered the local atmospheric sound speed to ˜220 m/s. The discrepancy between calculated velocity data and field estimated velocity data (˜220 m/s versus ˜110 m/s) is attributed to energy dissipated by the downing of trees and additional entrainment of debris into the atmosphere not included in the calculations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yingyu Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply the elastic wave motion theory and the classical one-dimensional cavitation theory to analyze the response of a typical double-bottom structure subjected to underwater blast. The section-varying bar theory and the general acoustic impedance are introduced to get the simplified analytical models. The double-bottom structure is idealized by the basic unit of three substructures which include the simple panel, the panel with stiffener (T-shaped, and the panel associated with girder (I-shaped. According to the simplified models, the analytical models for the corresponding substructures are set up. By taking the cavitation effect into account, the process of fluid-structure interaction can be thoroughly understood, as well as the stress wave propagation. Good agreement between the analytical solution and the finite element prediction is achieved. On the other hand, the Taylor predictions for the panel associated with girder (I-shaped including the effects of cavitation are invalid, indicating a potential field for the analytical method. The validated analytical models are used to determine the sensitivity of structure response to dimensionless geometric parameters α-k, β-k, and γ-k. Based on the dynamic response of the substructures, we establish the approximate analytical models which are able to predict the response of double-bottom structure to underwater explosion.
Computational Modeling of Wave Propagation in a Geophysical Domain
2008-10-01
form and finite element solution, the forcing function is described as ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛= t T htf π2cos)( for 22 TtT ≤≤− . For the finite element... htf π2cos 22 TtT ≤≤− , 2D Model R = 200 m NDOF = 23,000 R Short Duration Loading Surface Wave Problem – Vertical Velocity Analysis FEA Rayleigh P wave R
Modeling anomalous surface - wave propagation across the Southern Caspian basin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Priestly, K.F.; Patton, H.J.; Schultz, C.A.
1998-01-09
The crust of the south Caspian basin consists of 15-25 km of low velocity, highly attenuating sediment overlying high velocity crystalline crust. The Moho depth beneath the basin is about 30 km as compared to about 50 km in the surrounding region. Preliminary modeling of the phase velocity curves shows that this thick sediments of the south Caspian basin are also under-lain by a 30-35 km thick crystalline crust and not by typical oceanic crust. This analysis also suggest that if the effect of the over-pressuring of the sediments is to reduce Poissons` ratio, the over-pressured sediments observed to approximately 5 km do not persist to great depths. It has been shown since 1960`s that the south Caspian basin blocks the regional phase Lg. Intermediate frequency (0.02-0.04 Hz) fundamental mode Raleigh waves propagating across the basin are also severely attenuated, but the low frequency surface waves are largely unaffected. This attenuation is observed along the both east-to-west and west-to-east great circle paths across the basin, and therefore it cannot be related to a seismograph site effect. We have modeled the response of surface waves in an idealized rendition of the south Caspian basin model using a hybrid normal mode / 2-D finite difference approach. To gain insight into the features of the basin which cause the anomalous surface wave propagation, we have varied parameters of the basin model and computed synthetic record sections to compare with the observed seismograms. We varied the amount of mantel up-warp, the shape of the boundaries, the thickness and shear wave Q of the sediments and mantle, and the depth of the water layer. Of these parameters, the intermediate frequency surface waves are most severely affected by the sediments thickness and shear wave attenuation. fundamental mode Raleigh wave phase velocities measure for paths crossing the basin are extremely low.
Modeling storm waves; Modeliser les houles de tempete
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benoit, M.; Marcos, F.; Teisson, Ch
1999-07-01
Nuclear power stations located on the coast take the water they use to cool their circuits from the sea. The water intake and discharge devices must be able to operate in all weathers, notably during extreme storms, with waves 10 m high and over. To predict the impact of the waves on the equipment, they are modeled digitally from the moment they form in the middle of the ocean right up to the moment they break on the shore. (authors)
Numerical Modeling of a Wave Energy Point Absorber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hernandez, Lorenzo Banos; Frigaard, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2009-01-01
The present study deals with numerical modelling of the Wave Star Energy WSE device. Hereby, linear potential theory is applied via a BEM code on the wave hydrodynamics exciting the floaters. Time and frequency domain solutions of the floater response are determined for regular and irregular seas....... Furthermore, these results are used to estimate the power and the energy absorbed by a single oscillating floater. Finally, a latching control strategy is analysed in open-loop configuration for energy maximization....
Toward an Internal Gravity Wave Spectrum in Global Ocean Models
2015-05-14
Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302 Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be...14 MAY 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Toward an Internal Gravity Wave Spectrum in Global...resolution global ocean models forced by atmospheric fields and tides are beginning to display realistic internal gravity wave spectra, especially as
Modeling Tsunamis and Hydroacoustic Waves from Megathrust Earthquakes
Lotto, G. C.; Belair, G. M.; Kozdon, J. E.; Dunham, E. M.
2013-12-01
The immense damage caused by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake demonstrated the importance of understanding tsunami excitation by megathrust ruptures. Of particular interest are any faster-propagating seismic or hydroacoustic signals that could be used to rapidly predict tsunami wave heights. To study the full seismic, acoustic, and tsunami wavefields, we have developed a provably stable and accurate finite-difference method that couples an elastic solid to a compressible fluid subject to gravitational restoring forces. We introduce a new treatment of the dynamic (free surface) boundary condition on the moving sea surface in the presence of gravity that is valid for small-amplitude perturbations about an ocean initially in hydrostatic balance. This permits us to model surface gravity waves in the linearized limit, including dispersion from nonhydrostatic motions at short wavelengths. This is done using summation-by-parts (SBP) finite difference operators and weak enforcement of boundary conditions. Shallow coseismic slip during megathrust events causes seafloor uplift that excites both tsunamis and long-period (~10 s) hydroacoustic waves; the latter ocean sound waves travel at several km/s and reach the coast many minutes sooner than tsunami waves. These hydroacoustic waves might be used as part of local tsunami early warning systems. Our previous dynamic rupture simulations of the Tohoku event, which neglected surface gravity waves, revealed correlations between pressure perturbations recorded at the seafloor (associated with ~10 s hydroacoustic waves in the ocean) and near-trench seafloor uplift caused by shallow slip. Now that we can model tsunamis within the same code, we plan to quantify the correlation between these pressure perturbations and tsunami height. We are also investigating properties of these hydroacoustic modes, which involve significant motions of the solid Earth as well as the ocean. Phase and group velocity curves for a uniform ocean
Note: A table-top blast driven shock tube.
Courtney, Michael W; Courtney, Amy C
2010-12-01
The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer that explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.
A Table-top Blast Driven Shock Tube
Courtney, Michael; 10.1063/1.3518970
2011-01-01
The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer which explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.
Numerical modeling of shoreline undulations part 1: Constant wave climate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2013-01-01
This paper presents a numerical study of the non-linear development of alongshore undulations up to fully developed quasi-steady equilibrium. A numerical model which describes the longshore sediment transport along arbitrarily shaped shorelines is applied, based on a spectral wave model, a depth...... integrated flow model, a wave-phase resolving sediment transport description and a one-line shoreline model.First the length of the shoreline undulations is determined in the linear regime using a stability analysis. Next the further evolution from the linear to the fully non-linear regime is described....... In the fully non-linear regime down-drift spits and migrating shoreline undulations are described.Three different shoreline shapes are found depending on the wave conditions: undulations with no spits, undulations with shore parallel spit and undulations with reconnecting spits. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V....
Modeling Piezoelectric Interfacial Wave Near an Imperfect Interface
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Li-mei; FAN Hui; CHEN Min; LI Hui
2006-01-01
The interface wave propagating along an imperfect interface between two piezoelectric half spaces is derived firstly. The wave equations based on the interface modeled, called "spring model", are presented. The micro-scale structures of the interface for connecting the spring constant with the interface micro-structures are examined. For some simple interface micro-structure, exact dynamic solution is available, and the spring constant is obtained by comparing solutions. For the complex micro structures, it remains as a challenge of micro-mechanics modeling to connect the "spring constant" and micro-structure.
Pilot Wave model that includes creation and annihilation of particles
Sverdlov, Roman
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to come up with a Pilot Wave model of quantum field theory that incorporates particle creation and annihilation without sacrificing determinism. This has been previously attempted in an article by the same author titled "Incorporating particle creation and annihilation in Pilot Wave model", in a much less satisfactory way. In this paper I would like to "clean up" some of the things. In particular, I would like to get rid of a very unnatural concept of "visibility" of particles, which makes the model much simpler. On the other hand, I would like to add a mechanism for decoherence, which was absent in the previous version.
Gravitational waves in viable f(R) models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Louis; Lee, Chung-Chi; Geng, Chao-Qiang, E-mail: louis.lineage@msa.hinet.net, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: g9522545@oz.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)
2011-08-01
We study gravitational waves in viable f(R) theories under a non-zero background curvature. In general, an f(R) theory contains an extra scalar degree of freedom corresponding to a massive scalar mode of gravitational wave. For viable f(R) models, since there always exits a de-Sitter point where the background curvature in vacuum is non-zero, the mass squared of the scalar mode of gravitational wave is about the de-Sitter point curvature R{sub d} ∼ 10{sup −66}eV{sup 2}. We illustrate our results in two types of viable f(R) models: the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. In both cases, the mass will be in the order of 10{sup −33}eV when it propagates in vacuum. However, in the presence of matter density in galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. Explicitly, in the exponential gravity model, the mass becomes almost infinity, implying the disappearance of the scalar mode of gravitational wave, while the Starobinsky model gives the lowest mass around 10{sup −24}eV, corresponding to the lowest frequency of 10{sup −9} Hz, which may be detected by the current and future gravitational wave probes, such as LISA and ASTROD-GW.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杜欣新; 毛毳
2013-01-01
使用 ANSYS/LS-DYNA 建立了 TNT 炸药在空气中爆炸传播的二维计算模型，比较了相同网格划分比例时，三种不同当量 TNT 爆炸后在各自比例距离上测得的超压峰值．结果表明：各峰值基本相同，差别小于104,Pa．在此基础上，改变网格划分比例，模拟计算5,kg 当量 TNT的超压峰值，并与美国常规武器防护设计规范(TM5-855-1)进行对比，提出了与不同比例距离区间相适应的网格划分比例．%A 2-D calculating model of blast wave spreading in the air is established by ANSYS/LS-DYNA, and the peak overpressure measured on several scale distances of three different kinds of equivalent weight are compared under the same mesh size. The result indicates that the differences of the peak overpressures are less than 104 Pa, which means they are basi-cally the same. Based on the above analysis, the authors changes the mesh size to simulate the peak overpressure of 5.00 kg equivalent weight of TNT, and compares it with the result of the code for design of the U.S.A. conventional weapons protec-tion (TM5-855-1), the fundamentals of protective design for conventional weapons, and proposes different mesh generation methods to suit different scale distance zones.
Modelling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parmeggiani, Stefano; Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter
2010-01-01
The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter of the overtopping type, which is facing now the last phase of development before the commercial exploitation: the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator. In this phase a modelling tool allowing for accurate predictions of the perf......The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter of the overtopping type, which is facing now the last phase of development before the commercial exploitation: the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator. In this phase a modelling tool allowing for accurate predictions...... of the performance of the device at different scaling ratios and locations of interest is strongly required. The overtopping, depending on the local conditions of the deployment site, is identified as the right stage to be considered in the modelling. The existing formulation of the overtopping model needs...... to be updated in order to represent more accurately the effects of the geometrical features and stability of the device and of the local conditions and nonscalable parameters on the overtopping flow. The paper analyses the conditions at which the present formulation has been established and proposes a strategy...
Travelling waves in models of neural tissue: from localised structures to periodic waves
Meijer, Hil Gaétan Ellart; Coombes, Stephen
2014-01-01
We consider travelling waves (fronts, pulses and periodics) in spatially extended one dimensional neural field models. We demonstrate for an excitatory field with linear adaptation that, in addition to an expected stable pulse solution, a stable anti-pulse can exist. Varying the adaptation strength
Salimi Jazi, Mehdi; Rezaei, Asghar; Azarmi, Fardad; Ziejewski, Mariusz; Karami, Ghodrat
2016-01-01
Three different human head models in a free space are exposed to blast waves coming from four different directions. The four head-neck-body models composed of model a, with the neck free in space; model b, with neck fixed at the bottom; and model c, with the neck attached to the body. The results show that the effect of the body can be ignored for the first milliseconds of the head-blast wave interactions. Also one can see that although most biomechanical responses of the brain have similar patterns in all models, the shear stresses are heavily increased after a few milliseconds in model b in which the head motion is obstructed by the fixed-neck boundary conditions. The free-floating head model results are closer to the attached-body model.
Reflection in variational models for linear water waves
Klopman, Gert; Dingemans, Maarten W.
2010-01-01
The reflection characteristics are analysed for a series of Hamiltonian water-wave models. These variational models have been derived by applying a Boussinesq-like approach to the vertical flow-structure. Both parabolic and hyperbolic-cosine approximations to the vertical structure are considered. M
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHI Lin; LI Zhi-ling; YU Tao; LI Jiang-peng
2011-01-01
In blast furnace （BF） iron-making process, the hot metal silicon content was usually used to measure the quality of hot metal and to reflect the thermal state of BF. Principal component analysis （PCA） and partial least- square （PLS） regression methods were used to predict the hot metal silicon content. Under the conditions of BF rela- tively stable situation, PCA and PLS regression models of hot metal silicon content utilizing data from Baotou Steel No. 6 BF were established, which provided the accuracy of 88.4% and 89.2%. PLS model used less variables and time than principal component analysis model, and it was simple to calculate. It is shown that the model gives good results and is helpful for practical production.
Wang, Ying; Guo, Yunxi
2017-09-01
In this paper, we developed, for the first time, the exact expressions of several periodic travelling wave solutions and a solitary wave solution for a shallow water wave model of moderate amplitude. Then, we present the existence theorem of the global weak solutions. Finally, we prove the stability of solution in L1(R) space for the Cauchy problem of the equation.
Wang, Ying; Guo, Yunxi
2016-07-01
In this paper, we developed, for the first time, the exact expressions of several periodic travelling wave solutions and a solitary wave solution for a shallow water wave model of moderate amplitude. Then, we present the existence theorem of the global weak solutions. Finally, we prove the stability of solution in L1(R) space for the Cauchy problem of the equation.