WorldWideScience

Sample records for blast injuries

  1. Brain injuries from blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Cameron R; Panzer, Matthew B; Rafaels, Karen A; Wood, Garrett; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast produces a number of conundrums. This review focuses on five fundamental questions including: (1) What are the physical correlates for blast TBI in humans? (2) Why is there limited evidence of traditional pulmonary injury from blast in current military field epidemiology? (3) What are the primary blast brain injury mechanisms in humans? (4) If TBI can present with clinical symptoms similar to those of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), how do we clinically differentiate blast TBI from PTSD and other psychiatric conditions? (5) How do we scale experimental animal models to human response? The preponderance of the evidence from a combination of clinical practice and experimental models suggests that blast TBI from direct blast exposure occurs on the modern battlefield. Progress has been made in establishing injury risk functions in terms of blast overpressure time histories, and there is strong experimental evidence in animal models that mild brain injuries occur at blast intensities that are similar to the pulmonary injury threshold. Enhanced thoracic protection from ballistic protective body armor likely plays a role in the occurrence of blast TBI by preventing lung injuries at blast intensities that could cause TBI. Principal areas of uncertainty include the need for a more comprehensive injury assessment for mild blast injuries in humans, an improved understanding of blast TBI pathophysiology of blast TBI in animal models and humans, the relationship between clinical manifestations of PTSD and mild TBI from blunt or blast trauma including possible synergistic effects, and scaling between animals models and human exposure to blasts in wartime and terrorist attacks. Experimental methodologies, including location of the animal model relative to the shock or blast source, should be carefully designed to provide a realistic blast experiment with conditions comparable to blasts on humans. If traditional blast scaling is

  2. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Romney C; Fleming, Mark; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Gordon, Wade T; Nanos, George P; Charlton, Michael T; Ficke, James R

    2012-01-01

    The severe Dismounted Complex Blast Injury (DCBI) is characterized by high-energy injuries to the bilateral lower extremities (usually proximal transfemoral amputations) and/or upper extremity (usually involving the non-dominant side), in addition to open pelvic injuries, genitourinary, and abdominal trauma. Initial resuscitation and multidisciplinary surgical management appear to be the keys to survival. Definitive treatment follows general principals of open wound management and includes decontamination through aggressive and frequent debridement, hemorrhage control, viable tissue preservation, and appropriate timing of wound closure. These devastating injuries are associated with paradoxically favorable survival rates, but associated injuries and higher amputation levels lead to more difficult reconstructive challenges.

  3. Anorectal injury in pelvic blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Tom G; Garner, J P

    2013-03-01

    The signature injury of the Afghanistan campaign has, amongst other things, included an increased incidence of destructive anorectal injury. There is no significant body of evidence about this type of injury on which to base management strategies. This review examines the historical military data, later civilian reports, many of which have challenged the military dogmas of Vietnam, and the spartan contemporaneous military data which does not particularly address pelviperineal blast injury. There is no evidence to support a move away from the doctrine of the four D's (diversion, distal washout, drainage and direct repair), but sound surgical judgement remains the mainstay of managing these challenging and highly morbid injuries.

  4. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lance

    Full Text Available Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study.

  5. Blast Injuries: What Clinicians Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of the CDC’s Division of Injury Response, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control provides a brief overview for health care providers on how to respond and care for persons injured by an explosion or blast event.  Created: 11/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 11/6/2008.

  6. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury: a new trend of blast injury research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Zheng-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Blast injury has become the major life- and function-threatening injuries in recent warfares. There is increased research interest in the mental disorders caused by blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), which has been proved as one of the "signature wounds" in modern battlefield. We reviewed the recent progresses in bTBI-related researches and concluded that the new era of blast injury research has shifted from the traditional physical impairments to cognitive dysfunctional/mental disorders that are proved to be more related to the outcome of combat casualty care.

  7. Blast Injuries: What Clinicians Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of the CDC’s Division of Injury Response, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control provides a brief overview for health care providers on how to respond and care for persons injured by an explosion or blast event.

  8. Primary blast survival and injury risk assessment for repeated blast exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Matthew B; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Rafaels, Karin A; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce P

    2012-02-01

    The widespread use of explosives by modern insurgents and terrorists has increased the potential frequency of blast exposure in soldiers and civilians. This growing threat highlights the importance of understanding and evaluating blast injury risk and the increase of injury risk from exposure to repeated blast effects. Data from more than 3,250 large animal experiments were collected from studies focusing on the effects of blast exposure. The current study uses 2,349 experiments from the data collection for analysis of the primary blast injury and survival risk for both long- and short-duration blasts, including the effects from repeated exposures. A piecewise linear logistic regression was performed on the data to develop survival and injury risk assessment curves. New injury risk assessment curves uniting long- and short-duration blasts were developed for incident and reflected pressure measures and were used to evaluate the risk of injury based on blast over pressure, positive-phase duration, and the number of repeated exposures. The risk assessments were derived for three levels of injury severity: nonauditory, pulmonary, and fatality. The analysis showed a marked initial decrease in injury tolerance with each subsequent blast exposure. This effect decreases with increasing number of blast exposures. The new injury risk functions showed good agreement with the existing experimental data and provided a simplified model for primary blast injury risk. This model can be used to predict blast injury or fatality risk for single exposure and repeated exposure cases and has application in modern combat scenarios or in setting occupational health limits. .Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  9. Blast-Induced Acceleration in a Shock Tube: Distinguishing Primary and Tertiary Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    injury conditions (blast and acceleration vs acceleration alone) undergo neurobehavioral and histopathological assessments to comprehensively... reversal . To facilitate mid-air blasts, a release mechanism was devised. Balls were attached to the bail of the mechanism. The blast wave would cause

  10. Pathological Fingerprints, Systems Biology and Biomarkers of Blast Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    changes after blast injury. J. Trauma 56, 393–403. Murthy, J.M., Chopra, J.S., and Gulati, D.R. (1979). Subdural hematoma in an adult following a blast...neuronal damage), diffuse brain injury, and subdural hemorrhage. It is still controversial whether primary blast forces directly damage the brain, and if...emboli, leading to infarction (Guy et al., 2000a; Guy et al., 2000b). The most common types of TBI are diffuse axonal injury, contusion, and subdural

  11. Spectrum of abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type is always challenging for diagnosis. Air containing abdominal viscera is most vulnerable to effects of primary blast injury. In any patient exposed to a primary blast wave who presents with an acute abdomen, an abdominal organ injury is to be kept in a clinical suspicion. Aim Study various abdominal organ injuries occurring in a primary type of blast injury. Material and methods: All those who had exploratory laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries after a primary blast injury for a period of 10 years from January 1998 - January 2008 were included in this retrospective study. Results Total 154 patients had laparotomy for abdominal organ injuries with a primary blast type of injury. Small intestine was damaged in 48 patients (31.1% followed by spleen in 22.7% cases. 54 patients (35.06% had more than one organ injured. Liver laceration was present in 30 patients (19.48%. Multiple small gut perforations were present in 37 patients (77.08%. Negative laparotomy was found in 5 patients (3.24% whereas 3 (1.94% had re-exploration. Mortality was present in 6 patients (3.89%. Conclusions Primary blast injury causes varied abdominal organ injuries. Single or multiple organ damage can be there. Small intestine is commonest viscera injured. Laparotomy gives final diagnosis.

  12. Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury: lessons from lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, A.; Ohtani, K.; Armonda, R.; Tomita, H.; Sakuma, A.; Mugikura, S.; Takayama, K.; Kushimoto, S.; Tominaga, T.

    2017-11-01

    Traumatic injury caused by explosive or blast events is traditionally divided into four mechanisms: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury. The mechanisms of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) are biomechanically distinct and can be modeled in both in vivo and in vitro systems. The primary bTBI injury mechanism is associated with the response of brain tissue to the initial blast wave. Among the four mechanisms of bTBI, there is a remarkable lack of information regarding the mechanism of primary bTBI. On the other hand, 30 years of research on the medical application of shock waves (SWs) has given us insight into the mechanisms of tissue and cellular damage in bTBI, including both air-mediated and underwater SW sources. From a basic physics perspective, the typical blast wave consists of a lead SW followed by shock-accelerated flow. The resultant tissue injury includes several features observed in primary bTBI, such as hemorrhage, edema, pseudo-aneurysm formation, vasoconstriction, and induction of apoptosis. These are well-described pathological findings within the SW literature. Acoustic impedance mismatch, penetration of tissue by shock/bubble interaction, geometry of the skull, shear stress, tensile stress, and subsequent cavitation formation are all important factors in determining the extent of SW-induced tissue and cellular injury. In addition, neuropsychiatric aspects of blast events need to be taken into account, as evidenced by reports of comorbidity and of some similar symptoms between physical injury resulting in bTBI and the psychiatric sequelae of post-traumatic stress. Research into blast injury biophysics is important to elucidate specific pathophysiologic mechanisms of blast injury, which enable accurate differential diagnosis, as well as development of effective treatments. Herein we describe the requirements for an adequate experimental setup when investigating blast-induced tissue and cellular injury; review SW physics

  13. Blast wave injury prediction models for complex scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teland, J.A.; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Blast waves from explosions can cause lethal injuries to humans. Development of injury criteria has been ongoing for many years, but with the main focus on free field conditions. However, with terrorist actions as a new threat, explosions in urban areas have become of much more interest. Urban areas

  14. Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2011-01-21

    In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies

  15. Accidental hand grenade blast injuries in the Transkei region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Study: Accidental hand grenade blast injuries in the Transkei region of South Africa. 348. Vol 51 No 4. SA Fam ... There is some evidence that a substantial number of small arms and hand grenades ... Unfortunately, the safety device was ...

  16. Investigations of primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, T. W.; Josey, T.; Wang, Y.; Villanueva, M.; Ritzel, D. V.; Nelson, P.; Lee, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    The development of an advanced blast simulator (ABS) has enabled the reproducible generation of single-pulse shock waves that simulate free-field blast with high fidelity. Studies with rodents in the ABS demonstrated the necessity of head restraint during head-only exposures. When the head was not restrained, violent global head motion was induced by pressures that would not produce similar movement of a target the size and mass of a human head. This scaling artefact produced changes in brain function that were reminiscent of traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to impact-acceleration effects. Restraint of the rodent head eliminated these, but still produced subtle changes in brain biochemistry, showing that blast-induced pressure waves do cause brain deficits. Further experiments were carried out with rat brain cell aggregate cultures that enabled the conduct of studies without the gross movement encountered when using rodents. The suspension nature of this model was also exploited to minimize the boundary effects that complicate the interpretation of primary blast studies using surface cultures. Using this system, brain tissue was found not only to be sensitive to pressure changes, but also able to discriminate between the highly defined single-pulse shock waves produced by underwater blast and the complex pressure history exposures experienced by aggregates encased within a sphere and subjected to simulated air blast. The nature of blast-induced primary TBI requires a multidisciplinary research approach that addresses the fidelity of the blast insult, its accurate measurement and characterization, as well as the limitations of the biological models used.

  17. A review of three cases of mobile blast: The new culprit of hand injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj B Mody

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although blast injuries are common with war; cooking gas; firecracker, mobile phone blast cases are increasing in number in last couple of years. We present 3 cases of mobile blast in 3 children causing injury to dominant hand in them.

  18. Low-cost blast wave generator for studies of hearing loss and brain injury: blast wave effects in closed spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Andrew J; Hayes, Sarah H; Rao, Abhiram S; Allman, Brian L; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Ding, Dalian; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lobarinas, Edward; Mollendorf, Joseph C; Salvi, Richard

    2015-03-15

    Military personnel and civilians living in areas of armed conflict have increased risk of exposure to blast overpressures that can cause significant hearing loss and/or brain injury. The equipment used to simulate comparable blast overpressures in animal models within laboratory settings is typically very large and prohibitively expensive. To overcome the fiscal and space limitations introduced by previously reported blast wave generators, we developed a compact, low-cost blast wave generator to investigate the effects of blast exposures on the auditory system and brain. The blast wave generator was constructed largely from off the shelf components, and reliably produced blasts with peak sound pressures of up to 198dB SPL (159.3kPa) that were qualitatively similar to those produced from muzzle blasts or explosions. Exposure of adult rats to 3 blasts of 188dB peak SPL (50.4kPa) resulted in significant loss of cochlear hair cells, reduced outer hair cell function and a decrease in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Existing blast wave generators are typically large, expensive, and are not commercially available. The blast wave generator reported here provides a low-cost method of generating blast waves in a typical laboratory setting. This compact blast wave generator provides scientists with a low cost device for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in blast wave injury to the rodent cochlea and brain that may model many of the damaging effects sustained by military personnel and civilians exposed to intense blasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    in a canvas harness. The harness was further supported by a steel frame which was suspended from a metal beam (3.7 m off the ground) mounted on...direction of the wave propagation (Figure 5). After proper alignment of the head with respect to the center of the C4 charge, the steel frame was...further tied to four hooks cemented to the concrete ground with straps to prevent excessive motion during the blast exposure. The intensity of the two

  20. The pattern of paediatric blast injury in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Daniel C; Crooks, R J; Clasper, J C; Lupu, A; Stapley, S A; Cloke, D J

    2017-10-21

    Between 2009 and 2015, 3746 children died, and 7904 were injured as a result of armed conflict within Afghanistan. Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and explosive remnants of war accounted for 29% of child casualties in 2015. The aim of this study was to review the burden of paediatric blast injuries admitted to Camp Bastion, Afghanistan, and to investigate the hypothesis that children suffer proportionally more head injuries than adults. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of prospectively collected data derived from the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry of ambulant paediatric (aged 2-15 years) admissions with blast injuries at the Role 3 Field Hospital, Camp Bastion from June 2006 to March 2013. The data set included demographic information, injury profile and severity (New Injury Severity Score) and operative findings. The pattern of injuries were investigated by looking at trends in the number and severity of injuries sustained by each body region. During this period, 295 admissions were identified, 76% of whom were male, with an overall mortality rate of 18.5%. The most common blast mechanism was an IED (68%) causing 80% of fatalities. The lower extremities were the most commonly injured body region, accounting for 31% of total injuries and occurring in 62% of cases. 24.3% of children between 2 and 7 years suffered severe head or neck injuries compared with 19.8% of children aged between 8 and 15 years. 34% of head injuries were rated unsurvivable and accounted for 88% of fatalities. 77% of cases required an operation with a mean operating time of 125 min. The most common first operations were debridement of soft tissues (50%), laparotomy (16%) and lower limb amputation (11%). Although paediatric blast casualties represented a small percentage of the overall workload at Camp Bastion Role 3 Medical Facility, the pattern of injuries seen suggests that children are more likely to sustain severe head, face and neck injuries than adults. © Article author

  1. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    influence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the shock wave response 3. Development of the geometric model for the head of a 23 55-kg Yucatan pig 4...of Tissue-Tek® optimum cutting compound and 20% sucrose (w/v) and frozen in a stream of liquid nitrogen (Saljo et al, 2008). The frozen blocks will...review of current models of the pig head under air blast loading 2. Development of a 2-D pig head FE model to study the influence of cerebrospinal fluid

  2. Blast Injury: Translating Research Into Operational Medicine (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-20

    better body armor, automobile safety systems, and less injurious nonlethal weapons. Many of the key findings of the MOMRP blast re- search program have... Proton MRS also has mood disorders.127–133 MRS imaging has cor- related with functional independence measure,134 Glasgow Outcome Scale, and...Pennsylvania in the Battle of the Crater: A Regimen of Coal Miners Who Tunneled Under the Enemy. Jef- ferson, NC: McFarland & Company ; 2006. 2

  3. Blast overpressure induced axonal injury changes in rat brainstem and spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasu Kallakuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blast induced neurotrauma has been the signature wound in returning soldiers from the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Of importance is understanding the pathomechansim(s of blast overpressure (OP induced axonal injury. Although several recent animal models of blast injury indicate the neuronal and axonal injury in various brain regions, animal studies related to axonal injury in the white matter (WM tracts of cervical spinal cord are limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of axonal injury in WM tracts of cervical spinal cord in male Sprague Dawley rats subjected to a single insult of blast OP. Materials and Methods: Sagittal brainstem sections and horizontal cervical spinal cord sections from blast and sham animals were stained by neurofilament light (NF-L chain and beta amyloid precursor protein immunocytochemistry and observed for axonal injury changes. Results: Observations from this preliminary study demonstrate axonal injury changes in the form of prominent swellings, retraction bulbs, and putative signs of membrane disruptions in the brainstem and cervical spinal cord WM tracts of rats subjected to blast OP. Conclusions: Prominent axonal injury changes following the blast OP exposure in brainstem and cervical spinal WM tracts underscores the need for careful evaluation of blast induced injury changes and associated symptoms. NF-L immunocytochemistry can be considered as an additional tool to assess the blast OP induced axonal injury.

  4. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-14

    raised against β-APP (Cat # 51- 2700, Life Technologies , Grand Island, NY) and processed by routine avidin biotin peroxidase method. The presence of...pathology of traumatic axonal injury involves distinct injury processes, neurofilament compaction ( NFC ) and impaired axoplasmic transport (IAT)1. In rat...blunt trauma studies NFC was evidenced by immunoreactive axons that were thin, elongated and sometimes with vacuolations as revealed by RMO14

  5. Blast injury face: An exemplified review of management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Arun Kumar; Kumar, Parmod; Shenoy, Yogesh Ramdas; Verma, Anoop K.; Borole, Ateesh Jayram; Prasad, Veerendra

    2013-01-01

    Facial injuries are extremely common due to increased incidence of vehicular and industrial trauma and warfare injuries. But isolated injury to the face due to low voltage cells exploding is rare. In blast injury, the force can cause massive soft tissue injury, along with injury to facial fractures and damage to adnexa. Facial injury is not life threatening unless associated with other injuries of the skull and airway. The major risks to airway in facial trauma are due to anatomic alteration of patient's airway through bony and soft tissue disruption and increased chances of aspiration. The past several decades have seen a rapid growth in the range of procedures available for reconstructive purposes. However, the essential preliminary management is a must and needs to be structured. The patient, a 10-year-old boy, was joining three pencil batteries in series and twisting the wire with his teeth when one battery exploded causing severe injuries to midface and mandibular region. After stabilization, the patient was taken up for surgery. A cap splint with zygomatic suspension was done for the maxilla, and wiring of residual mandibular segments with lining and skin cover provided by a deltopectoral flap was done. Reconstructive surgeries for reconstruction of the upper lip and maintenance of oral continence were planned for the future. The present case stresses the importance of educating the masses about unsafe handling of low voltage devices, management of airway, massive soft tissue injury, along with facial fractures and damage to adnexa. PMID:24163550

  6. [Blast injuries of the hands in precarious health situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, K C; Kossoko, H; Assi Djè Bi Djè, V; Yéo, S; Bonny, R; Richard Kadio, M

    2014-06-01

    The hands of "blast" resulting from the handling of unstable explosives. Their repercussion is functional and vital in trauma patients. The authors report their experience of care from the hands of blast in precarious health situation. Between 2001 and 2012, 33 hand blasts were supported in 30 injured civilians and military, received emergency, during and after armed conflict. Two women (6.7%) and 28 men (93.3%) were received, including four teenagers (13.3%) and 26 adults (86.7%). During the war, 15 officers weapon (50%) and three civilians (10%) underwent surgery, or 60% of hand injuries. In peacetime, civilians were mostly operated in 33.3% of cases, against 6.7% of cases of agents' weapon. Nineteen hands blast (57.6%) were observed during the war and 14 in peacetime, or 42.4% of cases. The average age was 25.2 years, with extremes of 12 and 50 years. Thirteen left hands (39.4%) and 20 right hands (60.6%) were operated. The lesion concerned all the anatomical structures of the hand. It was unilateral in 27 cases (81.9%) and bilateral in three cases (9.1%). Three types of hand trauma were observed and were as follows: trauma patients with injuries of the hand (18.2%), trauma of severe and isolated proximal hand or finger amputations (75.7%), and trauma of the hand without apparent seriousness (6.1%). The associated lesion was eye (one case), chest (one case), abdominal (five cases). Debridement was performed immediate emergency (93.9%) and delayed (6.1%). The treatment was surgical hemostasis, made mainly of amputations (69.7%) and regularization of digital stumps (12.1%). The repair was performed in 18.2% of cases. One death has been reported in a polytrauma patient with chest blast. Blast injuries of the hand are common in times of war in armed agents. The young people, manual workers and children are paying a heavy price in peacetime. As land mines which affect feet, instable hand grenades are left exposed in nature. In precarious health situation, instead of

  7. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-08

    further underscored the need for this new guideline based on injury data. Conference Name: Personal Armour Systems Symposium Conference Date...29.  Cole, R., Underwater Explosion. (Dover Publications, Inc ., New York, N.Y., 1948) 30.  Nakahara, M., Nagayama, K, Mori, Y, Japanese Journal...Abstract of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc . Annual Scientific Meeting, (1976).

  8. Development of a Comprehensive Blast-Related Auditory Injury Database (BRAID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    servicemembers included in the Blast-Related Auditory Injury Database. * Training injuries, accidents, and other noncombat injuries. †3,452 injuries...medications, exposures to ototoxic chemicals, recreational noise exposure, and other forms of temporary and persistent threshold shift. Combat marines...AC, Vecchiotti M, Kujawa SG, Lee DJ, Quesnel AM. Otologic outcomes after blast injury: The Boston Marathon experience. Otol Neurotol. 2014; 35(10

  9. Primary Blast Injury Criteria for Animal/Human TBI Models using Field Validated Shock Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    acute hemorrhage characterized by partial filling of small groups of alveoli by blood . 240 kPa: Mild multifocal pools of acute hemorrhage which...Neurotrauma, Blast TBI, Primary blast brain injury, Blast overpressure, Blood -brain barrier, Neuroinflammation, Oxidative stress, Neuroproteomics 16...stress, neuroinflammation and BBB damage as a result of blast overpressure in the acute phase (0, 4 and 24 hours post-exposure). Our group

  10. Linking blast physics to biological outcomes in mild traumatic brain injury: Narrative review and preliminary report of an open-field blast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hailong; Cui, Jiankun; Simonyi, Agnes; Johnson, Catherine E; Hubler, Graham K; DePalma, Ralph G; Gu, Zezong

    2018-03-15

    Blast exposures are associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and blast-induced TBIs are common injuries affecting military personnel. Department of Defense and Veterans Administration (DoD/VA) reports for TBI indicated that the vast majority (82.3%) has been mild TBI (mTBI)/concussion. mTBI and associated posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) have been called "the invisible injury" of the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. These injuries induce varying degrees of neuropathological alterations and, in some cases, chronic cognitive, behavioral and neurological disorders. Appropriate animal models of blast-induced TBI will not only assist the understanding of physical characteristics of the blast, but also help to address the potential mechanisms. This report provides a brief overview of physical principles of blast, injury mechanisms related to blast exposure, current blast animal models, and the neurological behavioral and neuropathological findings related to blast injury in experimental settings. We describe relationships between blast peak pressures and the observed injuries. We also report preliminary use of a highly reproducible and intensity-graded blast murine model carried out in open-field with explosives, and describe physical and pathological findings in this experimental model. Our results indicate close relationships between blast intensities and neuropathology and behavioral deficits, particularly at low level blast intensities relevant to mTBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bomb blast mass casualty incidents: initial triage and management of injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, S H

    2009-01-01

    Bomb blast injuries are no longer confined to battlefields. With the ever present threat of terrorism, we should always be prepared for bomb blasts. Bomb blast injuries tend to affect air-containing organs more, as the blast wave tends to exert a shearing force on air-tissue interfaces. Commonly-injured organs include the tympanic membranes, the sinuses, the lungs and the bowel. Of these, blast lung injury is the most challenging to treat. The clinical picture is a mix of acute respiratory distress syndrome and air embolism, and the institution of positive pressure ventilation in the presence of low venous pressures could cause systemic arterial air embolism. The presence of a tympanic membrane perforation is not a reliable indicator of the presence of a blast injury in the other air-containing organs elsewhere. Radiological imaging of the head, chest and abdomen help with the early identification of blast lung injury, head injury, abdominal injury, eye and sinus injuries, as well as any penetration by foreign bodies. In addition, it must be borne in mind that bomb blasts could also be used to disperse radiological and chemical agents.

  12. Behavioral Outcomes Differ Between Rotational Acceleration and Blast Mechanisms of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Stemper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI can result from a number of mechanisms, including blunt impact, head rotational acceleration, exposure to blast, and penetration of projectiles. Mechanism is likely to influence the type, severity, and chronicity of outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine differences in the severity and time-course of behavioral outcomes following blast and rotational mTBI. The Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW Rotational Injury model and a shock tube model of primary blast injury were used to induce mTBI in rats and behavioral assessments were conducted within the first week, as well as 30 and 60 days following injury. Acute recovery time demonstrated similar increases over protocol-matched shams, indicating acute injury severity equivalence between the two mechanisms. Post-injury behavior in the elevated plus maze demonstrated differing trends, with rotationally injured rats acutely demonstrating greater activity, whereas blast-injured rats had decreased activity that developed at chronic time points. Similarly, blast-injured rats demonstrated trends associated with cognitive deficits that were not apparent following rotational injuries. These findings demonstrate that rotational and blast injury result in behavioral changes with different qualitative and temporal manifestations. Whereas rotational injury was characterized by a rapidly emerging phenotype consistent with behavioral disinhibition, blast injury was associated with emotional and cognitive differences that were not evident acutely, but developed later, with an anxiety-like phenotype still present in injured animals at our most chronic measurements.

  13. Transcriptional Changes in the Mouse Retina after Ocular Blast Injury: A Role for the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struebing, Felix L; King, Rebecca; Li, Ying; Chrenek, Micah A; Lyuboslavsky, Polina N; Sidhu, Curran S; Iuvone, P Michael; Geisert, Eldon E

    2018-01-01

    Ocular blast injury is a major medical concern for soldiers and explosion victims due to poor visual outcomes. To define the changes in gene expression following a blast injury to the eye, we examined retinal ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression in 54 mouse strains 5 days after a single 50-psi overpressure air wave blast injury. We observe that almost 40% of genes are differentially expressed with a false discovery rate (FDR) of immune system are activated. Accompanied by lymphocyte invasion into the inner retina, blast injury also results in progressive loss of visual function and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Collectively, these data demonstrate how systems genetics can be used to put meaning to the transcriptome changes following ocular blast injury that eventually lead to blindness.

  14. Blast mines: physics, injury mechanisms and vehicle protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, A; Hill, A M; Hepper, A E; Bull, A M J; Clasper, J C

    2009-12-01

    Since World War II, more vehicles have been lost to land mines than all other threats combined. Anti-vehicular (AV) mines are capable of disabling a heavy vehicle, or completely destroying a lighter vehicle. The most common form of AV mine is the blast mine, which uses a large amount of explosive to directly damage the target. In a conventional military setting, landmines are used as a defensive force-multiplier and to restrict the movements of the opposing force. They are relatively cheap to purchase and easy to acquire, hence landmines are also potent weapons in the insurgents' armamentarium. The stand-offnature of its design has allowed insurgents to cause significant injuries to security forces in current conflicts with little personal risk. As a result, AV mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have become the most common cause of death and injury to Coalition and local security forces operating in Iraq and Afghanistan. Detonation of an AV mine causes an explosive, exothermic reaction which results in the formation of a shockwave followed by a rapid expansion of gases. The shockwave is mainly reflected by the soillair interface and fractures the soil cap overthe mine. The detonation products then vent through the voids in the soil, resulting in a hollow inverse cone which consists of the detonation gases surrounded by the soil ejecta. It is the combination of the detonation products and soil ejecta that interact with the target vehicle and cause injury to the vehicle occupants. A number of different strategies are required to mitigate the blast effects of an explosion. Primary blast effects can be reduced by increasing the standoff distance between the seat of the explosion and the crew compartment. Enhancement of armour on the base of the vehicle, as well as improvements in personal protection can prevent penetration of fragments. Mitigating tertiary effects can be achieved by altering the vehicle geometry and structure, increasing vehicle mass, as

  15. Computational modeling of blast induced whole-body injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Arnab; Callaway, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Blast injuries affect millions of lives across the globe due to its traumatic after effects on the brain and the whole body. To date, military grade armour materials are designed to mitigate ballistic and shrapnel attacks but are less effective in resisting blast impacts. In order to improve blast absorption characteristics of armours, the first key step is thoroughly understands the effects of blasts on the human body itself. In the last decade, a plethora of experimental and computational work has been carried out to investigate the mechanics and pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). However, very few attempts have been made so far to study the effect of blasts on the various other parts of the body such as the sensory organs (eyes and ears), nervous system, thorax, extremities, internal organs (such as the lungs) and the skeletal system. While an experimental evaluation of blast effects on such physiological systems is difficult, developing finite element (FE) models could allow the recreation of realistic blast scenarios on full scale human models and simulate the effects. The current article reviews the state-of-the-art in computational research in blast induced whole-body injury modelling, which would not only help in identifying the areas in which further research is required, but would also be indispensable for understanding body location specific armour design criteria for improved blast injury mitigation.

  16. A multiscale approach to blast neurotrauma modeling:Part II: Methodology for inducing blast injury to in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen B. Effgen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prominent role of improvised explosive devices (IEDs in wounding patterns of U.S. war-fighters in Iraq and Afghanistan, blast injury has risen to a new level of importance and is recognized to be a major cause of injuries to the brain. However, an injury risk-function for microscopic, macroscopic, behavioral, and neurological deficits has yet to be defined. While operational blast injuries can be very complex and thus difficult to analyze, a simplified blast injury model would facilitate studies correlating biological outcomes with blast biomechanics to define tolerance criteria. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI results from the translation of a shock wave in air, such as that produced by an IED, into a pressure wave within the skull-brain complex. Our blast injury methodology recapitulates this phenomenon in vitro, allowing for control of the injury biomechanics via a compressed-gas shock tube used in conjunction with a custom-designed, fluid-filled receiver that contains the living culture. The receiver converts the air shock wave into a fast-rising pressure transient with minimal reflections, mimicking the intracranial pressure history in blast. We have developed an organotypic hippocampal slice culture model that exhibits cell death when exposed to a 530  17.7 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.026 ± 0.017 ms duration and 190 ± 10.7 kPa-ms impulse in-air. We have also injured a simplified in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier, which exhibits disrupted integrity immediately following exposure to 581  10.0 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.067 ms ± 0.006 ms duration and 222 ± 6.9 kPa-ms impulse in-air. To better prevent and treat bTBI, both the initiating biomechanics and the ensuing pathobiology must be understood in greater detail. A well-characterized, in vitro model of bTBI, in conjunction with animal models, will be a powerful tool for developing strategies to mitigate the risks of bTBI.

  17. E-cigarette Blast Injury: Complex Facial Fractures and Pneumocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Archambeau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (also known as e-cigarettes or e-cigs are becoming a popular method of recreational nicotine use over recent years. The growth of new brands and devices has been outpacing the FDA’s ability to regulate them. As a result, some of these devices fail without warning, most likely from malfunction of the lithium-ion batteries that are in close proximity to volatile compounds within the device. Failures have occurred during both use and storage of the devices or their components. The subsequent injuries from several of these events, including full thickness burns requiring grafting and blast injuries, have been observed at Arrowhead Regional Medical Center, a regional trauma and burn center in southern California. One severe case resulted in several maxillofacial fractures, blurred vision, and pneumocephalus after a device failed catastrophically during use. The patient required close monitoring with serial imaging by neurosurgery in the intensive care unit and multiple procedures by oral maxillofacial surgery to reconstruct his facial bones and soft tissue. Ultimately, the patient recovered with minimal permanent damage, but the potential for further injury or even death was apparent. Cases such as this one are becoming more frequent. It is important to increase awareness of this growing problem for both medical professionals and the general public in order to curb this concerning new trend.

  18. Retrospective review of lumbosacral dissociations in blast injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Melvin D; Lehman, Ronald A; Cooper, Patrick; Frisch, Michael; Andersen, Romney C; Bellabarba, Carlo

    2011-04-01

    Retrospective review of medical records and radiographs. We assessed the clinical outcomes of lumbosacral dissociation (LSD) after traumatic, combat-related injuries, and to review our management of these distinct injuries and report our preliminary follow-up. LSD injuries are an anatomic separation of the pelvis from the spinal column, and are the result of high-energy trauma. A relative increase in these injuries has been seen in young healthy combat casualties subjected to high-energy blast trauma. We performed a retrospective review of inpatient/outpatient medical records and radiographs for all patients treated at our institution with combat-related lumbosacral dissociations. Twenty-three patients met inclusion criteria of combat-related lumbosacral dissociations with one-year follow-up. Patients were treated as follows: no fixation (9), sacroiliac screw fixation (8), posterior spinal fusion (5) and sacral plate (1). All patients with radiographic evidence of a zone III sacral fracture, in addition to associated lumbar fractures indicating loss of the iliolumbar ligamentous complex integrity were included. In 15 patients, the sacral fracture were an H or U type zone III fracture, whereas in the remaining nine, the sacral fracture was severely comminuted and unable to classify (six open fractures). There was no difference in visual analog scale (VAS) between treatment modalities. Two open injuries had residual infections. One patient treated with an L4-ilium posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation required instrumentation removal for infection. At a mean follow-up of 1.71 years (range, 1-4.5), 11 patients (48%) still reported residual pain and the mean VAS at latest follow-up was 1.7 (range, 0-7). Operative stabilization promoted healing and earlier mobilization, but carries a high-postoperative risk of infection. Nonoperative management should be considered in patients whose comorbidities prevent safe stabilization.

  19. Novel method to dynamically load cells in 3D-hydrogels culture for blast injury studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sory, David R.; Areias, Anabela C.; Overby, Darryl R.; Proud, William G.

    2017-01-01

    For at least a century explosive devices have been one of the most important causes of injuries in military conflicts as well as in terrorist attacks. Although significant experimental and modelling efforts have been focussed on blast injuries at the organ or tissue level, few studies have investigated the mechanisms of blast injuries at the cellular level. This paper introduces an in vitro method compatible with living cells to examine the effects of high stress and short-duration pulses relevant to blast loadings and blunt trauma. The experimental phase involves high strain-rate axial compression of cylindrical specimens within an hermetically sealed chamber made of biocompatible polymer. Numerical simulations were performed in order to verify the experimental loading conditions and to characterize the loading path within the sample. A proof of concept is presented so as to establish a new window to address fundamental questions regarding blast injury at the cellular level.

  20. Exploration of the molecular basis of blast injury in a biofidelic model of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, P.; Mehoke, T.; Gleason, J.; Iwaskiw, A.; Paulson, J.; Merkle, A.; Wester, B.; Dymond, J.

    2018-01-01

    Biological response to blast overpressure is complex and results in various and potentially non-concomitant acute and long-term deficits to exposed individuals. Clinical links between blast severity and injury outcomes remain elusive and have yet to be fully described, resulting in a critical inability to develop associated protection and mitigation strategies. Further, experimental models frequently fail to reproduce observed physiological phenomena and/or introduce artifacts that confound analysis and reproducibility. New models are required that employ consistent mechanical inputs, scale with biological analogs and known clinical data, and permit high-throughput examination of biological responses for a range of environmental and battlefield- relevant exposures. Here we describe a novel, biofidelic headform capable of integrating complex biological samples for blast exposure studies. We additionally demonstrate its utility in detecting acute transcriptional responses in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans after exposure to blast overpressure. This approach enables correlation between mechanical exposure and biological outcome, permitting both the enhancement of existing surrogate and computational models and the high-throughput biofidelic testing of current and future protection systems.

  1. Investigations of Tissue-Level Mechanisms of Primary Blast Injury Through Modeling, Simulation, Neuroimaging and Neuropathological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    2007;25(1):97-98. [19] Stewart C. Blast Injuries. Colorado Springs: USAF Academy Hospital; 2006. 88 p. [20] Cernak I, Wang Z, Jiang J, Bian X, Savic J...Wang Z, Jiang J, Bian X, Savic J. Ultrastructural and Functional Characteristics of Blast Injury- Induced Neurotrauma. Journal of Trauma: Injury

  2. Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2009-04-30

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts, with debilitating, costly, and long-lasting effects. Although mechanisms by which head impacts cause TBI have been well-researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient skull flexure to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even without a head impact. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for injury diagnosis and armor design.

  3. Pattern of external injuries sustained during bomb blast attacks in Karachi, Pakistan from 2000 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surani, Arif Anwar; Ali, Salman; Surani, Asif; Zahid, Sohaib; Shoukat, Akber; Varon, Joseph; Surani, Salim

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate patterns of external injury resulting from bomb blasts in Karachi, and compare the injury profile resulting from explosions in open versus semi-confined blast environments. The retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in Karachi and comprised relevant data from January 2000 to October 2007. Casualty medical records and medico-legal certificates of the victims presented to three large public-sector hospitals were evaluated using a self-designed proforma. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 1146 victims, data of 481(42%) represented the final study sample. Of these, 306(63.6%) were injured in open spaces and 175(36.4%) in semi-confined spaces. Of the 896 recorded injuries, lacerations were encountered as external injury in 427(47.7%) cases, followed by penetrating wounds in 137(15.3%). Lower and upper extremities were injured in 348(38.8%) and 170(19%) victims respectively. Open and semi-confined blast environments produced specific injury pattern and profile (pbomb blast attacks in Karachi demonstrated specific injury patterns and profiles. Further studies are required to account for internal injuries and classification of injuries based on standardised scoring systems.

  4. Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

  5. Injuries to the colon from blast effect of penetrating extra-peritoneal thoraco-abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P; Oswanski, Michael F; White, Patrick W

    2004-03-01

    Although rare, blast injury to the intestine can result from penetrating thoraco-abdominal extra-peritoneal gunshot (and shotgun) wounds despite the absence of injury to the diaphragm or to the peritoneum. Injuries of the spleen, small intestine and the mesentery by this mechanism have been previously reported in the world literature. This paper reports the first two cases of non-penetrating ballistic trauma to the colon.

  6. Microstructural Consequences of Blast Lung Injury Characterized with Digital Volume Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Arora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on microstructural changes that occur within the mammalian lung when subject to blast and how these changes influence strain distributions within the tissue. Shock tube experiments were performed to generate the blast injured specimens (cadaveric Sprague-Dawley rats. Blast overpressures of 100 and 180 kPa were studied. Synchrotron tomography imaging was used to capture volumetric image data of lungs. Specimens were ventilated using a custom-built system to study multiple inflation pressures during each tomography scan. These data enabled the first digital volume correlation (DVC measurements in lung tissue to be performed. Quantitative analysis was performed to describe the damaged architecture of the lung. No clear changes in the microstructure of the tissue morphology were observed due to controlled low- to moderate-level blast exposure. However, significant focal sites of injury were observed using DVC, which allowed the detection of bias and concentration in the patterns of strain level. Morphological analysis corroborated the findings, illustrating that the focal damage caused by a blast can give rise to diffuse influence across the tissue. It is important to characterize the non-instantly fatal doses of blast, given the transient nature of blast lung in the clinical setting. This research has highlighted the need for better understanding of focal injury and its zone of influence (alveolar interdependency and neighboring tissue burden as a result of focal injury. DVC techniques show great promise as a tool to advance this endeavor, providing a new perspective on lung mechanics after blast.

  7. Imaging of Combat-Related Thoracic Trauma - Blunt Trauma and Blast Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, John P; Kim, Andrew M; Fisher, Dane; Tatum, Peter S; Neubauer, Brian; Peterson, P Gabriel; Carter, Brett W

    2018-03-01

    Combat-related thoracic trauma (CRTT) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality of the casualties from Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Penetrating, blunt, and blast injuries are the most common mechanisms of trauma to the chest. Imaging plays a key role in the battlefield management of CRTT casualties. This work discusses the imaging manifestations of thoracic injuries from blunt trauma and blast injury, emphasizing epidemiology and diagnostic clues seen during OEF and OIF. The assessment of radiologic findings in patients who suffer from combat-related blunt thoracic trauma and blast injury is the basis of this work. The imaging modalities for this work include multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and chest radiography. Multiple imaging modalities are available to imagers on or near the battlefront, including radiography, fluoroscopy, and MDCT. MDCT with multi-planar reconstructions is the most sensitive imaging modality available in combat hospitals for the evaluation of CRTT. In modern combat, blunt and blast injuries account for a significant portion of CRTT. Individual body armor converts penetrating trauma to blunt trauma, leading to pulmonary contusion that accounted for 50.2% of thoracic injuries during OIF and OEF. Flail chest, a subset of blunt chest injury, is caused by significant blunt force to the chest and occurs four times as frequently in combat casualties when compared with the civilian population. Imaging features of CRTT have significant diagnostic and prognostic value. Pulmonary contusions on chest radiography appear as patchy consolidations in the acute setting with ill-defined and non-segmental borders. MDCT of the chest is a superior imaging modality in diagnosing and evaluating pulmonary contusion. Contusions on MDCT appear as crescentic ground-glass opacities (opacities through which lung interstitium and vasculature are still visible) and areas of consolidation that often do not

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Blast Loading Descriptors as Occupant Injury Predictors for Underbody Blast Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the DoD, and shall not be used for advertising or...Trembelay, J., “Validation of a Loading Model for Simulating Blast Mine Effects on Armoured Vehicles,” 7th International LS-DYNA Users Conference

  9. [A new cause of ocular trauma due to "blast" injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, I

    1997-01-01

    Are presented five observations of ocular trauma caused by blast of plastic siphon-bottles during their loading. Two of them result in eyeball evisceration, in the three others the visual function was kept. We deem necessary the respecting of single use instruction for these plastic containers and possibly--the ban of theirs using like siphon.

  10. Computational modeling of blast wave interaction with a human body and assessment of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X. G.; Przekwas, A. J.; Gupta, R. K.

    2017-11-01

    The modeling of human body biomechanics resulting from blast exposure poses great challenges because of the complex geometry and the substantial material heterogeneity. We developed a detailed human body finite element model representing both the geometry and the materials realistically. The model includes the detailed head (face, skull, brain and spinal cord), the neck, the skeleton, air cavities (lungs) and the tissues. Hence, it can be used to properly model the stress wave propagation in the human body subjected to blast loading. The blast loading on the human was generated from a simulated C4 explosion. We used the highly scalable solvers in the multi-physics code CoBi for both the blast simulation and the human body biomechanics. The meshes generated for these simulations are of good quality so that relatively large time-step sizes can be used without resorting to artificial time scaling treatments. The coupled gas dynamics and biomechanics solutions were validated against the shock tube test data. The human body models were used to conduct parametric simulations to find the biomechanical response and the brain injury mechanism due to blasts impacting the human body. Under the same blast loading condition, we showed the importance of inclusion of the whole body.

  11. Bomb blast, mild traumatic brain injury and psychiatric morbidity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Ford, Nick L

    2010-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) arising from blast exposure during war is common, and frequently complicated by psychiatric morbidity. There is controversy as to whether mild TBI from blast is different from other causes of mild TBI. Anxiety and affective disorders such as Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression are common accompaniments of blast injury with a significant overlap in the diagnostic features of PTSD with post-concussive syndrome (PCS). This review focuses on this overlap and the effects of mild TBI due to bomb blast. Mild TBI may have been over diagnosed by late retrospective review of returned servicemen and women using imprecise criteria. There is therefore a requirement for clear and careful documentation by health professionals of a TBI due to bomb blast shortly after the event so that the diagnosis of TBI can be made with confidence. There is a need for the early recognition of symptoms of PCS, PTSD and depression and early multi-disciplinary interventions focussed on expected return to duties. There also needs to be a continued emphasis on the de-stigmatization of psychological conditions in military personnel returning from deployment. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Following Uncomplicated Mounted and Dismounted Blast: A Natural History Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiffely, Anna E; Haque, Ashraful; Haran, Francis J; Cunningham, Craig A; Mehalick, Melissa L; May, Todd; Stuessi, Keith; Walker, Peter B; Norris, Jacob N

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to utilize a natural history approach to describe and understand symptom recovery in personnel diagnosed with a blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) resulting from an improvised explosive device blast. The population included military personnel who experienced a blast mTBI while mounted (vehicle; n = 176) or dismounted (on foot; n = 37) (N = 213). Patients had no co-morbid psychiatric or muscle-skeletal issues and were treated within 72 h of injury. Prevalence and duration of self-reported symptoms were separately analyzed by injury context (mounted vs dismounted). Headache was prominently reported in both mounted (85%) and dismounted (75%) populations. The mean time from injury to return to full duty was between 7.8 d (mounted) and 8.5 d (dismounted). The dismounted population reported visual changes that lasted 0.74 d longer. Our analysis implicates that headache is a common and acutely persistent symptom in mTBI regardless of injury context. Additionally, patients in mounted vs dismounted injury did not report significant differences in symptom prevalence. Although knowing the injury context (i.e., dismounted vs mounted) may be beneficial for providers to understand symptom presentations and deliver accurate anticipatory guidance for patients with blast-related mTBI, no significant differences were observed in this population. This may be due to the population characteristic as the trajectory of recovery may vary for patients who were not able to return to full duty within 30 d or required higher levels of care.

  13. Central Mechanisms and Treatment of Blast-Induced Auditory and Vestibular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    tissue.  TDP43 levels were quantified in rat’s CSF, plasma, cortex, cerebellum and brainstem at 1 and 28 day post-injury using ELISA kits.  A blast...obtained ELISA kit (Mybiosource, San diego, CA 92195) in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. All samples were assayed in duplicate...mice. ELISA data showed that compared to the sham group, TDP43 increased in mouse cortex at 28 days after blast exposure (p < 0.05, n = 5). TDP43

  14. A single point of pressure approach as input for injury models with respect to complex blast loading conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teland, J.A.; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Horst, M.J. van der; Svinsås, E.

    2010-01-01

    Blast injury models, like Axelsson and Stuhmiller, require four pressure signals as input. Those pressure signals must be acquired by a Blast Test Device (BTD) that has four pressure transducers placed in a horizontal plane at intervals of 90 degrees. This can be either in a physical test setup or

  15. A Blast Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    the smaller gun had a slower recovery, was extubated 14 minutes post injury, was given 100 mg carprofen IM one hour post injury because of the slow...at 80 psi was extubated 12 minutes post injury, showed signs of pain by excessively grinding teeth and was given 100 mg carprofen one hour post

  16. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Newsome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes. Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate. Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results

  17. Effects of Mild Blast Traumatic Brain Injury on Cerebral Vascular, Histopathological, and Behavioral Outcomes in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yaping; Deyo, Donald; Parsley, Margaret A.; Hawkins, Bridget E.; Prough, Donald S.; DeWitt, Douglas S.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract To determine the effects of mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), several groups of rats were subjected to blast injury or sham injury in a compressed air-driven shock tube. The effects of bTBI on relative cerebral perfusion (laser Doppler flowmetry [LDF]), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) cerebral vascular resistance were measured for 2 h post-bTBI. Dilator responses to reduced intravascular pressure were measured in isolated middle cerebral arterial (MCA) segments, ex vivo, 30 and 60 min post-bTBI. Neuronal injury was assessed (Fluoro-Jade C [FJC]) 24 and 48 h post-bTBI. Neurological outcomes (beam balance and walking tests) and working memory (Morris water maze [MWM]) were assessed 2 weeks post-bTBI. Because impact TBI (i.e., non-blast TBI) is often associated with reduced cerebral perfusion and impaired cerebrovascular function in part because of the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as peroxynitrite (ONOO−), the effects of the administration of the ONOO− scavenger, penicillamine methyl ester (PenME), on cerebral perfusion and cerebral vascular resistance were measured for 2 h post-bTBI. Mild bTBI resulted in reduced relative cerebral perfusion and MCA dilator responses to reduced intravascular pressure, increases in cerebral vascular resistance and in the numbers of FJC-positive cells in the brain, and significantly impaired working memory. PenME administration resulted in significant reductions in cerebral vascular resistance and a trend toward increased cerebral perfusion, suggesting that ONOO− may contribute to blast-induced cerebral vascular dysfunction. PMID:29160141

  18. Blast-related Ear Injuries among U.S. Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Han Erik Viirre Kevin J. Heltemes Michael R. Galarneau Report No. 13-33 The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do...index.asp 19. Chandler DW. Blast-related ear injury in current U.S. mili- tary operations: Role of audiology on the interdisciplinary team: role of... audiology on the interdisciplinary team [Inter- net]. Rockville (MD): The AHSA Leader; 2006 [cited 2011 Mar 9]. Available from: http://www.asha.org

  19. An Animal-to-Human Scaling Law for Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-28

    human injury risk would be of critical importance for guiding the design of blast- protective helmets and face shields. Materials and Methods ...Biomedical Imaging (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ), Vol 53, pp 1142–1145. 39. Prevost TP, Balakrishnan A, Suresh S, Socrate S (2011) Biomechanics of brain tissue. Acta...3006–3012. 51. El Sayed T, Mota A, Fraternali F, Ortiz M (2008) Biomechanics of traumatic brain in- jury. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 197(51–52):4692

  20. Neuronal DNA Methylation Profiling of Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Ge, Yongchao; Chen, Sean; Xin, Yurong; Umali, Michelle U; De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A; Ahlers, Stephen T; Elder, Gregory A

    2015-08-15

    Long-term molecular changes in the brain resulting from blast exposure may be mediated by epigenetic changes, such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, that regulate gene expression. Aberrant regulation of gene expression is associated with behavioral abnormalities, where DNA methylation bridges environmental signals to sustained changes in gene expression. We assessed DNA methylation changes in the brains of rats exposed to three 74.5 kPa blast overpressure events, conditions that have been associated with long-term anxiogenic manifestations weeks or months following the initial exposures. Rat frontal cortex eight months post-exposure was used for cell sorting of whole brain tissue into neurons and glia. We interrogated DNA methylation profiles in these cells using Expanded Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing. We obtained data for millions of cytosines, showing distinct methylation profiles for neurons and glia and an increase in global methylation in neuronal versus glial cells (pDNA methylation perturbations in blast overpressure-exposed animals, compared with sham blast controls, within 458 and 379 genes in neurons and glia, respectively. Differentially methylated neuronal genes showed enrichment in cell death and survival and nervous system development and function, including genes involved in transforming growth factor β and nitric oxide signaling. Functional validation via gene expression analysis of 30 differentially methylated neuronal and glial genes showed a 1.2 fold change in gene expression of the serotonin N-acetyltransferase gene (Aanat) in blast animals (pDNA methylation induced in response to multiple blast overpressure exposures. In particular, increased methylation and decreased gene expression were observed in the Aanat gene, which is involved in converting serotonin to the circadian hormone melatonin and is implicated in sleep disturbance and depression associated with traumatic brain injury.

  1. VRPI Temporal Progression of Closed Globe Injury from Blast Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    significant increases in VEGF have been reported in many ocular disorders including diabetic retinopathy , diffuse macular edema, retinal vein...Open globe injury is often readily identifiable and typically undergoes urgent surgical repair. However, closed globe injury may not be detected ...including shrapnel or debris to the eye, is easily identified and rapidly treated. Closed globe trauma may not be detected right away, and little is

  2. Blast exposure causes early and persistent aberrant phospho- and cleaved-tau expression in a murine model of mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bertrand R; Meabon, James S; Martin, Tobin J; Mourad, Pierre D; Bennett, Raymond; Kraemer, Brian C; Cernak, Ibolja; Petrie, Eric C; Emery, Michael J; Swenson, Erik R; Mayer, Cynthia; Mehic, Edin; Peskind, Elaine R; Cook, David G

    2013-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is considered the 'signature injury' of combat veterans that have served during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prevalence of mTBI is due in part to the common exposure to high explosive blasts in combat zones. In addition to the threats of blunt impact trauma caused by flying objects and the head itself being propelled against objects, the primary blast overpressure (BOP) generated by high explosives is capable of injuring the brain. Compared to other means of causing TBI, the pathophysiology of mild-to-moderate BOP is less well understood. To study the consequences of BOP exposure in mice, we employed a well-established approach using a compressed gas-driven shock tube that recapitulates battlefield-relevant open-field BOP. We found that 24 hours post-blast a single mild BOP provoked elevation of multiple phospho- and cleaved-tau species in neurons, as well as elevating manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) levels, a cellular response to oxidative stress. In hippocampus, aberrant tau species persisted for at least 30 days post-exposure, while SOD2 levels returned to sham control levels. These findings suggest that elevated phospho- and cleaved-tau species may be among the initiating pathologic processes induced by mild blast exposure. These findings may have important implications for efforts to prevent blast-induced insults to the brain from progressing into long-term neurodegenerative disease processes.

  3. Evidence of central and peripheral vestibular pathology in blast-related traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Matthew R; Burrows, Holly; Pinto, Robin; Littlefield, Philip; French, Louis M; Tarbett, Aaron K; Schubert, Michael C

    2011-06-01

    To prospectively assay the vestibular and oculomotor systems of blast-exposed service members with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prospective, nonblinded, nonrandomized descriptive study. Tertiary care facility (Department of Defense Medical Center). Twenty-four service members recovering from blast-related TBI sustained in Iraq or Afghanistan. Focused history and physical, videonystagmography (VNG), rotational chair, cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials, computerized dynamic posturography, and self-report measures. Vestibular testing confirms a greater incidence of vestibular and oculomotor dysfunction in symptomatic (vestibular-like dizziness) personnel with blast-related TBI relative to asymptomatic group members. VNG in the symptomatic group revealed abnormal nystagmus or oculomotor findings in 6 of 12 subjects tested. Similarly, rotational chair testing in this group revealed evidence of both peripheral (4/12) and central (2/12) vestibular pathology. By contrast, the asymptomatic group revealed less vestibular impairment with 1 of 10 rotational chair abnormalities. The asymptomatic group was further characterized by fewer aberrant nystagmus findings (4/12 abnormal VNGs). Computerized dynamic posturography testing revealed no significant differences between groups. Self-report measures demonstrated differences between groups. Vestibular function testing confirms a greater incidence of peripheral vestibular hypofunction in dizzy service members with blast-related TBI relative to those who are asymptomatic. Additionally, oculomotor abnormalities and/or nystagmus consistent with central involvement were present in 10 of the 24 study participants tested. The precise cause of these findings remains unknown.

  4. Bomb blast injuries: an exploration of patient characteristics and outcome using Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irum; Khan, Nadeem; Naeem, Rubaba; Kerai, Salima; Allen, Kate; Zia, Nukhba; Shahbaz, Sana; Afridi, Shiraz; Siddiqui, Emaduddin; Khan, Uzma; Hyder, Adnan A; Razzak, Junaid A

    2015-01-01

    Bomb blast injuries result in premature deaths and burdening of healthcare systems. The objective of this study was to explore the characteristics and outcome of patients presenting to the emergency departments in Pakistan with bomb blast injuries. Active surveillance was conducted in seven major emergency departments of Pakistan from November 2010-March 2011. All the sites are tertiary care urban centers. All the patients who presented to the hospital's emergency department (ED) following a bomb blast injury as per self-report or the ambulance personnel were included in the study. Frequency of demographics, injury pattern, and outcomes were calculated. A total of 103 patients with bomb blast injuries presented to the selected emergency departments. The median age of patients was 30 years. Around three-fourth of the patients were males (n = 74, 74.7%). Most of the bomb blast patients were seen in Peshawar (n = 41, 39.8%) and Karachi city (n = 31, 30.1%) and the most common mode of arrival was non-ambulance transport (n = 71, 76.3%). Upper limb injuries (n = 12, 40%) were common in the under 18 age group and lower limb injuries (n = 31, 39.2%) in the 18 years and above group. There were a total of 8 (7.7%) deaths reported out of these 103 patients. Bomb blast injuries in Pakistan generally affect young males. Non-ambulance transport is the most common way to access emergency departments (ED). Overall ED mortality is high and capturing data during a disaster in an emergency department is challenging.

  5. Functional MRI in the Investigation of Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graner, John; Oakes, Terrence R.; French, Louis M.; Riedy, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to the investigation of blast-related traumatic brain injury (bTBI). Relatively little is known about the exact mechanisms of neurophysiological injury and pathological and functional sequelae of bTBI. Furthermore, in mild bTBI, standard anatomical imaging techniques (MRI and computed tomography) generally fail to show focal lesions and most of the symptoms present as subjective clinical functional deficits. Therefore, an objective test of brain functionality has great potential to aid in patient diagnosis and provide a sensitive measurement to monitor disease progression and treatment. The goal of this review is to highlight the relevant body of blast-related TBI literature and present suggestions and considerations in the development of fMRI studies for the investigation of bTBI. The review begins with a summary of recent bTBI publications followed by discussions of various elements of blast-related injury. Brief reviews of some fMRI techniques that focus on mental processes commonly disrupted by bTBI, including working memory, selective attention, and emotional processing, are presented in addition to a short review of resting state fMRI. Potential strengths and weaknesses of these approaches as regards bTBI are discussed. Finally, this review presents considerations that must be made when designing fMRI studies for bTBI populations, given the heterogeneous nature of bTBI and its high rate of comorbidity with other physical and psychological injuries. PMID:23460082

  6. Novel method to dynamically load cells in 3D-gel culture for primary blast injury studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sory, David; Cepa-Areias, Anabela; Overby, Darryl; Proud, William; Institute of Shock Physics, Department of Bioengineering; Royal British Legion CentreBlast I Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    For at least a century explosive devices have been reported as one of the most important causes of injuries on battlefield in military conflicts as well as in terrorist attacks. Although significant experimental and modelling efforts have been focussed on blast injury at the organ or tissue level, few studies have investigated the mechanism of blast injury at the cellular level. This paper introduces an in vitro method compatible with living cells to examine the effects of high stress and short-duration pulses similar to those observed in blast waves. The experimental phase involved high strain rate axial compression of biological cylindrical specimens within a hermetically sealed sample holder made of a biocompatible polymer. Numerical simulations were performed in order to characterize the loading path within the sample and assess the loading conditions. A proof of concept is presented so as to establish a new window to address fundamental questions regarding primary blast injury at the cellular level. The Institute of Shock Physics acknowledges the support of AWE, Aldermaston, UK and Imperial College London. The Centre for Blast Injury Studies acknowledges the support of the Royal British Legion and Imperial College London.

  7. The nature of white matter abnormalities in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeet P. Hayes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI has been a common injury among returning troops due to the widespread use of improvised explosive devices in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. As most of the TBIs sustained are in the mild range, brain changes may not be detected by standard clinical imaging techniques such as CT. Furthermore, the functional significance of these types of injuries is currently being debated. However, accumulating evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is sensitive to subtle white matter abnormalities and may be especially useful in detecting mild TBI (mTBI. The primary aim of this study was to use DTI to characterize the nature of white matter abnormalities following blast-related mTBI, and in particular, examine the extent to which mTBI-related white matter abnormalities are region-specific or spatially heterogeneous. In addition, we examined whether mTBI with loss of consciousness (LOC was associated with more extensive white matter abnormality than mTBI without LOC, as well as the potential moderating effect of number of blast exposures. A second aim was to examine the relationship between white matter integrity and neurocognitive function. Finally, a third aim was to examine the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to observed white matter alterations. One hundred fourteen OEF/OIF veterans underwent DTI and neuropsychological examination and were divided into three groups including a control group, blast-related mTBI without LOC (mTBI - LOC group, and blast-related mTBI with LOC (mTBI + LOC group. Hierarchical regression models were used to examine the extent to which mTBI and PTSD predicted white matter abnormalities using two approaches: 1 a region-specific analysis and 2 a measure of spatial heterogeneity. Neurocognitive composite scores were calculated for executive functions, attention, memory, and psychomotor speed. Results showed that blast-related mTBI + LOC was associated with greater odds of

  8. Application of silver sulfadiazine cream with early surgical intervention in patients suffering from combined burn-blast injury facial tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein

    2012-01-01

    Severe combined burn-blast injury is a great challenge to surgical teams due to its high mortality. It also results in unsightly traumatic tattoos. The aims of these case reports were to clarify the clinical characteristic of the dynamite explosion burn-blast facial injuries and discuss appropriate management of these patients. We report two patients suffering from facial burn-blast injury following dynamite explosion in which after primary stabilization, silver sulfadiazine cream was applied to the wounds and 12 hours later the wounds were cleaned under general anesthesia with vigorous saline solution irrigation and brushing. The foreign particles were meticulously removed from wounds and simultaneous repairing of defects was done with nylon 6-0 sutures. We conclude application of silver sulfadiazine cream on facial burn-blast injury tattoos several hours before surgical removal of particles is highly efficacious in facilitating particle removal and attaining a good result following surgical intervention, and primary repair. Treatment of combined burn-blast tattoos is different from other types of tattoos not associated with burns. Debridement and removal of foreign particles under general anesthesia from skin immediately and primary reconstruction of wounds is essential. We recommend application of the topical agent silver sulfadiazine to wounds about 12 hours before surgical intervention.

  9. Relationship between changes in the cochlear blood flow and disorder of hearing function induced by blast injury in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Jianmin; Chen, Jing; Chen, Jichuan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    The auditory system is the most susceptible to damages from blast waves. Blast injuries always lead to varying degrees of hearing impairment. Although a disorder of the cochlear blood flow (CoBF) has been considered to be related to many pathological processes of the auditory system and to contribute to various types of hearing loss, changes in the CoBF induced by blast waves and the relationship between such changes and hearing impairment are undefined. To observe the changes in the cochlear microcirculation after exposure to an explosion blast, investigate the relationship between changes in the CoBF and hearing impairment and subsequently explore the mechanism responsible for the changes in the CoBF, we detected the perfusion of the cochlear microcirculation and hearing threshold shift after exposure to an explosion blast. Then, an N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor) solution and artificial perilymph were applied to the round window (RW) of the cochlea before the blast exposure, followed by an evaluation of the CoBF and hearing function. The results indicated that the changes in the CoBF were correlated to the strength of the blast wave. The cochlear blood flow significantly increased when the peak value of the blast overpressure was greater than approximately 45 kPa, and there was no significant change in the cochlear blood flow when the peak value of the blast overpressure was less than approximately 35 kPa. Following local administration of the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME, the increase in the CoBF induced by the blast was inhibited, and this reduction was significantly associated with the hearing threshold.

  10. Blast injury prevalence in skeletal remains: Are there differences between Bosnian war samples and documented combat-related deaths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, Marie Christine; Hanson, Ian; Smith, Martin J

    2017-11-01

    Court cases at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) have seen questions raised about the recognition and causes of blast-related trauma and the relationship to human rights abuses or combat. During trials, defence teams argued that trauma was combat related and prosecutors argued that trauma was related to executions. We compared a sample of 81 cases (males between 18 and 75) from a Bosnian mass grave investigation linked to the Kravica warehouse killings to published combat-related blast injury data from World War One, Vietnam, Northern Ireland, the first Gulf War, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Afghanistan. We also compared blast fracture injuries from Bosnia to blast fracture injuries sustained in bombings of buildings in two non-combat 'civilian' examples; the Oklahoma City and Birmingham pub bombings. A Chi-squared statistic with a Holm-Bonferroni correction assessed differences between prevalence of blast-related fractures in various body regions, where data were comparable. We found statistically significant differences between the Bosnian and combat contexts. We noted differences in the prevalence of head, torso, vertebral area, and limbs trauma, with a general trend for higher levels of more widespread trauma in the Bosnian sample. We noted that the pattern of trauma in the Bosnian cases resembled the pattern from the bombing in buildings civilian contexts. Variation in trauma patterns can be attributed to the influence of protective armour; the context of the environment; and the type of munition and its injuring mechanism. Blast fracture injuries sustained in the Bosnian sample showed patterns consistent with a lack of body armour, blast effects on people standing in enclosed buildings and the use of explosive munitions. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Kevlar Vest Protection against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    et al ., 1973; Saivin and Houin, 1988 ). Similar to its tetracycline analogs, the side...neuroinflammation and elevated CORT levels are known inhibitors of hippocampal de novo neurogen- esis (Cameron and Gould , 1994; Yu et al ., 2004; Montaron et al ...memory problems, increased anxi- ety, and depression (Gentilini et al ., 1985; Schoenhuber and Gentilini, 1988 ; Ponsford et al ., 1995). Blast

  12. Combat Blast Injuries: Injury Severity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Interaction on Career Outcomes in Male Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    post - traumatic stress disorder . INTRODUCTION Blasts are the most...Metzler TJ, Golding JM, Stewart A, Schlenger WE, Wells KB. Post - traumatic stress disorder and functioning and quality of life outcomes in a nationally...proportions were higher in those with posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) than in those without PTSD . There was a significant interaction between PTSD

  13. Successful use of intrapelvic Quikclot in life-threatening blast injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Virin Goddard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients that suffer multiple traumatic injuries often present with uncontrollable haemorrhage and rapidly descend into a viscous death triad consisting of hypothermia, coagulopathy and acidosis. Initial surgical intervention does not aim to provide conclusive repair, but instead strives to stop blood loss while priority is given to correct the patient's metabolic state (Duchesne et al., 2010. However in some cases of massive polytrauma, gaining surgical control of bleeding can be incredibly difficult. As a result a number of topical haemostatic agents were developed for use in military and civilian settings. This case details a successful intracavity use of the granular haemostatic agent, Quikclot™ (Z-Medica, in halting massive haemorrhage in a patient who sustained major blast injuries. Although not officially recommended, intracorporeal uses of Quikclot™ can be effective as a last resort in preventing loss of life in cases of severe polytrauma. However, users need to remain wary of complications which may arise due to its application.

  14. Concepts and strategies for clinical management of blast-induced traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2013-01-01

    After exposure of the human body to blast, kinetic energy of the blast shock waves might be transferred into hydraulic energy in the cardiovascular system to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of blood (a volumetric blood surge). The volumetric blood surge moves through blood vessels from the high-pressure body cavity to the low-pressure cranial cavity, causing damage to tiny cerebral blood vessels and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Large-scale cerebrovascular insults and BBB damage that occur globally throughout the brain may be the main causes of non-impact, blast-induced brain injuries, including the spectrum of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The volumetric blood surge may be a major contributor not only to blast-induced brain injuries resulting from physical trauma, but may also be the trigger to psychiatric disorders resulting from emotional and psychological trauma. Clinical imaging technologies, which are able to detect tiny cerebrovascular insults, changes in blood flow, and cerebral edema, may help diagnose both TBI and PTSD in the victims exposed to blasts. Potentially, prompt medical treatment aiming at prevention of secondary neuronal damage may slow down or even block the cascade of events that lead to progressive neuronal damage and subsequent long-term neurological and psychiatric impairment.

  15. Developing a cumulative anatomic scoring system for military perineal and pelvic blast injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossadegh, Somayyeh; Midwinter, M; Parker, P

    2013-03-01

    Improvised explosive device (IED) yields in Afghanistan have increased resulting in more proximal injuries. The injury severity score (ISS) is an anatomic aggregate score of the three most severely injured anatomical areas but does not accurately predict severity in IED related pelvi-perineal trauma patients. A scoring system based on abbreviated injury score (AIS) was developed to reflect the severity of these injuries in order to better understand risk factors, develop a tool for future audit and improve performance. Using standard AIS descriptors, injury scales were constructed for the pelvis (1, minor to 6, maximal). The perineum was divided into anterior and posterior zones as relevant to injury patterns and blast direction with each soft tissue structure being allocated a score from its own severity scale. A cumulative score, from 1 to 36 for soft tissue, or a maximum of 42 if a pelvic fracture was involved, was created for all structures injured in the anterior and posterior zones. Using this new scoring system, 77% of patients survived with a pelvi-perineal trauma score (PPTS) below 5. There was a significant increase in mortality, number of pelvic fractures and amputations with increase in score when comparing the first group (score 1-5) to the second group (score 6-10). For scores between 6 and 16 survival was 42% and 22% for scores between 17 and 21. In our cohort of 62 survivors, 1 patient with an IED related pelvi-perineal injury had a 'theoretically un-survivable' maximal ISS of 75 and survived, whereas there were no survivors with a PPTS greater than 22 but this group had no-one with an ISS of 75 suggesting ISS is not an accurate reflection of the true severity of pelvi-perineal blast injury. This scoring system is the initial part of a more complex logistic regression model that will contribute towards a unique trauma scoring system to aid surgical teams in predicting fluid requirements and operative timelines. In austere environments, it may also

  16. Outcome of tissue sparing surgical intervention in mine blast limb injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.I.; Zafar, A.; Khan, N.; Mufti, N.

    2006-01-01

    To describe the pattern of mine blast limb injuries in civilian population of Kashmir, to evaluate the outcome of tissue sparing surgical intervention in these injuries and to determine the sensitivity of hand-held percutaneous Doppler for tissue viability. One hundred and three patients who sustained mine blast injuries to upper or lower limbs, along side the line of control between the Indian-held Kashmir and Azad Kashmir, regardless of age and gender, were included in this study. Patients who already had amputation after injury at some other place were excluded. All patients were initially managed in emergency and had more than one surgical intervention. Transcutaneous Doppler was used to evaluate the vascularity of the remaining tissue. All patients were operated under spinal or general anaesthesia and had repeated debridements followed by skin cover by split skin graft, full thickness skin graft or rotational flaps. Every patient received at least 5 days course of antibiotics and tetanus prophylaxis. Postoperative rehabilitation and follow-up was conducted for at least 6 months after discharge from the hospital. Mean age of victims in this study was 22 years. Out of 103 patients, 72 (69.9%) received initial wound care in the peripheral primary health care centre but were not amputated while 31 patients (30%) were just dressed and referred for further treatment at tertiary care hospitals. Eighty five patients (82.5%), out of the total, had some sort of traumatic amputation at presentation due to the original injury. That included loss of limb below knee in 19 (18.45%) patients, at distal tibiofibular region in 13 (12.6%), mid tarsal amputations in 39(37.9%), and hemi foot amputation in 15 (14.6%) patients. Nine (8.7%) patients had losses of two or less than two toes, 1 (0.97%) patient had injury at mid palmer region, and 5 (4.9%) patients had 2 fingers traumatic amputation. Eighteen (17.5%) patients had soft tissue ( with or without bony injury) injury only

  17. Modeling and simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Taylor, Paul Allen

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm{sup 3} voxels), 5 material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female dataset. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior and lateral directions. Three dimensional plots of maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric (shear) stress within the first 2 milliseconds of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 msec time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI.

  18. Perspectives on creating clinically relevant blast models for mild traumatic brain injury and post traumatic stress disorder symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eBrenner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Military personnel are returning from Iraq and Afghanistan and reporting non-specific physical (somatic, behavioral, psychological, and cognitive symptoms. Many of these symptoms are frequently associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and/or post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Despite significant attention and advances in assessment and intervention for these two conditions, challenges persist. To address this, clinically relevant blast models are essential in the full characterization of this type of injury, as well as in the testing and identification of potential treatment strategies. In this publication, existing diagnostic challenges and current treatment practices for mTBI and/or PTSD will be summarized, along with suggestions regarding how what has been learned from existing models of PTSD and traditional mechanism (e.g., non-blast TBI can be used to facilitate the development of clinically relevant blast models.

  19. High prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Wilkinson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least one year after injury, in 25-50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI, an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least one year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and

  20. Parallel Human and Animal Models of Blast- and Concussion-Induced Tinnitus and Related Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Andersson G (2009) The role of anxiety sensitivity and behavioral avoidance in tinnitus disability. IntJAudiol 48:295-299. Hiller W, Goebel G (1999...Parallel Human and Animal Models of Blast- and Concussion-Induced Tinnitus and Related Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Induced Tinnitus and Related Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0031 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  1. Modelling the blast environment and relating this to clinical injury: experience from the 7/7 inquest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepper, Alan E; Pope, D J; Bishop, M; Kirkman, E; Sedman, A; Russell, R; Mahoney, P F; Clasper, J

    2014-06-01

    This paper addresses the computational modelling of a series of specific blast-related incidents and the relationships of clinical and engineering interpretations. The Royal Centre for Defence Medicine and the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory were tasked in 2010 by the UK Ministry of Defence to assist the Coroner's inquests into the 7 July 2005 London bombings. A three phase approach was taken. The first phase included an engineering expert in blast effects on structures reviewing photographs of the damaged carriages and bus to give a view on the likely physical effects on people close to the explosions. The second phase was a clinical review of the evidence by military clinicians to assess blast injury in the casualties. The third phase was to model the blast environment by structural dynamics experts to assess likely blast loading on victims to evaluate the potential blast loading on individuals. This loading information was then assessed by physiology experts. Once all teams (engineering, clinical and modelling/physiological) had separately arrived at their conclusions, the information streams were integrated to arrive at a consensus. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology used as a potential model for others to consider if faced with a similar investigation, and to show the benefit of the transition of military knowledge to a civilian environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. High-speed imaging and small-scale explosive characterization techniques to understand effects of primary blast-induced injury on nerve cell structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehler, T.; Banton, R.; Zander, N.; Duckworth, J.; Benjamin, R.; Sparks, R.

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often associated with blast exposure. Even in the absence of penetrating injury or evidence of tissue injury on imaging, blast TBI may trigger a series of neural/glial cellular and functional changes. Unfortunately, the diagnosis and proper treatment of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) caused by explosive blast is challenging, as it is not easy to clinically distinguish blast from non-blast TBI on the basis of patient symptoms. Damage to brain tissue, cell, and subcellular structures continues to occur slowly and in a manner undetectable by conventional imaging techniques. The threshold shock impulse levels required to induce damage and the cumulative effects upon multiple exposures are not well characterized. Understanding how functional and structural damage from realistic blast impact at cellular and tissue levels at variable timescales after mTBI events may be vital for understanding this injury phenomenon and for linking mechanically induced structural changes with measurable effects on the nervous system. Our working hypothesis is that there is some transient physiological dysfunction occurring at cellular and subcellular levels within the central nervous system due to primary blast exposure. We have developed a novel in vitro indoor experimental system that uses real military explosive charges to more accurately represent military blast exposure and to probe the effects of primary explosive blast on dissociated neurons. We believe this system offers a controlled experimental method to analyze and characterize primary explosive blast-induced cellular injury and to understand threshold injury phenomenon. This paper will also focus on the modeling aspect of our work and how it relates to the experimental work.

  3. A Novel Preclinical Model of Moderate Primary Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divani, Afshin A; Murphy, Amanda J; Meints, Joyce; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Nordberg, Jessica; Monga, Manoj; Low, Walter C; Bhatia, Prerana M; Beilman, Greg J; SantaCruz, Karen S

    2015-07-15

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the "signature" injury of the recent Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Here, we present a novel method to induce bTBI using shock wave (SW) lithotripsy. Using a lithotripsy machine, Wistar rats (N = 70; 408.3 ± 93 g) received five SW pulses to the right side of the frontal cortex at 24 kV and a frequency of 60 Hz. Animals were then randomly divided into three study endpoints: 24 h (n = 25), 72 h (n = 19) and 168 h (n = 26). Neurological and behavioral assessments (Garcia's test, beam walking, Rotarod, and elevated plus maze) were performed at the baseline, and further assessments followed at 3, 6, 24, 72, and 168 h post-injury, if applicable. We performed digital subtraction angiography (DSA) to assess presence of cerebral vasospasm due to induced bTBI. Damage to brain tissue was assessed by an overall histological severity (OHS) score based on depth of injury, area of hemorrhage, and extent of axonal injury. Except for beam walking, OHS was significantly correlated with the other three outcome measures with at least one of their assessments during the first 6 h after the experiment. OHS manifested the highest absolute correlation coefficients with anxiety at the baseline and 6 h post-injury (r(baseline) = -0.75, r(6hrs) = 0.85; p<0.05). Median hemispheric differences for contrast peak values (obtained from DSA studies) for 24, 72, and 168 h endpoints were 3.45%, 3.05% and 0.2%, respectively, with statistically significant differences at 1 versus 7 d (p<0.05) and 3 versus 7 d (p<0.01). In this study, we successfully established a preclinical rat model of bTBI with characteristics similar to those observed in clinical cases. This new method may be useful for future investigations aimed at understanding bTBI pathophysiology.

  4. Determination of common pathogenic bacteria of blast injury to the limbs in plateau area and related research

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    Zheng-lei WANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the common pathogenic bacteria and their drug susceptibility in the wounds in the limbs as a result of blast injury in plateau with a low temperature so as to provide a basis for prevention and treatment of war wound infection in such area. Methods The model of blast injury was reproduced to the hind legs of 800 rabbits in cold and dry plateau. 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h after injury, the general condition and vital signs of the wounded were observed, and bacterial culture, flora analysis and drug susceptibility test of excretion from wound tract, air, surface of snow, soil and animal fur were performed. Results Micrococciand Bacilliwere found in air and snow. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coliand Pseudomonas aeruginosawere found in soil, and Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacters, Pseudomonas aeruginosaand Escherichia coliin rabbit fur. The respiration and pulse became faster, and body temperature lowered after injury compared with that before injury. G+ bacteria were found in most wound tract secretions, and the frequency of the bacterial strains in descending order were Bacillus subtilis, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophiliastrains. The sensitive antibiotics for these G+ bacteria were ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin. Susceptible G– bacteria were susceptible to ceftazidime, minocycline, sulfamethoxazole etc. Conclusions The growth of bacteria in the wounds as a result of blast injury grow slower in cold and dry alpine area. The time of debridement may be delayed for 2-3h. G+ bacteria were main susceptible flora to antibiotics, and it is related to the bacterial flora of the surrounding environment, thus it is suggested that a combination of different antibiotics (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin or erythromycin alone combined with ceftazidime, minocycline or cotrimoxazole alone are needed to prevent infection after blast injury. DOI: 10.11855/j

  5. Combined Effects of Primary and Tertiary Blast on Rat Brain: Characterization of a Model of Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    injury in U.S. military personnel. N Engl J Med 364, 2091–2100 (2011) 27. Lu J, Ng KC , Ling GS, Wu J, Poon JF, Kan EM, Tan MH, Wu YJ, Li P...Moochhala S, Yap E, Lee LK, Teo AL, Yeh IB, Ser- gio DM, Chua F, Kumar SD, Ling EA: Effect of blast exposure on the brain structure and cognition in the...12689448] 32. Henderson D, Bielefeld EC, Harris KC , Hu BH. The role of oxidative stress in noise-induced hearing loss. Ear Hear. 2006;27(1):1–19. [PMID

  6. [Characteristics and Treatment Strategies for Penetrating Injuries on the Example of Gunshot and Blast Victims without Ballistic Body Armour in Afghanistan (2009 - 2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güsgen, Christoph; Willms, Arnulf; Richardsen, Ines; Bieler, Dan; Kollig, Erwin; Schwab, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Much like other countries, Germany has recently seen terrorist attacks being planned, executed or prevented at the last minute. This highlights the need for expertise in the treatment of penetrating torso traumas by bullets or explosions. Data on the treatment of firearm injuries and, even more so, blast injuries often stems from crises or war regions. However, it is difficult to compare injuries from such regions with injuries from civilian terrorist attacks due to the ballistic body protection (protective vests, body armour) worn by soldiers. Methods An analysis was performed based on data from patients who were treated in the German Military Hospital Mazar-e Sharif for gunshots or injuries from explosions in the years 2009 to 2013. The data selection was based on patients with penetrating injuries to the thorax and/or abdomen. For better comparability with civilian attack scenarios, this study only included civilian patients without ballistic body protection (body armour, protective vests). Results Out of 117 analysed patients, 58 were affected by firearms and 59 by explosive injuries of the thorax or abdomen. 60% of patients had a thoracic injury, 69% had an abdominal injury, and 25.6% had combined thoracic-abdominal injuries. Blast injury patients were significantly more affected by thoracic trauma. As regards abdominal injuries, liver, intestinal, and colonic lesions were leading in number. Patients with blast injuries had significantly more injured organs and a significantly higher ISS averaging 29. 26% of the shot patients and 41% of the blast wounded patients received Damage Control Surgery (DCS). Despite a lower ISS, gunshot victims did not have a lower total number of operations per patient. Overall mortality was 13.7% (10.3% gunshot wounds, 16.7% blast injury). The highest mortality rate (25.7%) was recorded for patients with combined thoracoabdominal injuries (vs. 8.3% for thoracic and 8.7% for abdominal injuries). The ISS of deceased patients was

  7. Traumatic brain injury produced by exposure to blasts, a critical problem in current wars: biomarkers, clinical studies, and animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C. Edward

    2011-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from exposure to blast energy released by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) has been recognized as the "signature injury" of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Repeated exposure to mild blasts may produce subtle deficits that are difficult to detect and quantify. Several techniques have been used to detect subtle brain dysfunction including neuropsychological assessments, computerized function testing and neuroimaging. Another approach is based on measurement of biologic substances (e.g. proteins) that are released into the body after a TBI. Recent studies measuring biomarkers in CSF and serum from patients with severe TBI have demonstrated the diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring potential. Advancement of the field will require 1) biochemical mining for new biomarker candidates, 2) clinical validation of utility, 3) technical advances for more sensitive, portable detectors, 4) novel statistical approach to evaluate multiple biomarkers, and 5) commercialization. Animal models have been developed to simulate elements of blast-relevant TBI including gas-driven shock tubes to generate pressure waves similar to those produced by explosives. These models can reproduce hallmark clinical neuropathological responses such as neuronal degeneration and inflammation, as well as behavioral impairments. An important application of these models is to screen novel therapies and conduct proteomic, genomic, and lipodomic studies to mine for new biomarker candidates specific to blast relevant TBI.

  8. A Novel Closed-head Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Primary Overpressure Blast to the Cranium Produces Sustained Emotional Deficits in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Heldt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, which we have used to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25-40 psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50-60 psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2-8 weeks after blast, 50-60 psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, however, and only scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50-60 psi mice 3-8 weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50-60 psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to diffuse axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI.

  9. Chronic Hypopituitarism Associated with Increased Postconcussive Symptoms Is Prevalent after Blast-Induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Undurti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent injury sustained by US service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan is mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI, or concussion, by far most often caused by blast waves from improvised explosive devices or other explosive ordnance. TBI from all causes gives rise to chronic neuroendocrine disorders with an estimated prevalence of 25–50%. The current study expands upon our earlier finding that chronic pituitary gland dysfunction occurs with a similarly high frequency after blast-related concussions. We measured circulating hormone levels and accessed demographic and testing data from two groups of male veterans with hazardous duty experience in Iraq or Afghanistan. Veterans in the mTBI group had experienced one or more blast-related concussion. Members of the deployment control (DC group encountered similar deployment conditions but had no history of blast-related mTBI. 12 of 39 (31% of the mTBI participants and 3 of 20 (15% veterans in the DC group screened positive for one or more neuroendocrine disorders. Positive screens for growth hormone deficiency occurred most often. Analysis of responses on self-report questionnaires revealed main effects of both mTBI and hypopituitarism on postconcussive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms. Symptoms associated with pituitary dysfunction overlap considerably with those of PTSD. They include cognitive deficiencies, mood and anxiety disorders, sleep problems, diminished quality of life, deleterious changes in metabolism and body composition, and increased cardiovascular mortality. When such symptoms are due to hypopituitarism, they may be alleviated by hormone replacement. These findings suggest consideration of routine post-deployment neuroendocrine screening of service members and veterans who have experienced blast-related mTBI and are reporting postconcussive symptoms.

  10. Chronic Hypopituitarism Associated with Increased Postconcussive Symptoms Is Prevalent after Blast-Induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurti, Arundhati; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A.; Sikkema, Carl L.; Schultz, Jaclyn S.; Peskind, Elaine R.; Pagulayan, Kathleen F.; Wilkinson, Charles W.

    2018-01-01

    The most frequent injury sustained by US service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan is mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI), or concussion, by far most often caused by blast waves from improvised explosive devices or other explosive ordnance. TBI from all causes gives rise to chronic neuroendocrine disorders with an estimated prevalence of 25–50%. The current study expands upon our earlier finding that chronic pituitary gland dysfunction occurs with a similarly high frequency after blast-related concussions. We measured circulating hormone levels and accessed demographic and testing data from two groups of male veterans with hazardous duty experience in Iraq or Afghanistan. Veterans in the mTBI group had experienced one or more blast-related concussion. Members of the deployment control (DC) group encountered similar deployment conditions but had no history of blast-related mTBI. 12 of 39 (31%) of the mTBI participants and 3 of 20 (15%) veterans in the DC group screened positive for one or more neuroendocrine disorders. Positive screens for growth hormone deficiency occurred most often. Analysis of responses on self-report questionnaires revealed main effects of both mTBI and hypopituitarism on postconcussive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Symptoms associated with pituitary dysfunction overlap considerably with those of PTSD. They include cognitive deficiencies, mood and anxiety disorders, sleep problems, diminished quality of life, deleterious changes in metabolism and body composition, and increased cardiovascular mortality. When such symptoms are due to hypopituitarism, they may be alleviated by hormone replacement. These findings suggest consideration of routine post-deployment neuroendocrine screening of service members and veterans who have experienced blast-related mTBI and are reporting postconcussive symptoms. PMID:29515515

  11. Music therapy applied to complex blast injury in interdisciplinary care: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudreuil, Rebecca; Avila, Luis; Bradt, Joke; Pasquina, Paul

    2018-04-24

    Music therapy has a long history of treating the physiological, psychological, and neurological injuries of war. Recently, there has been an increase in the use of music therapy and other creative arts therapies in the care of combat injured service members returning to the United States from Iraq and Afghanistan, especially those with complex blast-related injuries. This case report describes the role of music therapy in the interdisciplinary rehabilitation of a severely injured service member. Music therapy was provided as stand-alone treatment and in co-treatment with speech language pathology, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. The report is based on clinical notes, self-reports by the patient and his wife, and interviews with rehabilitation team members. In collaboration with other treatment disciplines, music therapy contributed to improvements in range of motion, functional use of bilateral upper extremities, strength endurance, breath support, articulation, task-attention, compensatory strategies, social integration, quality of life, and overall motivation in the recovery process. The inclusion of music therapy in rehabilitation was highly valued by the patient, his family, and the treatment team. Music therapy has optimized the rehabilitation of a service member through assisting the recovery process on a continuum from clinic to community. Implications for Rehabilitation Music therapy in stand-alone sessions and in co-treatment with traditional disciplines can enhance treatment outcomes in functional domains of motor, speech, cognition, social integration, and quality of life for military populations. Music therapists can help ease discomfort and difficulty associated with rehabilitation activities, thereby enhancing patient motivation and participation in interdisciplinary care. Music therapy assists treatment processes from clinic to community, making it highly valued by the patient, family, and interdisciplinary team members in military

  12. Acute Assessment of Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress After Exposure to a Deployment-Related Explosive Blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Monty T; Moring, John C; Hale, Willie J; Mintz, Jim; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Bryant, Richard A; Broshek, Donna K; Barth, Jeffrey T; Villarreal, Robert; Lancaster, Cynthia L; Malach, Steffany L; Lara-Ruiz, Jose M; Isler, William; Peterson, Alan L

    2018-05-18

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are two of the signature injuries in military service members who have been exposed to explosive blasts during deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Acute stress disorder (ASD), which occurs within 2-30 d after trauma exposure, is a more immediate psychological reaction predictive of the later development of PTSD. Most previous studies have evaluated service members after their return from deployment, which is often months or years after the initial blast exposure. The current study is the first large study to collect psychological and neuropsychological data from active duty service members within a few days after blast exposure. Recruitment for blast-injured TBI patients occurred at the Air Force Theater Hospital, 332nd Air Expeditionary Wing, Joint Base Balad, Iraq. Patients were referred from across the combat theater and evaluated as part of routine clinical assessment of psychiatric and neuropsychological symptoms after exposure to an explosive blast. Four measures of neuropsychological functioning were used: the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE); the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS); the Headminder Cognitive Stability Index (CSI); and the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, Version 4.0 (ANAM4). Three measures of combat exposure and psychological functioning were used: the Combat Experiences Scale (CES); the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M); and the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS). Assessments were completed by a deployed clinical psychologist, clinical social worker, or mental health technician. A total of 894 patients were evaluated. Data from 93 patients were removed from the data set for analysis because they experienced a head injury due to an event that was not an explosive blast (n = 84) or they were only assessed for psychiatric symptoms (n = 9). This resulted in a total of 801 blast-exposed patients for data

  13. Compound 49b Reduces Inflammatory Markers and Apoptosis after Ocular Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    inflammatory and apoptotic markers, but not to control levels. Figure 1. ELISA results for TNF(left) and IL-1(right) in mouse retina without exposure to...anti- apoptotic protein BcL-xL (bottom left). ELISA results for cleaved caspase 3. *Pɘ.05 vs. NT. #Pɘ.05 vs. blast only at the same time point. N=5...E). ELISA results for cleaved caspase 3 (C) in IGFBP-3 knockdown mice without exposure to blast, IGFBP-3 KD mice exposed to blast for 4, 24, and 72

  14. When Physics Meets Biology: Low and High Velocity Penetration, Blunt Trauma and Blast Injuries to the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne eYoung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of TBI in the US has reached epidemic proportions with well over 2 million new cases reported each year. TBI can occur in both civilians and warfighters, with head injuries occurring in both combat and non-combat situations from a variety of threats, including ballistic penetration, acceleration, blunt impact, and blast. Most generally, TBI is a condition in which physical loads exceed the capacity of brain tissues to absorb without injury. More specifically, TBI results when sufficient external force is applied to the head and is subsequently converted into stresses that must be absorbed or redirected by protective equipment. If the stresses are not sufficiently absorbed or redirected, they will lead to damage of extracranial soft tissue and the skull. Complex interactions and kinematics of the head, neck and jaw cause strains within the brain tissue, resulting in structural, anatomical damage that is characteristic of the inciting insult. This mechanical trauma then initiates a neuro-chemical cascade that leads to the functional consequences of TBI, such as cognitive impairment. To fully understand the mechanisms by which TBI occurs, it is critically important to understand the effects of the loading environments created by these threats. In the following, a review is made of the pertinent complex loading conditions and how these loads cause injury. Also discussed are injury thresholds and gaps in knowledge, both of which are needed to design improved protective systems.

  15. A Fluid Helmet Liner for Protection Against Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Xs- V 0 A \\ /I \\ A // ^> cV- if- y1 ^H5^ ay< $? ̂ fta 11 13 1.3 1 d H 1 R 1.7 1 R 1 q Time (ms) Fig. 11 Pressure profiles: Solid... clinical trials. Furthermore, the data obtained can be used in computational validation. The blast mitigation aspect of the study was accomplished

  16. The role of biomarkers and MEG-based imaging markers in the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder and blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingxiong; Risling, Mårten; Baker, Dewleen G

    2016-01-01

    Pervasive use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), rocket-propelled grenades, and land mines in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has brought traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its impact on health outcomes into public awareness. Blast injuries have been deemed signature wounds of these wars. War-related TBI is not new, having become prevalent during WWI and remaining medically relevant in WWII and beyond. Medicine's past attempts to accurately diagnose and disentangle the pathophysiology of war-related TBI parallels current lines of inquiry and highlights limitations in methodology and attribution of symptom etiology, be it organic, psychological, or behavioral. New approaches and biomarkers are needed. Serological biomarkers and biomarkers of injury obtained with imaging techniques represent cornerstones in the translation between experimental data and clinical observations. Experimental models for blast related TBI and PTSD can generate critical data on injury threshold, for example for white matter injury from acceleration. Carefully verified and validated models can be evaluated with gene expression arrays and proteomics to identify new candidates for serological biomarkers. Such models can also be analyzed with diffusion MRI and microscopy in order to identify criteria for detection of diffuse white matter injuries, such as DAI (diffuse axonal injury). The experimental models can also be analyzed with focus on injury outcome in brain stem regions, such as locus coeruleus or nucleus raphe magnus that can be involved in response to anxiety changes. Mild (and some moderate) TBI can be difficult to diagnose because the injuries are often not detectable on conventional MRI or CT. There is accumulating evidence that injured brain tissues in TBI patients generate abnormal low-frequency magnetic activity (ALFMA, peaked at 1-4Hz) that can be measured and localized by magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG imaging detects TBI abnormalities at the rates of 87

  17. In silico investigation of blast-induced intracranial fluid cavitation as it potentially leads to traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniff, S.; Taylor, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    We conducted computational macroscale simulations predicting blast-induced intracranial fluid cavitation possibly leading to brain injury. To further understanding of this problem, we developed microscale models investigating the effects of blast-induced cavitation bubble collapse within white matter axonal fiber bundles of the brain. We model fiber tracks of myelinated axons whose diameters are statistically representative of white matter. Nodes of Ranvier are modeled as unmyelinated sections of axon. Extracellular matrix envelops the axon fiber bundle, and gray matter is placed adjacent to the bundle. Cavitation bubbles are initially placed assuming an intracranial wave has already produced them. Pressure pulses, of varied strengths, are applied to the upper boundary of the gray matter and propagate through the model, inducing bubble collapse. Simulations, conducted using the shock wave physics code CTH, predict an increase in pressure and von Mises stress in axons downstream of the bubbles after collapse. This appears to be the result of hydrodynamic jetting produced during bubble collapse. Interestingly, results predict axon cores suffer significantly lower shear stresses from proximal bubble collapse than does their myelin sheathing. Simulations also predict damage to myelin sheathing, which, if true, degrades axonal electrical transmissibility and general health of the white matter structures in the brain.

  18. Assessment of the Effects of Acute and Repeated Exposure to Blast Overpressure in Rodents: Towards a Greater Understanding of Blast and the Potential Ramifications for Injury in Humans Exposed to Blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Thomas Ahlers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI resulting from exposure to improvised explosive devices (IEDs has fueled a requirement to develop animals models that mirror this condition using exposure to blast overpressure (BOP. En route to developing a model of repeated exposure to BOP we sought to initially characterize the effects of acute BOP exposure in rodents, focusing specifically on the levels of BOP exposure that produced clinical mTBI symptoms. We first measured BOP effects on gross motor function on a balance beam. Separate groups of unanesthetized rats were exposed (in different orientations to 40 kPa, 75 kPa and 120 kPa BOP exposure inside a pneumatically driven shock tube. Results demonstrated that rats exposed to 120 kPa demonstrated transient alterations or loss of consciousness indicated by a transient loss of righting and by increased latencies on the balance beam. The 120 kPa exposure was the threshold for overt pathology for acute BOP exposure with approximately 30% of rats presenting with evidence of subdural hemorrhage and cortical contusions. All animals exposed to 120 kPa BOP manifested evidence of significant pulmonary hemorrhage. Anterograde memory deficits were observed in rats exposed to 75 kPa facing the BOP wave and rats exposed to 120 kPa in the lateral (side orientation. We next assessed repeated exposure to either lateral or frontal 40 kPa BOP in anesthetized rats, once per day for 12 days. Results showed that repeated exposure in the frontal, but not side, orientation to the BOP wave produced a transitory learning deficit on a Morris water maze (MWM task as shown by significantly longer latencies to reach the submerged platform in the second and third blocks of a four block session. Implications of these data are discussed in relation to the manifestation of mTBI in military personnel exposed to IEDs. Finally, we suggest that there are multiple types of brain injury from blast.

  19. A Survey of Blast Injury across the Full Landscape of Military Science (Etude d’ensemble des blessures dues aux explosions a travers le panorama complet de la science militaire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Military Science (RTO-MP-HFM-207) Executive Summary Blast injury is a significant source of casualties in current NATO operations. The term “blast...toxicologique du souffle incluant les mécanismes de dose (par exemple, normes d’exposition à un tube à choc ), la description des points limites dose

  20. Additive Manufacturing of Cranial Simulants for Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    REPORT TYPE 08/28/2017 Poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Additive Manufacturing of Cranial Sin1ulants for Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injut’y 6... manufacturing techniques: Fused deposition modeling: ca sling molds Casting: white and gray matter Polymerization of injected solution...Sandia National Laboratories Conclusion MICHIGAN STAT[ l- I’ll I \\ I R <, I r \\ Additive manufacturrng provrdes a cost effective fabrration

  1. Controlled Low-Pressure Blast-Wave Exposure Causes Distinct Behavioral and Morphological Responses Modelling Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Comorbid Mild Traumatic Brain Injury-Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Amitai; Ram, Omri; Ifergane, Gal; Matar, Michael A; Sagi, Ram; Ostfeld, Ishay; Hoffman, Jay R; Kaplan, Zeev; Sadot, Oren; Cohen, Hagit

    2017-01-01

    The intense focus in the clinical literature on the mental and neurocognitive sequelae of explosive blast-wave exposure, especially when comorbid with post-traumatic stress-related disorders (PTSD) is justified, and warrants the design of translationally valid animal studies to provide valid complementary basic data. We employed a controlled experimental blast-wave paradigm in which unanesthetized animals were exposed to visual, auditory, olfactory, and tactile effects of an explosive blast-wave produced by exploding a thin copper wire. By combining cognitive-behavioral paradigms and ex vivo brain MRI to assess mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) phenotype with a validated behavioral model for PTSD, complemented by morphological assessments, this study sought to examine our ability to evaluate the biobehavioral effects of low-intensity blast overpressure on rats, in a translationally valid manner. There were no significant differences between blast- and sham-exposed rats on motor coordination and strength, or sensory function. Whereas most male rats exposed to the blast-wave displayed normal behavioral and cognitive responses, 23.6% of the rats displayed a significant retardation of spatial learning acquisition, fulfilling criteria for mTBI-like responses. In addition, 5.4% of the blast-exposed animals displayed an extreme response in the behavioral tasks used to define PTSD-like criteria, whereas 10.9% of the rats developed both long-lasting and progressively worsening behavioral and cognitive "symptoms," suggesting comorbid PTSD-mTBI-like behavioral and cognitive response patterns. Neither group displayed changes on MRI. Exposure to experimental blast-wave elicited distinct behavioral and morphological responses modelling mTBI-like, PTSD-like, and comorbid mTBI-PTSD-like responses. This experimental animal model can be a useful tool for elucidating neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of blast-wave-induced mTBI and PTSD and comorbid mTBI-PTSD.

  2. A novel rat model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury simulating different damage degree: implications for morphological, neurological, and biomarker changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengdong eLiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In current military conflicts and civilian terrorism, blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI is the primary cause of neurotrauma. However, the effects and mechanisms of bTBI are poorly understood. Although previous researchers have made significant contributions to establishing animal models for the simulation of bTBI, the precision and controllability of blast-induced injury in animal models must be improved. Therefore, we established a novel rat model to simulate blast-wave injury to the brain. To simulate different extents of bTBI injury, the animals were divided into moderate and severe injury groups. The miniature spherical explosives (PETN used in each group were of different sizes (2.5 mm diameter in the moderate injury group and 3.0 mm diameter in the severe injury group. A specially designed apparatus was able to precisely adjust the positions of the miniature explosives and create eight rats with bTBI simultaneously, using a single electric detonator. Neurological functions, gross pathologies, histopathological changes and the expression levels of various biomarkers were examined after the explosion. Compared with the moderate injury group, there were significantly more neurological dysfunctions, cortical contusions, intraparenchymal hemorrhages, cortical expression of S-100β, MBP, NSE, IL-8, IL-10, iNOS and HIF-1α in the severe injury group. These results demonstrate that we have created a reliable and reproducible bTBI model in rats. This model will be helpful for studying the mechanisms of bTBI and developing strategies for clinical bTBI treatment.

  3. Sub-lethal Ocular Trauma (SLOT): Establishing a Standardized Blast Threshold to Facilitate Diagnostic, Early Treatment, and Recovery Studies for Blast Injuries to the Eye and Optic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    doors. Center: damage to the sensor mounts. Right: Damage to the blast curtain . Figure 6. US Army Institute of Surgical Research shock...for 5 min. The stained slides were placed on filter paper and air -dried for 5 min. Prior to starting the MALDI analysis, the sections were...internal scleral delaminations. Development of a rigorous experimental methodology and use of pre-blast ultrasound screening gave confidence that the

  4. Effects of interactive metronome therapy on cognitive functioning after blast-related brain injury: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lonnie A; Macdonald, Margaret; Stall, Christina; Pazdan, Renee

    2013-11-01

    We report preliminary findings on the efficacy of interactive metronome (IM) therapy for the remediation of cognitive difficulties in soldiers with persisting cognitive complaints following blast-related mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forty-six of a planned sample of 50 active duty soldiers with persistent cognitive complaints following a documented history of blast-related TBI of mild-to-moderate severity were randomly assigned to receive either standard rehabilitation care (SRC) or SRC plus a 15-session standardized course of IM therapy. Primary outcome measures were Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Index Scores. Secondary outcome measures included selected subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (Trail Making Test and Color-Word Interference) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (Symbol Search, Digit-Symbol Coding, Digit Span, and Letter-Number Sequencing) as well as the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test. Significant group differences (SRC vs. IM) were observed for RBANS Attention (p = .044), Immediate Memory (p = .019), and Delayed Memory (p = .031) indices in unadjusted analyses, with the IM group showing significantly greater improvement at Time 2 than the SRC group, with effect sizes in the medium-to-large range in the adjusted analyses for each outcome (Cohen's d = 0.511, 0.768, and 0.527, respectively). Though not all were statistically significant, effects in 21 of 26 cognitive outcome measures were consistently in favor of the IM treatment group (binomial probability = .00098). The addition of IM therapy to SRC appears to have a positive effect on neuropsychological outcomes for soldiers who have sustained mild-to-moderate TBI and have persistent cognitive complaints after the period for expected recovery has passed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Combined Effects of Primary and Tertiary Blast on Rat Brain: Characterization of a Model of Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Prog Neurobiol. 2001;63:321-36. [34] Zador Z, Stiver S, Wang V, Manley GT. Role of aquaporin-4 in cerebral edema and stroke. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2009...bullae were opened • Images were taken under microscope with a 20x magnification • Sham ( ll , 1R), 280Ps_S psi (2l, 2R), 2BOPs_12 psi (3l, 3R...8217 · ~~ lW . ll at 7 dafter double blast exposures (ID Effect of blast exposure on auditory cortex • Immunohistochemistry on brain sections • at 6 hand

  6. A modified beam-walking apparatus for assessment of anxiety in a rodent model of blast traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, Brian M; Bachour, Salam P; Brekke, Julia A; Gewirtz, Jonathan C; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Hevesi, Mario; Divani, Afshin A

    2016-01-01

    The elevated plus maze (EPM) is used to assess anxiety in rodents. Beam-walking tasks are used to assess vestibulomotor function. Brain injury in rodents can disrupt performance on both of these tasks. Developing novel paradigms that integrate tasks like these can reduce the need for multiple tests when attempting to assess multiple behaviors in the same animal. Using adult male rats, we evaluated the use of a modified beam-walking (MBW) apparatus as a surrogate indicator for anxiety. We used a model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). A total of 39 rats were assessed before and at 3, 6, 24, 72, and 168h either post- bTBI (n=33) or no-injury (n=6) using both EPM and MBW. A novel anxiety index was calculated that encompassed peeks and re-emergences on MBW. The proposed MBW anxiety index was compared with the standard anxiety index calculated from exploration into different sections of EPM. Post- bTBI, rats had an increased anxiety index when measured using EPM. Similarly, they peeked or fully emerged less out of the safe box on MBW. It was found that this novel MBW anxiety index captured similar aspects of behavior when compared to the standard anxiety index obtained from EPM. Further, these effects were dissociated from the effects of bTBI on motor function simultaneously measured on MBW. Over the course of 168h post-bTBI, rats gradually recovered on both EPM and MBW. The MBW apparatus succeeded at capturing and dissociating two separate facets of rat behavior, motor function and anxiety, simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MECHANOGENESIS AND CLINICAL-ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HAND CONTACT BLAST INJURY IN PEACE AND WAR TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Fomin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thorough research has been done on the characteristics of surgical anatomy and mechanogenesis of the explosion-related hand injuries received during military campaigns and in non-military explosion-related accidents. This research consisted of clinical, statistical and experimental-anatomical parts. 241 patient data files of the wounded during the military campaign in Afghanistan have been analysed as well as 70 patient data files of the injured in non-military explosion-related accidents. The most common, according to the patient data analysis, morphological variations of the explosion-related hand injuries were simulated during 24 in-field experiments by exploding hands of cadavers. The characteristics of the explosion-related hand injuries were analysed using radiography and precision preparation of the extremities after the in-field experiments. The correlations between the hand damage levels, the types of explosive materials, their orientation and position in hand during explosion have been identified.

  8. Amelioration of acute sequelae of blast induced mild traumatic brain injury by N-acetyl cysteine: a double-blind, placebo controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Hoffer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI secondary to blast exposure is the most common battlefield injury in Southwest Asia. There has been little prospective work in the combat setting to test the efficacy of new countermeasures. The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC versus placebo on the symptoms associated with blast exposure mTBI in a combat setting. METHODS: This study was a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled study that was conducted on active duty service members at a forward deployed field hospital in Iraq. All symptomatic U.S. service members who were exposed to significant ordnance blast and who met the criteria for mTBI were offered participation in the study and 81 individuals agreed to participate. Individuals underwent a baseline evaluation and then were randomly assigned to receive either N-acetyl cysteine (NAC or placebo for seven days. Each subject was re-evaluated at 3 and 7 days. Outcome measures were the presence of the following sequelae of mTBI: dizziness, hearing loss, headache, memory loss, sleep disturbances, and neurocognitive dysfunction. The resolution of these symptoms seven days after the blast exposure was the main outcome measure in this study. Logistic regression on the outcome of 'no day 7 symptoms' indicated that NAC treatment was significantly better than placebo (OR = 3.6, p = 0.006. Secondary analysis revealed subjects receiving NAC within 24 hours of blast had an 86% chance of symptom resolution with no reported side effects versus 42% for those seen early who received placebo. CONCLUSION: This study, conducted in an active theatre of war, demonstrates that NAC, a safe pharmaceutical countermeasure, has beneficial effects on the severity and resolution of sequelae of blast induced mTBI. This is the first demonstration of an effective short term countermeasure for mTBI. Further work on long term outcomes and the potential use of NAC in civilian m

  9. Pulmonary hypertension in patient with elevated homocystein level and blast injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuljević, Ervin; Redzepi, Gzim; Plestina, Sanja; Vidjak, Vinko; Loncarić, Vlasta; Jakopović, Marko; Samarzija, Miroslav

    2009-03-01

    38-year-old man had chronic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) as a result of multiple injuries caused by an explosion of grenade 12 years ago, with recurrent pulmonary thromboembolisms and pulmonary hypertension which was unrecognized for a decade. Patient was admitted with a progressive dyspnea and exercise intolerance (NYHA II). The diagnosis was established according to clinical symptoms, transthoracic echocardiography, phlebography, lung scintigraphy and pulmonary angiography. Oral anticoagulant therapy was introduced and cava filter indicated to implant. During phlebography a floating thrombus was found in the inferior cava vein underneath renal vein. Implantation was delayed and patient received systemic fibrinolytic therapy with streptokinase (7500 000 UI within 4 days), followed by heparin infusion and warfarin. Post-fibrinolytic phlebography showed clear lumen of inferior vena cava. Fibrinolysis had also affected pulmonary hypertension-systolic pressure in the right ventricle measured by Doppler echocardiography decreased from 90 to 65 mmHg. Permanent intravenous cava filter was implanted.

  10. Alterations in autobiographical memory for a blast event in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Daniela J; Kapson, Heather S; Lafleche, Ginette; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Marx, Brian P; Franz, Molly; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-07-01

    Although loss of consciousness associated with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to interfere with encoding of the TBI event, little is known about the effects of mild TBI (mTBI), which typically involves only transient disruption in consciousness. Blast-exposed Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans were asked to recall the blast event. Participants were stratified based on whether the blast was associated with probable mTBI (n = 50) or not (n = 25). Narratives were scored for organizational structure (i.e., coherence) using the Narrative Coherence Coding Scheme (Reese et al., 2011) and episodic recollection using the Autobiographical Interview Coding Procedures (Levine et al., 2002). The mTBI group produced narratives that were less coherent but contained more episodic details than those of the no-TBI group. These results suggest that mTBI interferes with the organizational quality of memory in a manner that is independent of episodic detail generation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Epidemiological Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sequelae Caused by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Distribution Interview diagnosis of mTBI after blast Page 12 of 30 low certainty using 90% or higher confidence as the anchor for high certainty...n = 32), ankle (n = 19), and hip (n = 16) regions. Full results of each of the preliminary hierarchical linear regressions are presented in Table 2

  12. Influence of Combat Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Acute Symptoms on Mental Health and Service Discharge Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Mild traumatic brain injury in an insured population: Subjective complaints and return to employment. Brain Inj. 6, 161 166. 15. Kraus, J., Schaffer, K...B., Haddon, W., Jr., and Long, W.B. (1974). The Injury Severity Score: A method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating...consciousness predict neuropsychological decrements after concussion? Clin. J. Sport Med. 9, 193 198. 26. Gil, S., Caspi, Y., Ben Ari, I.Z., Koren, D., and

  13. Blast management

    OpenAIRE

    Shouraki, Mohammad Kargar; Naserkheil, Ali Asghar

    2011-01-01

    Blast Management (BM) is composed of the combination of human resources management (HRM) principles and concepts and various methods of quality management (QM) with a financial approach. BM is made up of three aspects: hard, soft and concept and BLAST means an explosive shift in organization's mindset and thought and rapid action against it. The first aspect, hard, includes a set of managerial toots and philosophies to improve the quality and productivity with a financial approach.

  14. Deficits in Visual System Functional Connectivity after Blast-Related Mild TBI are Associated with Injury Severity and Executive Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-24

    W. Jung. 2003. Long-term potentiation in visual cortical projections to the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat . Neuroscience 120:283–289. Kim, J., J...functional connec- tivity (FC) of four key nodes within the visual system: lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), primary visual cortex (V1), lateral...related TBI may be accompanied by involvement of the visual system through optic nerve injury, diffuse or focal cerebral injury, or ocular motor

  15. Applying Modeling and Simulation to Predict Human Injury due to a Blast Attack on a Shipboard Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    score is also used to assess inca - pacitation using the Military Functional Incapacity Score (MFIS), which characterizes the degree of impairment in...firefighting), are com- pared to any injury impairments (Champion & Lawnick, 2012). Thus, an individual with a sprained ankle will be inca - pacitated if his

  16. A computational model of blast loading on the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Ziegler, Kimberly; Seo, Jung Hee; Ramesh, K T; Nguyen, Thao D

    2014-01-01

    Ocular injuries from blast have increased in recent wars, but the injury mechanism associated with the primary blast wave is unknown. We employ a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computational model to understand the stresses and deformations incurred by the globe due to blast overpressure. Our numerical results demonstrate that the blast wave reflections off the facial features around the eye increase the pressure loading on and around the eye. The blast wave produces asymmetric loading on the eye, which causes globe distortion. The deformation response of the globe under blast loading was evaluated, and regions of high stresses and strains inside the globe were identified. Our numerical results show that the blast loading results in globe distortion and large deviatoric stresses in the sclera. These large deviatoric stresses may be indicator for the risk of interfacial failure between the tissues of the sclera and the orbit.

  17. The design of a modified lower limb impactor to assess lower limb injury at typical blast loading rates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available tibia peak force averaged 5154 N and ranged from 5013 N to 5161 N. The MiL-Lx leg’s biomechanical response demonstrated high repeatability with a standard deviation of 137 N for the tibia peak load. Discussion Figure 6 shows the comparison... towards understanding the mechanism of injury. Conclusions The experimental apparatus presented here allows for biomechanical lower limbs surrogates to be tested at various postures, and offers an independent test-bed for assessing the bio...

  18. Blast-Resistant Improvement of Sandwich Armor Structure with Aluminum Foam Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shu; Qi, Chang

    2013-01-01

    Sandwich armor structures with aluminum foam can be utilized to protect a military vehicle from harmful blast load such as a landmine explosion. In this paper, a system-level dynamic finite element model is developed to simulate the blast event and to evaluate the blast-resistant performance of the sandwich armor structure. It is found that a sandwich armor structure with only aluminum foam is capable of mitigating crew injuries under a moderate blast load. However, a severe blast load causes...

  19. Pulmonary embolism in a wounded with mine blast injury against the background of anticoagulant prophylaxis (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Nikolaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in healthy military are rare. Fighting surgical trauma is the trigger of a cascade of defense reactions of the body and the blood coagulation system, leading to stop bleeding. Hemostatic disorders, shifting the equilibrium toward hypercoagulable state, the emergence of the risk factors associated with the injury, lead to uncontrolled thrombosis with subsequent development of venous thromboembolic complications. We present the case of the left pulmonary artery thromboembolism in 41 year old wounded with a gunshot fracture of the right femur, obtained by blowing an unknown explosive device. Medical assistance was provided in three stages of evacuation. In order to stabilize a femur fracture the external fixation device was used. According coagulogram thrombinemia persisted for more than 30 days. Prevention of thrombosis carried LMWH (Clexane, with 9 days after injury. 31 day angiography was performed computer, identified thrombus by 70% ceiling clearance left pulmonary artery; by ultrasound scanning of the veins of the lower limbs was diagnosed asymptomatic thrombosis of the right iliofemoral. Against the background of complex treatment for 67 hours after the injury occurred recanalization. This case shows that the injured limb wound clinical symptoms of the disease symptoms negate venous thrombosis, which becomes the only manifestation of pulmonary embolism. Prevention of venous thromboembolic events, as well as monitoring of its effectiveness, should be carried out at all stages of the evacuation of the wounded and for the entire period of the presence of risk factors for their development.

  20. Attenuation of blast pressure behind ballistic protective vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Shridharani, Jay K; Matthews, Kyle A; Capehart, Bruce P; Myers, Barry S; Bass, Cameron R

    2013-02-01

    Clinical studies increasingly report brain injury and not pulmonary injury following blast exposures, despite the increased frequency of exposure to explosive devices. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of personal body armour use on the potential for primary blast injury and to determine the risk of brain and pulmonary injury following a blast and its impact on the clinical care of patients with a history of blast exposure. A shock tube was used to generate blast overpressures on soft ballistic protective vests (NIJ Level-2) and hard protective vests (NIJ Level-4) while overpressure was recorded behind the vest. Both types of vest were found to significantly decrease pulmonary injury risk following a blast for a wide range of conditions. At the highest tested blast overpressure, the soft vest decreased the behind armour overpressure by a factor of 14.2, and the hard vest decreased behind armour overpressure by a factor of 56.8. Addition of body armour increased the 50th percentile pulmonary death tolerance of both vests to higher levels than the 50th percentile for brain injury. These results suggest that ballistic protective body armour vests, especially hard body armour plates, provide substantial chest protection in primary blasts and explain the increased frequency of head injuries, without the presence of pulmonary injuries, in protected subjects reporting a history of blast exposure. These results suggest increased clinical suspicion for mild to severe brain injury is warranted in persons wearing body armour exposed to a blast with or without pulmonary injury.

  1. Surgical considerations in the management of combined radiation blast injury casualties caused by a radiological dirty bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geraint; O'Malley, Michael

    2010-09-01

    The capacity for surgical teams to respond appropriately to the consequences caused by the detonation of a radiological dirty bomb will be determined by prior knowledge, familiarity and training for this type unique terrorist event. This paper will focus on the surgical aspects of this scenario with particular emphasis on the management of combined trauma-radiological injury. The paper also describes some of the more serious explosion-contamination incidents from nuclear industrial sources, summarises learning points and parallels taken from these scenarios in relation to subject of a radiological dirty bomb and describes the likely radioactive substances involved. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 8 Museve NBI BombBlast.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professionals, executives, managers, semi professionals and skilled workers comprised 89.5% of the victims when ... dependants. Being inside a building and within 100 metres from the blast carried the largest risk of injury. A ... Kenya had never experienced a suicidal terrorist bombing ..... Rapid assessment of Injuries.

  3. Porcine head response to blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  4. Bomb blast imaging: bringing order to chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, E A; Ballard, M; Alwan-Walker, H; Kashef, E; Batrick, N; Hettiaratchy, S; Moran, C G

    2018-06-01

    Blast injuries are complex, severe, and outside of our everyday clinical practice, but every radiologist needs to understand them. By their nature, bomb blasts are unpredictable and affect multiple victims, yet require an immediate, coordinated, and whole-hearted response from all members of the clinical team, including all radiology staff. This article will help you gain the requisite expertise in blast imaging including recognising primary, secondary, and tertiary blast injuries. It will also help you understand the fundamental role that imaging plays during mass casualty attacks and how to avoid radiology becoming a bottleneck to the forward flow of severely injured patients as they are triaged and treated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Acceleration-based methodology to assess the blast mitigation performance of explosive ordnance disposal helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, J. P.; Levine, J.; Makris, A.

    2018-01-01

    To design the next generation of blast mitigation helmets that offer increasing levels of protection against explosive devices, manufacturers must be able to rely on appropriate test methodologies and human surrogates that will differentiate the performance level of various helmet solutions and ensure user safety. Ideally, such test methodologies and associated injury thresholds should be based on widely accepted injury criteria relevant within the context of blast. Unfortunately, even though significant research has taken place over the last decade in the area of blast neurotrauma, there currently exists no agreement in terms of injury mechanisms for blast-induced traumatic brain injury. In absence of such widely accepted test methods and injury criteria, the current study presents a specific blast test methodology focusing on explosive ordnance disposal protective equipment, involving the readily available Hybrid III mannequin, initially developed for the automotive industry. The unlikely applicability of the associated brain injury criteria (based on both linear and rotational head acceleration) is discussed in the context of blast. Test results encompassing a large number of blast configurations and personal protective equipment are presented, emphasizing the possibility to develop useful correlations between blast parameters, such as the scaled distance, and mannequin engineering measurements (head acceleration). Suggestions are put forward for a practical standardized blast testing methodology taking into account limitations in the applicability of acceleration-based injury criteria as well as the inherent variability in blast testing results.

  6. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues.

  7. Blast Injuries And Heterotopic Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    transfemoral amputation. Note the skin graft over the terminal portion of the residual limb. Although we advocate avoiding terminal skin grafting of...of the overlying skin graft . Fig. 2a 177 K. A. ALFIERI, J. A. FORSBERG, B. K. POTTER BONE & JOINT RESEARCH mimimum of six months prior to performing

  8. Rapid release of tissue enzymes into blood after blast exposure: potential use as biological dosimeters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peethambaran Arun

    Full Text Available Explosive blast results in multiple organ injury and polytrauma, the intensity of which varies with the nature of the exposure, orientation, environment and individual resilience. Blast overpressure alone may not precisely indicate the level of body or brain injury after blast exposure. Assessment of the extent of body injury after blast exposure is important, since polytrauma and systemic factors significantly contribute to blast-induced traumatic brain injury. We evaluated the activity of plasma enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine kinase (CK at different time points after blast exposure using a mouse model of single and repeated blast exposures to assess the severity of injury. Our data show that activities of all the enzymes in the plasma were significantly increased as early as 1 h after blast exposure. The elevated enzyme activity remained up to 6 h in an overpressure dose-dependent manner and returned close to normal levels at 24 h. Head-only blast exposure with body protection showed no increase in the enzyme activities suggesting that brain injury alone does not contribute to the systemic increase. In contrast to plasma increase, AST, ALT and LDH activity in the liver and CK in the skeletal muscle showed drastic decrease at 6 h after blast exposures. Histopathology showed mild necrosis at 6 h and severe necrosis at 24 h after blast exposures in liver and no changes in the skeletal muscle suggesting that the enzyme release from the tissue to plasma is probably triggered by transient cell membrane disruption from shockwave and not due to necrosis. Overpressure dependent transient release of tissue enzymes and elevation in the plasma after blast exposure suggest that elevated enzyme activities in the blood can be potentially used as a biological dosimeter to assess the severity of blast injury.

  9. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  10. Calculation of driling and blasting parameters in blasting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Dambov, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    In all mining technology drilling and blasting parameters and works are one of the main production processes at each mine. The parameters of drilling and blasting and explosives consumption per ton of blasting mass are define economic indicators of any blasting no matter for what purpose and where mining is performed. The calculation of rock blasting should always have in mind that the methodology of calculation of all drilling and blasting parameters in blasting performance are performed for...

  11. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  12. Anatomical manifestations of primary blast ocular trauma observed in a postmortem porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Daniel; Sponsel, William E; Lund, Brian J; Gray, Walt; Watson, Richard; Groth, Sylvia L; Thoe, Kimberly; Glickman, Randolph D; Reilly, Matthew A

    2014-02-24

    We qualitatively describe the anatomic features of primary blast ocular injury observed using a postmortem porcine eye model. Porcine eyes were exposed to various levels of blast energy to determine the optimal conditions for future testing. We studied 53 enucleated porcine eyes: 13 controls and 40 exposed to a range of primary blast energy levels. Eyes were preassessed with B-scan and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) ultrasonography, photographed, mounted in gelatin within acrylic orbits, and monitored with high-speed videography during blast-tube impulse exposure. Postimpact photography, ultrasonography, and histopathology were performed, and ocular damage was assessed. Evidence for primary blast injury was obtained. While some of the same damage was observed in the control eyes, the incidence and severity of this damage in exposed eyes increased with impulse and peak pressure, suggesting that primary blast exacerbated these injuries. Common findings included angle recession, internal scleral delamination, cyclodialysis, peripheral chorioretinal detachments, and radial peripapillary retinal detachments. No full-thickness openings of the eyewall were observed in any of the eyes tested. Scleral damage demonstrated the strongest associative tendency for increasing likelihood of injury with increased overpressure. These data provide evidence that primary blast alone (in the absence of particle impact) can produce clinically relevant ocular damage in a postmortem model. The blast parameters derived from this study are being used currently in an in vivo model. We also propose a new Cumulative Injury Score indicating the clinical relevance of observed injuries.

  13. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Mild-Moderate Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paul G. Harch, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Traumatic Brain Injury Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affect 11-28% and 13-17%, respectively, of U.S. combat troops returning from Iraq and

  14. Protecting the lower extremity against a/p blast mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Dyk, T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available the Lower Extremity against a/p Blast Mines J T van Dyk DEFENCE, PEACE, SAFETY AND SECURITY LANDWARDS SCIENCES COMPETENCY AREA Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Contents • R&D overview • Effect of a/p blast mines • Basic... explosive principles – Shock effect (brisance) – Blast effect • Test methods • Protection concepts • Test results Slide 3 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Goals: Compare LEAP study results with field injuries Investigate energy...

  15. Blast Overpressure Studies. Nonauditory Damage Risk Assessment for Simulated Muzzle Blast from a l2Omm Ml2l Mortar System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yelverton, John

    1997-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish the subthreshold, threshold, and suprathresholds for nonauditory injuries in a simulated muzzle blast environment like that produced when firing a 120mm M121 mortar system...

  16. Blast-related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury is Associated with a Decline in Self-Rated Health Amongst US Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of... Article history: Accepted 25 July 2011 Keywords: Mild traumatic brain injury Self-rated health Military Combat casualty A B S T R A C T Introduction: Mild...throat 9 (3.2) 14 (3.9) .662 Eye 5 (1.8) 13 (3.6) .170 Family problems 2 (0.7) 1 (0.3) Fatigue 13 (4.7) 24 (6.7) .286 Audiology 40 (14.4) 41 (11.4

  17. Compressed air blast injury with palpebral, orbital, facial, cervical, and mediastinal emphysema through an eyelid laceration: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Takahiro; Ogami, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Fumiki; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2013-11-07

    To the best of our knowledge, only 14 cases of orbital or periorbital compressed air injuries from air guns or hoses have been reported in the literature. A 30-year-old man was accidentally injured when a compressed air hose nozzle hit his right eye. The right half of his face was markedly swollen and a skin laceration near the right medial canthus was identified. A computed tomography scan showed subcutaneous and intraorbital emphysema around the right eye as well as cervical and mediastinal emphysema. He was prophylactically treated with systemic and topical antibiotics to prevent infection. All emphysemas had completely resolved 2 weeks after the injury. A review of all 15 cases (including ours) showed that all patients were male and that 6 of the 15 (40.0%) cases were related to industrial accidents. Although emphysema was restricted to the subconjunctival space in 2 (13.3%) cases, it spread to the orbit in the remaining 13 (86.7%) cases. Cervical and mediastinal emphysemas were found in 3 (20.0%) cases, and intracranial emphysema was confirmed in 6 (40.0%) cases. Prophylactic antibiotics were used in most cases and the prognosis was generally good in all but one patient, who developed optic atrophy and blindness.

  18. Facial and eye injury following a fridge cylinder gas explosion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2. Secondary injury -flying fragment. 3. Tertiary injury- against stationary object. 4. Quaternary injuries (miscellaneous blast related injuries) encompass injuries caused by collisions, falling masonry, buildings, or beams. The possible mechanism in this case was primary injury. This was in agreement with Babar et al [2] who.

  19. Brain Vulnerability to Repeated Blast Overpressure and Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Gould , 1994; Yu et al ., 2004; Montaron et al ., 2006); with males showing...ety, and depression (Gentilini et al ., 1985; Schoenhuber and Gentilini, 1988 ; Ponsford et al ., 1995). Blast induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI...into neuronal circuits (Kempermann, 2002a; Kozorovitskiy and Gould , 2003; Abrous et al ., 2005; Hagg, 2005; Ming and Song, 2005; Zhao et al .,

  20. foreign body in scrotum following a boat engine blast accident

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    1Urology Unit, 37 Military Hospital, P.O. Box KB 282, Korle-Bu, Accra, Ghana, 2Department of Surgery,. University of Ghana Medical School, PO Box 4236 ... evacuation limits complications. Keywords: Blast Injury, Scrotal ... emergency of the 37 Military Hospital for further care. Patient complained of a headache but had no ...

  1. Characterization of viscoelastic materials for low-magnitude blast mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W.

    2014-05-01

    Recent research indicates that exposure to low amplitude blast waves, such as IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficiently protecting warfighters from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the blast mitigating behavior of current helmet materials and new materials designed for blast mitigation using a test fixture recently developed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division for use with an existing gas gun. The 40-mm-bore gas gun was used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 0.5 to 2 bar) in the test fixture mounted on the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve was used to release helium gas from the breech which formed into a blast wave and impacted instrumented targets in the test fixture. Blast attenuation of selected materials was determined through the measurement of stress data in front of and behind the target. Materials evaluated in this research include polyurethane foam from currently fielded US Army and Marine Corps helmets, polyurea 1000, and three hardnesses of Sorbothane (48, 58, and 70 durometer, Shore 00). Polyurea 1000 and 6061-T6 aluminum were used to calibrate the stress gauges.

  2. Effects of low-level blast exposure on the nervous system: Is there really a controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Elder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure blast waves can cause extensive CNS injury in humans. However, in combat settings such as Iraq and Afghanistan, lower level exposures associated with mild TBI (mTBI or subclinical exposure have been much more common. Yet controversy exists concerning what traits can be attributed to low-level blast, in large part due to the difficulty of distinguishing blast-related mTBI from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We describe how TBI is defined in humans and the problems posed in using current definitions to recognize blast-related mTBI. We next consider the problem of applying definitions of human mTBI to animal models, in particular that TBI severity in humans is defined in relation to alteration of consciousness at the time of injury, which typically cannot be assessed in animals. However, based on outcome assessments a condition of low-level blast exposure can be defined in animals that likely approximates human mTBI or subclinical exposure. We review blast injury modeling in animals noting that inconsistencies in experimental approach have contributed to uncertainty over the effects of low-level blast. Yet animal studies show that low-level blast pressure waves are transmitted to the brain. In brain low-level blast exposures cause behavioral, biochemical, pathological and physiological effects on the nervous system including the induction of PTSD-related behavioral traits in the absence of a psychological stressor. We review the relationship of blast exposure to chronic neurodegenerative diseases noting the paradoxical lowering of Abeta by blast, which along with other observations suggest that blast-related TBI is pathophysiologically distinct from non-blast TBI. Human neuroimaging studies show that blast-related mTBI is associated with a variety of chronic effects that are unlikely to be explained by co-morbid PTSD. We conclude that abundant evidence supports low-level blast as having long-term effects on the nervous system.

  3. Mathematical models of blast induced TBI: current status, challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K Gupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI has become a signature wound of recent military activities and is the leading cause of death and long-term disability among U.S. soldiers. The current limited understanding of brain injury mechanisms impedes the development of protection, diagnostic and treatment strategies. We believe mathematical models of blast wave brain injury biomechanics and neurobiology, complemented with in vitro and in vivo experimental studies, will enable a better understanding of injury mechanisms and accelerate the development of both protective and treatment strategies. The goal of this paper is to review the current state of the art in mathematical and computational modeling of blast induced TBI, identify research gaps and recommend future developments. A brief overview of blast wave physics, injury biomechanics and the neurobiology of brain injury is used as a foundation for a more detailed discussion of multiscale mathematical models of primary biomechanics and secondary injury and repair mechanisms. The paper also presents a discussion of model development strategies, experimental approaches to generate benchmark data for model validation and potential applications of the model for prevention and protection against blast wave TBI.

  4. The BLAST experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasell, D.; Botto, T.; van den Brand, J.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The detector and experimental program were designed to study, in a systematic manner, the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems.

  5. Blasting agents and initiation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2000-01-01

    Although blasting differs between and within each industry, as a whole, the mines and quarries are making a shift from a purely ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) mixture to a blend of emulsion and ANFO on a straight emulsion. Non-electric (shock tube) initiation systems have provided a viable alternative to the electric detonator (blasting cap). Explosives manufacturers are seeing their roles changes to being blasting contractors or consultants rather than just suppliers. The article discusses these trends and gives examples of typical blasting techniques and amounts of blasting agent used at large USA surface coal mines. Electric caps are still used in blasting underground coal. The Ensign Bickford Co. (EBCo) is developing electronic detonators and has been field testing an electronic initiator, the DIGIDET detonator, for the last four years. When commercially available, electronic detonators will be accurate but will come with a hefty price tag. 2 photos.

  6. The importance of systemic response in the pathobiology of blast-induced neurotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibolja eCernak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to complex injurious environment where multiple blast effects interact with the body, parallel blast-induced neurotrauma is a unique clinical entity induced by systemic, local, and cerebral responses. Activation of autonomous nervous system; sudden pressure-increase in vital organs such as lungs and liver; and activation of neuroendocrine-immune system are among the most important mechanisms that contribute significantly to molecular changes and cascading injury mechanisms in the brain. It has been hypothesized that vagally mediated cerebral effects play a vital role in the early response to blast: this assumption has been supported by experiments where bilateral vagotomy mitigated bradycardia, hypotension, and apnea, and also prevented excessive metabolic alterations in the brain of animals exposed to blast. Clinical experience suggests specific blast-body-nervous system interactions such as 1 direct interaction with the head either through direct passage of the blast wave through the skull or by causing acceleration and/or rotation of the head; and 2 via hydraulic interaction, when the blast overpressure compresses the abdomen and chest, and transfers its kinetic energy to the body’s fluid phase, initiating oscillating waves that traverse the body and reach the brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays important role in the pathogenesis of long-term neurological deficits due to blast. These include memory decline, motor function and balance impairments, and behavioral alterations, among others. Experiments using rigid body- or head protection in animals subjected to blast showed that head protection failed to prevent inflammation in the brain or reduce neurological deficits, whereas body protection was successful in alleviating the blast-induced functional and morphological impairments in the brain.

  7. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    posterior of the head to the lambda . Its location is shown in Figure 2 which also shows the approximate locations of the six ICP transducers. The X-axis...cell bodies that may be related to impaired axoplasmic transport and its ultimate release into the surrounding extracellular matrix , which in turn

  8. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  9. Tunnel blasting - recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.E.

    1999-05-01

    While tunnelling machines are more efficient than previously, there are still areas where blasting is a more efficient method of advance. Drilling and design methods are increasingly sophisticated, as is choice of explosive. Explosive deployment must be carefully calculated so as to avoid desensitisation. Nitroglycerine may be used as slurries; bulk mixing on site of ANFO is also practised in mining in the UK. Electric detonators, Nonel tubes, and electronic detonators are also increasingly employed.

  10. Blasting technology advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    Nitroglycerine explosives are increasingly giving way to emulsions and low cost Anfo compositions, the latter sometimes incorporating emulsion in order to improve water resistance and performance. The aim is to produce an explosive which is extremely efficient, relatively safe and can be tailored to meet user requirements. Discussion is presented of emulsion delivery systems, initiation systems, electronic detonators, computer blast modelling, directional explosives, underground automation, and the development of Soviet explosives. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Blast Testing Issues and TBI; Experimental Models that Lead to Wrong Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Needham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years we have noticed an increase in the number of blast injury studies published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals that have utilized improperly conceived experiments. Data from these studies will lead to false conclusions and more confusion than advancement in the understanding of blast injury, particularly blast neurotrauma. Computational methods to properly characterize the blast environment have been available for decades. These methods, combined with a basic understanding of blast wave phenomena enable researchers to extract useful information from well documented experiments. This basic understanding must include the differences and interrelationships of static pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, and total or stagnation pressure in transient shockwave flows, how they relate to loading of objects, and how they are properly measured. However, it is critical that the research community effectively overcomes the confusion that has been compounded by a misunderstanding of the differences between the loading produced by a free field explosive blast and loading produced by a conventional shock tube. The principles of blast scaling have been well established for decades and when properly applied will do much to repair these problems.This paper provides guidance regarding proper experimental methods and offers insights into the implications of improperly designed and executed tests. Through application of computational methods, useful data can be extracted from well documented historical tests, and future work can be conducted in a way to maximize the effectiveness and use of valuable biological test data.

  12. Blast Exposure, White Matter Integrity, and Cognitive Function in Iraq and Afghanistan Combat Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A. Hazlett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of blast exposure are a major health concern for combat veterans returning from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. We used an optimized diffusion tensor imaging tractography algorithm to assess white matter (WM fractional anisotropy (FA in blast-exposed Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (n = 40 scanned on average 3.7 years after deployment/trauma exposure. Veterans diagnosed with a blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI were compared to combat veterans with blast exposure but no TBI diagnosis. Blast exposure was associated with decreased FA in several WM tracts. However, total blast exposure did not correlate well with neuropsychological testing performance and there were no differences in FA based on mTBI diagnosis. Yet, veterans with mTBI performed worse on every neurocognitive test administered. Multiple linear regression across all blast-exposed veterans using a six-factor prediction model indicated that the amount of blast exposure accounted for 11–15% of the variability in composite FA scores such that as blast exposure increased, FA decreased. Education accounted for 10% of the variability in composite FA scores and 25–32% of FA variability in the right cingulum, such that as level of education increased, FA increased. Total blast exposure, age, and education were significant predictors of FA in the left cingulum. We did not find any effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on cognition or composite FA. In summary, our findings suggest that greater total blast exposure is a contributing factor to poor WM integrity. While FA was not associated with neurocognitive performance, we hypothesize that FA changes in the cingulum in veterans with multiple combat exposures and no head trauma prior to deployment may represent a marker of vulnerability for future deficits. Future work needs to examine this longitudinally.

  13. Numerical simulation of muzzle blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler-Street, M.

    2014-01-01

    Structural design methods for naval ships include environmental, operational and military load cases. One of the operational loads acting on a typical naval vessel is the muzzle blast from a gun. Simulating the muzzle blast load acting on a ship structure with CFD and ALE methods leads to large

  14. Chronic caffeine exposure attenuates blast-induced memory deficit in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ya-Lei; Yang, Nan; Chen, Xing; Zhao, Zi-Ai; Zhang, Xiu-Zhu; Chen, Xing-Yun; Li, Ping; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of three different ways of chronic caffeine administration on blast- induced memory dysfunction and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were used and randomly divided into five groups: control: without blast exposure, con-water: administrated with water continuously before and after blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), con-caffeine: administrated with caffeine continuously for 1 month before and after bTBI, pre-caffeine: chronically administrated with caffeine for 1 month before bTBI and withdrawal after bTBI, post-caffeine: chronically administrated with caffeine after bTBI. After being subjected to moderate intensity of blast injury, mice were recorded for learning and memory performance using Morris water maze (MWM) paradigms at 1, 4, and 8 weeks post-blast injury. Neurological deficit scoring, glutamate concentration, proinflammatory cytokines production, and neuropathological changes at 24 h, 1, 4, and 8 weeks post-bTBI were examined to evaluate the brain injury in early and prolonged stages. Adenosine A1 receptor expression was detected using qPCR. All of the three ways of chronic caffeine exposure ameliorated blast-induced memory deficit, which is correlated with the neuroprotective effects against excitotoxicity, inflammation, astrogliosis and neuronal loss at different stages of injury. Continuous caffeine treatment played positive roles in both early and prolonged stages of bTBI; pre-bTBI and post-bTBI treatment of caffeine tended to exert neuroprotective effects at early and prolonged stages of bTBI respectively. Up-regulation of adenosine A1 receptor expression might contribute to the favorable effects of chronic caffeine consumption. Since caffeinated beverages are widely consumed in both civilian and military personnel and are convenient to get, the results may provide a promising prophylactic strategy for blast-induced neurotrauma and the consequent cognitive impairment.

  15. Control blasting of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Tetsuo

    1981-01-01

    With the need of decommissioning nuclear power plants, it is urgently required to establish its methods and standards. In Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., experimental feasibility studies have been made on explosive demolition method i.e. the controlled blasting for the massive concrete structures peculiar to nuclear power plants, considering low radiation exposure, safety and high efficiency. As such, four techniques of line drilling, cushion blasting, pre-splitting and guide hole blasting, respectively, are described with photographs. Assuming the selective demolition of activated concrete structures, the series of experiments showed the good results of clear-cut surfaces and the effect of blasting was confined properly. Moreover, the scattering of debris in blasting was able to be entirely prevented by the use of rubber belts. The generation of gas and dust was also little due to the small amount of the charge used. (J.P.N.)

  16. NCBI BLAST+ integrated into Galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Peter J A; Chilton, John M; Grüning, Björn; Johnson, James E; Soranzo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The NCBI BLAST suite has become ubiquitous in modern molecular biology and is used for small tasks such as checking capillary sequencing results of single PCR products, genome annotation or even larger scale pan-genome analyses. For early adopters of the Galaxy web-based biomedical data analysis platform, integrating BLAST into Galaxy was a natural step for sequence comparison workflows. The command line NCBI BLAST+ tool suite was wrapped for use within Galaxy. Appropriate datatypes were defined as needed. The integration of the BLAST+ tool suite into Galaxy has the goal of making common BLAST tasks easy and advanced tasks possible. This project is an informal international collaborative effort, and is deployed and used on Galaxy servers worldwide. Several examples of applications are described here.

  17. Blast from the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    1996-02-01

    Forget dynamite or hydraulic and mechanical drills. Industrial and federal researchers have started boring holes with rocket fuel. In a cooperative arrangement between Sandia National Laboratory, Global Environmental Solutions, and Universal Tech Corp., scientists and engineers extracted fuel from 200 rocket motors and used it as a mining explosive. In a demonstration completed last fall, researchers used 4950 kg of solid rocket propellant to move more than 22,500 metric tons of rock from the Lone Star Quarry in Prairie, Oklahoma. They found that the fuel improved blast energy and detonation velocity over traditional explosives, and it required fewer drill holes.

  18. Trouble shooting problem blasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konya, K.D. [Society of Explosive Engineers, Montville, OH (United States)

    1996-02-01

    There have been many occurrences of water-gel or emulsion explosives or heavy Anfo`s (ammonium nitrate and fuel oil) either not detonating in some blast holes in surface coal mining operations, or producing yellow or reddish-brown fumes upon reaction. The explosives rely on entrapped gas to detonate properly. It is important to control the size of the bubble and the dispersion of gas bubbles throughout the explosive. The article discusses and compares the use of microspheres and of gassing agents for detonation control.

  19. Blast Shock Wave Mitigation Using the Hydraulic Energy Redirection and Release Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

  20. Comparative outcome of bomb explosion injuries versus high-powered gunshot injuries of the upper extremity in a civilian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Rivkin, Gurion; Avitzour, Malka; Liebergall, Meir; Mintz, Yoav; Mosheiff, Ram

    2013-03-01

    Explosion injuries to the upper extremity have specific clinical characteristics that differ from injuries due to other mechanisms. To evaluate the upper extremity injury pattern of attacks on civilian targets, comparing bomb explosion injuries to gunshot injuries and their functional recovery using standard outcome measures. Of 157 patients admitted to the hospital between 2000 and 2004, 72 (46%) sustained explosion injuries and 85 (54%) gunshot injuries. The trauma registry files were reviewed and the patients completed the DASH Questionnaire (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and SF-12 (Short Form-12) after a minimum period of 1 year. Of the 157 patients, 72 (46%) had blast injuries and 85 (54%) had shooting injuries. The blast casualties had higher Injury Severity Scores (47% vs. 22% with a score of > 16, P = 0.02) and higher percent of patients treated in intensive care units (47% vs. 28%, P = 0.02). Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the upper extremity injury was similar in the two groups, the blast casualties were found to have more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries and were treated surgically more often. No difference was found in the SF-12 or DASH scores between the groups at follow up. The casualties with upper extremity blast injuries were more severely injured and sustained more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries to the upper extremity. However, the rating of the local injury to the isolated limb is similar, as was the subjective functional recovery.

  1. The use of computer blast simulations to improve blast quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favreau, R.F.; Kuzyk, G.W.; Babulic, P.J.; Tienkamp, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is constructing an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) as part of a comprehensive program to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in crystalline rock formations. Careful blasting methods have been used to minimize damage to the excavation surfaces. Good wall quality is desirable in any excavation. In excavations required for nuclear waste disposal, the objective will be to minimize blast-induced fractures which may complicate the sealing requirements necessary to control subsequent movement of groundwater around a sealed disposal vault. The construction of the URL has provided an opportunity for the development of controlled blasting methods, especially for drilling accuracy and optimization of explosive loads in the perimeter and cushion holes. The work has been assisted by the use of blast simulations with the mathematical model Blaspa. This paper reviews the results of a recent project to develop a controlled method of full-face blasting, and compares the observed field results with the results of a blast simulator called Blaspa. Good agreement is found between the two, and the Blaspa results indicate quantitatively how the blasting may induce damage in the final excavation surface. In particular, the rock in the final wall may be stressed more severely by the cushion holes than by the perimeter holes. Bootleg of the rock between the perimeter and cushion rows occurs when the burst-out velocity imparted to it by the explosive loads in the perimeter holes is inadequate. In practice, these findings indicate that quantitative rock stress and rock burst-out velocity criteria can be established to minimize wall damage and bootleg. Thus, blast simulations become an efficient way to design controlled blasting and to optimize quality of the excavation surface

  2. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  3. Centrifugal shot blast system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997

  4. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO 2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO 2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO 2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  5. Osteogenic differentiation of periosteum-derived stromal cells in blast-associated traumatic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sory, David R.; Amin, Harsh D.; Rankin, Sara M.; Proud, William G.

    2017-06-01

    One of the most recurrent medical complications resulting from blast trauma includes blast-induced heterotopic ossification. Heterotopic ossification refers to the pathologic formation of extraskeletal bone in non-osseous tissue. Although a number of studies have established the interaction between mechanics and biology in bone formation following shock trauma, the exact nature of the mechanical stimuli associated to blast-loading and their influence on the activation of osteogenic differentiation of cells remain unanswered. Here we present the design and calibration of a loading platform compatible with living cells to examine the effects of mechanical stress pulses of blast-associated varying strain rates on the activation of osteogenic differentiation of periosteum (PO) cells. Multiaxial compression loadings of PO cells are performed at different magnitudes of stress and ranges of strain rate. A proof of concept is presented so as to establish a new window to address fundamental questions regarding blast injuries at the cellular level. This work was conducted under the auspices of the Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies at Imperial College London. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Royal British Legion.

  6. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury. Report of the Army Dismounted Complex Blast Injury Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-18

    2nd Auxiliary Surgic- al Group designed an intermittent positive 4 pressure breathing apparatus, thereby al- lowing chest wounds to be explored...outcomes than attempt- ing to push rehabilitation too fast . To help support this rehabilitation para- digm, the Amputee Care Program at Walter Reed...to prevent and mi- tigate DCBI complications, such as arthri- tis, chronic pain, heart disease, hyperten- sion, obesity , diabetes and behavioral

  7. Brain response to primary blast wave using validated finite element models of human head and advanced combat helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying eZhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has emerged as a signature injury in combat casualty care. Present combat helmets are designed primarily to protect against ballistic and blunt impacts, but the current issue with helmets is protection concerning blasts. In order to delineate the blast wave attenuating capability of the Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH, a finite element (FE study was undertaken to evaluate the head response against blast loadings with and without helmet using a partially validated FE model of the human head and ACH. Four levels of overpressures (0.27-0.66 MPa from the Bowen’s lung iso-damage threshold curves were used to simulate blast insults. Effectiveness of the helmet with respect to head orientation was also investigated. The resulting biomechanical responses of the brain to blast threats were compared for human head with and without the helmet. For all Bowen’s cases, the peak intracranial pressures (ICP in the head ranged from 0.68-1.8 MPa in the coup cortical region. ACH was found to mitigate ICP in the head by 10-35%. Helmeted head resulted in 30% lower average peak brain strains and product of strain and strain rate. Among three blast loading directions with ACH, highest reduction in peak ICP (44% was due to backward blasts whereas the lowest reduction in peak ICP and brain strains was due to forward blast (27%. The biomechanical responses of a human head to primary blast insult exhibited directional sensitivity owing to the different geometry contours and coverage of the helmet construction and asymmetric anatomy of the head. Thus, direction-specific tolerances are needed in helmet design in order to offer omni-directional protection for the human head. The blasts of varying peak overpressures and durations that are believed to produce the same level of lung injury produce different levels of mechanical responses in the brain, and hence "iso-damage" curves for brain injury are likely different than the Bowen curves

  8. The use of computer blast simulations to improve blast quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favreau, R.F.; Kuzzyk, G.W.; Babulic, P.J.; Morin, R.A.; Tienkamp, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    An underground research laboratory (URL) has been constructed as part of a comprehensive program to evaluate the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in deep crystalline rock formations. Careful blasting methods have been used to minimize damage to the excavation surfaces. This paper reviews the results of the program to develop controlled blasting for the full-face method, comparing the field observed results achieved with the simulated theoretical results. The simulated results indicate how the blasting may damage the excavation surface. Results suggest that the rock around the final wall is stressed more severely by the cushion holes than by the perimeter holes and that bootleg of the rock between the perimeter and cushion rows occurs when the burst-out velocity imparted to it by the explosive loads in the perimeter holes is inadequate

  9. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Cullis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  10. Physics of IED blast shock tube simulations for mTBI research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Meijer, S.R.; Berg, A.C. van den; Sibma, P.C.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van; Vries, D.V.W.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Shock tube experiments and simulations are conducted with a spherical gelatin filled skull- brain surrogate, in order to study the mechanisms leading to blast induced mild traumatic brain injury. A shock tube including sensor system is optimized to simulate realistic impro-vised explosive device

  11. Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The blasting operation plays a pivotal role in the overall economics of opencast mines. The blasting sub-system affects all the other associated sub-systems, i.e. loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Fragmentation control through effective blast design and its effect on productivity are the challenging tasks for practicing blasting engineer due to inadequate knowledge of actual explosive energy released in the borehole, varying initiation practice in blast design and its effect on explosive energy release characteristic. This paper describes the result of a systematic study on the impact of blast design parameters on rock fragmentation at three mines in India. The mines use draglines and shovel–dumper combination for removal of overburden. Despite its pivotal role in controlling the overall economics of a mining operation, the expected blasting performance is often judged almost exclusively on the basis of poorly defined parameters such as powder factor and is often qualitative which results in very subjective assessment of blasting performance. Such an approach is very poor substitutes for accurate assessment of explosive and blasting performance. Ninety one blasts were conducted with varying blast designs and charging patterns, and their impacts on the rock fragmentation were documented. A high-speed camera was deployed to record the detonation sequences of the blasts. The efficiency of the loading machines was also correlated with the mean fragment size obtained from the fragmentation analyses.

  12. BLEVE blast by expansion-controlled evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, A.C. van den; Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a new method to calculate the blast effects originating from an exploding vessel of liquefied gas. Adequate blast calculation requires full knowledge of the blast source characteristics, that is, the release and subsequent evaporation rate of the flashing liquid. Because the

  13. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires shall be... used between the blasting cable and detonator circuitry shall— (1) Be undamaged; (2) Be well insulated...

  14. Exposure to a predator scent induces chronic behavioral changes in rats previously exposed to low-level blast: Implications for the relationship of blast-related TBI to PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Perez-Garcia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been unfortunately common in veterans who served in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The postconcussion syndrome associated with these mTBIs has frequently appeared in combination with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The presence of PTSD has complicated diagnosis since clinically PTSD and the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI have many overlapping symptoms. In particular establishing how much of the symptom complex can be attributed to the psychological trauma associated with PTSD in contrast to the physical injury of TBI has proven difficult. Indeed some have suggested that much of what is now being called blast-related postconcussion syndrome is better explained by PTSD. The relationship between the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI and PTSD is complex. Association of the two disorders might be viewed as additive effects of independent psychological and physical traumas suffered in a war zone. However we previously found that rats exposed to repetitive low-level blast exposure in the absence of a psychological stressor developed a variety of anxiety and PTSD-related behavioral traits that were present months following the last blast exposure. Here we show that a single predator scent challenge delivered 8 months after the last blast exposure induces chronic anxiety related changes in blast-exposed rats that are still present 45 days later. These observations suggest that in addition to independently inducing PTSD-related traits, blast exposure sensitizes the brain to react abnormally to a subsequent psychological stressor. These studies have implications for conceptualizing the relationship between blast-related mTBI and PTSD and suggest that blast-related mTBI in humans may predispose to the later development of PTSD in reaction to subsequent psychological stressors.

  15. An ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor for blast event measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Wang, Xingwei; Zou, Xiaotian; Fitek, John; Maffeo, Michael; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Soldiers who are exposed to explosions are at risk of suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since the causal relationship between a blast and TBI is poorly understood, it is critical to have sensors that can accurately quantify the blast dynamics and resulting wave propagation through a helmet and skull that are imparted onto and inside the brain. To help quantify the cause of TBI, it is important to record transient pressure data during a blast event. However, very few sensors feature the capabilities of tracking the dynamic pressure transients due to the rapid change of the pressure during blast events, while not interfering with the physical material layers or wave propagation. In order to measure the pressure transients efficiently, a pressure sensor should have a high resonant frequency and a high spatial resolution. This paper describes an ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor based on the Fabry–Perot principle for the application of measuring the rapid pressure changes in a blast event. A shock tube experiment performed in US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center has demonstrated that the resonant frequency of the sensor is 4.12 MHz, which is relatively close to the designed theoretical value of 4.113 MHz. Moreover, the experiment illustrated that the sensor has a rise time of 120 ns, which demonstrates that the sensor is capable of observing the dynamics of the pressure transient during a blast event. (paper)

  16. Dry ice blasting as a substitution for the conventional electroplating pre-treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhlmann Eckart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For high quality electroplated products, surfaces must be thoroughly pre-treated. For this purpose electroplating currently needs a variety of chemical baths. The used chemicals are injurious to health and harmful to the environment. In addition, the conventional pre-treatment has a long process time which results in high costs. Dry ice blasting alone or in combination with other processes has the potential to completely substitute these conventional pre-treatment processes. Three process sequences as pre-treatment methods prior to electroplating were investigated on the aluminium alloys AlSi12 and AlMg3. The used processes are dry ice blasting, tempering during dry ice blasting and glass bead blasting followed by dry ice blasting. The influence of the parameters on the surface roughness, surface topography and surface tension of the workpieces was examined. A model to describe the correlation between the dry ice blasting parameters and surface parameters was developed. Finally, an adhesion test of electroplated specimen was conducted in order to determine the suitability of these alternative pre-treatment processes.

  17. Control buildings for blast resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    Offers advice on interior design for blast-resistant control buildings. Suggests that for the comfort and safety of occupants, special attention must be paid to internal finishes and color schemes. Considers external treatment (e.g. panels, cladding fixings, thermal insulation), air intakes and exhausts, internal finishes (e.g. stud lining method), and internal walls and partitions. Presents diagrams showing construction method for a control building; elimination of ''cold bridge'' at eaves level; staggering door openings to minimize blast effects; and flexure of concrete walls without affecting the inner lining.

  18. Water in the blast hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilshaw, S.R. [Pilshaw Associates, KS (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Water in the blast area is a considerable problem in US opencast coal mining. While gelatin dynamite was reasonably water resistant, Anfo is not. All potential solutions to this problem: the use of Anfo and emulsion (Heavy Anfo), pumping, draining, and the use of water bags, involve considerable extra cost. With small amounts of water an alternative solution has been formulated: the use of a self inflating gas bag to exclude water, and loading the Anfo from the water line up to the stemming level of the blasthole. Quite substantial water columns may be sealed off in this manner, with little or no deleterious effect on blast effects.

  19. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  20. Fragment Size Distribution of Blasted Rock Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug, Jasmin; Strelec, Stjepan; Gazdek, Mario; Kavur, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Rock mass is a heterogeneous material, and the heterogeneity of rock causes sizes distribution of fragmented rocks in blasting. Prediction of blasted rock mass fragmentation has a significant role in the overall economics of opencast mines. Blasting as primary fragmentation can significantly decrease the cost of loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Blast fragmentation chiefly depends on the specific blast design (geometry of blast holes drilling, the quantity and class of explosive, the blasting form, the timing and partition, etc.) and on the properties of the rock mass (including the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock mass elastic Young modulus, the rock discontinuity characteristics and the rock density). Prediction and processing of blasting results researchers can accomplish by a variety of existing software’s and models, one of them is the Kuz-Ram model, which is possibly the most widely used approach to estimating fragmentation from blasting. This paper shows the estimation of fragmentation using the "SB" program, which was created by the authors. Mentioned program includes the Kuz-Ram model. Models of fragmentation are confirmed and calibrated by comparing the estimated fragmentation with actual post-blast fragmentation from image processing techniques. In this study, the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model has been used for an open-pit limestone quarry in Dalmatia, southern Croatia. The resulting calibrated value of the rock factor enables the quality prognosis of fragmentation in further blasting works, with changed drilling geometry and blast design parameters. It also facilitates simulation in the program to optimize blasting works and get the desired fragmentations of the blasted rock mass.

  1. NOBLAST and JAMBLAST: New Options for BLAST and a Java Application Manager for BLAST results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagnel, Jacques; Tsigenopoulos, Costas S; Iliopoulos, Ioannis

    2009-03-15

    NOBLAST (New Options for BLAST) is an open source program that provides a new user-friendly tabular output format for various NCBI BLAST programs (Blastn, Blastp, Blastx, Tblastn, Tblastx, Mega BLAST and Psi BLAST) without any use of a parser and provides E-value correction in case of use of segmented BLAST database. JAMBLAST using the NOBLAST output allows the user to manage, view and filter the BLAST hits using a number of selection criteria. A distribution package of NOBLAST and JAMBLAST including detailed installation procedure is freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/JAMBLAST/ and http://sourceforge.net/projects/NOBLAST. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Mole gun injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. INCREASED RELIABILITY OF ELECTRIC BLASTING

    OpenAIRE

    Kashuba, Oleh Ivanovych; Skliarov, L I; Skliarov, A L

    2017-01-01

    The problems of improving reliability of an electric blasting method using electric detonators with nichrome filament bridges. It was revealed that in the calculation of the total resistance of the explosive network it is necessary to increase to 24% of the nominal value

  4. Molecular Signatures and Diagnostic Biomarkers of Cumulative Blast-Graded Mild TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    experiment: to assign rat ID #404-430 (the last rat examined was 403). Provided rats arrive Monday or Tuesday , Jun 10-11. 30 days post-blast endpoint...and 36.6 kPa 6, 24 h and 1 week Single or 12 blasts (24 h at 36.6 kPa) Three body orientation (sideway, facing away vs. frontal) Morris water maze task...0.5, 3, 6, and 10 h and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days Single Morris water maze: impaired cognitive function: 48 h post injury Dose-dependent rise in

  5. An analysis of the heap construction by long hole blasting for in-situ leaching of blasted ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shijiao

    1999-01-01

    The author establishes specific requirements for heap construction by blasting on the basis of the mechanism for in situ leaching of blasted ore, analyses the feasibility of heap construction by long hole blasting, selection of the blast plan and the relevant technological problems, and gives a case of heap construction by long hole blasting in Renhua uranium mine

  6. DIRECT AIR BLAST EXPOSURE EFFECTS IN ANIMALS, OPERATION UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, PROJECT 4.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRAEGER, R.H. (UNITED STATES NAVY - DEPARTMENT OF); LEE, R.H. (UNITED STATES NAVY - DEPARTMENT OF)

    1953-12-31

    Project 4.2 was designed to study direct (primary) air blast injury, in animals, from an atomic weapon in the range of 20 to 50 psi under circumstances affording protection against missiles, thermal and ionizing radiation and to estimate the probable direct air blast hazard in man. The pressure levels at which atomic weapons direct air blast injuries occur will determine, to a large extent, the number of blast casualties likely to be encountered. It is probable that fatal overpressures are not reached until well within the range at which indirect (secondary) blast, thermal and ionizing radiation are practically certain to prove fatal. Only in special situations affording partial protection from other injuries are blast injuries likely to be of practical importance. Two animal species of widely different body weights (700 rats and 56 dogs) were exposed, together with air pressure recorders, in aluminum cylinders, covered by sandbags and dirt but open at both ends, at seven stations distributed within the intended overpressure range of 20 to 50 psi of Shot 10« About 200 rats were likewise exposed in Shot 9. Unfortunately, the destructive effect of the air blast of Shot 10 was much greater than anticipated. Many of the exposure cylinders were displaced and their contents destroyed. Only a partial recovery of the animals was possible due to the excessive radioactive contamination which greatly limited the time in the area. Most of the animals were dead upon recovery. Those living were in a state of severe shock. Autopsy findings showed remarkably few traumatic lesions and lung hemorrhages in spite of the rough treatment and high overpressure to which they were subjected. The rats recovered from Shot 9 were exposed to a recorded pressure of 18 to 2k psi. The autopsy findings showed moderate lung hemorrhage in most of the animals undoubtedly due to direct air blast injury. The findings were typical of those seen following exposure to air blast from HE or in the shock

  7. Bomb Blast and Its Consequences: Successful Intensive Care Management of Massive Pulmonary Embolsim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Faisal; Rizwan, Muhammad; Aziz, Adil

    2016-06-01

    A suicide bomb blast in 2013 at a distant city of Pakistan killed 84 and wounded more than 150 people. Some patients were transferred to our tertiary care hospital because of extreme load on medical services there. This patient arrived at the Aga Khan Hospital, 2 days after the bomb blast injury and underwent an orthopedic procedure. Next day, he developed sudden tachypnea, desaturation, and circulatory collapse. After initial cardiopulmonary resuscitation, he was immediately transferred to surgical intensive care unit. Based on history, echocardiography findings and patient parameters, a clinical diagnosis of massive pulmonary embolism was made and immediate thrombolytic therapy with alteplase was started. The immediate improvement in hemodynamic status was evident following 2 hours of alteplase infusion. This case also highlights the aggressiveness of resuscitation, decision making in initiating thrombolytic therapy on clinical grounds, importance of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis, and exhaustion of health resources due to blast related mass destruction.

  8. CrocoBLAST: Running BLAST efficiently in the age of next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristão Ramos, Ravi José; de Azevedo Martins, Allan Cézar; da Silva Delgado, Gabrielle; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Ürményi, Turán Peter; Silva, Rosane; Koca, Jaroslav

    2017-11-15

    CrocoBLAST is a tool for dramatically speeding up BLAST+ execution on any computer. Alignments that would take days or weeks with NCBI BLAST+ can be run overnight with CrocoBLAST. Additionally, CrocoBLAST provides features critical for NGS data analysis, including: results identical to those of BLAST+; compatibility with any BLAST+ version; real-time information regarding calculation progress and remaining run time; access to partial alignment results; queueing, pausing, and resuming BLAST+ calculations without information loss. CrocoBLAST is freely available online, with ample documentation (webchem.ncbr.muni.cz/Platform/App/CrocoBLAST). No installation or user registration is required. CrocoBLAST is implemented in C, while the graphical user interface is implemented in Java. CrocoBLAST is supported under Linux and Windows, and can be run under Mac OS X in a Linux virtual machine. jkoca@ceitec.cz. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  10. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  11. Interspecies Scaling in Blast Neurotrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    and services to assist recovery . Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation. Taylor, PA and Ford, CC. 2009. "Simulation of Blast-Induced Early-Time...reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite... Warden 2006). As of 2008 it was estimated that approximately 19% or 320,000 OIF/OEF veterans had sustained a TBI (Tanielian et al. 2008). In 2011 a

  12. Rising threat of terrorist bomb blasts in Karachi--a 5-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Farhat Hussain; Parhyar, Hamid Ali; Tirmizi, Syed Zubair Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    This study aims to determine the frequency of injuries and fatalities associated with terrorist bomb explosions in the city of Karachi from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2011. Moreover, this study is aimed to determine age and sex vulnerability among the victims of blast explosion. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The study was carried out at mortuaries and medicolegal sections at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Civil Hospital and Abbasi-Shaheed Hospital Karachi, the three main hospitals, which cater to all these cases of Karachi. The study included all bomb blast victims examined and autopsied from January 2007 to December 2011 at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Civil Hospital and Abbassi Shaheed Hospital Karachi. Details of 1142 cases were collected for those medicolegal deaths and injured persons, identified to be the victims of bomb blasts from January 2007 to December 2011. Data were collected on a preformed proforma from the mortuaries and medicolegal sections of these three public sector hospitals. The variables investigated include age, gender, year-wise distribution of the injured and the dead along with the cause of death and body parts injured in survivors. Out of the total 11,109 autopsies during the study period, 249 (2.24%) were carried out on deaths due to bomb blasts. Similarly, 135,065 injury cases were reported during the study period out of which 893 (0.66%) cases were due to bomb blasts. An initial peak in the year 2007, followed by a decline in 2008 and since then a steady rise of bomb blast incidences with casualties and fatalities, has been observed. The highest numbers of injured victims were reported in the year 2010 and fatalities in 2007. Among 1142 cases, 95.18% were male and 4.82% female with a male to female ratio of 19.76:1. Persons of ages between 15 and 45 years were chiefly involved. Shock due to multiple injuries was the leading cause of death, followed by head injury with or without haemorrhage. The

  13. The Effects of Blast Exposure on Protein Deimination in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Attilio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and calcium excitotoxicity are hallmarks of traumatic brain injury (TBI. While these early disruptions may be corrected over a relatively short period of time, long-lasting consequences of TBI including impaired cognition and mood imbalances can persist for years, even in the absence of any evidence of overt injury based on neuroimaging. This investigation examined the possibility that disordered protein deimination occurs as a result of TBI and may thus contribute to the long-term pathologies of TBI. Protein deimination is a calcium-activated, posttranslational modification implicated in the autoimmune diseases rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, where aberrant deimination creates antigenic epitopes that elicit an autoimmune attack. The present study utilized proteomic analyses to show that blast TBI alters the deimination status of proteins in the porcine cerebral cortex. The affected proteins represent a small subset of the entire brain proteome and include glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, proteins reported to be involved in autoimmune-based pathologies. The data also indicate that blast injury is associated with an increase in immunoglobulins in the brain, possibly representing autoantibodies directed against novel protein epitopes. These findings indicate that aberrant protein deimination is a biomarker for blast TBI and may therefore underlie chronic neuropathologies of head injury.

  14. Water in blast holes can improve blasting efficiency and cut costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Regan, G.

    1983-08-01

    Water in blast holes has been a traditional problem faced by blasting engineers and foremen in surface mining. Presently accepted techniques for blasting in water-filled holes include the use of more expensive water-gel explosives which are denser than water, dewatering of holes by pumping, and blowing out the water with a small charge before loading the main ANFO charge column. These methods involve considerable expense and delay to the normal charge-loading procedure. The author describes a method of using the water in blast holes to improve blasting efficiency and reduce the consumption of explosive.

  15. Blast-Induced Tinnitus and Elevated Central Auditory and Limbic Activity in Rats: A Manganese-Enhanced MRI and Behavioral Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jessica; Pace, Edward; Lepczyk, Laura; Kaufman, Michael; Zhang, Jessica; Perrine, Shane A; Zhang, Jinsheng

    2017-07-07

    Blast-induced tinitus is the number one service-connected disability that currently affects military personnel and veterans. To elucidate its underlying mechanisms, we subjected 13 Sprague Dawley adult rats to unilateral 14 psi blast exposure to induce tinnitus and measured auditory and limbic brain activity using manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Tinnitus was evaluated with a gap detection acoustic startle reflex paradigm, while hearing status was assessed with prepulse inhibition (PPI) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Both anxiety and cognitive functioning were assessed using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze, respectively. Five weeks after blast exposure, 8 of the 13 blasted rats exhibited chronic tinnitus. While acoustic PPI remained intact and ABR thresholds recovered, the ABR wave P1-N1 amplitude reduction persisted in all blast-exposed rats. No differences in spatial cognition were observed, but blasted rats as a whole exhibited increased anxiety. MEMRI data revealed a bilateral increase in activity along the auditory pathway and in certain limbic regions of rats with tinnitus compared to age-matched controls. Taken together, our data suggest that while blast-induced tinnitus may play a role in auditory and limbic hyperactivity, the non-auditory effects of blast and potential traumatic brain injury may also exert an effect.

  16. Ocular Injuries: Another Example of the Heavy Prize of Terrorism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injuries to the face and ocular structures could occur at the war front not only to the enemies, but also to unsuspecting friends of the security agents. We report here a case of ocular injury involving an air force personnel (lance corporal) who was mistakenly hit on the face by the back blast of a rocket‑propelled grenade shot ...

  17. Direct Comparison of the Primary Blast Response of a Physical Head Model with Post-mortem Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-27

    quantitatively the effect of protective headwear. The following article discusses the validation of the BI2PED (Blast-Induced Brain Injury Protection...shots using rget locatio classic sho long positiv order of ith its cu , the current b e to generat ark. In order rated shock an operationa rom free

  18. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  19. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  20. Blast resistance behaviour of steel frame structrures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Soetens, F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a blast explosion on a typical steel frame building is investigated by means of computer simulations. The simulations help to identify possible hot spots that may lead to local or global failure. Since the blast energy is transferred to the structure by means of the façade, it is

  1. Blast resistance behaviour of steel frame structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varas, J.M.; Soetens, F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a blast explosion on a typical steel frame building is investigated by means of computer simulations. The simulations help to identify possible hot spots that may lead to local or global failure. The blast energy is transferred to the structure by means of the façade. In particular

  2. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from...

  3. High velocity missile injuries of the liver | Ogwang | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen patients sustained gun shot wounds while one was injured by a bomb blast fragment. Ages ranged from 2 to 33 years (mean 24.4 years). Two patients sustained liver injury alone while the rest had other associated visceral injuries as well. Grade I, II and III liver injuries were seen in 7, 5 and 2 patients respectively.

  4. Condition for Contur Blasting use on Openpit Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Krsmanovic, I; Dambov, Risto

    2010-01-01

    For purpose of obtaining a stable final slope in open pit mines practice, the most common approach is the contour blasting method and investigation of possible applications of various primary blasting methods for purpose of gaining the optimal techno-economical effects. This paper presents one of the contour blasting methods, drilling and blasting parameters, construction of explosive charges and method of initiation.

  5. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Blasting. 780.13 Section 780.13... SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.13 Operation plan: Blasting. (a) Blasting plan. Each application shall contain a blasting plan for the proposed...

  6. Experimental study on brain injury in Beagle dogs caused by adjacent cabin explosion in warship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-teng LI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  Through the establishment of adjacent cabin blast injury model of Beagle dog, to investigate the pathophysiological changes in the experimental animals in this scenario, then speculate on the mechanisms of injury. Methods  Several adjacent cabins were built in the same size with the real warship. Seven Beagle dogs were subjected to injuries from the explosion, from whom one was selected randomly to implant intracranial pressure transducers before blast, the others were tested on the pathophysiological changes after blast. The dogs were mounted on the platform of a cabinet in the adjacent cabin, subjected to injury from 650g bare TNT explosive blast. The transducers recorded the value of space and intracranial shock wave pressure. Following blast treatment, the serum levels of IL -6, IL -8, neuron specific enolase (NSE, brain and chest CT and pathological changes of the brain tissue were observed. Results  Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and NSE were elevated to varying degrees after blast. All of them increased significantly at different time points after blast (P<0.05. Brain and chest CT examinations did not show any significant positive results. Pathological results showed that there was a little necrosis in the brain, some neurons had karyopycnosis, karyolysis or disappearance of the nucleoli, and the cell boundaries were blurred. The blast wave was blocked greatly by the scalp and skull (about 90%, but could still penetrate them and cause brain injuries. Conclusions  Explosion in the adjacent cabin causes mainly mild traumatic brain injuries. Blast wave can be blocked by the scalp and skull greatly. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.03.11

  7. Integrated Care for Multisensory Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    poned due to the precedence of managing life-threatening injuries that require airway stabilization and bleeding control. Delays in TBI and...formed may experience increased anxiety, depression, and isolation. These responses can manifest physically as hypertension, dizziness, gastrointestinal ...For example, an upper extremity amputee who also suffers from blast-related vision and hearing dysfunction and mTBI may not have the manual

  8. Modeling and simulation of explosion effectiveness as a function of blast and crowd characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, Zeeshan-Ul-Hassan

    Suicide bombing has become one of the most lethal and favorite modus operandi of terrorist organizations around the world. On average, there is a suicide bombing attack every six days somewhere in the world. While various attempts have been made to assess the impact of explosions on structures and military personnel, little has been done on modeling the impact of a blast wave on a crowd in civilian settings. The assessment of an explosion's effect on a crowd can lead to better management of disasters, triage of patients, locating blast victims under the debris, development of protective gear, and safe distance recommendations to reduce the casualties. The overall goal of this work is to predict the magnitude of injuries and lethality on humans from a blast-wave with various explosive and crowd characteristics, and to compare, contrast, and analyze the performance of explosive and injury models against the real-life data of suicide bombing incidents. This thesis introduces BlastSim---a physics based stationary multi-agent simulation platform to model and simulate a suicide bombing event. The agents are constrained by the physical characteristics and mechanics of the blast wave. The BlastSim is programmed to test, analyze, and validate the results of different model combinations under various conditions with different sets of parameters, such as the crowd and explosive characteristics, blockage and human shields, fragmentation and the bomber's position, in 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional environments. The suicide bombing event can be re-created for forensic analysis. The proposed model combinations show a significant performance---the Harold Brode explosive model with Catherine Lee injury model using the blockage stands out consistently to be the best with an overall cumulative accuracy of 87.6%. When comparing against actual data, overall, prediction accuracy can be increased by 71% using this model combination. The J. Clutter with Reflection explosive model using

  9. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration

  10. The Vestibular Effects of Repeated Low-Level Blasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Philip D; Pinto, Robin L; Burrows, Holly L; Brungart, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use a prospective cohort of United States Marine Corps (USMC) instructors to identify any acute or long-term vestibular dysfunction following repeated blast exposures during explosive breaching training. They were assessed in clinic and on location during training at the USMC Methods of Entry School, Quantico, VA. Subjects received comprehensive baseline vestibular assessments and these were repeated in order to identify longitudinal changes. They also received shorter assessments immediately following blast exposure in order to identify acute findings. The main outcome measures were the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory, vestibular Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of subjective vestibular function, videonystagmography (VNG), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP), rotary chair (including the unilateral centrifugation test), computerized dynamic posturography, and computerized dynamic visual acuity. A total of 11 breachers and 4 engineers were followed for up to 17 months. No acute effects or longitudinal deteriorations were identified, but there were some interesting baseline group differences. Upbeat positional nystagmus was common, and correlated (p<0.005) with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Several instructors had abnormally short low-frequency phase leads on rotary chair testing. This study evaluated breaching instructors over a longer test period than any other study, and the results suggest that this population appears to be safe from a vestibular standpoint at the current exposure levels. Upbeat positional nystagmus correlated with a history of mTBI in this population, and this has not been described elsewhere. The data trends also suggest that this nystagmus could be an acute blast effect. However, the reasons for the abnormally short phase leads seen in rotary chair testing are unclear at this time. Further investigation seems warranted.

  11. A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Fries, R. J.

    2017-04-01

    Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small.

  12. Behavior of coke in large blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N

    1978-01-01

    Three blast furnaces were quenched in operation and the contents were examined; the temperature distribution was also measured, using Tempil pellets. The furnaces examined included a low productivity one, which was examined to see what was wrong. Changes in the quality of coke as it descends in the furnace, and coke behavior in the raceway and hearth are reported. The functions required of coke, and the effects of poor coke quality, are explained, together with the coke quality required in large blast furnaces. A theoretical study of the role of coke in large blast furnaces is included.

  13. A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z; Fries, R J

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small. (paper)

  14. Blast casting requires fresh assessment of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilshaw, S.R.

    1987-08-01

    The article discusses the reasons why conventional blasting operations, mainly that of explosive products, drilling and initiation methods are inefficient, and suggests new methods and materials to overcome the problems of the conventional operations. The author suggests that the use of bulk ANFO for casting, instead of high energy and density explosives with high velocity detonation is more effective in producing heave action results. Similarly the drilling of smaller blast holes than is conventional allows better loading distribution of explosives in the rock mass. The author also suggests that casting would be more efficient if the shot rows were loaded differently to produce a variable burden blasting pattern.

  15. Membranes replace irradiated blast cells as growth requirement for leukemic blast progenitors in suspension culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, N.; McCulloch, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) may be considered as a renewal population, maintained by blast stem cells capable of both self-renewal and the generation of progeny with reduced or absent proliferative potential. This growth requires that two conditions be met: first, the cultures must contain growth factors in media conditioned either by phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated mononuclear leukocytes (PHA-LCM), or by cells of the continuous bladder carcinoma line HTB9 (HTB9-CM). Second, the cell density must be maintained at 10(6) blasts/ml; this may be achieved by adding irradiated cells to smaller numbers of intact blasts. The authors are concerned with the mechanism of the feeding function. They present evidence that (a) cell-cell contact is required. (b) Blasts are heterogeneous in respect to their capacity to support growth. (c) Fractions containing membranes from blast cells will substitute for intact cells in promoting the generation of new blast progenitors in culture. (d) This membrane function may be specific for AML blasts, since membranes from blasts of lymphoblastic leukemia or normal marrow cells were inactive

  16. Blast Mitigation Using Water - A Status Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kailasanath, K

    2002-01-01

    ..., and aggressive research and development', this report reviews the current knowledge base on blast mitigation using water and identifies the key issues that need to be resolved in order to develop...

  17. International blast furnace hearth and raceway symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented discussed some of the physical and chemical processes occuring in the raceway and hearths of blast furnaces. The injection of coal or fuel slurries to replace some of the coke was also covered. Fourteen papers are abstracted separately.

  18. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BLAST finds regions of similarity between biological sequences. The program compares nucleotide or protein sequences to sequence databases and calculates the...

  19. A Software Framework for Blast Event Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swensen, D. A; Denison, M. K; Guilkey, James; Harman, Todd; Goetz, Richard

    2006-01-01

    .... The BCF will provide a virtual test-bed where disparate computational models can seamlessly interact with one another to provide a unified modeling solution for blast-vehicle-occupant scenarios...

  20. On firework blasts and qualitative parameter dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, T I

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to qualitatively simulate the progressive time-evolution of a blast from a simple firework. Estimates are made for the blast radius that one can expect for a given amount of detonation energy and pyrotechnic display material. The model balances the released energy from the initial blast pulse with the subsequent kinetic energy and then computes the trajectory of the material under the influence of the drag from the surrounding air, gravity and possible buoyancy. Under certain simplifying assumptions, the model can be solved for analytically. The solution serves as a guide to identifying key parameters that control the evolving blast envelope. Three-dimensional examples are given.

  1. Blast effects physical properties of shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book compiles a variety of experimental data on blast waves. The book begins with an introductory chapter and proceeds to the topic of blast wave phenomenology, with a discussion Rankine-Hugoniot equations and the Friedlander equation, used to describe the pressure-time history of a blast wave. Additional topics include arrival time measurement, the initiation of detonation by exploding wires, a discussion of TNT equivalency, and small scale experiments. Gaseous and high explosive detonations are covered as well. The topics and experiments covered were chosen based on the comparison of used scale sizes, from small to large. Each characteristic parameter of blast waves is analyzed and expressed versus scaled distance in terms of energy and mass. Finally, the appendix compiles a number of polynomial laws that will prove indispensable for engineers and researchers.

  2. Characteristics of laser-induced shock wave injury to the inner ear of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurioka, Takaomi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Niwa, Katsuki; Tamura, Atsushi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Yasushi; Sato, Shunichi; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the number of blast injuries of the inner ear has increased in the general population. In blast-induced inner ear injury, a shock wave (SW) component in the blast wave is considered to play an important role in sensorineural hearing loss. However, the mechanisms by which an SW affects inner ear tissue remain largely unknown. We aimed to establish a new animal model for SW-induced inner ear injury by using laser-induced SWs (LISWs) on rats. The LISWs were generated by irradiating an elastic laser target with 694-nm nanosecond pulses of a ruby laser. After LISW application to the cochlea through bone conduction, auditory measurements revealed the presence of inner ear dysfunction, the extent of which depended on LISW overpressure. A significantly lower survival rate of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons, as well as severe oxidative damage, were observed in the inner ear exposed to an LISW. Although considerable differences in the pressure characteristics exist between LISWs and SWs in real blast waves, the functional and morphological changes shown by the present LISW-based model were similar to those observed in real blast-induced injury. Thus, our animal model is expected to be useful for laboratory-based research of blast-induced inner ear injury.

  3. Characteristics of laser-induced shock wave injury to the inner ear of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurioka, Takaomi; Matsunobu, Takeshi; Niwa, Katsuki; Tamura, Atsushi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Satoh, Yasushi; Sato, Shunichi; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the number of blast injuries of the inner ear has increased in the general population. In blast-induced inner ear injury, a shock wave (SW) component in the blast wave is considered to play an important role in sensorineural hearing loss. However, the mechanisms by which an SW affects inner ear tissue remain largely unknown. We aimed to establish a new animal model for SW-induced inner ear injury by using laser-induced SWs (LISWs) on rats. The LISWs were generated by irradiating an elastic laser target with 694-nm nanosecond pulses of a ruby laser. After LISW application to the cochlea through bone conduction, auditory measurements revealed the presence of inner ear dysfunction, the extent of which depended on LISW overpressure. A significantly lower survival rate of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons, as well as severe oxidative damage, were observed in the inner ear exposed to an LISW. Although considerable differences in the pressure characteristics exist between LISWs and SWs in real blast waves, the functional and morphological changes shown by the present LISW-based model were similar to those observed in real blast-induced injury. Thus, our animal model is expected to be useful for laboratory-based research of blast-induced inner ear injury.

  4. Blasting at a Superfund chemical waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, Maine Drilling and Blasting of Gardiner, Maine was contracted by Cayer Corporation of Harvard, Massachusetts to drill and blast an interceptor trench at the Nyanza Chemical Superfund Site in Ashland, Massachusetts. The interceptor trench was to be 1,365 feet long and to be blasted out of granite. The trench was to be 12 feet wide at the bottom with 1/1 slopes, the deepest cut being 30 feet deep. A French drain 12 feet wide by 15 to 35 feet deep was blasted below the main trench on a 2% slope from its center to each end. A French drain is an excavation where the rock is blasted but not dug. The trench would be used as a perimeter road with any ground water flow going through the French drain flowing to both ends of the trench. Being a Superfund project turned a simple blasting project into a regulatory nightmare. The US Environmental Protection Agency performed all the chemical related functions on site. The US Army Corps of Engineers was overseeing all related excavation and construction on site, as was the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Quality Engineering, the local Hazardous Wastes Council, and the local Fire Department. All parties had some input with the blasting and all issues had to be addressed. The paper outlines the project, how it was designed and completed. Also included is an outline of the blast plan to be submitted for approval, an outline of the Safety/Hazardous Waste training and a description of all the problems which arose during the project by various regulatory agencies

  5. Blasting in hot zone - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabiullah, B.M.P.; Pingua, J.; Dhar, B.B. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1997-12-31

    A significant quantity of coking coal reserves in the country are under fire particularly in Jharia coalfield. To control the fire and prevent loss of coal, an opencast mining method is adopted. The main problem with these opencast mines is drilling in hot strata and selection of suitable explosives and blasting in the fire zone. Trial blasts were conducted at two open cast mines. The problem was tackled by quenching the hot blast holes with water. Temperature of blast holes were recorded soon after drilling, after quenching with water and just before charging with explosives. The rise in temperature of charged explosives with time was also recorded until blasting. The thermal behaviour of commercially available explosives (including slurry, emulsion, ANFO and detonating cord) was investigated in laboratory and field simulated conditions. Emulsion, slurry compositions and detonating cord were found safe to use in hot holes up to 120{degree}C for duration of two hours. This paper describes the blasting practices adopted in the fire zones. 4 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  7. The second generation of electronic blasting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammelmann, F.; Petzold, J. [Dynamit Nobel GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    8 years after the market introduction of the first commercial electronic detonator - DYNATRONIC - the paper describes a new area of electronic blasting systems Made in Germany: i-kon. The results of a joint development between Dynamit Nobel and Orica is a unique universal electronic detonator, which is as simple to use as a standard non-electric detonator. The delay time or delay interval is not factory preprogrammed and the system is not based on a numbered system like conventional detonators. The miner or Blaster decides on site which delay timing he likes to use and is programming the whole blast on site. The new i-kon system allows delay times between 0 and 8000 ms by increments of 1 ms. With the control equipment it is possible to blast up to 1600 detonators in a single blast. The paper describes the construction and functionality of this new electronic blasting system - manufactured and developed by Precision Blasting Systems, a joint venture between Orica and Dynamic Nobel. (orig.)

  8. Effect of blasting on output increase of bucket wheel excavators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, P.

    1987-12-01

    In brown coal surface mines, consolidated sediments become a problem as mining operations advance into greater depth below the original terrain. Owing to higher digging resistance, the output of bucket wheel excavators drops. This problem may be solved by blasting technology and using drilling machines with higher digging force. This paper describes the blasting operations at the Nastup Mines in Tusmice, Czechoslovakia. About 60% of blasting explosives used is a simple mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel (ANFO), the rest falls on classic blasting gelatines and blasting explosives plasticized by slurry. It is found that blasting improves output by 30% while electric energy consumption is reduced.

  9. Proceedings of the twenty-seventh annual conference on explosives and blasting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Various aspects of explosives and blasting techniques are covered. Those of particular interest to the coal industry buffer blasting versus cast blasting, post-blast cast profile shape prediction, fragmentation model to estimate ROM size distribution of soft rocks, blasting accidents, blast vibrations, ANFO explosives and carbon monoxide poisoning.

  10. DYNAMIC TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF BLAST RESISTANT DOOR USING BLAST LOAD MODELED AS IMPACT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Pranata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A blast resistant single door was designed to withstand a 0.91 bar blast pressure and 44 ms blast duration. The analysis was done using Dynamic Time History Analysis using Blast Load modeled as Impact Load for given duration. The material properties used have been modified to accommodate dynamic effects. The analysis was done using dynamic finite element method (fem for time of the blast duration, and the maximum/minimum internal forces and displacement were taken from the time history output, in order to know the behavior under blast load and estimate the safety margin of the door. Results obtained from this research indicated that the maximum z-displacement is 1.709 mm, while in the term of serviceability, the permitted is 25 mm. The maximum reaction force is 73,960 N, while the maximum anchor capacity is 82,069 N. On blast condition, the maximum frame stress is 71.71 MPa, the maximum hinge shear stress is 45.28 MPa. While on rebound condition, the maximum frame stress is 172.11 MPa, the maximum hinge shear stress is 29.46 MPa. The maximum door edge rotation is 0.44 degree, which is not exceed the permitted boundary (1.2 degree. Keywords: Dynamic time history, blast resistant door, single door, finite element method.

  11. Raydet non-electric blast initiation system for efficient and environment-friendly surface blasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, M.O. [IDL Chemicals Ltd., Hyderabad (India). Technical Services Cell

    1995-08-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of using the Raydet shock tube based blast initiation system and reviews research work carried out on release of explosive energy in the drillhole, effect of stemming retention (stemming effectiveness) and advantages of `true bottom hole initiation` of drillholes in surface blasting. Some case studies are presented. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Air blasts generated by rockfall impacts: Analysis of the 1996 Happy Isles event in Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, M. M.; Savage, W. Z.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    1999-10-01

    The July 10, 1996, Happy Isles rockfall in Yosemite National Park, California, released 23,000 to 38,000 m3 of granite in four separate events. The impacts of the first two events which involved a 550-m free fall, generated seismic waves and atmospheric pressure waves (air blasts). We focus on the dynamic behavior of the second air blast that downed over 1000 trees, destroyed a bridge, demolished a snack bar, and caused one fatality and several injuries. Calculated velocities for the air blast from a two-phase, finite difference model are compared to velocities estimated from tree damage. From tornadic studies of tree damage, the air blast is estimated to have traveled <108-120 m/s within 50 m from the impact and decreased to <10-20 m/s within 500 m from the impact. The numerical model simulates the two-dimensional propagation of an air blast through a dusty atmosphere with initial conditions defined by the impact velocity and pressure. The impact velocity (105-107 m/s) is estimated from the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program that simulates rockfall trajectories. The impact pressure (0.5 MPa) is constrained by the kinetic energy of the impact (1010-1012 J) estimated from the seismic energy generated by the impact. Results from the air blast simulations indicate that the second Happy Isles air blast (weak shock wave) traveled with an initial velocity above the local sound speed. The size and location of the first impact are thought to have injected <50 wt% dust into the atmosphere. This amount of dust lowered the local atmospheric sound speed to ˜220 m/s. The discrepancy between calculated velocity data and field estimated velocity data (˜220 m/s versus ˜110 m/s) is attributed to energy dissipated by the downing of trees and additional entrainment of debris into the atmosphere not included in the calculations.

  13. Comparison of Some Blast Vibration Predictors for Blasting in Underground Drifts and Some Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Vaibhab Pramod; Dey, Kaushik

    2016-04-01

    Drilling and blasting are the most economical excavation techniques in underground drifts driven through hard rock formation. Burn cut is the most popular drill pattern, used in this case, to achieve longer advance per blast round. The ground vibration generated due to the propagation of blast waves on the detonation of explosive during blasting is the principal cause for structural and rock damage. Thus, ground vibration is a point of concern for the blasting engineers. The ground vibration from a blast is measured using a seismograph placed at the blast monitoring station. The measured vibrations, in terms of peak particle velocity, are related to the maximum charge detonated at one instant and the distance of seismograph from the blast point. The ground vibrations from a number of blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances are monitored. A number of scaling factors of these dependencies (viz. Distance and maximum charge/delay) have been proposed by different researchers, namely, square root, cube root, CMRI, Langefors and Kihlstrom, Ghosh-Daemon, Indian standard etc. Scaling factors of desired type are computed for all the measured blast rounds. Regression analysis is carried out between the scaling factors and peak particle velocities to establish the coefficients of the vibration predictor equation. Then, the developed predictor equation is used for designing the blast henceforth. Director General of Mine Safety, India, specified that ground vibrations from eight to ten blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances should be monitored to develop a predictor equation; however, there is no guideline about the type of scaling factor to be used. Further to this, from the statistical point of view, a regression analysis on a small sample population cannot be accepted without the testing of hypothesis. To show the importance of the above, in this paper, seven scaling factors are considered for blast data set of a hard-rock underground drift using burn

  14. BLAST-EXPLORER helps you building datasets for phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The right sampling of homologous sequences for phylogenetic or molecular evolution analyses is a crucial step, the quality of which can have a significant impact on the final interpretation of the study. There is no single way for constructing datasets suitable for phylogenetic analysis, because this task intimately depends on the scientific question we want to address, Moreover, database mining softwares such as BLAST which are routinely used for searching homologous sequences are not specifically optimized for this task. Results To fill this gap, we designed BLAST-Explorer, an original and friendly web-based application that combines a BLAST search with a suite of tools that allows interactive, phylogenetic-oriented exploration of the BLAST results and flexible selection of homologous sequences among the BLAST hits. Once the selection of the BLAST hits is done using BLAST-Explorer, the corresponding sequence can be imported locally for external analysis or passed to the phylogenetic tree reconstruction pipelines available on the Phylogeny.fr platform. Conclusions BLAST-Explorer provides a simple, intuitive and interactive graphical representation of the BLAST results and allows selection and retrieving of the BLAST hit sequences based a wide range of criterions. Although BLAST-Explorer primarily aims at helping the construction of sequence datasets for further phylogenetic study, it can also be used as a standard BLAST server with enriched output. BLAST-Explorer is available at http://www.phylogeny.fr

  15. Genetic Networks Activated by Blast Injury to the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    of 18 (3x6) repeated 165 measurements per animal and time point. IOP readings obtained with the Tonolab 166 instrument have been shown to be...FL Strubing and EE Geisert (2015) What Animal Models Can Tell Us About Glaucoma. Prog. Mol Giol Transl Sci 134: 365-380. Invited Talks: 2013 An...that had Significant Impact on Expenditures: None Significant Changes in the Use or Care of Human Subjects Vertebrate Animals Biohazards, or Select

  16. Patterns of Tinnitus and Hearing Loss Secondary to Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This three-year study proposes to recall Marine and Navy participants of the Marine ...subject, purpose and scope of the research. This three-year study proposes to recall Marine and Navy participants of the Marine Resiliency Study (MRS...Significant changes in use or care of human subjects, vertebrate animals , biohazards, and/or select agents Describe significant deviations, unexpected

  17. Mechanisms and Mitigation of Hearing Loss from Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Approuvé par: Approved by: Page #: Échelle / Scale: Numéro Dessin / Drawing Nbr : Titre / Title: Mise en plan par: Drawn by: Date: Finition: Pièce...horn and exible rubber coupling will be replaced with larger PVC sections. � The cross-sectional area of the horn will be reduced smoothly, and the

  18. Temporal Progression of Visual Injury from Blast Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    tubes for quantification of Neurofilament Heavy Chain (NfH) and inflammatory cytokines. To quantify NfH, an ELISA protocol was used according to a...incubated for 20 minutes in a dark room, the reaction was stopped by adding 50 µL of 1 M HCL. The absorbance was read using an ELISA plate reader (Synergy...species OTHER ACHIEVEMENTS: Nothing to report. REFERENCES: Petzold et al. A specific ELISA for measuring neurofilament heavy chain

  19. Genetic Networks Activated by Blast Injury to the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Eye Center, Emory University, 6 Atlanta, GA 30322; 2Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology and Center for 7 Integrative and Translational Genomics...Sox11 is also required to maintain proper levels of hedgehog signaling, and mutations have been associated with coloboma due to improper optic fissure...OJ, Morris AC. Sox11 is required to maintain proper levels of Hedgehog signaling during vertebrate ocular morphogenesis. PLoS Genet 2014; 10(7

  20. Temporal Progression of Visual Injury from Blast Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    kPa magnitude) in a rat model leads to time-dependent ocular pathology changes over the course of eight weeks. Specifically, we have found that the...of Mechanical Engineering Sponsoring organizations: USAMRAA grant  W81XWH1210243 Approved by: Brittany Coats Date: March 26, 2015 Comments...importance to pathologic angiogenesis [5]. Its subcomponents are said to be involved in endothelial cell migration, proliferation, survival and

  1. Research on Effects of Blast Casting Vibration and Vibration Absorption of Presplitting Blasting in Open Cast Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact energy produced by blast casting is able to break and cast rocks, yet the strong vibration effects caused at the same time would threaten the safety of mines. Based on the theory of Janbu’s Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM, pseudo-static method has been incorporated to analyze the influence of dynamic loads of blasting on slope stability. The horizontal loads produced by blast vibrations cause an increase in sliding forces, and this leads to a lower slope stability coefficient. When the tensile stresses of the two adjacent blast holes are greater than the tensile strength of rock mass, the radical oriented cracks are formed, which is the precondition for the formation of presplit face. Thus, the formula for calculating the blast hole spacing of presplit blasting can be obtained. Based on the analysis of the principles of vibration tester and vibration pick-up in detecting blast vibrations, a detection scheme of blast vibration is worked out by taking the blast area with precrack rear and non-precrack side of the detection object. The detection and research results of blast vibration show that presplit blasting can reduce the attenuation coefficient of stress wave by half, and the vibration absorption ratio could reach 50.2%; the impact of dynamic loads on the end-wall slope stability coefficient is 1.98%, which proves that presplit blasting plays an important role in shock absorption of blast casting.

  2. Wound Ballistics Modeling for Blast Loading Blunt Force Impact and Projectile Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cooper, Candice Frances [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnett, Damon J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Light body armor development for the warfighter is based on trial-and-error testing of prototype designs against ballistic projectiles. Torso armor testing against blast is virtually nonexistent but necessary to ensure adequate protection against injury to the heart and lungs. In this report, we discuss the development of a high-fidelity human torso model, it's merging with the existing Sandia Human Head-Neck Model, and development of the modeling & simulation (M&S) capabilities necessary to simulate wound injury scenarios. Using the new Sandia Human Torso Model, we demonstrate the advantage of virtual simulation in the investigation of wound injury as it relates to the warfighter experience. We present the results of virtual simulations of blast loading and ballistic projectile impact to the tors o with and without notional protective armor. In this manner, we demonstrate the ad vantages of applying a modeling and simulation approach to the investigation of wound injury and relative merit assessments of protective body armor without the need for trial-and-error testing.

  3. Penetrating Cardiac and Hepatic Injury; Polytrauma of a Child After Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Akca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After a bombing attack, patients were brought into hospital suffering from a combination of injuries caused by the blast, penetrating injuries and burns which as a case of polytrauma. In penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries due to bombing possibility of cardiac injury should be kept in mind. Penetrating cardiac injuries in children are rare but has a high mortality and morbidity. In some cases there may be difficulty in diagnosis of penetrating cardiac injury. In this case we want to share the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up processes of penetrating cardiac and hepatic injury with burns of a politrauma child due to bombing.

  4. Radiation injuries in atomic bomb survivors, chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 2 ''Bodily injuries'', the following matters are described: early bodily injuries such as burns, (blast) external wounds, radiation injuries, and pathology in bodily injuries; later bodily injuries such as keloids, injuries to blood and eyes, injuries in exposed women, injuries in growth, aging and life, injuries in mental/nervous system, malignant tumors, and changes in chromosomes; and genetic effects. (J.P.N.)

  5. Blast densification trials for oilsands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Port, A. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Martens, S. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Eaton, T. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Shell Canada Muskeg River Mine External Tailings Facility (ETF) is an upstream constructed tailings facility located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Raises have incrementally stepped out over the beach since construction of the starter dam and deposition within standing water has left some parts of the beach in a loose state. In order to assess the effectiveness of blast densification, a blast densification trial program that was conducted in 2006 at the ETF. The primary purpose of the test program was to determine the effectiveness of blast densification in tailings containing layers and zones of bitumen. The paper described the site characterization and explosive compaction trial program, with particular reference to test layout; drilling methodology; and blasting and timing sequence. The paper also described the instrumentation, including the seismographs; high pressure electric piezometers; low pressure electric piezometers; vibrating wire piezometers; inclinometers; settlement gauges; and surveys. Trial observations and post-trial observations were also presented. It was concluded that controlled blasting techniques could be used to safely induce liquefaction in localized areas within the tailings deposit, with a resulting increase in the tailings density. 5 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  6. Spalling of concrete walls under blast load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A common effect of the detonation of explosives in close proximity of concrete shield walls is the spalling (scabbing) of the back face of the wall. Spalling is caused by the free surface reflection of the shock wave induced in the wall by high pressure air blast and occurs whenever the dynamic tensile rupture strength is exceeded. While a complex process, reasonable analytical spall estimates can be obtained for brittle materials with low tensile strengths, such as concrete, by assuming elastic material behavior and instantaneous spall formation. Specifically, the spall thicknesses and velocities for both normal and oblique incidence of the shock wave on the back face of the wall are calculated. The complex exponential decay wave forms of the air blast are locally approximated by simple power law expressions. Variations of blast wave strength with distance to the wall, charge weight and angle of incidence are taken into consideration. The shock wave decay in the wall is also accounted for by assuming elastic wave propagation. For explosions close-in to the wall, where the reflected blast wave pressures are sufficiently high, multiple spall layers are formed. Successive spall layers are of increasing thickness, at the same time the spall velocities decrease. The spall predictions based on elastic theory are in overall agreement with experimntal results and provide a rapid means of estimating spalling trends of concrete walls subjected to air blast. (Auth.)

  7. 30 CFR 75.1316 - Preparation before blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... two working faces are approaching each other, cutting, drilling and blasting shall be done at only one... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation before blasting. 75.1316 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1316 Preparation...

  8. Primary Blast-Induced Changes in Akt and GSK3β Phosphorylation in Rat Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to blast from improvised explosive devices has been a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, the mechanisms of primary blast-induced TBI are not well understood. The Akt signal transduction pathway has been implicated in various brain pathologies including TBI. In the present study, the effects of simulated primary blast waves on the phosphorylation status of Akt and its downstream effector kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β, in rat hippocampus, were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (350–400 g were exposed to a single pulse shock wave (25 psi; ~7 ms duration and sacrificed 1 day, 1 week, or 6 weeks after exposure. Total and phosphorylated Akt, as well as phosphorylation of its downstream effector kinase GSK3β (at serine 9, were detected with western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results showed that Akt phosphorylation at both serine 473 and threonine 308 was increased 1 day after blast on the ipsilateral side of the hippocampus, and this elevation persisted until at least 6 weeks postexposure. Similarly, phosphorylation of GSK3β at serine 9, which inhibits GSK3β activity, was also increased starting at 1 day and persisted until at least 6 weeks after primary blast on the ipsilateral side. In contrast, p-Akt was increased at 1 and 6 weeks on the contralateral side, while p-GSK3β was increased 1 day and 1 week after primary blast exposure. No significant changes in total protein levels of Akt and GSK were observed on either side of the hippocampus at any time points. Immunohistochemical results showed that increased p-Akt was mainly of neuronal origin in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and once phosphorylated, the majority was translocated to the dendritic and plasma membranes. Finally, electrophysiological data showed that evoked synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor activity was

  9. Damage Curves of a Nuclear Reactor Structure exposed to Air Blast Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandys, I.; Ornai, D.; Ronen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) radiological hazards due to accidental failure or deliberated attacks are of most concern due to their destructive and global consequences: large area contaminations, injuries, exposure to ionizing radiation (which can cause death or illness, depends on the levels of exposure), loss of lives of both humans and animals, and severe damage to the environment. Prevention of such consequences is of a global importance and it has led to the definition of safety & design guidelines, and regulations by various authorities such as IAEA, U.S. NRC, etc. The guidelines define general requirements for the integrity of a NPP’s physical barriers (such as protective walls) when challenged by external events, for example human induced explosion. A more specific relation to the design of a NPP is that its structures and equipment (reactor building, fuel building, safeguards building, diesel-generator building, pumping station, nuclear auxiliaries building, and effluent treatment building) must function properly: shutdown the reactor, removal of decayed heat, storage of spent fuel, and treatment and containment of radioactive effluents) under external explosion. It requires that the NPP’s structures and equipment resistance to external explosion should be analyzed and verified. The air blast loading created by external explosion, as well as its effects & consequences on different kinds of structures are described in the literature. Structural elements response to the air blast can be analyzed in general by a Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) system that converts a distributed mass, loads, and resistance to concentrated mass, force, and stiffness located at a representative point of the structure's element where the displacements are the highest one. Proper shielding should be designed if the explosion blast effects are greater than the resistance capacity.External explosion effects should be considered within the Screening Distance Value (SDV) of the NPP

  10. Divide and Conquer (DC BLAST: fast and easy BLAST execution within HPC environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Cheol Yim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics is currently faced with very large-scale data sets that lead to computational jobs, especially sequence similarity searches, that can take absurdly long times to run. For example, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST and BLAST+ suite, which is by far the most widely used tool for rapid similarity searching among nucleic acid or amino acid sequences, is highly central processing unit (CPU intensive. While the BLAST suite of programs perform searches very rapidly, they have the potential to be accelerated. In recent years, distributed computing environments have become more widely accessible and used due to the increasing availability of high-performance computing (HPC systems. Therefore, simple solutions for data parallelization are needed to expedite BLAST and other sequence analysis tools. However, existing software for parallel sequence similarity searches often requires extensive computational experience and skill on the part of the user. In order to accelerate BLAST and other sequence analysis tools, Divide and Conquer BLAST (DCBLAST was developed to perform NCBI BLAST searches within a cluster, grid, or HPC environment by using a query sequence distribution approach. Scaling from one (1 to 256 CPU cores resulted in significant improvements in processing speed. Thus, DCBLAST dramatically accelerates the execution of BLAST searches using a simple, accessible, robust, and parallel approach. DCBLAST works across multiple nodes automatically and it overcomes the speed limitation of single-node BLAST programs. DCBLAST can be used on any HPC system, can take advantage of hundreds of nodes, and has no output limitations. This freely available tool simplifies distributed computation pipelines to facilitate the rapid discovery of sequence similarities between very large data sets.

  11. Combat ocular trauma and systemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichel, Eric D; Colyer, Marcus H

    2008-11-01

    To review the recent literature regarding combat ocular trauma during hostilities in Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, describe the classification of combat ocular trauma, and offer strategies that may assist in the management of eye injuries. Several recent publications have highlighted features of combat ocular trauma from Operation Iraqi Freedom. The most common cause of today's combat ocular injuries is unconventional fragmentary munitions causing significant blast injuries. These explosive munitions cause high rates of concomitant nonocular injuries such as traumatic brain injury, amputation, and other organ injuries. The most frequent ocular injuries include open-globe and adnexal lacerations. The extreme severity of combat-related open-globe injuries leads to high rates of primary enucleation and retained intraocular foreign bodies. Visual outcomes of intraocular foreign body injuries are similar to other series despite delayed removal, and no cases of endophthalmitis have occurred. Despite these advances, however, significant vision loss persists in cases of perforating globe injuries as well as open and closed-globe trauma involving the posterior segment. This review summarizes the recent literature describing ocular and systemic injuries sustained during Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. An emphasis on classification of ocular injuries as well as a discussion of main outcome measures and complications is discussed.

  12. New techniques for improved performance in surface blasting operation and optimisation of blast design parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.P. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Dept.

    1999-02-01

    Experimental blasts were conducted for optimisation of blasting parameters using separate technologies involving non-electric initiation systems, air decking accessories in conjunction with different explosive products like emulsion (cartridge and site-mixed), slurries (cartridge and site-mixed) and ANFO. The cost associated with each such technology was then compared with the conventional methods of drilling and blasting operations. The results of cost analyses are given. Theoretical and practical aspects of such technologies and their best possible usage in order to establish the desired fragmentation, muck profile, wall control and ultimately the accepted level of costs are mentioned in subsequent sections. 16 refs., 17 figs., 8 plates, 11 tabs.

  13. FastBLAST: homology relationships for millions of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan N Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All-versus-all BLAST, which searches for homologous pairs of sequences in a database of proteins, is used to identify potential orthologs, to find new protein families, and to provide rapid access to these homology relationships. As DNA sequencing accelerates and data sets grow, all-versus-all BLAST has become computationally demanding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present FastBLAST, a heuristic replacement for all-versus-all BLAST that relies on alignments of proteins to known families, obtained from tools such as PSI-BLAST and HMMer. FastBLAST avoids most of the work of all-versus-all BLAST by taking advantage of these alignments and by clustering similar sequences. FastBLAST runs in two stages: the first stage identifies additional families and aligns them, and the second stage quickly identifies the homologs of a query sequence, based on the alignments of the families, before generating pairwise alignments. On 6.53 million proteins from the non-redundant Genbank database ("NR", FastBLAST identifies new families 25 times faster than all-versus-all BLAST. Once the first stage is completed, FastBLAST identifies homologs for the average query in less than 5 seconds (8.6 times faster than BLAST and gives nearly identical results. For hits above 70 bits, FastBLAST identifies 98% of the top 3,250 hits per query. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FastBLAST enables research groups that do not have supercomputers to analyze large protein sequence data sets. FastBLAST is open source software and is available at http://microbesonline.org/fastblast.

  14. Drilling-and-blasting method of demolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyn Denis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the experience and gives the examples of dismantling and demolition of the construction structures of the buildings and facilities using the drilling-and-blasting method. The drilling-and-blasting method is widely used in construction and reconstruction. The demolition means may be classified according to impact on a material of structures to be demolished and to forces application, where, by virtue of an impact energy type, we choose the blasting method. This method is used during the complete demolition or fragmentation of concrete, reinforced concrete, masonry structures, of old buildings and facilities demolition to their base or in the intended direction. Blasting method may be used as well during the steel and reinforced concrete structures demolition to the smaller easy-to-move parts. Reviewed are the organizational-process activities, which are performed during the various structures dismantling. Given are the areas of application for the various methods of structures demolition. Given is the example of demolition of “Sevemaya” boiler house brick chimney at the territory of Murmansk DSK using the blast in confined spaces of the operating company. Subject of research: methods of construction structures demolition in alarm situations and acts of God. Objects: determination of the most efficient demolition methods in the present conditions of construction operations development. Materials and methods: the developed activities on the construction structures dismantling are given. Results: the most efficient methods and ways of construction structures demolition are defined. Conclusions: it is required for improvement of methods and ways of the structures drilling-and-blasting demolition.

  15. Spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foglar M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents outcomes of the blast field tests of FRC and reinforced concrete specimens, which were performed in cooperation with the Czech Army corps and Police of the Czech Republic in the military training area Boletice. The numerical evaluation of the experiments focused on the spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading started after the first set of the tests, took almost 3 years and required further small-scale experiments performed in the labs of the Czech Technical University.

  16. Implementations of BLAST for parallel computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jülich, A

    1995-02-01

    The BLAST sequence comparison programs have been ported to a variety of parallel computers-the shared memory machine Cray Y-MP 8/864 and the distributed memory architectures Intel iPSC/860 and nCUBE. Additionally, the programs were ported to run on workstation clusters. We explain the parallelization techniques and consider the pros and cons of these methods. The BLAST programs are very well suited for parallelization for a moderate number of processors. We illustrate our results using the program blastp as an example. As input data for blastp, a 799 residue protein query sequence and the protein database PIR were used.

  17. Dry blasting decontaminating method for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Hitoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In the present invention, when abrasives are dry blasted on the surface of radioactive wastes and the recovered abrasives are classified for re-use, abrasives having a microvicker's hardness (HMV) of greater than 600 and a grain size of greater than 1mm are used in a case where the radioactive wastes to be abraded are stainless steels. This enables dry blasting decontamination for stainless steels which has been considered to be impossible. In addition since the amount of secondary wastes are reduced, it is extremely effective. (T.M.)

  18. Predictive control of thermal state of blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbasova, T. A.; Filimonova, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The work describes the structure of the model for predictive control of the thermal state of a blast furnace. The proposed model contains the following input parameters: coke rate; theoretical combustion temperature, comprising: natural gas consumption, blasting temperature, humidity, oxygen, blast furnace cooling water; blast furnace gas utilization rate. The output parameter is the cast iron temperature. The results for determining the cast iron temperature were obtained following the identification using the Hammerstein-Wiener model. The result of solving the cast iron temperature stabilization problem was provided for the calculated values of process parameters of the target area of the respective blast furnace operation mode.

  19. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VIGIL, MANUEL G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels

  20. Blast noise classification with common sound level meter metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvengros, Robert M; Valente, Dan; Nykaza, Edward T; Vipperman, Jeffrey S

    2012-08-01

    A common set of signal features measurable by a basic sound level meter are analyzed, and the quality of information carried in subsets of these features are examined for their ability to discriminate military blast and non-blast sounds. The analysis is based on over 120 000 human classified signals compiled from seven different datasets. The study implements linear and Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) support vector machines (SVM) to classify blast sounds. Using the orthogonal centroid dimension reduction technique, intuition is developed about the distribution of blast and non-blast feature vectors in high dimensional space. Recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) is then used to eliminate features containing redundant information and rank features according to their ability to separate blasts from non-blasts. Finally, the accuracy of the linear and RBF SVM classifiers is listed for each of the experiments in the dataset, and the weights are given for the linear SVM classifier.

  1. Effects of Repeated Traumatic Brain Injuries in a Combat Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Metabolism, 30(2), 255-266. Cernak, I., Savic , J., Malicevic, Z., Zunic, G., Radosevic, P., Ivanovic, I., et al. (1996). Involvement of the central...Bian, X., & Savic , J. (2001). Ultrastructural and functional characteristics of blast injury-induced neurotrauma. The Journal of trauma, 50(4), 695-706

  2. Radiologic features of injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing at three hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Goralnick, Eric; Velmahos, George; Biddinger, Paul D; Gates, Jonathan; Sodickson, Aaron

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the radiologic imaging findings of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries in patients injured in the Boston Marathon bombing on April 15, 2013. A total of 43 patients presenting to three acute care hospitals and undergoing radiologic investigation within 7 hours of the time of the bombing on April 15, 2013, were included in this study. The radiographic and CT features of these patients were evaluated for imaging findings consistent with primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury. There were no pulmonary or gastrointestinal manifestations of the primary blast wave on imaging. Secondary blast injuries identified on imaging included a total of 189 shrapnel fragments identified in 32 of the 43 patients. The shrapnel was identified most often in the soft tissues of the leg (36.5%), thigh (31.2%), and pelvis (13.2%). Imaging identified 125 ball bearings, 10 nails, one screw, 44 metal fragments, and nine other (gravel, glass, etc.) foreign bodies. Injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing were predominantly from the secondary blast wave and resulted in traumatic injuries predominantly of the lower extremities. The most common shrapnel found on radiologic evaluation was the ball bearing.

  3. Testing and modeling the dynamic response of foam materials for blast protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitek, John H.

    The pressure wave released from an explosion can cause injury to the lungs. A personal armor system concept for blast lung injury protection consists of a polymer foam layer behind a rigid armor plate to be worn over the chest. This research develops a method for testing and modeling the dynamic response of foam materials to be used for down-selection of materials for this application. Constitutive equations for foam materials are incorporated into a lumped parameter model of the combined armor plate and foam system. Impact testing and shock tube testing are used to measure the foam model parameters and validate the model response to a pressure wave load. The plate and foam armor model is then coupled to a model of the human thorax. With a blast pressure wave input, the armor model is evaluated based on how it affects the injury-causing mechanism of chest wall motion. Results show that to reduce chest wall motion, the foam must compress at a relatively constant stress level, which requires a sufficient foam thickness.

  4. Consideration on local blast vibration control by delay blasting; Danpatsu happa ni yoru kyokuchiteki shindo seigyo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, Gento; Adachi, Tsuyoshi; Yamatomi, Jiro [The University of Tokyo School of Engineering Department of Geosystem Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Hoshino, Tatsuya [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-31

    In this research, local blast vibration control based on the theory of superposition of waves was investigated. Firstly, the influence of delay time errors of conventional electric detonators upon the level of local blast vibration was examined. Secondly, for a further effective local blast vibration control, a new delay blasting design concept 'combined delay blasting' that postulates the use of electronic detonators, which virtually have no delay time errors, is proposed. For a delay blasting with uniform detonation time intervals, an optimum time interval to minimize the local PPV (Peak Particle Velocity) is obtained based on the relationship between the PPV and the time interval, which is derived by superposing identical vibration time histories of each single hole shot. However, due to the scattering of the actual delay time caused by errors, PPV of a production blast seldom coincides with the estimated one. Since the expected value and the variance of PPV mainly depend on sensitivity of PPV around the nominal delay time, it is proposed that not only the optimum but also several sub-optimum candidates of delay time should be examined taking error into consideration. Concerning the 'combined delay blasting', its concept and some simulation results are presented. The estimated reduction effect of blast vibration of a delay blast based on this concept was quite favorable, indicating a possibility for further effective local blast vibration control. (author)

  5. Ice blasting device for washing pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, when the inside of a pump casing such as a recycling pump is scrubbed, since operator's safety should be ensured, it requires a large-scaled operation. Then, a cover is attached to a flange of the pump casing, in which a driving portion is disposed passing through the cover vertically movably and rotatably, an arm is disposed bendably to the top end of the arm, and a blast nozzle is disposed to the top end of the arm for jetting ice particles, with a camera being disposed to the blast nozzle. The inside of the casing can be scrubbed safely and rapidly by an ice blast method by remote operation while monitoring the state of scrubbing for the inside of the casing by a camera. Further, since the flange of the pump casing for installing the ice blast device is covered by the cover, mists are not scattered to the outside. In addition, mists may be sucked and removed by an exhaustion duct. (N.H.)

  6. Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The freeze-out temperature is chosen by comparison of calorimetry experiments (2, 3) and thermoequilibrium calculations using CHEETAH (4). The near...P.; Vitello, P. CHEETAH Users Manual; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, CA, 2012. 5. Walter, P. Introduction to Air Blast

  7. 29 CFR 1926.906 - Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) After firing an electric blast from a blasting machine, the leading wires shall be immediately... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting. 1926.906... Use of Explosives § 1926.906 Initiation of explosive charges—electric blasting. (a) Electric blasting...

  8. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil

  9. Ultrafast Fabry-Perot fiber-optic pressure sensors for multimedia blast event measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yang; Fitek, John; Maffeo, Michael; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie; Wang, Xingwei

    2013-02-20

    A shock wave (SW) is characterized as a large pressure fluctuation that typically lasts only a few milliseconds. On the battlefield, SWs pose a serious threat to soldiers who are exposed to explosions, which may lead to blast-induced traumatic brain injuries. SWs can also be used beneficially and have been applied to a variety of medical treatments due to their unique interaction with tissues and cells. Consequently, it is important to have sensors that can quantify SW dynamics in order to better understand the physical interaction between body tissue and the incident acoustic wave. In this paper, the ultrafast fiber-optic sensor based on the Fabry-Perot interferometric principle was designed and four such sensors were fabricated to quantify a blast event within different media, simultaneously. The compact design of the fiber-optic sensor allows for a high degree of spatial resolution when capturing the wavefront of the traveling SW. Several blast event experiments were conducted within different media (e.g., air, rubber membrane, and water) to evaluate the sensor's performance. This research revealed valuable knowledge for further study of SW behavior and SW-related applications.

  10. Protection of the lung from blast overpressure by stress wave decouplers, buffer plates or sandwich panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedman, Andrew; Hepper, A

    2018-03-19

    This paper outlines aspects of UK Ministry of Defence's research and development of blast overpressure protection technologies appropriate for use in body armour, with the aim of both propagating new knowledge and updating existing information. Two simple models are introduced not only to focus the description of the mechanism by which the lungs can be protected, but also to provide a bridge between fields of research that may hold the key to further advances in protection technology and related body armour. Protection can be provided to the lungs by decoupling the stress wave transmission into the thorax by managing the blast energy imparted through the protection system. It is proposed that the utility of the existing 'simple decoupler' blast overpressure protection is reviewed in light of recent developments in the treatment of those sustaining both overpressure and fragment injuries. It is anticipated that further advances in protection technology may be generated by those working in other fields on the analogous technologies of 'buffer plates' and 'sandwich panels'. © Crown copyright (2018), Dstl. This material is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk.

  11. Imaging of abdominal and pelvic injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Sodickson, Aaron; Abujudeh, Hani

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the imaging findings of abdominal and pelvic injuries in victims of the Boston Marathon bombing. A retrospective review of 87 patients following the Boston Marathon bombing was performed to evaluate for abdominal and pelvic injuries on plain radiography or CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis. Imaging exams were evaluated for shrapnel, soft tissue injury, visceral damage, vascular disruption, and fractures. The injuries were classified as primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries. Eleven of the 87 patients had positive findings in the abdomen or pelvis (M:F = 7:4, average age 34.6 years). There were 22 ball bearings, two nails, one screw, and two irregular metal fragments in the 11 patients with secondary blast (shrapnel) injuries. There was no peritoneal penetration or visceral injury seen in any of the patients. One patient had multiple transverse process fractures, representing tertiary blast injury. All but one patient had superficial penetrating abdominal or pelvic injuries secondary to shrapnel. There were no cases of bowel or solid visceral organ injuries due to the lack of peritoneal violation from the relatively low-powered explosions. Absence of peritoneal penetration by shrapnel indicates no need for laparotomy following low-powered explosions.

  12. Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, J.L.; Fletcher, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

  13. Wound Ballistics Modeling for Blast Loading Blunt Force Impact and Projectile Penetration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Light body armor development for the warfighter is based on trial-and-error testing of prototype designs against ballistic projectiles. Torso armor testing against blast is nonexistent but necessary to protect the heart and lungs. In tests against ballistic projectiles, protective apparel is placed over ballistic clay and the projectiles are fired into the armor/clay target. The clay represents the human torso and its behind-armor, permanent deflection is the principal metric used to assess armor protection. Although this approach provides relative merit assessment of protection, it does not examine the behind-armor blunt trauma to crucial torso organs. We propose a modeling and simulation (M&S) capability for wound injury scenarios to the head, neck, and torso of the warfighter. We will use this toolset to investigate the consequences of, and mitigation against, blast exposure, blunt force impact, and ballistic projectile penetration leading to damage of critical organs comprising the central nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. We will leverage Sandia codes and our M&S expertise on traumatic brain injury to develop virtual anatomical models of the head, neck, and torso and the simulation methodology to capture the physics of wound mechanics. Specifically, we will investigate virtual wound injuries to the head, neck, and torso without and with protective armor to demonstrate the advantages of performing injury simulations for the development of body armor. The proposed toolset constitutes a significant advance over current methods by providing a virtual simulation capability to investigate wound injury and optimize armor design without the need for extensive field testing.

  14. Development of a Continuous Drill and Blast Tunneling Concept, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-05-01

    A spiral drilling pattern is described which offers high efficiency drill and blast tunnelling via frequent small blasts rather than occasional large blasts. Design work is presented for a machine which would stay at the face to provide essentially c...

  15. 77 FR 31878 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Blasting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... requirements designed to protect covered employees working with and around blasting operations. Inventories of... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Blasting Operations and Use of Explosives Standard ACTION: Notice... (OSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Blasting Operations and Use of...

  16. Application of Carbon Composite Bricks for Blast Furnace Hearth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Haibin; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Jianliang; Zhao, Yongan; Jiao, Kexin

    Traditional refractory materials for blast furnace hearth lining are mainly composed of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. However, these materials can't meet the demands for long service life design of blast furnaces. In this paper, a new refractory called carbon composite brick (CCB) was introduced, which combined the advantages of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. In this case, the resistance of the CCB against corrosion was equal to the ceramic cup and the thermal conductivity of the CCB was equal to carbon bricks. From the results of more than 20 blast furnaces, the CCB could be well used in small blast furnaces and large blast furnaces. In the bad condition of low grade burden and high smelting intensity, the CCB gave full play to the role of cooling system, and effectively resisted the erosion of hot metal to improve the service life of blast furnaces.

  17. Safety management system during rock blasting at FRFCF construction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumaran, C.; Kandasamy, S.; Satpathy, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    Blasting is an important activity during rock excavation to reach required depth for obtaining stability of the civil structure. For the construction of various Plant Buildings of Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility (FRFCF), IGCAR at Kalpakkam, based on the geological survey it is required to reach a depth of 21.4 meters from existing ground level. This paper details about the procedures and precaution adopted during the rock blasting activities at FRFCF site. The volume of rock removed by blasting was 3 lakh cubic meters. The total number of blasting carried out was 304 using 105.73 tons of blasting material. The entire blasting work could be completed within 174 days without any incident. (author)

  18. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, control of blast effects in sensitive areas, blasthole deviation, regulatory impact when blasting at Superfund sites, computer-aided blast design and monitoring, tunneling techniques, shaft excavations, video camera analysis of blasting operations, soil densification, cost optimization, mine blasting accidents, non-electric initiation systems, and delay detonators. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  19. Head injury as a PTSD predictor among Oklahoma City bombing survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walilko, Timothy; North, Carol; Young, Lee Ann; Lux, Warren E; Warden, Deborah L; Jaffee, Michael S; Moore, David F

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the Oklahoma City (OKC) bombing retrospective review was to investigate the relationship between physical injury, environmental contributors, and psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an event-based, matched design study focused on injury. The 182 selected participants were a random subset of the 1,092 direct survivors from the OKC bombing. Only 124 of these 182 cases had a full complement of medical/clinical data in the OKC database. These 124 cases were assessed to explore relationships among PTSD diagnoses, levels of blast exposure, and physical injuries. Associations among variables were statistically tested using contingency analysis and logistic regression. Comparison of the PTSD cases to symptoms/diagnoses reported in the medical records reveals a statistically significant association between PTSD and head/brain injuries associated with head acceleration. PTSD was not highly correlated with other injuries. Although blast pressure and impulse were highly correlated with head injuries, the correlation with PTSD was not statistically significant. Thus, a correlation between blast pressure and PTSD may exist, but higher fidelity pressure calculations are required to elucidate this potential relationship. This study provides clear evidence that head injury is associated with subsequent PTSD, giving caregivers' information on what physical injuries may suggest the development of psychologic disorders to aid them in developing a profile for the identification of future survivors of terrorist attacks and Warfighters with brain injuries and potential PTSD.

  20. A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

    2006-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

  1. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  2. Golf Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Golf Injuries Golf looks like an easy game to ... WHAT TYPES OF INJURIES ARE MOST COMMON IN GOLF? Acute injuries are usually the result of a ...

  3. Proceedings of the eighteenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This edition of the Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques is the eighteenth in a series published by the International Society of Explosives Engineers. The papers cover a wide variety of explosives and blasting techniques, including: rock mechanics, rock drilling, perimeter control handling and documenting blasting complaints, blast vibration frequencies, blasting techniques for surface and underground coal mines, explosives for permafrost blasting, lightning detection, use of slow motion video to analyze blasts, tunneling, and close-in blasting control. Papers have been processed individually for inclusion on the data base

  4. Experimental Study and Engineering Practice of Pressured Water Coupling Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overburden strata movement in large space stope is the major reason that induces the appearance of strong mining pressure. Presplitting blasting for hard coal rocks is crucial for the prevention and control of strong pressure in stope. In this study, pressured water coupling blasting technique was proposed. The process and effect of blasting were analyzed by orthogonal test and field practice. Results showed that the presence of pressure-bearing water and explosive cartridges in the drill are the main influence factors of the blasting effect of cement test block. The high load-transmitting performance of pore water and energy accumulation in explosive cartridges were analyzed. Noxious substances produced during the blasting process were properly controlled because of the moistening, cooling, and diluting effect of pore water. Not only the goal of safe and static rock fragmentation by high-explosive detonation but also a combination of superdynamic blast loading and static loading effect of the pressured water was achieved. Then the practice of blasting control of hard coal rocks in Datong coal mine was analyzed to determine reasonable parameters of pressured water coupling blasting. A good presplitting blasting control effect was achieved for the hard coal rocks.

  5. Assessment of Blasting Operations Effects During Highway Tunnel Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valašková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blasting operations are one of the fundamental parts of daily civil engineering. Drilling and blasting still remain the only possible ways of tunnelling in very adverse geological conditions. However, this method is a source of various disadvantages, the main one being tremors propagating through the geological environment which not only affect buildings, but also disturb the comfort of living in the vicinity of the source. Designing this procedure is mostly done using standardized empirical relations. This article shows the possibility of using a FEM technique in predicting blast effects. This approach is demonstrated in a simple case study on the impact of blasting operations on steel pipes.

  6. Collapse of rocks by blasting. Razrusheniye gornykh porod Vzryvom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A F; Kutuzov, B N

    1983-01-01

    Information is provided about drilling boreholes and wells, explosives and the means for initiating them, storage, transporting and calculation of the explosive materials. Physical essence of the destructive, scientific and air effect of the blast are presented, principles of arrangement and calculation of the charges, reasons for malfunctions and methods of eliminating them, measures for protecting the surrounding objects from harmful effect of the industrial blast. Questions are examined of planning, organization and safety of the blasting operations. The second edition (first edition 1967) has been revised with regard for changes that occurred in the field of blasting operations.

  7. Water-Depth-Based Prediction Formula for the Blasting Vibration Velocity of Lighthouse Caused by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lighthouses are the most important hydraulic structures that should be protected during underwater drilling blasting. Thus, the effect of blasting vibration on lighthouse should be studied. On the basis of the dimensional analysis, we deduced a revised formula for water depth based on Sodev’s empirical formula and established the linear fitting model. During the underwater reef project in the main channel of Shipu Harbor in the Ningbo–Zhoushan Port, the blasting vibration data of the lighthouse near the underwater blasting area were monitored. The undetermined coefficient, resolvable coefficient, and F value of the two formulas were then obtained. The comparison of the data obtained from the two formulas showed that they can effectively predict the blasting vibration on the lighthouse. The correction formula that considers water depth can obviously reduce prediction errors and accurately predict blasting vibration.

  8. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Manzar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surround-ing normal brain tissue. At 6 months’ follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity. Key words: Head injury, penetrating; Bombs; Nails

  9. Blast vibration monitoring, July to December, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The complexity of the vibration waveforms produced appears at this stage to preclude simple comparison of different blasts. A modelling approach is indicated from the preliminary experiments. The required elemental charge length and the steady state column length of ANFO in 381 mm holes must be determined for further development of a model. This information may be acquired by firing a number of charges of varying lengths with all other variables held constant.

  10. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer

  11. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando, E-mail: bva@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Neves; Elton Silva; Silva, Sidiney Nascimento [Companhia Siderugica Nacional (CSN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10{sup 6} ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  12. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10"6 ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  13. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Langner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae, which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17 reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases.

  14. D-BLAST OFDM with Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Jianxuan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO systems formed by multiple transmit and receive antennas can improve performance and increase capacity of wireless communication systems. Diagonal Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time (D-BLAST structure offers a low-complexity solution for realizing the attractive capacity of MIMO systems. However, for broadband wireless communications, channel is frequency-selective and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM has to be used with MIMO techniques to reduce system complexity. In this paper, we investigate D-BLAST for MIMO-OFDM systems. We develop a layerwise channel estimation algorithm which is robust to channel variation by exploiting the characteristic of the D-BLAST structure. Further improvement is made by subspace tracking to considerably reduce the error floor. Simulation results show that the layerwise estimators require 1 dB less signal-to-noise ratio (SNR than the traditional blockwise estimator for a word error rate (WER of when Doppler frequency is 40 Hz. Among the layerwise estimators, the subspace-tracking estimator provides a 0.8 dB gain for WER with 200 Hz Doppler frequency compared with the DFT-based estimator.

  15. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Thorsten; Białas, Aleksandra; Kamoun, Sophien

    2018-04-17

    Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae ), which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17) reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases. Copyright © 2018 Langner et al.

  16. Verification of wet blasting decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Sachito; Murayama, Kazunari; Yoshida, Hirohisa; Igei, Shigemitsu; Izumida, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Macoho Co., Ltd. participated in the projects of 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Ministry of the Environment' and 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Cabinet Office.' And we tested verification to use a wet blasting technology for decontamination of rubble and roads contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a results of the verification test, the wet blasting decontamination technology showed that a decontamination rate became 60-80% for concrete paving, interlocking, dense-grated asphalt pavement when applied to the decontamination of the road. When it was applied to rubble decontamination, a decontamination rate was 50-60% for gravel and approximately 90% for concrete and wood. It was thought that Cs-134 and Cs-137 attached to the fine sludge scraped off from a decontamination object and the sludge was found to be separated from abrasives by wet cyclene classification: the activity concentration of the abrasives is 1/30 or less than the sludge. The result shows that the abrasives can be reused without problems when the wet blasting decontamination technology is used. (author)

  17. Water-Depth-Based Prediction Formula for the Blasting Vibration Velocity of Lighthouse Caused by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Wenbin; Wang, Zhenxiong; Liu, Jianqing; Xu, Jinglin; Liu, Xin; Cao, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Lighthouses are the most important hydraulic structures that should be protected during underwater drilling blasting. Thus, the effect of blasting vibration on lighthouse should be studied. On the basis of the dimensional analysis, we deduced a revised formula for water depth based on Sodev’s empirical formula and established the linear fitting model. During the underwater reef project in the main channel of Shipu Harbor in the Ningbo–Zhoushan Port, the blasting vibration data of the lighthou...

  18. Numerical Investigation of Structural Response of Corrugated Blast Wall Depending on Blast Load Pulse Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Sohn

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbon explosions are one of most hazardous events for workers on offshore platforms. To protect structures against explosion loads, corrugated blast walls are typically installed. However, the profiles of real explosion loads are quite different depending on the congestion and confinement of Topside structures. As the level of congestion and confinement increases, the explosion load increases by up to 8 bar, and the rising time of the load decreases. This study primarily aims to investigate the structural behavior characteristics of corrugated blast walls under different types of explosion loadings. Four loading shapes were applied in the structural response analysis, which utilized a dynamic nonlinear finite element method.

  19. Evaluation of Blast Resistance of Fiber Reinforced Composite Specimens under Contact Blast Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janota, O.; Foglar, M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents results of experimental programme which took place in 2014, 2015 and 2016. Experiments were focused on the resistance of full scale concrete panels subjected to contact blast loading. Specimens were loaded by contact blast by plastic explosive. All specimens were reinforced concrete slabs made of fiber concrete. Basalt mesh and textile sheets were added to some of the experiments for creating more heterogeneous material to achieve better resistance of the specimens. Evaluation of experiments was mainly focused on the damaged area on the contact side and soffit of the specimens. Dependency of the final damage of concrete panels on the weight of explosive and concrete strength was assessed.

  20. "Thunderstruck": penetrating thoracic injury from lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waes, Oscar J F; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Halm, Jens A

    2014-04-01

    Lightning strike victims are rarely presented at an emergency department. Burns are often the primary focus. This case report describes the improvised explosive device like-injury to the thorax due to lightning strike and its treatment, which has not been described prior in (kerauno)medicine. Penetrating injury due to blast from lightning strike is extremely rare. These "shrapnel" injuries should however be ruled out in all patients struck by lightning. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be isolated and insulated from power conductors, pipelines, and railroad tracks, and...

  2. Blasting Standards for the Ghanaian Mining Industry | Amegbey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana is a well known mining nation and hard rock mining has been going on since the 10th century. Mining companies in Ghana are well aware of the regulatory requirements to carry out blasting activities such that neighbouring communities are protected from excessive impact as a result of blast vibrations amongst other ...

  3. Liquid flow in the hearth of the blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauje, P.; Nicolle, R.; Steiler, J.M.; Venturini, M.J.; Libralesso, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The hearth of a blast furnace is poorly known. Our approach to characterize the hearth involves classical methods of chemical engineering, assessing the flow conditions by means of radioactive tracer techniques. The most important feature of this study is to combine measurements on industrial blast furnaces, experiments on a small scale model and flow model. calculations. 8 refs., 16 figs

  4. Implementation of a user defined mine blast model in LSDYNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler-Street, M.; Leerdam, P.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    A user defined mine blast model has been developed and implemented into the explicit finite element code LS-DYNA to provide a numerically efficient method for simulating an antivehicular mine blast. The objective is to provide a simple and robust numerical method which is able to represent both the

  5. Inheritance of blast resistance and identification of SSR marker ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-08-02

    Aug 2, 2013 ... arm of chromosome 6 and in close proximity of blast resis- ... resistance to a M. oryzae race in a gene-for-gene manner. DNA markers have been ... order to identify the new sources of resistance against blast, there is need for ...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for use so long as the present approval is maintained. (e) Electric detonators shall be compatible... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310...

  7. Equipment Specific Optimum Blast-Design Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Upadhyay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Design of blasting parameters plays an important role in the optimization of mining cost as well as cost of subsequent processing of ore. Drilling and handling costs are the major mining cost. This work presents an indirect optimization model for mining cost through optimization of blasting parameters for a particular set of drilling and loading equipment.

  8. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  9. Reducing Drill and Blast Cost through Blast Optimisation – A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Case Study* ... using the proposed blast parameters increased by 14.3 to 50.0% for ore zones and 12.5 ... of gold, compels technologists in the industry to .... 127. Bench Height (H), m. 4. 4. 4.5. 4.5. 4.5. 4.5. Sub-drill (U), m. 0.5.

  10. Blasting and Blast Effects in Cold Regions. Part 3. Explosions in Ground Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    121- York, Ontario: Technical Marketing Services- 123. Explosives, Canadian Industries, 6th edition. Gaffney, E.S. (1984b) Hugoniot of water ice. In...Mines, blasting. U.S. Bureau of Nlines , Report of Insesti- Report of lnsestigations RI 7751. gations 8507. Piekutoiski. A.J. (1974) I.aborator,, scale

  11. Facial firework injury: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadisina, Kashyap K; Abcarian, Ariane; Omi, Ellen

    2014-07-01

    Fireworks are used to celebrate a variety of religious, patriotic, and cultural holidays and events around the world. Fireworks are common in the United States, with the most popular holiday for their use being national Independence Day, also known as July Fourth. The use of fireworks within the context of celebrations and holidays presents the ideal environment for accidents that lead to severe and dangerous injuries. Injuries to the face from explosions present a challenging problem in terms of restoring ideal ocular, oral, and facial function. Despite the well documented prevalence of firework use and injury, there is a relatively large deficit in the literature in terms of firework injury that involves the face. We present a unique case series that includes 4 adult male patients all with severe firework injuries to the face that presented at an urban level 1 trauma center. These four patients had an average age of 26.7 years old and presented within 5 hours of each other starting on July Fourth. Two patients died from their injuries and two patients underwent reconstructive surgical management, one of which had two follow up surgeries. We explore in detail their presentation, management, and subsequent outcomes as an attempt to add to the very limited data in the field of facial firework blast injury. In addition, the coincidence of their presentation within the same 5 hours brings into question the availability of the fireworks involved, and the possibility of similar injuries related to this type of firework in the future.

  12. Facial Firework Injury: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap Tadisina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fireworks are used to celebrate a variety of religious, patriotic, and cultural holidays and events around the world. Fireworks are common in the United States, with the most popular holiday for their use being national Independence Day, also known as July Fourth. The use of fireworks within the context of celebrations and holidays presents the ideal environment for accidents that lead to severe and dangerous injuries. Injuries to the face from explosions present a challenging problem in terms of restoring ideal ocular, oral, and facial function. Despite the well documented prevalence of firework use and injury, there is a relatively large deficit in the literature in terms of firework injury that involves the face. We present a unique case series that includes 4 adult male patients all with severe firework injuries to the face that presented at an urban level 1 trauma center. These four patients had an average age of 26.7 years old and presented within 5 hours of each other starting on July Fourth. Two patients died from their injuries and two patients underwent reconstructive surgical management, one of which had two follow up surgeries. We explore in detail their presentation, management, and subsequent outcomes as an attempt to add to the very limited data in the field of facial firework blast injury. In addition, the coincidence of their presentation within the same 5 hours brings into question the availability of the fireworks involved, and the possibility of similar injuries related to this type of firework in the future.

  13. Effect of Surface Blasting on Subway Tunnels- A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Entezari Zarch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During wars and crises, the underground tunnels are used as a safe space. Therefore, the stability and safety of them under a blast is of particular importance. In this paper, the Finite Difference Method has been used to study the influence of the change in geotechnical parameters and depth on surface blasting on subway tunnels. Results showed that increasing the internal friction angle, modulus of elasticity and cohesion of the soil reduced the effects of blast loads on the vertical displacement and bending moment in the center of tunnel crown. Furthermore, the results showed that increasing the depth of the tunnel reduced the effects of blast loading. Comparing all parameters collectively showed that the increase in the modulus of elasticity of the soil and depth of the tunnel is the most effective in reducing the influence of the blast loads on the vertical displacement and bending moment of the tunnel crown, respectively.

  14. Confirmation of the decontamination ability using the dry blasting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izuka, Hirotaka; Tsuhara, Yuuki; Ito, Hajime; Fukuda, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yasuhiro; Kanamori, Yoji

    2017-01-01

    The decontamination method of metallic waste was considered to reduce the radioactive waste in decommissioning a nuclear power plant. Stainless steel occupies most for the material of the system equipment of PWR. The contamination by radioactive materials is stuck in the surface in the equipment as the metal oxide (e.g. chromium oxide, iron oxide). The method of efficient abrasion by the dry blasting device was considered to remove metal oxide from stainless steel. The kind of blasting abrasives material and the abrasive operation condition (the blasting angle, rate) were considered to investigate the abrasion ability to stainless steel. The abrasive condition which was appropriate abrasive ability was investigated and appropriate blasting abrasives was selected to stainless steel. The decontamination test by selected blasting abrasives and abrasive operation condition was performed using samples and the relation between abrasive rate and activity concentration was confirmed. The metallic radioactive waste was confirmed to be able to decontaminate to the clearance level. (author)

  15. Research Advances In Medical Care For Polytrauma Injuries And Blast Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    instead it uses a thin, hot ceramic membrane that has a voltage applied to it. It is insensitive to environmental conditions. Benefits The...Ceramic Oxygen Generator uses a metal reinforced composite, thin-film ceramic membrane to generate oxygen. Producing 1 liter of oxygen requires 30

  16. Survey of rice blast race identity for blast resistance gene identification in the USA and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease is a significant threat to stable rice production in the USA and worldwide. The major resistance gene (Pi-ta) located within a cluster of resistance genes on rice chromosome 12 has been demonstrated to confer resistance to the rice blast disease. Katy, a rice cultivar released in ...

  17. Experimental investigation of blast mitigation and particle-blast interaction during the explosive dispersal of particles and liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontalier, Q.; Loiseau, J.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    The attenuation of a blast wave from a high-explosive charge surrounded by a layer of inert material is investigated experimentally in a spherical geometry for a wide range of materials. The blast wave pressure is inferred from extracting the blast wave velocity with high-speed video as well as direct measurements with pressure transducers. The mitigant consists of either a packed bed of particles, a particle bed saturated with water, or a homogeneous liquid. The reduction in peak blast wave overpressure is primarily dependent on the mitigant to explosive mass ratio, M/ C, with the mitigant material properties playing a secondary role. Relative peak pressure mitigation reduces with distance and for low values of M/ C (compaction, deformation, and fracture of the powders plays an important role. The difference in scaled arrival time of the blast and material fronts increases with M/ C and scaled distance, with solid particles giving the largest separation between the blast wave and cloud of particles. Surrounding a high-explosive charge with a layer of particles reduces the positive-phase blast impulse, whereas a liquid layer has no influence on the impulse in the far field. Taking the total impulse due to the blast wave and material impact into account implies that the damage to a nearby structure may actually be augmented for a range of distances. These results should be taken into consideration in the design of explosive mitigant systems.

  18. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, ground vibrations and blast effects, design for explosive fracturing of rock, sequential timing for blasting control, design for production optimization, use of blasting for abandoned mine reclamation, chemical explosives, lightning warning systems, magazine security, fire safety, and drilling equipment. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  19. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps... blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not include the following articles: (a) Electric squibs. (b) No. 6 and No. 8 blasting caps, including electric...

  20. Rock breaking methods to replace blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huisheng; Xie, Xinghua; Feng, Yuqing

    2018-03-01

    The method of breaking rock by blasting has a high efficiency and the cost is relatively low, but the associated vibration, flyrock, production of toxic gases since the 1970’s, the Western developed countries began to study the safety of breaking rock. This paper introduces different methods and their progress to safely break rock. Ideally, safe rock breaking would have little vibration, no fly stone, and no toxic gases, which can be widely used in municipal engineering, road excavation, high-risk mining, quarrying and complex environment.

  1. Explosive and accessories in rock blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingua, B.M.P.; Nabiullah, M.; Jagdish, S.; Mishra, G.D.; Singh, T.N. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1999-02-01

    Chemical explosives are commonly used in the mining industry. Those used in India include nitroglycerine (NG) base, ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixture (ANFO), slurry emulsion and liquid oxygen (LOX). Examples of each type and their general properties are lighted. The electric and non-electric detonating systems used are described. Two Indian companies are producing non-electric in-hole delay system. Raydet (IDL-make) and Excel (ICI-make). Their firing characteristics are listed. Tables are given for burden for different density of rock and explosive strength. Causes of bad blast are itemised. 7 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Reliability of engineered basements as blast shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinow, A.; Mohammadi, J.; Robinson, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    A method for predicting the probability of failure of structures by considering multiple failure modes was formulated. It was applied to the analysis of a reinforced concrete slab when subjected to a uniformly distributed blast load over its surface. Currently available criteria for failure due to flexure and shear were used in predicting the probability of failure. This method is capable of considering all major components of a structure, the respective failure modes of each component, and of predicting the probability of failure of the structure as a whole

  3. Design of blast simulators for nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, A.; Opalka, K.O.; Kitchens, C.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A quasi-one-dimensional computational technique is used to model the flow of a large, complicated shock tube. The shock tube, or Large Blast Simulator, is used to simulate conventional or nuclear explosions by shaping the pressure history. Results from computations show favorable agreement when compared with data taken in the facility at Gramat, France. Such future shock tubes will include a thermal irradiation capability to better simulate a nuclear event. The computations point to the need for venting of the combustion products since the pressure history will be considerably altered as the shock propagates through these hot gases

  4. Impact of Drill and Blast Excavation on Repository Performance Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Francis, N.; Houseworth, J.; Kramer, N.

    2000-01-01

    There has been considerable work accomplished internationally examining the effects of drill and blast excavation on rock masses surrounding emplacement openings of proposed nuclear waste repositories. However, there has been limited discussion tying the previous work to performance confirmation models such as those proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper addresses a possible approach to joining the available information on drill and blast excavation and performance confirmation. The method for coupling rock damage data from drill and blast models to performance assessment models for fracture flow requires a correlation representing the functional relationship between the peak particle velocity (PPV) vibration levels and the potential properties that govern water flow rates in the host rock. Fracture aperture and frequency are the rock properties which may be most influenced by drill and blast induced vibration. If it can be shown (using an appropriate blasting model simulation) that the effect of blasting is far removed from the waste package in an emplacement drift, then disturbance to the host rock induced in the process of drill and blast excavation may be reasonably ignored in performance assessment calculations. This paper proposes that the CANMET (Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology) Criterion, based on properties that determine rock strength, may be used to define a minimum PPV. This PPV can be used to delineate the extent of blast induced damage. Initial applications have demonstrated that blasting models can successfully be coupled with this criterion to predict blast damage surrounding underground openings. The Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain has used a blasting model to generate meaningful estimates of near-field vibration levels and damage envelopes correlating to data collected from pre-existing studies conducted. Further work is underway to expand this application over a statistical distribution of geologic

  5. Atomic bomb injury: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, C L; Cronkite, E P; Le Roy, G V; Warren, S

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports. In the first report, the clinical diagnosis and treatment of radiation syndrome in survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are described. The syndrome of acute radiation injury is applied to the symptom complex, or diseased state, which results from exposure of the whole body to the initial nuclear radiation of an atomic bomb. It is applied to injuries of the skin and subcutaneous tissues resulting from x-radiation or from contact with radioactive material. Internal radiation injury may result from the selective deposition, such as in bone or thyroid, of radioactive material that has been inhaled or absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract or wounds. Radiation syndrome is classified as very severe, severe, and mild. In the second report, a brief discussion is presented on the question of genetic effects in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the third report, a study was carried out on 205 4-1/2 year old children who had been exposed to the atomic bomb blast during the first half of intra-uterine life. Correlation between head size and mental development of the child with distance from the hypocenter, symptoms of radiation effect and type of shielding of the mother is discussed. The conclusion drawn from the present study is that central nervous system defects can be produced in the fetus by atomic bomb radiation, provided that exposure occurs within approximately 1200 meters of the hypocenter and that no effective shielding, such as concrete, protects the fetus from direct irradiation.

  6. Control of City Shallow Buried Tunnel Blasting Hazard to Surface Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining with the blasting test of an under-construction tunnel, this paper optimizes the overall blasting construction scheme. The optimized blasting scheme is used in the site construction test and the peak particle vibration velocity is strictly controlled under working conditions through blasting vibration monitoring to ensure the safety of surrounding buildings and structures in the construction process. The corresponding control measures are proposed to reduce the blasting vibration which brings certain guiding significance to the following construction project.

  7. Determination of Destress Blasting Effectiveness Using Seismic Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtecki, Łukasz; Mendecki, Maciej J.; Zuberek, Wacaław M.

    2017-12-01

    Underground mining of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is currently performed under difficult geological and mining conditions. The mining depth, dislocations (faults and folds) and mining remnants are responsible for rockburst hazard in the highest degree. This hazard can be minimized by using active rockburst prevention, where destress blastings play an important role. Destress blastings in coal seams aim to destress the local stress concentrations. These blastings are usually performed from the longwall face to decrease the stress level ahead of the longwall. An accurate estimation of active rockburst prevention effectiveness is important during mining under disadvantageous geological and mining conditions, which affect the risk of rockburst. Seismic source parameters characterize the focus of tremor, which may be useful in estimating the destress blasting effects. Investigated destress blastings were performed in coal seam no. 507 during its longwall mining in one of the coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin under difficult geological and mining conditions. The seismic source parameters of the provoked tremors were calculated. The presented preliminary investigations enable a rapid estimation of the destress blasting effectiveness using seismic source parameters, but further analysis in other geological and mining conditions with other blasting parameters is required.

  8. Evaluation of blast-induced vibration effects on structures 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Rim; Jeon, Gyu Shick; Lee, Dae Soo; Joo, Kwang Ho; Lee, Woong Keon [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chang Ha; Chung, So Keul; Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Hee Soon; Chun, Sun Woo; Park, Yeon Jun; Synn, Joong Ho; Choi, Byung Hee [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Due to the difficulties of obtaining construction site for new plants, following ones are inevitably being built in the site adjacent to existing power plants. Therefore considerable thought has been recently given to the dynamic loading generated by blasting works near the plants to maintain the safety of structures and facilities in power plants. Our own standard for safety level of blast vibration is not prepared yet, and foreign standards have been generally employed without theoretical and experimental verification. Safety-related structures of power plants and facilities have to be protected against the effects of possible hazards due to blast vibration. Earthquakes have been considered a major dynamic design loading as a requirement of plant design, but the effects of blast-induced vibration are not. In order to ensure the safety, rational safe criterion should be established and blast design should be satisfy it, which requires the development of a model for prediction of vibration level through more systematic measurement and analysis. The main objectives of the study are : to provide background data for establishing the rational safe vibration limits, to develop models for prediction of blast vibration level, to establish safe blast design criterion, and to accumulate techniques for field measurements, data acquisition and analysis (author). 80 refs., 347 figs.

  9. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  10. Ocular Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2015-04-02

    Apr 2, 2015 ... KEYWORDS: Bangers, eye injuries, holidays, Nigeria ... antibiotic and cycloplegic eye drops, antibiotic ointment at night and .... Adeoti C. O, Bello T. O., Ashaye A. O. Blinding ... Can fireworks-related injuries to children during ...

  11. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... while doing things like skiing, playing soccer or football, and jumping on a trampoline. When you injure ... severity of the injury, age, physical condition, medical history, and other injuries or illnesses. People who are ...

  12. Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Knee Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Knee Injuries What's in ... can do to protect them. What's in a Knee? The knee is a joint , actually the largest ...

  13. Case Report: Facial and eye injury following a fridge cylinder gas explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsudi Kehinde Fasasi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fridge cylinders contain liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, an inflammable gas of mixture of propane and butane [1]. It’s colourless but odourised to give warning during leakage. Injury from accidental fridge cylinder explosion is similar to any other blast injuries in terms of the release of hot gases, blast wave and metal fragments resulting in extensive skin burns, abrasions, penetrating injury and tissue loss [2-4]. Ocular trauma following gas cylinder explosion is rare however, Babar et al reported 20% of ocular trauma to be secondary to gas cylinder and battery explosion [2]. To our knowledge, this is the first case of facial and eye injury following a fridge cylinder gas explosion reported in the literature.

  14. High-speed measurement of firearm primer blast waves

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Daviscourt, Joshua; Eng, Jonathan; Courtney, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of firearm primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Key findings are: 1) Most of the lead styphnate based primer models tested show 5.2-11.3% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) In contrast, lead-free diazodinitrophenol (DDNP) based primers had standard deviations of the peak blast p...

  15. The tank's dynamic response under nuclear explosion blast wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mei; Wang Lianghou; Li Xiaotian; Yu Suyuan; Zhang Zhengming; Wan Li

    2005-01-01

    To weapons and equipment, blast wave is the primary destructive factor. In this paper, taken the real model-59 tank as an example, we try to transform the damage estimation problem into computing a fluid structure interaction problem with finite element method. The response of tank under nuclear explosion blast wave is computed with the general-coupling algorithm. Also, the dynamical interaction of blast wave and tank is reflected in real time. The deformation of each part of the tank is worked out and the result corresponds to the real-measured data. (authors)

  16. Lateral blasts at Mount St. Helens and hazard zonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, D.R.; Hoblitt, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Lateral blasts at andesitic and dacitic volcanoes can produce a variety of direct hazards, including ballistic projectiles which can be thrown to distances of at least 10 km and pyroclastic density flows which can travel at high speed to distances of more than 30 km. Indirect effect that may accompany such explosions include wind-borne ash, pyroclastic flows formed by the remobilization of rock debris thrown onto sloping ground, and lahars. Two lateral blasts occurred at a lava dome on the north flank of Mount St. Helens about 1200 years ago; the more energetic of these threw rock debris northeastward across a sector of about 30?? to a distance of at least 10 km. The ballistic debris fell onto an area estimated to be 50 km2, and wind-transported ash and lapilli derived from the lateral-blast cloud fell on an additional lobate area of at least 200 km2. In contrast, the vastly larger lateral blast of May 18, 1980, created a devastating pyroclastic density flow that covered a sector of as much as 180??, reached a maximum distance of 28 km, and within a few minutes directly affected an area of about 550 km2. The May 18 lateral blast resulted from the sudden, landslide-induced depressurization of a dacite cryptodome and the hydrothermal system that surrounded it within the volcano. We propose that lateral-blast hazard assessments for lava domes include an adjoining hazard zone with a radius of at least 10 km. Although a lateral blast can occur on any side of a dome, the sector directly affected by any one blast probably will be less than 180??. Nevertheless, a circular hazard zone centered on the dome is suggested because of the difficulty of predicting the direction of a lateral blast. For the purpose of long-term land-use planning, a hazard assessment for lateral blasts caused by explosions of magma bodies or pressurized hydrothermal systems within a symmetrical volcano could designate a circular potential hazard area with a radius of 35 km centered on the volcano

  17. Scale testing of a partially confined blast chamber

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundling, W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available in pressure readings. A scale model of the blast chamber, Emily, was constructed with the addition of a pendulum plate hanging concentrically covering 65% of the open area. PURPOSE OF SCALED BLAST CHAMBER The purpose of this particular test is to evaluate... PHASE Illustrated in Figure 3 and 4 are the results obtained during testing of the scaled blast chamber. In both cases the pressure dissipates over time, showing pulsating behaviour as the shockwaves reflect off the chamber walls. By looking...

  18. Antifungal Wound Penetration of Amphotericin and Voriconazole in Combat-related Injuries: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    invasive fungal infection in accord- ance with the LRMC “blast protocol” [8], demonstrating angioinvasive non-septate branching hyphae diagnostic of...different occasions between post-injury days 12 and 46, with non-septate branching hyphae observed but not cultured on 5 additional soft tissue specimens

  19. Postdeployment Symptom Changes and Traumatic Brain Injury and/or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Post - Deployment Health Assessment, according to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ...Key words: blasts, deployment, males, military, odds ratio, percent change, Post -Deployment Health Assessment, post - traumatic stress disorder ...Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen, PDHA = Post -Deployment Health Assessment, PDHRA = Post - Deployment Health Reassessment, PTSD =

  20. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstring injury Overview A hamstring injury occurs when you strain or pull one of your hamstring muscles — the group of three muscles that run along ... You may be more likely to get a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis ...

  1. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  2. Massive injection of coal and superoxygenated blast into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toxopeus, H.L.; Danloy, G.; Franssen, R.; Havelange, O. [Corus, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present project was to demonstrate the industrial feasibility of a massive injection of coal, {+-}270 kg/tHM, combined with a high O{sub 2} enrichment of the blast. The coke rate would thus be reduced to well below 250 kg/tHM. A reference level of 200-220 kg coal/tHM was successfully accomplished. However, the technical condition of the blast furnace hearths overruled all ambitions, the anticipated trial scheme had to be abandoned and no further trials were performed. A very short trial was aborted shortly after reaching an injection level of around 265 coal/tHM, due to excessive generation of very fine sludge originating from incomplete combustion. This forced the operators to investigate the merits of combustion more in depth. At the aimed low coke-rate detailed information about the gas distribution is of utmost importance. Therefore, in conjunction with the industrial tests, CRM designed a gas tracing method. Measurement of the transfer time between the injection point (a tuyere) and the sampling points (on an above-burden probe) would allow deduction of the radial gas distribution. CRM made the design and the start-up of an installation built by Hoogovens on blast furnace 7 of IJmuiden. Since then, repeated measurements have shown that the gas transfer time profiles are consistent with the data measured at the blast furnace top and at the wall. The modifications of the moveable armour position are reflected better and faster on the gas distribution as measured by helium tracing than on the skin flow temperatures.

  3. Experimental investigation of blast mitigation and particle-blast interaction during the explosive dispersal of particles and liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontalier, Q.; Loiseau, J.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    The attenuation of a blast wave from a high-explosive charge surrounded by a layer of inert material is investigated experimentally in a spherical geometry for a wide range of materials. The blast wave pressure is inferred from extracting the blast wave velocity with high-speed video as well as direct measurements with pressure transducers. The mitigant consists of either a packed bed of particles, a particle bed saturated with water, or a homogeneous liquid. The reduction in peak blast wave overpressure is primarily dependent on the mitigant to explosive mass ratio, M/C, with the mitigant material properties playing a secondary role. Relative peak pressure mitigation reduces with distance and for low values of M/C (pressure levels in the mid-to-far field. Solid particles are more effective at mitigating the blast overpressure than liquids, particularly in the near field and at low values of M/C, suggesting that the energy dissipation during compaction, deformation, and fracture of the powders plays an important role. The difference in scaled arrival time of the blast and material fronts increases with M/C and scaled distance, with solid particles giving the largest separation between the blast wave and cloud of particles. Surrounding a high-explosive charge with a layer of particles reduces the positive-phase blast impulse, whereas a liquid layer has no influence on the impulse in the far field. Taking the total impulse due to the blast wave and material impact into account implies that the damage to a nearby structure may actually be augmented for a range of distances. These results should be taken into consideration in the design of explosive mitigant systems.

  4. Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    30 am – 5:00 pm Overview of Blast Physics and Applications Doubletree Hotel Crystal City Arlington VA, Between the Pentagon and National Airport at...provided) 8:30 Introduction and Overview Dr. Stefan Duma, Virginia Tech Head Injury Biomechanics 8:45 “Instrumented Helmet Data Collection and Analysis...of NASA Suit Interface and Landing Conditions” Ms. Kerry Danelson, Wake Forest University 4:05 “Modeling Human Variation: Orbit Anthropometry and

  5. Environmental problems associated with blasting in mines: public apprehensions of damage due to blast vibrations - case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhi, S.N. [DGMS, Bhubaneswar (India)

    1994-12-31

    Blast vibrations may be felt in intensities as small as 1/100 of that required to cause any damage to structures. Therefore, the public response and thus complaints regarding damages are often imaginary. The paper deals with three case studies, involving alleged damage from blasting in surface and underground coal mines where public litigations and agitations resulted due to such apprehensions. The paper is written in simple technical language as the situations warranted that the blast vibration studies should be understood by the general public. 7 tabs.

  6. Seismic stations with GSM telemetry for registration of quarry blasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Milan; Číž, Radim; Málek, Jiří; Žanda, Libor

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 2000, 16 (118) (2000), s. 25-32 ISSN 1211-1910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : blasting * seismic station * GSM mobile modem Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  7. Analysing Blast and Fragment Penetration Effects on Composite Helicopter Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van't Hof, C; Herlaar, K; Luyten, J. M; van der Jagt, M. J

    2005-01-01

    .... The last decades the threat of helicopters has increased in military circumstances. Consequently the helicopters will be exposed to weapon effects like high blast loads and fragment impact more frequently...

  8. Gene interactions and genetics of blast resistance and yield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-11

    Aug 11, 2014 ... of chemical measures for the control and management of blast, which are not .... tion of genetic components of variation, epistasis model and gene effects in two .... and environmental variance is estimated from mean variance.

  9. Seismic safety in conducting large-scale blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashukov, I. V.; Chaplygin, V. V.; Domanov, V. P.; Semin, A. A.; Klimkin, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    In mining enterprises to prepare hard rocks for excavation a drilling and blasting method is used. With the approach of mining operations to settlements the negative effect of large-scale blasts increases. To assess the level of seismic impact of large-scale blasts the scientific staff of Siberian State Industrial University carried out expertise for coal mines and iron ore enterprises. Determination of the magnitude of surface seismic vibrations caused by mass explosions was performed using seismic receivers, an analog-digital converter with recording on a laptop. The registration results of surface seismic vibrations during production of more than 280 large-scale blasts at 17 mining enterprises in 22 settlements are presented. The maximum velocity values of the Earth’s surface vibrations are determined. The safety evaluation of seismic effect was carried out according to the permissible value of vibration velocity. For cases with exceedance of permissible values recommendations were developed to reduce the level of seismic impact.

  10. Measurement and Modelling of Blast Movement to Reduce Ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    geologists at Newmont Ahafo Mine have realised the impact of blast movement on ore losses and dilution and have ... Movement to Reduce Ore Losses and Dilution at Ahafo Gold Mine in Ghana”, Ghana Mining Journal, pp. .... classification.

  11. Evaluation of Grade 120 Granulated Ground blast Furnace Slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    This study evaluates Grade 120 Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and its effect on the properties of hydraulic cement concretes used in structural and pavement construction. Several mix designs, structural and pavement, were used for this ...

  12. Assessment of Environmental Effects of Post-Blasted Explosive on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Assessment of Environmental Effects of Post-Blasted Explosive on the Ecosystem of Old ... intensity and temperature of explosive dissolution in the mine environment shows that TNT ... based on their physical/chemical properties as: gelatin.

  13. An Operational Model for the Prediction of Jet Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    This paper presents an operational model for the prediction of jet blast. The model was : developed based upon three modules including a jet exhaust model, jet centerline decay : model and aircraft motion model. The final analysis was compared with d...

  14. Blast Impact Prediction Studies at Ghana Manganese Company ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Keywords: Blast impact, Environment, Prediction, Regulatory threshold. 1 Introduction ... Noise is an environmental nuisance. .... explosion energy released into the ground generates vibration waves within the rock. Several.

  15. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Blast Load Response of Steel Sandwich Panels with Liquid Encasement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Karr; Marc Perlin; Benjamin Langhorst; Henry Chu

    2009-10-01

    We describe an experimental investigation of the response of hybrid blast panels for protection from explosive and impact forces. The fundamental notion is to dissipate, absorb, and redirect energy through plastic collapse, viscous dissipation, and inter-particle forces of liquid placed in sub-structural compartments. The panels are designed to absorb energy from an impact or air blast by elastic-plastic collapse of the panel substructure that includes fluid-filled cavities. The fluid contributes to blast effects mitigation by providing increased initial mass and resistance, by dissipation of energy through viscosity and fluid flow, and by redirecting the momentum that is imparted to the system from the impact and blast impulse pressures. Failure and deformation mechanisms of the panels are described.

  17. Blast response of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslamimajd, Alireza; RahbarRanji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Numerical results for one- and both-sided corroded steel plates subjected to blast loading are presented. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS software, is employed to determine the deformation and stress distributions. The results for the case of triangular pulse pressure on un-corroded plates are validated against literature-based data and then, detailed parametric studies are carried-out. The effects of influential parameters including, plate aspect ratio, degree of pit and different ratio of pit depth at each sides of the plate are investigated. The results show that position of pitted surface in respect to applied pressure is the most influential parameter on reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity of pitted plates. By increasing degree of pitting, reduction of dynamic load carrying capacity decrease more.

  18. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  19. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  20. Blasting detonators incorporating semiconductor bridge technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The enormity of the coal mine and extraction industries in Russia and the obvious need in both Russia and the US for cost savings and enhanced safety in those industries suggests that joint studies and research would be of mutual benefit. The author suggests that mine sites and well platforms in Russia offer an excellent opportunity for the testing of Sandia`s precise time-delay semiconductor bridge detonators, with the potential for commercialization of the detonators for Russian and other world markets by both US and Russian companies. Sandia`s semiconductor bridge is generating interest among the blasting, mining and perforation industries. The semiconductor bridge is approximately 100 microns long, 380 microns wide and 2 microns thick. The input energy required for semiconductor bridge ignition is one-tenth the energy required for conventional bridgewire devices. Because semiconductor bridge processing is compatible with other microcircuit processing, timing and logic circuits can be incorporated onto the chip with the bridge. These circuits can provide for the precise timing demanded for cast effecting blasting. Indeed tests by Martin Marietta and computer studies by Sandia have shown that such precise timing provides for more uniform rock fragmentation, less fly rock, reduce4d ground shock, fewer ground contaminants and less dust. Cost studies have revealed that the use of precisely timed semiconductor bridges can provide a savings of $200,000 per site per year. In addition to Russia`s vast mineral resources, the Russian Mining Institute outside Moscow has had significant programs in rock fragmentation for many years. He anticipated that collaborative studies by the Institute and Sandia`s modellers would be a valuable resource for field studies.

  1. Remote operated vehicle with carbon dioxide blasting (ROVCO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnick, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Remote Operated Vehicle with Carbon Dioxide Blasting (ROVCO 2 ), as shown in a front view, is a six-wheeled remote land vehicle used to decontaminate concrete floors. The remote vehicle has a high pressure Cryogenesis blasting subsystem, Oceaneering Technologies (OTECH) developed a CO 2 xY Orthogonal Translational End Effector (COYOTEE) subsystem, and a vacuum/filtration and containment subsystem. Figure 2 shows a block diagram with the various subsystems labeled

  2. OPTIMALIZATION OF BLASTING IN »LAKOVIĆI« LIMESTONE QUARRY

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Božić; Karlo Braun

    1992-01-01

    The optimalization of exploitation in »Lakovići« limestone quarry is described. Based on determined discontinuities in the rock mass and their densities, the best possible working site have been located in order to obtain the best possible sizes of blasted rocks and work slope stability. Optimal lowest resistance line size for the quarry has been counted and proved experimentally. New blasting parameters have resulted in considerable saving of drilling and explosive (the paper is published in...

  3. The Pre-Blast Concept for use on Armour Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    distribution is displayed. The (1 1 1) pole figure for TWIP steel (FCC crystal structure) is shown representatively, while (1 0 0) is chosen for Dual...avoid the blasted plates impacting the ceiling of the blast chamber. A type ‘k’ thermocouple was then welded to a corner on the top side of the plates...angle distribution is displayed. The (1 1 1) pole figure for TWIP steel (FCC crystal structure) is shown representatively, while (1 0 0) is chosen

  4. Study of wet blasting of components in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.

    1999-12-01

    This report looks at the method of wet blasting radioactive components in nuclear power stations. The wet blaster uses pearl shaped glass beads with the dimensions of 150-250 μm mixed with water as blasting media. The improved design, providing outer operator's positions with proper radiation protection and more efficient blasting equipment has resulted in a lesser dose taken by the operators. The main reason to decontaminate components in nuclear power plants is to enable service on these components. On components like valves, pump shafts, pipes etc. oxides form and bind radiation. These components are normally situated at some distance from the reactor core and will mainly suffer from radiation from so called activation products. When a component is to be decontaminated it can be decontaminated to a radioactive level where it will be declassified. This report has found levels ranging from 150-1000 Bq/kg allowing declassification of radioactive materials. This difference is found between different countries and different organisations. The report also looks at the levels of waste generated using wet blasting. This is done by tracking the contamination to determine where it collects. It is either collected in the water treatment plant or collected in the blasting media. At Barsebaeck the waste levels, from de-contaminating nearly 800 components in one year, results in a waste volume of about 0,250 m 3 . This waste consists of low and medium level waste and will cost about 3 600 EURO to store. The conclusions of the report are that wet blasting is an indispensable way to treat contaminated components in modern nuclear power plants. The wet blasting equipment can be improved by using a robot enabling the operators to remotely treat components from the outer operator's positions. There they will benefit from better radiation protection thus further reduce their taken dose. The wet blasting equipment could also be used to better control the levels of radioactivity on

  5. PaperBLAST: Text Mining Papers for Information about Homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Morgan N; Arkin, Adam P

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale genome sequencing has identified millions of protein-coding genes whose function is unknown. Many of these proteins are similar to characterized proteins from other organisms, but much of this information is missing from annotation databases and is hidden in the scientific literature. To make this information accessible, PaperBLAST uses EuropePMC to search the full text of scientific articles for references to genes. PaperBLAST also takes advantage of curated resources (Swiss-Prot, GeneRIF, and EcoCyc) that link protein sequences to scientific articles. PaperBLAST's database includes over 700,000 scientific articles that mention over 400,000 different proteins. Given a protein of interest, PaperBLAST quickly finds similar proteins that are discussed in the literature and presents snippets of text from relevant articles or from the curators. PaperBLAST is available at http://papers.genomics.lbl.gov/. IMPORTANCE With the recent explosion of genome sequencing data, there are now millions of uncharacterized proteins. If a scientist becomes interested in one of these proteins, it can be very difficult to find information as to its likely function. Often a protein whose sequence is similar, and which is likely to have a similar function, has been studied already, but this information is not available in any database. To help find articles about similar proteins, PaperBLAST searches the full text of scientific articles for protein identifiers or gene identifiers, and it links these articles to protein sequences. Then, given a protein of interest, it can quickly find similar proteins in its database by using standard software (BLAST), and it can show snippets of text from relevant papers. We hope that PaperBLAST will make it easier for biologists to predict proteins' functions.

  6. Application of Grid Planning Method in Drilling-Blasting Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Spasovski, Orce

    2012-01-01

    The problem occurs almost every day in operation and causes troubles to mining engineers. The right performance of drilling-blasting work is important for the successful operation of the entire excavation. The aim of the paper is to point out the importance of planning and how it can contribute to the right organization and make drilling-blasting and other mining activities in mine operations easier. Defining the activities and practical example that has been given are carried out by the u...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  9. Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of the Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Tang, Guangwu; Wang, Jichao; Fu, Dong; Okosun, Tyamo; Silaen, Armin; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Blast furnaces are counter-current chemical reactors, widely utilized in the ironmaking industry. Hot reduction gases injected from lower regions of the furnace ascend, reacting with the descending burden. Through this reaction process, iron ore is reduced into liquid iron that is tapped from the furnace hearth. Due to the extremely harsh environment inside the blast furnace, it is difficult to measure or observe internal phenomena during operation. Through the collaboration between steel companies and the Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation, multiple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to simulate the complex multiphase reacting flow in the three regions of the furnace, the shaft, the raceway, and the hearth. The models have been used effectively to troubleshoot and optimize blast furnace operations. In addition, the CFD models have been integrated with virtual reality. An interactive virtual blast furnace has been developed for training purpose. This paper summarizes the developments and applications of blast furnace CFD models and the virtual blast furnace.

  10. Otologic consequences of blast exposure: a Finnish case study of a shopping mall bomb explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrena, Roderik; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Bäck, Leif; Pirvola, Ulla; Ylikoski, Jukka

    2004-10-01

    On 11 October, 2002, in the Myyrmanni shopping mall, Vantaa city, Finland, an explosion by a suicide bomber killed 7 people and injured at least 160,44 of whom had ear trauma. We investigated the acute and subacute otologic consequences of the explosion. Otologic examination of the 29 patients treated for ear trauma at the ENT clinic of the University Hospital of Helsinki was performed during the first month after the explosion, and a questionnaire was completed regarding subjective aural symptoms. Symptoms occurring directly after the explosion and for up to 1 month afterwards were assessed. Of the 29 patients, 66% had tinnitus as the initial symptom, 55% hearing loss, 41% pain in the ears and 28% sound distortion. Tinnitus and hearing loss in combination were experienced by 12 patients (41%). Eight patients who had been situated<10 m from the center of the explosion had a rupture of the tympanic membrane. This supported the initial evaluation by the authorities that the bomb had consisted of approximately 3 kg ammonium nitrate, equivalent to approximately 0.5 kg of trinitrotoluene. It was estimated that some kind of ear injury was likely for individuals situated<70 m from the center of the explosion. People often think that tinnitus and hearing impairment are naturally occurring phenomena after blast exposure, and if their symptoms resolve they do not seek medical advice. However, some of them may have substantial hearing impairment, particularly at high frequencies. Otologic consultation, or at least an audiometric screening test to exclude hearing impairment, should be performed regardless of symptoms, on the basis of exposure data only. Some symptoms, such as tinnitus and hearing loss, may be permanent consequences of a blast injury and their effect on quality of life may be substantial.

  11. prfectBLAST: a platform-independent portable front end for the command terminal BLAST+ stand-alone suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Sotelo, Perfecto; Ramirez-Prado, Jorge Humberto

    2012-11-01

    prfectBLAST is a multiplatform graphical user interface (GUI) for the stand-alone BLAST+ suite of applications. It allows researchers to do nucleotide or amino acid sequence similarity searches against public (or user-customized) databases that are locally stored. It does not require any dependencies or installation and can be used from a portable flash drive. prfectBLAST is implemented in Java version 6 (SUN) and runs on all platforms that support Java and for which National Center for Biotechnology Information has made available stand-alone BLAST executables, including MS Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. It is free and open source software, made available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GPLv3) and can be downloaded at www.cicy.mx/sitios/jramirez or http://code.google.com/p/prfectblast/.

  12. Numerical analysis of blast flow-field of baffle type muzzle brake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.H. [Graduate School, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Ko, S. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-11-01

    A three-dimensional unsteady, inviscid blast flow-field of a baffle type muzzle brake has been simulated by solving the Euler equation. The blast flow-field includes the effect of the free air blast, precursor blast flow and the propellant blast gas flow. Chimera grid scheme was used to generate 9 multi-block volume grids for the complex geometry. The evolution of the blast flow-field is presented by showing the contours of pressure, density and Mach number for certain time step. The comparison of the calculated and measured peak pressures on the surfaces of the muzzle brake is also presented. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Full-scale testing of leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room exposed to external air blast loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, R.; Ambrosini, D.

    2018-03-01

    For the last few decades, the effects of blast loading on structures have been studied by many researchers around the world. Explosions can be caused by events such as industrial accidents, military conflicts or terrorist attacks. Urban centers have been prone to various threats including car bombs, suicide attacks, and improvised explosive devices. Partially vented constructions subjected to external blast loading represent an important topic in protective engineering. The assessment of blast survivability inside structures and the development of design provisions with respect to internal elements require the study of the propagation and leakage of blast waves inside buildings. In this paper, full-scale tests are performed to study the effects of the leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room that is subjected to different external blast loadings. The results obtained may be useful for proving the validity of different methods of calculation, both empirical and numerical. Moreover, the experimental results are compared with those computed using the empirical curves of the US Defense report/manual UFC 3-340. Finally, results of the dynamic response of the front masonry wall are presented in terms of accelerations and an iso-damage diagram.

  14. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  15. Suicide bombers form a new injury profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Klein, Yoram; Peleg, Kobi

    2006-12-01

    Recent explosions of suicide bombers introduced new and unique profiles of injury. Explosives frequently included small metal parts, increasing severity of injuries, challenging both physicians and healthcare systems. Timely detonation in crowded and confined spaces further increased explosion effect. Israel National Trauma Registry data on hospitalized terror casualties between October 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004 were analyzed. A total of 1155 patients injured by explosion were studied. Nearly 30% suffered severe to critical injuries (ISS > or = 16); severe injuries (AIS > or = 3) were more prevalent than in other trauma. Triage has changed as metal parts contained in bombs penetrate the human body with great force and may result in tiny entry wounds easily concealed by hair, clothes etc. A total of 36.6% had a computed tomography (CT), 26.8% had ultrasound scanning, and 53.2% had an x-ray in the emergency department. From the emergency department, 28.3% went directly to the operating room, 10.1% to the intensive care unit, and 58.4% directly to the ward. Injuries were mostly internal, open wounds, and burns, with an excess of injuries to nerves and to blood vessels compared with other trauma mechanisms. A high rate of surgical procedures was recorded, including thoracotomies, laparotomies, craniotomies, and vascular surgery. In certain cases, there were simultaneous multiple injuries that required competing forms of treatment, such as burns and blast lung. Bombs containing metal fragments detonated by suicide bombers in crowded locations change patterns and severity of injury in a civil population. Specific injuries will require tailored approaches, an open mind, and close collaboration and cooperation between trauma surgeons to share experience, opinions, and ideas. Findings presented have implications for triage, diagnosis, treatment, hospital organization, and the definition of surge capacity.

  16. Paragliding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  17. Hearing Loss and Tinnitus in Military Personnel with Deployment-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Stephanie J; Capó-Aponte, José E; McIlwain, D Scott; Lo, Michael; Krishnamurti, Sridhar; Staton, Roger N; Jorgensen-Wagers, Kendra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze differences in incidence and epidemiologic risk factors for significant threshold shift (STS) and tinnitus in deployed military personnel diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) due to either a blast exposure or nonblast head injury. A retrospective longitudinal cohort study of electronic health records of 500 military personnel (456 met inclusion criteria) diagnosed with deployment-related mTBI was completed. Chi-square tests and STS incidence rates were calculated to assess differences between blast-exposed and nonblast groups; relative risks and adjusted odds ratios of developing STS or tinnitus were calculated for risk factors. Risk factors included such characteristics as mechanism of injury, age, race, military occupational specialty, concurrent diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and nicotine use. Among blast-exposed and nonblast patients, 67% and 58%, respectively, developed STS, (P=.06); 59% and 40%, respectively, developed tinnitus (Ptinnitus. Unprotected noise exposure was associated with both STS and tinnitus. This study highlights potential risk factors for STS and tinnitus among blast-exposed and nonblast mTBI patient groups.

  18. Longitudinal interactions of pain and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in U.S. Military service members following blast exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Kelcey J; Clark, Shaunna L; Hawn, Sage E; Amstadter, Ananda B; Cifu, David X; Walker, William C

    2014-10-01

    Military personnel returning from conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan often endorse pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, either separately or concurrently. Associations between pain and PTSD symptoms may be further complicated by blast exposure from explosive munitions. Although many studies have reported on the prevalence and disability associated with polytraumatic injuries following combat, less is known about symptom maintenance over time. Accordingly, this study examined longitudinal interactive models of co-occurring pain and PTSD symptoms in a sample of 209 military personnel (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 7.6) who experienced combat-related blast exposure. Autoregressive cross-lagged analysis examined longitudinal associations between self-reported pain and PTSD symptoms over a 1-year period. The best-fitting covariate model indicated that pain and PTSD were significantly associated with one another across all assessment periods, χ² (3) = 3.66, P = .30, Tucker-Lewis index = .98, comparative fit index = 1.00, root mean squared error of approximation = .03. PTSD symptoms had a particularly strong influence on subsequent pain symptoms. The relationship between pain and PTSD symptoms is related to older age, race, and traumatic brain injury characteristics. Results further the understanding of complex injuries among military personnel and highlight the need for comprehensive assessment and rehabilitation efforts addressing the interdependence of pain and co-occurring mental health conditions. This longitudinal study demonstrates that pain and PTSD symptoms strongly influence one another and interact across time. These findings have the potential to inform the integrative assessment and treatment of military personnel with polytrauma injuries and who are at risk for persistent deployment-related disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. BLAST: Building energy simulation in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Sai-Keung

    1999-11-01

    The characteristics of energy use in buildings under local weather conditions were studied and evaluated using the energy simulation program BLAST-3.0. The parameters used in the energy simulation for the study and evaluation include the architectural features, different internal building heat load settings and weather data. In this study, mathematical equations and the associated coefficients useful to the industry were established. A technology for estimating energy use in buildings under local weather conditions was developed by using the results of this study. A weather data file of Typical Meteorological Years (TMY) has been compiled for building energy studies by analyzing and evaluating the weather of Hong Kong from the year 1979 to 1988. The weather data file TMY and the example weather years 1980 and 1988 were used by BLAST-3.0 to evaluate and study the energy use in different buildings. BLAST-3.0 was compared with other building energy simulation and approximation methods: Bin method and Degree Days method. Energy use in rectangular compartments of different volumes varying from 4,000 m3 to 40,000 m3 with different aspect ratios were analyzed. The use of energy in buildings with concrete roofs was compared with those with glass roofs at indoor temperature 21°C, 23°C and 25°C. Correlation relationships among building energy, space volume, monthly mean temperature and solar radiation were derived and investigated. The effects of space volume, monthly mean temperature and solar radiation on building energy were evaluated. The coefficients of the mathematical relationships between space volume and energy use in a building were computed and found satisfactory. The calculated coefficients can be used for quick estimation of energy use in buildings under similar situations. To study energy use in buildings, the cooling load per floor area against room volume was investigated. The case of an air-conditioned single compartment with 5 m ceiling height was

  20. 30 CFR 56.6404 - Separation of blasting circuits from power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL... when closed to fire the blast. (b) Lead wires shall not be connected to the blasting switch until the...

  1. Quality of computerized blast load simulation for non-linear dynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of computerized blast load simulation for non-linear dynamic response ... commercial software system and a special-purpose, blast-specific software product to ... depend both on the analysis model of choice and the stand-off distances.

  2. Simulation Engine for Fluid Solid Interaction Problems and its Application to the Modelling of Air Blast Hazards in Block Cave Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Torres, S. A.; Scheuermann, A.; Ruest, M.

    2016-12-01

    Air blasts that may occur in a block caving mining operation represent a significant hazard for personnel as well as to mining infrastructure. Uncontrolled caving of a large volume of broken rock into a mine void causes compression of the air within, forcing it to flow at high velocities into connecting tunnels such as extraction points beneath the cave or observation points intersecting the cave. This high velocity flow of air can cause injury to personnel and significant damage to equipment. In this presentation, we introduce a simulation engine for the air blast problem. The solid material is modelled using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and the fluid (air) is modelled using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The combined DEM-LBM approach has been introduced by our group at the University of Queensland[1]. LBM allows us to introduce an appropriate equation of state for the air that simulates compressibility as a function of the speed of sound. Validation examples are presented to justify the use of this tool for an air blasting situation. A section view of one simulation is provided in Fig 1. An investigation into the risk of developing air pockets as a function of fragment size distribution is also conducted and described. The fragment size distribution can be assessed during mining and the risk of air pockets forming (and consequently of air blast occurring) can be deduced and mitigation measures put in place. The effect of other key variables that can be determined from geotechnical investigations, such as fracture frequency, are also systematically explored. It is expected that the results of this study can elucidate key features of the air blasting phenomenon in order to formulate safer mining protocols. references 1. Galindo-Torres, S.A., A coupled Discrete Element Lattice Boltzmann Method for the simulation of fluid-solid interaction with particles of general shapes. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 2013. 265(0): p. 107-119.

  3. Anaesthetic and critical care management of thoracic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, J A; Mellor, A J

    2010-09-01

    Thoracic wounding has been a relatively common presentation of military wounds throughout modern conflict. When civilian casualties are included the incidence has remained constant at around 10%, although the frequency and severity of wounds to combatants has been altered by modern body armour. Whilst thoracic injury has a high initial mortality on the battlefield, those surviving to reach hospital frequently have injuries that only require simple management. In addition to penetrating ballistic injury, blunt chest trauma frequently occurs on operations as a result of road traffic collisions or tertiary blast injury. The physiological impact of thoracic wounds, however, is often great and survivors often require intensive care management and, where available, complex strategies to ensure oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal. This review examines the incidence and patterns of thoracic trauma and looks at therapeutic options for managing these complex cases.

  4. Whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason

    2005-10-01

    Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.

  5. Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trauma can happen at home, school, play or sports. Most common injuries are scratches to the cornea or blunt trauma. Approved and tested eye and face protection is essential to prevent injuries. Sports such as hockey, baseball, racquet ball, squash, and ...

  6. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat...

  7. Trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysted, M; Drogset, J O

    2006-12-01

    To describe the mechanism, location and types of injury for all patients treated for trampoline-associated injuries at St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, from March 2001to October 2004. Patients were identified from a National Injury Surveillance System. All patients were asked to complete a standard questionnaire at their first visit at the hospital. Most data were recorded prospectively, but data on the mechanism of injury, the number of participants on the trampoline at the time of injury, adult supervision and whether the activity occurred at school or in another organised setting were collected retrospectively. A total of 556 patients, 56% male and 44% female, were included. The mean age of patients was 11 (range 1-62) years. 77% of the injuries occurred on the body of the trampoline, including falls on to the mat, collisions with another jumper, falls on to the frame or the springs, and performing a somersault, whereas 22% of the people fell off the trampoline. In 74% of the cases, more than two people were on the trampoline, with as many as nine trampolinists noted at the time of injury. For children Trampolining can cause serious injuries, especially in the neck and elbow areas of young children. The use of a trampoline is a high-risk activity. However, a ban is not supported. The importance of having safety guidelines for the use of trampolines is emphasised.

  8. Proceedings of the seventh annual symposium on explosives and blasting research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this symposium dealt with the following topics: advanced primer designs, seismic effects of blasting, systems for velocity of detonation measurement and pressure measurement, toxic fumes from explosions, blast performance, blasting for rock fragmentation, computer-aided blast design, characteristics of liquid oxygen explosives, and correlations of performance of explosives with ground vibration, partitioning of energy, and firing time scatter effects. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  9. Blast wave interaction with a rigid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josey, T.; Whitehouse, D.R.; Ripley, R.C.; Dionne, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    A simple model used to investigate blast wave interactions with a rigid surface is presented. The model uses a constant volume energy source analogue to predict pressure histories at gauges located directly above the charge. A series of two-dimensional axi-symmetric CFD calculations were performed, varying the height of the charge relative to the ground. Pressure histories, along with isopycnic plots are presented to evaluate the effects of placing a charge in close proximity to a rigid surface. When a charge is placed near a solid surface the pressure histories experienced at gauges above the charge indicate the presence of two distinct pressure peaks. The first peak is caused by the primary shock and the second peak is a result of the wave reflections from the rigid surface. As the distance from the charge to the wall is increased the magnitude of the second pressure peak is reduced, provided that the distance between the charge and the gauge is maintained constant. The simple model presented is able to capture significant, predictable flow features. (author)

  10. Controlled Blasting for Deconstruction of a Railway Bridge Near Sahibganj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S. K.; Ghosh, A. K.; Oraon, S.

    2018-06-01

    Some of the Indian Railway bridges require reconstruction for electrification and expansion of railway tracks. Dismantling of bridge within time schedule in densely populated area requires controlled and pre-planned blasting methodology for safe pulling down of the structure and quick removal of blasted debris for fast restoration of tracks and smooth plying of trains. The three arched railway bridge (Bridge No. 61) located between Sahibganj and Karamtola cases one such example where the bridge was dismantled and the track was restored within 4 h of blasting, though the stipulated block period for demolition and restoration of tracks was 6 h. The 25.48 m long three-arched bridge was drilled and blasted with 225 number of blastholes (32 mm diameter) and 100 kg explosive (25 mm diameter). Length of blastholes varied between 0.5 and 1.8 m with blast geometry of 0.3-0.35 m burden and 0.33 m spacing. This paper deals with the conceptual and theoretical model developed for identification of the key locations for drilling and implementation of the same. It also discusses about the precautionary measures and the drilling pattern adopted for quick demolition and speedy restoration of tracks.

  11. Blast tests of expedient shelters in the DICE THROW event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearny, C.H.; Chester, C.V.

    1978-03-01

    To determine the worst blast environments that eight types of expedient shelters can withstand, we subjected a total of 18 shelters to the 1-kiloton blast effects of Defense Nuclear Agency's DICE THROW main event. These expedient shelters included two Russian and two Chinese types. The best shelter tested was a Small-Pole Shelter that had a box-like room of Russian design with ORNL-designed expedient blast entries and blast doors added. It was undamaged at the 53-psi peak overpressure range; the pressure rise inside was only 1.5 psi. An unmodified Russian Pole-Covered Trench Shelter was badly damaged at 6.8 psi. A Chinese ''Man'' Shelter, which skillfully uses very small poles to attain protective earth arching, survived 20 psi, undamaged. Two types of expedient shelters built of materials found in and around most American homes gave good protection at overpressures up to about 6 psi. Rug-Covered Trench Shelters were proved unsatisfactory. Water storage pits lined with ordinary plastic trash bags were proven practical at up to 53 psi, as were triangular expedient blast doors made of poles

  12. Modelling of turbulent combustion in the blast furnace raceway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvinen, R; Maekiranta, R [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The phenomena concerning coke-gas -suspension and simultaneous combustion of solid coke particles and residual fuel oil in a blast furnace raceway are modelled. The flow field of suspension is predicted by using the two fluid model, which is based on the Eulerian method, in the Phoenics code. The standard k-e -model of turbulence is used. Pyrolysis of oil droplets is calculated with the own coded subroutine, which is based on the Lagrangian approach. Gas phase reaction rate is assumed to be controlled by chemical kinetics. Radiative heat transfer is calculated by using the six-flux method. Heterogenous surface reactions are used for the coke particles. Calculations without coke combustion show that due to a poor mixing in the hot blast, pyrolysis gases of residual fuel oil have not time enough to react with oxygen. It is obvious that if combustion of coke particles is taken into account, the oxygen content in the blast decreases to such a level, that unburnt pyrolysis gases can flow out of the raceway causing problems. The distribution of coke void fraction has been succeeded to predict in the raceway domain. Coke particles fall from the upper part of the raceway to the hot blast forming locally high concentrations, which affect very strongly the oxygen distribution of the hot blast. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  13. Modelling of turbulent combustion in the blast furnace raceway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvinen, R.; Maekiranta, R. [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena concerning coke-gas -suspension and simultaneous combustion of solid coke particles and residual fuel oil in a blast furnace raceway are modelled. The flow field of suspension is predicted by using the two fluid model, which is based on the Eulerian method, in the Phoenics code. The standard k-e -model of turbulence is used. Pyrolysis of oil droplets is calculated with the own coded subroutine, which is based on the Lagrangian approach. Gas phase reaction rate is assumed to be controlled by chemical kinetics. Radiative heat transfer is calculated by using the six-flux method. Heterogenous surface reactions are used for the coke particles. Calculations without coke combustion show that due to a poor mixing in the hot blast, pyrolysis gases of residual fuel oil have not time enough to react with oxygen. It is obvious that if combustion of coke particles is taken into account, the oxygen content in the blast decreases to such a level, that unburnt pyrolysis gases can flow out of the raceway causing problems. The distribution of coke void fraction has been succeeded to predict in the raceway domain. Coke particles fall from the upper part of the raceway to the hot blast forming locally high concentrations, which affect very strongly the oxygen distribution of the hot blast. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  14. BLAST and FASTA similarity searching for multiple sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, William R

    2014-01-01

    BLAST, FASTA, and other similarity searching programs seek to identify homologous proteins and DNA sequences based on excess sequence similarity. If two sequences share much more similarity than expected by chance, the simplest explanation for the excess similarity is common ancestry-homology. The most effective similarity searches compare protein sequences, rather than DNA sequences, for sequences that encode proteins, and use expectation values, rather than percent identity, to infer homology. The BLAST and FASTA packages of sequence comparison programs provide programs for comparing protein and DNA sequences to protein databases (the most sensitive searches). Protein and translated-DNA comparisons to protein databases routinely allow evolutionary look back times from 1 to 2 billion years; DNA:DNA searches are 5-10-fold less sensitive. BLAST and FASTA can be run on popular web sites, but can also be downloaded and installed on local computers. With local installation, target databases can be customized for the sequence data being characterized. With today's very large protein databases, search sensitivity can also be improved by searching smaller comprehensive databases, for example, a complete protein set from an evolutionarily neighboring model organism. By default, BLAST and FASTA use scoring strategies target for distant evolutionary relationships; for comparisons involving short domains or queries, or searches that seek relatively close homologs (e.g. mouse-human), shallower scoring matrices will be more effective. Both BLAST and FASTA provide very accurate statistical estimates, which can be used to reliably identify protein sequences that diverged more than 2 billion years ago.

  15. Effects of air blast on power plant structures and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Valentin, R.A.; McLennan, D.A.; Turula, P.

    1978-10-01

    The effects of air blast from high explosives detonation on selected power plant structures and components are investigated analytically. Relying on a synthesis of state of the art methods estimates of structural response are obtained. Similarly blast loadings are determined from compilations of experimental data reported in the literature. Plastic-yield line analysis is employed to determine the response of both concrete and steel flat walls (plates) under impulsive loading. Linear elastic theory is used to investigate the spalling of concrete walls and mode analysis methods predict the deflection of piping. The specific problems considered are: the gross deformation of reinforced concrete shield and containment structures due to blast impulse, the spalling of concrete walls, the interaction or impact of concrete debris with steel containments and liners, and the response of exposed piping to blast impulse. It is found that for sufficiently close-in detonations and/or large explosive charge weights severe damage or destruction will result. This is particularly true for structures or components directly exposed to blast impulse

  16. Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar Kura; Kalpalatha Kambham; Sivaramakrishnan Sangameswaran; Sandhya Potana [University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Blasting vibrations control: The shortcomings of traditional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuillaume, P.M.; Kiszlo, M. [Institut National de l`Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Bernard, T. [Compagnie Nouvelle de Scientifiques, Nice (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the context of its studies for the French ministry of the environment and for the French national coal board, INERIS (the French institute for the industrial environment and hazards, formerly CERCHAR) has made a complete critical survey of the methods generally used to reduce the levels of blasting vibrations. It is generally acknowledged that the main parameter to control vibrations is the so-called instantaneous charge, or charge per delay. This should be reduced as much as possible in order to diminish vibration levels. On account of this, the use of a new generation of blasting devices, such as non-electric detonators or electronic sequential timers has been developed since the seventies. INERIS has collected data from about 900 blasts in 2 quarries and 3 open pit mines. These data include input parameters such as borehole diameter, burden, spacing, charge per hole, charge per delay, total fired charge, etc ... They also include output measurements, such as vibration peak particle velocities, and main frequencies. These data have been analyzed with the help of multi variable statistical tools. Blasting tests were undertaken to evaluate new methods of vibrations control, such as the superposition of vibration signals. These methods appear to be accurate in many critical cases, but certainly would be highly improved with a better accuracy of firing delays. The development of electronic detonators seems to be the way of the future for a better blasting control.

  18. Controlled Blasting for Deconstruction of a Railway Bridge Near Sahibganj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S. K.; Ghosh, A. K.; Oraon, S.

    2018-02-01

    Some of the Indian Railway bridges require reconstruction for electrification and expansion of railway tracks. Dismantling of bridge within time schedule in densely populated area requires controlled and pre-planned blasting methodology for safe pulling down of the structure and quick removal of blasted debris for fast restoration of tracks and smooth plying of trains. The three arched railway bridge (Bridge No. 61) located between Sahibganj and Karamtola cases one such example where the bridge was dismantled and the track was restored within 4 h of blasting, though the stipulated block period for demolition and restoration of tracks was 6 h. The 25.48 m long three-arched bridge was drilled and blasted with 225 number of blastholes (32 mm diameter) and 100 kg explosive (25 mm diameter). Length of blastholes varied between 0.5 and 1.8 m with blast geometry of 0.3-0.35 m burden and 0.33 m spacing. This paper deals with the conceptual and theoretical model developed for identification of the key locations for drilling and implementation of the same. It also discusses about the precautionary measures and the drilling pattern adopted for quick demolition and speedy restoration of tracks.

  19. Analysis of MINIE2013 Explosion Air-Blast Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnurr, Julie M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Rodgers, Arthur J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kim, Keehoon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ford, Sean R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramirez, Abelardo L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-14

    We report analysis of air-blast overpressure measurements from the MINIE2013 explosive experiments. The MINIE2013 experiment involved a series of nearly 70 near-surface (height-ofburst, HOB, ranging from -1 to +4 m) low-yield (W=2-20 kg TNT equivalent) chemical highexplosives tests that were recorded at local distances (230 m – 28.5 km). Many of the W and HOB combinations were repeated, allowing for quantification of the variability in air-blast features and corresponding yield estimates. We measured canonical signal features (peak overpressure, impulse per unit area, and positive pulse duration) from the air-blast data and compared these to existing air-blast models. Peak overpressure measurements showed good agreement with the models at close ranges but tended to attenuate more rapidly at longer range (~ 1 km), which is likely caused by upward refraction of acoustic waves due to a negative vertical gradient of sound speed. We estimated yields of the MINIE2013 explosions using the Integrated Yield Determination Tool (IYDT). Errors of the estimated yields were on average within 30% of the reported yields, and there were no significant differences in the accuracy of the IYDT predictions grouped by yield. IYDT estimates tend to be lower than ground truth yields, possibly because of reduced overpressure amplitudes by upward refraction. Finally, we report preliminary results on a development of a new parameterized air-blast waveform.

  20. Management of colonic injuries in the combat theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S David; Kiraly, Laszlo N; Flaherty, Stephen F; Herzig, Daniel O; Lu, Kim C; Schreiber, Martin A

    2010-05-01

    Combat injuries are more often associated with blast, penetrating, and high-energy mechanisms than civilian trauma, generating controversy about the management of combat colonic injury. Despite implementation of mandatory colostomy in World War II, recent civilian data suggest that primary repair without diversion is safe and feasible. This study describes the modern management of battle-related colonic injuries and seeks to determine whether management strategy affects early complications. Records from the combat theater (downrange) and tertiary referral center in Germany were retrospectively reviewed from 2005 to 2006. Patient characteristics, management strategy, treatment course, and early complications were recorded. Comparison groups by management strategy were as follows: primary repair, diversion, and damage control. A total of 133 (97% male) patients sustained colonic injuries from penetrating (71%), blunt (5%), and blast (23%) mechanisms. Average injury severity score was 21 and length of stay in the referral center was 7.1 days. Injury distribution was 21% ascending, 21% descending, 15% transverse, 27% sigmoid, and 25% rectum. Downrange complications for primary repair, initial ostomy, and damage control groups were 14%, 15%, and 30%, respectively. On discharge from the center, 62% of patients had undergone a diversion. The complication rate was 18% overall and was unrelated to management strategy (P = .16). Multivariate analysis did not identify independent predictors of complications. Early complications were similar by mechanism, anatomic location, severity of injury, and management strategy. More diversions were performed for rectosigmoid injury. Good surgical judgment allows for low morbidity and supports primary repair in selected cases. Damage control surgery is effective in a multinational theater of operations.

  1. Head and neck injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing at four hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Buch, Karen; Sung, Edward; Abujudeh, Hani; Sakai, Osamu; Aaron, Sodickson; Lev, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging findings of head and neck injuries in patients from the Boston Marathon bombing. A total of 115 patients from the Boston Marathon bombing presenting to four hospitals who underwent imaging to evaluate for head and neck injuries were included in the study. Twelve patients with positive findings on radiography or cross-sectional imaging were included in the final analysis. The radiographic, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of these patients were evaluated for the presence of shrapnel and morphological abnormality. Head and neck injuries were seen in 12 out of 115 patients presenting to the four hospitals. There were secondary blast injuries to the head and neck in eight patients, indicated by the presence of shrapnel on imaging. In the four patients without shrapnel, there were two with subgaleal hematomas, one with facial contusion and one with mastoid injury. There were two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, one with brain contusion, one with cerebral laceration, and one with globe rupture. There was frontal bone, nasal bone, and orbital wall fracture in one patient each. Imaging identified 26 shrapnel fragments, 21 of which were ball bearings. Injuries to the head and neck region identified on imaging from the Boston Marathon bombing were not common. The injuries seen were predominantly secondary blast injuries from shrapnel, and did not result in calvarial penetration of the shrapnel fragments.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE STABILITY OF SURROUNDING ROCK IN TUNNEL BLASTING CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxian Fu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, criteria and blasting technologies are introduced in order to control the stability of surrounding rock of tunnel built using drill-and-blast safety. The paper is composed of three parts, namely, a blast vibration propagation law in roof surrounding rock in close proximity to tunnel face, two formulae to calculate particle critical vibration velocity of shotcrete and key structural element at the roof of tunnel, and innovative technologies of tunnel blasting. The blast vibration propagation law is the base to control the stability of surrounding rock during tunnel blasting. Based on Morhr-Coulomb criterion and the dynamic analysis, two formulae to calculate the critical particle vibration velocity are proposed. Based on a series of trial blasts using electronic detonators, two innovative blasting technologies are derived. One is the blast holes detonated one by one by using electronic detonator, and another is the blast holes detonated by combining initiation system of electronic detonators and nonel detonators. The use of electronic detonators in tunnel blasting not only leads to a smaller blast vibration but also to a smaller extent of the EDZ (excavation damaged zone.

  3. Controlled blasting and its implications for the NNWSI project exploratory shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeckhout, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    This report reviews controlled blasting techniques for shaft sinking. Presplitting and smooth blasting are the techniques of principal interest. Smooth blasting is preferred for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations exploratory shaft. Shaft damage can be monitored visually or by peak velocity measurements and refractive techniques. Damage into the rock should be limited to 3 ft. 40 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs

  4. 29 CFR 1926.904 - Storage of explosives and blasting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., electric blasting caps, detonating primers, and primed cartridges shall not be stored in the same magazine... feet of explosives and detonator storage magazine. (d) No explosives or blasting agents shall be... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of explosives and blasting agents. 1926.904 Section...

  5. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney obstruction - injury Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  7. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  8. Badminton injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; Møller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J

    1990-01-01

    In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made. PMID:2078802

  9. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  10. Radiometric report for a blast furnace tracing with radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, G.; Tanase, M.

    1995-01-01

    One of the methods to monitor refractory wall of blast furnace is its tracing with radioactive isotopes. The tracer isotope can be detected by two ways: the external dosimetric measurement at the armour of the blast furnace and/or the radiometric measurement of the iron sample charge by charge. Any change in radiometric situation of tracer radioisotope is recorded in a radiometric report. This paper presents an original concept of radiometric report based upon PARADOX and CORELDRAW soft kits. Their advantage are: quick and easy changes, easy recording of current radioactivity of tracer isotope, short history of changes, visual mapping of the tracer isotope and others. In this way we monitored 6 blast furnaces and more than 180 radioactive sources

  11. Production of blast furnace coke from soft brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, G.; Wundes, H.; Schkommodau, F.; Zinke, H.-G. (VEB Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    Reviews experimental production and utilization of high quality brown coal coke in the GDR during 1985 and 1986. The technology of briquetting and coking brown coal dust is described; the superior parameters of produced coke quality are listed in comparison to those of regular industrial coke made from brown and black coal. Dust emission from high quality brown coal coke was suppressed by coke surface treatment with dispersion foam. About 4,200 t of this coke were employed in black coal coke substitution tests in a blast furnace. Substitution rate was 11%, blast furnace operation was positive, a substitution factor of 0.7 t black coal coke per 1 t of brown coal coke was calculated. Technology development of high quality brown coal coke production is regarded as complete; blast furnace coke utilization, however, requires further study. 8 refs.

  12. Effect of surface conditions on blast wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Seung Ho; Li, Yi Bao; Lee, Chang Hoon; Choi, Jung Il

    2016-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of blast wave propagations on surfaces by solving axisymmetric two-dimensional Euler equations. Assuming the initial stage of fireball at the breakaway point after an explosion, we investigated the effect of surface conditions considering surface convex or concave elements and thermal conditions on blast wave propagations near the ground surface. Parametric studies were performed by varying the geometrical factors of the surface element as well as thermal layer characteristics. We found that the peak overpressure near the ground zero was increased due to the surface elements, while modulations of the blast wave propagations were limited within a region for the surface elements. Because of the thermal layer, the precursor was formed in the propagations, which led to the attenuation of the peak overpressure on the ground surface

  13. Superficial characterization of titanium league when submitted to abrasive blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, L.Y.; Leite, I.V.; Szesz, E.M.; Siqueira, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Commercially pure titanium and some of its alloys exhibit a good biocompatibility. These characteristics are frequently used in the manufacture of orthopedic and dental implants. It is possible to modify its surface making it the bioactive using various methods, such as deposition of hydroxyapatite by plasma spray and increasing the roughness of the surface by abrasive blasting. This work is to modify the surface of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V ELI (ASTM F136: 02a) for abrasive blasting and study the morphology, crystallographic phases and the mechanical characteristics of the surface obtained. For such purpose, SEM images, diffraction of X-rays and tests of risk produced by nanoindenter. The sandblasting was done using alumina powder and blasting time of 6s. The morphology of the surfaces of Ti6Al4V ELI changed after sandblasting with increased roughness. It is possible to conclude that after sandblasting the titanium surface do not have a ductile behavior. (author)

  14. Blast venting through blanket material in the HYLIFE ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.; Peterson, P.F.; Schrock, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    This work presents a numerical study of blast venting through various blanket configurations in the HYLIFE ICF reactor design. The study uses TSUNAMI -- a multi-dimensional, high-resolution, shock capturing code -- to predict the momentum exchange and gas dynamics for blast venting in complex geometries. In addition, the study presents conservative predictions of wall loading by gas shock and impulse delivered to the protective liquid blanket. Configurations used in the study include both 2700 MJ and 350 MJ fusion yields per pulse for 5 meter and 3 meter radius reactor chambers. For the former, an annular jet array is used for the blanket geometry, while in the latter, both annular jet array as well as slab geometries are used. Results of the study indicate that blast venting and wall loading may be manageable in the HYLIFE-II design by a judicious choice of blanket configuration

  15. A review of blasting activity in the former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leith, W. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Bruk, L. [BRUK Hydrogeologcal Consulting, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Monitoring a comprehensive nuclear test ban by seismic means will require identification of seismic sources at lower magnitudes, where industrial explosions (primarily mining blasts) may comprise a significant fraction of the total number of events recorded and may, for some countries, dominate the seismicity. The USGS has recently obtained preliminary data on blasting activities in the former Soviet Union (FSU), one of the few countries in which the use of explosives exceeded that of the United States. A review of the Soviet data suggests that there are both similarities and differences in blasting practices between the U.S. and the FSU. These data are important because they provide some insight into variations form U.S. practice and because they can be used directly to estimate the assets needed to effectively monitor that country. Key findings include: (1) in 1988, approximately 2.6 million metric tons of high explosives were detonated in the FSu; this compares with 2.1 million metric tons in the U.S. in the same year; (2) about 80% of the explosives were used in mining, 10% in construction and 10% for other uses; (3) 84% of the explosives were consumed by only six Ministries of the FSU, and 66% were consumed in the three main mining industries: MinCherMet, MinTsvetMet and MinUgleProm; (4) in 1988 alone, the FSU conducted over 100 explosions in excess of 1 kt total charge (compare with one blast over 1 kt in the U.S. in 1987), and none of these were in the coal mining industry; (5) most very large blasts occurred on the surface, and in only a small number of mines; most underground blasts were less than 100 tons.

  16. PaperBLAST: Text Mining Papers for Information about Homologs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale genome sequencing has identified millions of protein-coding genes whose function is unknown. Many of these proteins are similar to characterized proteins from other organisms, but much of this information is missing from annotation databases and is hidden in the scientific literature. To make this information accessible, PaperBLAST uses EuropePMC to search the full text of scientific articles for references to genes. PaperBLAST also takes advantage of curated resources (Swiss-Prot, GeneRIF, and EcoCyc) that link protein sequences to scientific articles. PaperBLAST’s database includes over 700,000 scientific articles that mention over 400,000 different proteins. Given a protein of interest, PaperBLAST quickly finds similar proteins that are discussed in the literature and presents snippets of text from relevant articles or from the curators. With the recent explosion of genome sequencing data, there are now millions of uncharacterized proteins. If a scientist becomes interested in one of these proteins, it can be very difficult to find information as to its likely function. Often a protein whose sequence is similar, and which is likely to have a similar function, has been studied already, but this information is not available in any database. To help find articles about similar proteins, PaperBLAST searches the full text of scientific articles for protein identifiers or gene identifiers, and it links these articles to protein sequences. Then, given a protein of interest, it can quickly find similar proteins in its database by using standard software (BLAST), and it can show snippets of text from relevant papers. We hope that PaperBLAST will make it easier for biologists to predict proteins’ functions.

  17. 77 FR 49277 - Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations by the U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... effects that confined blasting can have on marine animals near the blast (Keevin et al., 1999). The visual... Atmospheric Administration Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations... Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations by the U.S. Army Corps of...

  18. Air Blasts from Cased and Uncased Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, L. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-12

    The problem of a spherical blast in air is solved using the STUN code. For bare charges, the calculations are shown to be in excellent agreement with previous published results. It is demonstrated that, for an unconfined (uncased) chemical explosive, both range and time to effect scale inversely as the cube root of the yield and directly as the cube root of the ambient air density. It is shown that the peak overpressure decays to roughly 1/10 of ambient pressure in a scaled range of roughly 10 m/kg1/3 at sea level. At a height of 30 km, where the ambient density is a factor of 64 less, the range to the same decay increases to 40 m/kg1/3 . As a direct result of the scaling a single calculation suffices for all charge sizes and altitudes. Although the close-in results are sensitive to the nature of the explosive source and the equation of state of the air, this sensitivity is shown to virtually disappear at scaled ranges > 0.5 m/kg1/3 . For cased explosives the case thickness introduces an additional scale factor. Moreover, when the blast wave arrives at the inner case radius the case begins to expand. Fracture occurs when a critical value of the resulting hoop strain is reached, causing the case to shatter into fragments. A model is proposed to describe the size distribution of the fragments and their subsequent motion via drag interaction with the explosion products and ambient air. It is shown that a significant fraction of the charge energy is initially transmitted to the case fragments in the form of kinetic energy; for example, a 1 kg spherical charge with a 5 mm thick steel case has almost 29% of the total charge energy as initial kinetic energy of case fragments. This percentage increases with increasing case thickness and decreases with increasing charge size. The peak overpressure at a given range is 70-85% for cased explosives as compared with uncased and the peak impulse per unit area is 90-95%. The peak overpressure and

  19. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeja, L. F.; Gonzalez, R.; Alfonso, A.; Barbes, M. F.

    2003-01-01

    Criteria developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid. (Author) 31 refs

  20. Study of wet blasting of components in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, J

    1999-12-01

    This report looks at the method of wet blasting radioactive components in nuclear power stations. The wet blaster uses pearl shaped glass beads with the dimensions of 150-250 {mu}m mixed with water as blasting media. The improved design, providing outer operator's positions with proper radiation protection and more efficient blasting equipment has resulted in a lesser dose taken by the operators. The main reason to decontaminate components in nuclear power plants is to enable service on these components. On components like valves, pump shafts, pipes etc. oxides form and bind radiation. These components are normally situated at some distance from the reactor core and will mainly suffer from radiation from so called activation products. When a component is to be decontaminated it can be decontaminated to a radioactive level where it will be declassified. This report has found levels ranging from 150-1000 Bq/kg allowing declassification of radioactive materials.This difference is found between different countries and different organisations. The report also looks at the levels of waste generated using wet blasting. This is done by tracking the contamination to determine where it collects. It is either collected in the water treatment plant or collected in the blasting media. At Barsebaeck the waste levels, from de-contaminating nearly 800 components in one year, results in a waste volume of about 0,250 m{sup 3}. This waste consists of low and medium level waste and will cost about 3 600 EURO to store. The conclusions of the report are that wet blasting is an indispensable way to treat contaminated components in modern nuclear power plants. The wet blasting equipment can be improved by using a robot enabling the operators to remotely treat components from the outer operator's positions. There they will benefit from better radiation protection thus further reduce their taken dose. The wet blasting equipment could also be used to better control the levels of

  1. OPTIMALIZATION OF BLASTING IN »LAKOVIĆI« LIMESTONE QUARRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Božić

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimalization of exploitation in »Lakovići« limestone quarry is described. Based on determined discontinuities in the rock mass and their densities, the best possible working site have been located in order to obtain the best possible sizes of blasted rocks and work slope stability. Optimal lowest resistance line size for the quarry has been counted and proved experimentally. New blasting parameters have resulted in considerable saving of drilling and explosive (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Optimizing cast blasting efficiency using ANFO with liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, A.

    2007-01-15

    As part of a five research project funded by the National Science Foundation, Peabody Energy studied three experimental cast blasts conducted at the North Antelope Rochelle mine site on July 24,28 and 31 2005. The initial purpose of this research project was to determine the influence that blast initiation sequence have on: NOx production; Face Displacement; Highwall damage; Explosive performance; Vibration emissions; Displacement; Surface swell; and Cast benefit. Two new discoveries on velocity of detonation (VoD) and pressure of detonation (PoD) were made as a result of this research project. Furthermore, a relationship between surface swell velocity and face velocity was also noted. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Use of coal-water mixtures in blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malgarini, G; Giuli, M; Davide, A; Carlesi, C [Centro Sviluppo Materiali, Rome (Italy); Italsider, Genoa [Italy; Deltasider, Piombino [Italy

    1989-03-01

    At the present time, an ironworks blast furnace employing a pulverized coal injection (PCI) system is in operation at the Piombino Works (Italy). A wide development, within this industry, of PCI techniques is expected in the near future to limit, as much as possible, the rebuilding of coke ovens. Research activities and industrial trials aimed at maximizing the use of coal injection into blast furnaces are in course of development. This paper uses flowsheets to illustrate such a system and provides graphs to indicate the economic convenience of PCI systems as compared with systems using naphtha as an injected fuel.

  4. Windows .NET Network Distributed Basic Local Alignment Search Toolkit (W.ND-BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Melvin J

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BLAST is one of the most common and useful tools for Genetic Research. This paper describes a software application we have termed Windows .NET Distributed Basic Local Alignment Search Toolkit (W.ND-BLAST, which enhances the BLAST utility by improving usability, fault recovery, and scalability in a Windows desktop environment. Our goal was to develop an easy to use, fault tolerant, high-throughput BLAST solution that incorporates a comprehensive BLAST result viewer with curation and annotation functionality. Results W.ND-BLAST is a comprehensive Windows-based software toolkit that targets researchers, including those with minimal computer skills, and provides the ability increase the performance of BLAST by distributing BLAST queries to any number of Windows based machines across local area networks (LAN. W.ND-BLAST provides intuitive Graphic User Interfaces (GUI for BLAST database creation, BLAST execution, BLAST output evaluation and BLAST result exportation. This software also provides several layers of fault tolerance and fault recovery to prevent loss of data if nodes or master machines fail. This paper lays out the functionality of W.ND-BLAST. W.ND-BLAST displays close to 100% performance efficiency when distributing tasks to 12 remote computers of the same performance class. A high throughput BLAST job which took 662.68 minutes (11 hours on one average machine was completed in 44.97 minutes when distributed to 17 nodes, which included lower performance class machines. Finally, there is a comprehensive high-throughput BLAST Output Viewer (BOV and Annotation Engine components, which provides comprehensive exportation of BLAST hits to text files, annotated fasta files, tables, or association files. Conclusion W.ND-BLAST provides an interactive tool that allows scientists to easily utilizing their available computing resources for high throughput and comprehensive sequence analyses. The install package for W.ND-BLAST is

  5. ORGANISATIONAL-TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BLASTING WORKS ON THE GRIČ TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Deković

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes organisational-technological characteristics of blasting works during the excavation of the Grič Tunnel. The significance of blasting works during the excavation of the tunnel is shown through adjustment of blasting parameters taking into consideration the dynamics of the works, cost-effectiveness and influence of geological circumstances. Successfulness of blasting directly influences the subsequent tunnel excavation cycle both in terms of duration as well as eventually in terms of influence on the entire tunnel investment. Comparison of changes of basic blasting parameters during tunnel excavation ensured optimal excavation progress with minimal price per meter of tunnel progress.

  6. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dallas, TX: American Red Cross; 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  7. Chilling injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... ROS avoidance genes play pivotal role in defense mechanism against chilling injury derived oxidative stress. ... Low temperature storage is a postharvest technology ..... crops is highly dependent on ethylene production and.

  8. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Power Saws for 2001 05/15/2002 Nail Gun Related Injuries and Deaths Home Maintenance & Construction 05/ ... Information (FOIA) Inspector General No Fear Act Data USA.gov Report an Unsafe Product Contact Us: 800- ...

  9. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  10. Ear Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of different injuries can affect the outer ear. Cauliflower ear (subperichondrial hematoma) A blunt blow to the ... to a deformed ear. This deformity, called a cauliflower ear, is common among wrestlers, boxers, and rugby ...

  11. Evaluation of Novel Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Derived Lipid Mediators of Inflammation to Ameliorate the Deleterious Effects of Blast Over Pressure on Eye and Brain Visual Processing Centers in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    CD68 (immune cell infiltration) (Naskar, 2002; Nakazawa, 2006; Bailes , 2010). It would also be interesting to look at chronic time points far beyond...and cGMP-PDE) (Cao, 2001; Nakazawa, 2006; Rapoport, 2008; Bailes , 2010; Haung, 2012). Plasma collected from blasted rats could also be screened for...On 05 August 2015, we received a letter of full rejection, mainly due to minimal outcome measures, subtle neuronal injury effects, and lack of

  12. War, traffic and iatrogenic injuries of D3 duodenal segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Injuries of the duodenum at the level of aortomesenteric clamp (segment D3 are with a high incidence of death due to the development of fistula and peritonitis. In three successfully managed cases, we applied the biliary surgery method. Case reports. All three cases were with the injuries of D3 duodenal segment. The first patient suffered from the blast perforation of duodenum at the level of the aortomesenteric clamp which occurred at the 7th day after the injury. The second patient suffered from the duodenal injury caused in a traffic accident. The third patient suffered from an iatrogenic injury at the beginning of D3 duodenal segment inflicted during ureterolithotomy. The described surgical procedure included basically the suture to narrow the site of the injury, then lateroterminal anastomosis with the Roux-en-Y jejunal flexure and, finally, the placement of a silicone prosthesis starting from the duodenum through the site of injury and the Roux-en-Y out. Octreotide and the total parenteral nutrition were administered to the patients postoperatively. Conclusion. The use of the releasing silicone prosthesis in all three patients provided the repair of the site of the injury with anastomosed Reux-en-Y jejunum.

  13. Causes of electrical deaths and injuries among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Michael; Hunting, Katherine L; Murawski, Judith; Chowdhury, Risana; Welch, Laura

    2003-04-01

    Contact with electrical current is the fourth leading cause of deaths of construction workers. This study evaluates electrical deaths and injuries to construction workers. Two sources of data were analyzed in detail: (1) 1,019 electrical deaths identified by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) for the years 1992-1998; and (2) 61 electrical injuries identified between November 1, 1990 and December 31, 1998 from a George Washington University Emergency Department injury surveillance database. Contact with "live" electrical wiring, equipment, and light fixtures was the main cause of electrical deaths and injuries among electrical workers, followed by contact with overhead power lines. Among non-electrical workers, contact with overhead power lines was the major cause of death. Other causes included contact with energized metal objects, machinery, power tools, and portable lights. Arc flash or blast caused 31% of electrical injuries among construction workers, but less than 2% of electrical deaths. Adoption of a lockout/tagout standard for construction, and training for non-electrical workers in basic electrical safety would reduce the risk of electrical deaths and injuries in construction. Further research is needed on ways to prevent electrical deaths and injuries while working "live". Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Blast induces oxidative stress, inflammation, neuronal loss and subsequent short-term memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H J; Sajja, V S S S; Vandevord, P J; Lee, Y W

    2013-12-03

    Molecular and cellular mechanisms of brain injury after exposure to blast overpressure (BOP) are not clearly known. The present study hypothesizes that pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory pathways in the brain may be responsible for neuronal loss and behavioral deficits following BOP exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and exposed to calibrated BOP of 129.23±3.01kPa while controls received only anesthesia. In situ dihydroethidium fluorescence staining revealed that BOP significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species in the brain. In addition, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated a significant up-regulation of mRNA and protein expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as interferon-γ and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, in brains collected from BOP-exposed animals compared with the controls. Furthermore, immunoreactivity of neuronal nuclei in brains indicated that fewer neurons were present following BOP exposure. Moreover, novel object recognition paradigm showed a significant impairment in the short-term memory at 2weeks following BOP exposure. These results suggest that pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory environments in the brain could play a potential role in BOP-induced neuronal loss and behavioral deficits. It may provide a foundation for defining a molecular and cellular basis of the pathophysiology of blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT). It will also contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches selectively targeting these pathways, which have great potential in the diagnosis and therapy of BINT. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optoacoustic detection and monitoring of blast-induced intracranial hematomas in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Andrey; Wynne, Karon E.; Prough, Donald S.; Dewitt, Douglas S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Parsley, Margaret A.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-03-01

    Patients with acute intracranial hematomas often require surgical drainage within the first four hours after traumatic brain injury (TBI) to avoid death or severe neurologic disability. CT and MRI permit rapid, noninvasive diagnosis of hematomas, but can be used only at a major health-care facility. At present, there is no device for noninvasive detection and characterization of hematomas in pre-hospital settings. We proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for rapid, noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of hematomas, including intracranial hematomas. Unlike bulky CT and MR equipment, an optoacoustic system can be small and easily transported in an emergency vehicle. In this study we used a specially-designed blast device to inflict TBI in rats. A near-infrared OPO-based optoacoustic system developed for hematoma diagnosis and for blood oxygenation monitoring in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in small animals was used in the study. Optoacoustic signals recorded simultaneously from the SSS and hematomas allowed for measurements of their oxygenations. The presence of hematomas was confirmed after the experiment in gross pictures of the exposed brains. After blast the hematoma signal and oxygenation increased, while SSS oxygenation decreased due to the blastinduced TBI. The increase of the oxygenation in fresh hematomas may be explained by the leakage of blood from arteries which have higher blood pressure compared to that of veins. These results indicate that the optoacoustic technique can be used for early diagnosis of hematomas and may provide important information for improving outcomes in patients with TBI or stroke (both hemorrhagic and ischemic).

  16. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  17. Firework related injury and legislation: the epidemiology of firework injuries and the effect of legislation in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, B J; Gordon, D J

    1999-02-01

    The efficacy of legislation in reducing firework associated injuries is uncertain as is the nature of the problem within the United Kingdom (UK). In September 1996 the legislation governing firework sale in Northern Ireland was relaxed thus equalling that of the rest of the UK. For the 2 years following the change in legislation we prospectively assessed those patients who were admitted with a firework injury over the Halloween period. We then compared these results with retrospective data for the 3 years prior to the change in firework law. In the pre-legislation series the mean number of patients admitted annually was 0.38 per 100,000 while in the post-legislation series the mean was 0.43 per 100,000. Blast injury to the hand was the commonest injury accounting for 53% of cases in both series. Burn injuries were the second commonest form of injury comprising 30% of all admissions. Of those admitted with a hand injury 47% had at least one finger terminalised and nearly half of those patients admitted with burns (44%) required skin grafting. We conclude that early evidence suggests that liberalisation of the law on firework sale has not resulted in a significant increase in firework related injuries requiring hospital admission.

  18. Controlled blasting experiments in a small drift at the CANMET experimental mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, Y.C.

    1994-03-01

    Experiments on controlled blasting conducted at the CANMET Experimental Mine to develop suitable controlled blasting techniques for small development headings are described. The methods selected for study must maintain the drill-blast-muck cycle achieved each work shift. The experiments also examine blast damage mechanisms to formulate criteria for dilution minimization with blast designs in stopes. The drift faces are 2.4 m square, with 34 to 43 holes drilled 2.4 m deep. Cartridged water gels, emulsions, and semi-gelatin dynamite were used in the cuts and as primers, ANFO as the main explosive, and semi- gelatin dynamite in 19 mm diameter cartridges was used in perimeter holes. The results of the first set of experiments show the efficiency of controlled blasting techniques to reduce blast damage. 60 refs., 71 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. [Monoclonal antibodies ICO-02 to blast cell antigens in patients with chronic myeloleukemia in blast crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, A Iu

    1984-01-01

    Mice were immunized with blood cells of a patient with chronic granulocytic leukemia, and their cells were subsequently used for the preparation of hybridoma ICO-02. This hybridoma is continuously producing monoclonal antibodies which reacted with cells in 4 out of 13 patients with blastic crisis of chronic granulocytic leukemia and in 6 out of 38 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Antibodies reacted with blast cells in 2 out of 3 patients with undifferentiated blastic crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia and in 2 out of 5 patients with lymphoid variant of blastic crisis of chronic granulocytic leukemia. Cells of 6 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia which reacted with the monoclonal antibodies had immunological markers of T lymphocytes bone-marrow precursors. Monoclonal antibodies did not react with cells of blood and bone marrow from healthy people and from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, acute monoblastic leukemia and lymphosarcoma.

  20. Analysis of ways to control the supply of the blast, and their impact on gas-dynamic processes in the blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Петрович Кравченко

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of two methods of control over hot blast supply into a blast furnace with constant pressure and constant amount (consumption. The analysis of these two methods was performed with the aim of determining their influence upon changes in gas pressure in the blast furnace top. The blast furnace was considered as a unity of vessels (furnace hearth, the top and gas-dynamic resistance (a column of charge materials. A differential equation was obtained, with regard to the dynamic balance of gas flow at the inlet and outlet of the top; the equation relates the pressure and gas consumption at the top to the pressure and hot blast consumption at the inlet and outlet of the furnace and to the resistance of the column of charge materials. The column of charge materials is considered as n-th number of channels through which gas flow inside the furnace moves and which resist to the flow. By the analysis of this equation at steady state (automatic stabilization of gas pressure in the top, the conditions were obtained to be satisfied with the specified value of gas pressure in the top. This value is equal to a half of the sum of the value of hot blast pressure at the inlet into the furnace and the value of pressure inside the collector of blast furnace gas. This conclusion is verified by the operation practice of blast furnaces in Ukraine. While analyzing the second method of controlling the supply of blast supply-stabilization of consumption (amount of hot blast supplied into the furnace it has been shown that the method could be realized in condition of stabilization of the amount of blast furnace gas, going out of the furnace. As the resistance of the column of charge materials constantly changes it is necessary to change the hot blast pressure in order to ensure the constant amount of blast, supplied into the furnace. It is often connected with possible substantial pressure fluctuations of hot blast at the inlet of the

  1. Blasted copper slag as fine aggregate in Portland cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos, M A G; Sales, A T C; Andrade, N

    2017-07-01

    The present work focuses on assessing the viability of applying blasted copper slag, produced during abrasive blasting, as fine aggregate for Portland cement concrete manufacturing, resulting in an alternative and safe disposal method. Leaching assays showed no toxicity for this material. Concrete mixtures were produced, with high aggregate replacement ratios, varying from 0% to 100%. Axial compressive strength, diametrical compressive strength, elastic modulus, physical indexes and durability were evaluated. Assays showed a significant improvement in workability, with the increase in substitution of fine aggregate. With 80% of replacement, the concrete presented lower levels of water absorption capacity. Axial compressive strength and diametrical compressive strength decreased, with the increase of residue replacement content. The greatest reductions of compressive strength were found when the replacement was over 40%. For tensile strength by diametrical compression, the greatest reduction occurred for the concrete with 80% of replacement. After the accelerated aging, results of mechanic properties showed a small reduction of the concrete with blasted copper slag performance, when compared with the reference mixture. Results indicated that the blasted copper slag is a technically viable material for application as fine aggregate for concrete mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of blasting on the strength of a rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, L

    1964-01-01

    Although the fact that blasting concussions tend to loosen a rock mass has always been known, the enormous reduction in strength associated with such loosening is not generally recognized. Recent investigations of the effect of blasting on a rock mass have shown that even slight loosening may markedly reduce the strength. This factor introduces a new slant on modern blasting methods, some of which will have to be considered more critically. The sensitivity of the mass to impacts depends on stress concentrations at the end of joints (Kerbspannungen) and on tensile stresses developed in the immediate vicinity of a joint, even in regions where the field stresses are not tensile. Thus, the sensitivity depends on the shape and orientation of the joints and particularly on the degree of separation of the individual joint families. The orientation of the joint families to the strains produced by blasting is just as important as the reduction in overall strength arising from the drop in friction due to the effects of the ''knocking out'' process (Foppl) on the joint body complex. Concussions may critically increase the degree of separation of the joint network thus reducing the tensile and shear strengths of the rock mass. (19 refs.)

  3. Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

  4. blastjs: a BLAST+ wrapper for Node.js.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Martin; MacLean, Dan; Schudoma, Christian

    2016-02-27

    To cope with the ever-increasing amount of sequence data generated in the field of genomics, the demand for efficient and fast database searches that drive functional and structural annotation in both large- and small-scale genome projects is on the rise. The tools of the BLAST+ suite are the most widely employed bioinformatic method for these database searches. Recent trends in bioinformatics application development show an increasing number of JavaScript apps that are based on modern frameworks such as Node.js. Until now, there is no way of using database searches with the BLAST+ suite from a Node.js codebase. We developed blastjs, a Node.js library that wraps the search tools of the BLAST+ suite and thus allows to easily add significant functionality to any Node.js-based application. blastjs is a library that allows the incorporation of BLAST+ functionality into bioinformatics applications based on JavaScript and Node.js. The library was designed to be as user-friendly as possible and therefore requires only a minimal amount of code in the client application. The library is freely available under the MIT license at https://github.com/teammaclean/blastjs.

  5. Spreading of sediment due to underwater blasting and dredging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Bach, Lis; Bollwerk, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    out in connection with the construction of a new quay at the existing harbour of Sisimiut, Greenland. Subsequent to the largest of a series of underwater blasts, the distribution of suspended sediment in the water column at and around the construction site was observed using a CTD (Conductivity...

  6. Grit blasting nozzle fabricated from mild tool steel proves satisfactory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Farland, J. E.; Turbitt, B.

    1966-01-01

    Dry blasting with glass beads through a nozzle assembly descales both the outside and inside surfaces of tubes of Inconel 718 used for the distribution of gaseous oxygen. The inside of the nozzle is coated with polyurethane and the deflector with a commercially available liquid urethane rubber.

  7. Enhancements and Analysis of CTH Software for Underbody Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the DoD, and shall not be used for advertising or...Trembelay, J., “Validation of a Loading Model for Simulating Blast Mine Effects on Armoured Vehicles,” 7th International LS-DYNA Users Conference

  8. A numerical technique to design blast noise mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, F. van den; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    Large weapons, such as armor, artillery or demolitions, create a high-energy blast wave. It has a low frequency content, typically between 15 and 125 Hz, and can propagate over large distances. As a result it is a relative important cause for annoyance. Mitigation measures need to be close to the

  9. Test methods for protective footwear against AP mine blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronin, D.S.; Williams, K.; Bass, C.R.; Magnan, P.; Dosquet, F.; Bergeron, D.M.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van

    2003-01-01

    The testing and development of protective footwear for anti-personnel landmine blast threats is of great importance to civilian and military deminers, and peacekeepers. This study will review the wide range of test methods that have been developed by NATO countries to test footwear against the

  10. Predicting fragmentation sizing profiles for different blasting patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.M.; Chung, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper evaluates the efficiency of blasting in a large scale underground heap leaching operation. The prediction model is based on the dynamic tensile breaking strength of rock formation, the detonation characteristics of the explosives and the drill hole pattern. The modelling includes crack pattern development and fragmentation computation fitted by the Rosin-Rammler distribution equation

  11. Experimental studies on intake headloss of a blasted lake tap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, James; Billstein, Mats; Engström, Fredrik; Strand, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    In existing reservoirs, construction of an intake is sometimes achieved by so-called lake tapping, a submerged tunnel piercing by blasting out the rock plug at the intake. The blasting process involves phases of rock, water, air and gas released from the explosive charge; the resulting entrance profile often differs from design assumptions. The intake headloss is a factor of concern for power generation. For a vertical intake formed by lake tapping, experiments have been carried out in a 1:30 physical model to examine the effect of entrance shapes on intake headlosses. The purpose is that, if there is potential to reduce the headlosses, the originally blasted intake shape would be modified. In the model, five alternative shapes are evaluated. The test results show that to enlarge the vertical shaft area is the most effective way to reduce the intake headloss; to further blast out a narrow channel upstream does not give much effect. Bearing in mind the risk of free-surface vortex at the intake, the influence of the intake modifications on vortex is also checked

  12. Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloposki, T [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J; Mannila, P; Laukkanen, J [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

  13. Studying and improving blast furnace cast iron quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. К. Balgabekov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are presented the results of studies to improve the quality of blast furnace cast iron. It was established that using fire clay suspension for increasing the mould covering heat conductivity improves significantly pig iron salable condition and filtration refining method decreases iron contamination by nonmetallic inclusions by 50 – 70 %.

  14. Drill and blast tunnelling; Konvensjonell drift av tunneler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenn, Paal-Egil

    1997-12-31

    This thesis treats drill and blast tunnelling. The rapid technological advance necessitates revised and updated design criteria, quality requirements and quality control. In situ blast experiments were carried out in order to test new methods and improve the basis for calculation and design. The main topics of the experiments were (1) longer rounds and increased drillhole diameter, (2) emulsion slurry as explosives in tunnelling, and (3) electronic detonators in contour blasting. The experiments show that it is technically feasible to blast rounds of up to 8.6 m length. Using current technology, the economical optimum round length is substantially shorter. Dust, low visibility, noise and toxic fumes are occupational environmental strains for the tunnel workers. Several of the environmental factors are strongly influenced by the type of explosives used. For example, emulsion slurry resulted in 4 to 5 times better visibility than Anolit and the concentration of respirable dust and total dust was reduced by 30-50 %. Electronic detonators were tested and found to give a higher percentage of remaining drillholes in the contour than Nonel detonators. The thesis includes a chapter on economic design of hydropower tunnels. 42 refs., 83 figs., 45 tabs.

  15. Pyramiding of blast and bacterial leaf blight resistance genes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (Hebert) Barr. and bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) are two major diseases of rice (Oryza sativa). The use of varietal resistance is the most appropriate strategy for controlling the diseases, and molecular assisted selection can ...

  16. Recent development in blast performance of fiber-reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, R.; Foglar, M.; Kohoutkova, A.

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents an overview of the recent development in blast performance of fiber reinforced concrete. The paper builds on more than ten years’ history of the research in this field by the team of the Department of Concrete and Masonry Structures of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague.

  17. Investigation on seismic signals for blasting in quarries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pandula, B.; Kondela, J.; Holub, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2012), s. 41-59 ISSN 1803-1447 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : blasting operations * seismic safety * seismic waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure http://www.caag.cz/egrse/2012-1/04_pandula-r.pdf

  18. Granulated blast furnace slag – A boon for foundry industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Silica sand; Blast Furnace Slag; Mould properties; Ferrous and nonferrous ... raw material for the production of cast components in foundry industries. ... applications for conserving natural resources and reduce the cost of the raw .... in an elevated temperature melting furnace with temperature values of 750 to.

  19. Bench Blasting Design for Optimum Recovery of Blocks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research work, breaking factor is used in place of powder factor since breaking is required not powder. The aim of this research work is to establish a standard breaking factor for bench blasting in dimension quarries that will improve recovery. Two cases were considered. In case 1, gun powder is used for basal ...

  20. DNA marker characterization for allele mining of blast and bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admiistrator

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... very useful for the analysis and detection of QTLs (Sabouri et al., 2011). ... Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthae grisea (Ou ... The DNA was quantified at 260 nm wavelength using a UV spectro- photometer ...

  1. International Symposium on Military Applications of Blast Simulation (5th)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-22

    Centre d’Etudes de Grainat, Gramat , France, de- scribed their work in designing a blast simulator with a test section of 12—rn width and 7—rn height...de Gramat , Gramat , France) on the dynamic behavior of limestone. Through a series of high—pressure experiments of the type developed in the recent

  2. Effect of blasting on the strength of a rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, L.

    1964-01-01

    Although the fact that blasting concussions tend to loosen a rock mass has always been known, the enormous reduction in strength associated with such loosening is not generally recognized. Recent investigations of the effect of blasting on a rock mass have shown that even slight loosening may markedly reduce the strength. This factor introduces a new slant on modern blasting methods, some of which will have to be considered more critically. The sensitivity of the mass to impacts depends on stress concentrations at the end of joints (Kerbspannungen) and on tensile stresses developed in the immediate vicinity of a joint, even in regions where the field stresses are not tensile. Thus, the sensitivity depends on the shape and orientation of the joints and particularly on the degree of separation of the individual joint families. The orientation of the joint families to the strains produced by blasting is just as important as the reduction in overall strength arising from the drop in friction due to the effects of the ''knocking out'' process (Foppl) on the joint body complex. Concussions may critically increase the degree of separation of the joint network thus reducing the tensile and shear strengths of the rock mass. (19 refs.)

  3. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  4. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Although there have been significant advances in management, associated severe injuries, in particular chest injuries, remain a major challenge. Extracranial injuries, especially chest injuries increase mortality in patients with TBI in both short.

  5. Firework injuries: a ten-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Vinita; Mahendru, Sanjay; Rana, Roshani; Deshpande, Manish

    2009-09-01

    Fireworks are used worldwide to celebrate popular events (e.g. festivals, official celebrations, weddings). The festival of lights (Diwali) is celebrated with fireworks in India. During this period, many patients from all age groups present to hospital with injuries due to fireworks. Prevalence, period of occurrence, sex and age variation, adult supervision, causative fireworks, mode of lighting, age groups prone to injury, patterns of injury caused by individual fireworks, and the body parts injured were studied. One hundred and fifty-seven cases (92 retrospective, 65 prospective) with injury due to fireworks presenting to the Department of Plastic Surgery at KEM Hospital between 1997 and 2006 were studied. The prevalence of injuries has decreased steadily over the last 10 years (41 cases in 1997, 3 cases in 2006). The maximum number of injuries (35%) was seen in the age group 5-14 years; 92% of these children were unsupervised. The commonest cause of injury was firework misuse (41% of cases), followed by device failure (35%). Device failure was commonest with flares/fountains (ground firework emitting sparks upwards) and aerial devices. Flare/fountains caused most injury (39%), sparklers the least (0.6%). Flare/fountains, ground spinners, sparklers, and gunpowder (explosive material from cracker, obtained by tearing paper wrapper and obtaining chemicals) caused only soft tissue burns; stringbombs (high-intensity fire cracker made by wrapping chemicals with jute strings/coir in layers) and rockets (aerial device that zooms upwards and bursts) caused blast injuries, leading to soft tissue disruption and bony injuries. Emergency surgery was done if indicated: tendon and/or neurovascular repair, fracture fixation, flap cover or amputation. Superficial burns were treated with dressings. Certain wounds needed only thorough cleansing of the wound and primary suturing. We concluded that, over a 10-year period, the prevalence of firework injury decreased due to increased

  6. Fragmentation, Cost and Environmental Effects of Plaster Stemming Method for Blasting at A Basalt Quarry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevizci, Halim

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the plaster stemming application for blasting at a basalt quarry is studied. Drill cuttings are generally used in open pits and quarries as the most common stemming material since these are most readily available at blast sites. However, dry drill cuttings eject very easily from blastholes without offering much resistance to blast energy. The plaster stemming method has been found to be better than the drill cuttings stemming method due to increased confinement inside the hole and better utilization of blast explosive energy in the rock. The main advantage of the new stemming method is the reduction in the cost of blasting. At a basalt quarry, blasting costs per unit volume of rock were reduced to 15% by increasing burden and spacing distances. In addition, better fragmentation was obtained by using the plaster stemming method. Blast trials showed that plaster stemming produced finer material. In the same blast tests, +30 cm size fragments were reduced to 47.3% of the total, compared to 32.6% in the conventional method of drill cuttings stemming. With this method of stemming, vibration and air shock values increased slightly due to more blast energy being available for rock breakage but generally these increased values were small and stayed under the permitted limit for blast damage criteria unless measuring distance is too close.

  7. Monte Carlo simulation as a tool to predict blasting fragmentation based on the Kuz Ram model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mario A.; Ficarazzo, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    Rock fragmentation is considered the most important aspect of production blasting because of its direct effects on the costs of drilling and blasting and on the economics of the subsequent operations of loading, hauling and crushing. Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the development of new technologies for blasting applications. These technologies include increasingly sophisticated computer models for blast design and blast performance prediction. Rock fragmentation depends on many variables such as rock mass properties, site geology, in situ fracturing and blasting parameters and as such has no complete theoretical solution for its prediction. However, empirical models for the estimation of size distribution of rock fragments have been developed. In this study, a blast fragmentation Monte Carlo-based simulator, based on the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model, has been developed to predict the entire fragmentation size distribution, taking into account intact and joints rock properties, the type and properties of explosives and the drilling pattern. Results produced by this simulator were quite favorable when compared with real fragmentation data obtained from a blast quarry. It is anticipated that the use of Monte Carlo simulation will increase our understanding of the effects of rock mass and explosive properties on the rock fragmentation by blasting, as well as increase our confidence in these empirical models. This understanding will translate into improvements in blasting operations, its corresponding costs and the overall economics of open pit mines and rock quarries.

  8. Optimization Of Blasting Design Parameters On Open Pit Bench A Case Study Of Nchanga Open Pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mwango Bowa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In hard rock mining blasting is the most productive excavation technique applied to fragment insitu rock to the required size for efficient loading and crushing. In order to blast the insitu rock to the desired fragment size blast design parameter such as bench height hole diameter spacing burden hole length bottom charge specific charge and rock factor are considered. The research was carried out as a practical method on Nchanga Open Pits NOP ore Bench to optimize the blasting design parameters that can yield the required fragmentation size thereby reducing the shovel loading times and maximizing efficiency of the subsequent mining unit operations such as hauling and crushing. Fragmentation characteristics such as the mean fragment size were measured by means of a digital measuring tape and predicated using the Kuznetsov equation and rock factor value of ore bench was calculated using Lilly 1986 equations by means of rock characteristics. Traditional blasting design parameters were acquired for NOP and modified using Langerfors and Sharma P.A approaches. Several blast operations were conducted using both traditional and modified blasting design parameters on the same ore bench with the same geological conditions. Loading times of the shovel and fragment sizes were obtained after the blasts from ore bench where both the traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied. Results show that mean fragment size and loading times were reduced from 51cm and 12minutes to 22cm and 3minutes where traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied respectively.

  9. Study of the action of blast deck charge in rocky soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko V.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Blasting (B in the industry, including the mining extraction of minerals, are carried out mostly with the use of blasthole charges that systematically distributed on the block that is undermined, by individual groups. The latter are blasted according to the scheme of short-delay firing (SDF through the intervals that are accepted not less than 20 Ms. Thus, the seismic effect of group charge explosion, consisting of individual blasthole charges and that actually is a group located charge determined by the formula of concentrated charge. Blast deck charges are effectively used in the driving of the trenches in the mining, formation of screens and cracks near the security objects. Only this method of performing blasting allows to define seismic effect in the transition from one diameter of a charge to another, as well as to determine the actual number of detonated charges in one group, which may differ from the calculated in drilling and blasting project. The work analyzes the physical essence of processes happened while blasting of blast deck charges. The effect of the orientation of the seismic action of blasting of blast deck charges towards the allocation line of charges is investigated. The results of generalized dependence of the speed of the displacement of the ground by the blast parameters and epicentral distance are obtained. We demonstrate with specific examples that blast deck charges that blasting simultaneously make a major chain of the career massive explosions at mining. Keywords: seismic fluctuations; the number of charges; the interaction of charges; the distance between the charges; the coefficients of the seismicity and the attenuation of the intensity of the waves; the unit charge; blast deck and blasthole charges; phase shifting; effective charge.

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  13. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ... Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  17. Energy absorption capabilities of composite sandwich panels under blast loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Ray, Tirtha

    As blast threats on military and civilian structures continue to be a significant concern, there remains a need for improved design strategies to increase blast resistance capabilities. The approach to blast resistance proposed here is focused on dissipating the high levels of pressure induced during a blast through maximizing the potential for energy absorption of composite sandwich panels, which are a competitive structural member type due to the inherent energy absorption capabilities of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Furthermore, the middle core in the sandwich panels can be designed as a sacrificial layer allowing for a significant amount of deformation or progressive failure to maximize the potential for energy absorption. The research here is aimed at the optimization of composite sandwich panels for blast mitigation via energy absorption mechanisms. The energy absorption mechanisms considered include absorbed strain energy due to inelastic deformation as well as energy dissipation through progressive failure of the core of the sandwich panels. The methods employed in the research consist of a combination of experimentally-validated finite element analysis (FEA) and the derivation and use of a simplified analytical model. The key components of the scope of work then includes: establishment of quantified energy absorption criteria, validation of the selected FE modeling techniques, development of the simplified analytical model, investigation of influential core architectures and geometric parameters, and investigation of influential material properties. For the parameters that are identified as being most-influential, recommended values for these parameters are suggested in conceptual terms that are conducive to designing composite sandwich panels for various blast threats. Based on reviewing the energy response characteristic of the panel under blast loading, a non-dimensional parameter AET/ ET (absorbed energy, AET, normalized by total energy

  18. Fingertip Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Fingertip Injury Email to a friend * required fields ...

  19. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  20. Self injury of extremities leading to amputation while handling local bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadani, Umesh Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Self injury while making material which has a tendency to blast is dangerous- whether it is fire cracker or local bomb. Some villagers living nearby forest make bomb to scare wild animals to protect their pet animals. A 22-year old girl while making this kind of local bomb, got injured badly. The injury was sustained while making bomb in a sitting position with face down as it is evident form type of injury. There was lacerated injury of both hands leading to amputation of both hands above wrists. Lacerated injury was present on medial sides of both thighs and gun powder marks on face. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent Research in Behind-Armor Blunt Trauma and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Injury. Natl. Tech. Inf. Serv. 2006, ADA481896. 20. Cernak, I.; Wang, Z.; Jiang, J.; Bian, X.; Savic , J. Ultrastructural and Functional Characteristics...Malicevic, Z.; Savic J. Experimental Magnesium Depletion in Adult Rabbits Caused by Blast Overpressure. Magnes. Res. 1995, 8 (4), 249–259. 34. Cernak, I... Savic , J.; Malicevic, Z.; Zunic, G.; Radosevic, P.; Ivanovic, I.; Davidovic, L. Involvement of the Central Nervous System in the General Response

  2. WImpiBLAST: web interface for mpiBLAST to help biologists perform large-scale annotation using high performance computing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichit Sharma

    Full Text Available The function of a newly sequenced gene can be discovered by determining its sequence homology with known proteins. BLAST is the most extensively used sequence analysis program for sequence similarity search in large databases of sequences. With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies it has now become possible to study genes and their expression at a genome-wide scale through RNA-seq and metagenome sequencing experiments. Functional annotation of all the genes is done by sequence similarity search against multiple protein databases. This annotation task is computationally very intensive and can take days to obtain complete results. The program mpiBLAST, an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speedup, can be used to accelerate large-scale annotation by using supercomputers and high performance computing (HPC clusters. Although many parallel bioinformatics applications using the Message Passing Interface (MPI are available in the public domain, researchers are reluctant to use them due to lack of expertise in the Linux command line and relevant programming experience. With these limitations, it becomes difficult for biologists to use mpiBLAST for accelerating annotation. No web interface is available in the open-source domain for mpiBLAST. We have developed WImpiBLAST, a user-friendly open-source web interface for parallel BLAST searches. It is implemented in Struts 1.3 using a Java backbone and runs atop the open-source Apache Tomcat Server. WImpiBLAST supports script creation and job submission features and also provides a robust job management interface for system administrators. It combines script creation and modification features with job monitoring and management through the Torque resource manager on a Linux-based HPC cluster. Use case information highlights the acceleration of annotation analysis achieved by using WImpiBLAST. Here, we describe the WImpiBLAST web interface features and architecture

  3. WImpiBLAST: web interface for mpiBLAST to help biologists perform large-scale annotation using high performance computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parichit; Mantri, Shrikant S

    2014-01-01

    The function of a newly sequenced gene can be discovered by determining its sequence homology with known proteins. BLAST is the most extensively used sequence analysis program for sequence similarity search in large databases of sequences. With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies it has now become possible to study genes and their expression at a genome-wide scale through RNA-seq and metagenome sequencing experiments. Functional annotation of all the genes is done by sequence similarity search against multiple protein databases. This annotation task is computationally very intensive and can take days to obtain complete results. The program mpiBLAST, an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speedup, can be used to accelerate large-scale annotation by using supercomputers and high performance computing (HPC) clusters. Although many parallel bioinformatics applications using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) are available in the public domain, researchers are reluctant to use them due to lack of expertise in the Linux command line and relevant programming experience. With these limitations, it becomes difficult for biologists to use mpiBLAST for accelerating annotation. No web interface is available in the open-source domain for mpiBLAST. We have developed WImpiBLAST, a user-friendly open-source web interface for parallel BLAST searches. It is implemented in Struts 1.3 using a Java backbone and runs atop the open-source Apache Tomcat Server. WImpiBLAST supports script creation and job submission features and also provides a robust job management interface for system administrators. It combines script creation and modification features with job monitoring and management through the Torque resource manager on a Linux-based HPC cluster. Use case information highlights the acceleration of annotation analysis achieved by using WImpiBLAST. Here, we describe the WImpiBLAST web interface features and architecture, explain design

  4. Control technology for crystalline silica exposures in construction: wet abrasive blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, Vijay; Heitbrink, William

    2004-03-01

    This study was designed to document the effect that wet abrasive blasting has on reducing worker exposure to crystalline silica, which has been associated with silicosis and premature death. In this study, worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica was monitored during wet abrasive blasting on the exterior walls of a parking garage to remove surface concrete and expose the underlying aggregate. In this process a wet sand mix comprised of 80% dry sand and 20% water was used. Sampling and analysis revealed that the geometric mean respirable quartz concentration was 0.2 mg/m(3) for workers conducting abrasive blasting and 0.06 mg/m(3) for helpers. When abrasive blasting was conducted in areas that apparently had reduced natural ventilation, dust exposures appeared to increase. When compared with other published data, this case study suggests that wet abrasive blasting causes less exposure to crystalline silica than dry abrasive blasting.

  5. Analysis of effect of aluminized canfo on fragmentation and economics of quarry blast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukat, M.R.; Akram, M.

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the explosive cost for drilling and blasting operations conducted at limestone quarries is a major concern for every mine operator. In Pakistan, to reduce explosive cost, Calcium Ammonium Nitrate with Fuel Oil (CANFO) is commonly used in explosive column charge in place of Ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO). However, fragmentation of the blast has to be compromised over cost reduction. Hence it is desired to enhance the performance of CANFO. In this study, Aluminum (AL) is added into Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) to analyze its effect on fragmentation and economics of blast at a limestone quarry. Experimental shots were held using rectangular drilling pattern (current practice), using CANFO and ALCANFO in separate shots, while all other blast design factors were kept constant. Post blast analysis for all shots was done in terms of fragmentation and cost. The shots using ALCANFO proved to be better fragmentation wise, and also assured a saving of 1.6% in drilling and blasting costs. (author)

  6. Close in blasting and rock support at the Bhumibol Powerhouse, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, L.

    1997-01-01

    Blasting-related aspects of constructing a pump turbine unit addition to the Bhumibol hydroelectric power plant in Northwest Thailand as part of a retrofit pump storage scheme was described. The work was of particular interest because blasting frequently had to be carried out within one metre of the operating powerhouse for excavation and demolition of 50,000 cubic metre of rock and 5,000 cubic metre of reinforced concrete. Site conditions, work methods, and results of blast vibration monitoring and blast designs were summarized. Although there were severe constraints on the allowable peak particle velocities at the powerhouse electrical equipment, modern time delay blasting techniques were safely used to produce excellent results in a tightly controlled environment. The powerhouse was fully operational during the entire entire blasting phase of the construction project. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  7. Structural Response to Blast Loading: The Effects of Corrosion on Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yalciner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural blast design has become a necessary part of the design with increasing terrorist attacks. Terrorist attacks are not the one to make the structures important against blast loading where other explosions such as high gas explosions also take an important place in structural safety. The main objective of this study was to verify the structural performance levels under the impact of different blast loading scenarios. The blast loads were represented by using triangular pulse for single degree of freedom system. The effect of blast load on both corroded and uncorroded reinforced concrete buildings was examined for different explosion distances. Modified plastic hinge properties were used to ensure the effects of corrosion. The results indicated that explosion distance and concrete strength were key parameters to define the performance of the structures against blast loading.

  8. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  9. Optimization long hole blast fragmentation techniques and detonating circuit underground uranium mine stope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Yang Lizhi; Song Lixia; Qin De'en; Xue Yongshe; Wang Zhipeng

    2012-01-01

    Aim at high rate of large blast fragmentation, a big difficulty in long hole drilling and blasting underground uranium mine stope, it is pointed out at the same time of taking integrated technical management measures, the key is to optimize the drilling and blasting parameters and insure safety the act of one that primes, adopt 'minimum burden' blasting technique, renew the stope fragmentation process, and use new process of hole bottom indirect initiation fragmentation; optimize the detonating circuit and use safe, reliable and economically rational duplex non-electric detonating circuit. The production practice shows that under the guarantee of strictly controlled construction quality, the application of optimized blast fragmentation technique has enhanced the reliability of safety detonation and preferably solved the problem of high rate of large blast fragments. (authors)

  10. The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    ARL-CR-0822 ● DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event...Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event prepared by Danielle Abell SURVICE...Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911QX-16-D-0014 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  11. Considering Bone Marrow Blasts From Nonerythroid Cellularity Improves the Prognostic Evaluation of Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Leonor; Calvo, Xavier; Luño, Elisa; Senent, Leonor; Alonso, Esther; Ramos, Fernando; Ardanaz, María Teresa; Pedro, Carme; Tormo, Mar; Marco, Víctor; Montoro, Julia; Díez-Campelo, María; Brunet, Salut; Arrizabalaga, Beatriz; Xicoy, Blanca; Andreu, Rafael; Bonanad, Santiago; Jerez, Andrés; Nomdedeu, Benet; Ferrer, Ana; Sanz, Guillermo F; Florensa, Lourdes

    2016-09-20

    WHO classification of myeloid malignancies is based mainly on the percentage of bone marrow (BM) blasts. This is considered from total nucleated cells (TNCs), unless there is erythroid-hyperplasia (erythroblasts ≥ 50%), calculated from nonerythroid cells (NECs). In these instances, when BM blasts are ≥ 20%, the disorder is classified as erythroleukemia, and when BM blasts are < 20%, as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the latter, the percentage of blasts is considered from TNCs. We assessed the percentage of BM blasts from TNCs and NECs in 3,692 patients with MDS from the Grupo Español de Síndromes Mielodisplásicos, 465 patients with erythroid hyperplasia (MDS-E) and 3,227 patients without erythroid hyperplasia. We evaluated the relevance of both quantifications on classification and prognostication. By enumerating blasts systematically from NECs, 22% of patients with MDS-E and 12% with MDS from the whole series diagnosed within WHO categories with < 5% BM blasts, were reclassified into higher-risk categories and showed a poorer overall survival than did those who remained in initial categories (P = .006 and P = .001, respectively). Following WHO recommendations, refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-2 diagnosis is not possible in MDS-E, as patients with 10% to < 20% BM blasts from TNCs fulfill erythroleukemia criteria; however, by considering blasts from NECs, 72 patients were recoded as RAEB-2 and showed an inferior overall survival than did patients with RAEB-1 without erythroid hyperplasia. Recalculating the International Prognostic Scoring System by enumerating blasts from NECs in MDS-E and in the overall MDS population reclassified approximately 9% of lower-risk patients into higher-risk categories, which indicated the survival expected for higher-risk patients. Regardless of the presence of erythroid hyperplasia, calculating the percentage of BM blasts from NECs improves prognostic assessment of MDS. This fact should be considered in future

  12. After-blast fumes from ANFO mixtures - the effect of prill type and mixing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnfield, R.; Wetherelt, A.

    2003-06-01

    Over the last couple of years the Technical Services Department of exchem explosives has received a number of enquiries regarding the nature of after-blast fumes. These enquiries have been driven by two concerns: site-related health and safety and public comment from people living close to blasting operations. The paper examines how these choices can impact the quality and quantity of after-blast fume. 3 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Proceedings of the fourteenth annual symposium on explosives and blasting research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Subjects covered include: ground vibration effects on structures; open-pit blast vibration prediction; effects of velocity of detonation and gas pressurization on fragmentation in layered rock; thermal ignition for emulsion powder explosives and emulsion matrix; effect of cut-off pressure on energy partition and blast design; new burden and spacing formulae for optimum blasting; calculated risk of experiencing lightning caused unplanned detonation; predicting explosive toxic fumes; and stemming techniques for loading angled holes charged with Anfo.

  14. Study of blasting seismic effects of underground powerhouse of pumped storage project in granite condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Sheng; Li, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Though the test of blasting vibration, the blasting seismic wave propagation laws in southern granite pumped storage power project are studied. Attenuation coefficient of seismic wave and factors coefficient are acquired by the method of least squares regression analysis according to Sadaovsky empirical formula, and the empirical formula of seismic wave is obtained. This paper mainly discusses on the test of blasting vibration and the procedure of calculation. Our practice might as well serve as a reference for similar projects to come.

  15. Blasting Impact by the Construction of an Underground Research Tunnel in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J.

    2005-12-01

    The underground research tunnel, which is under construction in KAERI for the validation of HLW disposal system, is excavated by drill and blasting method using high-explosives. In order not to disturb the operation at the research facilities such as HANARO reactor, it is critical to develop a blasting design , which will not influence on the facilities, even though several tens of explosives are detonated almost simultaneously. To develop a reasonable blasting design, a test blasting at the site should be performed. A preliminary analysis for predicting the expected vibration and noise by the blasting for the construction of the underground research tunnel was performed using a typical empirical equation. From the study, a blasting design could be developed not to influence on the major research facilities in KAERI. For the validation of the blasting design, a test blasting was carried out at the site and the parameters of vibration equation could be determined using the measured data during the test blasting. Using the equation, it was possible to predict the vibration at different locations at KAERI and to conclude that the blasting design would meet the design criteria at the major facilities in KAERI. The study would verify the applicability of blasting method for the construction of a research tunnel in a rock mass and that would help the design and construction of large scale underground research laboratory, which might be carried out in the future. It is also meaningful to accumulate technical experience for enhancing the reliability and effectiveness of the design and construction of the HLW disposal repository, which will be constructed in deep underground by drill and blasting technique

  16. Studies on induced resistance to blast in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingxian

    1985-01-01

    Eleven rice varieties were treated with 60 Co gamma ray, laser and other mutagens. 154 mutants with different characters were developed. 154 mutants and their parents have been inoculated with blast (Piricularia oryzae) races. It was found that the mutants of disease-resistance could be produced. The disease-resistant mutants with various better cheracters were selected. The frequencies of mutation in disease-resistance are different with different parental varieties. After inoculation with 13 blast physiological races, the results showed that the spectrum of resistance of mutants, other characters were changed, when one character was changed. In order to get a veriety with higher yield and disease-resistance, it is important to take account of other economic charaters

  17. Development of plastic media blasting device for stud bolt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihisa, Y.; Miyashita, T.

    1999-01-01

    Plastic media blasting is a mechanical cleaning method for removing paint, rust and/or anti-galling material etc on the surface of metal without damaging the metal surface. The method is suitable for cleaning the surface of reusable elements and parts such as bolts and nuts. Anti-galling material such as molybdenum disulfide is applied to fastening stud bolts used for the steam turbine rotor casing. It is necessary to remove this material when new anti-galling material is to be applied. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Co., and Morikawa Industries Corp., have developed a plastic media blasting device to clean the surface of stud bolt screw threads installed in the facility such as lower casing of the turbine. This paper reports the outline of the results. (author)

  18. Description of Muzzle Blast by Modified Ideal Scaling Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S. Fansler

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Gun blast data from a large variety of weapons are scaled and presented for both the instantaneous energy release and the constant energy deposition rate models. For both ideal explosion models, similar amounts of data scatter occur for the peak overpressure but the instantaneous energy release model correlated the impulse data significantly better, particularly for the region in front of the gun. Two parameters that characterize gun blast are used in conjunction with the ideal scaling models to improve the data correlation. The gun-emptying parameter works particularly well with the instantaneous energy release model to improve data correlation. In particular, the impulse, especially in the forward direction of the gun, is correlated significantly better using the instantaneous energy release model coupled with the use of the gun-emptying parameter. The use of the Mach disc location parameter improves the correlation only marginally. A predictive model is obtained from the modified instantaneous energy release correlation.

  19. Evaluation of the adhesive layer of blast tube using ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon Soo; Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Young Hwan; Cho, Hyun [Dept. of Machanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Soo Yong; Yun, Nam Gyun [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Ki [Korea Inspection and Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Joo [Hankuk Fiber Group, Milyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-05-15

    Ultrasonic testing method has been developed to evaluate adhesive layers in blast tube for the reliability of the rocket. The main objective of the present work was to find debonding and uncharged state between steel and FRP layers. We distinguish the debonding and uncharged state using the resonance method in the adhesive layers. It was found that the higher magnitude of ultrasound is reflected for the uncharged area in frequency domain, and shown good agreements with experimental results. The traditional ultrasonic pulse-echo method offers good implements for the distinction debonding area. The nondestructive testing results were compared with the micrography of destructive testing. As results, ultrasonic testing could be utilized for the evaluation of adhesive layer in the blast tube.

  20. ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA WITHOUT CIRCULATING BLASTS PRESENTING AS SEVERE HYPERCALCEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Oloomi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypercalcemia complicating malignancy is a rare complication in pediatric age group. In this article, we present a case with acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as severe hypercalcemia. A 10 years old girl presented with an acute onset of fever, nausea, vomiting, loss of weight, costovertebral pain and frequency. She was admitted with a presumptive diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Her examination showed mild hepatosplenomegaly. In laboratory studies she had sever hypercalcemia. Despite the absence of circulating blast, bone marrow aspiration was diagnostic of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The hypercalcemia was initially treated with intravenous hydration and furosemide but the serum calcium levels normalized only after the beginning of specific chemotherapy. Hypercalcemia represents an emergency in children, and acute leukemia must be considered in differential diagnosis even when there are no circulating blasts.