WorldWideScience

Sample records for blast injuries

  1. Shock tubes and blast injury modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Lei Ning; Yuan-Guo Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Explosive blast injury has become the most prevalent injury in recent military conflicts and terrorist attacks.The magnitude of this kind of polytrauma is complex due to the basic physics of blast and the surrounding environments.Therefore,development of stable,reproducible and controllable animal model using an ideal blast simulation device is the key of blast injury research.The present review addresses the modeling of blast injury and applications of shock tubes.

  2. Brain Injury Risk from Primary Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    injury has been studied extensively in air-containing organs such as the lungs , gastrointestinal tract, and ear due to their increased...veterans (Owens, 2008). Primary blast injury has been studied extensively in air-containing organs such as the lungs , gastrointestinal tract, and ear... contusions typically on or around the brainstem though there were no skull fractures for any blast intensity. Risk functions were developed that

  3. Blast Injuries: What Clinicians Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of the CDC’s Division of Injury Response, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control provides a brief overview for health care providers on how to respond and care for persons injured by an explosion or blast event.  Created: 11/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 11/6/2008.

  4. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury: a new trend of blast injury research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhao; Zheng-Guo Wang

    2015-01-01

    Blast injury has become the major life-and function-threatening injuries in recent warfares.There is increased research interest in the mental disorders caused by blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI),which has been proved as one of the "signature wounds" in modern battlefield.We reviewed the recent progresses in bTBl-related researches and concluded that the new era of blast injury research has shifted from the traditional physical impairments to cognitive dysfunctional/mental disorders that are proved to be more related to the outcome of combat casualty care.

  5. The radiological management of bomb blast injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, S S; Goddard, I; Ward, P; Naraghi, A; Dick, E A

    2007-01-01

    A need to understand the nature and patterns of bomb blast injury, particularly in confined spaces, has come to the fore with the current worldwide threat from terrorism. The purpose of this review article is to familiarize the radiologist with the imaging they might expect to see in a mass casualty terrorist event, illustrated by examples from two of the main institutions receiving patients from the London Underground tube blasts of 7 July 2005. We present examples of injuries that are typical in blast victims, as well as highlighting some blast sequelae that might also be found in other causes of multiple trauma. This should enable the radiologist to seek out typical injuries, including those that may not be initially clinically apparent. Terror-related injuries are often more severe than those seen in other trauma cases, and multi-system trauma at distant anatomical sites should be anticipated. We highlight the value of using a standardized imaging protocol to find clinically undetected traumatic effects and include a discussion on management of multiple human and non-human flying fragments. This review also discusses the role of radiology in the management and planning for a mass casualty terrorist incident and the optimal deployment of radiographic services during such an event.

  6. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries.

  7. The past and present of blast injury research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhao; Yuan-Guo Zhou

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing incidence of blast injury,the research on its mechanisms and protective measures draws more and more attention.Blast injury has many characteristics different from general war injuries or trauma.For example,soldiers often have various degrees of visceral injury without significant surface damage,combined injuries and arterial air embolism.Researchers in China began to investigate blast injury later than the United States and Sweden,but the development is so fast that lots of achievements have been gained,including the development of biological shock tube,the mechanisms and characteristics of blast injury in various organs,as well as protective measures under special environments.This article reviews the past and current situation of blast injury research in China.

  8. A Blast Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    public release; distribution unlimited Although blast-induced traumatic brain injury (BI- TBI ) is a significant cause of morbidity and behavioral...survival model of BI- TBI in swine. Traumatic Brain Injury , Swine, Blast, Model Development U U U 7 USAMRMC W81XWH-08-2-0082... Injury , TBI Scientific Advisor, Defense Center of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury ) and Dr. Tamara Crowder at the DoD

  9. Combat Helmets and Blast Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Wallace

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and the prominence of traumatic brain injury (TBI, mostly from improvised explosive devices, have focused attention on the effectiveness of combat helmets. Purpose: This paper examines the importance of TBI, the role and history of the development of combat helmets, current helmet designs and effectiveness, helmet design methodology, helmet sensors, future research and recommendations. Method: A literature review was conducted using search terms – combat helmets, traumatic brain injury, concussion, Iraq, Afghanistan and helmet sensors, searching PubMed, MEDLINE, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Conclusions: At present, no existing helmet is able to fully protect against all threats faced on the battlefield. The prominence of traumatic brain injury from improvised explosive devices in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has highlighted the limitations in knowledge about blast and how to provide protection from it. As a result, considerable research is currently occurring in how to protect the head from blast over-pressure. Helmet sensors may provide valuable data. Some new combat helmets may be able to protect against rifle rounds, but may result in injuries occurring behind body armour. Optimal combat helmet design requires a balance between the need for protection from trauma and the comfort and practicality of the helmet for the user to ensure the best outcomes.

  10. Hindfoot injuries due to landmine blast accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Tahir; Husain, Faisal N; Ahmed, Aftab

    2002-03-01

    Landmines were initially developed as anti-tank weapons. They are still used indiscriminately and in a disorganised fashion, violating the United Nations Treaty on their use [United Nations (1980)]. The injury produced by these devices is variable depending upon the construction and strength of the landmine and body parts coming in contact with the landmine at the time of detonation. The purpose of the present study was to report the type of landmine-blast injuries of the lower limbs and the surgical options available to treat them. Twenty-eight patients, all with lower limb injuries were included in the present study. They had received injuries on the control line of the troubled Jammu and Kashmir regions in the north of Pakistan. All were male patients between the age of 13 and 55 years. A salvage procedure for the forefoot was possible on four patients only and all the rest had a below-knee amputation. Time lapsed between the injury and receiving medical help was the crucial determining factor as to the final outcome of the limb. We believe that the pattern of injury, amount of energy dissipation and part of body in contact with the landmine at the time of explosion are the main determining factors for the final outcome. If skin along with the underlying soft tissue and the neuro-vascular structures on the dorsum of the foot are spared then an attempt can be made at limb salvage.

  11. Kevlar Vest Protection Against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-08-2-0017 TITLE: " Kevlar Vest Protection Against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER “ Kevlar Vest Protection Against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology...traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is largely undefined. Along with reducing mortality, in preliminary experiments Kevlar vests significantly protected

  12. Mechanisms of hearing loss after blast injury to the ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Il Cho

    Full Text Available Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body's most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction.

  13. Finite element modeling of blast lung injury in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon

    2015-04-01

    A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep.

  14. Simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-01

    U.S. soldiers are surviving blast and impacts due to effective body armor, trauma evacuation and care. Blast injuries are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in military personnel returning from combat. Understanding of Primary Blast Injury may be needed to develop better means of blast mitigation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of blast direction and strength on the resulting mechanical stress and wave energy distributions generated in the brain.

  15. Blast wave injury prediction models for complex scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teland, J.A.; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Blast waves from explosions can cause lethal injuries to humans. Development of injury criteria has been ongoing for many years, but with the main focus on free field conditions. However, with terrorist actions as a new threat, explosions in urban areas have become of much more interest. Urban areas

  16. Lasting retinal injury in a mouse model of blast-induced trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure is currently the most prevalent of war injuries. While secondary ocular blast injuries due to flying debris are more common, primary ocular blast exposure has been reported among survivors of explosions, but with limited understanding of the resulti...

  17. Genetic Networks Activated by Blast Injury to the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Geisert, Eldon E. Biomarkers for Neuronal Injury Following Blast Trauma to the Eye. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO...Ocular Blast Trauma in the DBA/2J Mouse. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Annual Meeting, May 5-9,2013, Seattle, Washington...Geisert E.E., Joe Caron, XiangDi Wang, SOX11 Marks injured retinal ganglion cells. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO

  18. Incidence of Primary Blast Injury in US Military Overseas Contingency Operations: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    blast lung injury,27 codes 860.4 (traumatic pneumothorax, closed) and 861.21 ( pulmonary contusion , closed) were searched in the JTTR. The records of...the explosion-injured patients with closed pneumothoraces and/or closed pulmonary contusions were re- viewed. Patients found to have rib fractures...pressure. The JTTR was searched for these codes with no results. No specific codes for blast lung injury/ pulmonary blast injury or intes- tinal blast

  19. Neuropsychological outcome from blast versus non-blast: mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. military service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Pancholi, Sonal; Brickell, Tracey A; Sakura, Sara; Bhagwat, Aditya; Merritt, Victoria; French, Louis M

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the neuropsychological outcome from blast-related versus non-blast related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Participants were 56 U.S. military service members who sustained an MTBI, divided into two groups based on mechanism of injury: (a) non-blast related (Non-blast; n = 21), and (b) blast plus secondary blunt trauma (Blast Plus; n = 35). All participants had sustained their injury in theatre whilst deployed during Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom. Patients had been seen for neuropsychological evaluation at Walter Reed Army Medical Center on average 4.4 months (SD = 4.1) post-injury. Measures included 14 clinical scales from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and 12 common neurocognitive measures. For the PAI, there were no significant differences between groups on all scales (p > .05). However, medium effect sizes were found for the Depression (d = .49) and Stress (d = .47) scales (i.e., Blast Plus > Non-blast). On the neurocognitive measures, after controlling for the influence of psychological distress (i.e., Depression, Stress), there were no differences between the Non-blast and Blast Plus groups on all measures. These findings provide little evidence to suggest that blast exposure plus secondary blunt trauma results in worse cognitive or psychological recovery than blunt trauma alone. (JINS, 2012, 18, 595-605).

  20. A review of three cases of mobile blast: The new culprit of hand injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj B Mody

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although blast injuries are common with war; cooking gas; firecracker, mobile phone blast cases are increasing in number in last couple of years. We present 3 cases of mobile blast in 3 children causing injury to dominant hand in them.

  1. [Fatal explosion injuries from blasting a cigarette machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madea, Burkhard; Ridwan, Hani; Längin, Volker; Doberentz, Elke

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, a growing number of cases have been reported in Germany in which vending machines have been blasted by criminals to get at the money. Thus, it was only a question of time for the first fatalities to occur as a consequence of such careless explosions. We report on the death of a 16-year-old boy who died after triggering an explosion by spraying a deodorant into the coin slot of a cigarette machine. Death was caused by severe craniocerebral trauma due to tertiary blast-related injuries when the front plate of the machine hit the victim's cerebral and facial skull.

  2. Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2011-01-21

    In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies

  3. Blast overpressure induced axonal injury changes in rat brainstem and spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasu Kallakuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blast induced neurotrauma has been the signature wound in returning soldiers from the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Of importance is understanding the pathomechansim(s of blast overpressure (OP induced axonal injury. Although several recent animal models of blast injury indicate the neuronal and axonal injury in various brain regions, animal studies related to axonal injury in the white matter (WM tracts of cervical spinal cord are limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of axonal injury in WM tracts of cervical spinal cord in male Sprague Dawley rats subjected to a single insult of blast OP. Materials and Methods: Sagittal brainstem sections and horizontal cervical spinal cord sections from blast and sham animals were stained by neurofilament light (NF-L chain and beta amyloid precursor protein immunocytochemistry and observed for axonal injury changes. Results: Observations from this preliminary study demonstrate axonal injury changes in the form of prominent swellings, retraction bulbs, and putative signs of membrane disruptions in the brainstem and cervical spinal cord WM tracts of rats subjected to blast OP. Conclusions: Prominent axonal injury changes following the blast OP exposure in brainstem and cervical spinal WM tracts underscores the need for careful evaluation of blast induced injury changes and associated symptoms. NF-L immunocytochemistry can be considered as an additional tool to assess the blast OP induced axonal injury.

  4. Development of Experimental Tissue Models for Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin; Bo, Chiara; Williams, Alun; Jardine, Andy; Brown, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    There is a pressing need to better understand the relationship between the intensity of a blast wave and the clinical consequences for victims of an explosion. In order to quantitatively study how these factors correlate with one another, blast injury tissue models are being developed. Sections of larynx, trachea and pulmonary tissue were excised from a recently sacrificed pig and maintained on ice prior to testing. The samples were subjected to strain rates of between 0.001 s-1 and 1000 s-1 in the laboratory by using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar and quasi-static testing apparatus. During high strain rate testing, samples were housed in a polycarbonate chamber which permitted experimentation on tissue held in fluid. Data were analysed using 1, 2 and 3 wave analysis software in Matlab to yield information about the material properties of both undamaged and damaged tissues. In addition, macroscopic changes in tissue organization were also visualized using histopathological techniques. This work is being extended to cellular and animal models to derive more detailed information about the underlying molecular changes relating to blast-induced damage and repair. The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies.

  5. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-14

    al (2012) conducted porcine blast experiments in a compressed gas shock tube, and found that the ICP was lower than the reflected pressure and also...was recently shown that TGF beta from immature astrocytes could initiate synaptic elimination in postnatal thalamus by regulating the expression of...Stevens B. TGF-beta signaling regulates neuronal C1q expression and developmental synaptic refinement. Nat Neurosci. Dec 2013;16(12):1773- 1782. 38 22

  6. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    curvature changes. Figure 38. Locations with element disconnect issues 2. Modeling air blast wave propagation using a 2-D to 3-D mapping...sagittal sinus, transverse sinus, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), hemispheres of the cerebrum with distinct white and gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem...brain and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) were meshed and defined with Lagrangian formulation-based elements. The CSF fills the subarachnoid space

  7. Reproduction of an animal model of landmine blast injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce an animal model of landmine blast injuries for studying its mechanism and characteristics. Methods Fifteen healthy New Zealand white rabbits (body weight 1.9-2.4 kg were prepared as experimental animals. Punctiform burster was used to simulate the landmine, and it was electrically detonated far away to produce landmine blast injuries on unilateral hind limb of rabbits in upright state. The vital signs before and 5min, 15min, 30min, 45min, 1h, 2h, 3h, 6h, 9h and 12h after injuries were recorded. Autopsy of dead animals was performed immediately and the survivors were sacrificed for pathological examination 6h and 12h after the injury. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in the injured limb and distant organs were observed. Fifteen random adult body weights were generated by random number table, and the explosive energy of M14 landmine (about 29g TNT explosive energy was simulated, to compare the ratio of explosive force equivalent to weight calculated between experimental animals and randomly selected adults. Results No significant change in blood pressure was observed at different time points before and after injuries. A broom-like change was found in the injured limb by the general observation. The subareas and pathological changes of injured limb coincided with the typical limb injuries produced by landmine explosion. Damage in different degrees was found in distant organs, and the wound characteristics and injury of major organs were in accordance with the reports of relevant literature. The ratio of explosive equivalent to weight of experimental animals (0.50±0.04g TNT/kg was similar to that of randomly selected adults (0.51±0.05g TNT/kg. Conclusion The present animal model could simulate the landmine explosive injuries, and may be used in research of landmine explosive injuries. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.14

  8. Primary Blast Traumatic Brain Injury in the Rat: Relating Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Budde

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI among military personnel is at its highest point in U.S. history. Experimental animal models of blast have provided a wealth of insight into blast injury. The mechanisms of neurotrauma caused by blast, however, are still under debate. Specifically, it is unclear whether the blast shockwave in the absence of head motion is sufficient to induce brain trauma. In this study, the consequences of blast injury were investigated in a rat model of primary blast TBI. Animals were exposed to blast shockwaves with peak overpressures of either 100 or 450 kPa and subsequently underwent a battery of behavioral tests. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, a promising method to detect blast injury in humans, was performed on fixed brains to detect and visualize the spatial dependence of blast injury. Blast TBI caused significant deficits in memory function as evidenced by the Morris Water Maze, but limited emotional deficits as evidenced by the Open Field Test and Elevated Plus Maze. Fractional anisotropy (FA, a metric derived from DTI, revealed significant brain abnormalities in blast-exposed animals. A significant relationship between memory deficits and brain microstructure was evident in the hippocampus, consistent with its role in memory function. The results provide fundamental insight into the neurological consequences of blast TBI, including the evolution of injury during the sub-acute phase and the spatially dependent pattern of injury. The relationship between memory dysfunction and microstructural brain abnormalities may provide insight into the persistent cognitive difficulties experienced by soldiers exposed to blast neurotrauma and may be important to guide therapeutic and rehabilitative efforts.

  9. Assessment of the Knowledge of Blast Injuries Management among Physicians Working in Tripoli Hospitals (Libya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oun, Abdulhakim M; Hadida, Elmokhtar M; Stewart, Charles

    2017-03-08

    Introduction No study on hospital staff preparedness for managing blast injuries has been conducted in Libya. The internal conflict in Libya since 2011 and the difficulties faced by the hospitals has highlighted the need for such studies. Hypothesis Physicians working in Tripoli (capital city Libya) hospitals are inadequately prepared for the management of blast injuries.

  10. An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Aurélie; Nyein, Michelle K; Zheng, James Q; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, John D; Radovitzky, Raúl

    2014-10-28

    Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans.

  11. Modeling Blast-Related Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    02139 D. Moore Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (WRAMC) 6900 Georgia Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20307 L. Noels University of Liege Chemin des...chevreuils 1, B4000 Liege , Belgium ABSTRACT Recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have highlighted the wartime effect of traumatic brain in

  12. Dismounted complex blast injuries: patterns of injuries and resource utilization associated with the multiple extremity amputee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mark; Waterman, Scott; Dunne, James; D'Alleyrand, Jean-Claude; Andersen, Romney C

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this report is to analyze the resource utilization and injury patterns of complex dismounted blast injuries. A retrospective review of U.S. service members injured in combat between 2007 and 2010 was conducted. Data analyzed included age, injury mechanism, amputated limbs, number and type of associated injuries, blood products utilized, intensive care unit length of stay (ILOS), hospital length of stay (HLOS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS). Patients were stratified based on the number of amputations. Sixty-three patients comprised the multiple extremity amputation (MEA) group. Ninety-eight percent sustained injuries from an improvised explosive device (IED) and 96% were dismounted. The ISS, number of surgical encounters, blood products utilized and ILOS were all clinically significantly different than controls. Care of multiple extremity amputees involves the utilization of significant resources. This knowledge may better help surgeons and administrators allocate assets at hospitals, both military and civilian, who care for this complex and challenging patient population.

  13. Working toward exposure thresholds for blast-induced traumatic brain injury: thoracic and acceleration mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael; 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.05.025

    2011-01-01

    Research in blast-induced lung injury resulted in exposure thresholds that are useful in understanding and protecting humans from such injury. Because traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure has become a prominent medical and military problem, similar thresholds should be identified that can put available research results in context and guide future research toward protecting warfighters as well as diagnosis and treatment. At least three mechanical mechanisms by which the blast wave may result in brain injury have been proposed - a thoracic mechanism, head acceleration and direct cranial transmission. These mechanisms need not be mutually exclusive. In this study, likely regions of interest for the first two mechanisms based on blast characteristics (positive pulse duration and peak effective overpressure) are developed using available data from blast experiments and related studies, including behind-armor blunt trauma and ballistic pressure wave studies. These related studies are appropriate to in...

  14. The Role of Posttraumatic Stress in Acute Postconcussive Symptoms following Blast Injury in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-21

    Hovda DA, Giza CC: The molecular pathophysiology of concussive brain injury . Clin Sports Med 2011; 30: 33–48. 7 World Health Organisation, ICD-10...following blast injury in combat 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Richard Bryant /Monty Baker, Jim...personnel are managed in the acute aftermath of a blast injury . Management of PCS needs to recognize the role of acute posttraumatic stress responses in

  15. A multi-mode shock tube for investigation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneer, Dexter V; Hisel, Richard D; Hoffman, Joshua M; Kryscio, Richard J; Lusk, Braden T; Geddes, James W

    2011-01-01

    Blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has become increasingly common in recent military conflicts. The mechanisms by which non-impact blast exposure results in bTBI are incompletely understood. Current small animal bTBI models predominantly utilize compressed air-driven membrane rupture as their blast wave source, while large animal models use chemical explosives. The pressure-time signature of each blast mode is unique, making it difficult to evaluate the contributions of the different components of the blast wave to bTBI when using a single blast source. We utilized a multi-mode shock tube, the McMillan blast device, capable of utilizing compressed air- and compressed helium-driven membrane rupture, and the explosives oxyhydrogen and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX, the primary component of C-4 plastic explosives) as the driving source. At similar maximal blast overpressures, the positive pressure phase of compressed air-driven blasts was longer, and the positive impulse was greater, than those observed for shockwaves produced by other driving sources. Helium-driven shockwaves more closely resembled RDX blasts, but by displacing air created a hypoxic environment within the shock tube. Pressure-time traces from oxyhydrogen-driven shockwaves were very similar those produced by RDX, although they resulted in elevated carbon monoxide levels due to combustion of the polyethylene bag used to contain the gases within the shock tube prior to detonation. Rats exposed to compressed air-driven blasts had more pronounced vascular damage than those exposed to oxyhydrogen-driven blasts of the same peak overpressure, indicating that differences in blast wave characteristics other than peak overpressure may influence the extent of bTBI. Use of this multi-mode shock tube in small animal models will enable comparison of the extent of brain injury with the pressure-time signature produced using each blast mode, facilitating evaluation of the blast wave components

  16. A case study of blast eye injury at work place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Srinivasapuram Krishnacharya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This case report aims at investigating whether two consecutive surgical settings would be beneficial in achieving postoperative success for the patient with blast eye injury. A 45-year-old male patient admitted on 17 th October 2011 with history of blast eye injury. Right eye examination revealed central corneal laceration with incarceration of lens matter, multiple foreign bodies also seen embedded in the eyelid margins and in the left cornea. Computed ocular tomography showed a retained intraocular foreign body (IOFB in the right eye. Simultaneous corneal laceration repair and extraction of the ruptured lens performed as primary procedure under general anesthesia. Intraoperative posterior capsule loss was noticed with vitreous presentation. Anterior vitrectomy with removal of the IOFB was done. Foreign bodies were also removed from the left cornea. Penetrating keratoplasty (PK with scleral fixated intraocular lens implantation executed 4 months later as secondary procedure. Visual acuity maintained at 6/24 in 2 years follow-up. In conclusion, two consecutive surgical settings has the advantage of calculating the intra ocular lens power.

  17. An Animal-to-Human Scaling Law for Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-28

    injury biomechanics (13–15, 17), the peak intra- cranial pressure was chosen as a characteristic metric of blast intensity transmitted to the brain tissue...Management, and Rehabilitation ( Springer , Berlin), pp 1–13. 7. Magnuson J, Leonessa F, Ling GSF (2012) Neuropathology of explosive blast traumatic brain...Front Neurol 3:70. 17. Sundaramurthy A, et al. (2012) Blast-induced biomechanical loading of the rat: An experimental and anatomically accurate

  18. Novel method to dynamically load cells in 3D-hydrogels culture for blast injury studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sory, David R.; Areias, Anabela C.; Overby, Darryl R.; Proud, William G.

    2017-01-01

    For at least a century explosive devices have been one of the most important causes of injuries in military conflicts as well as in terrorist attacks. Although significant experimental and modelling efforts have been focussed on blast injuries at the organ or tissue level, few studies have investigated the mechanisms of blast injuries at the cellular level. This paper introduces an in vitro method compatible with living cells to examine the effects of high stress and short-duration pulses relevant to blast loadings and blunt trauma. The experimental phase involves high strain-rate axial compression of cylindrical specimens within an hermetically sealed chamber made of biocompatible polymer. Numerical simulations were performed in order to verify the experimental loading conditions and to characterize the loading path within the sample. A proof of concept is presented so as to establish a new window to address fundamental questions regarding blast injury at the cellular level.

  19. Compound 49b Reduces Inflammatory Markers and Apoptosis after Ocular Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    few 12 posterior ocular injuries, using high-resolution optical coherence topography , gross pathology, and optokinetics [9]. In this study of...exposure to ocular blast or in closed- globe ocular injuries. For most ocular trauma studies, work has focused on corneal burns or trauma. However...exposure to ocular blast agree with work from corneal burns or other closed globe models. A recent 17 report from British soldiers in Iraq and

  20. E-cigarette Blast Injury: Complex Facial Fractures and Pneumocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Archambeau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (also known as e-cigarettes or e-cigs are becoming a popular method of recreational nicotine use over recent years. The growth of new brands and devices has been outpacing the FDA’s ability to regulate them. As a result, some of these devices fail without warning, most likely from malfunction of the lithium-ion batteries that are in close proximity to volatile compounds within the device. Failures have occurred during both use and storage of the devices or their components. The subsequent injuries from several of these events, including full thickness burns requiring grafting and blast injuries, have been observed at Arrowhead Regional Medical Center, a regional trauma and burn center in southern California. One severe case resulted in several maxillofacial fractures, blurred vision, and pneumocephalus after a device failed catastrophically during use. The patient required close monitoring with serial imaging by neurosurgery in the intensive care unit and multiple procedures by oral maxillofacial surgery to reconstruct his facial bones and soft tissue. Ultimately, the patient recovered with minimal permanent damage, but the potential for further injury or even death was apparent. Cases such as this one are becoming more frequent. It is important to increase awareness of this growing problem for both medical professionals and the general public in order to curb this concerning new trend.

  1. Prospects for studying how high-intensity compression waves cause damage in human blast injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine; Bo, Chiara; Ramaswamy, Arul; Masouros, Spiros; Newell, Nicolas; Hill, Adam; Clasper, Jon; Bull, Anthony; Proud, William

    2011-06-01

    Blast injuries arising from improvised explosive devices are often complex leading to long-term disability in survivors. There is an urgent need to mitigate against the effects of blast that lead to these injuries, and to also improve post-traumatic therapeutic treatments related to problems associated with damage and healing processes and infections. We have initiated multidisciplinary studies to develop experimental facilities and strategies for analyzing the effects blast waves upon the human body, from cellular through to skeletal functions. This work is supported by the Atomic Weapons Establishment and the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, UK.

  2. A multiscale approach to blast neurotrauma modeling:Part II: Methodology for inducing blast injury to in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen B. Effgen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prominent role of improvised explosive devices (IEDs in wounding patterns of U.S. war-fighters in Iraq and Afghanistan, blast injury has risen to a new level of importance and is recognized to be a major cause of injuries to the brain. However, an injury risk-function for microscopic, macroscopic, behavioral, and neurological deficits has yet to be defined. While operational blast injuries can be very complex and thus difficult to analyze, a simplified blast injury model would facilitate studies correlating biological outcomes with blast biomechanics to define tolerance criteria. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI results from the translation of a shock wave in air, such as that produced by an IED, into a pressure wave within the skull-brain complex. Our blast injury methodology recapitulates this phenomenon in vitro, allowing for control of the injury biomechanics via a compressed-gas shock tube used in conjunction with a custom-designed, fluid-filled receiver that contains the living culture. The receiver converts the air shock wave into a fast-rising pressure transient with minimal reflections, mimicking the intracranial pressure history in blast. We have developed an organotypic hippocampal slice culture model that exhibits cell death when exposed to a 530  17.7 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.026 ± 0.017 ms duration and 190 ± 10.7 kPa-ms impulse in-air. We have also injured a simplified in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier, which exhibits disrupted integrity immediately following exposure to 581  10.0 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.067 ms ± 0.006 ms duration and 222 ± 6.9 kPa-ms impulse in-air. To better prevent and treat bTBI, both the initiating biomechanics and the ensuing pathobiology must be understood in greater detail. A well-characterized, in vitro model of bTBI, in conjunction with animal models, will be a powerful tool for developing strategies to mitigate the risks of bTBI.

  3. Postconcussive symptoms after blast and nonblast-related mild traumatic brain injuries in Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Sara M; Pastorek, Nicholas J; Benge, Jared F; Thornton, G Matthew

    2010-09-01

    Blast injury is common in current warfare, but little is known about the effects of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Profile analyses were conducted investigating differences in self-reported postconcussive (PC) symptoms in 339 veteran outpatients with mTBI histories reporting current symptoms based on mechanism of injury (blast only, nonblast only, or both blast and nonblast), number of blast injuries, and distance from the blast. Veterans with any blast-related mTBI history were younger and reported higher posttraumatic stress symptoms than veterans with nonblast-related mTBI histories, with a marginally significant difference in posttraumatic stress symptom report between veterans reporting blast-related mTBI only and those reporting nonblast-related mTBI. The groups did not differ in terms of PC symptom severity or PC symptom cluster profiles. Among veterans with blast-related mTBI histories, PC symptom report did not vary by number of blast-related mTBIs or proximity to blast. Overall, posttraumatic stress symptoms accounted for a substantial portion of variance in PC symptom report. In veteran outpatients with remote mTBI histories who have enduring symptom complaints related to the mTBI, mechanism of injury did not clearly contribute to differential PC symptom severity or PC symptom cluster profile. Proximal rather than distal factors may be important intervention targets in returning symptomatic veterans with mTBI histories.

  4. VRPI Temporal Progression of Closed Globe Injury from Blast Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Experimental animals were separated into three survival time groups: 1 day, 1 week and 4 week. Before the blast exposure was performed, each animal ...150µL was reached. The sample was then separated into three equal tubes. FIGURE 1. PRESSURE-TIME HISTORY AT LOCATION OF ANIMAL PLACEMENT WITHIN BLAST...have found that the behaviorally assessed visual acuity of blast exposed animals is significantly degraded following blast exposure. The decrease in

  5. Common femoral vein reconstruction using internal jugular vein after blast injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Andrew M; West, Charles A; Davis, James A; Gilani, Ramyar; Askenasy, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Common femoral vein traumatic injuries are rare. Surgical management is controversial and by nature case specific. In this report, we present an unusual case of an isolated common femoral vein injury from a gunshot blast repaired with an interposition internal jugular vein bypass. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an isolated common femoral vein reconstructed in this manner.

  6. Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2009-04-30

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts, with debilitating, costly, and long-lasting effects. Although mechanisms by which head impacts cause TBI have been well-researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient skull flexure to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even without a head impact. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for injury diagnosis and armor design.

  7. Studies on blast traumatic brain injury using in-vitro model with shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Peethambaran; Spadaro, John; John, Jennifer; Gharavi, Robert B; Bentley, Timothy B; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2011-06-11

    One of the major limitations in studying the mechanisms of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) or screening therapeutics for protection is the lack of suitable laboratory model systems that can closely mimic the complex blast exposure. Although animal models of bTBI that use shock tubes to mimic blast exposure are available, no high throughput shock tube-based in-vitro models have been reported. Here, we report an in-vitro bTBI model using a compressed air-driven shock tube and mouse neuroblastoma/rat glioblastoma hybrid cells (NG108-15) or SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells in tissue culture plates. Our data showed significant neurobiological effects with decreased adenosine triphosphate levels, increased cellular injury, lactate dehydrogenase release, and reactive oxygen species formation after blast exposure.

  8. Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A New Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, William C; Blackman, Eric G

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become the signature injury of current military conflicts. The debilitating effects of TBI on society are long-lasting and costly. Although the mechanisms by which impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. Various mechanisms, including impacts caused by the blast, have been investigated, but blast-induced deformation of the skull has been neglected. Through the use of hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient flexure of the skull to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even if no impact occurs. This mechanism has implications for the diagnosis of TBI in soldiers and the design of protective equipment such as helmets.

  9. Combined Effects of Primary and Tertiary Blast on Rat Brain: Characterization of a Model of Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    R) asymmetry . Since none of the brain regions exhibited a significant Blast x No. of Events x Side (L/R) interaction, the effect of side was...AD Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0127 TITLE: Combined Effects of Primary and Tertiary Blast on Rat Brain : Characterization of a Model of...Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Joseph Long CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Geneva Foundation, Tacoma, WA

  10. In Silico Investigation of Intracranial Blast Mitigation with Relevance to Military Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    field overpressure was selected to be above the threshold for unarmored blast lung injury given by the Bowen curves, which estimate the tolerance to a...Explosive blast neurotrauma. J Neurotraum 28:815–825. 11. Murray C, et al. (2005) Spectrum of care provided at an Echelon II medical unit during...Nashville, TN), Vol C2.00001. 23. Bowen I, Fletcher E, Richmond D, Hirsch F, White C (1968) Biophysical mechanisms and scaling procedures applicable in

  11. Characteristics of and strategies for patients with severe burn-blast combined injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Jia-ke; SHEN Chuan-an; TUO Xiao-ye; LIANG Li-ming; WANG Shu-jun; SHENG Zhi-yong; LU Jiang-yang; WEN Zhong-guang; YANG Hong-ming; JIA Xiao-ming; LI Li-gen; CAO Wei-hong; HAO Dai-feng

    2007-01-01

    Background Severe burn-blast combined injury is a great challenge to medical teams for its high mortality. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical characteristics of the injury and to present our clinical experiences on the treatment of such cases.Methods Five patients with severe burn-blast combined injuries were admitted to our hospital 77 hours post-injury on June 7, 2005. The burn extent ranged from 80% to 97% (89.6%±7.2%) of TBSA (full-thickness burns 75%-92%(83.4%±7.3%)). All the patients were diagnosed as having blast injury and moderate or severe inhalation injury. Functions of the heart, liver, kidney, lung, pancreas and coagulation were observed. Autopsy samples of the heart, liver, and lungs were taken from the deceased. Comprehensive measures were taken during the treatment, including protection of organ dys function, use of antibiotics, early anticoagulant treatment, early closure of burn wounds, etc. All the data were analyzed statistically with t test.Results One patient died of septic shock 23 hours after admission (four days after injury), the others survived.Dysfunction of the heart, liver, lungs, pancreas, and coagulation were found in all the patients on admission, and the functions were ameliorated after appropriate treatments.Conclusions Burn-blast combined injury may cause multiple organ dysfunctions, especially coagulopathy. Proper judgment of patients' condition, energetic anticoagulant treatment, early closure of burn wounds, rational use of antibiotics, nutritional support, intensive insulin treatment, timely and effective support and protection of organ function are the most important contributory factors in successful treatment of burn-blast combined injuries.

  12. Changes of IL-8 and IL-8 mRNA after blast-fragment combined injury in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jia-chuan; YANG Zhi-huan; DONG Hong; FENG Gong; LI Xiao-yan; YIN You-guo

    2001-01-01

    To explore the characteristics and the mechanism of the blast-fragment combined injury.Methods: After the dogs were inflicted with high-velocity fragment injury on their left hindlimbs after blast injury,the IL-8 in the plasma and lung tissue supernatants were assayed with ELISA, and the expression of IL-8 mRNA in lung tissue was detected with in situ hybridization. Results: The levels of IL-8 in plasma and lung tissues were increased after blast, high velocity fragment and blast-fragment combined injuries respectively. IL-8 mRNA were upregulated after injuries. Conclusion: IL-8 may play a role in the occurrence and development of lung injury.Detecting the plasma levels of IL-8 may be quite helpful to estimate the injury.

  13. Treatment of the mangled lower extremity after a terrorist blast injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langworthy, Michael J; Smith, Jeffrey M; Gould, Mark

    2004-05-01

    Terrorist bombings, with resultant blast injuries, have been increasing in frequency during the past 30 years. Injury to the musculoskeletal system is common in victims who survive such attacks. Substantial injury to the limbs may occur through several different mechanisms, each of which may affect prognosis and alter the treatment algorithm. An analysis of the available literature on terrorism and blast events revealed that resource use of the treating medical facility is high during the initial hours after a blast attack, but usually is manageable. A resource management protocol was developed to organize the treatment of limb salvage into four phases. This management protocol may improve the medical facility's ability to manage system resources while treating patients with severe blast injuries. The decision of whether to salvage or proceed with limb amputation is one of the most difficult in orthopaedic trauma. A basic education in the mechanisms of blast damage, a methodical approach to resuscitation, and mangled extremity treatment, likely can improve surgical success.

  14. A Thoracic Mechanism of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Blast Pressure Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Amy; 10.1016/j.mehy.2008.08.015

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which blast pressure waves cause mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are an open question. Possibilities include acceleration of the head, direct passage of the blast wave via the cranium, and propagation of the blast wave to the brain via a thoracic mechanism. The hypothesis that the blast pressure wave reaches the brain via a thoracic mechanism is considered in light of ballistic and blast pressure wave research. Ballistic pressure waves, caused by penetrating ballistic projectiles or ballistic impacts to body armor, can only reach the brain via an internal mechanism and have been shown to cause cerebral effects. Similar effects have been documented when a blast pressure wave has been applied to the whole body or focused on the thorax in animal models. While vagotomy reduces apnea and bradycardia due to ballistic or blast pressure waves, it does not eliminate neural damage in the brain, suggesting that the pressure wave directly affects the brain cells via a thoracic mechanism. ...

  15. Identical fracture patterns in combat vehicle blast injuries due to improvised explosive devices; a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Commandeur Joris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In November 2008, a surgical team from the Red Cross Hospital Beverwijk, the Netherlands, was deployed in Afghanistan for three months to attend in the army hospital of Kandahar. During their stay, four incidents of armored personnel carriers encountering an improvised explosive device were assessed. In each incident, two soldiers were involved, whose injuries were strikingly similar. Case presentation The described cases comprise paired thoracic vertebral fractures, radial neck fractures, calcaneal fractures and talar fractures. Moreover, the different types of blast injury are mentioned and related to the injuries described in our series. Acknowledging the different blast mechanisms is important for understanding possible injury patterns. Conclusion From this case series, as well as the existing literature on injury patterns caused by blast injuries, it seems appropriate to pay extra attention to bodily areas that were injured in other occupants of the same vehicle. Obviously, the additional surveillance for specific injuries should be complementary to the regular trauma work-up (e.g., ATLS.

  16. Skull flexure from blast waves: a mechanism for brain injury with implications for helmet design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2009-04-14

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts. The debilitating effects of TBI are long-lasting and costly. Although the mechanisms by which impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. Various possibilities have been investigated, but blast-induced deformation of the skull has been neglected. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that nonlethal blasts can induce sufficient flexure of the skull to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even if no impact occurs. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for the diagnosis of soldiers and the design of protective equipment such as helmets.

  17. Blast Exposure Induces Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder-Related Traits in a Rat Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Elder, Gregory A; Dorr, Nathan P.; De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A.; Shaughness, Michael C.; Maudlin-Jeronimo, Eric; Hall, Aaron A; McCarron, Richard M.; Ahlers, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Blast related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major cause of injury in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. A striking feature of the mild TBI (mTBI) cases has been the prominent association with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, because of the overlapping symptoms, distinction between the two disorders has been difficult. We studied a rat model of mTBI in which adult male rats were exposed to repetitive blast injury while under anesthesia. Blast exposure induced a variety ...

  18. Measuring Intracranial Pressure and Correlation with Severity of Blast Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    PLoS One, 2012. 7(4): p. e34504. 22. Ansari, M.A., K.N. Roberts, and S.W. Scheff, A time course of contusion -induced oxidative stress and synaptic...response to pulmonary blast injury. J. Trauma 40, 100S–104S. Cernak, I., Wang, Z., Jiang, J., Bian, X., and Savic, J. (2001). Ultrastructural and

  19. Wartime spine injuries: understanding the improvised explosive device and biophysics of blast trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A; Carragee, Eugene J

    2012-09-01

    The improvised explosive device (IED) has been the most significant threat by terrorists worldwide. Blast trauma has produced a wide pattern of combat spinal column injuries not commonly experienced in the civilian community. Unfortunately, explosion-related injuries have also become a widespread reality of civilian life throughout the world, and civilian medical providers who are involved in emergency trauma care must be prepared to manage casualties from terrorist attacks using high-energy explosive devices. Treatment decisions for complex spine injuries after blast trauma require special planning, taking into consideration many different factors and the complicated multiple organ system injuries not normally experienced at most civilian trauma centers. Therefore, an understanding about the effects of blast trauma by spine surgeons in the community has become imperative, as the battlefield has been brought closer to home in many countries through domestic terrorism and mass casualty situations, with the lines blurred between military and civilian trauma. We set out to provide the spine surgeon with a brief overview on the use of IEDs for terrorism and the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and also a perspective on the biophysics of blast trauma.

  20. Primary blast causes mild, moderate, severe and lethal TBI with increasing blast overpressures: Experimental rat injury model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vikas; Skotak, Maciej; Schuetz, Heather; Heller, Abi; Haorah, James; Chandra, Namas

    2016-06-01

    Injury severity in blast induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI) increases with blast overpressure (BOP) and impulse in dose-dependent manner. Pure primary blast waves were simulated in compressed gas shock-tubes in discrete increments. Present work demonstrates 24 hour survival of rats in 0–450 kPa (0–800 Pa•s impulse) range at 10 discrete levels (60, 100, 130, 160, 190, 230, 250, 290, 350 and 420 kPa) and determines the mortality rate as a non-linear function of BOP. Using logistic regression model, predicted mortality rate (PMR) function was calculated, and used to establish TBI severities. We determined a BOP of 145 kPa as upper mild TBI threshold (5% PMR). Also we determined 146–220 kPa and 221–290 kPa levels as moderate and severe TBI based on 35%, and 70% PMR, respectively, while BOP above 290 kPa is lethal. Since there are no standards for animal bTBI injury severity, these thresholds need further refinements using histopathology, immunohistochemistry and behavior. Further, we specifically investigated mild TBI range (0–145 kPa) using physiological (heart rate), pathological (lung injury), immuno-histochemical (oxidative/nitrosative and blood-brain barrier markers) as well as blood borne biomarkers. With these additional data, we conclude that mild bTBI occurs in rats when the BOP is in the range of 85–145 kPa.

  1. Pathological Fingerprints, Systems Biology and Biomarkers of Blast Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Patho- genesis of pulmonary edema caused by blast waves]. Vojno- sanit. Pregl. 48, 507–514. Cernak, I., Savic, J., Zunic, G., Pejnovic, N., Jovanikic...Cernak I, Savic J, Mrsulja B, Duricic B. [Pathogenesis of pulmonary edema caused by blast waves]. Vojnosanit Pregl. 1991;48:507–514 [in Serbian]. 37...generally accepted definition, a biomarker has the characteristic that it can be objectively measured 1Center of Innovative Research, Banyan Biomarkers, Inc

  2. Experimental study of blast-induced traumatic brain injury using a physical head model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiangyue; Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Gennarelli, Thomas A; Son, Steven F

    2009-11-01

    This study was conducted to quantify intracranial biomechanical responses and external blast overpressures using physical head model to understand the biomechanics of blast traumatic brain injury and to provide experimental data for computer simulation of blast-induced brain trauma. Ellipsoidal-shaped physical head models, made from 3-mm polycarbonate shell filled with Sylgard 527 silicon gel, were used. Six blast tests were conducted in frontal, side, and 45 degrees oblique orientations. External blast overpressures and internal pressures were quantified with ballistic pressure sensors. Blast overpressures, ranging from 129.5 kPa to 769.3 kPa, were generated using a rigid cannon and 1.3 to 3.0 grams of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) plastic sheet explosive (explosive yield of 13.24 kJ and TNT equivalent mass of 2.87 grams for 3 grams of material). The PETN plastic sheet explosive consisted of 63% PETN powder, 29% plasticizer, and 8% nitrocellulose with a density of 1.48 g/cm3 and detonation velocity of 6.8 km/s. Propagation and reflection of the shockwave was captured using a shadowgraph technique. Shockwave speeds ranging from 423.3 m/s to 680.3 m/s were recorded. The model demonstrated a two-stage response: a pressure dominant (overpressure) stage followed by kinematic dominant (blast wind) stage. Positive pressures in the brain simulant ranged from 75.1 kPa to 1095 kPa, and negative pressures ranged from -43.6 kPa to -646.0 kPa. High- and normal-speed videos did not reveal observable deformations in the brain simulant from the neutral density markers embedded in the midsagittal plane of the head model. Amplitudes of the internal positive and negative pressures were found to linearly correlate with external overpressure. Results from the current study suggested a pressure-dominant brain injury mechanism instead of strain injury mechanism under the blast severity of the current study. These quantitative results also served as the validation and calibration

  3. Functional Status after Blast-Plus-Impact Complex Concussive Traumatic Brain Injury in Evacuated United States Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    vulnerability to PTSD and depression, blast-related hormonal abnormalities,51 and blast-related injuries to specific parts of the brain causing impaired emotional ...Homaifar, B.Y., Gutierrez, P.M., Staves, P.J., Harwood, J.E., Reeves , D., Adler, L.E., Ivins, B.J., Helmick, K., and Warden, D. (2010

  4. Blast-Induced Acceleration in a Shock Tube: Distinguishing Primary and Tertiary Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Annual, Year 2 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Blast-Induced Acceleration in a Shock Tube : Distinguishing Primary and Tertiary 5a...Using a highly characterized shock tube simulation of blast, rats will be exposed to BOP with varied peak amplitudes and impulse in association...understanding of the relation of the former to the latter. As the use of shock tubes has greatly expanded in recent years for biomedical research

  5. Assessing Quantitative Changes in Intrinsic Thalamic Networks in Blast and Nonblast Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Implications for Mechanisms of Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Dominic E; Bellgowan, Julie F; Oakes, Terrence R; French, Louis M; Nadar, Sreenivasan R; Sham, Elyssa B; Liu, Wei; Riedy, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    In the global war on terror, the increased use of improvised explosive devices has resulted in increased incidence of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Diagnosing mTBI is both challenging and controversial due to heterogeneity of injury location, trauma intensity, transient symptoms, and absence of focal biomarkers on standard clinical imaging modalities. The goal of this study is to identify a brain biomarker that is sensitive to mTBI injury. Research suggests the thalamus may be sensitive to changes induced by mTBI. A significant number of connections to and from various brain regions converge at the thalamus. In addition, the thalamus is involved in information processing, integration, and regulation of specific behaviors and mood. In this study, changes in task-free thalamic networks as quantified by graph theory measures in mTBI blast (N = 186), mTBI nonblast (N = 80), and controls (N = 21) were compared. Results show that the blast mTBI group had significant hyper-connectivity compared with the controls and nonblast mTBI group. However, after controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), the blast mTBI group was not different from the controls, but the nonblast mTBI group showed significant hypo-connectivity. The results suggest that there are differences in the mechanisms of injury related to mTBI as reflected in the architecture of the thalamic networks. However, the effect of PTSS and its relationship to mTBI is difficult to distinguish and warrants more research.

  6. Deficits in Visual System Functional Connectivity after Blast-Related Mild TBI are Associated with Injury Severity and Executive Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-24

    Deficits in Visual System Functional Connectivity after Blast-Related Mild TBI are Associated with Injury Severity and Executive Dysfunction Casey S...5Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 6Iowa City Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Iowa City, Iowa...Keywords blast TBI, executive function, functional connectivity, rest fMRI, TBI severity, traumatic brain injury, Visual Correspondence Casey S. Gilmore, PhD

  7. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Newsome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes. Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate. Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results

  8. A Blast Headform Surrogate for the Assessment of Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    Correct fit of headwear , Representative blast diffraction around headform – Biofidelic wrt internal geometry and material selection: Stress transmission...overpressure histories • With and without protective headwear BI2PED – Recent results Introduction Strategy Facilities Iterations BI2PED & results

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Combat Casualties With Burns Sustaining Primary Blast and Concussive Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    in close proximity to the blast center, can result in eardrum damage (rupture of the tympanic membrane TM), lung damage (pulmonary or alveolar ...rence of psychologic deficit .12,13 The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center reports 22% of soldiers returning from OIF/OEF as having evidence of...psychologic deficit , specifically, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).13 This in- creased risk of altered mental status, concussive symptoms, and PTSD

  10. Time-dependent changes in serum biomarker levels after blast traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorgy, Andrea; Ling, Geoffrey; Wingo, Daniel; Walker, John; Tong, Lawrence; Parks, Steve; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Baumann, Richard; Agoston, Denes V

    2011-06-01

    Neuronal and glial proteins detected in the peripheral circulating blood after injury can reflect the extent of the damage caused by blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI). The temporal pattern of their serum levels can further predict the severity and outcome of the injury. As part of characterizing a large-animal model of bTBI, we determined the changes in the serum levels of S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), myelin basic protein (MBP), and neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H). Blood samples were obtained prior to injury and at 6, 24, 72 h, and 2 weeks post-injury from animals with different severities of bTBI; protein levels were determined using reverse phase protein microarray (RPPM) technology. Serum levels of S100B, MBP, and NF-H, but not NSE, showed a time-dependent increase following injury. The detected changes in S100B and MBP levels showed no correlation with the severity of the injury. However, serum NF-H levels increased in a unique, rapid manner, peaking at 6 h post-injury only in animals exposed to severe blast with poor clinical and pathological outcomes. We conclude that the sudden increase in serum NF-H levels following bTBI may be a useful indicator of injury severity. If additional studies verify our findings, the observed early peak of serum NF-H levels can be developed into a useful diagnostic tool for predicting the extent of damage following bTBI.

  11. Post Mortem Human Surrogate Injury Response of the Pelvis and Lower Extremities to Simulated Underbody Blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ann M; Christopher, John J; Brozoski, Frederick; Salzar, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Military vehicle underbody blast (UBB) is the cause of many serious injuries in theatre today; however, the effects of these chaotic events on the human body are not well understood. The purpose of this research was to replicate both UBB loading conditions and investigate occupant response in a controlled laboratory setting. In addition to better understanding the response of the human to high rate vertical loading, this test series also aimed to identify high rate injury thresholds. Ten whole body post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) tests were completed using the University of Virginia's ODYSSEY simulated blast rig under a range of loading conditions. Seat pan accelerations ranged from 291 to 738 g's over 3 ms of positive phase duration, and foot pan accelerations from 234 to 858 g's over 3 ms of positive phase duration. Post-test computed tomography (CT) scans and necropsies were performed to determine injuries, and revealed a combination of pelvic, lumbar, thoracic, and lower extremity injuries. The research in this paper discusses pelvis and lower extremity injuries under high rate vertical loads.

  12. Neuronal DNA Methylation Profiling of Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yongchao; Chen, Sean; Xin, Yurong; Umali, Michelle U.; De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A.; Ahlers, Stephen T.; Elder, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Long-term molecular changes in the brain resulting from blast exposure may be mediated by epigenetic changes, such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, that regulate gene expression. Aberrant regulation of gene expression is associated with behavioral abnormalities, where DNA methylation bridges environmental signals to sustained changes in gene expression. We assessed DNA methylation changes in the brains of rats exposed to three 74.5 kPa blast overpressure events, conditions that have been associated with long-term anxiogenic manifestations weeks or months following the initial exposures. Rat frontal cortex eight months post-exposure was used for cell sorting of whole brain tissue into neurons and glia. We interrogated DNA methylation profiles in these cells using Expanded Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing. We obtained data for millions of cytosines, showing distinct methylation profiles for neurons and glia and an increase in global methylation in neuronal versus glial cells (p<10−7). We detected DNA methylation perturbations in blast overpressure–exposed animals, compared with sham blast controls, within 458 and 379 genes in neurons and glia, respectively. Differentially methylated neuronal genes showed enrichment in cell death and survival and nervous system development and function, including genes involved in transforming growth factor β and nitric oxide signaling. Functional validation via gene expression analysis of 30 differentially methylated neuronal and glial genes showed a 1.2 fold change in gene expression of the serotonin N-acetyltransferase gene (Aanat) in blast animals (p<0.05). These data provide the first genome-based evidence for changes in DNA methylation induced in response to multiple blast overpressure exposures. In particular, increased methylation and decreased gene expression were observed in the Aanat gene, which is involved in converting serotonin to the circadian hormone melatonin and is implicated in

  13. Blast exposure induces post-traumatic stress disorder-related traits in a rat model of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Gregory A; Dorr, Nathan P; De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A; Shaughness, Michael C; Maudlin-Jeronimo, Eric; Hall, Aaron A; McCarron, Richard M; Ahlers, Stephen T

    2012-11-01

    Blast related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major cause of injury in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. A striking feature of the mild TBI (mTBI) cases has been the prominent association with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, because of the overlapping symptoms, distinction between the two disorders has been difficult. We studied a rat model of mTBI in which adult male rats were exposed to repetitive blast injury while under anesthesia. Blast exposure induced a variety of PTSD-related behavioral traits that were present many months after the blast exposure, including increased anxiety, enhanced contextual fear conditioning, and an altered response in a predator scent assay. We also found elevation in the amygdala of the protein stathmin 1, which is known to influence the generation of fear responses. Because the blast overpressure injuries occurred while animals were under general anesthesia, our results suggest that a blast-related mTBI exposure can, in the absence of any psychological stressor, induce PTSD-related traits that are chronic and persistent. These studies have implications for understanding the relationship of PTSD to mTBI in the population of veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

  14. 肝爆震伤的救治%Treatment of liver blast injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟洪超; 周辉; 姜小清; 蔡岩; 孙茂; 董立军

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical treatment mode of liver blast injury. Methods:The clinical data of 18 patients with liver blast injury who had been treated in our department from May 1998 to December 2013 were studied retrospectively. We summarized the causes of injury, mechanisms,merger injury and compound injury as well as clinical treatment methods and experi-ence to explore the emergency mode of liver blast injury. Results:Wthin 18 cases of liver burst injury, there are pressure cooker ex-plosion (1 case),gas tank explosion (3 cases),fireworks explosion (6 cases), mine gas explosion (8 cases). 14 cases were in hospital-ized immediately within 30minutes-4hours after injury,another 4 cases undergoing initial treatment in other hospital were hospital-ized after the injury within 8 hours. All cases were diagnosed with liver blast injury and merger injury and compound injury.18 cases were variable degrees of shock,there were no single liver blast injury cases . There were 11 cases with varying degrees of burns (5 cases with inhalation injury),2 cases with open fractures,7 cases with lung blast injury,2 cases with spleen rupture,1 case with pan-creatic contusion,3 cases with bowel contusion. All cases were treated by the methods of basical congulation, dressing, fixing ,air ex-haustering of pneumothorax ,oxygen taking and anti shock treatment. 6 cases were cured by non-surgical treatment,the cure rate was 100%(6/6).11 cases were cured by surgical treatment of 12 cases. the cure rate was 91.7%. 1 case died,the mortality rate was 8.3%. Conclusion:The uninterrupted rescue chain model including pre-hospital emergency life-saving,critical evacuation,in-hospi-tal treatment is very important for the patients with liver blast injury. Surgical selection should be differed from conventional surgery for liver blast injury. Treatment of associated injuries should be emphasised.%目的:探讨肝爆震伤的临床救治模式。方法:回顾性分析我科1998年5

  15. Research Advances In Medical Care For Polytrauma Injuries And Blast Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    skin, including pores and hair follicles . WIRELESS AND TETHERLESS Controlled wirelessly and without tethers. Allows more freedom, versatility...2013 Aims • Identify vital mechanisms of neurodegeneration initiated by blast exposure thus defining novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets Approach

  16. From the battlefield to the laboratory: the use of clinical data analysis in developing models of lower limb blast injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Arul; Newell, N; Masouros, S

    2014-06-01

    A key weapon in the insurgents' armamentarium against coalition and local security forces in Iraq and Afghanistan has been the use of anti-vehicle mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Often directed against vehicle-borne troops, these devices, once detonated, transfer considerable amounts of energy through the vehicle to the occupants. This results in severe lower limb injuries that are frequently limb threatening. Fundamental to designing novel mitigation strategies is a requirement to understand the injury mechanism by developing appropriate injury modelling tools that are underpinned by the analysis of contemporary battlefield casualty data. This article aims to summarise our understanding of the clinical course of lower limb blast injuries from IEDs and its value in developing unique injury modelling test-beds to evaluate and produce the next generation of protective equipment for reducing the devastating effects of blast injury.

  17. The complexity of biomechanics causing primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury: a review of potential mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy eCourtney

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary blast induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI is a prevalent battlefield injury in recent conflicts, yet biomechanical mechanisms of bTBI remain unclear. Elucidating specific biomechanical mechanisms is essential to developing animal models for testing candidate therapies and for improving protective equipment. Three hypothetical mechanisms of primary bTBI have received the most attention. Because translational and rotational head accelerations are primary contributors to TBI from non-penetrating blunt force head trauma, the acceleration hypothesis suggests that blast-induced head accelerations may cause bTBI. The hypothesis of direct cranial transmission suggests that a pressure transient traverses the skull into the brain and directly injures brain tissue. The thoracic hypothesis of bTBI suggests that some combination of a pressure transient reaching the brain via the thorax and a vagally mediated reflex result in bTBI. These three mechanisms may not be mutually exclusive, and quantifying exposure thresholds (for blasts of a given duration is essential for determining which mechanisms may be contributing for a level of blast exposure. Progress has been hindered by experimental designs which do not effectively expose animal models to a single mechanism and by over-reliance on poorly validated computational models. The path forward should be predictive validation of computational models by quantitative confirmation with blast experiments in animal models, human cadavers, and biofidelic human surrogates over a range of relevant blast magnitudes and durations coupled with experimental designs which isolate a single injury mechanism.

  18. The nature of white matter abnormalities in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeet P. Hayes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI has been a common injury among returning troops due to the widespread use of improvised explosive devices in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. As most of the TBIs sustained are in the mild range, brain changes may not be detected by standard clinical imaging techniques such as CT. Furthermore, the functional significance of these types of injuries is currently being debated. However, accumulating evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is sensitive to subtle white matter abnormalities and may be especially useful in detecting mild TBI (mTBI. The primary aim of this study was to use DTI to characterize the nature of white matter abnormalities following blast-related mTBI, and in particular, examine the extent to which mTBI-related white matter abnormalities are region-specific or spatially heterogeneous. In addition, we examined whether mTBI with loss of consciousness (LOC was associated with more extensive white matter abnormality than mTBI without LOC, as well as the potential moderating effect of number of blast exposures. A second aim was to examine the relationship between white matter integrity and neurocognitive function. Finally, a third aim was to examine the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to observed white matter alterations. One hundred fourteen OEF/OIF veterans underwent DTI and neuropsychological examination and were divided into three groups including a control group, blast-related mTBI without LOC (mTBI - LOC group, and blast-related mTBI with LOC (mTBI + LOC group. Hierarchical regression models were used to examine the extent to which mTBI and PTSD predicted white matter abnormalities using two approaches: 1 a region-specific analysis and 2 a measure of spatial heterogeneity. Neurocognitive composite scores were calculated for executive functions, attention, memory, and psychomotor speed. Results showed that blast-related mTBI + LOC was associated with greater odds of

  19. Application of silver sulfadiazine cream with early surgical intervention in patients suffering from combined burn-blast injury facial tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein

    2012-01-01

    Severe combined burn-blast injury is a great challenge to surgical teams due to its high mortality. It also results in unsightly traumatic tattoos. The aims of these case reports were to clarify the clinical characteristic of the dynamite explosion burn-blast facial injuries and discuss appropriate management of these patients. We report two patients suffering from facial burn-blast injury following dynamite explosion in which after primary stabilization, silver sulfadiazine cream was applied to the wounds and 12 hours later the wounds were cleaned under general anesthesia with vigorous saline solution irrigation and brushing. The foreign particles were meticulously removed from wounds and simultaneous repairing of defects was done with nylon 6-0 sutures. We conclude application of silver sulfadiazine cream on facial burn-blast injury tattoos several hours before surgical removal of particles is highly efficacious in facilitating particle removal and attaining a good result following surgical intervention, and primary repair. Treatment of combined burn-blast tattoos is different from other types of tattoos not associated with burns. Debridement and removal of foreign particles under general anesthesia from skin immediately and primary reconstruction of wounds is essential. We recommend application of the topical agent silver sulfadiazine to wounds about 12 hours before surgical intervention.

  20. Microcavitation as a Neuronal Damage Mechanism in Blast Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Christian; Estrada, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a leading cause of injury in the armed forces. Diffuse axonal injury, the hallmark feature of blunt TBI, has been investigated in direct mechanical loading conditions. However, recent evidence suggests inertial cavitation as a possible bTBI mechanism, particularly in the case of exposure to blasts. Cavitation damage to free surfaces has been well-studied, but bubble interactions within confined 3D environments, in particular their stress and strain signatures are not well understood. The structural damage due to cavitation in living tissues - particularly at the cellular level - are incompletely understood, in part due to the rapid bubble formation and deformation strain rates of up to ~ 105-106 s-1. This project aims to characterize material damage in 2D and 3D cell culture environments by utilizing a novel high-speed red-blue diffraction assisted image correlation method at speeds of up to 106 frames per second. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the Office of Naval Research (POC: Dr. Tim Bentley).

  1. Neurotransmitter Systems in a Mild Blast Traumatic Brain Injury Model: Catecholamines and Serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Lizan; Arborelius, Ulf P; Yoshitake, Takashi; Kehr, Jan; Hökfelt, Tomas; Risling, Mårten; Agoston, Denes

    2015-08-15

    Exposure to improvised explosive devices can result in a unique form of traumatic brain injury--blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). At the mild end of the spectrum (mild bTBI [mbTBI]), there are cognitive and mood disturbances. Similar symptoms have been observed in post-traumatic stress disorder caused by exposure to extreme psychological stress without physical injury. A role of the monoaminergic system in mood regulation and stress is well established but its involvement in mbTBI is not well understood. To address this gap, we used a rodent model of mbTBI and detected a decrease in immobility behavior in the forced swim test at 1 d post-exposure, coupled with an increase in climbing behavior, but not after 14 d or later, possibly indicating a transient increase in anxiety-like behavior. Using in situ hybridization, we found elevated messenger ribonucleic acid levels of both tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 in the locus coeruleus and the dorsal raphe nucleus, respectively, as early as 2 h post-exposure. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis 1 d post-exposure primarily showed elevated noradrenaline levels in several forebrain regions. Taken together, we report that exposure to mild blast results in transient changes in both anxiety-like behavior and brain region-specific molecular changes, implicating the monoaminergic system in the pathobiology of mbTBI.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of increased cerebral vulnerability after repeated mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Kamnaksh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of a mild traumatic brain injury can be especially severe if it is repeated within the period of increased cerebral vulnerability (ICV that follows the initial insult. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to ICV, we exposed rats to different levels of mild blast overpressure (5 exposures; total pressure range: 15.54–19.41 psi or 107.14–133.83 kPa at a rate of 1 per 30 min, monitored select physiological parameters, and assessed behavior. Two days post-injury or sham, we determined changes in protein biomarkers related to various pathologies in behaviorally relevant brain regions and in plasma. We found that oxygen saturation and heart rate were transiently depressed following mild blast exposure and that injured rats exhibited significantly increased anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. Proteomic analyses of the selected brain regions showed evidence of substantial oxidative stress and vascular changes, altered cell adhesion, and inflammation predominantly in the prefrontal cortex. Importantly, these pathological changes as well as indications of neuronal and glial cell loss/damage were also detected in the plasma of injured rats. Our findings illustrate some of the complex molecular changes that contribute to the period of ICV in repeated mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury. Further studies are needed to determine the functional and temporal relationship between the various pathomechanisms. The validation of these and other markers can help to diagnose individuals with ICV using a minimally invasive procedure and to develop evidence-based treatments for chronic neuropsychiatric conditions.

  3. Blast Injury: Translating Research Into Operational Medicine (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-20

    JA. Cell damage by lithotripter shock waves at high pressure to preclude cavitation . Ultrasound Med Biol. 1999;25(9):1445–1449. 101. Cernak I, Savic...cellular injury, there is also evidence of cellular damage from direct pressure effects. Cavitation , which has been shown to occur at moderate head...lithotripsy studies.100 Depolymerization of spindle microtubules has been observed at very high static pressures (680 atm) and in ultrasound expo sures

  4. Acute Blast Injury Reduces Brain Abeta in Two Rodent Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    De Gasperi 1,2,3, Miguel A. Gama Sosa1,2,3, Soong Ho Kim4, John W. Steele4,5, Michael C. Shaughness6, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo6, Aaron A. Hall 6...Wetzlar, Ger- many). Immunohistochemical staining was performed as previ- ously described ( Gama Sosa et al., 2010) using a rabbit anti-APP antibody APP369...Traumatic brain injury: football, warfare, and long- term effects. N. Engl. J. Med. 363, 1293–1296. Elder, G. A., Dorr, N. P., De Gasperi, R., Gama Sosa, M. A

  5. An open air research study of blast-induced traumatic brain injury to goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Jun Chen; Chuan Xu; Yue Li; Zhi-Qiang Chen; Guan-Hua Li; Zhao-Xia Duan; Xiao-Xia Li

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:We once reported blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) in confined space.Here,bTBI was studied again on goats in the open air using 3.0 kg trinitrotoluene.Methods:The goats were placed at 2,4,6 and 8 m far from explosion center.Trinitrotoluene (TNT) was used as the source of the blast wave and the pressure at each distance was recorded.The systemic physiology,electroencephalogram,serum level of S-100beta,and neuron specific enolase (NSE) were determined pre and post the exposure.Neuroanatomy and neuropathology were observed 4 h after the exposure.Results:Simple blast waveforms were recorded with parameters of 702.8 kPa-0,442 ms,148.4 kPa-2.503 ms,73.9 kPa-3.233 ms,and 41.9 kPa-5.898 ms at 2,4,6 and 8 m respectively.Encephalic blast overpressure was on the first time recorded in the literature by us at 104.2 kPa-0.60 ms at 2 m,where mortality and burn rate were 44% and 44%.Gross examination showed that bTBI was mainly manifested as congestive expansion of blood vessels and subarachnoid hemorrhage,which had a total incidence of 25% and 19% in 36 goats.Microscopical observation found that the main pathohistological changes were enlarged perivascular space (21/36,58%),small hemorrhages (9/36,25%),vascular dilatation and congestion (8/36,22%),and less subarachnoid hemorrhage (2/36,6%).After explosion,serum levels of S100β and NSE were elevated,and EEG changed into slow frequency with declined amplitude.The results indicated that severity and incidence of bTBI is related to the intensity of blast overpressure.Conclusion:Blast wave can pass through the skull to directly injure brain tissue.

  6. Investigation of cavitation as a possible damage mechanism in blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeller, Jacques; Wardlaw, Andrew; Treichler, Derrick; O'Bruba, Joseph; Weiss, Greg

    2012-07-01

    Cavitation was investigated as a possible damage mechanism for war-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to an improvised explosive device (IED) blast. When a frontal blast wave encounters the head, a shock wave is transmitted through the skull, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and tissue, causing negative pressure at the contrecoup that may result in cavitation. Numerical simulations and shock tube experiments were conducted to determine the possibility of cranial cavitation from realistic IED non-impact blast loading. Simplified surrogate models of the head consisted of a transparent polycarbonate ellipsoid. The first series of tests in the 18-inch-diameter shock tube were conducted on an ellipsoid filled with degassed water to simulate CSF and tissue. In the second series, Sylgard gel, surrounded by a layer of degassed water, was used to represent the tissue and CSF, respectively. Simulated blast overpressure in the shock tube tests ranged from a nominal 10-25 pounds per square inch gauge (psig; 69-170 kPa). Pressure in the simulated CSF was determined by Kulite thin line pressure sensors at the coup, center, and contrecoup positions. Using video taken at 10,000 frames/sec, we verified the presence of cavitation bubbles at the contrecoup in both ellipsoid models. In all tests, cavitation at the contrecoup was observed to coincide temporally with periods of negative pressure. Collapse of the cavitation bubbles caused by the surrounding pressure and elastic rebound of the skull resulted in significant pressure spikes in the simulated CSF. Numerical simulations using the DYSMAS hydrocode to predict onset of cavitation and pressure spikes during cavity collapse were in good agreement with the tests. The numerical simulations and experiments indicate that skull deformation is a significant factor causing cavitation. These results suggest that cavitation may be a damage mechanism contributing to TBI that requires future study.

  7. Modeling and simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Taylor, Paul Allen

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm{sup 3} voxels), 5 material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female dataset. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior and lateral directions. Three dimensional plots of maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric (shear) stress within the first 2 milliseconds of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 msec time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI.

  8. High prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Wilkinson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least one year after injury, in 25-50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI, an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least one year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and

  9. Determination of common pathogenic bacteria of blast injury to the limbs in plateau area and related research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-lei WANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the common pathogenic bacteria and their drug susceptibility in the wounds in the limbs as a result of blast injury in plateau with a low temperature so as to provide a basis for prevention and treatment of war wound infection in such area. Methods The model of blast injury was reproduced to the hind legs of 800 rabbits in cold and dry plateau. 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h after injury, the general condition and vital signs of the wounded were observed, and bacterial culture, flora analysis and drug susceptibility test of excretion from wound tract, air, surface of snow, soil and animal fur were performed. Results Micrococciand Bacilliwere found in air and snow. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coliand Pseudomonas aeruginosawere found in soil, and Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacters, Pseudomonas aeruginosaand Escherichia coliin rabbit fur. The respiration and pulse became faster, and body temperature lowered after injury compared with that before injury. G+ bacteria were found in most wound tract secretions, and the frequency of the bacterial strains in descending order were Bacillus subtilis, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophiliastrains. The sensitive antibiotics for these G+ bacteria were ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin. Susceptible G– bacteria were susceptible to ceftazidime, minocycline, sulfamethoxazole etc. Conclusions The growth of bacteria in the wounds as a result of blast injury grow slower in cold and dry alpine area. The time of debridement may be delayed for 2-3h. G+ bacteria were main susceptible flora to antibiotics, and it is related to the bacterial flora of the surrounding environment, thus it is suggested that a combination of different antibiotics (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin or erythromycin alone combined with ceftazidime, minocycline or cotrimoxazole alone are needed to prevent infection after blast injury. DOI: 10.11855/j

  10. A Novel Preclinical Model of Moderate Primary Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divani, Afshin A; Murphy, Amanda J; Meints, Joyce; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Nordberg, Jessica; Monga, Manoj; Low, Walter C; Bhatia, Prerana M; Beilman, Greg J; SantaCruz, Karen S

    2015-07-15

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the "signature" injury of the recent Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Here, we present a novel method to induce bTBI using shock wave (SW) lithotripsy. Using a lithotripsy machine, Wistar rats (N = 70; 408.3 ± 93 g) received five SW pulses to the right side of the frontal cortex at 24 kV and a frequency of 60 Hz. Animals were then randomly divided into three study endpoints: 24 h (n = 25), 72 h (n = 19) and 168 h (n = 26). Neurological and behavioral assessments (Garcia's test, beam walking, Rotarod, and elevated plus maze) were performed at the baseline, and further assessments followed at 3, 6, 24, 72, and 168 h post-injury, if applicable. We performed digital subtraction angiography (DSA) to assess presence of cerebral vasospasm due to induced bTBI. Damage to brain tissue was assessed by an overall histological severity (OHS) score based on depth of injury, area of hemorrhage, and extent of axonal injury. Except for beam walking, OHS was significantly correlated with the other three outcome measures with at least one of their assessments during the first 6 h after the experiment. OHS manifested the highest absolute correlation coefficients with anxiety at the baseline and 6 h post-injury (r(baseline) = -0.75, r(6hrs) = 0.85; p<0.05). Median hemispheric differences for contrast peak values (obtained from DSA studies) for 24, 72, and 168 h endpoints were 3.45%, 3.05% and 0.2%, respectively, with statistically significant differences at 1 versus 7 d (p<0.05) and 3 versus 7 d (p<0.01). In this study, we successfully established a preclinical rat model of bTBI with characteristics similar to those observed in clinical cases. This new method may be useful for future investigations aimed at understanding bTBI pathophysiology.

  11. Development of a new biomechanical indicator for primary blast-induced brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhu; Cliff C.Chou; King H.Yang; Albert I.King

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has been observed at the boundary of brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).Such injury can hardly be explained by using the theory of compressive wave propagation,since both the solid and fluid materials have similar compressibility and thus the intracranial pressure (ICP) has a continuous distribution across the boundary.Since they have completely different shear properties,it is hypothesized the injury at the interface is caused by shear wave.In the present study,a preliminary combined numerical and theoretical analysis was conducted based on the theory of shear wave propagation]reflection.Simulation results show that higher lateral acceleration of brain tissue particles is concentrated in the boundary region.Based on this finding,a new biomechanical vector,termed as strain gradient,was suggested for primary bTBI.The subsequent simple theoretical analysis reveals that this parameter is proportional to the value of lateral acceleration.At the boundary of lateral ventricles,high spatial strain gradient implies that the brain tissue in this area (where neuron cells may be contained) undergo significantly different strains and large velocity discontinuity,which may result in mechanical damage of the neuron cells.

  12. An introductory characterization of a combat-casualty-care relevant swine model of closed head injury resulting from exposure to explosive blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Richard A; Ling, Geoffrey; Tong, Lawrence; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Agoston, Dennis; Delanerolle, Nihal; Kim, Young; Ritzel, Dave; Bell, Randy; Ecklund, James; Armonda, Rocco; Bandak, Faris; Parks, Steven

    2009-06-01

    Explosive blast has been extensively used as a tactical weapon in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and more recently in Operation Enduring Freedom(OEF). The polytraumatic nature of blast injuries is evidence of their effectiveness,and brain injury is a frequent and debilitating form of this trauma. In-theater clinical observations of brain-injured casualties have shown that edema, intracranial hemorrhage, and vasospasm are the most salient pathophysiological characteristics of blast injury to the brain. Unfortunately, little is known about exactly how an explosion produces these sequelae as well as others that are less well documented. Consequently, the principal objective of the current report is to present a swine model of explosive blast injury to the brain. This model was developed during Phase I of the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) PREVENT (Preventing Violent Explosive Neurotrauma) blast research program. A second objective is to present data that illustrate the capabilities of this model to study the proximal biomechanical causes and the resulting pathophysiological, biochemical,neuropathological, and neurological consequences of explosive blast injury to the swine brain. In the concluding section of this article, the advantages and limitations of the model are considered, explosive and air-overpressure models are compared, and the physical properties of an explosion are identified that potentially contributed to the in-theater closed head injuries resulting from explosions of improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

  13. White Matter Abnormalities are Associated with Chronic Postconcussion Symptoms in Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Danielle R.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Lafleche, Ginette; Salat, David H.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common injury among Iraq and Afghanistan military veterans due to the frequent use of improvised explosive devices. A significant minority of individuals with mTBI report chronic postconcussion symptoms (PCS), which include physical, emotional, and cognitive complaints. However, chronic PCS are non-specific and are also associated with mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identifying the mechanisms that contribute to chronic PCS is particularly challenging in blast-related mTBI, where the incidence of co-morbid PTSD is high. In this study, we examined whether blast-related mTBI is associated with diffuse white matter changes, and whether these neural changes are associated with chronic PCS. Ninety Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans were assigned to one of three groups including a blast-exposed no-TBI group, a blast-related mTBI without loss of consciousness (LOC) group (mTBI−LOC), and a blast-related mTBI with LOC group (mTBI+LOC). PCS were measured with the Rivermead Postconcussion Questionnaire. Results showed that participants in the mTBI+LOC group had more spatially heterogeneous white matter abnormalities than those in the no-TBI group. These white matter abnormalities were significantly associated with physical PCS severity even after accounting for PTSD symptoms, but not with cognitive or emotional PCS severity. A mediation analysis revealed that mTBI+LOC significantly influenced physical PCS severity through its effect on white matter integrity. These results suggest that white matter abnormalities are associated with chronic PCS independent of PTSD symptom severity and that these abnormalities are an important mechanism explaining the relationship between mTBI and chronic physical PCS. PMID:26497829

  14. White matter abnormalities are associated with chronic postconcussion symptoms in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Danielle R; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Lafleche, Ginette; Salat, David H; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common injury among Iraq and Afghanistan military veterans due to the frequent use of improvised explosive devices. A significant minority of individuals with mTBI report chronic postconcussion symptoms (PCS), which include physical, emotional, and cognitive complaints. However, chronic PCS are nonspecific and are also associated with mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identifying the mechanisms that contribute to chronic PCS is particularly challenging in blast-related mTBI, where the incidence of comorbid PTSD is high. In this study, we examined whether blast-related mTBI is associated with diffuse white matter changes, and whether these neural changes are associated with chronic PCS. Ninety Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans were assigned to one of three groups including a blast-exposed no--TBI group, a blast-related mTBI without loss of consciousness (LOC) group (mTBI--LOC), and a blast-related mTBI with LOC group (mTBI + LOC). PCS were measured with the Rivermead Postconcussion Questionnaire. Results showed that participants in the mTBI + LOC group had more spatially heterogeneous white matter abnormalities than those in the no--TBI group. These white matter abnormalities were significantly associated with physical PCS severity even after accounting for PTSD symptoms, but not with cognitive or emotional PCS severity. A mediation analysis revealed that mTBI + LOC significantly influenced physical PCS severity through its effect on white matter integrity. These results suggest that white matter abnormalities are associated with chronic PCS independent of PTSD symptom severity and that these abnormalities are an important mechanism explaining the relationship between mTBI and chronic physical PCS.

  15. A Novel Closed-head Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Primary Overpressure Blast to the Cranium Produces Sustained Emotional Deficits in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Heldt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional disorders are a common outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI in humans, but their pathophysiological basis is poorly understood. We have developed a mouse model of closed-head blast injury using an air pressure wave delivered to a small area on one side of the cranium, which we have used to create mild TBI. We found that 20-psi blasts in 3-month old C57BL/6 male mice yielded no obvious behavioral or histological evidence of brain injury, while 25-40 psi blasts produced transient anxiety in an open field arena but little histological evidence of brain damage. By contrast, 50-60 psi blasts resulted in anxiety-like behavior in an open field arena that became more evident with time after blast. In additional behavioral tests conducted 2-8 weeks after blast, 50-60 psi mice also demonstrated increased acoustic startle, perseverance of learned fear, and enhanced contextual fear, as well as depression-like behavior and diminished prepulse inhibition. We found no evident cerebral pathology, however, and only scattered axonal degeneration in brain sections from 50-60 psi mice 3-8 weeks after blast. Thus, the TBI caused by single 50-60 psi blasts in mice exhibits the minimal neuronal loss coupled to diffuse axonal injury characteristic of human mild TBI. A reduction in the abundance of a subpopulation of excitatory projection neurons in basolateral amygdala enriched in Thy1 was, however, observed. The reported link of this neuronal population to fear suppression suggests their damage by mild TBI may contribute to the heightened anxiety and fearfulness observed after blast in our mice. Our overpressure air blast model of concussion in mice will enable further studies of the mechanisms underlying the diverse emotional deficits seen after mild TBI.

  16. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Mild-Moderate Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury PCS and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0962 TITLE: Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Mild-Moderate Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury...Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 30Sep2014 - 29Sep2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0962 Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy in...post- hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Four additional subjects have been screened in October 2015 and nine are awaiting first appointment for

  17. A multiscale approach to blast neurotrauma modeling: Part I - Development of novel test devices for in vivo and in vitro blast injury models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Panzer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The loading conditions used in some current in vivo and in vitro blast-induced neurotrauma models may not be representative of real-world blast conditions. To address these limitations, we developed a compressed-gas driven shock tube with different driven lengths that can generate Friedlander-type blasts. The shock tube can generate overpressures up to 650 kPa with durations between 0.3 and 1.1 ms using compressed helium driver gas, and peak overpressures up to 450 kPa with durations between 0.6 and 3 ms using compressed nitrogen. This device is used for short duration blast overpressure loading for small animal in vivo injury models, and contrasts the more frequently used long duration/high impulse blast overpressures in the literature. We also developed a new apparatus that is used with the shock tube to recreate the in vivo intracranial overpressure response for loading in vitro culture preparations. The receiver device surrounds the culture with materials of similar impedance to facilitate the propagation of a single overpressure pulse through the tissue. This method prevents pressure waves reflecting off the tissue that can cause unrealistic deformation and injury. The receiver performance was characterized using the longest helium-driven shock tube, and produced in-fluid overpressures up to 1500 kPa at the location where a culture would be placed. This response was well correlated with the overpressure conditions from the shock tube (R2 = 0.97. Finite element models of the shock tube and receiver were developed and validated to better elucidate the mechanics of this methodology. A demonstration exposing a culture to the loading conditions created by this system suggest tissue strains less than 5% for all pressure levels simulated, which was well below functional deficit thresholds for strain rates less than 50 s-1. This novel system is not limited to a specific type of culture model and can be modified to reproduce more complex pressure

  18. A Preliminary Investigation of Traumatically Induced Axonal Injury in a Three-Dimensional (3-D) Finite Element Model (FEM) of the Human Head During Blast-Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    SUBJECT TERMS diffuse axonal injury (DAI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), blast TBI (bTBI), computational biomechanics of brain tissue, finite...resulting biomechanical response and injury (11). Therefore, once validated, simulations like this would need to be reanalyzed with typical head-borne...protective systems that might alter the inertial response. 13 Although active muscles have an effect on the response of the cervical spine in

  19. A Systems Science Approach to Understanding Polytrauma and Blast-Related Injury: Bayesian Network Model of Data From a Survey of the Florida National Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyinbo, Peter A; Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Belanger, Heather G; Spehar, Andrea M; Lapcevic, William A; Scott, Steven G

    2017-01-15

    We sought to further define the epidemiology of the complex, multiple injuries collectively known as polytrauma/blast-related injury (PT/BRI). Using a systems science approach, we performed Bayesian network modeling to find the most accurate representation of the complex system of PT/BRI and identify key variables for understanding the subsequent effects of blast exposure in a sample of Florida National Guard members (1,443 deployed to Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom and 1,655 not deployed) who completed an online survey during the period from 2009 to 2010. We found that postdeployment symptoms reported as present at the time of the survey were largely independent of deployment per se. Blast exposure, not mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), acted as the primary military deployment-related driver of PT/BRI symptoms. Blast exposure was indirectly linked to mild TBI via other deployment-related traumas and was a significant risk for a high level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) arousal symptoms. PTSD arousal symptoms and tinnitus were directly dependent upon blast exposure, with both acting as bridge symptoms to other postdeployment mental health and physical symptoms, respectively. Neurobehavioral or postconcussion-like symptoms had no significant dependence relationship with mild TBI, but they were synergistic with blast exposure in influencing PTSD arousal symptoms. A replication of this analysis using a larger PT/BRI database is warranted.

  20. Central nervous system and musculoskeletal medication profile of a veteran cohort with blast-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Dustin D; Bair, Matthew J; Bass, Elizabeth; Campbell, Robert R; Siddharthan, Kris

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the utilization of central nervous system (CNS) and musculoskeletal (MS) medications in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans with blast-related injuries (BRIs). We followed prescription drug use among a cohort of 133 OIF/OEF veterans with BRIs by using the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry, the Tampa Polytrauma Registry, and electronic medical records. We extracted 12 months of national medication records from the Veterans Health Administration Decision Support System and analyzed them with descriptive statistics. Over the 12-month period (fiscal year 2007), CNS medications comprised 27.9% (4,225/15,143) of total prescriptions dispensed to 90.2% (120/133) of our cohort. Approximately one-half (48.9%) of the 133 patients were treated with opioid analgesics. Nearly 60% received antidepressants. More than one-half (51.1%) of patients were treated with anticonvulsants. Benzodiazepines and antipsychotics were dispensed to 17.3% and 15.8%, respectively. For MS medicines, 804 were prescribed for 48.1% (64/133) of veterans. Nearly one-fourth (24.8%) were treated with skeletal muscle relaxants. The CNS and MS medications, in general, were continuously prescribed over the 12-month study period. This study provides insight into the complex medical management involved in the care of veterans with BRIs.

  1. Screening of biochemical and molecular mechanisms of secondary injury and repair in the brain after experimental blast-induced traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Patrick M; Dixon, C Edward; Shellington, David K; Shin, Samuel S; Bayır, Hülya; Jackson, Edwin K; Kagan, Valerian E; Yan, Hong Q; Swauger, Peter V; Parks, Steven A; Ritzel, David V; Bauman, Richard; Clark, Robert S B; Garman, Robert H; Bandak, Faris; Ling, Geoffrey; Jenkins, Larry W

    2013-06-01

    Abstract Explosive blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in modern combat casualty care and has been linked to post-traumatic stress disorder, memory loss, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In this article we report on blast-induced mild TBI (mTBI) characterized by fiber-tract degeneration and axonal injury revealed by cupric silver staining in adult male rats after head-only exposure to 35 psi in a helium-driven shock tube with head restraint. We now explore pathways of secondary injury and repair using biochemical/molecular strategies. Injury produced ∼25% mortality from apnea. Shams received identical anesthesia exposure. Rats were sacrificed at 2 or 24 h, and brain was sampled in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Hippocampal samples were used to assess gene array (RatRef-12 Expression BeadChip; Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA) and oxidative stress (OS; ascorbate, glutathione, low-molecular-weight thiols [LMWT], protein thiols, and 4-hydroxynonenal [HNE]). Cortical samples were used to assess neuroinflammation (cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors; Luminex Corporation, Austin, TX) and purines (adenosine triphosphate [ATP], adenosine diphosphate, adenosine, inosine, 2'-AMP [adenosine monophosphate], and 5'-AMP). Gene array revealed marked increases in astrocyte and neuroinflammatory markers at 24 h (glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and complement component 1) with expression patterns bioinformatically consistent with those noted in Alzheimer's disease and long-term potentiation. Ascorbate, LMWT, and protein thiols were reduced at 2 and 24 h; by 24 h, HNE was increased. At 2 h, multiple cytokines and chemokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-6, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP-1α]) were increased; by 24 h, only MIP-1α remained elevated. ATP was not depleted, and adenosine correlated with 2'-cyclic AMP (cAMP), and not 5'-cAMP. Our data reveal (1) gene-array alterations similar to disorders of

  2. Restoring GM1 ganglioside expression ameliorates axonal outgrowth inhibition and cognitive impairments induced by blast traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubovitch, Vardit; Zilberstein, Yael; Chapman, Joab; Schreiber, Shaul; Pick, Chaim G.

    2017-01-01

    Blast induced traumatic brain injury (B-TBI) may cause various degrees of cognitive and behavioral disturbances but the exact brain pathophysiology involved is poorly understood. It was previously suggested that ganglioside alteration on the axon surface as well as axonal regenerating inhibitors (ARIs) such as myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) were involved in axonal outgrowth inhibition (AOI), leading to brain damage. GM1 ganglioside content in the brain was significantly reduced while GD1 ganglioside was not affected. The axonal regeneration was also reduced as seen by the phosphorylated NF-H expression. Moreover, B-TBI induced a significant elevation in MAG expression in the brains of the injured mice. The blast injured mice exhibited a significant decline in spatial memory as seen by the Y-maze test. In addition, the injured mice showed pronounced damage to the visual memory (as evaluated by the Novel object recognition test). A single low dose of GM1 (2 mg/kg; IP), shortly after the injury, prevented both the cognitive and the cellular changes in the brains of the injured mice. These results enlighten part of the complicated mechanism that underlies the damage induced by B-TBI and may also suggest a potential new treatment strategy for brain injuries. PMID:28112258

  3. [Peculiarities of forensic medical reconstruction of the mechanism of injuries in numerous victims of the explosion of a high-capacity blasting device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkina, N A; Kovalev, A V; Makarov, I Iu

    2013-01-01

    The systemic analysis of forensic medical practice in Moscow during the past 15 years has demonstrated the scientific, practical, and social significance of expertise of peace-time blast injuries resulting from many terrorist attacks with the use of improvised high-capacity explosive devices that caused multiple human victims. The authors emphasize the current lack of objective forensic medical criteria for the reconstruction of the mechanism of injuries in numerous victims of the explosion of a high-capacity blasting device. It dictates the necessity of their development and substantiation of their practical application.

  4. When Physics Meets Biology: Low and High-Velocity Penetration, Blunt Impact, and Blast Injuries to the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leanne; Rule, Gregory T.; Bocchieri, Robert T.; Walilko, Timothy J.; Burns, Jennie M.; Ling, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in the US has reached epidemic proportions with well over 2 million new cases reported each year. TBI can occur in both civilians and warfighters, with head injuries occurring in both combat and non-combat situations from a variety of threats, including ballistic penetration, acceleration, blunt impact, and blast. Most generally, TBI is a condition in which physical loads exceed the capacity of brain tissues to absorb without injury. More specifically, TBI results when sufficient external force is applied to the head and is subsequently converted into stresses that must be absorbed or redirected by protective equipment. If the stresses are not sufficiently absorbed or redirected, they will lead to damage of extracranial soft tissue and the skull. Complex interactions and kinematics of the head, neck and jaw cause strains within the brain tissue, resulting in structural, anatomical damage that is characteristic of the inciting insult. This mechanical trauma then initiates a neuro-chemical cascade that leads to the functional consequences of TBI, such as cognitive impairment. To fully understand the mechanisms by which TBI occurs, it is critically important to understand the effects of the loading environments created by these threats. In the following, a review is made of the pertinent complex loading conditions and how these loads cause injury. Also discussed are injury thresholds and gaps in knowledge, both of which are needed to design improved protective systems. PMID:25999910

  5. Radiological-Pathological Correlations Following Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury in the Whole Human Brain Using ex Vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    injuries caused by non-blast related trauma (e.g. falls, motor vehicle accidents, etc.), post - mortem pathological analyses have revealed that...issues: 1) Selection of control cases: we will select only young, otherwise healthy patients who died from non-head trauma and had a short post - mortem ...20 Oppenheimer, D. R. (1968). "Microscopic lesions in the brain following head injury." J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 31(4): 299-306. http

  6. VRP09 Reduction of Corneal Scarring Following Blast and Burn Injuries to Cornea Using siRNAs Targeting TGFb and CTGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    collagen gene by 97% and of alpha smooth muscle actin ( aSMA ) by 94% in RCF cultures without compromising the viability of the RCF. We then developed...model that simulates blast injuries. The knockdown of collagen and aSMA was very effective in two of three rabbits. We are optimizing the delivery

  7. Neuronal DNA Methylation Profiling of Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Ge, Yongchao; Chen, Sean; Xin, Yurong; Umali, Michelle U.; De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A.; Ahlers, Stephen T.; Elder, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term molecular changes in the brain resulting from blast exposure may be mediated by epigenetic changes, such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, that regulate gene expression. Aberrant regulation of gene expression is associated with behavioral abnormalities, where DNA methylation bridges environmental signals to sustained changes in gene expression. We assessed DNA methylation changes in the brains of rats exposed to three 74.5 kPa blast overpressure events, conditions that hav...

  8. When Physics Meets Biology: Low and High Velocity Penetration, Blunt Trauma and Blast Injuries to the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne eYoung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of TBI in the US has reached epidemic proportions with well over 2 million new cases reported each year. TBI can occur in both civilians and warfighters, with head injuries occurring in both combat and non-combat situations from a variety of threats, including ballistic penetration, acceleration, blunt impact, and blast. Most generally, TBI is a condition in which physical loads exceed the capacity of brain tissues to absorb without injury. More specifically, TBI results when sufficient external force is applied to the head and is subsequently converted into stresses that must be absorbed or redirected by protective equipment. If the stresses are not sufficiently absorbed or redirected, they will lead to damage of extracranial soft tissue and the skull. Complex interactions and kinematics of the head, neck and jaw cause strains within the brain tissue, resulting in structural, anatomical damage that is characteristic of the inciting insult. This mechanical trauma then initiates a neuro-chemical cascade that leads to the functional consequences of TBI, such as cognitive impairment. To fully understand the mechanisms by which TBI occurs, it is critically important to understand the effects of the loading environments created by these threats. In the following, a review is made of the pertinent complex loading conditions and how these loads cause injury. Also discussed are injury thresholds and gaps in knowledge, both of which are needed to design improved protective systems.

  9. Controlled Low-Pressure Blast-Wave Exposure Causes Distinct Behavioral and Morphological Responses Modelling Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Comorbid Mild Traumatic Brain Injury-Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Amitai; Ram, Omri; Ifergane, Gal; Matar, Michael A; Sagi, Ram; Ostfeld, Ishay; Hoffman, Jay R; Kaplan, Zeev; Sadot, Oren; Cohen, Hagit

    2017-01-01

    The intense focus in the clinical literature on the mental and neurocognitive sequelae of explosive blast-wave exposure, especially when comorbid with post-traumatic stress-related disorders (PTSD) is justified, and warrants the design of translationally valid animal studies to provide valid complementary basic data. We employed a controlled experimental blast-wave paradigm in which unanesthetized animals were exposed to visual, auditory, olfactory, and tactile effects of an explosive blast-wave produced by exploding a thin copper wire. By combining cognitive-behavioral paradigms and ex vivo brain MRI to assess mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) phenotype with a validated behavioral model for PTSD, complemented by morphological assessments, this study sought to examine our ability to evaluate the biobehavioral effects of low-intensity blast overpressure on rats, in a translationally valid manner. There were no significant differences between blast- and sham-exposed rats on motor coordination and strength, or sensory function. Whereas most male rats exposed to the blast-wave displayed normal behavioral and cognitive responses, 23.6% of the rats displayed a significant retardation of spatial learning acquisition, fulfilling criteria for mTBI-like responses. In addition, 5.4% of the blast-exposed animals displayed an extreme response in the behavioral tasks used to define PTSD-like criteria, whereas 10.9% of the rats developed both long-lasting and progressively worsening behavioral and cognitive "symptoms," suggesting comorbid PTSD-mTBI-like behavioral and cognitive response patterns. Neither group displayed changes on MRI. Exposure to experimental blast-wave elicited distinct behavioral and morphological responses modelling mTBI-like, PTSD-like, and comorbid mTBI-PTSD-like responses. This experimental animal model can be a useful tool for elucidating neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of blast-wave-induced mTBI and PTSD and comorbid mTBI-PTSD.

  10. Mechanical Loading of Neurons and Astrocytes with Application to Blast Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    traumatic brain injury ( TBI ). Neurons and astrocytes are susceptible to damage mechanisms arising from various...further developments may be pursued to unravel the key mechanical pathways potentially involved in TBI . 1. INTRODUCTION Traumatic brain injury ... injury mechanisms at the cellular level. This is especially important when studying traumatic brain injury ( TBI ). Neurons and astrocytes

  11. Primary Blast Traumatic Brain Injury in the Rat: Relating Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-14

    719–726 9. Kerr ZY, Marshall SW, Harding HP Jr, Guskiewicz KM. Nine- year risk of depression diagno- sis increases with increasing self- reported...Kou Z, Shen Y, Vandevord P, et al. Blast- induced tinnitus and hearing loss in rats: behavioral and imaging assays. J Neurotrauma (2012) 29:430–44. doi

  12. Mechanism of blood-brain barrier impairment after mild traumatic brain injury caused by blast shock waves and its relationship with delayed nerve dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-xi XU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI caused by blast shock waves (BSWs is one of the most common injuries among soldiers in the war. Such mTBI can also happen in civilians if exposed to shock waves of accidental explosion disasters, bomb attacks by terrorists and so on. This injury often results in cognitive problems, memory dysfunction and emotional disorder, and these neurological deficits are closely related to the dysfunction or disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. The present paper discusses mainly the relationship between dysfunction or disruption of BBB and inflammatory reaction in mild brain injury associated with explosive shock wave and effects of early intervention of oxidative stress injury, repairing the BBB and blocking inflammation on relieving delayed neurological deficits. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.05.15

  13. Pattern of injury in those dying from traumatic amputation caused by bomb blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J B; Bowyer, G W; Cooper, G J; Crane, J

    1994-08-01

    Traumatic amputation of limbs caused by bomb blast carries a high risk of mortality. This paper describes 73 amputations in 34 deaths from bomb blast in Northern Ireland. The principal aim was to determine the sites of traumatic amputation to provide a biophysical basis for the development of protective measures. Few amputations were through joints; nearly all were through the bone shafts. The most common site in the tibia was the upper third. The distribution of femoral sites resulting from car bombs differed from that characterizing other types of explosion. For car bombs the principal site of amputation was the upper third; for other types of device it was the lower third. It is concluded that flailing is not a notable contributor to limb avulsion. The pattern of amputation is consistent with direct local pressure loads leading to bone fracture; the amputation itself is a secondary event arising from the flow of combustion products.

  14. Modulation of Cholinergic Pathways and Inflammatory Mediators in Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation including cross-talk between central and peripheral immune systems is considered to be a primary event after blast exposure...cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway has been proposed as a link in neuroimmunomodulation, especially during stress con- ditions [8–11]. Neuroinflammation is...BINT) elicits early complement activation and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) release in a rat brain, J. Neurol. Sci. 318 (2012) 146–154. [8

  15. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Conduction Aphasia from a Close Proximity Blast Resulting in Arcuate Fasciculus Damage Diagnosed on DTI Tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    November 2009 issue. 1 The authors present a case demonstrating that a blast injury was associated with both conduction aphasia and an abnormality in...communication which are described below as conduction aphasia and neurogenic stuttering secondary to the aphasia. Also, his family felt that his personality... stuttering , and “mumbling” speech. In continued evaluation, estimated premorbid intellectual ability was at least in the average range. Speech

  16. An Introductory Characterization of a Combat-Casualty-Care Relevant Swine Model of Closed Head Injury Resulting from Exposure to Explosive Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-08

    Richard Bauman, Geoffrey Ling, Lawrence Tong, Adolph Januszkiewicz , Denes Agoston, Nihal Delanerolle, Young Kim, Dave Ritzel, Randy Bell, James Ecklund...of Closed Head Injury Resulting from Exposure to Explosive Blast* Richard A. Bauman,1 Geoffrey Ling,2 Lawrence Tong,3 Adolph Januszkiewicz ,4 Denes...inflammation, and neuronal death cascades. J. Neurotrauma 26, 901-911. Ananiadou, O., Bibou, K ., Drossos, G., Bai, M., Haj-Yahia, S., Charchardi, A., and

  17. Expression of galanin and its receptors are perturbed in a rodent model of mild, blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Lizan; Barde, Swapnali; Arborelius, Ulf P; Theodorsson, Elvar; Agoston, Denes; Risling, Mårten; Hökfelt, Tomas

    2016-05-01

    The symptomatology, mood and cognitive disturbances seen in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury (mbTBI) overlap considerably. However the pathological mechanisms underlying the two conditions are currently unknown. The neuropeptide galanin has been suggested to play a role in the development of stress and mood disorders. Here we applied bio- and histochemical methods with the aim to elucidate the nature of any changes in the expression of galanin and its receptors in a rodent model of mbTBI. In situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies revealed significant, injury-induced changes, in some cases lasting at least for one week, in the mRNA levels of galanin and/or its three receptors, galanin receptor 1-3 (GalR1-3). Such changes were seen in several forebrain regions, and the locus coeruleus. In the ventral periaqueductal gray GalR1 mRNA levels were increased, while GalR2 were decreased. Analysis of galanin peptide levels using radioimmunoassay demonstrated an increase in several brain regions including the locus coeruleus, dorsal hippocampal formation and amygdala. These findings suggest a role for the galanin system in the endogenous response to mbTBI, and that pharmacological studies of the effects of activation or inhibition of different galanin receptors in combination with functional assays of behavioral recovery may reveal promising targets for new therapeutic strategies in mbTBI.

  18. Assessment of the Effects of Acute and Repeated Exposure to Blast Overpressure in Rodents: Towards a Greater Understanding of Blast and the Potential Ramifications for Injury in Humans Exposed to Blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Thomas Ahlers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI resulting from exposure to improvised explosive devices (IEDs has fueled a requirement to develop animals models that mirror this condition using exposure to blast overpressure (BOP. En route to developing a model of repeated exposure to BOP we sought to initially characterize the effects of acute BOP exposure in rodents, focusing specifically on the levels of BOP exposure that produced clinical mTBI symptoms. We first measured BOP effects on gross motor function on a balance beam. Separate groups of unanesthetized rats were exposed (in different orientations to 40 kPa, 75 kPa and 120 kPa BOP exposure inside a pneumatically driven shock tube. Results demonstrated that rats exposed to 120 kPa demonstrated transient alterations or loss of consciousness indicated by a transient loss of righting and by increased latencies on the balance beam. The 120 kPa exposure was the threshold for overt pathology for acute BOP exposure with approximately 30% of rats presenting with evidence of subdural hemorrhage and cortical contusions. All animals exposed to 120 kPa BOP manifested evidence of significant pulmonary hemorrhage. Anterograde memory deficits were observed in rats exposed to 75 kPa facing the BOP wave and rats exposed to 120 kPa in the lateral (side orientation. We next assessed repeated exposure to either lateral or frontal 40 kPa BOP in anesthetized rats, once per day for 12 days. Results showed that repeated exposure in the frontal, but not side, orientation to the BOP wave produced a transitory learning deficit on a Morris water maze (MWM task as shown by significantly longer latencies to reach the submerged platform in the second and third blocks of a four block session. Implications of these data are discussed in relation to the manifestation of mTBI in military personnel exposed to IEDs. Finally, we suggest that there are multiple types of brain injury from blast.

  19. Glyburide - Novel Prophylaxis and Effective Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ABSTRACT The overall subject of this project is blast- traumatic brain injury (blast- TBI ) and the role of the SUR1-regulated NCCa-ATP channel in blast- TBI ...project is blast- traumatic brain injury (blast- TBI ) and the role of the SUR1-regulated NCCa-ATP channel in secondary injury following blast- TBI . The...effective treatment for traumatic brain injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: J. Marc Simard, M.D., Ph.D

  20. Glyburide - Novel Prophylaxis and Effective Treatment for Blast-Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    the solution as needed using a minimum amount of NaOH to a pH approximately 8 to 8.5. Solutions prepared in this way and stored at 37°C for 48 hours... Sensor Walk, an Pre-train on 24 hr Results Fig. 5 sions. only Blast ficits in no eous Reari truncal sta nt with glib lans test o laxis trea...Simard JM, Woo SK, Bhatta S, Gerzanich V. Drugs acting on SUR1 to treat CNS ischemia and trauma. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2008; 8(1):42-9. PM:18032110

  1. Blood Brain Barrier Dysfunction and Delayed Neurological Deficits in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Induced by Blast Shock Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Shetty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI resulting from exposure to blast shock waves (BSWs is one of the most predominant causes of illnesses among veterans who served in the recent Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Such mTBI can also happen to civilians if exposed to shock waves of bomb attacks by terrorists. While cognitive problems, memory dysfunction, depression, anxiety and diffuse white matter injury have been observed at both early and/or delayed time-points, an initial brain pathology resulting from exposure to BSWs appears to be the dysfunction or disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. Studies in animal models suggest that exposure to relatively milder BSWs (123 kPa initially induces free radical generating enzymes in and around brain capillaries, which enhances oxidative stress resulting in loss of tight junction proteins, edema formation, and leakiness of BBB with disruption or loss of its components pericytes and astrocyte end-feet. On the other hand, exposure to more intense BSWs (145-323 kPa causes acute disruption of the BBB with vascular lesions in the brain. Both of these scenarios lead to apoptosis of endothelial and neural cells and neuroinflammation in and around capillaries, which may progress into chronic traumatic encephalopathy and/or a variety of neurological impairments, depending on brain regions that are afflicted with such lesions. This review discusses studies that examined alterations in the brain milieu causing dysfunction or disruption of the BBB and neuroinflammation following exposure to different intensities of BSWs. Furthermore, potential of early intervention strategies capable of easing oxidative stress, repairing the BBB or blocking inflammation for minimizing delayed neurological deficits resulting from exposure to BSWs is conferred.

  2. Amelioration of acute sequelae of blast induced mild traumatic brain injury by N-acetyl cysteine: a double-blind, placebo controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Hoffer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI secondary to blast exposure is the most common battlefield injury in Southwest Asia. There has been little prospective work in the combat setting to test the efficacy of new countermeasures. The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC versus placebo on the symptoms associated with blast exposure mTBI in a combat setting. METHODS: This study was a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled study that was conducted on active duty service members at a forward deployed field hospital in Iraq. All symptomatic U.S. service members who were exposed to significant ordnance blast and who met the criteria for mTBI were offered participation in the study and 81 individuals agreed to participate. Individuals underwent a baseline evaluation and then were randomly assigned to receive either N-acetyl cysteine (NAC or placebo for seven days. Each subject was re-evaluated at 3 and 7 days. Outcome measures were the presence of the following sequelae of mTBI: dizziness, hearing loss, headache, memory loss, sleep disturbances, and neurocognitive dysfunction. The resolution of these symptoms seven days after the blast exposure was the main outcome measure in this study. Logistic regression on the outcome of 'no day 7 symptoms' indicated that NAC treatment was significantly better than placebo (OR = 3.6, p = 0.006. Secondary analysis revealed subjects receiving NAC within 24 hours of blast had an 86% chance of symptom resolution with no reported side effects versus 42% for those seen early who received placebo. CONCLUSION: This study, conducted in an active theatre of war, demonstrates that NAC, a safe pharmaceutical countermeasure, has beneficial effects on the severity and resolution of sequelae of blast induced mTBI. This is the first demonstration of an effective short term countermeasure for mTBI. Further work on long term outcomes and the potential use of NAC in civilian m

  3. A Computational Model of the Eye for Primary and Secondary Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    FinalReport_W81XWH-05-2-0055--July2011Update.pdf(Accessed  July  23,  2012).     20Alphonse  VD,   Kemper  AR,  Strom  BT,Beeman  SM...46Alphonse VD, Kemper AR, Strom BT,Beeman SM, Duma SM, (2012). Mechanisms of Eye Injuries From Fireworks, JAMA.Vol 308(1) p 33-34. 47Stefan M

  4. Blast and the Consequences on Traumatic Brain Injury-Multiscale Mechanical Modeling of Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    brain and spinal cord injury, is the largest contributor to a poor neurological outcome in survivors of brain and spinal cord trauma. Microscale...anatomical features of a 50th percentile male head, including the brain, falx and tentorium, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), duramater, piamater, facial...discretized finite elements. (b) Sections of the head model; the right half of the head model is shown with the brain, the meningeal layers (dura

  5. A Fluid Helmet Liner for Protection Against Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Induced Traumatic Brain Injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-08-1-0261 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Young, Laurence , R... Laurence R. Young Steven F. Son George A. Christou Matthew D. Alley Rahul Goel Andrew P. Vechart Benjamin R. Schimizze Table of Contents...Beach, South Carolina, Battelle Press, Columbus, pp. 29-38,1997. 10. Grover ,R., Ree , F. A., and Holmes, N., "Equation of state from Si02 Aerogel

  6. Characterizing effects of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder on balance impairments in blast-exposed servicemembers and Veterans using computerized posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Joanna R; Hoke, Kathy W; Walker, William; Franke, Laura Manning; Cifu, David X; Carne, William; Ford-Smith, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    The high rate of blast exposures experienced by U.S. servicemembers (SMs) during the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has resulted in frequent combat-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs). Dizziness and postural instability can persist after mTBI as a component of postconcussion syndrome, but also occur among the somatic complaints of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goals of this study were to examine the use of computerized posturography (CPT) to objectively characterize chronic balance deficits after mTBI and to explore the utility of CPT in distinguishing between combat and blast-exposed participants with and without mTBI and PTSD. Data were analyzed from a subject pool of 166 combat-exposed SMs and Veterans who had a blast experience within the past 2 yr while deployed. Using nonparametric tests and measures of impairment, we found that balance was deficient in participants diagnosed with mTBI with posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) or PTSD versus those with neither and that deficits were amplified for participants with both diagnoses. In addition, unique deficiencies were found using CPT for individuals having isolated mTBI with PTA and isolated PTSD. Computerized balance assessment offers an objective technique to examine the physiologic effects and provide differentiation between participants with combat-associated mTBI and PTSD.

  7. Assessment and Treatment of Blast-Induced Auditory and Vestibular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway...4 4. Impact…………………………...……………………………………… 7 5. Changes/Problems...….……………………………………………… 7 6. Products …………………………………….……….….…………….. 7... product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), inner ear, vestibular, injury 3. Accomplishments Specific Aims: 1. To determine whether exposure to a

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy ameliorates local brain metabolism, brain edema and inflammatory response in a blast-induced traumatic brain injury model in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongming; Yang, Yanyan; Tang, Hong; Sun, Wenjiang; Xiong, Xiaoxing; Smerin, Daniel; Liu, Jiachuan

    2014-05-01

    Many studies suggest that hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) can provide some clinically curative effects on blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). The specific mechanism by which this occurs still remains unknown, and no standardized time or course of hyperbaric oxygen treatment is currently used. In this study, bTBI was produced by paper detonators equivalent to 600 mg of TNT exploding at 6.5 cm vertical to the rabbit's head. HBO (100% O2 at 2.0 absolute atmospheres) was used once, 12 h after injury. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed to investigate the impact of HBOT on the metabolism of local injured nerves in brain tissue. We also examined blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, brain water content, apoptotic factors, and some inflammatory mediators. Our results demonstrate that hyperbaric oxygen could confer neuroprotection and improve prognosis after explosive injury by promoting the metabolism of local neurons, inhibiting brain edema, protecting BBB integrity, decreasing cell apoptosis, and inhibiting the inflammatory response. Furthermore, timely intervention within 1 week after injury might be more conducive to improving the prognosis of patients with bTBI.

  9. 爆竹火药爆炸烧伤伴吸入性损伤的救治%Treatment on the patients of fireworks gunpowder blast injury accompanied with inhalation injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭利刚; 葛礼正; 王凌东; 焦洋; 刘安军; 苏显林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To summarize the experiences of treatment on the patients of fireworks gunpowder blast injury accompanied with inhalation injury. Methods Eighty four cases rescued in this hospital were analyzed in the study. Results Among the 84 cases,59 patients were cured, and 25 patients were died, the mortality was 29.8%. Conclusion Patients injured by the fireworks gunpowder blast have not only high complication rate of inhalation injury but also high mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment, keeping the airway unobstructed are the main measures of treatment. The patients should inhale high concentrations oxygen or pure oxygen immediately after injury. It is necessary to give the patients tracheotomy and to use the moisture mechanical ventilation with positive END-EXPIRATORY PRESSURE (PEEP) and airway lavage early and preventively. It is a key measure to deal with the wounded surface and eliminate or remove scab early in order to avoid visceral complications and improve cure rate.%目的 总结爆竹火药爆炸伤伴吸入性损伤的救治体会.方法对救治的84例患者临床资料进行统计分析.结果 84例中治愈59例,病死率29.8%.结论爆竹火药爆炸伤的吸入性损伤并发率高,病死率亦高.救治应早诊断,早治疗,保持气道通畅.伤后立即吸入高浓度氧或纯氧;预防性、及早地气管切开,应用带湿化的PEEP机械通气和气道灌洗;早期处理创面,切、削痂去除坏死组织,防止内脏并发症,以提高治愈率.

  10. Combined Effects of Primary and Tertiary Blast on Rat Brain: Characterization of a Model of Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    changes in protein biomarker levels in functionally -relevant brain regions Two days following injury (or sham), we dissected the PFC, AD, DHC, and VHC and...period. Neuropathological changes are temporally and anatomically closely associated with neuroinflammation, prompting interest in the latter as...known function of TNAP in dephosphorylating pTau, the accumulation of pTau after brain injury could be attributed to the decreased TNAP

  11. A Table-top Blast Driven Shock Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The d...

  12. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  13. Combined Effects of Primary and Tertiary Blast on Rat Brain: Characterization of a Model of Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Basile AS, Huang JM, Xie C, Webster D, Berlin C, Skolnick P: N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists limit aminoglycoside antibi- otic-induced hearing loss...specific biomarkers of tissue injury. Clin Chem 55: 1977–1983. clinchem.2009.131797 [pii];10.1373/clin- chem.2009.131797 [doi]. 25. Redell JB, Moore AN

  14. Altering endoplasmic reticulum stress in a model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury controls cellular fate and ameliorates neuropsychiatric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aric Flint Logsdon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal injury following blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI increases the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Blood-brain-barrier (BBB disruption, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, and apoptosis have all been implicated in bTBI. Microvessel compromise is a primary effect of bTBI and is postulated to cause subcellular secondary effects such as ER stress. What remains unclear is how these secondary effects progress to personality disorders in humans exposed to head trauma. To investigate this we exposed male rats to a clinically relevant bTBI model we have recently developed. The study examined initial BBB disruption using Evan’s blue, ER stress mechanisms, apoptosis and impulsive-like behavior measured with elevated plus maze (EPM. Large BBB openings were observed immediately following bTBI, and persisted for at least 6 h. Data showed increased mRNA abundance of stress response genes at 3 h, with subsequent increases in the ER stress markers C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34 at 24 h. Caspase-12 and Caspase-3 were both cleaved at 24 h following bTBI. The ER stress inhibitor, salubrinal (SAL, was administered (1mg/kg i.p. to investigate its’ effects on neuronal injury and impulsive-like behavior associated with bTBI. SAL reduced CHOP protein expression, and diminished Caspase-3 cleavage, suggesting apoptosis attenuation. Interestingly, SAL also ameliorated impulsive-like behavior indicative of head trauma. These results suggest SAL plays a role in apoptosis regulation and the pathology of chronic disease. These observations provide evidence that bTBI involves ER stress and that the UPR is a promising molecular target for the attenuation of neuronal injury.

  15. Textbook of Military Medicine. Part 1. Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty. Part 5. Conventional Warfare. Ballistic, Blast, and Burn Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    submunitions are becoming increasingly common in projection that resembles a butterfly’s wings combat (Figure 1-50). around the detonation site (Figure 1...T.; Phillips, Y. Y III. 1988. Computer modelir.g -. thoracic response to blast. J. Trauma 28:S149-$152. 240 Wing , Chapter 7 THE PHYSICS AND...or postmortem sphenoid , and lacrimal bones on the medial surface of examination unless a retrobulbar hemorrhage has re- the orbital wall. In studies

  16. Three-dimensional finite element simulation and biomechanical analysis of mandible chin blast injury%下颌骨颏部爆炸伤三维有限元仿真及生物力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷涛; 郑加军; 王婷婷; 李瑛; 谢良宪

    2015-01-01

    Objective To simulate a finite element model for biomechanical analysis of mandible chin blast injury and analyze the mechanism of maxillofacial blast injury.Methods The three-dimensional element model of human mandible blast injury was established to simulate the dynamic process of injury to the mandible chin.Von Mises stress and effective strain were evaluated in biomechanical study of the simulation results.Results The dynamic damage process of human mandible chin blast injury was simulated successfully.In the condition of 1 000 mg and 3 cm,the Von Mises stress and effective were maximum at condylar neck region (9.1 × 106 Pa,0.62 × 10-3ε),were second at mandibular angle region (6.1 × 106 Pa,0.42 × 10-3ε),and minimum at mental foramen region (6.1 × 106 Pa,0.39 × 10-3ε).Blast distance rather than blast equivalent produced more effect on the mechanical parameters and damage degree.Conclusions Von Mises stress and effective strain can be applied to the evaluation of bone tissue damage.The finite element method is effective in simulating mandible blast injury and can provide a new thought and approach to clinical treatment of oral and maxillofacial blast injury.%目的 利用有限元数字模拟技术动态仿真人下颌骨颏部爆炸伤损伤过程,并进行生物力学分析,探讨颌面部爆炸伤致伤机制. 方法 建立人下颌骨爆炸伤三维有限元模型,动态模拟颏部在不同致伤条件下爆炸动态损伤过程,利用Von Mises应力及有效应变对模拟的结果进行生物力学分析 结果 成功模拟人下颌骨颏部爆炸伤动态损伤过程并进行致伤机制的生物力学分析,在1 000 mg、3 cm条件下,髁状突颈部Von Mises应力及有效应变值最高(9.1×106 Pa及0.62×10-3ε)、下颌角正中次之(6.1×106 Pa及0.42×10-3ε)、下颌骨颏孔区最小(6.1×106 Pa及0.39×10-3ε),距离较爆炸当量对各力学指标及损伤程度影响更为明显. 结论 有限元法可以有效模拟下颌骨爆

  17. Influence of Combat Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Acute Symptoms on Mental Health and Service Discharge Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    injury medical records. The associations between acute symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), postconcussion syndrome (PCS), and type of...1391 postdeployment screening including PTSD and postconcussion syndrome (PCS).8,11,12 Civilian studies have highlighted the vo cational outcomes... postconcussion syndrome; SD, standard deviation; ISS, Injury Severity Score; IED, improvised explosive device; RPG, rocket propelled grenade. mTBI

  18. IED blast postconcussive syncope and autonomic dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Richard; LaBrie, D Walter; Norris, Jacob; Schauer, Judy; Frantz, Earl

    2012-01-01

    Concussions are the most frequent battle injury sustained in Afghanistan. The Concussion Restoration Care Center provides multidisciplinary care to concussed service members in theater. The Concussion Restoration Care Center has managed over 500 concussions, the majority being from improvised explosive device (IED) blasts. Syncope following a concussion without a loss of consciousness is rarely reported in the literature. The pathophysiology of concussion from a blast injury may be distinct from a concussion secondary to blunt trauma. Two cases of syncope following concussions with an alteration of consciousness are presented, and a mechanism of action is proposed. Post-IED blast concussive symptom frequency at initial presentation on a cohort of patients is reported, with 1.3% of patients experiencing postconcussive syncope. Syncope following an IED blast may be related to centrally mediated autonomic dysregulation at the brain stem level. Syncope should be added to the list of possible symptoms that occur following concussions, in particular concussions following a blast injury.

  19. Epidemiological Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sequelae Caused by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    and whether s/he had ever received school help for conditions such as Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder or a learning disability. These... Deficit - Hyperactivity Disorder ; TBI=Traumatic Brain Injury; CES-D=Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; PCL=Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ...mTBI late effects from other similar disorders . Pre- vious studies have found that, in comparison with other injuries, a history of mTBI seems to

  20. Investigations of Tissue-Level Mechanisms of Primary Blast Injury Through Modeling, Simulation, Neuroimaging and Neuropathological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    than abstracts): PaperReceived TOTAL: Books Number of Manuscripts: PaperReceived TOTAL: Patents Submitted Patents Awarded Awards no additional honors... Biomechanics of traumatic brain injury. Computational methods in applied mechanics and engineering 2008;197:4692-4701. [14] Halabieh O, Wan JWL...Simulating Mechanism of Brain Injury During Closed Head Impact. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Volume 5104/2008. Springer Berlin/Heidelberg; 2008. p 107

  1. 昆山爆炸事故成批烧冲复合伤患者的抢救调配及护理%Rescue, allocation and nursing of multiple- patient burn- blast combined injury in Kunshan explosive accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利红; 赵朋; 华皎; 袁琴芳; 王芳; 任颖伟; 孙丹; 周竞奋; 吕国忠

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨突发成批烧冲复合伤患者的护理及各个环节的配合及质量控制情况。方法对35例烧冲复合伤患者在第一时间启动应急预案,其中包括人员调配、物资调配、护理质量控制、病区监控等。结果35例烧冲复合伤患者在第一时间得到了及时有效的烧伤抗休克治疗及护理。成批烧冲复合伤患者抢救成功率达77.14%(27/35),无一例护理并发症。结论护理人员及时调配到位,其数量与结构合理和组织协调有力,物资配备齐全及时,护理应急质量管理控制规范和措施得力,是确保此次突发成批烧冲复合伤危重患者救治成功的关键,是护理质量保障的体现。%Objective To discuss on nursing of patients multiple- patient burn- blast combined injury, the cooperation of processes and quality control. Methods For 35 cases of burn- blast combined injury, emergency plan was initiated immediately, including staffing allocation, supplies allocation, nursing quality control and monitoring the inpatient areas, etc. Results 35 cases of burn- blast combined injury acquired immediate treatment of burn shock and nursing. Rescue rate of multiple- patient burn blast arrived 77.14%(27/35), with no case of nursing complication. Conclusions Timely allocation of nursing staff, rational quantity and structure, forceful organization and coordination, complete and timely supplies, correct quality control of emergence nursing and beneficial solutions are keys to ensure successive nursing of intensive patients of burn-blast combined injury, and also reflection of nursing quality guarantee.

  2. Establishment of rabbit models of blast injury to the sacral plexus%兔骶丛爆震伤动物模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭清河; 陈志强; 鹿楠; 杨迪; 朱清华; 陈爱民; 王建民; 李永川; 朱磊; 张志凌; 江曦; 李晓霞; 张良潮

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨兔骶丛爆震伤动物模型的建立. 方法 取18只日本大耳白兔,致伤物为当量600 mg三硝基甲苯(TNT)炸药的电子雷管,根据雷管与皮肤致伤距离不同分为3组:致伤物与皮肤距离为1 cm(A组)、致伤物与皮肤距离为2 cm(B组)、致伤物与皮肤距离为5 cm(C组),每组6只,以后正中线、右髂后上棘与股骨转子连线及右股骨转子水平连线形成一三角形区域,即骶丛在体表投影区域为致伤点,于距爆炸点10 cm处采集爆震波压力,通过压力公式转换成各组致伤压力,于致伤前、致伤即刻、致伤后1周3个时相点检测下肢短潜伏期体感诱发电位(SLSEP),评估动物的伤情,观察骶丛神经损伤的情况.结果 A、B、C组爆震伤压力平均分别为(413.25±8.09)、(51.34±1.03)、(3.61±7.50) MPa,致伤面积平均分别为(31.47±5.91)、(18.13±8.04)、(4.60±7.16) cm2,以上项目3组间两两比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).A组肉眼下骶丛神经全部断裂,1周存活率为0;B组肉眼下骶丛神经挫伤,骶丛损伤症状明显,伤后即刻SLSEP消失,1周后无恢复,1周存活率为83.3%;C组仅伤及皮肤,未见骶丛损伤症状,伤后即刻、伤后1周SLSEP与伤前比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),1周存活率为100%.结论 600 mg TNT炸药、致伤距离为2 cm,可形成典型的骶丛损伤,稳定性良好,且存活率高,可作为长期实验观察研究.%Objective To establish models of blast injury to the sacral plexus in rabbits.Methods Electronic explosive detonators containing explosion equivalent of 600 mg TNT were used to create explosive injury to 18 rabbits which were divided into 3 even groups at random according to the distance between the detonator and the skin.The distance was 1 cm in group A,2 cm in group B and 5 cm in group C.The hit point was the triangle surface projection of the sacral plexus region formed by the posterior median line,the connection line between the

  3. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  4. Efforts and Programs of the Department of Defense Relating to the Prevention, Mitigation, and Treatment of Blast Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Military Sites: This study examines the effectiveness of Sertraline in treating post- TBI neurobehavioral systems of irritability, depression...Wing Wilford Hall) • Safety and Efficacy of Selective Optical Stimulation for the Damaged Nervous System : This project uses prosthetic devices...the nervous system leads to loss of limb function and frequently, persistent pain. Clinical management of nerve injury, including immobilization of

  5. Experience with Proctectomy to Manage Combat Casualties Sustaining Catastrophic Perineal Blast Injury Complicated by Invasive Mucor Soft-Tissue Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    traumatic amputations, open pelvic fracture with left sacroiliac joint dissociation, traumatic right orchiectomy, penile burns with membranous...transfused within 24 hours of injury).4 A recent clinical practice guideline addressing IFI has been published by the Department of Defense Joint ...1441 9. 5. Department of Defense Joint Theater Trauma System. http://www.usaisr .amedd.army.mil/assets/cpgs/Invasive Fungal Infection in War Wounds 1

  6. Pulmonary embolism in a wounded with mine blast injury against the background of anticoagulant prophylaxis (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Nikolaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in healthy military are rare. Fighting surgical trauma is the trigger of a cascade of defense reactions of the body and the blood coagulation system, leading to stop bleeding. Hemostatic disorders, shifting the equilibrium toward hypercoagulable state, the emergence of the risk factors associated with the injury, lead to uncontrolled thrombosis with subsequent development of venous thromboembolic complications. We present the case of the left pulmonary artery thromboembolism in 41 year old wounded with a gunshot fracture of the right femur, obtained by blowing an unknown explosive device. Medical assistance was provided in three stages of evacuation. In order to stabilize a femur fracture the external fixation device was used. According coagulogram thrombinemia persisted for more than 30 days. Prevention of thrombosis carried LMWH (Clexane, with 9 days after injury. 31 day angiography was performed computer, identified thrombus by 70% ceiling clearance left pulmonary artery; by ultrasound scanning of the veins of the lower limbs was diagnosed asymptomatic thrombosis of the right iliofemoral. Against the background of complex treatment for 67 hours after the injury occurred recanalization. This case shows that the injured limb wound clinical symptoms of the disease symptoms negate venous thrombosis, which becomes the only manifestation of pulmonary embolism. Prevention of venous thromboembolic events, as well as monitoring of its effectiveness, should be carried out at all stages of the evacuation of the wounded and for the entire period of the presence of risk factors for their development.

  7. [Scapular/parascapular double skin-paddle free flap for transfixing blast injuries of the hand. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, T; Pozetto, M; Gibert, N; Dautel, G

    2014-06-01

    Balistic transfixing hand traumas require a complex reconstruction management. Stabilization and reconstruction of the injuried tissues need a double skin-paddle coverage. We present an original case report of a double skin-paddle scapular/parascapular free flap used to cover a through and through gunshot injury of the right hand. A 14-years-old patient presents a severe and extensive wound with full-thickness palmar and dorsal skin defects, dislocation of the carpal bones, median nerve and flexor tendons losses. Distal vascularization is maintained by the deep palmar arch system supplied by the ulnar artery. The radial artery is severed at the level of the first dorsal interosseous space. The measured defect of the dorsal skin was 12×7cm and the palmar one was 6×3cm. After skeletal stabilization, tendinous and nerve preparation, the hand coverage was performed using a double skin-paddle scapular/parascapular free flap. The vascular anastomoses include an end-to-side arterial suture between the circumflex scapular and the radial arteries, and an end-to-end venous suture between the circumflex scapular and the dorsal radial veins. The scapular/parascapular double skin-paddle free flap is a safe and reliable technique to achieve a dorsal and palmar hand coverage in lack of local flaps alternatives. It can be used as a good option prior to bone graft, tendinous and nervous reconstruction.

  8. Protective effects of decay-accelerating factor on blast-induced neurotrauma in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yansong; Chavko, Mikulas; Slack, Jessica L.; Liu, Bin; McCarron, Richard M.; Ross, James D. (Dalhousie University); Dalle Lucca, Jurandir J

    2013-01-01

    Background Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is the signature life threatening injury of current military casualties. Neuroinflammation is a key pathological occurrence of secondary injury contributing to brain damage after blast injury. We have recently demonstrated that blast-triggered complement activation and cytokine release are associated with BINT. Here, we evaluated if administration of the complement inhibitor recombinant human decay-accelerating factor (rhDAF) is beneficial on neuroi...

  9. 爆炸冲击波所致轻度颅脑损伤的诊断与处理%Diagnosis and treatment of mild brain injury induced by explosive blast wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段朝霞; 张洁元; 陈魁君; 李冠桦; 李兵仓

    2016-01-01

    Blast⁃related traumatic brain injury ( bTBI) induced by explosive blast wave is the most common event on the battlefield.Most of the patients are characterized as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The traditional clinical imaging couldn′t detect the pathological changes in the brain. Also, the functional significance of this type of injury remains controversial.In recent years,some new technology can sensitively detect the minimal abnormality in the injured brain tissues.Thus,it is valuable in the diagnosis of mTBI.In this paper,we summarized the new advancement of diagnosis for mTBI induced by explosive blast wave.%爆炸冲击波引起的创伤性颅脑损伤( bTBI)是战场上最常见的损伤,大多数患者是轻度的颅脑创伤( mTBI)。常规的临床影像技术如CT不能检测出mTBI的脑部变化,并且这类损伤的功能意义目前还有争议,最近几年出现的新技术能敏感地检测出脑组织的细微异常,因此在mTBI的诊断中起非常中的作用。笔者主要综述爆炸冲击波所致mTBI诊断的相关进展。

  10. Toxicology of blast overpressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, N M

    1997-07-25

    Blast overpressure (BOP) or high energy impulse noise, is the sharp instantaneous rise in ambient atmospheric pressure resulting from explosive detonation or firing of weapons. Blasts that were once confined to military and to a lesser extent, occupational settings, are becoming more universal as the civilian population is now increasingly at risk of exposure to BOP from terrorist bombings that are occurring worldwide with greater frequency. Exposure to incident BOP waves can cause auditory and non-auditory damage. The primary targets for BOP damage are the hollow organs, ear, lung and gastrointestinal tract. In addition, solid organs such as heart, spleen and brain can also be injured upon exposure. However, the lung is more sensitive to damage and its injury can lead to death. The pathophysiological responses, and mortality have been extensively studied, but little attention, was given to the biochemical manifestations, and molecular mechanism(s) of injury. The injury from BOP has been, generally, attributed to its external physical impact on the body causing internal mechanical damage. However, a new hypothesis has been proposed based on experiments conducted in the Department of Respiratory Research, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and later in the Department of Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh. This hypothesis suggests that subtle biochemical changes namely, free radical-mediated oxidative stress occur and contribute to BOP-induced injury. Understanding the etiology of these changes may shed new light on the molecular mechanism(s) of injury, and can potentially offer new strategies for treatment. In this symposium. BOP research involving auditory, non-auditory, physiological, pathological, behavioral, and biochemical manifestations as well as predictive modeling and current treatment modalities of BOP-induced injury are discussed.

  11. The Effects of Underwater Blast on Divers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    bladder, including hepatic tear can cause referred right shoulder pain. Transient paralysis in the lower limbs, testicular pain, nausea, vomiting...blast trauma . This is probably because most immersion blast has been studied with heads above the water, 24 sinus injury is unlikely to threaten life and...without impediment. Close to the explosive source, however; there is violent trauma to the rib-cage, chest and abdominal contents, and limb fractures

  12. Rapid release of tissue enzymes into blood after blast exposure: potential use as biological dosimeters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peethambaran Arun

    Full Text Available Explosive blast results in multiple organ injury and polytrauma, the intensity of which varies with the nature of the exposure, orientation, environment and individual resilience. Blast overpressure alone may not precisely indicate the level of body or brain injury after blast exposure. Assessment of the extent of body injury after blast exposure is important, since polytrauma and systemic factors significantly contribute to blast-induced traumatic brain injury. We evaluated the activity of plasma enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine kinase (CK at different time points after blast exposure using a mouse model of single and repeated blast exposures to assess the severity of injury. Our data show that activities of all the enzymes in the plasma were significantly increased as early as 1 h after blast exposure. The elevated enzyme activity remained up to 6 h in an overpressure dose-dependent manner and returned close to normal levels at 24 h. Head-only blast exposure with body protection showed no increase in the enzyme activities suggesting that brain injury alone does not contribute to the systemic increase. In contrast to plasma increase, AST, ALT and LDH activity in the liver and CK in the skeletal muscle showed drastic decrease at 6 h after blast exposures. Histopathology showed mild necrosis at 6 h and severe necrosis at 24 h after blast exposures in liver and no changes in the skeletal muscle suggesting that the enzyme release from the tissue to plasma is probably triggered by transient cell membrane disruption from shockwave and not due to necrosis. Overpressure dependent transient release of tissue enzymes and elevation in the plasma after blast exposure suggest that elevated enzyme activities in the blood can be potentially used as a biological dosimeter to assess the severity of blast injury.

  13. Blast trauma: the fourth weapon of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, C T

    2005-01-01

    Injury from blast is becoming more common in the non-military population. This is primarily a result of an increase in politically motivated bombings within the civilian sector. Explosions unrelated to terrorism may also occur in the industrial setting. Civilian physicians and surgeons need to have an understanding of the pathomechanics and physiology of blast injury and to recognize the hallmarks of severity in order to increase survivorship. Because victims may be transported rapidly to the hospital, occult injury to gas and fluid containing organs (particularly the ears, bowel and lungs) may go unrecognized. Information surrounding the physical environment of the explosion (whether inside or outside, underwater, associated building collapse, etc) will prove useful. Most of the immediate deaths are caused by primary blast injury from the primary blast wave, but secondary blast injury from flying debris can also be lethal and involve a much wider radius. Liberal use of X-ray examination in areas of skin punctures will help to identify a need for exploration and/or foreign body removal. Biologic serum markers may have a role in identifying victims of primary blast injury and assist in monitoring their clinical progress. Tertiary blast injury results from the airborne propulsion of the victim by the shockwave and is a source of additional blunt head and torso trauma as well as fractures. Miscellaneous (quaternary) blast injury include thermal or dust inhalation exposure as well as crush and compartment syndromes from building collapse. Any explosion has the potential to be associated with nuclear, biologic or chemical contaminants, and this should remain a consideration for healthcare givers until proven otherwise.

  14. Head Kinematics Resulting from Simulated Blast Loading Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    pressure wave and the body which commonly damages air-filled organs such as the lungs , gastrointestinal tract, and ears. Secondary blast injury...subsequent impact with surrounding obstacles or the ground. Quaternary injury is the result of other factors including burns or inhalation of dust and gas... Woods , W., Feldman, S., Cummings, T., et al. (2011). Survival Risk Assessment for Primary Blast Exposures to the Head. Journal of neurotrauma, 2328

  15. Blast Injuries And Heterotopic Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Increased risk of bleeding, delayed fracture healing, impaired renal function and gastritis are all significant rela- tive contraindications. While this...and preventing future surgical excisions while minimising prophylaxis side effects. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and...declared ©2012 British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons

  16. Recent Research in Behind-Armor Blunt Trauma and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    biomechanics that may cause injury from blast impact. Rafaels et al. (8) used animal models in their research to suggest that blast TBI may also depend on...vasculature of neck primarily proposed by Cernak et al. (20). The blast wave generated from a shock front followed by blast overpressure can have...design of new or existing equipment used to mitigate blast exposures. El Sayed et al. (42) studied the biomechanical modeling of the brain tissue

  17. Mole gun injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds.

  18. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  19. Note: A table-top blast driven shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Michael W; Courtney, Amy C

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer that explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

  20. A Table-top Blast Driven Shock Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael; 10.1063/1.3518970

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer which explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

  1. Device for Underwater Laboratory Simulation of Unconfined Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source.

  2. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  3. Ritonavir and disulfiram have potential to inhibit caspase-1 mediated inflammation and reduce neurological sequelae after minor blast exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kevin; Kast, Richard E; Altschuler, Eric L

    2009-02-01

    Caspase-1 triggers cytokine release following acceleration-induced concussive head injury. Minor blast injury in which no physical tissue injury occurs, results in the release of cytokines in a similar fashion. Ritonavir, a generically available protease inhibitor with a benign short-term side-effect profile, has been shown to inhibit expression of caspase-1. We review the relevant literature and propose that ritonavir may be of benefit in reducing adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes and hastening recovery following mild blast injury. Further research in animal models of blast injury followed by clinical studies would determine whether this therapy is effective.

  4. Mechanical and histological characterization of trachea tissue subjected to blast-type pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B. J.; Bo, C.; Tucker, A. W.; Jardine, A. P.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

    2014-05-01

    Injuries to the respiratory system can be a component of polytrauma in blast-loading injuries. Tissues located at air-liquid interfaces, including such tissues in the respiratory system, are particularly vulnerable to damage by blast overpressures. There is a lack of information about the mechanical and cellular responses that contribute to the damage of this class of tissues subjected to the high strain rates associated with blast loading. Here, we describe the results of dynamic blast-like pressure loading tests at high strain rates on freshly harvested ex vivo trachea tissue specimens.

  5. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  6. Working Methods and Experiences of Nursing Groups in Blast Injury External Aid Medical Team%爆炸伤外援医疗队护理组的工作方法与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏素萍; 蒋玲

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨爆炸伤外援医疗队护理组的工作方法.方法 迅速组成医疗队护理组,制定外援护理组工作职责和制度.根据患者的病情发展,实施烧伤专科的理论培训及技能训练.同时加强与各方信息沟通,及时做好反馈.严格执行患者安全管理制度,严防不良事件.结果 参与救治患者11例中,1例在48 h内死亡,其余10例危重患者经一个月护理,未发生与护理相关的并发症.结论 外援医疗队护理组能做好医疗点爆炸伤护理工作的支援帮带,对提高护理质量及救治成功率有积极作用.%Objective To explore the working methods and experiences of nursing groups in blast injury external aid medical team.Methods Formulate the working responsibilities and systems of foreign aid medical nursing groups rapidly. Based on patients' disease progression to implement training of burns specialist theory and skill. Meanwhile, reinforce the communication with all aspects and make feedback timely. Execute the system of patient safety management strictly and avoid adverse event. Results In the treatment of 11 patients, 1 patient died in 48 hours and others did not displayed related nursing complications within 1 months' nursing treatment.Conclusion External aid medical team nursing groups can provide blast injury nursing work in the medical post with effective support and help and exert positive role in improving nursing quality and treatment success rate.

  7. Penetrating facial injury by a wooden log

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Sadanandan; Varghese, George; Kumar, Sanjay; Subramanian, Dinesh Pambungal

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating facial injuries are potentially dangerous and require emergency management because of the presence of vital structures in the face and it may be life threatening especially when the injury involves airway, major blood vessels, spinal cord and cervical spines. Penetrating injuries of facial region can occur due to missile injuries, blast injuries, accidental fall on sharp objects such as sticks or glass and motor vehicle accidents etc., Indications for immediate surgical management...

  8. Tympanic Membrane Perforation and Hearing Loss From Blast Overpressure in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Wounded

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Singh DS, Ahluwalia KJS. Blast injuries of the ear. J Laryngol Otol. 1968;82:1017–1028. 10. Kronenberg J, Ben-Shoshan J, Wolf M. Perforated tympanic...Action Casualty System. Br J Surg. 1989;75:1006–1010. 23. Kronenberg J, Ben-Shoshan J, Modan M, Leventon G. Blast injury and cholesteatoma. Am J Otol

  9. Computational study of human head response to primary blast waves of five levels from three directions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhi Wang

    Full Text Available Human exposure to blast waves without any fragment impacts can still result in primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI. To investigate the mechanical response of human brain to primary blast waves and to identify the injury mechanisms of bTBI, a three-dimensional finite element head model consisting of the scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, nasal cavity, and brain was developed from the imaging data set of a human female. The finite element head model was partially validated and was subjected to the blast waves of five blast intensities from the anterior, right lateral, and posterior directions at a stand-off distance of one meter from the detonation center. Simulation results show that the blast wave directly transmits into the head and causes a pressure wave propagating through the brain tissue. Intracranial pressure (ICP is predicted to have the highest magnitude from a posterior blast wave in comparison with a blast wave from any of the other two directions with same blast intensity. The brain model predicts higher positive pressure at the site proximal to blast wave than that at the distal site. The intracranial pressure wave invariably travels into the posterior fossa and vertebral column, causing high pressures in these regions. The severities of cerebral contusions at different cerebral locations are estimated using an ICP based injury criterion. Von Mises stress prevails in the cortex with a much higher magnitude than in the internal parenchyma. According to an axonal injury criterion based on von Mises stress, axonal injury is not predicted to be a cause of primary brain injury from blasts.

  10. Blast Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    rollover  VAT: Vertical forces and floor deformation  HIP : Head protection systems Payoff: MABS  State-of-the-art unique piece of test equipment...13 14 15 16 17 Energy Absorbing Seats w/ Restraints Blast Mats and other Interior Treatments Data Recorders and Sensors Methods and Standards... treatments .  Airbag or comparable technologies such as bolsters.  Sensors that can detect and deploy/trigger interior treatments within the timeframe of a

  11. Blast-Resistant Improvement of Sandwich Armor Structure with Aluminum Foam Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich armor structures with aluminum foam can be utilized to protect a military vehicle from harmful blast load such as a landmine explosion. In this paper, a system-level dynamic finite element model is developed to simulate the blast event and to evaluate the blast-resistant performance of the sandwich armor structure. It is found that a sandwich armor structure with only aluminum foam is capable of mitigating crew injuries under a moderate blast load. However, a severe blast load causes force enhancement and results in much worse crew injury. An isolating layer between the aluminum foam and the vehicle floor is introduced to remediate this drawback. The results show that the blast-resistant capability of the innovative sandwich armor structure with the isolating layer increases remarkably.

  12. Evolution of blast wave profiles in simulated air blasts: experiment and computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, N.; Ganpule, S.; Kleinschmit, N. N.; Feng, R.; Holmberg, A. D.; Sundaramurthy, A.; Selvan, V.; Alai, A.

    2012-09-01

    Shock tubes have been extensively used in the study of blast traumatic brain injury due to increased incidence of blast-induced neurotrauma in Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. One of the important aspects in these studies is how to best replicate the field conditions in the laboratory which relies on reproducing blast wave profiles. Evolution of the blast wave profiles along the length of the compression-driven air shock tube is studied using experiments and numerical simulations with emphasis on the shape and magnitude of pressure time profiles. In order to measure dynamic pressures of the blast, a series of sensors are mounted on a cylindrical specimen normal to the flow direction. Our results indicate that the blast wave loading is significantly different for locations inside and outside of the shock tube. Pressure profiles inside the shock tube follow the Friedlander waveform fairly well. Upon approaching exit of the shock tube, an expansion wave released from the shock tube edges significantly degrades the pressure profiles. For tests outside the shock tube, peak pressure and total impulse reduce drastically as we move away from the exit and majority of loading is in the form of subsonic jet wind. In addition, the planarity of the blast wave degrades as blast wave evolves three dimensionally. Numerical results visually and quantitatively confirm the presence of vortices, jet wind and three-dimensional expansion of the planar blast wave near the exit. Pressure profiles at 90° orientation show flow separation. When cylinder is placed inside, this flow separation is not sustained, but when placed outside the shock tube this flow separation is sustained which causes tensile loading on the sides of the cylinder. Friedlander waves formed due to field explosives in the intermediate-to far-field ranges are replicated in a narrow test region located deep inside the shock tube.

  13. Calculation of driling and blasting parameters in blasting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Dambov, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    In all mining technology drilling and blasting parameters and works are one of the main production processes at each mine. The parameters of drilling and blasting and explosives consumption per ton of blasting mass are define economic indicators of any blasting no matter for what purpose and where mining is performed. The calculation of rock blasting should always have in mind that the methodology of calculation of all drilling and blasting parameters in blasting performance are performed for...

  14. Effects Of Primary Blast Overpressure On Retina And Optic Tract In Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eDemar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blast has been the leading cause of injury, particularly traumatic brain injury and visual system injury, in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. We determined the effect of shock tube-generated primary blast on retinal electrophysiology and on retinal and brain optic tract histopathology in a rat model.The amplitude of a- and b- waves on the electroretinogram (ERG for both right and left eyes were measured prior to a battlefield-simulation Friedlander-type blast wave and on 1, 7, and 14 days thereafter. Histopathologic findings of the right and left retina and the right and left optic tracts (2.8 mm post-optic chiasm were evaluated 14 days after the blast.For two experiments in which the right eye was oriented to the blast, the amplitude of ERG a- and b-waves at 7 days post-blast on the right side but not on the left side was diminished compared to that of sham animals (P=0.005-0.01 Histopathologic injury scores at 14 days post-blast for the right retina but not the left retina were higher than for sham animals (P=0.01, and histopathologic injury scores at 14 days for both optic tracts were markedly higher than for shams (P < 0.0001. Exposure of one eye to a blast wave, comparable to that causing human injury, produced injury to the retina as determined by ERG and histopathology, and to both post-chiasmatic optic tracts as determined by histopathology. This model may be useful for analyzing the effect of therapeutic interventions on retinal damage due to primary blast waves.

  15. Assessment of the Accuracy of Certain Reduced Order Models used in the Prediction of Occupant Injury during Under-Body Blast Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-15

    the floor on which the platform is dropped upon. Alternatively, a base excitation can be provided to the sliding platform in the upward vertical...occupant response behavior for the same given pulse. Occupant injuries recorded from both these approaches were compared against those measured...7ms clips of chest resultant acceleration, (7) 7ms clip of pelvic vertical acceleration, (8,9) Peak and 30ms clips of lumbar spine compression, and

  16. Common Laundry Detergent Ingredient May Help Preserve Muscle Tissue After Severe Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... browser Favorites '); document.write(' Bookmark this page on Google '); document.write(' Submit this page to Yahoo! Buzz '); ... injury—such as a crush injury from a car accident or a blast injury sustained in combat— ...

  17. The effect of the anisodaminum and dexamethasone on the changes of blood gas of the rats following the blast-toxicosis combined injury by the explosion of the nitrogen tetroxide%山莨菪碱联用地塞米松对四氧化二氮爆炸致冲毒复合伤大鼠血气的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳茂兴; 杨鹤鸣; 王正国; 王德文; 夏亚东; 杨志焕; 李建忠; 彭瑞云; 徐世全

    2001-01-01

    Objectve To investigate the effects of anisodaminum and dexamethasone on the changes of blood gas of the N2O4 blast-toxicosis combined injury model. Methods Two hundred and twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: ①N2O4 blast-toxicosis combined injury model group; ②Anisodaminum treated group; anisodaminum (3 mg/kg) was given ip right after, 15 min after and 2 h after the injury; ③Dexamethasone treated group; dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) was given ip right after the injury, 15 min after and 2 h after the injury; ④Anisodaminum and dexamethasone combine-treated group; anisodaminum (3 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) were given ip right after, 15 min after and 2 h after the injury. Each group was subdivided into control group and 6 treatment groups which were killed 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 hours after the injury for blood gas analysis.  Results In N2O4 blast-toxicosis model group PaO2 and pH of the plasma were significantly decreased, while PaCO2 was increased . Combined use of anisodaminum and dexamethasone in the early stage significantly ameliorated the disorders of the blood gas of the combined injury. Conclusion It is suggested that the combined use of anisodaminum and dexamethasone in the early stage is effective in the treatment of blast-toxicosis combined injury caused by the explosion of the nitrogen tetroxide.%目的通过复制N2O4爆炸致冲毒复合伤模型,研究山莨菪碱联用地塞米松对实验动物血气的影响。方法采用健康雄性Wistar大鼠224只,随机分组:①模型组:冲击伤加N2O4染毒复合致伤;②山莨菪碱组:伤后即刻、伤后15 min、伤后2 h分别腹腔注射山莨菪碱3 mg/kg,共3次;③地塞米松组:伤后即刻、15 min、2 h分别腹腔注射地塞米松10 mg/kg,共3次。④山莨菪碱联用地塞米松组:伤后分3次注射山莨菪碱3 mg/kg及地塞米松10 mg/kg。结果模型组血氧分压明显下降,二氧化碳分压上升,血

  18. Experimental Animal Models for Studies on the Mechanisms of Blast-Induced Neurotrauma

    OpenAIRE

    Risling, Mårten; Davidsson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED) in current military conflicts. Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal. Extreme forces and their complex propagation characterize BINT. Modern body protection and the development of armored mil...

  19. [Blasting damage in manmade disasters and terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, V M; Samokhvalov, I M

    2012-01-01

    In the present case of explosive injuries in peacetime, when suddenly there are usually accidental or intentional explosions methane in mines, tanks with gas or explosives, fuel tanks or gas content, gas tanks, gas pipelines, product pipelines, as well as the explosion of military ordnance--grenades, mines, fuses, shells, and accidentally found child or maliciously used by terrorists. Collected statistical data on manmade disasters in coal mines and explosive injuries in terrorist attacks, the physical parameters of which were able to identify only approximately and type of damage incurred,mostly multiple and combinative combined and presented significant challenges in health care. The reasons and circumstances of the explosion in peacetime, gave a detailed description of the damaging factors, mechanisms, and characteristics arise from injuries suffered in the blast injuries. We describe the pathogenesis of blast injury, basic and clinical manifestations of lesions in the explosions.

  20. Increase in Blood-Brain Barrier Perrmeability, Oxidative Stress, and Activated Microglia in a Rat Model of Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    3 X 3 min), followed by dipping in ict> cold water. The sections were exposed to Kodax BioMax Autoradiography Film (Kodak, Rochester, NY) for 55...days. All films were developed using a Kodak D-19 developer and analyzed in NIH Image v1.59 on a Power Macintosh connected to a Sony XC-77 CCD...matic brain injury in rats: an evJluation of sckcted measurcs. J Neuro- trauma 18:1207-1216. Hastings TG. 2tlO<J. The role of dopamine oxidation in

  1. Hippocampal vulnerability and subacute response following varied blast magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajja, Venkata Siva Sai Sujith; Ereifej, Evon S; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2014-06-06

    Clinical outcomes from blast neurotrauma are associated with higher order cognitive functions such as memory, problem solving skills and attention. Current literature is limited to a single overpressure exposure or repeated exposures at the same level of overpressure and is focused on the acute response (magnitudes (low, moderate and high) were used to evaluate molecular injury thresholds. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated increased cleaved caspase-3 levels and loss of neuronal population (NeuN+) within the hippocampus of all pressure groups. On the contrary, selective activation of microglia was observed in the low blast group. In addition, increased astrocytes (GFAP), membrane signal transduction protein (Map2k1) and calcium regulator mechanosensitive protein (Piezo 2) were observed in the moderate blast group. Results from gene expression analysis suggested ongoing neuroprotection, as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and Mn and CuZn superoxide dismutases (SOD) all increased in the low and moderate blast groups. Ongoing neuroprotection was further supported by increased SOD levels observed in the moderate group using immunohistochemistry. The gene expression level of glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) was upregulated in the low, but downregulated in the high blast group, while no changes were found in the moderate group. Overall, the data shown here provides evidence of a diverse neuroprotective and glial response to various levels of blast exposure. This mechanistic role of neuroprotection is vital in understanding ongoing cellular stress, both at the gene and protein levels, in order to develop interventional studies for the prognosis of injury.

  2. Integrated Care for Multisensory Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    neurosensory injury. Multiple sensory system injuries and chronic effects may also alter a patient’s general appearance and behavior (eg, mo- tor...persistent central processing dysfunction, and/or cognitive deficits). Central compensation for multiple neurosensory impairments can be mental...For example, an upper extremity amputee who also suffers from blast-related vision and hearing dysfunction and mTBI may not have the manual

  3. Reconstruction of improvised explosive device blast loading to personnel in the open

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiri, Suthee; Needham, Charles

    2016-05-01

    Significant advances in reconstructing attacks by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and other blast events are reported. A high-fidelity three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics tool, called Second-order Hydrodynamic Automatic Mesh Refinement Code, was used for the analysis. Computer-aided design models for subjects or vehicles in the scene accurately represent geometries of objects in the blast field. A wide range of scenario types and blast exposure levels were reconstructed including free field blast, enclosed space of vehicle cabin, IED attack on a vehicle, buried charges, recoilless rifle operation, rocket-propelled grenade attack and missile attack with single subject or multiple subject exposure to pressure levels from ˜ 27.6 kPa (˜ 4 psi) to greater than 690 kPa (>100 psi). To create a full 3D pressure time-resolved reconstruction of a blast event for injury and blast exposure analysis, a combination of intelligence data and Blast Gauge data can be used to reconstruct an actual in-theatre blast event. The methodology to reconstruct an event and the "lessons learned" from multiple reconstructions in open space are presented. The analysis uses records of blast pressure at discrete points, and the output is a spatial and temporal blast load distribution for all personnel involved.

  4. An investigation of a reticulated foam - perforated steel sheet combination as a blast mitigation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Tien N.; Proud, William G.

    2017-01-01

    Explosions are one of the main causes of injuries during battles and conflicts, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) becoming increasingly common. Blast waves produced from such explosions can inflict very complex injuries on human and serious damage to structures. Here, the interaction between blast waves and sandwich structures of reticulated foam and perforated sheets is studied using a shock tube. The level of mitigation for primary blast injuries of these structures are discussed in terms of pulse shape, pressure magnitude and impulse. Schlieren photography and other high-speed imaging were used to capture the form of the blast wave. The results show up to 95% mitigation in both pressure and impulse with the structures studied. The behaviors of these mitigating sandwich panels under two loadings, Mach 2.0 and Mach 2.6, are also discussed.

  5. Mathematical models of blast induced TBI: current status, challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K Gupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI has become a signature wound of recent military activities and is the leading cause of death and long-term disability among U.S. soldiers. The current limited understanding of brain injury mechanisms impedes the development of protection, diagnostic and treatment strategies. We believe mathematical models of blast wave brain injury biomechanics and neurobiology, complemented with in vitro and in vivo experimental studies, will enable a better understanding of injury mechanisms and accelerate the development of both protective and treatment strategies. The goal of this paper is to review the current state of the art in mathematical and computational modeling of blast induced TBI, identify research gaps and recommend future developments. A brief overview of blast wave physics, injury biomechanics and the neurobiology of brain injury is used as a foundation for a more detailed discussion of multiscale mathematical models of primary biomechanics and secondary injury and repair mechanisms. The paper also presents a discussion of model development strategies, experimental approaches to generate benchmark data for model validation and potential applications of the model for prevention and protection against blast wave TBI.

  6. Glyburide - Novel Prophylaxis and Effective Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    hemorrhagic shock. 15. SUBJECT TERMS blast, traumatic brain injury, neurogenic pulmonary edema, mortality, caspase-3, beta- amylase precursor... function and on pat hophysiological mani festations (IgG, caspase-3 and β-APP immunolabeling), ind ependent of transthoracic mechani sms of blast injury...Glendale Heights, IL). The tool was modified by removing the piston that normally drives the fastener, making the tool function like a firearm and

  7. DARPA challenge: developing new technologies for brain and spinal injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Christian; Zamisch, Monica; Judy, Jack; Ling, Geoffrey

    2012-06-01

    The repair of traumatic injuries to the central nervous system remains among the most challenging and exciting frontiers in medicine. In both traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injuries, the ultimate goals are to minimize damage and foster recovery. Numerous DARPA initiatives are in progress to meet these goals. The PREventing Violent Explosive Neurologic Trauma program focuses on the characterization of non-penetrating brain injuries resulting from explosive blast, devising predictive models and test platforms, and creating strategies for mitigation and treatment. To this end, animal models of blast induced brain injury are being established, including swine and non-human primates. Assessment of brain injury in blast injured humans will provide invaluable information on brain injury associated motor and cognitive dysfunctions. The Blast Gauge effort provided a device to measure warfighter's blast exposures which will contribute to diagnosing the level of brain injury. The program Cavitation as a Damage Mechanism for Traumatic Brain Injury from Explosive Blast developed mathematical models that predict stresses, strains, and cavitation induced from blast exposures, and is devising mitigation technologies to eliminate injuries resulting from cavitation. The Revolutionizing Prosthetics program is developing an avant-garde prosthetic arm that responds to direct neural control and provides sensory feedback through electrical stimulation. The Reliable Neural-Interface Technology effort will devise technologies to optimally extract information from the nervous system to control next generation prosthetic devices with high fidelity. The emerging knowledge and technologies arising from these DARPA programs will significantly improve the treatment of brain and spinal cord injured patients.

  8. Dry ice blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  9. Secondary Insults of Traumatic Brain Injury in CCATT Patients Returning from Iraq/Afghanistan: 2001-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    matrix. Tolerance values above 0.1 and VIF values below 10 are desired to further support a lack of multicollinearity (Pallant, 2007). The Chi...Variables Tolerance VIF Injury Severity Score .966 1.035 Blast vs. Non-Blast .980 1.021 Year of Injury .566 1.768 AOR to LRMC Aircraft .608 1.645 LRMC

  10. Effects of low-level blast exposure on the nervous system: Is there really a controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Elder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure blast waves can cause extensive CNS injury in humans. However, in combat settings such as Iraq and Afghanistan, lower level exposures associated with mild TBI (mTBI or subclinical exposure have been much more common. Yet controversy exists concerning what traits can be attributed to low-level blast, in large part due to the difficulty of distinguishing blast-related mTBI from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We describe how TBI is defined in humans and the problems posed in using current definitions to recognize blast-related mTBI. We next consider the problem of applying definitions of human mTBI to animal models, in particular that TBI severity in humans is defined in relation to alteration of consciousness at the time of injury, which typically cannot be assessed in animals. However, based on outcome assessments a condition of low-level blast exposure can be defined in animals that likely approximates human mTBI or subclinical exposure. We review blast injury modeling in animals noting that inconsistencies in experimental approach have contributed to uncertainty over the effects of low-level blast. Yet animal studies show that low-level blast pressure waves are transmitted to the brain. In brain low-level blast exposures cause behavioral, biochemical, pathological and physiological effects on the nervous system including the induction of PTSD-related behavioral traits in the absence of a psychological stressor. We review the relationship of blast exposure to chronic neurodegenerative diseases noting the paradoxical lowering of Abeta by blast, which along with other observations suggest that blast-related TBI is pathophysiologically distinct from non-blast TBI. Human neuroimaging studies show that blast-related mTBI is associated with a variety of chronic effects that are unlikely to be explained by co-morbid PTSD. We conclude that abundant evidence supports low-level blast as having long-term effects on the nervous system.

  11. Maximal exercise performance-impairing effects of simulated blast overpressure in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, A J; Mundie, T G; Dodd, K T

    1997-07-25

    Lung contusion has been identified as a primary blast injury. These experiments addressed a fundamental and overt endpoint of primary blast injury, incapacitation (performance decrement). Respiration, hemodynamics, and blood gases were measured in sheep undergoing incremental exercise challenge before and 1 h after simulated blast exposure of the thorax. Pathologic examination of lung tissue was performed after exposure and exercise testing. Blast overpressure was simulated in the laboratory using a compressed air-driven shock tube. Three levels of lung injury (Levels 1-3, 'Trivial', 'Slight', and 'Moderate' injury, respectively) were examined for effects on maximal oxygen consumption (VO[2max]), an index of cardiorespiratory fitness. Resting hemodynamics and blood gases were relatively normal an hour after exposure, immediately before exercise. However, Levels 1-3 lung injury were associated with average 4.8, 29.9 and 49.3% VO(2max). decreases, respectively. These performance decrements for Levels 2 and 3 were significantly different from respective controls (non-exposed). Exercise caused significant hemoconcentration in sheep under control conditions, before exposure (resting 9.5 +/- 0.9, end-exercise 11.8 +/- 0.9 g/100 ml). Blast exposure resulted in average decreases of 4.9 +/- 3.4, 12.8 +/- 4.0, and 12.6 +/- 3.3% in exercise-induced hemoconcentration for Levels 1-3 injury, respectively. Normal exercise-induced hemodynamic increases were also attenuated after exposure. Levels 2 and 3 injury resulted in average 22.6 +/- 2.9 and 18.5 +/- 11.2% stroke volume decreases, and also 22.3 +/- 8.4 and 29.0 +/- 14.2% cardiac output decreases, respectively, during exercise. While blast lung pathology and pulmonary function changes could account for post-blast performance decrements, these experiments suggest that in sheep, early after exposure, diminished hemoconcentration and cardiac disfunction may also contribute to decreased exercise performance.

  12. The importance of systemic response in the pathobiology of blast-induced neurotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibolja eCernak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to complex injurious environment where multiple blast effects interact with the body, parallel blast-induced neurotrauma is a unique clinical entity induced by systemic, local, and cerebral responses. Activation of autonomous nervous system; sudden pressure-increase in vital organs such as lungs and liver; and activation of neuroendocrine-immune system are among the most important mechanisms that contribute significantly to molecular changes and cascading injury mechanisms in the brain. It has been hypothesized that vagally mediated cerebral effects play a vital role in the early response to blast: this assumption has been supported by experiments where bilateral vagotomy mitigated bradycardia, hypotension, and apnea, and also prevented excessive metabolic alterations in the brain of animals exposed to blast. Clinical experience suggests specific blast-body-nervous system interactions such as 1 direct interaction with the head either through direct passage of the blast wave through the skull or by causing acceleration and/or rotation of the head; and 2 via hydraulic interaction, when the blast overpressure compresses the abdomen and chest, and transfers its kinetic energy to the body’s fluid phase, initiating oscillating waves that traverse the body and reach the brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays important role in the pathogenesis of long-term neurological deficits due to blast. These include memory decline, motor function and balance impairments, and behavioral alterations, among others. Experiments using rigid body- or head protection in animals subjected to blast showed that head protection failed to prevent inflammation in the brain or reduce neurological deficits, whereas body protection was successful in alleviating the blast-induced functional and morphological impairments in the brain.

  13. Field experiment for blasting crater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Tu-qiang

    2008-01-01

    A series of single hole blasting crater experiments and a variable distance multi-hole simultaneous blasting experiment was carded in the Yunfu Troilite Mine, according to the Livingston blasting crater theory. We introduce in detail, our methodology of data collection and processing from our experiments. Based on the burying depth of the explosives, the blasting crater volume was fitted by the method of least squares and the characteristic curve of the blasting crater was obtained using the MATLAB software. From this third degree polynomial, we have derived the optimal burying depth, the critical burying depth and the optimal explosive specific charge of the blasting crater.

  14. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z

    2013-01-01

    There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  15. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xie

    Full Text Available There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  16. Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    may worsen TBI-related cognitive complaints, and agents that improve cognitive function, such as methylphenidate , may exacerbate PTSD symptoms. It is...for management of depression, PTSD, and anxiety; (7) referrals to substance abuse treatment specialists as needed; (8) teaching of sleep manage- ment

  17. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    paraffin brain mold (Figure 1A”) developed previously, a prototype brain slicer matrix for Yucatan swine brain was developed (Figure 1A) using pottery ... clay . This prototype brain matrix has been designed to acquire approximately 5mm thick blocks of brain (Figure 1A’) This prototype slicer will

  18. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-08

    successful use of the DYSMAS Hydrocode. We would also like to thank Robert Womble, Senior Chief, Explosive Ordnance Disposal, Ret., for providing...Bass, CR, Salzar, RS, Panzer, M, Woods, WA, Feldman , S, Cummings, T, Capehart, BP, J Neurotrauma, 28(2011), pp. 2319-28. 10.  Rafaels, K., Bass, CR...Panzer, M, Salzar, R, Woods, WW, Feldman , S, Walilko, T, Kent, R, Capehart, B, Foster J, Derkunt, B, Toman, A, J Trauma, 73(2012), pp. 895-901

  19. Reduced Order Modeling for Rapid Simulations of Blast and Rollover Events of a Ground Vehicle and its Occupants Using Rigid Body Dynamic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    IED, SimBRS, PSM , blastoff, slamdown, UBM, facet, pressure, ROM, injury, lsDYNA 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...Prescribed accelerative vertical motion / PSM ....................................................................................... 25 Blast pressure...33 Figure 5.4 Kinematics at 50 msec for LS-Dyna output with ConWep blast force, and MADYMO output with PSM for all nodes

  20. Experimental animal models for studies on the mechanisms of blast induced neurotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårten eRisling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED in current military conflicts. Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal. BINT is characterized by extreme forces and their complex propagation. Modern body protection and the development of armored military vehicles can be assumed to have changed the outcome of BINT. Primary blast injuries are caused by overpressure waves whereas secondary, tertiary and quaternary blast injuries can have more varied origins such as the impact of fragments, abnormal movements or heat. The characteristics of the blast wave can be assumed to be significantly different in open field detonations compared to explosions in a confined space, such an armored vehicle. Important parameters include peak pressure, duration and shape of the pulse. Reflections from walls and armor can make the prediction of effects in individual cases very complex. Epidemiological data do not contain information of the relative importance of the different blast mechanisms. It is therefore important to generate data in carefully designed animal models. Such models can be selective reproductions of a primary blast, penetrating injuries from fragments, acceleration movements or combinations of such mechanisms. It is of crucial importance that the physical parameters of the employed models are well characterized so that the experiments can be reproduced in different laboratory settings. Ideally, pressure recordings should be calibrated by using the same equipment in several laboratories. With carefully designed models and thoroughly evaluated animal data it should be possible to achieve a translation of data between animal and clinical data. Imaging and computer simulation represent a possible link

  1. Blast Overpressure Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    USAARL Contract Report No. CR-98-Ö3 Blast Overpressure Studies By Daniel L. Johnson EG&G Management Systems, Inc. Albuquerque, New Mexico May...Both studies were done at the Blast Overpressure-Kirtland Test Site (BOP-KTS) in New Mexico . Under a contract conducted for the USAMRMC, EG&G was... TDH -4 9 elements mounted in a David Clark 9AN/2 ear muff for added noise isolation. The calibration of the earphones was accomplished using a Bruel

  2. ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.F. fitch

    1995-03-13

    The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

  3. Postdeployment Symptom Changes and Traumatic Brain Injury and/or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) and posttraumatic stress disorder...stress disorder, TBI = traumatic brain injury . *Address all correspondence to Hilary J. Aralis, MS; Naval Health Research Center, Warfighter...both diagnoses. See Figure 1 for sampling details. Figure 1. Flow diagram outlining selection of final blast traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) and no TBI

  4. Improved Characterization of Combat Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    of the AIS contain codes for unilateral or bilateral pulmonary contusion , a blast injury to the lung usually involves all lobes, is peripheral, and...overpressure/explosive) not further specified (AIS 3)” in the lung section, with descriptors of mild (AIS 3), moderate (unilateral/bilateral with pulmonary ...fourth cervical vertebra (C4) with cord contusion and incomplete cord syndrome 640214.4 640214.5 From 4 to 5 MAIS 4 5 From severe to critical 2

  5. Blast shock wave mitigation using the hydraulic energy redirection and release technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel.

  6. Acute death of astrocytes in blast-exposed rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anna P.; Shah, Alok S.; Aperi, Brandy V.; Kurpad, Shekar N.; Stemper, Brian D.; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) affects civilians, soldiers, and veterans worldwide and presents significant health concerns. The mechanisms of neurodegeneration following bTBI remain elusive and current therapies are largely ineffective. It is important to better characterize blast-evoked cellular changes and underlying mechanisms in order to develop more effective therapies. In the present study, our group utilized rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs) as an in vitro system to model bTBI. OHCs were exposed to either 138 ± 22 kPa (low) or 273 ± 23 kPa (high) overpressures using an open-ended helium-driven shock tube, or were assigned to sham control group. At 2 hours (h) following injury, we have characterized the astrocytic response to a blast overpressure. Immunostaining against the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed acute shearing and morphological changes in astrocytes, including clasmatodendrosis. Moreover, overlap of GFAP immunostaining and propidium iodide (PI) indicated astrocytic death. Quantification of the number of dead astrocytes per counting area in the hippocampal cornu Ammonis 1 region (CA1), demonstrated a significant increase in dead astrocytes in the low- and high-blast, compared to sham control OHCs. However only a small number of GFAP-expressing astrocytes were co-labeled with the apoptotic marker Annexin V, suggesting necrosis as the primary type of cell death in the acute phase following blast exposure. Moreover, western blot analyses revealed calpain mediated breakdown of GFAP. The dextran exclusion additionally indicated membrane disruption as a potential mechanism of acute astrocytic death. Furthermore, although blast exposure did not evoke significant changes in glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression, loss of GLT-1-expressing astrocytes suggests dysregulation of glutamate uptake following injury. Our data illustrate the profound effect of blast overpressure on astrocytes in OHCs at 2 h

  7. Chronic caffeine exposure attenuates blast-induced memory deficit in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Lei Ning; Nan Yang; Xing Chen; Zi-Ai Zhao; Xiu-Zhu Zhang; Xing-Yun Chen; Ping Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of three different ways of chronic caffeine administration on blastinduced memory dysfunction and to explore the underlying mechanisms.Methods:Adult male C57BL/6 mice were used and randomly divided into five groups:control:without blast exposure,con-water:administrated with water continuously before and after blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI),con-caffeine:administrated with caffeine continuously for 1 month before and after bTBI,pre-caffeine:chronically administrated with caffeine for 1 month before bTBI and withdrawal after bTBI,post-caffeine:chronically administrated with caffeine after bTBI.After being subjected to moderate intensity of blast injury,mice were recorded for learning and memory performance using Morris water maze (MWM) paradigms at 1,4,and 8 weeks post-blast injury.Neurological deficit scoring,glutamate concentration,proinflammatory cytokines production,and neuropathological changes at 24 h,1,4,and 8 weeks post-bTBI were examined to evaluate the brain injury in early and prolonged stages.Adenosine A1 receptor expression was detected using qPCR.Results:All of the three ways of chronic caffeine exposure ameliorated blast-induced memory deficit,which is correlated with the neuroprotective effects against excitotoxicity,inflammation,astrogliosis and neuronal loss at different stages of injury.Continuous caffeine treatment played positive roles in both early and prolonged stages of bTBI;pre-bTBl and post-bTBl treatment of caffeine tended to exert neuroprotective effects at early and prolonged stages of bTBI respectively.Up-regulation of adenosine A1 receptor expression might contribute to the favorable effects of chronic caffeine consumption.Conclusion:Since caffeinated beverages are widely consumed in both civilian and military personnel and are convenient to get,the results may provide a promising prophylactic strategy for blast-induced neurotrauma and the consequent cognitive impairment.

  8. Experimental approach to shape field relevant blast wave profiles in compressed gas-driven shock tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind eSundaramurthy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Detonation of a high explosive produces shock-blast wave, shrapnel, and gaseous products. While direct exposure to blast is a concern near the epicenter, shock-blast can affect subjects even at farther distances, which is termed as primary blast injury, which is the theme of this work. The shock-blast profile is characterized with blast overpressure, positive time duration, and impulse as shock-blast wave parameters (SWPs. These parameters in turn are a function of field factors, such as the strength of high explosive and the distance of the human subjects from the epicenter. The shape and magnitude of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects. As shown in some of our recent works (Chandra et al., 2011;Sundaramurthy et al., 2012;Skotak et al., 2013, the profile not only determines the survival of the animal but also the acute and chronic biomechanical injuries along with the following bio-chemical sequelae. It is extremely important to carefully design and operate the shock tube to produce field relevant SWPs. Furthermore, it is vital to identify and eliminate the artifacts that are inadvertently introduced in the shock-blast profile that may affect the results. In this work, we examine the relationship between shock tube adjustable parameters (SAPs and SWPs that can be used to control the blast profile; the results can be easily applied to many of the laboratory shock tubes. Further, exact replication of shock profile (magnitude and shape can be related to field explosions and can be a standard in comparing results across different laboratories. 40 experiments are carried out by judiciously varying SAPs such as membrane thickness, breech length (66.68 to 1209.68 mm, measurement location, and type of driver gas (nitrogen, helium. The relationships between SAPs and the resulting shock-blast profiles are characterized. Finally, shock-blast profiles of a TNT explosion from ConWep software is compared with the profiles obtained

  9. Innovative design tool for the optimization of blast-enhanced facade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Lori

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In current blast enhancement design strategies, to resist the effects of an accidental explosion, a facade system is commonly designed to behave in-elastically and undergo large deformations. The large deformation of the facade system leads to high blast energy dissipation, subsequently reducing the blast energy transferred to the main structure. In addition to the blast resistance of the facade system, human injuries due to glass fragmentation within the vicinity of the facade system should also be minimized in order to meet the required safety levels. Overall building safety can be optimized by balancing blast energy dissipation and glass fragmentation. Recently, Permasteelisa Group has developed an innovative design tool to optimize blast-enhanced facades using an equivalent MDOF approach. A novel fragmentation tool has been proposed to assist this design procedure. This paper presents various critical parameters considered in blast-enhanced facade analysis, the experimental validation of these parameters and their influence in the design optimization process.  

  10. Damage of vascular endothelial barrier induced by explosive blast and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Wang; Jing Chen

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,injuries induced by explosive blast have got more and more attention owing to weapon development and frequent terrorist activities.Tear.bleeding and edema of tissues and organs are the main manifestations of blast shock wave damage.Vascular endothelial barrier is the main defense of tissues and organs' integrity.This article aims to discuss possible mechanisms of endothelial barrier damage induced by explosive blast and main manifestations of blood brain barrier,blood-air barrier,and intestinal vascular barrier impairments.In addition,the main regulatory factors of vascular permeability are also summarized so as to provide theoretical basis for prevention and cure of vascular endothelial barrier damage resulting from explosive blast.

  11. Back Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  12. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manzar Hussain; Muhammad Ehsan Bari

    2013-01-01

    Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma,although there are various reports of blast or gunshot injuries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails.In our case,a 30-year-old man presented to neurosurgery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weakness after suicide bomb attack.The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail.Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surrounding normal brain tissue.At 6 months' follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity.

  13. Experimental animal models for studies on the mechanisms of blast-induced neurotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risling, Mårten; Davidsson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED) in current military conflicts. Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal. Extreme forces and their complex propagation characterize BINT. Modern body protection and the development of armored military vehicles can be assumed to have changed the outcome of BINT. Primary blast injuries are caused by overpressure waves whereas secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries can have more varied origins such as the impact of fragments, abnormal movements, or heat. The characteristics of the blast wave can be assumed to be significantly different in open field detonations compared to explosions in a confined space, such an armored vehicle. Important parameters include peak pressure, duration, and shape of the pulse. Reflections from walls and armor can make the prediction of effects in individual cases very complex. Epidemiological data do not contain information of the comparative importance of the different blast mechanisms. It is therefore important to generate data in carefully designed animal models. Such models can be selective reproductions of a primary blast, penetrating injuries from fragments, acceleration movements, or combinations of such mechanisms. It is of crucial importance that the physical parameters of the employed models are well characterized so that the experiments can be reproduced in different laboratory settings. Ideally, pressure recordings should be calibrated by using the same equipment in several laboratories. With carefully designed models and thoroughly evaluated animal data it should be possible to achieve a translation of data between animal and clinical data. Imaging and computer simulation represent a possible link between experiments

  14. CONTROL OF FRAGMENTATION BY BLASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Božić

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fragmentation influences the economy of the excavation operations. Characteristics of blasted rock such as fragment size, volume and mass are fundamental variables effecting the economics of a mining operation and are in effect the basis for evaluating the quality of a blast. The properties of fragmentation, such as size and shape, are very important information for the optimization of production. Three factors control the fragment size distribution: the rock structure, the quantity of explosive and its distribution within the rock mass. Over the last decade there have been considerable advances in our ability to measure and analyze blasting performance. These can now be combined with the continuing growth in computing power to develop a more effective description of rock fragmentation for use by future blasting practitioners. The paper describes a view of the fragmentation problem by blasting and the need for a new generation of engineering tools to guide the design and implementation of blasting operations.

  15. Penetrating Cardiac and Hepatic Injury; Polytrauma of a Child After Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Akca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After a bombing attack, patients were brought into hospital suffering from a combination of injuries caused by the blast, penetrating injuries and burns which as a case of polytrauma. In penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries due to bombing possibility of cardiac injury should be kept in mind. Penetrating cardiac injuries in children are rare but has a high mortality and morbidity. In some cases there may be difficulty in diagnosis of penetrating cardiac injury. In this case we want to share the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up processes of penetrating cardiac and hepatic injury with burns of a politrauma child due to bombing.

  16. Blast effects of external explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Security considerations for industrial production and storage require characterization of the mechanical effects caused by blast waves resulting from a detonation or deflagration. This paper evaluates current analytical methods to determine the characteristic parameters of a blast wave with respect to the pressure, impulse and duration of the positive phase of the blast. In the case of a detonation, the trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent-based method determines the mass ...

  17. Acute post-traumatic stress symptoms and age predict outcome in military blast concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donald, Christine L; Adam, Octavian R; Johnson, Ann M; Nelson, Elliot C; Werner, Nicole J; Rivet, Dennis J; Brody, David L

    2015-05-01

    High rates of adverse outcomes have been reported following blast-related concussive traumatic brain injury in US military personnel, but the extent to which such adverse outcomes can be predicted acutely after injury is unknown. We performed a prospective, observational study of US military personnel with blast-related concussive traumatic brain injury (n = 38) and controls (n = 34) enrolled between March and September 2012. Importantly all subjects returned to duty and did not require evacuation. Subjects were evaluated acutely 0-7 days after injury at two sites in Afghanistan and again 6-12 months later in the United States. Acute assessments revealed heightened post-concussive, post-traumatic stress, and depressive symptoms along with worse cognitive performance in subjects with traumatic brain injury. At 6-12 months follow-up, 63% of subjects with traumatic brain injury and 20% of controls had moderate overall disability. Subjects with traumatic brain injury showed more severe neurobehavioural, post-traumatic stress and depression symptoms along with more frequent cognitive performance deficits and more substantial headache impairment than control subjects. Logistic regression modelling using only acute measures identified that a diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, older age, and more severe post-traumatic stress symptoms provided a good prediction of later adverse global outcomes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve = 0.84). Thus, US military personnel with concussive blast-related traumatic brain injury in Afghanistan who returned to duty still fared quite poorly on many clinical outcome measures 6-12 months after injury. Poor global outcome seems to be largely driven by psychological health measures, age, and traumatic brain injury status. The effects of early interventions and longer term implications of these findings are unknown.

  18. Dismounted Complex Blast Injury. Report of the Army Dismounted Complex Blast Injury Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-18

    patient ratio. Highly skilled and experienced prosthetists are necessary to fabricate and fit advanced technology prostheses. Socket comfort and...suspension for individ- uals with hemi-pelvectomy, hip disarticula- tion, and high transfemoral amputation is very challenging. Novel solutions to... socket fittings given the often proximal limb am- putation and extensive soft tissue scars and wounds; the frequent need of ongoing re- constructive

  19. Physics of IED blast shock tube simulations for mTBI research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Meijer, S.R.; Berg, A.C. van den; Sibma, P.C.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van; Vries, D.V.W.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Shock tube experiments and simulations are conducted with a spherical gelatin filled skull- brain surrogate, in order to study the mechanisms leading to blast induced mild traumatic brain injury. A shock tube including sensor system is optimized to simulate realistic impro-vised explosive device bla

  20. Auditory, Vestibular and Cognitive Effects due to Repeated Blast Exposure on the Warfighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    light-headedness, vertigo , migraine 4 associated dizziness , and to assist with identifying complaints of dizziness related to anxiety...Subjective measures recorded on the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Department of Veteran’s Brain Injury Center (DVBIC) Questionnaire, and Blast...to participate in the study, the following questionnaires and screening tools were administered: Questionnaires Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI

  1. Rock blasting and explosives engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, P.-A.; Holmberg, R.; Lee, J. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Research Center for Energetic Materials)

    1994-01-01

    The book covers the practical engineering aspects of different kinds of rock blasting. It includes a thorough analysis of the cost of the entire process of tunneling by drilling and blasting compared with full-face boring. It covers the economics of the entire rock blasting operation and its dependence on the size of excavation. The book highlights the fundamentals of rock mechanics, shock waves and detonation, initiation and mechanics of rock motion. It describes the engineering design principles and computational techniques for many separate mining methods and rock blasting operations. 274 refs.

  2. Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Sarah Jill

    2003-06-01

    Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

  3. Implications of blast exposure for central auditory function: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick J. Gallun, PhD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Auditory system functions, from peripheral sensitivity to central processing capacities, are all at risk from a blast event. Accurate encoding of auditory patterns in time, frequency, and space are required for a clear understanding of speech and accurate localization of sound sources in environments with background noise, multiple sound sources, and/or reverberation. Further work is needed to refine the battery of clinical tests sensitive to the sorts of central auditory dysfunction observed in individuals with blast exposure. Treatment options include low-gain hearing aids, remote-microphone technology, and auditory-training regimens, but clinical evidence does not yet exist for recommending one or more of these options. As this population ages, the natural aging process and other potential brain injuries (such as stroke and blunt trauma may combine with blast-related brain changes to produce a population for which the current clinical diagnostic and treatment tools may prove inadequate. It is important to maintain an updated understanding of the scope of the issues present in this population and to continue to identify those solutions that can provide measurable improvements in the lives of Veterans who have been exposed to high-intensity blasts during the course of their military service.

  4. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underwater blasting. 1926.912 Section 1926.912 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.912 Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 57.6803 Section 57.6803 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6803 Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be insulated and kept in good repair. General Requirements—Surface and Underground...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting. 56.6312 Section 56.6312... Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric Blasting...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 56.6803 Section 56.6803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be...

  9. Identification of blast resistance genes for managing rice blast disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. In the present study, an international set of monogenic differentials carrying 24 major blast resistance (R) genes (Pia, Pib, Pii, Pik, Pik-h, Pik-m, Pik-p, Pik-s, Pish, Pit, Pita, Pita2,...

  10. Therapeutic effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride combined with dexamethasone on acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by blast injury in rabbits%盐酸戊乙奎醚联合地塞米松对兔爆震伤急性呼吸窘迫综合征的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范崇熙; 程庆书; 汪健; 朱以芳; 李桂珍; 张志培; 李小飞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the therapeutic effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride combined with dexamethasone on Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) after a thoracic blast injury in rabbits. Methods Healthy New Zealand white rabbits were used to establish the ARDS model induced by a thoracic blast injury. The rabbits conforming to the diagnostic standard of ARDS were divided into 5 groups randomly: Bgroup, ARDS caused by blast ( n= 10) ; Cgroup, PHC (n=9) with low dose (0.8mg/kg); Dgroup, PHC (n=9) with higher dosed. 5mg/kg); E group, DXM ( n=8)(3mg/kg); F group, PHC+DMX (n=7) with higher dose (3mg/kg). Another set of six healthy New Zealand white rabbits were used as the control group (A group). Rabbits in the C-F group were injected with a drug at 0. 5, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after being modeled successfully. At the same time, the rabbits in groups A and B were injected with saline in equal volumes as that in the therapeutic groups. The breathing, heart rate, and oxygenation indices, as well as the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in the peripheral blood were monitored before the rabbits were injured, and at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after medical treatments (initially given drugs). The rabbits were sacrificed at 72 h after they were initially given drugs. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected in which the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were detected by ELISA. Lung tissue specimens were taken to measure the lung water content-dry weight (W/D) ratio, and hematoxylin and eosin staining was used for observing the pathological changes of the lung tissues. Results Heartbeats, breathings, W/D ratios, and contents of TNF-a, IL-6 in peripheral blood or in BALF in group B were higher than that in group A (P<0. 05). The oxygenation index in group B was apparently lower than that in group A(P<0. 01). All indexes increased in varying degrees after the treatments with DXM and/or PHC. Group F showed better results than groups C, D, and E (P<0. 05). Conclusions PHC combined with DXM

  11. A parametric approach to shape field-relevant blast wave profiles in compressed-gas-driven shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Chandra, Namas

    2014-01-01

    Detonation of a high-explosive produces shock-blast wave, shrapnel, and gaseous products. While direct exposure to blast is a concern near the epicenter, shock-blast can affect subjects, even at farther distances. When a pure shock-blast wave encounters the subject, in the absence of shrapnels, fall, or gaseous products the loading is termed as primary blast loading and is the subject of this paper. The wave profile is characterized by blast overpressure, positive time duration, and impulse and called herein as shock-blast wave parameters (SWPs). These parameters in turn are uniquely determined by the strength of high explosive and the distance of the human subjects from the epicenter. The shape and magnitude of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects. As shown in some of our recent works (1-3), the profile not only determines the survival of the subjects (e.g., animals) but also the acute and chronic biomechanical injuries along with the following bio-chemical sequelae. It is extremely important to carefully design and operate the shock tube to produce field-relevant SWPs. Furthermore, it is vital to identify and eliminate the artifacts that are inadvertently introduced in the shock-blast profile that may affect the results. In this work, we examine the relationship between shock tube adjustable parameters (SAPs) and SWPs that can be used to control the blast profile; the results can be easily applied to many of the laboratory shock tubes. Further, replication of shock profile (magnitude and shape) can be related to field explosions and can be a standard in comparing results across different laboratories. Forty experiments are carried out by judiciously varying SAPs such as membrane thickness, breech length (66.68-1209.68 mm), measurement location, and type of driver gas (nitrogen, helium). The effects SAPs have on the resulting shock-blast profiles are shown. Also, the shock-blast profiles of a TNT explosion from ConWep software is compared

  12. NCBI BLAST: a better web interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; Zaretskaya, Irena; Raytselis, Yan; Merezhuk, Yuri; McGinnis, Scott; Madden, Thomas L

    2008-07-01

    Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is a sequence similarity search program. The public interface of BLAST, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast, at the NCBI website has recently been reengineered to improve usability and performance. Key new features include simplified search forms, improved navigation, a list of recent BLAST results, saved search strategies and a documentation directory. Here, we describe the BLAST web application's new features, explain design decisions and outline plans for future improvement.

  13. Numerical simulation of muzzle blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler-Street, M.

    2014-01-01

    Structural design methods for naval ships include environmental, operational and military load cases. One of the operational loads acting on a typical naval vessel is the muzzle blast from a gun. Simulating the muzzle blast load acting on a ship structure with CFD and ALE methods leads to large nume

  14. Risk Assessment and Optimisation of Blast Mitigation Strategies for Design and Strengthening of Built Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEWART Mark G

    2006-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment procedure is developed which can predict risks of explosive blast damage to built infrastructure,and when combined with life-cycle cost analysis,the procedure can be used to optimise blastmitigation strategies.The paper focuses on window glazing since this is a load-capacity system which,when subjected to blast loading,has caused significant damage and injury to building occupants.Structural reliability techniques are used to derive blast reliability curves for annealed and toughened glazing subjected to explosive blast for a variety of threat scenarios.The probabilistic analyses include the uncertainties associated with blast modelling,glazing response and glazing failure criteria.Damage risks are calculated for an individual window and for windows in the facade of a multi-storey commercial building.The paper shows an illustrative exampie of how this information,when combined with risk-based decision-making criteria,can be used to optimise blast mitigation strategies.

  15. Dry ice blasting as a substitution for the conventional electroplating pre-treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhlmann Eckart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For high quality electroplated products, surfaces must be thoroughly pre-treated. For this purpose electroplating currently needs a variety of chemical baths. The used chemicals are injurious to health and harmful to the environment. In addition, the conventional pre-treatment has a long process time which results in high costs. Dry ice blasting alone or in combination with other processes has the potential to completely substitute these conventional pre-treatment processes. Three process sequences as pre-treatment methods prior to electroplating were investigated on the aluminium alloys AlSi12 and AlMg3. The used processes are dry ice blasting, tempering during dry ice blasting and glass bead blasting followed by dry ice blasting. The influence of the parameters on the surface roughness, surface topography and surface tension of the workpieces was examined. A model to describe the correlation between the dry ice blasting parameters and surface parameters was developed. Finally, an adhesion test of electroplated specimen was conducted in order to determine the suitability of these alternative pre-treatment processes.

  16. Oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes for studying blast wave effects

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Instrumentation is needed to produce realistic blast waves in a laboratory setting. This paper describes the development and characterization of oxy-acetylene driven, laboratory scale shock tubes for use in studying blast injury, candidate armor materials, and material properties at blast loading rates. The pressure-time profiles show a true shock front and exponential decay characteristic of blast waves and have relevant durations. The modular design includes shock tube diameters of 27 mm and 41 mm, and a selection of peak pressures from 204 kPa to 920 kPa can be produced by selection of the driver section diameter and placement of the test sample. Characterization studies of several driver/driven section combinations showed consistent results, with peak pressures having 0.8 - 6.9 percent uncertainty in the mean. This shock tube design provides a more realistic blast profile than current air-driven shock tubes. In addition, operation does not require specialized personnel or facilities like most blast-driven...

  17. Demystifying blast effects on buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, A.; Carson, D.; Stevens, T. [Halsall Associates Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented methods of designing the structures of building structures in such a way that the effects of blast loads can be mitigated. The methods were designed to provide strength and ductility so that kinetic energy delivered by the blast is resisted by strain energy. Fundamental aspects of blast effects were examined, and the design of flexural members subject to blast loading were discussed. An equivalent static load procedure based on the equivalency of kinetic and strain energies was also presented along with a threat independent approach which included principles to prevent progressive collapse, ductile columns, and the addition of upward resistance to floors. Measures to mitigate damage caused by shattered glass and other cladding elements during blasts were also discussed.

  18. Circulation in blast driven instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc; Johnsen, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Mixing in many natural phenomena (e.g. supernova collapse) and engineering applications (e.g. inertial confinement fusion) is often initiated through hydrodynamic instabilities. Explosions in these systems give rise to blast waves which can interact with perturbations at interfaces between different fluids. Blast waves are formed by a shock followed by a rarefaction. This wave profile leads to complex time histories of interface acceleration. In addition to the instabilities induced by the acceleration field, the rarefaction from the blast wave decompresses the material at the interface, further increasing the perturbation growth. After the passage of the wave, circulation circulation generated by the blast wave through baroclinic vorticity continues to act upon the interface. In this talk, we provide scaling laws for the circulation and amplitude growth induced by the blast wave. Numerical simulations of the multifluid Euler equations solved using a high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin method are used to validate the theoretical results.

  19. BLAST: the Redshift Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Eales, Stephen; Devlin, Mark J; Dye, Simon; Halpern, Mark; Hughes, David H; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Raymond, Gwenifer; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Siana, Brian; Truch, Matthew D P; Viero, Marco P

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed ~=8.7 deg^2 centered on GOODS-South at 250, 350 and 500 microns. In Dye et al. (2009) we presented the catalogue of sources detected at $\\rm 5\\sigma$ in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 83 of these counterparts. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST band...

  20. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  1. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  2. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury ...

  3. A Rare Case of a Gunshot Injury: No Urinary Symptoms with a Voided Bullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Ceylan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gunshot injuries to the abdominal cavity are cases of emergency which can be life-threatening depending on the organ/s affected. High-velocity penetrating injuries can cause both a penetrating injury to the organs on its’ route or can cause blast injury nearby. In most of the cases, the bullet can be found and the defect can be repaired intraoperatively. Here, we present a rare case of a patient with an intrabdominal penetrating gunshot wound with no organ injury, including the bladder, who voided the bullet spontaneously 30 days after the injury.

  4. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Harvey S.; Robertson, Claudia S.

    2013-01-01

    This Introduction to a Special Issue on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) highlights the methodological challenges in outcome studies and clinical trials involving patients who sustain mTBI. Recent advances in brain imaging and portable, computerized cognitive tasks have contributed to protocols that are sensitive to the effects of mTBI and efficient in time for completion. Investigation of civilian mTBI has been extended to single and repeated injuries in athletes and blast-related mTBI in ...

  5. Cerebrovascular Injury Caused by a High Strain Rate Insult in the Thorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    al. Severe lung contusion and death after high-velocity behind-armor blunt trauma: relation to protection level. Mil Med 2007; 172 1110-1116 13...of increasing risk developed by Courtney and Courtney9 and the Bowen curves for risk of blast-induced lung injury.2 Figure 1. Experimental conditions...involvement of nitric oxide. Brain Inj 2001; 15 593-612 6. Cooper GJ. Protection of the lung from blast overpressure by thoracic stress wave decouplers. J

  6. Visceral injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, D H; Blaisdell, F W

    1992-06-01

    Abdominal visceral injuries are encountered by every surgeon who deals with trauma. It is simple and useful to divide abdominal visceral injuries into those caused by penetrating mechanisms of injury and those due to blunt mechanisms. Determination of the need for operative intervention is generally easier after penetrating trauma. Gunshot wounds to the abdomen should be explored, as should stab wounds to the anterior abdomen that penetrate the fascia. A midline incision is the standard approach to abdominal visceral injuries because of its ease and versatility. Abdominal exploration should be consistent and systemic so as not to miss significant injuries. Hollow viscus injury is most common after penetrating injury, while blunt injury most often results in injury to solid viscera. Diagnostic and operative aspects of the treatment of specific visceral injuries are reviewed.

  7. 75 FR 56489 - Separation Distances of Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents (2002R-226P) AGENCY: Bureau of... CFR 555.220 set forth a table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents followed by six explanatory notes. Note three (3) states that the...

  8. Stress and Traumatic Brain Injury: A Behavioral, Proteomics, and Histological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) can both result in lasting neurobehavioral abnormalities. Post- traumatic stress disorder and blast...factor on the battlefield INTRODUCTION Traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) is one of the leading causes of death and chronic disability worldwide (Bruns and...ulcer devel- opment. Brain Res. Bull. 25, 691–695. Jaffee, M. S., and Meyer, K. S. (2009). A brief overview of traumatic brain injury ( TBI ) and

  9. Source model for blasting vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Hua(丁桦); ZHENG; Zhemin(郑哲敏)

    2002-01-01

    By analyzing and comparing the experimental data, the point source moment theory and the cavity theory, it is concluded that the vibrating signals away from the blasting explosive come mainly from the natural vibrations of the geological structures near the broken blasting area. The source impulses are not spread mainly by the inelastic properties (such as through media damping, as believed to be the case by many researchers) of the medium in the propagation pass, but by this structure. Then an equivalent source model for the blasting vibrations of a fragmenting blasting is proposed, which shows the important role of the impulse of the source's time function under certain conditions. For the purpose of numerical simulation, the model is realized in FEM, The finite element results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Reliability of Hydrox explosive blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikunov, V.I.; Chulkov, O.G.; Domanov, V.P.

    1980-03-01

    The safest method of blasting in coal mines with methane and coal dust hazards is with the flameless Hydrox charges. The results of operational tests on Hydrox BV-A2U charges with a I-43 initiator in underground coal mines are discussed. Efficiency and reliability of blasting using Hydrox BV-A2U compared to BV-48 Hydrox charges is evaluated. Results of blasting and the percentage of charge failures are given in tables. It is suggested that BV-A2U Hydrox charges are superior to BV-48, as no charge failures occur, operational time of BV-A2U is up to 5 seconds and the maximum operational time spread is 1.8 sec (weight of initiator 0.05 kg). Blasting properties of BV-A2U are stable and do not change as a result of long storage. (In Russian)

  11. Blasting Vibration Generated by Breaking-Blasting Large Barriers with EBBLB

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Zhen-xiong; Gu Wen-bin; Liang Ting; Liu Jian-qing; Xu Jing-lin; Liu Xin

    2016-01-01

    Equipment for breaking and blasting large barriers (EBBLB) is new break-blast equipment, which inevitably induces ground vibration and may cause substantial damage to rock mass and nearby structures as well as human beings. The ground vibration induced by break-blast is one of the inevitable outcomes. By monitoring vibration at measuring points at different distances from blasting center, time history curve of vibrating velocity can be obtained; it can be drawn that blasting seismic waves are...

  12. Design of Blast Resistant Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Gautam

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A shock blast resistant structure designed, developed and experimentally evaluated by the authors is described. We structure, capable of with standing dynamic loading (12 psi and a static pressure of 1.5 m earth cover due to blast or any other explosion, also gives protection against radiation, chemical and thermal hazards. Some results and details of analysis and experimentation are presented.

  13. Centrifugal shot blast system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

  14. Development and characterization of an open-ended shock tube for the study of blast mtbi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Ms, Alok S; Stemper Phd, Brian D; Pintar Phd, Frank A

    2012-01-01

    Shock tubes can be used to study traumatic brain injuries due to blast waves in a laboratory setting without the use of explosives. A literature review shows that several shock tubes used in these type of studies are large in size and have a high cost of conducting tests and maintaining the device. The purpose of this study was to design and characterize small shock tubes to simulate open field blast waves, which can be used in a laboratory with limited space and has low cost of operation. In addition, the shock tube can be used to induce localized blast in a small region to study the injury mechanisms in the desired region. Furthermore, the animal is placed outside of the shock tube, which provides the ability to expose the animal to a pure primary blast wave. A helium-driven shock tube with driven length of 3.04 m and driver length of 0.30 m was used in the present study. Transducers were placed at multiple locations and distances to characterize the blast wave outside the shock tube. The versatile design of the shock tube can generate a wide range of peak overpressure, rise times and durations. The shock tube was able to generate peak overpressure ranging from 25 kPa to 508 kPa and positive durations ranging from 97 µs to 797 µs. The literature review also showed several studies where the data were collected and analyzed improperly. The under-sampling or improper filtering can significantly affect the data. Additionally, the orientation of the transducer with respect to the shock wave can also affect the recorded peak overpressure. This paper reports various peak overpressures, durations and rise-times that can be developed with a small open-ended shock tube and the methodology to properly collect and analyze blast wave data generated by the shock tube.

  15. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive blasting. 72.610 Section 72.610... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 72.610 Abrasive blasting. (a) Surface and underground mines. When an abrasive blasting operation is performed, all exposed miners shall properly...

  16. BLEVE blast by expansion-controlled evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, A.C. van den; Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a new method to calculate the blast effects originating from an exploding vessel of liquefied gas. Adequate blast calculation requires full knowledge of the blast source characteristics, that is, the release and subsequent evaporation rate of the flashing liquid. Because the con

  17. 30 CFR 57.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting. 57.6312 Section 57.6312... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric Blasting—Surface and Underground...

  18. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive blasting. 58.610 Section 58.610... SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous § 58.610 Abrasive blasting. (a) Surface and underground mines. When an abrasive blasting operation is performed, all...

  19. Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The blasting operation plays a pivotal role in the overall economics of opencast mines. The blasting sub-system affects all the other associated sub-systems, i.e. loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Fragmentation control through effective blast design and its effect on productivity are the challenging tasks for practicing blasting engineer due to inadequate knowledge of actual explosive energy released in the borehole, varying initiation practice in blast design and its effect on explosive energy release characteristic. This paper describes the result of a systematic study on the impact of blast design parameters on rock fragmentation at three mines in India. The mines use draglines and shovel–dumper combination for removal of overburden. Despite its pivotal role in controlling the overall economics of a mining operation, the expected blasting performance is often judged almost exclusively on the basis of poorly defined parameters such as powder factor and is often qualitative which results in very subjective assessment of blasting performance. Such an approach is very poor substitutes for accurate assessment of explosive and blasting performance. Ninety one blasts were conducted with varying blast designs and charging patterns, and their impacts on the rock fragmentation were documented. A high-speed camera was deployed to record the detonation sequences of the blasts. The efficiency of the loading machines was also correlated with the mean fragment size obtained from the fragmentation analyses.

  20. Facial Firework Injury: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap Tadisina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fireworks are used to celebrate a variety of religious, patriotic, and cultural holidays and events around the world. Fireworks are common in the United States, with the most popular holiday for their use being national Independence Day, also known as July Fourth. The use of fireworks within the context of celebrations and holidays presents the ideal environment for accidents that lead to severe and dangerous injuries. Injuries to the face from explosions present a challenging problem in terms of restoring ideal ocular, oral, and facial function. Despite the well documented prevalence of firework use and injury, there is a relatively large deficit in the literature in terms of firework injury that involves the face. We present a unique case series that includes 4 adult male patients all with severe firework injuries to the face that presented at an urban level 1 trauma center. These four patients had an average age of 26.7 years old and presented within 5 hours of each other starting on July Fourth. Two patients died from their injuries and two patients underwent reconstructive surgical management, one of which had two follow up surgeries. We explore in detail their presentation, management, and subsequent outcomes as an attempt to add to the very limited data in the field of facial firework blast injury. In addition, the coincidence of their presentation within the same 5 hours brings into question the availability of the fireworks involved, and the possibility of similar injuries related to this type of firework in the future.

  1. A terrorist bomb blast, a real challenge for any tertiary care health provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Katyal, Surabhi

    2014-01-01

    Multiple casualties and the complex set of injuries in survivors of a terrorist bomb blast poses a real challenge to health care providers. We are presenting three such cases, first case suffered a fracture of both bone lower limb bilaterally along with head injury (foreign bodies were impacted in the scalp and brain parenchyma). Following primary resuscitation, patient shifted to operation theatre after a quick computerized tomography scan and external fixator applied in general anesthesia using the rapid sequence induction. No active neurosurgical intervention was done. As this patient had acute post-traumatic stress response, he was subjected to low pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy (pressure of 1.5 ATA for 60 min a day for 10 days) and group counseling. He had good recovery except one lost a limb because of extensive neurovascular damage due to blast. Second case had much more extensive damage involving multiple organ systems. He had blast lung, big cerebrovascular hemorrhage along with gut perforation. Despite best possible surgical and intensive care interventions, patent developed multiple organ failure and unfortunately we lost our patient. Third case was of a right sided globe rupture resulted from blast induced flying foreign bodies. After primary survey and initial resuscitation evisceration done for the damaged eye and patient later on discharged with necessary instruction (including warning signs) for follow-up.

  2. A terrorist bomb blast, a real challenge for any tertiary care health provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Katyal, Surabhi

    2014-01-01

    Multiple casualties and the complex set of injuries in survivors of a terrorist bomb blast poses a real challenge to health care providers. We are presenting three such cases, first case suffered a fracture of both bone lower limb bilaterally along with head injury (foreign bodies were impacted in the scalp and brain parenchyma). Following primary resuscitation, patient shifted to operation theatre after a quick computerized tomography scan and external fixator applied in general anesthesia using the rapid sequence induction. No active neurosurgical intervention was done. As this patient had acute post-traumatic stress response, he was subjected to low pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy (pressure of 1.5 ATA for 60 min a day for 10 days) and group counseling. He had good recovery except one lost a limb because of extensive neurovascular damage due to blast. Second case had much more extensive damage involving multiple organ systems. He had blast lung, big cerebrovascular hemorrhage along with gut perforation. Despite best possible surgical and intensive care interventions, patent developed multiple organ failure and unfortunately we lost our patient. Third case was of a right sided globe rupture resulted from blast induced flying foreign bodies. After primary survey and initial resuscitation evisceration done for the damaged eye and patient later on discharged with necessary instruction (including warning signs) for follow-up. PMID:25886231

  3. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or any other related blasting device or material shall be stored, transported, carried, handled,...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1326 - Examination after blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examination after blasting. 75.1326 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1326 Examination after blasting. (a) After blasting, the blasting area shall not be entered until it is clear of...

  5. Numerical simulation of stress for the blasting of foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Hong-lu; ZHAO Xin-pu

    2008-01-01

    Through the simulation of explicit dynamic analysis software LS-DYNA, made an analysis to the particle velocity and the stress distribution of surrounding rock when the explosives blasting. Explicated the mechanical character of surrounding rock in the foun-dation pit blasting, provided a basis to set of blasting parameters and optimized the blast-ing construction.

  6. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Blasting. 780.13 Section 780.13... Operation plan: Blasting. (a) Blasting plan. Each application shall contain a blasting plan for the proposed... methods to be applied in controlling the adverse effects of blasting operations. (b) Monitoring...

  7. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: Baseball Concussions Concussions: Getting Better Sports and Concussions Dealing ...

  8. Ear Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  9. Genital injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... each side of a bar, such as a monkey bar or the middle of a bicycle Symptoms ... Names Scrotal trauma; Straddle injury; Toilet seat injury Images Female reproductive anatomy Male reproductive anatomy Normal female ...

  10. Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bursitis . Symptoms of bursitis in the knee include warmth, tenderness, swelling, and pain on the front of ... injury without the aid of a television screen. Physical Therapy Depending on the type of knee injury ...

  11. [Penetrating head and brain injuries with nonmetal foreign bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, A A; Okhlopkov, V A; Latyshev, Ya A; Serova, N K; Eolchiyan, S A

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are common in neurosurgical practice. Most of them are civil or war-time missile and blast injuries. This type of trauma is widely presented in neurosurgical publication, textbooks and clinical evidence-based guidelines. At the same time, PBI by non-metallic foreign bodies are very rare. All the data are limited to case reports and small series of cases. Moreover, there are no clinical consideration on diagnosis, treatment, complication, outcome and prognosis of PBI by non-metallic penetrating brain injuries. In this review all the data are summarized to provide recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of PBI by non-metallic foreign bodies.

  12. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  13. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Blasting agent Minimum thickness of artificial barricades (in.) 100 3 11 12 100 300 4 14 12 300 600 5 18...

  14. The integrated blast effects sensor suite: a rapidly developed, complex, system of systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Brian; Medda, Alessio; Woods, Douglas; Phelps, Shean; Fain, Walter

    2015-03-01

    Spurned by the increasing concern and consciousness of traumatic brain injuries in deployed U.S. service members, the U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force sought help from the Georgia Tech Research Institute to rapidly develop and deploy a system capable of gathering relevant soldier-centric data-the Integrated Blast Effects Sensor Suite. To meet aggressive program milestones and requirements, Georgia Tech Research Institute engaged in rapid systems engineering efforts focused on leveraging iterative development and test methodologies. Ultimately, an integrated system of systems composed of vehicle systems, soldier-worn headset and torso systems, and data retrieval systems was deployed to troops in Afghanistan for an operational assessment. The Integrated Blast Effects Sensor Suite development process and parallel efforts investigating injury dosimetry methodologies have yielded unique findings and lessons learned, which should be incorporated into future evolutions of similar systems.

  15. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian G. CULLIS; Nikos NIKIFORAKIS; Peter FRANKL; Philip BLAKELY; Paul BENNETT; Paul GREENWOOD

    2016-01-01

    The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length-and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  16. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Cullis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  17. A Review of Central Nervous System (CNS)/Cognitive Effects Due to Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Ecklund, J., Parks, S., Prusaczyk, K ., Januszkiewicz , A., Long, J., & Ling, G. (2005). Blast-Induced neuropathological changes in Sus scroffa...M. S., Rice, A. C., Clausen, T., Rice, L. K ., Barabnova, A., Bullock, R., & Hamm, R. J. (2002). Repeated mild brain injuries result in cognitive...Engl J Med, 352(13), 1335-42. 16 Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Dodd, K . T., Mundie, T. G., Lagutchik

  18. Dry ice blasting as a substitution for the conventional electroplating pre-treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlmann Eckart; Baira El Mustapha; Jaczkowski Robert

    2016-01-01

    For high quality electroplated products, surfaces must be thoroughly pre-treated. For this purpose electroplating currently needs a variety of chemical baths. The used chemicals are injurious to health and harmful to the environment. In addition, the conventional pre-treatment has a long process time which results in high costs. Dry ice blasting alone or in combination with other processes has the potential to completely substitute these conventional pre-treatment processes. Three process seq...

  19. Bicycling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  20. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting underground in hazardous areas. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20031 Blasting underground in hazardous areas. In underground areas where... removed to safe places before blasting....

  1. Blast-induced moderate neurotrauma (BINT) elicits early complement activation and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) release in a rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Lucca, Jurandir J; Chavko, Mikulas; Dubick, Michael A; Adeeb, Saleena; Falabella, Michael J; Slack, Jessica L; McCarron, Richard; Li, Yansong

    2012-07-15

    Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a major medical concern yet its etiology is largely undefined. Complement activation may play a role in the development of secondary injury following traumatic brain injury; however, its role in BINT is still undefined. The present study was designed to characterize the complement system and adaptive immune-inflammatory responses in a rat model of moderate BINT. Anesthetized rats were exposed to a moderate blast (120 kPa) using an air-driven shock tube. Brain tissue injury, systemic and local complement, cerebral edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production were measured at 0.5, 3, 48, 72, 120, and 168 h. Injury to brain tissue was evaluated by histological evaluation. Systemic complement was measured via ELSIA. The remaining measurements were determined by immunohistoflourescent staining. Moderate blast triggers moderate brain injuries, elevated levels of local brain C3/C5b-9 and systemic C5b-9, increased leukocyte infiltration, unregulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and aquaporin-4 in rat brain cortex at 3- and 48-hour post blast. Early immune-inflammatory response to BINT involves complement and TNFα, which correlates with hippocampus and cerebral cortex damage. Complement and TNFα activation may be a novel therapeutic target for reducing the damaging effects of BINT inflammation.

  2. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney damage; Toxic injury of the kidney; Kidney injury; Traumatic injury of the kidney; Fractured kidney; Inflammatory injury of the kidney; Bruised kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, ...

  3. Blast-Induced Damage on Millisecond Blasting Model Test with Multicircle Vertical Blastholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-yong Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the blast-induced damage effect on surrounding rock in vertical shaft excavation, 4 kinds of millisecond blasting model tests with three-circle blastholes were designed and carried out with excavation blasting in vertical shaft as the background. The longitudinal wave velocity on the side of concrete model was also measured before and after blasting. Then blast damage factor was then calculated by measuring longitudinal wave velocity before and after blasting. The test results show that the blast-induced damage factor attenuated gradually with the centre of three-circle blastholes as centre. With the threshold value of 0.19 for blast-induced damage factor, blast-induced damage zones for 4 kinds of model tests are described and there is an inverted cone blast-induced damage zone in concrete model. And analyses of cutting effect and blast-induced damage zone indicate that in order to minimize the blast-induced damage effect and ensure the cutting effect the reasonable blasting scheme for three-circle blastholes is the inner two-circle blastholes initiated simultaneously and the outer third circle blastholes initiated in a 25 ms delay.

  4. 乌司他丁对爆震引起兔急性肺损伤血气及肺病理的影响%The effect of ulinastatin on blood gas analysis in rabbits with acute lung injury following a blast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁耒; 代尊强; 史岩; 徐傲; 邹志强; 卢兆桐

    2016-01-01

    48 h later.The pathological changes of lung tissue were observed with naked eye and extent of lung injury with HE staining.Results Compared with group A,pulmonary edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lungs of rabbits in group B were less significant.The blood gas analysis showed there were significant difference in pH at 24 h after injury between group A (7.24 ± 0.07) and group B (7.35 ± 0.06),P < 0.05.There was significant difference in PaO2 at 24 h after injury between group A (50.5 ± 9.9) mmHg and group B (78.1 ± 8.4) mmHg,P < 0.05.And there was significant difference in PaCO2 at 24 h after injury between group A (52.4 ± 5.5) mmHg and group B (42.8 ± 4.5) mmHg,P < 0.05.Conclusion UTI can significantly reduce acidosis,PaCO2 and increase PaO2 in rabbits with ALI following a blast,improving oxygenation and mitigating lung histopathological changes.

  5. Preliminary findings of cortical thickness abnormalities in blast injured service members and their relationship to clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, D F; York, G E; Reid, M W; Cooper, D B; Jones, L; Robin, D A; Kennedy, J E; Lewis, J

    2014-03-01

    Though cortical abnormalities have been demonstrated in moderate and severe traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients, there have been no studies examining cortical changes following blast related mild TBI (mTBI). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects and functional relevance of blast mTBI on cortical thickness in a small cohort of carefully screened blast injured US Service Members (SM). Twelve SM with mTBI acquired through blast injury were compared to 11 demographically matched control SM without TBI. Both mTBI and control participants were active duty and had completed a combat deployment. Subjects underwent MRI examination and the T1 weighted anatomic images were processed using the FreeSurfer suite of tools. Cortical thickness maps were compared between groups and examined for relationships with time since injury (TSI). Utilizing a large database of functional imaging results (BrainMap), significant regions of interest (ROI) were used to determine the behavioral profiles most consistently associated with the specific ROI. In addition, clinical variables were examined as part of post-hoc analysis of functional relevance. Group comparisons controlling for age demonstrated several significant clusters of cortical thinning for the blast injured SM. After multiple comparisons correction (False Discovery Rate (FDR)), two left hemisphere clusters remained significant (left superior temporal (STG) and frontal (SFG) gyri). No clusters were significantly correlated with TSI after FDR correction. Behavioral analysis for the STG and SFG clusters demonstrated three significant behavioral/cognitive sub-domains, each associated with audition and language. Blast injured SMs demonstrated distinct areas of cortical thinning in the STG and SFG. These areas have been previously shown to be associated with audition and language. Post-hoc analyses of clinical records demonstrated significant abnormal audiology reports for the blast injured SM suggesting that the

  6. Improved BLAST for wireless communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongzhao; Liao Guisheng; Wang Feng

    2006-01-01

    Bell layered space-time architecture (BLAST) is a multi-antenna communication structure with high spectrum efficiency, and it has found wide applications in LANs and WLANs. However, its performance is much poorer than those of other space-time coding approaches. In order to improve its performance, an improved BLAST based on RAKE receiving is investigated. The new system introduces orthogonal spreading sequences (OSS) into the transmitter while retains the basic structure of BLAST. The proposed receiver suppresses interferences from other antennas by the orthogonality contained in the received signals, and extracts information from each receiving antenna by using RAKE receiving principle to construct efficient statistic decision. Simulation results show that the improved system performs well over both frequency-flat and frequency-selective fading channels.

  7. Discriminating military and civilian traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew W; Velez, Carmen S

    2015-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs at higher rates among service members than civilians. Explosions from improvised explosive devices and mines are the leading cause of TBI in the military. As such, TBI is frequently accompanied by other injuries, which makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult. In addition to postconcussion symptoms, those who sustain a TBI commonly report chronic pain and posttraumatic stress symptoms. This combination of symptoms is so typical they have been referred to as the "polytrauma clinical triad" among injured service members. We explore whether these symptoms discriminate civilian occurrences of TBI from those of service members, as well as the possibility that repeated blast exposure contributes to the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Traumatic Brain Injury'.

  8. Blast Wave Characteristics and Equivalency

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle; Schneider, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    ISBN 978-5-94588-079-5; The characteristics of blast waves generated by detonation of gas clouds are studies theoretically and validated by both small-scale and large-scale experiments with ethylene-air mixtures of different equivalence ratio. The mixtures were confined in hemispherical or spherical balloons made from thin polyethylene foils of 0.75 m³ and 15 m³ in volume. The detonation of gas mixtures was initiated by a solid explosive. The characteristics of the blast wave in terms of over...

  9. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  10. Paragliding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  11. Mask materials for powder blasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, Henk; Jansen, Henri V.; Berenschot, J.W.; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2001-01-01

    Powder blasting, or abrasive jet machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials such as glass, silicon and ceramics. The particle jet (which expand

  12. Plastic Media Blasting Data Gathering Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    matt, reducing the filtering surface. 25 3) Cartridge Collectors: Cartridge dust collectors consist of a number of nonwoven tubular filters placed...Engineering Command 03 SPLASTIC MEDIA BLASTING DATA GATHERING STUDY: FINAL REPORT ABSTRAC>lastic Media Blasting (PMB) is proving to be a cost effective method...facilities; needed blasting and media recovery equipment; different types of media ; and media disposal. The Economics section gives two examples of economic

  13. Whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason

    2005-10-01

    Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.

  14. Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye and face protection is essential to prevent injuries. Sports such as hockey, baseball, racquet ball, squash, and shooting require protective goggles or full face mask wear at all times. Do fireworks still cause eye injuries? Each year hundreds of individuals (often children) sustain ...

  15. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  16. The UK Military Experience of Thoracic Injury in the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    advances in surgical technique.4 Haemorrhage and sepsis have remained the main causes of mortality throughout twentieth century warfare.1,6 In the...severe head or abdominal injury and cardiac arrest as independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions: Blast is the main mechanism of thoracic wounding...in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Thoracic trauma in association with severe head or abdominal injuries are predictors of mortality

  17. Material Parameter Sensitivity of Predicted Injury in the Lower Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    rupture, the neck of the talus to impact against the leading anterior edge of the distal tibia, and a fracture line to develop.25,26 Due to the...leg under high rate loading. In: International Re- search Council on Biomechanics of Injury; 2013 Sep 11–13; Gothenburg, Swe- den. 4. Ramasamy A...Bull AMJ, Clasper JC. Blast- related fracture patterns: a forensic biomechanical approach. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 2011;8(58):689–698

  18. Physics of IED Blast Shock Tube Simulations for mTBI Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla Varas, Jesus; Philippens, M; Meijer, S R; van den Berg, A C; Sibma, P C; van Bree, J L M J; de Vries, D V W M

    2011-01-01

    Shock tube experiments and simulations are conducted with a spherical gelatin filled skull-brain surrogate, in order to study the mechanisms leading to blast induced mild traumatic brain injury. A shock tube including sensor system is optimized to simulate realistic improvised explosive device blast profiles obtained from full scale field tests. The response of the skull-brain surrogate is monitored using pressure and strain measurements. Fluid-structure interaction is modeled using a combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the air blast, and a finite element model for the structural response. The results help to understand the physics of wave propagation, from air blast into the skull-brain. The presence of openings on the skull and its orientation does have a strong effect on the internal pressure. A parameter study reveals that when there is an opening in the skull, the skull gives little protection and the internal pressure is fairly independent on the skull stiffness; the gelatin shear stiffness has little effect on the internal pressure. Simulations show that the presence of pressure sensors in the gelatin hardly disturbs the pressure field.

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury in a Military Operational Setting (Le traumatisme cranien dans un cadre militaire operationnel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    reproductions of a primary blast, penetrating injuries from fragments, acceleration movements, or combinations of such mechanisms. It is of crucial...pathophysiology. Brain Res Bull . 2011; 85:313-20. [193] Wang, Y., Wei, Y., Oguntayo, S., Wilkins, W., Arun, P. and Valiyaveettil, M., et al. Tightly coupled

  20. Antifungal Wound Penetration of Amphotericin and Voriconazole in Combat-related Injuries: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    the groin, and in non-viable connective tissues of the foot as well as non-viable serosal adhesions of the antrum of the stomach and first part of the...M, et al. Effect of early screening for invasive fungal infections in U.S. service members with explosive blast injuries. Surgical infections. 2014;15

  1. Numerical simulation of stress for the blasting of foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Hong-lu; ZHAO Xin-pu

    2008-01-01

    Through the simulation of explicit dynamic analysis software LS-DYNA,made an analysis to the particle velocity and the stress distribution of surrounding rock when the explosives blasting.Explicated the mechanical character of surrounding rock in the foundation pit blasting,provided a basis to set of blasting parameters and optimized the blasting construction.

  2. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isolation of blasting circuits. 56.6605 Section... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting agents; special provisions. 77.1304... COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1304 Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior to mixing, shall be mixed and stored...

  4. Condition for Contur Blasting use on Openpit Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Krsmanovic, I; Dambov, Risto

    2010-01-01

    For purpose of obtaining a stable final slope in open pit mines practice, the most common approach is the contour blasting method and investigation of possible applications of various primary blasting methods for purpose of gaining the optimal techno-economical effects. This paper presents one of the contour blasting methods, drilling and blasting parameters, construction of explosive charges and method of initiation.

  5. 30 CFR 75.1320 - Multiple-shot blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple-shot blasting. 75.1320 Section 75.1320... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1320 Multiple-shot blasting... periods of 1,000 milliseconds or less shall be used. (d) When blasting in anthracite mines, each...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading, blasting, and security. 56.6306... § 56.6306 Loading, blasting, and security. (a) When explosive materials or initiating systems are... permitted within the blast site shall be those activities directly related to the blasting operation and...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.910 - Inspection after blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection after blasting. 1926.910 Section 1926.910 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.910 Inspection after blasting. (a) Immediately after the blast has been fired, the firing line shall...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1316 - Preparation before blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1316 Preparation... using a blasting multimeter or other instrument specifically designed for such use. (3) The blasting... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation before blasting. 75.1316 Section...

  9. Wound Ballistics Modeling for Blast Loading Blunt Force Impact and Projectile Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cooper, Candice Frances [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnett, Damon J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Light body armor development for the warfighter is based on trial-and-error testing of prototype designs against ballistic projectiles. Torso armor testing against blast is virtually nonexistent but necessary to ensure adequate protection against injury to the heart and lungs. In this report, we discuss the development of a high-fidelity human torso model, it's merging with the existing Sandia Human Head-Neck Model, and development of the modeling & simulation (M&S) capabilities necessary to simulate wound injury scenarios. Using the new Sandia Human Torso Model, we demonstrate the advantage of virtual simulation in the investigation of wound injury as it relates to the warfighter experience. We present the results of virtual simulations of blast loading and ballistic projectile impact to the tors o with and without notional protective armor. In this manner, we demonstrate the ad vantages of applying a modeling and simulation approach to the investigation of wound injury and relative merit assessments of protective body armor without the need for trial-and-error testing.

  10. Updates to Blast Injury Criteria Models for Nuclear Casualty Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Prepared by: Nuclear Survivability and Forensics Integrated Program Team DTRA-TR-15-023 TE C H N IC A L R EP O R T REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...dictions to data on pedestrian displacement following car accidents. For forensics purposes, data has been collected on the distance a pedestrian hit...source data. 34 Table 4.10: The 50% penetration velocities of steel and stone. Stone Mass (grams) Ballistic limits Missile Bare Skin Military Uniform

  11. Preventing Vision Loss from Blast Injuries with Regenerative Biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The material then hydrates and swells into a gel - like state, which then uniformly coats the surface and begins to dissolve with time. The bulk of the...mori silk fibroin solutions studied by 1 H NMR and rheology , Biomaterials 29, 4268–4274 (2008). 16. B. D. Lawrence, Z. Pan, M. D. Weber, D. L

  12. Preventing Vision Loss from Blast Injuries with Regenerative Biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    biomaterial derived from the silk protein fibroin from the Bombyx mori silkworm . This will be the first ophthalmic product that utilizes regenerative silk...the Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon is not toxic and non-immunogenic when placed within the body (1). It is also known that silk fibroin possesses anti...which dissolve silkworm cocoons into an aqueous protein solution (10). The variability in producing silk solution has been a significant challenge for

  13. A Blast Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM...swine brain. The animals in the second set were given ketorolac (30 mg) s.c. for analgesia. The anesthesia was gradually reduced and the animals were...The second set of 6 animals were deeply anesthetized with isoflurane, then were euthanized with an i.v. injection of saturated KCl. When all

  14. Mechanisms and Mitigation of Hearing Loss from Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    References [1] James Easter, Xianxi Ge, Gregory Capra , Kanthaiah Koka, James Eric Lupo, and Travis Pfannenstiel. Measurement of dierential...Kanthaiah Koka, Travis Pfannenstiel, Xianxi Ge, Jianzhong Liu, Ronald Jackson, Gregory Capra , Vikrant Palan, Mario Pineda, Ben Balough, and James Easter

  15. Genetic Networks Activated by Blast Injury to the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Justin P. Templeton,1 Natalie E. Freeman,1 John M. Nickerson,2 Monica M. Jablonski,1 Tonia S. Rex,3 Robert W. Williams,4 and Eldon E. Geisert1 1Department...The complement cascade: Yin-Yang in neuroinflammation— neuro-protection and -degeneration. J Neurochem. 2008;107: 1169–1187. 8. Rogers J, Schultz J

  16. Mechanisms and Mitigation of Hearing Loss from Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    modélisée par: Created by: Date: FISO Technologies, inc.Philippe Kertik Voir signature électronique Projet /Project: 6068 FISO Technologies inc. Document...frequencies. from solid core PVC tubing of various diameters that were connected with reducing couplings, and folded into a manageable size with 90

  17. Temporal Progression of Visual Injury from Blast Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    inertial head rotation in neonatal piglets. •Department of Bioengineering (2007-2010) Mechanics of ocular trauma in infants following inertial...6. Coats B, Ji S, Margulies SS. Using computational models to predict skull fracture in the infant . Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma , Hershey, PA...to predict skull fracture in the infant . Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma , Hershey, PA, July 2007 4. Coats B, Binenbaum G, Pieffer RL, Forbes BJ

  18. Temporal Progression of Visual Injury from Blast Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    generate a clear image of left and right eyes, each centered on the optic nerve. Rats are anesthetized by inhalation of 4% isoflurane, and the pupils are...collected, fed through an amplifying circuit (built in-house), and then recorded using LabView. The signal is filtered post-hoc, segmented , averaged, and

  19. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  20. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  1. The use of blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    V. Václavík; V. Dirner; T. Dvorský; J. Daxner

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  2. Fabrication of microstructures by powder blasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, Hendrik

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with the use of powder blasting as a micromachining technique to create micro systems. Powder blasting is a technology in which small particles, accelerated by an air jet, are directed towards a brittle target for mechanical material removal. It is especially useful for glass machi

  3. Refractory Pellet for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    1 Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,classification,specification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of refractory pellet for hot blast stove.This standard is applicable to refractory pellet for hot blast stove.

  4. Safety of collieries blasting operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonel, P. (Cerchar, 75 - Paris (France))

    1984-01-01

    The slight increase in periodicity of blasting incidents and their nature have led to remind one of the basic safety principles: to reduce the probability of dust and methane ignition by the explosive used or by the shotfiring line; to carefully select the explosive in accordance to the work to be carried out. It is reminded that using an anti-gassy explosive does not necessarily mean that no ignition will occur.

  5. Laboratory blast wave driven instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranz, Carolyn

    2008-11-01

    This presentation discusses experiments involving the evolution of hydrodynamic instabilities in the laboratory under high-energy-density (HED) conditions. These instabilities are driven by blast waves, which occur following a sudden, finite release of energy, and consist of a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. When a blast wave crosses an interface with a decrease in density, hydrodynamic instabilities will develop. Instabilities evolving under HED conditions are relevant to astrophysics. These experiments include target materials scaled in density to the He/H layer in SN1987A. About 5 kJ of laser energy from the Omega Laser facility irradiates a 150 μm plastic layer that is followed by a low-density foam layer. A blast wave structure similar to those in supernovae is created in the plastic layer. The blast wave crosses an interface having a 2D or 3D sinusoidal structure that serves as a seed perturbation for hydrodynamic instabilities. This produces unstable growth dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the nonlinear regime. We have detected the interface structure under these conditions using x-ray backlighting. Recent advances in our diagnostic techniques have greatly improved the resolution of our x-ray radiographic images. Under certain conditions, the improved images show some mass extending beyond the RT spike and penetrating further than previously observed or predicted by current simulations. The observed effect is potentially of great importance as a source of mass transport to places not anticipated by current theory and simulation. I will discuss the amount of mass in these spike extensions, the associated uncertainties, and hypotheses regarding their origin We also plan to show comparisons of experiments using single mode and multimode as well as 2D and 3D initial conditions. This work is sponsored by DOE/NNSA Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058 (Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliances) and DE-FG52-04NA00064 (National Laser User

  6. Numerical modeling of an experimental shock tube for traumatic brain injury studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael; Regele, Jonathan D.

    2015-11-01

    Unfortunately, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are encountered commonly by both civilians and military soldiers throughout the world. Over a decade of medical history suggests that traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result from exposure to the blast waves created by these explosions, even if the person does not experience any immediate injury or lose consciousness. Medical researchers study the exposure of mice and rats to blast waves created in specially designed shock tubes to understand the effect on brain tissue. A newly developed table-top shock tube with a short driver section has been developed for mice experiments to reduce the time necessary to administer the blast radiation and increase the amount of statistical information available. In this study, numerical simulations of this shock tube are performed to assess how the blast wave takes its shape. The pressure profiles obtained from the numerical results are compared with the pressure histories from the experimental pressure transducers. The results show differences in behavior from what was expected, but the blast wave may still be an effective means of studying TBI.

  7. Aspects of blast resistant masonry design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkman, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Blast resistant design should be examined for building code incorporation, due to the potential of explosions occurring in an industrial society. Specifically, public and commercial structures of concrete masonry construction need additional building code criteria, since these buildings have high density populations to protect. Presently, blast resistant design is accomplished by using government published manuals, but these do not address industry standard construction. A design air blast load of 4.54 kg (10 lbs) of TNT, located 0.91 m (3 ft) above ground surface and 30.48 m (100 ft) from a structure should be considered standard criteria. This loading would be sufficient to protect against blast, resist progressive failure, and yet not be an economic impediment. Design details and adequate inspection must be observed to ensure blast resistant integrity. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Detonation safety of blasting caps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢兴华; 彭小圣

    2002-01-01

    By means of researching into sympathetic detonation of blasting detonators in air, the regular patterns are concluded from blasting detonators interaction with the shock loading. The aerial distribution of initiating ability of detonators looks like a butterfly. The initiating ability mainly consists of shock wave, explosive gases and fliers. But fundamental questions remain. When does shock wave take the leading role? When and how does the explosive gases or the fliers take function? For those questions, there is less quantitative research. Through the theoretic deduction of the overpressure, the energy calculation of fliers and the experiment of sympathetic detonation of detonators, we can learn the sympathetic detonation distances of several kinds of detonators and make an inquiry into the lateral initiating regulations of detonators. So, we can provide the base data for the research into no sympathetic detonation of herd blasting detonators and then control the detonation between them. Then we can make full use of detonators and reduce the frequency of accidents caused by detonators.

  9. The Next Generation BLAST Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Galitzki, Nicholas; Angilè, Francesco E; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J; Dober, Bradley J; Fissel, Laura M; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeffrey; Van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5 m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and ~3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid he...

  10. How to test brain and brain simulant at ballistic and blast strain rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiangyue; Song, Bo; Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Chen, Weinong; Gennarelli, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical properties of brain tissue and brain simulant at strain rate in the range of 1000 s-1 are essential for computational simulation of intracranial responses for ballistic and blast traumatic brain injury. Testing these ultra-soft materials at high strain rates is a challenge to most conventional material testing methods. The current study developed a modified split Hopkinson bar techniques using the combination of a few improvements to conventional split Hopkinson bar including: using low impedance aluminum bar, semiconductor strain gauge, pulse shaping technique and annular specimen. Feasibility tests were conducted using a brain stimulant, Sylgard 527. Stress-strain curves of the simulant were successfully obtained at strain rates of 2600 and 2700 s-1 for strain levels up to 60%. This confirmed the applicability of Hopkinson bar for mechanical properties testing of brain tissue in the ballistic and blast domain.

  11. Biomarkers of Blast-Induced Neurotrauma: Profiling Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Blast Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Questionnaire (RPCQ) scores and post- concussive syndrome . The results showed a weak linear correlation between marker levels and RPCQ scores for both...markers, and that there was no statistically signifi- cant correlation between marker levels and 3-month post- concussive syndrome . Thus, serum S-100ß and...J.A., Lewis, S.B., Valadka, A.B., Papa , L., Hannay, H.J., Heaton, S.C., Demery, J.A., Liu, M.C., Aikman, J.M., Akle, V., Brophy, G.M., Tepas, J.J

  12. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Blast Loading Descriptors as Occupant Injury Predictors for Underbody Blast Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    duration T. The target pulse can be achieved by controlling the energy absorption characteristics of the floor on which the platform is dropped upon...so equipped (Also known as vertical sled). These two scenarios are completely equivalent in the occupant response behavior for the same given pulse...and 7ms clips of chest resultant acceleration, (7) 7ms clip of pelvic vertical acceleration, (8,9) 7ms and 30ms clips of lumbar spine compression

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Blast Loading Descriptors as Occupant Injury Predictors for Underbody Blast Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-09

    34168 2 T i m e d u r ation o "f p u ls e ... T , m s ..,. I 1 ,.,,~~·""""’"""’"’·"’’""·’’’"lr ~ 7 3 "’r " factor, % ( d e" fau l t 5

  14. Sensitivity of Particle Size in Discrete Element Method to Particle Gas Method (DEM_PGM) Coupling in Underbody Blast Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-12

    liquid surface tension (Gamma), Capvol and Angles are associated with capillary forces. The parameters that define the behavior of wet material can be...effect of liquid surface tension , liquid bridge volume were analyzed. Effect of friction, and damping UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A...Occupant Injury during Under- Body Blast Events,” SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety 2(2), 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-0752, DTIC Report # ADA 599846. 11. Kulkarni

  15. Induced caving by blasting: innovative experiments in blasting gallery panels of underground coal mines of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.P.; Sawmliana, C.; Bhagat, N.K.; Madhu, M. [CMRI, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Dept.

    2003-04-01

    Induced caving by blasting during depillaring of panels in underground coal mines has received limited attention. This technique has become an integral part of a mining operation known as the blasting gallery (BG) method in India. Systematical deep hole (16-30 m) blasting has been successfully carried out from underground split galleries in BG panels. A study of drilling and blasting parameters, gas hazards, strata behaviour and ground vibration was undertaken as part of a research project for the Indian Ministry of Coal and Mines. Strata behaviour during blasting and ground movements were critically investigated. All experiments were conducted using newly developed explosive and detonating cord systems. A new blast damage index is proposed for damage assessment of the underground roof and pillars of BG panels. Useful mathematical formulas are described as an aid to future design.

  16. Blast Valve Design and Related Studies : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective structures required for performing critical operations are vulnerable to the blast and shock loads of advanced weapons. A blast valve is an important component of such structures for ventilation during normal conditions and for protection from blast/ shock during explosion. In this paper, various aspects of blast valve design and related studies are briefly reviewed. The concept and effects of blast wave, blast impact, numerical modelling and deformation of circular plate (one of the critical components of blast valve have been discussed. The merits and demerits of sensing mechanisms viz. remote and direct sensing are discussed. The leakage of blast pressure during finite closing period of the valve (one of the critical problems and the shock tube as a major experimental facility for testing of blast valves are briefly discussed.

  17. War, traffic and iatrogenic injuries of D3 duodenal segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Injuries of the duodenum at the level of aortomesenteric clamp (segment D3 are with a high incidence of death due to the development of fistula and peritonitis. In three successfully managed cases, we applied the biliary surgery method. Case reports. All three cases were with the injuries of D3 duodenal segment. The first patient suffered from the blast perforation of duodenum at the level of the aortomesenteric clamp which occurred at the 7th day after the injury. The second patient suffered from the duodenal injury caused in a traffic accident. The third patient suffered from an iatrogenic injury at the beginning of D3 duodenal segment inflicted during ureterolithotomy. The described surgical procedure included basically the suture to narrow the site of the injury, then lateroterminal anastomosis with the Roux-en-Y jejunal flexure and, finally, the placement of a silicone prosthesis starting from the duodenum through the site of injury and the Roux-en-Y out. Octreotide and the total parenteral nutrition were administered to the patients postoperatively. Conclusion. The use of the releasing silicone prosthesis in all three patients provided the repair of the site of the injury with anastomosed Reux-en-Y jejunum.

  18. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media interested in ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  19. Lipid Mediators and Human Leukemic Blasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Fiancette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most potent inflammatory mediators share a lipid origin. They regulate a wide spectrum of cellular processes including cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the precise roles and ways (if any in which these compounds impact the growth and apoptosis of leukemic blasts remain incompletely resolved. In spite of this, significant advances have been recently made. Here we briefly review the current knowledge about the production of lipid mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, platelet-activating factor by leukemic blasts, the enzymatic activities (phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases involved in their productions and their effects (through specific membrane bound receptors on the growth, and apoptosis of leukemic blasts.

  20. Birth Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Commentary Recent News Scientists Working on Solar-Powered Prosthetic Limbs Exercise a Great Prescription to Help Older Hearts Bavencio Approved for Rare Skin Cancer Older Mothers May Raise Better-Behaved Kids, Study ... lying in an abnormal position in the uterus before birth. Overall, the rate of birth injuries is much lower now than in previous decades because of improved ...

  1. Comparison of ATD to PMHS Response in the Under-Body Blast Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danelson, Kerry A; Kemper, Andrew R; Mason, Matthew J; Tegtmeyer, Michael; Swiatkowski, Sean A; Bolte, John H; Hardy, Warren N

    2015-11-01

    A blast buck (Accelerative Loading Fixture, or ALF) was developed for studying underbody blast events in a laboratory-like setting. It was designed to provide a high-magnitude, high-rate, vertical loading environment for cadaver and dummy testing. It consists of a platform with a reinforcing cage that supports adjustable-height rigid seats for two crew positions. The platform has a heavy frame with a deformable floor insert. Fourteen tests were conducted using fourteen PMHS (post mortem human surrogates) and the Hybrid III ATD (Anthropomorphic Test Device). Tests were conducted at two charge levels: enhanced and mild. The surrogates were tested with and without PPE (Personal Protective Equipment), and in two different postures: nominal (knee angle of 90°) and obtuse (knee angle of 120°). The ALF reproduces damage in the PMHS commensurate with injuries experienced in theater, with the most common damage being to the pelvis and ankle. Load is transmitted through the surrogates in a caudal-to-cranial sequential fashion. Damage to the PMHS lower extremities begins within 2 ms after the initiation of foot/floor motion. The Hybrid III cannot assume the posture of the PMHS in rigid seats and exhibits a stiffer overall response compared to the PMHS. The ATD does not mimic the kinematic response of the PMHS lower extremities. Further, the Hybrid III does not have the capability to predict the potential for injury in the high-rate, vertical loading environment. A new ATD dedicated to under-body blast is needed to assist in the effort to mitigate injuries sustained by the mounted soldier.

  2. Blast Wave Experiments at Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    radiation flows upward, it passes though a 1.7-mm high, tapered, 25-μm thick gold wall cone that is filled 20 ± 3 mg/cm3 silica aerogel (SiO2). Above...this cone is a 20 ± 3 mg/cm3 silica aerogel filled, 1-mm high, 2.4-mm inner diameter, 25-μm thick gold wall cylinder. On the cylinder rests a 4-mm...diameter gold platform that supports a higher density (40-60 mg/cm3) silica aerogel . This aerogel is the region where the blast wave forms after

  3. Peak Overpressures for Internal Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    condensed into relatively simple algebraic equa- tions for the (logarithm of the) equilibrium constant of formation as a function of absolute...blast for three conventional fuels-benzene, JP-4 (a hydrocarbon fuel with an empirical formula C9H17 ), and ethylene oxide-are plotted as a function of...256 .26 9.4 6.36 2166 7.89 2666 .27 Cubica . 9.5 6.66 2244 7.91 2591 .13 0.028 9.7 6.51 2197 7.97 2801 .19 9.9 6.17 2090 8.01 2607 .23 9.9 7.59 2495

  4. BLAST-EXPLORER helps you building datasets for phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The right sampling of homologous sequences for phylogenetic or molecular evolution analyses is a crucial step, the quality of which can have a significant impact on the final interpretation of the study. There is no single way for constructing datasets suitable for phylogenetic analysis, because this task intimately depends on the scientific question we want to address, Moreover, database mining softwares such as BLAST which are routinely used for searching homologous sequences are not specifically optimized for this task. Results To fill this gap, we designed BLAST-Explorer, an original and friendly web-based application that combines a BLAST search with a suite of tools that allows interactive, phylogenetic-oriented exploration of the BLAST results and flexible selection of homologous sequences among the BLAST hits. Once the selection of the BLAST hits is done using BLAST-Explorer, the corresponding sequence can be imported locally for external analysis or passed to the phylogenetic tree reconstruction pipelines available on the Phylogeny.fr platform. Conclusions BLAST-Explorer provides a simple, intuitive and interactive graphical representation of the BLAST results and allows selection and retrieving of the BLAST hit sequences based a wide range of criterions. Although BLAST-Explorer primarily aims at helping the construction of sequence datasets for further phylogenetic study, it can also be used as a standard BLAST server with enriched output. BLAST-Explorer is available at http://www.phylogeny.fr

  5. Biophysical mechanisms of traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lee Ann; Rule, Gregory T; Bocchieri, Robert T; Burns, Jennie M

    2015-02-01

    Despite years of effort to prevent traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), the occurrence of TBI in the United States alone has reached epidemic proportions. When an external force is applied to the head, it is converted into stresses that must be absorbed into the brain or redirected by a helmet or other protective equipment. Complex interactions of the head, neck, and jaw kinematics result in strains in the brain. Even relatively mild mechanical trauma to these tissues can initiate a neurochemical cascade that leads to TBI. Civilians and warfighters can experience head injuries in both combat and noncombat situations from a variety of threats, including ballistic and blunt impact, acceleration, and blast. It is critical to understand the physics created by these threats to develop meaningful improvements to clinical care, injury prevention, and mitigation. Here the authors review the current state of understanding of the complex loading conditions that lead to TBI and characterize how these loads are transmitted through soft tissue, the skull and into the brain, resulting in TBI. In addition, gaps in knowledge and injury thresholds are reviewed, as these must be addressed to better design strategies that reduce TBI incidence and severity.

  6. Numerical Study of Head/Helmet Interaction Due to Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    computational convenience. The nose and eyes are filled with skin material; the white matter, grey matter, cerebellum and brain stem are modeled as a...displacement than the brain . 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 1 2 3 4 5 Pr es su re  (K Pa ) Time (ms) air (back) air (behind) air (below) air ( nose ) air (left boundary... Brain Injury (TBI) due to blast and ballistic loading has been a subject of many recent studies. In this report, we report a numerical study to

  7. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BLAST finds regions of similarity between biological sequences. The program compares nucleotide or protein sequences to sequence databases and calculates the...

  8. Anhydrous Taphole Mix for Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,brand,label,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of anhydrous taphole mix for blast furnace.

  9. Kaolinite Refractory Bricks for Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ This standard is suitable to the fireclay bricks for blast furnace. 1 Classification, Shape and Dimension 1 According to physical and chemical indexes, the brick can be divided into two trademarks: ZGN-42 and GN-42.

  10. Blast vulnerability assessment : challenges and myths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braimah, A.; Contestabile, E. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    Challenges related to the creation of a comprehensive blast vulnerability assessment program for Canadian buildings was presented. Many building owners are now seeking to assess the vulnerability of their structures to blast loads, and wish to increase the survivability of both occupants and structures. However, the engineering community has not yet incorporated existing physical security measures into comprehensive mitigation strategies and designs. Different institutions are currently using varying amounts of explosives in vulnerability assessments, and there is an urgent need for information on terrorist capabilities in both the present and the future. Pressure-impulse diagrams are now used by engineers to assess component responses to blasts. However, pressure-impulse diagrams are based on single modes of failure, and may not be capable of capturing all failure modes of building components, nor are they able to ensure that vulnerability assessments do not overestimate the blast load resistance of buildings.

  11. Silica Brick for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the glossary and definition, marking, shape and dimension, technical requirements, test method, quality appraisal procedure, packing, label, transportation, storage and quality certification of silica brick for hot blast stove.

  12. Fireclay Refractory Bricks for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Zhang Yongfang; Chai Junlan

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification, shape, dimension, technical requirements, test method,inspection rules, packing, marking,transportation,storage and quality certification of fireclay refractory bricks for hot blast stove.

  13. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  14. Research on Effects of Blast Casting Vibration and Vibration Absorption of Presplitting Blasting in Open Cast Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact energy produced by blast casting is able to break and cast rocks, yet the strong vibration effects caused at the same time would threaten the safety of mines. Based on the theory of Janbu’s Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM, pseudo-static method has been incorporated to analyze the influence of dynamic loads of blasting on slope stability. The horizontal loads produced by blast vibrations cause an increase in sliding forces, and this leads to a lower slope stability coefficient. When the tensile stresses of the two adjacent blast holes are greater than the tensile strength of rock mass, the radical oriented cracks are formed, which is the precondition for the formation of presplit face. Thus, the formula for calculating the blast hole spacing of presplit blasting can be obtained. Based on the analysis of the principles of vibration tester and vibration pick-up in detecting blast vibrations, a detection scheme of blast vibration is worked out by taking the blast area with precrack rear and non-precrack side of the detection object. The detection and research results of blast vibration show that presplit blasting can reduce the attenuation coefficient of stress wave by half, and the vibration absorption ratio could reach 50.2%; the impact of dynamic loads on the end-wall slope stability coefficient is 1.98%, which proves that presplit blasting plays an important role in shock absorption of blast casting.

  15. Wound Ballistics Modeling for Blast Loading Blunt Force Impact and Projectile Penetration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Light body armor development for the warfighter is based on trial-and-error testing of prototype designs against ballistic projectiles. Torso armor testing against blast is nonexistent but necessary to protect the heart and lungs. In tests against ballistic projectiles, protective apparel is placed over ballistic clay and the projectiles are fired into the armor/clay target. The clay represents the human torso and its behind-armor, permanent deflection is the principal metric used to assess armor protection. Although this approach provides relative merit assessment of protection, it does not examine the behind-armor blunt trauma to crucial torso organs. We propose a modeling and simulation (M&S) capability for wound injury scenarios to the head, neck, and torso of the warfighter. We will use this toolset to investigate the consequences of, and mitigation against, blast exposure, blunt force impact, and ballistic projectile penetration leading to damage of critical organs comprising the central nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. We will leverage Sandia codes and our M&S expertise on traumatic brain injury to develop virtual anatomical models of the head, neck, and torso and the simulation methodology to capture the physics of wound mechanics. Specifically, we will investigate virtual wound injuries to the head, neck, and torso without and with protective armor to demonstrate the advantages of performing injury simulations for the development of body armor. The proposed toolset constitutes a significant advance over current methods by providing a virtual simulation capability to investigate wound injury and optimize armor design without the need for extensive field testing.

  16. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sports_Injuries/sports_injuries_ff.asp. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for ... cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http://www.stopsportsinjuries.org/overuse-injury.aspx. ...

  17. Design and commissioning of a semi-confined blast chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.M. SNYMAN; F.J. MOSTERT; W. GRUNDLING

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, test and analysis of a scaled cylindrical blast chamber. The blast chamber is a one-fifth dimensional size replica of the full-scale blast chamber (Emily). The blast chamber is semi-confined as one end is open. The scaled blast chamber is used to test concepts for closing the open end and allows the gas to vent at the same time. ANSYS AUTODYN calculated the pressure time histories for different closure scenarios. Comparing the results suggested a viable scenario, namely a structure consisting of a circular disc and a frame positioned at the open end of the blast chamber. The structure and cylindrical blast chamber were subjected to scaled blast tests and the pressure results are presented and discussed.

  18. Reduction of sidewall inclination and blast lag of powder blasted channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, Henk; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2002-01-01

    Powder blasting (abrasive jet machining) is a fast directional machining technique for brittle materials like silicon and glass. The cross-section of a powder blasted channel has a rounded V-shape. These inclined sidewalls are caused by the typical impact angle dependent removal rate for brittle mat

  19. The Temporal Pattern of Changes in Serum Biomarker Levels Reveal Complex and Dynamically Changing Pathologies after Exposure to a Single Low-intensity Blast in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid eAhmed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Time dependent changes of protein biomarkers in the serum can help identifying the pathological processes and assessing the severity and progression of the disease in blast induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI. We obtained blood from naïve mice and mice exposed to a single, low-intensity blast at 2 hour, 1 day, 1 week and 1 month post-injury. We then determined the serum levels of biomarkers related to metabolism (4-HNE, HIF-1α, Ceruloplasmin, vascular functions (VEGF, vWF, AQP1, AQP4, FLK-1, cell adhesion (Integrin 6α, TIMP1, TIMP4, Ncad, Connexin-43, inflammation (MMP-8, MIP-1α, CINC1, Fibrinogen, CCR5, CRP, Galectin-1, MCP-1, p38, OX-44, Osteopontin, axonal (NF-H, Tau, neuronal (NSE, CK-BB and glial integrity (GFAP, S100β, MBP and compared the changes among the experimental groups. Our results indicate that in the mouse, exposure to a single, low-intensity blast caused substantial metabolic, vascular and inflammatory responses, altered cell adhesion but only minimal neuronal, axonal and glia injury as indicated by serum proteomics data. Changes in metabolism, vascular functions and inflammation remained elevated at the termination of the experiment while the others were only detectable during the acute post-injury phase. Our findings indicate that exposure to a single; low-intensity blast can induce complex pathological processes with distinct temporal profile. Hence, monitoring serum biomarker levels at various post-injury time points may provide enhanced diagnostics in bTBI.

  20. Information modeling system for blast furnace control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Gileva, L. Y.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Modern Iron & Steel Works as a rule are equipped with powerful distributed control systems (DCS) and databases. Implementation of DSC system solves the problem of storage, control, protection, entry, editing and retrieving of information as well as generation of required reporting data. The most advanced and promising approach is to use decision support information technologies based on a complex of mathematical models. The model decision support system for control of blast furnace smelting is designed and operated. The basis of the model system is a complex of mathematical models created using the principle of natural mathematical modeling. This principle provides for construction of mathematical models of two levels. The first level model is a basic state model which makes it possible to assess the vector of system parameters using field data and blast furnace operation results. It is also used to calculate the adjustment (adaptation) coefficients of the predictive block of the system. The second-level model is a predictive model designed to assess the design parameters of the blast furnace process when there are changes in melting conditions relative to its current state. Tasks for which software is developed are described. Characteristics of the main subsystems of the blast furnace process as an object of modeling and control - thermal state of the furnace, blast, gas dynamic and slag conditions of blast furnace smelting - are presented.

  1. Comparison of Some Blast Vibration Predictors for Blasting in Underground Drifts and Some Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Vaibhab Pramod; Dey, Kaushik

    2016-04-01

    Drilling and blasting are the most economical excavation techniques in underground drifts driven through hard rock formation. Burn cut is the most popular drill pattern, used in this case, to achieve longer advance per blast round. The ground vibration generated due to the propagation of blast waves on the detonation of explosive during blasting is the principal cause for structural and rock damage. Thus, ground vibration is a point of concern for the blasting engineers. The ground vibration from a blast is measured using a seismograph placed at the blast monitoring station. The measured vibrations, in terms of peak particle velocity, are related to the maximum charge detonated at one instant and the distance of seismograph from the blast point. The ground vibrations from a number of blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances are monitored. A number of scaling factors of these dependencies (viz. Distance and maximum charge/delay) have been proposed by different researchers, namely, square root, cube root, CMRI, Langefors and Kihlstrom, Ghosh-Daemon, Indian standard etc. Scaling factors of desired type are computed for all the measured blast rounds. Regression analysis is carried out between the scaling factors and peak particle velocities to establish the coefficients of the vibration predictor equation. Then, the developed predictor equation is used for designing the blast henceforth. Director General of Mine Safety, India, specified that ground vibrations from eight to ten blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances should be monitored to develop a predictor equation; however, there is no guideline about the type of scaling factor to be used. Further to this, from the statistical point of view, a regression analysis on a small sample population cannot be accepted without the testing of hypothesis. To show the importance of the above, in this paper, seven scaling factors are considered for blast data set of a hard-rock underground drift using burn

  2. Effects of repetitive low-level blast exposure on visual systems and ocular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Capó-Aponte, OD, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether repetitive exposure to low-level blasts during military breacher training produces acute and cumulative damage to the ocular tissues or visual system. The effects of low-level blast exposure on high-contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, oculomotor function, color vision, visual field (VF, pupillary light reflex, corneal endothelial cell density (ECD, macular thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and cup-to-disc ratio were assessed using a battery of standard clinical ophthalmic tests administered 10 times over a 2-year period. Data from nine male breacher instructors (Cadre were compared with data from four male breacher engineers (Control. The Cadre group showed higher vertical deviation at near than the Control group over time. The VF mean deviation on the left eye tended to be worse in the Cadre group throughout the study, suggesting a decrease in VF sensitivity (Cadre: –0.20 +/– 0.15 dB; Control: 1.05 +/– 0.15 dB; p = 0.03. The Cadre group had a reduced ECD (right eye: Cadre 2,478 cells/mm2 vs Control 2,808 cells/mm2, p = 0.02; left eye: Cadre 2,562 cells/mm2 vs Control 2,892 cells/mm2, p = 0.03. These results suggest that even low-level primary blast has the potential to produce occult eye injury.

  3. Blast Protection Shelter by Using Hollow Steel Filled with Recycled Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianchun; HUANG Xin; MA Guowei

    2008-01-01

    Under extreme loading condition, a shelter will provide a safe place to protect people from injury caused by blast wave and fragments.In order to save resource and reuse waste materials, a new design concept for blast protection shelter was explored.The new construction was composed of I-section steel panel or C-channel steel panel filled with recycled concrete aggregate.The compaction process of the recycled concrete aggregate filled in the steel construction was experimentally investigated.A single storey shelter based on the proposed design concept was numerically simulated by using LS-DYNA software.In the 3D numerical model, three walls were designed using I-section steel and one wall using C-channel steel, and all of the four walls were filled with recycled concrete aggregate.The penetration analysis was done by using ConWep.Some penetration tests were also carried out by using a gas gun.It is found that the proposed shelter based on the design concept is effective for blast protection.

  4. A blast absorber test: measurement and model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den; Hof, J. van 't; Arkel, E. van

    2006-01-01

    A blast absorber test was conducted at the Aberdeen Test Centre from 13 to 17 June 2005. The test was set up to determine the absorbing and shielding effect of a gravel pile, of 1.5 meters high and 15 by 15 meters wide, on blasts from large weapons: e.g. armor, artillery or demolition. The blast was

  5. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isolation of blasting circuits. 57.6605 Section... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and... shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be...

  6. Spreading of sediment due to underwater blasting and dredging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Bach, Lis; Bollwerk, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    impacts of suspended sediment from underwater blasting, which could include coverage of the benthos or increased turbidity, can be managed by timing the blast favourably relative to currents, waves and stratification. It is argued that the environmental impact of blasting can be minimized by decreasing...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6300 - Control of blasting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of blasting operations. 56.6300 Section... § 56.6300 Control of blasting operations. (a) Only persons trained and experienced in the handling and use of explosive material shall direct blasting operations and related activities. (b) Trainees...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6300 - Control of blasting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of blasting operations. 57.6300 Section... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6300 Control of blasting operations. (a) Only persons trained and experienced in the handling and use of explosive material shall direct blasting operations and...

  9. 30 CFR 816.64 - Use of explosives: Blasting schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. 816.64... ACTIVITIES § 816.64 Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. (a) General requirements. (1) The operator shall conduct blasting operations at times approved by the regulatory authority and announced in the...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22607 - Blasting on shift (III mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting on shift (III mines). 57.22607 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22607 Blasting on shift (III mines). When blasting on shift, tests for methane shall be made in the mine atmosphere by a competent person...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading, blasting, and security. 57.6306... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6306 Loading, blasting, and security. (a) When explosive materials or... blasting operation and the activities of surveying, stemming, sampling of geology, and reopening of...

  13. Cygnus Loop Supernova Blast Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is an image of a small portion of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, which marks the edge of a bubble-like, expanding blast wave from a colossal stellar explosion, occurring about 15,000 years ago. The HST image shows the structure behind the shock waves, allowing astronomers for the first time to directly compare the actual structure of the shock with theoretical model calculations. Besides supernova remnants, these shock models are important in understanding a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, from winds in newly-formed stars to cataclysmic stellar outbursts. The supernova blast is slamming into tenuous clouds of insterstellar gas. This collision heats and compresses the gas, causing it to glow. The shock thus acts as a searchlight revealing the structure of the interstellar medium. The detailed HST image shows the blast wave overrunning dense clumps of gas, which despite HST's high resolution, cannot be resolved. This means that the clumps of gas must be small enough to fit inside our solar system, making them relatively small structures by interstellar standards. A bluish ribbon of light stretching left to right across the picture might be a knot of gas ejected by the supernova; this interstellar 'bullet' traveling over three million miles per hour (5 million kilometres) is just catching up with the shock front, which has slowed down by ploughing into interstellar material. The Cygnus Loop appears as a faint ring of glowing gases about three degrees across (six times the diameter of the full Moon), located in the northern constellation, Cygnus the Swan. The supernova remnant is within the plane of our Milky Way galaxy and is 2,600 light-years away. The photo is a combination of separate images taken in three colors, oxygen atoms (blue) emit light at temperatures of 30,000 to 60,000 degrees Celsius (50,000 to 100,000 degrees Farenheit). Hydrogen atoms (green) arise throughout the region of shocked gas. Sulfur atoms (red) form when the gas cools to

  14. FastBLAST: homology relationships for millions of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan N Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All-versus-all BLAST, which searches for homologous pairs of sequences in a database of proteins, is used to identify potential orthologs, to find new protein families, and to provide rapid access to these homology relationships. As DNA sequencing accelerates and data sets grow, all-versus-all BLAST has become computationally demanding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present FastBLAST, a heuristic replacement for all-versus-all BLAST that relies on alignments of proteins to known families, obtained from tools such as PSI-BLAST and HMMer. FastBLAST avoids most of the work of all-versus-all BLAST by taking advantage of these alignments and by clustering similar sequences. FastBLAST runs in two stages: the first stage identifies additional families and aligns them, and the second stage quickly identifies the homologs of a query sequence, based on the alignments of the families, before generating pairwise alignments. On 6.53 million proteins from the non-redundant Genbank database ("NR", FastBLAST identifies new families 25 times faster than all-versus-all BLAST. Once the first stage is completed, FastBLAST identifies homologs for the average query in less than 5 seconds (8.6 times faster than BLAST and gives nearly identical results. For hits above 70 bits, FastBLAST identifies 98% of the top 3,250 hits per query. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FastBLAST enables research groups that do not have supercomputers to analyze large protein sequence data sets. FastBLAST is open source software and is available at http://microbesonline.org/fastblast.

  15. Vibration velocity and frequency of underwater short-hole blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the measuring data of underwater blasting vibrationand the regression analysis results of these data, two formulae usually used of blasting vibration velocity were compared. Factors that canaffect blasting vibration and frequency were summarized and analyzed.It is thought that the effect of the number of freedom face and burden direction on blasting vibration should be considered during blastingdesign. Based on the relevant research results and the regression results of these data, a formula to calculate under water blasting frequency was put forward.

  16. Rehabilitation of injured U.S. servicemember with traumatic brain injury, stroke, spinal cord injury, and bilateral amputations: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Ajit B; Jasper, Nicholas R; Cifu, David X

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of injuries that can arise from combat situations, specifically as a result of the Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom conflicts, is challenging. As injured troops leave the war zone early for medical care, they are treated by an interwoven system of care that includes both the Department of Defense and Veterans Health Administration. Physicians across these settings are increasingly faced with patients who have multiple rehabilitation diagnoses as a result of the severity of blast injuries; therefore, the importance of active communication across the system must be highlighted. This case describes the seamless transition of an injured soldier across the continuum of care.

  17. 不同复温速率及维持浅低温对家兔肢体爆炸伤合并海水浸泡后电解质及血气的影响%Effects of serum electrolyte and artery blood- gas in rabbits having limb blast injury coupled with hypothermia induced by seawater immersion following rewarming and maintenance of light hypothermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡小丽; 马永达; 葛衡江; 赖西南; 陈意; 唐小唪; 王丽丽

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察不同复温速率及浅低温对兔肢体爆炸伤合并海水浸泡后机体电解质及血气的影响.方法 复制24只肢体爆炸伤合并海水浸泡致低体温(31.0±0.5)℃成年家兔模型,随机等分为Ⅰ组复温至(38.0±0.5)℃,复温速率(8.94±0.93)℃/h;Ⅱ组复温至(38.0±0.5)℃,复温速率(3.88±0.22)℃/h;Ⅲ组复温至(38.0±0.5)℃,复温速率(2.18±0.12)℃/h;H组复温至(34.0~35.0)℃并维持至实验结束,复温速率(4.49±0.66)℃/h,以调节环境温度及加温输液的方法,将体温恢复目标体温后维持该体温观察6 h.于致伤前(T0)、浸泡降温后(T1)、复温即刻(T2)、复温后3 h(T3)、复温后6 h(T4)时相点采集颈动脉血,检测Na+、K+、Cl-、pH值、BE、HCO-3、PaCO2和PaO2等.结果 电解质K+和Cl-:Ⅰ组在T2(P<0.05),T3(P<0.01),T4(P<0.01)较复温前明显升高.血气分析变化特征:pH值Ⅰ组T4降低(P<0.05);BE:Ⅰ组、H组在T3(P<0.05),T4(P<0.05)明显降低;HCO-3:Ⅰ组、H组在T3、T4明显降低(P<0.05);PaO2:Ⅰ组T3(P<0.05),T4(P<0.01)明显降低,Ⅲ组在T3(P<0.01),T4(P<0.05)明显升高,H组在T4明显降低(P<0.05);PaCO2:Ⅱ组在T3明显降低(P<0.01)、Ⅲ组在T3、T4较复温前明显降低(P<0.01)和H组在T3(P<0.05),T4(P<0.01)较复温前明显降低.Hb:各组T3、T4较复温前明显降低(P<0.01).结论 在肢体爆炸伤合并海水浸泡致低体温后的早期,快速复温及维持机体的低体温可导致机体酸碱平衡紊乱程度加重,缓慢复温方式(复温速度在2~4 ℃/h)则可以在早期较好地维持机体对酸碱平衡的代偿性调节作用,给后期的治疗争取时间.各种复温速率及维持机体的低体温状态对该模型下机体的电解质方面的影响差异无统计学意义.%Objective To investigate the effect of different rewarming rates and maintenance of light hypothermia on serum electrolyte and artery blood - gas in rabbits after limb blast injury, coupled with seawater immersion. Methods The model

  18. Conceptual design and simulation analysis of thermal behaviors of TGR blast furnace and oxygen blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Extensive use of carbon based fuel is the main inducement for global warming and more extreme weather.Reducing carbon dioxide emission and enhancing energy use is a common subject in steel industry.In the integrated steel plant,decreasing carbon dioxide emission must consider energy balance in the whole iron and steel works,and secondary energy must be actively utilized.As promising blast-furnaces,top gas recovery blast furnace(TGR-BF) and oxygen blast furnace have been investigated.In this paper,conceptual TGR blast furnace and oxygen blast furnace are proposed.Base on the idea of blast furnace gas de-CO2 circulating as reducing agent and the idea of pure oxygen blast decreasing the thermal reserve zone temperature,process modeling is conducted with ASPEN Plus.It is shown that the developed model reasonably describes the energy balance and mass balance feature of the furnace,and provides basic thermodynamic condition for furnaces.The effects of changes in different operation conditions are studied by sensitivity analysis and reference data from simulation.

  19. Brain injury - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and caregivers. Biausa.org. www.biausa.org/brain-injury-family-caregivers.htm#Manage the Home . Accessed December 8, 2016. ... Caregiver Alliance; National Center on Caregiving. Traumatic brain injury. ... www.caregiver.org/traumatic-brain-injury . Accessed ...

  20. Growth Plate Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Growth Plate Injuries? Key Words Information Box The Salter-Harris Classification of Growth Plate Injuries What Is ... of Growth Plate Injuries? Since the 1960s, the Salter-Harris classification, which divides most growth plate fractures ...

  1. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for falling accidents, such as horseback riding and gymnastics. Head injuries include fractures, concussions , contusions (bruises), and ... hockey, or in weightlifting, rowing, golf, figure skating, gymnastics, and dancing. Sex Organ Injuries Injuries to the ...

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  3. "Floating shoulder" injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Kenneth

    2016-12-01

    "Floating shoulder" is a rare injury complex resulting from high-energy blunt force trauma to the shoulder, resulting in scapulothoracic dissociation. It is commonly associated with catastrophic neurovascular injury. Two cases of motorcyclists with floating shoulder injuries are described.

  4. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Sports Which sports cause the most eye injuries?Sports cause more than 40,000 eye injuries each ... and racquet sports.When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high risk ...

  5. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  6. Simulation of adaptive semi-active magnetorheological seat damper for vehicle occupant blast protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hyeong; Murugan, Muthuvel; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates a lumped-parameter human body model which includes lower leg in seated posture within a quarter-car model for blast injury assessment simulation. To simulate the shock acceleration of the vehicle, mine blast analysis was conducted on a generic land vehicle crew compartment (sand box) structure. For the purpose of simulating human body dynamics with non-linear parameters, a physical model of a lumped-parameter human body within a quarter car model was implemented using multi-body dynamic simulation software. For implementing the control scheme, a skyhook algorithm was made to work with the multi-body dynamic model by running a co-simulation with the control scheme software plug-in. The injury criteria and tolerance levels for the biomechanical effects are discussed for each of the identified vulnerable body regions, such as the relative head displacement and the neck bending moment. The desired objective of this analytical model development is to study the performance of adaptive semi-active magnetorheological damper that can be used for vehicle-occupant protection technology enhancements to the seat design in a mine-resistant military vehicle.

  7. Blasting practices in a quarry with karstic cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The blasting practices in a limestone quarry with karstic cavities have been presented. The existence of karstic cavities in the quarry has reduced blasting efficiency significantly. In order to improve blasting efficiency different blasting strategies (loading holes with ANFO in plastic bag, recording cavity location along the holes and charging the holes according to this information, and modifying blasting pattern according to karstic cavities) had been implemented and the results were evaluated on per ton cost basis. It was concluded that efficient blasting in such aquarries requires determining the size and shape of karstic cavities and based on this information, to modify the blast pattern and charge the holes. The suggested method is to record the cavity along the drill hole and to generate 3D model of cavities. By doing this, the production cost in the limestone quarry has decreased from 0.407 $/t to 0.354 $/t.

  8. Traumatic brain injury in modern war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; Hawley, Jason; Grimes, Jamie; Macedonia, Christian; Hancock, James; Jaffee, Michael; Dombroski, Todd; Ecklund, James M.

    2013-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common and especially with military service. In Iraq and Afghanistan, explosive blast related TBI has become prominent and is mainly from improvised explosive devices (IED). Civilian standard of care clinical practice guidelines (CPG) were appropriate has been applied to the combat setting. When such CPGs do not exist or are not applicable, new practice standards for the military are created, as for TBI. Thus, CPGs for prehospital care of combat TBI CPG [1] and mild TBI/concussion [2] were introduced as was a DoD system-wide clinical care program, the first large scale system wide effort to address all severities of TBI in a comprehensive organized way. As TBI remains incompletely understood, substantial research is underway. For the DoD, leading this effort are The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, National Intrepid Center of Excellence and the Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury. This program is a beginning, a work in progress ready to leverage advances made scientifically and always with the intent of providing the best care to its military beneficiaries.

  9. Injuries in orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, F

    1986-09-01

    In a one-year prospective study of 42 elite orienteers, 73 recent injuries (1.7 per runner per year) were found. Acute injuries totalled 52% and 48% were due to overuse. Ankle sprains made up 37% of acute injuries while the remaining were mainly contusions caused by falls or bumps against branches or rocks. Medial shin pain, Achilles peritendinitis, peroneal tenosynovitis and iliotibial band friction syndrome were the most frequent overuse injuries. All overuse injuries were located in the lower extremity while 18% of acute injuries was located elsewhere. Acute injuries were most frequent in the competitive season while overuse injuries occurred most often during the continuous training period.

  10. Evaluation of brain tissue responses because of the underwash overpressure of helmet and faceshield under blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvghad-Moghaddam, Hesam; Rezaei, Asghar; Ziejewski, Mariusz; Karami, Ghodrat

    2017-01-01

    Head protective tools such as helmets and faceshields can induce a localized high pressure region on the skull because of the underwash of the blast waves. Whether this underwash overpressure can affect the brain tissue response is still unknown. Accordingly, a computational approach was taken to confirm the incidence of underwash with regards to blast direction, as well as examine the influence of this effect on the mechanical responses of the brain. The variation of intracranial pressure (ICP) as one of the major injury predictors, as well as the maximum shear stress were mainly addressed in this study. Using a nonlinear finite element (FE) approach, generation and interaction of blast waves with the unprotected, helmeted, and fully protected (helmet and faceshield protected) FE head models were modeled using a multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method and a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) coupling algorithm. The underwash incidence overpressure was found to greatly change with the blast direction. Moreover, while underwash induced ICP (U-ICP) did not exceed the peak ICP of the unprotected head, it was comparable and even more than the peak ICP imposed on the protected heads by the primary shockwaves (Coup-ICP). It was concluded that while both helmet and faceshield protected the head against blast waves, the underwash overpressure affected the brain tissue response and altered the dynamic load experienced by the brain as it led to increased ICP levels at the countercoup site, imparted elevated skull flexure, and induced high negative pressure regions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Sports injuries of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G A

    1972-07-01

    The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

  12. Analysis of the blasting effect on the electric shove loading efficiency of the open pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Tian-guang; SUN Ying

    2008-01-01

    The connection between blasting cost and comprehensive cost is the main concern. Some blasting effect factors (such as unit explosive consumption, uniformity of blockness, shape and porosity of blasting heap), which had an influence on electric shove loading efficiency, were analyzed. In the end a project to properly increase in blasting cost to decrease the comprehensive cost was put forward. At the same time, the hole-by-hole blasting is effective technology to improve blasting effect.

  13. Blast Diffusion by Different Shapes of Domes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Ranjan Sahu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Domes have been used since ancient times in constructions. These are effective structures in supporting loads for large span. Dome has an added advantage of having good looking in structural applications. Many shapes of domes are being used nowadays for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes. Specific purpose domes are also used for nuclear containment. Main threats to structures are from the bomb blast. Hence, domes too are to be designed to withstand effectively the pressure energy generated by the blast. A comparative theoretical study is proposed on the different shapes of domes having same weight and thickness. Various responses are estimated through numerical method after simulating blast and comparing their intensities.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, January 2015, pp.77-82, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.6908

  14. A CLINICAL STUDY ON BLUNT INJURY ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kishore Babu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Abdominal trauma continues to account for a large number of trauma-related injuries and deaths. Motor vehicle accidents and urban violence, respectively, are the leading causes of blunt and penetrating trauma to this area of the body. Unnecessary deaths and complications can be minimized by improved resuscitation, evaluation and treatment. The new techniques and diagnostic tools available are important in the management of abdominal trauma. These improved methods, however, still depend on experience and clinical judgment for application and determination of the best care for the injured patient. The aim of the study is to 1. Analyse the incidence, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, indications for laparotomy, therapeutic methods and morbidity & mortality rates. 2. To study nature of blunt abdominal trauma. 3. To assess patient for surgical intervention and to avoid negative laparotomy. 4. To assess morbidity rate in different organs injury. 5. To evaluate modalities of treatment, complications and prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study is a prospective study on 97 patients with Blunt injuries to the abdomen admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G. Hospital, Tirupati during October 2013-15. Inclusion Criteria Patients > 13 years, with Blunt injury to abdomen either by RTA, fall, object contact, assault giving written informed consent. Exclusion Criteria Patients <13 yrs. Blunt injuries due to blasts, patients with severe cardiothoracic and head injuries who are hemodynamically unstable. CONCLUSION Blunt Trauma to abdomen is on rise due to excessive use of motor vehicles. It poses a therapeutic and diagnostic dilemma for the attending surgeon due to wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from no early physical findings to progression to shock. So, the Trauma surgeon should rely on his physical findings in association with use of modalities like x-ray abdomen, USG abdomen and abdominal paracentesis. Hollow viscus perforations are

  15. Blast-Induced Moderate Neurotrauma (BINT) Elicits Early Complement Activation and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNFalpha) Release in a Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    for the damaged tissue. Mol Psychiatry 1997;2:133–6. [20] Chavko M, Prusaczyk WK, McCarron RM. Lung injury and recovery after exposure to blast...complement pathways after contusion -induced spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma2004;21:1831–46. [23] Bellander BM, von Holst H, Fredman P, Svensson M...Activation of the complement cascade and increase of clusterin in the brain following a cortical contusion in the adult rat. J Neurosurg 1996;85:468–75. [24

  16. Characterizing high-velocity angular vestibulo-ocular reflex function in service members post-blast exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Matthew R; Shelhamer, Mark J; Schubert, Michael C

    2011-02-01

    Blasts (explosions) are the most common mechanism of injury in modern warfare. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and dizziness are common sequelae associated with blasts, and many service members (SMs) report symptoms worsen with activity. The purpose of this study was to measure angular vestibulo-ocular reflex gain (aVOR) of blast-exposed SMs with TBI during head impulse testing. We also assessed their symptoms during exertion. Twenty-four SMs recovering from TBI were prospectively assigned to one of two groups based on the presence or absence of dizziness. Wireless monocular scleral search coil and rate sensor were used to characterize active and passive yaw and pitch head and eye rotations. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to monitor symptoms during fast walking/running. For active yaw head impulses, aVOR gains were significantly lower in the symptomatic group (0.79 ± 0.15) versus asymptomatic (0.87 ± 0.18), but not for passive head rotation. For pitch head rotation, the symptomatic group had both active (0.915 ± 0.24) and passive (0.878 ± 0.22) aVOR gains lower than the asymptomatic group (active 1.03 ± 0.27, passive 0.97 ± 0.23). Some SMs had elevated aVOR gain. VAS scores for all symptoms were highest during exertion. Our data suggest symptomatic SMs with TBI as a result of blast have varied aVOR gain during high-velocity head impulses and provide compelling evidence of pathology affecting the vestibular system. Potential loci of injury in this population include the following: disruption of pathways relaying vestibular efference signals, differential destruction of type I vestibular hair cells, or selective damage to irregular afferent pathways-any of which may explain the common discrepancy between reports of vestibular-like symptoms and laboratory testing results. Significantly reduced pitch aVOR in symptomatic SMs and peak symptom severity during exertional testing support earlier findings in the chronic blast-exposed active duty SMs.

  17. Improved blasting results with precise initiation:Numerical simulation of sublevel caving blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Changping

    2013-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of rock blasting using LS-DYNA software havebeen conducted to investigate the effect of short delay time on the fragmentation inunderground mines. The purpose was to test the hypothesis proposed by Rossmaniththat stress wave interaction could result in finer fragmentation by controlling theinitiation times. The blasted rock was simulated with RHT material model. After thecalculation, the elements with damage level above 0.6 were removed to simulate thefractur...

  18. Mathematical model and software for control of commissioning blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Onorin, O. P.; Shchipanov, K. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Blowing-in is a starting period of blast furnace operation after construction or major repair. The current approximation methods of blowing-in burden analysis are based on blowing-in practice of previously commissioned blast furnaces. This area is theoretically underexplored; there are no common scientifically based methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters. The purpose of this paper is development and scientific substantiation of the methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters in the blast furnace during the blowing-in period. Research methods are based on physical regularities of main processes running in the blast furnace, system analysis, and application of modern principles for development and construction of mathematical models, algorithms and software designed for automated control of complex production processes in metallurgy. As consequence of the research made by the authors the following results have been achieved: 1. A set of mathematical models for analysis of burden arrangement throughout the height of the blast furnace and for selection of optimal blast and gas dynamic parameters has been developed. 2. General principles for selection of the blowing-in burden composition and blast and gas dynamic parameters have been set up. 3. The software for the engineering and process staff of the blast furnace has been developed and introduced in the industry.

  19. Glyburide-Novel Prophylaxis and Effective Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    flexure of the skull ( Foda and Marmarou, 1994; Marmarou et al., 1994). Our direct measurements of the strain induced in the skull by the blast indicated...consequences of explosives. J. Neurol. Sci. 249, 63–67. Foda , M.A., and Marmarou, A. (1994). A new model of diffuse brain injury in rats. Part II...battlefield injury in the laboratory. J. Neurotrauma 26, 827– 840. Marmarou, A., Foda , M.A., van den Brink, W., Campbell, J., Kita, H., and Demetriadou, K

  20. Managing iatrogenic tracheal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goonasekera C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases of iatrogenic tracheal injury. Two patients suffered acute tracheal injuries during anesthesia/surgery, one was managed surgically and the other conservatively. The third case is a delayed tracheal injury presenting as a fistula. The reasons for surgical vs conservative management of tracheal injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  1. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt;

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  2. Modelling the Source of Blasting for the Numerical Simulation of Blast-Induced Ground Vibrations: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainalis, Daniel; Kaufmann, Olivier; Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Verlinden, Olivier; Kouroussis, Georges

    2017-01-01

    The mining and construction industries have long been faced with considerable attention and criticism in regard to the effects of blasting. The generation of ground vibrations is one of the most significant factors associated with blasting and is becoming increasingly important as mining sites are now regularly located near urban areas. This is of concern to not only the operators of the mine but also residents. Mining sites are subjected to an inevitable compromise: a production blast is designed to fragment the utmost amount of rock possible; however, any increase in the blast can generate ground vibrations which can propagate great distances and cause structural damage or discomfort to residents in surrounding urban areas. To accurately predict the propagation of ground vibrations near these sensitive areas, the blasting process and surrounding environment must be characterised and understood. As an initial step, an accurate model of the source of blast-induced vibrations is required. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the approaches to model the blasting source in order to critically evaluate developments in the field. An overview of the blasting process and description of the various factors which influence the blast performance and subsequent ground vibrations are also presented. Several approaches to analytically model explosives are discussed. Ground vibration prediction methods focused on seed waveform and charge weight scaling techniques are presented. Finally, numerical simulations of the blasting source are discussed, including methods to estimate blasthole wall pressure time-history, and hydrodynamic codes.

  3. Experimental study of blast mitigating devices based on combined construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, K.; Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    A robust blast inhibiting bin is the most often used device for damage blast effects suppression. In particular, a top open cylindrical bin significantly reduces a fragmentation effect resulted from a detonation of an explosive device placed inside the bin. However, reduction of blast wave overpressure and impulse by such cylindrical bins is not sufficient [1]. A reasonable alternative to endless increase of height and thickness of robust blast inhibiting bins is a development of destructible inhibitors having no solid elements in their structure and, therefore, excluding secondary fragmentation. So, the family of "Fountain" inhibitors [2,3] localizes and suppresses damaging blast effects due to multiphase working system. The present study is analyzing data obtained in testing of prototypes of new combined inhibitors. Their structure combines robust elements (bottoms, side surfaces) with elements responsible for blast loads reduction due to multi-phase working system (top and low transverse embeddings) and fairings impeding wave propagation in undesirable directions.

  4. An experimental investigation of blast driven turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musci, Benjamin; Ranjan, Devesh

    2016-11-01

    In the Georgia Tech Shock and Advanced Mixing Lab, a facility is being built to study blast driven turbulence. Motivated by the discrepancies observed between actual and modeled supernovae, this facility aims to resolve the important spatial scales in the extensive mixing of the outer layers. These outer layers will be modeled by subjecting two-three gases of varying density to a blast wave generated by Exploding Bridge Wires. The blast wave's interaction with perturbations at the gaseous, membrane-less, interfaces will induce the Richtmeyer-Meshkov or Rayleigh Taylor Instability, depending on the acceleration history and perturbation amplitude. Through the use of simultaneous Particle Image Velocimetry, and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence, this project aims to determine the effect of interface initial conditions on turbulence. A 2D Diverging Wedge and 3D Diverging Conical Tube are being built to enable repeatable blast-wave production, continuous optical viewing of the flow, reproducible multi-layer interface creation, and the collection of simultaneous density-velocity measurements to directly measure turbulent quantities. The preliminary analysis informing the design of this facility, the construction progress, and updates on newly realized design constraints are presented.

  5. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  6. Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The freeze-out temperature is chosen by comparison of calorimetry experiments (2, 3) and thermoequilibrium calculations using CHEETAH (4). The near...P.; Vitello, P. CHEETAH Users Manual; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, CA, 2012. 5. Walter, P. Introduction to Air Blast

  7. Media selection for micro blasting medical parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, T

    2008-10-01

    Micro blasting is used in a range of applications including catheter, stent and pacemaker manufacturing. The correct media to use for the required surface is defined here together with some of the finer points of the process to ensure successful results.

  8. Developments in vapour cloud explosion blast modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercx, W.P.M.; Berg, A.C. van den; Hayhurst, C.J.; Robertson, N.J.; Moran, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    TNT Equivalency methods are widely used for vapour cloud explosion blast modeling. Presently, however, other types of models are available which do not have the fundamental objections TNT Equivalency models have. TNO Multi-Energy method is increasingly accepted as a more reasonable alternative to be

  9. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil

  10. Development of heat-transfer circuits in the blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Yaroshenko, Yu G.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The development of heat-transfer circuits in the blast furnace as the technologies of blast-furnace smelting are improved are considered. It is shown that there are two zones of intense heat-transfer, and in modern conditions, when different kinds of iron ore are smelted, the use of combined blast with high parameters is a prerequisite for the stability of blastfurnace smelting operation and the smelting efficiency.

  11. Practical aspects of drilling and blasting in NCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, T.; Rai, V.K.; Choubey, S.N. [ICI India Limited (India)

    2000-05-01

    Drilling and blasting play a vital role in mining of Northern Coalfields Ltd.'s large opencast mines in India. The article deals with the practical aspects of drilling and blasting and discusses the company's strategy adopted in different projects to ensure accurate, safe and efficient drilling to achieve good blast for high productivity of excavating equipment. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Craniocerebral injuries in war against terrorism a contemporary series from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Muhammad Umair

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Terrorism-related bomb at-tacks on civilian population have increased dramatically over the last decade. Craniocerebral injuries secondary to impro-vised explosive devices have not been widely reported in the context of unarmored civilians. This series intends to report the spectrum of these injuries secondary to suicidal and implanted bombs as encountered at the Aga Khan Uni-versity Hospital, Pakistan (AKUH. Further, a few pertinent management guidelines have also been discussed. Methods: The hospital database and clinical coding during a 5-year period were examined for head injuries se-condary to terrorism-associated blasts. In addition to pa-tient demographics, data analysis for our series included initial Glasgow Coma Scale, presenting neurological complaints, associated non-neurological injuries, manage-ment (conservative or operative to associated complications, and discharge neurological status. Results: A total of 16 patients were included in this series. Among them 9 were victims of suicidal blasts while 7 were exposed to implanted devices. The patients presented with diverse patterns of injury secondary to a variety of shrapnel. A follow-up record was available for 12 of the 16 patients (mean follow-up: 7.8 months, with most patients having no active complaints. Conclusion: The results of this series show that civi-lian victims of suicidal and improvised bombings present with a wide range of neurological symptoms and injury patterns, which often differ from the neurological injuries incurred by military personnel in similar situations, and thereby often require individualized care. Key words: Brain injuries; Craniocerebral trauma; Decompressive craniectomy

  13. Injury in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, W; Pollard, H; Hough, K; Tully, C

    2006-05-01

    It was the purpose of this review to document the range, incidence, location and mechanism of injury occurring in the sport of rugby league. Rugby league is a collision sport played in Europe and the Pacific regions including Australia. The sport is well established and has competitions ranging from junior to elite professional. Due to the contact nature of the game, injury is relatively common. The most common injuries are musculotendinous in nature and afflict the lower limb more frequently than elsewhere. Despite the high incidence of minor (sprains/strains) to moderate musculoskeletal injury (fracture, ligament and joint injury) and minor head injuries such as lacerations, nasal fractures and concussions, rare more serious spinal cord and other injuries causing death have also been recorded. The literature on rugby league injury is small but growing and suffers from a lack of consistent definition of what an injury is, thereby causing variability in the nature and incidence/prevalence of injury. Information is lacking on the injury profiles of different age groups. Importantly, there has been little attempt to establish a coordinated injury surveillance program in rugby league in the junior or professional levels. The implementation of such programs would require a universal definition of injury and a focus on important events and competitions. The implementation could provide important information in the identification and prevention of risk factors for injury.

  14. Assessment of Blasting Operations Effects During Highway Tunnel Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valašková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blasting operations are one of the fundamental parts of daily civil engineering. Drilling and blasting still remain the only possible ways of tunnelling in very adverse geological conditions. However, this method is a source of various disadvantages, the main one being tremors propagating through the geological environment which not only affect buildings, but also disturb the comfort of living in the vicinity of the source. Designing this procedure is mostly done using standardized empirical relations. This article shows the possibility of using a FEM technique in predicting blast effects. This approach is demonstrated in a simple case study on the impact of blasting operations on steel pipes.

  15. Design and Analysis of Single Plate Blast Resistant Door

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh S. Aitavade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blast Resistant Doors are used to withstand high intensity impulsive blast loads. They are designed to prevent the impact of the blast from travelling from one side to the other side of the door. Taking into account the limitations and the growing need of efficient blast resistant doors, a design was developed using ASTM A36 as the material of construction instead of concrete. Analytical calculations for the actual pressure-impulse loading condition were done as per the UFC 3-340-02, and the results of analytical calculations were compared with results of the simulation of the numerical model for the given boundary conditions.

  16. Study on orientation fracture blasting with shaped charge in rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the theories of mechanics of explosive and rock fracture mechanics, the mechanism of crack initiation and its expansion of directional fracture controlled blasting with shaped charges in rock were studied, then the blasting parameters were designed and tested by a model test in laboratory and field experiment. The experimental and test results showed that the energy from blasting is directionally concentrated for the cumulative action. The directional expansion of cracks is satisfactory, the results of the model test and field test suggested that the orientation fracture blasting with shaped charge is a good means of excavating tunnels or cutting rock.

  17. Rehabilitation of basketball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard A; Chimes, Gary P

    2006-08-01

    Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the United States and throughout the world, and therefore represents one of the most common sources of sports-related injuries. Basketball injuries should be managed by the same general rehabilitation principles as other sports injuries. Additionally, the clinician should be aware not only of general sports injuries but of those injuries most commonly seen in basketball players. By maintaining knowledge of the most common basketball injuries as well as their diagnosis and treatment, the clinician can help to optimize the athlete's return to play and enjoyment of the sport.

  18. Maxillofacial injuries in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echlin, Paul; McKeag, Douglas B

    2004-02-01

    Maxillofacial injuries occur in contact and noncontact sports. Despite advancements in protective equipment and rule changes, there is still an unacceptably high rate of maxillofacial injuries. These injuries are clinically challenging. The significant morbidity, deformity, and disability associated with these injuries can be avoided by their prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. It is important for the sports medicine professional to be competent in the correct diagnosis and management of maxillofacial injuries. This article reviews some of the major maxillofacial injuries, along with their emergent examinations and treatments.

  19. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  20. Lisfranc Joint Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Chinn

    2009-01-01

    @@ The ankle and foot are the most common sites for athletic injuries.[1]Midfoot,or Lisfranc,injuries are the second most common foot injury and have a high in cidence in particular sports.They account for 4% of all football injuries per year,occurring frequently in linemen.[2]They are also common in equestrians,surfers,and windsurfers.[2]Lisfranc injuries are often misdiagnosed and if not treated properly can have lingering symptoms.It is estimated that Lisfranc joint injuries occur in 1 in every 55,000 persons every year.[3,4

  1. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Flyrock Distance by Combined Multiple Regression Analysis and Monte Carlo Simulation of Quarry Blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaghani, Danial Jahed; Mahdiyar, Amir; Hasanipanah, Mahdi; Faradonbeh, Roohollah Shirani; Khandelwal, Manoj; Amnieh, Hassan Bakhshandeh

    2016-09-01

    Flyrock is considered as one of the main causes of human injury, fatalities, and structural damage among all undesirable environmental impacts of blasting. Therefore, it seems that the proper prediction/simulation of flyrock is essential, especially in order to determine blast safety area. If proper control measures are taken, then the flyrock distance can be controlled, and, in return, the risk of damage can be reduced or eliminated. The first objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for flyrock estimation based on multiple regression (MR) analyses, and after that, using the developed MR model, flyrock phenomenon was simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) approach. In order to achieve objectives of this study, 62 blasting operations were investigated in Ulu Tiram quarry, Malaysia, and some controllable and uncontrollable factors were carefully recorded/calculated. The obtained results of MC modeling indicated that this approach is capable of simulating flyrock ranges with a good level of accuracy. The mean of simulated flyrock by MC was obtained as 236.3 m, while this value was achieved as 238.6 m for the measured one. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was also conducted to investigate the effects of model inputs on the output of the system. The analysis demonstrated that powder factor is the most influential parameter on fly rock among all model inputs. It is noticeable that the proposed MR and MC models should be utilized only in the studied area and the direct use of them in the other conditions is not recommended.

  2. Motor, Visual and Emotional Deficits in Mice after Closed-Head Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Are Alleviated by the Novel CB2 Inverse Agonist SMM-189

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Reiner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a focal blast model of closed-head mild traumatic brain injury (TBI in mice. As true for individuals that have experienced mild TBI, mice subjected to 50–60 psi blast show motor, visual and emotional deficits, diffuse axonal injury and microglial activation, but no overt neuron loss. Because microglial activation can worsen brain damage after a concussive event and because microglia can be modulated by their cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2, we evaluated the effectiveness of the novel CB2 receptor inverse agonist SMM-189 in altering microglial activation and mitigating deficits after mild TBI. In vitro analysis indicated that SMM-189 converted human microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to the pro-healing M2 phenotype. Studies in mice showed that daily administration of SMM-189 for two weeks beginning shortly after blast greatly reduced the motor, visual, and emotional deficits otherwise evident after 50–60 psi blasts, and prevented brain injury that may contribute to these deficits. Our results suggest that treatment with the CB2 inverse agonist SMM-189 after a mild TBI event can reduce its adverse consequences by beneficially modulating microglial activation. These findings recommend further evaluation of CB2 inverse agonists as a novel therapeutic approach for treating mild TBI.

  3. Motor, visual and emotional deficits in mice after closed-head mild traumatic brain injury are alleviated by the novel CB2 inverse agonist SMM-189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Anton; Heldt, Scott A; Presley, Chaela S; Guley, Natalie H; Elberger, Andrea J; Deng, Yunping; D'Surney, Lauren; Rogers, Joshua T; Ferrell, Jessica; Bu, Wei; Del Mar, Nobel; Honig, Marcia G; Gurley, Steven N; Moore, Bob M

    2014-12-31

    We have developed a focal blast model of closed-head mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice. As true for individuals that have experienced mild TBI, mice subjected to 50-60 psi blast show motor, visual and emotional deficits, diffuse axonal injury and microglial activation, but no overt neuron loss. Because microglial activation can worsen brain damage after a concussive event and because microglia can be modulated by their cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2), we evaluated the effectiveness of the novel CB2 receptor inverse agonist SMM-189 in altering microglial activation and mitigating deficits after mild TBI. In vitro analysis indicated that SMM-189 converted human microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to the pro-healing M2 phenotype. Studies in mice showed that daily administration of SMM-189 for two weeks beginning shortly after blast greatly reduced the motor, visual, and emotional deficits otherwise evident after 50-60 psi blasts, and prevented brain injury that may contribute to these deficits. Our results suggest that treatment with the CB2 inverse agonist SMM-189 after a mild TBI event can reduce its adverse consequences by beneficially modulating microglial activation. These findings recommend further evaluation of CB2 inverse agonists as a novel therapeutic approach for treating mild TBI.

  4. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22601 - Blasting from the surface (I-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (I-A mines). 57.22601... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22601 Blasting from the surface (I-A mines... blast area and through at least one atmospheric monitoring sensor. (b) After blasting, if the...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6404 - Separation of blasting circuits from power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of blasting circuits from power... NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6404 Separation of blasting circuits from power source. (a) Switches used to connect the power source to a blasting circuit shall...

  7. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps... blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not include the following articles: (a) Electric squibs. (b) No. 6 and No. 8 blasting caps, including...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6404 - Separation of blasting circuits from power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of blasting circuits from power... MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6404 Separation of blasting circuits from power source. (a) Switches used to connect the power source to a blasting circuit shall be locked in the open position...

  9. 77 FR 58173 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Explosive Materials and Blasting Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Materials and Blasting Units (Pertains to Metal and Nonmetal Underground Mines Deemed To Be Gassy AGENCY... materials and blasting units as permissible for use in the mining industry. However, since there are no permissible explosives or blasting units available that have adequate blasting capacity for some metal...

  10. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall—...

  11. Mitigation of blast loadings on structures by an anti-blast plastic water wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 陈力; 方秦; 张亚栋

    2016-01-01

    Seven in-situ tests were carried out in far field to study the blast mitigation effect of a kind of water filled plastic wall. Test results show that the mitigation effect of water filled plastic wall is remarkable. The maximum reduction of peak reflected overpressure reaches up to 94.53%, as well as 36.3% of the minimum peak reflected overpressure reduction in the scaled distance ranging from 1.71 m/kg1/3 to 3.42 m/kg1/3. Parametric studies were also carried out. The effects of the scaled gauge height, water/charge scaled distance (the distance between the explosive charge and the water wall), water wall scaled height and water/structure scaled distance (the distance between the water wall and the structure) were systematically investigated and compared with the usual rigid anti-blast wall. It is concluded that these parameters affect the mitigation effects of plastic water wall on blast loadings significantly, which is basically consistent to the trend of usual rigid anti-blast wall. Some formulae are also derived based on the numerical and test results, providing a simple but reliable prediction model to evaluate the peak overpressure of mitigated blast loadings on the structures.

  12. Electro- or Turbo-Driven?—Analysis of Different Blast Processes of Blast Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a dispute about the energy efficiency and energy cost of electro-driven and turbo-driven blast furnace (BF blast processes. In order to find where the problem lies, energy efficiency analysis models and energy cost analysis models of electro-driven and turbo-driven blast processes were established, and the differences between the two driving processes in terms of theoretical minimum steam consumption, energy efficiency and energy cost were studied. The results showed that the theoretical minimum steam consumption of a blast process depends on steam thermodynamic properties and is unrelated to drive mode and drive process. A certain overlapped interval between electro-driven and turbo-driven blast processes in terms of energy efficiency exists. The equation for calculating the standard coal coefficient of steam was proposed, and the relationship to judge strengths and weaknesses of the two driving modes in terms of energy efficiency and energy cost was established. Finally, two companies were selected for case study research. The results led to different conclusions because of the differences between energy media in terms of standard coal coefficient and unit price. To select the best driving mode, plant-running conditions and energy prices of the region of operation in addition to other relevant factors should all be taken into account.

  13. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos mild Traumatic Brain Injury 94447 reads Please Log in You must be logged in to access ... Brain Injury (DCoE) to promote the processes of building resilience, facilitating recovery and supporting reintegration of returning ...

  14. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might not be possible to return to the sport without risking further injury. Because overuse injuries are characterized by swelling, a doctor may prescribe rest, medicines to ease inflammation, and physical therapy. When recovery is complete, your child's technique or ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indicated by a total lack of sensory and motor function below the level of injury. People who survive a spinal cord injury will most likely have medical complications such as chronic pain and bladder and bowel ...

  16. What Are Sports Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  17. Preventing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge in developing a strategy to prevent eye injuries is that there are so many different causes and situations that can lead to eye injuries, each requiring a different approach.

  18. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  19. Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  20. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  1. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    1992-01-01

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26 years

  2. Control of City Shallow Buried Tunnel Blasting Hazard to Surface Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining with the blasting test of an under-construction tunnel, this paper optimizes the overall blasting construction scheme. The optimized blasting scheme is used in the site construction test and the peak particle vibration velocity is strictly controlled under working conditions through blasting vibration monitoring to ensure the safety of surrounding buildings and structures in the construction process. The corresponding control measures are proposed to reduce the blasting vibration which brings certain guiding significance to the following construction project.

  3. Craniocerebral injuries in war against terrorism — a contemporary series from Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Umair Bashir; Muhammad Zubair Tahir; Ehsan Bari; Sehreen Mumtaz

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism-related bomb attacks on civilian population have increased dramatically over the last decade.Craniocerebral injuries secondary to improvised explosive devices have not been widely reported in the context of unarmored civilians.This series intends to report the spectrum of these injuries secondary to suicidal and implanted bombs as encountered at the Aga Khan University Hospital,Pakistan (AKUH).Further,a few pertinent management guidelines have also been discussed.Methods:The hospital database and clinical coding during a 5-year period were examined for head injuries secondary to terrorism-associated blasts.In addition to patient demographics,data analysis for our series included initial Glasgow Coma Scale,presenting neurological complaints,associated non-neurological injuries,management (conservative or operative) to associated complications,and discharge neurological status.Results:A total of 16 patients were included in this series.Among them 9 were victims of suicidal blasts while 7 were exposed to implanted devices.The patients presented with diverse patterns of injury secondary to a variety of shrapnel.A follow-up record was available for 12 of the 16 patients (mean follow-up:7.8 months),with most patients having no active complaints.Conclusion:The results of this series show that civilian victims of suicidal and improvised bombings present with a wide range of neurological symptoms and injury patterns,which often differ from the neurological injuries incurred by military personnel in similar situations,and thereby often require individualized care.

  4. Blast event simulation for a vehicle subjected to an explosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, G.; Vlahopoulos, N.; Goetz, R.; Velde, R. van de

    2007-01-01

    One of the main threats to military vehicles originates from blasts. In order to improve the survivability of the occupants it is important to design a military vehicle for increased occupant safety. Simulation technology that combines modeling of the blast loads from an explosion, the response of t

  5. New technique for identifying varieties resistance to rice blast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUPeiliang

    1994-01-01

    After 8 yrs lab experiments and field tests, an advanced technique for identifying varieties resistance to rice blast was developed by a research group in Plant Protection Institute, Zhejiang Academy of AgricuLltural Sciences. With this technique, the inoculum was prepared on a maizc-rice-straw-agar media which was suitable for sporulation of most rice blast pathogen isolates.

  6. Reduction Mechanism of Chromite Ore in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-wei; DING Wei-zhong; LU Xiong-gang; XU Kuang-di

    2004-01-01

    The structural changes and reduction degree of chromite ore in blast furnace were studied by optical micrograph analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). The smelting reduction mechanism of chromite in blast furnace was primarily discussed.

  7. Preliminary blasting as a means of constructing the final slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Jimeno, E.; Lopez Jimeno, C. (Lignitos de Meirama, La Coruna (Spain))

    1983-01-01

    In order to undertake construction of a new belt at the Meirama opencast lignite workings in the Province of Coruna it has been necessary partially to re-site the slope of the general haulage drift. Preliminary blasting was thought to be the most suitable method of blasting in order to maintain slope stability of the rock mass. (17 refs.)

  8. The composition of the products from flameless blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikunov, V.I.; Chikunova, G.V.; Domanov, V.P.; Nezyrova, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    Results are given from research on the composition of the products resulting from Hydrox coal blasting together with a mechanism for the conversion of the components during the reaction process. Methods for decreasing the quantity of toxic gases during blasting in the stopes of coal mines that have dangerous gas and dust levels are recommended.

  9. Dry ice blasting for the conservation cleaning of metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van der Molen; I. Joosten; T. Beentjes; L. Megens

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to assess the feasibility of dry ice blasting as a replacement for solvent cleaning for the removal of organic layers from metal cultural heritage objects. The effects of dry ice blasting on test samples of aluminium, bronze and weathering steel were studied along with

  10. Methodology of Testing Shot Blasting Machines in Industrial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Shot blasting machines are widely used for automated surface treatment and finishing of castings. In shot blasting processes the stream of shots is generated and shaped by blasting turbines, making up a kinetic and dynamic system comprising a separating rotor, an adapting sleeve and a propelling rotor provided with blades. The shot blasting performance- i.e. the quality of shot treated surfaces depends on the actual design and operational parameters of the unit whilst the values of relevant parameters are associated with the geometry of turbine components and the level of its integration with the separator system. The circulation of the blasting medium becomes the integrating factor of the process line, starting from the hopper, through the propeller turbine, casting treatment, separation of contaminated abrasive mixture, to its recycling and reuse.Inferior quality of the abrasive agent (shot and insufficient purity of the abrasive mixture are responsible for low effectiveness of shot blasting. However, most practitioners fail to fully recognise the importance of proper diagnostics of the shot blasting process in industrial conditions. The wearing of major machine components and of the blasting agent and quality of shot treated surfaces are often misinterpreted, hence the need to take into account all factors involved in the process within the frame of a comprehensive methodology.This paper is an attempt to formulate and apply the available testing methods to the engineering practice in industrial conditions.

  11. Structural Analysis Of Offshore Structures Exposed To Blast Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Jakup; Thygesen, Ulf; Kristensen, Anders;

    2002-01-01

    Numerical methods for simulations of blast loads and resulting structural response are investigated and compared to results obtained from tests. The CFD code EXSIM is used for the simulation of the blast load. This code provides a load profile wich is entered in the FEM analysis model....

  12. Dry ice blasting for the conservation cleaning of metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, R.; Joosten, I.; Beentjes, T.; Megens, L.; Mardikian, P.; Chemello, C.; Watters, C.; Hull, P.

    2011-01-01

    This research was carried out to assess the feasibility of dry ice blasting as a replacement for solvent cleaning for the removal of organic layers from metal cultural heritage objects. The effects of dry ice blasting on test samples of aluminium, bronze and weathering steel were studied along with

  13. Thermodynamic modeling of lead blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Peng-fu

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict the distribution behavior of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,and the heat balance in a lead blast furnace.The modeling results are validated by the plant data of a lead smelter in Kazakhstan.The model can be used to predict any set of controllable process parameters such as feed composition,smelting temperature,degree of oxygen enrichment and volume of oxygen-enriched air.The effects of the blast air,industrial oxygen,and coke charge on the distribution of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,the heat balance,and the lead loss in slag,were presented and discussed.

  14. Histologic and biomechanical evaluation of alumina-blasted/acid-etched and resorbable blasting media surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Estevam A; Marin, Charles; Granato, Rodrigo; Suzuki, Marcelo; Hjerppe, Jenni; Witek, Lukasz; Coelho, Paulo G

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the early biomechanical fixation and bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of an alumina-blasted/acid-etched (AB/AE) compared with an experimental resorbable blasting media (RBM) surface in a canine model. Higher texturization was observed for the RBM than for the AB/AE surface, and the presence of calcium and phosphorus was only observed for the RBM surface. Time in vivo and implant surface did not influence torque. For both surfaces, BIC significantly increased from 2 to 4 weeks.

  15. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer.

  16. Seamounts, Direct Blast and Volume Reverberation Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-30

    Highway. Suits 1204. Arlington, VA 22202-4302. "n to the Office of Management and Budget. Peperworik Reduction Project (0704-0188). Washington. DC 2050M. 1...Subtitle. 5. Funding Numbers. Seamounts, Direct Blast And Volume Reverberation Upgrades proram Eemen No 3 7 85N Project No R02017 6. Author(s). L...Section Pae 1 INTRODUCTION ................................. 1-1 2 ASERT: DATA PREPARATION FOR ASTRAL ........... 2-1 2.1 Overview and Purpose of

  17. Response Mechanism: Blast/Fire Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    present research. The problem of blast interaction with fire was studied theoretically by Fendell at TRW [6) and experimentally by Martin, Backovsky and...Editors, SRI International Report for DCPA, Contract No. DCPA01-78-C-0279, Work Unit 2563F (September 1979). 6. Carrier, G., Fendell , F., Feldman P...Engineering University of California Gainesville, FL 32601 P.O. Box 808, L-140 Livermore, CA 94550 Dr. Francis E. Fendell R1/1038 Mr. Edward L. Hill TRW

  18. Structural Optimization for Blast Mitigation Using HCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    UNCLASSIFIED
 Structural Optimization for Blast Mitigation Using HCA University of Notre Dame John Goetz, Huade Tan, Andrés Tovar , John Renaud...John Goetz; Huande Tan; Andres Tovar ; John Renaud 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...Overview: Algorithm •  A continuum-based topology optimization –  First utilized for bone remodeling ( Tovar ’04) –  Extend bone remodeling technique for

  19. Pathophysiology and Treatment of Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kimberly A

    2016-02-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Severe TBIs account for 15,000 admissions annually and a mortality rate of 24% in children in the United States. The purpose of this article is to explore pathophysiologic events, examine monitoring techniques, and explain current treatment modalities and nursing care related to caring for children with severe TBI. The primary injury of a TBI is because of direct trauma from an external force, a penetrating object, blast waves, or a jolt to the head. Secondary injury occurs because of alterations in cerebral blood flow, and the development of cerebral edema leads to necrotic and apoptotic cellular death after TBI. Monitoring focuses on intracranial pressure, cerebral oxygenation, cerebral edema, and cerebrovascular injuries. If abnormalities are identified, treatments are available to manage the negative effects caused to the cerebral tissue. The mainstay treatments are hyperosmolar therapy; temperature control; cerebrospinal fluid drainage; barbiturate therapy; decompressive craniectomy; analgesia, sedation, and neuromuscular blockade; and antiseizure prophylaxis.

  20. [Trampoline injuries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy

    2012-01-01

    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  1. Influence of maximum decking charge on intensity of blasting vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the character of short-time non-stationary random signal, the relationship between the maximum decking charge and energy distribution of blasting vibration signals was investigated by means of the wavelet packet method. Firstly, the characteristics of wavelet transform and wavelet packet analysis were described. Secondly, the blasting vibration signals were analyzed by wavelet packet based on software MATLAB, and the change of energy distribution curve at different frequency bands were obtained. Finally, the law of energy distribution of blasting vibration signals changing with the maximum decking charge was analyzed. The results show that with the increase of decking charge, the ratio of the energy of high frequency to total energy decreases, the dominant frequency bands of blasting vibration signals tend towards low frequency and blasting vibration does not depend on the maximum decking charge.

  2. Study of blasting vibrations in Sarcheshmeh copper mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ground vibration is one of the side effects of blasting, in which way considerable amount of explosive energy is exhausted, and causes decrease in production and even decline in mine development workings. In this study, 57 recorded 3-C seismograms from 11 blasts in Sarcheshmeh copper mine, Kerman, Iran, are processed and analyzed. These data were recorded by digital seismograph PDAS-100 and analyzed by DADISP software. Finally, blasting parameters, such as explosive weight and type, distance between the structures and blasting site, blasting delays, affecting ground vibration are reviewed and their influence on peak particle velocity (PPV) are studied. Based on this study, suitable detonation delays and explosive type is determined. Considering these data, a graph of PPV versus scaled distance for Sarcheshmeh copper mine is prepared, by the help of which, safe distance for structures and accordingly explosive quantity could be determined.

  3. High-speed measurement of firearm primer blast waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael; Eng, Jonathan; Courtney, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of firearm primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Key findings are: 1) Most of the lead styphnate based primer models tested show 5.2-11.3% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) In contrast, lead-free diazodinitrophenol (DDNP) based primers had standard deviations of the peak blast pressure of 8.2-25.0%. 3) Combined with smaller blast waves, these large variations in peak blast pressure of DDNP-based primers led to delayed ignition and failure to fire in brief field tests.

  4. Numerical Calculation of Concrete Slab Response to Blast Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiaoqing; HAO Hong; KUZNETSOV Valerian A; WASCHL John

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper,a dynamic plastic damage model for concrete has been employed to estimate responses of a reinforced concrete slab subjected to blast loading.The interaction between the blast wave and the concrete slab is considered in 3D simulation.In the first stage,the initial detonation and blast wave propagation is modelled in 2D simulation before the blast wave reaches the concrete slab,then the results obtained from 2D calculation are remapped to a 3D model.The calculated blast load is compared with that obtained from TM5-1300.Numerical results of the concrete slab response are compared with the explosive test carried out in the Weapons System Division,Defence Science and Technology Organisation,Department of Defence,Australia.

  5. Air-Decking Technique in Bench Blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-bing; LU Wen-bo; WU Liang

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism and the design parameters of blasting with air-decking are studied. The theory of detonation waves is used to investigate the processes of the one-dimensional plane detonation wave within a borehole. The interaction of the rarefaction wave with an interface and reflection on a rigid wall is also analyzed. The same courses of the shock wave are also investigated. This decides the distribution of the pressure of the explosion products changing with time along the borehole. Based on the above theoretical analysis, two conditions should be met for a reasonable range of values of the air-decking ratio in blasting rock. First, the rarefaction wave from the contact interface between detonation products and air reaches the bottom earlier than that of the reflected shock wave from the end of the stemming. Second,the reflected shock wave reaches the contact interface between the detonation products and air earlier than that of the reflected rarefaction wave from the bottom of the borehole. Finally, the reasonable value of the air-decking ratio must be decided theoretically in air-decking blasting. For different explosives, the reasonable range of air-decking ratio varies from 0.15 to 0.4. This result is well consistent with what was obtained by previous researchers.

  6. D-BLAST OFDM with Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Jianxuan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO systems formed by multiple transmit and receive antennas can improve performance and increase capacity of wireless communication systems. Diagonal Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time (D-BLAST structure offers a low-complexity solution for realizing the attractive capacity of MIMO systems. However, for broadband wireless communications, channel is frequency-selective and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM has to be used with MIMO techniques to reduce system complexity. In this paper, we investigate D-BLAST for MIMO-OFDM systems. We develop a layerwise channel estimation algorithm which is robust to channel variation by exploiting the characteristic of the D-BLAST structure. Further improvement is made by subspace tracking to considerably reduce the error floor. Simulation results show that the layerwise estimators require 1 dB less signal-to-noise ratio (SNR than the traditional blockwise estimator for a word error rate (WER of when Doppler frequency is 40 Hz. Among the layerwise estimators, the subspace-tracking estimator provides a 0.8 dB gain for WER with 200 Hz Doppler frequency compared with the DFT-based estimator.

  7. BLAST: A balloon-borne, large-aperture, submillimetre telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Donald Victor

    BLAST is a balloon-borne large-aperture, submillimetre telescope, which makes large area (1--200 square degree) surveys of Galactic and extragalactic targets. Since BLAST observes in the stratosphere, it is able to make broad-band observations between 200 mum and 550 mum which are difficult or impossible to perform from the ground. BLAST has been designed to probe star formation both in the local Galaxy and in the high redshift (z = 1--4) universe. Because BLAST is flown on an unmanned stratospheric balloon platform, it has been designed to be able to operate autonomously, without needing operator intervention to perform its scientific goals. This thesis includes an overview of the design of the BLAST platform, with emphasis on the command and control systems used to operate the telescope. BLAST has been flown on two long-duration balloon flights. The first of these, from Esrange, Sweden in June of 2005, acquired ˜70 hours of primarily Galactic data. During the second flight, from Willy Field, Antarctica in December of 2006, BLAST acquired ˜225 hours of both Galactic and extragalactic data. Operational performance of the platform during these two flights is reviewed, with the goal of providing insight on how future flights can be improved. Reduction of the data acquired by these large-format bolometer arrays is a challenging procedure, and techniques developed for BLAST data reduction are reviewed. The ultimate goal of this reduction is the generation of high quality astronomical maps which can be used for subsequent portions of data analysis. This thesis treats, in detail, the iterative, maximum likelihood map maker developed for BLAST. Results of simulations performed on the map maker to characterise its ability to reconstruct astronomical signals are presented. Finally, astronomical maps produced by this map maker using real data acquired by BLAST are presented, with a discussion on non-physical map pathologies resulting from the data reduction pipeline and

  8. Military-related traumatic brain injury and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Ann C; Robinson, Meghan E

    2014-06-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) includes concussion, subconcussion, and most exposures to explosive blast from improvised explosive devices. mTBI is the most common traumatic brain injury affecting military personnel; however, it is the most difficult to diagnose and the least well understood. It is also recognized that some mTBIs have persistent, and sometimes progressive, long-term debilitating effects. Increasing evidence suggests that a single traumatic brain injury can produce long-term gray and white matter atrophy, precipitate or accelerate age-related neurodegeneration, and increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and motor neuron disease. In addition, repetitive mTBIs can provoke the development of a tauopathy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We found early changes of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in four young veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflict who were exposed to explosive blast and in another young veteran who was repetitively concussed. Four of the five veterans with early-stage chronic traumatic encephalopathy were also diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder. Advanced chronic traumatic encephalopathy has been found in veterans who experienced repetitive neurotrauma while in service and in others who were accomplished athletes. Clinically, chronic traumatic encephalopathy is associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction, memory loss, and cognitive impairments that begin insidiously and progress slowly over decades. Pathologically, chronic traumatic encephalopathy produces atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, thalamus, and hypothalamus; septal abnormalities; and abnormal deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau as neurofibrillary tangles and disordered neurites throughout the brain. The incidence and prevalence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and the genetic risk factors critical to its development are currently unknown. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy has clinical and

  9. Biomechanics of whiplash injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-bin; King H YANG; WANG Zheng-guo

    2009-01-01

    Despite a large number of rear-end collisions on the road and a high frequency of whiplash injuries reported, the mechanism of whiplash injuries is not completely understood. One of the reasons is that the injury is not necessarily accompanied by obvious tissue damage detectable by X-ray or MRI. An extensive series of biomechanics studies, including injury epidemiology, neck kinematics,facet capsule ligament mechanics, injury mechanisms and injury criteria, were undertaken to help elucidate these whiplash injury mechanisms and gain a better understanding of cervical facet pain. These studies provide the following evidences to help explain the mechanisms of the whiplash injury: (1) Whiplash injuries are generally considered to be a soft tissue injury of the neck with symptoms such as neck pain and stiffness, shoulder weakness, dizziness, headache and memory loss, etc. (2) Based on kinematical studies on the cadaver and volunteers, there are three distinct periods that have the potential to cause injury to the neck. In the first stage, flexural deformation of the neck is observed along with a loss of cervical lordosis; in the second stage, the cervical spine assumes an S-shaped curve as the lower vertebrae begin to extend and gradually cause the upper vertebrae to extend; during the final stage, the entire neck is extended due to the extension moments at both ends. (3)The in vivo environment afforded by rodent models of injury offers particular utility for linking mechanics, nociception and behavioral outcomes. Experimental findings have examined strains across the facet joint as a mechanism of whiplash injury, and suggested a capsular strain threshold or a vertebral distraction threshold for whiplash-related injury,potentially producing neck pain. (4) Injuries to the facet capsule region of the neck are a major source of post-crash pain. There are several hypotheses on how whiplash-associated injury may occur and three of these injuries are related to strains within

  10. Biomechanics of whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-bin; Yang, King H; Wang, Zheng-guo

    2009-10-01

    Despite a large number of rear-end collisions on the road and a high frequency of whiplash injuries reported, the mechanism of whiplash injuries is not completely understood. One of the reasons is that the injury is not necessarily accompanied by obvious tissue damage detectable by X-ray or MRI. An extensive series of biomechanics studies, including injury epidemiology, neck kinematics, facet capsule ligament mechanics, injury mechanisms and injury criteria, were undertaken to help elucidate these whiplash injury mechanisms and gain a better understanding of cervical facet pain. These studies provide the following evidences to help explain the mechanisms of the whiplash injury: (1) Whiplash injuries are generally considered to be a soft tissue injury of the neck with symptoms such as neck pain and stiffness, shoulder weakness, dizziness, headache and memory loss, etc. (2) Based on kinematical studies on the cadaver and volunteers, there are three distinct periods that have the potential to cause injury to the neck. In the first stage, flexural deformation of the neck is observed along with a loss of cervical lordosis; in the second stage, the cervical spine assumes an S-shaped curve as the lower vertebrae begin to extend and gradually cause the upper vertebrae to extend; during the final stage, the entire neck is extended due to the extension moments at both ends. (3) The in vivo environment afforded by rodent models of injury offers particular utility for linking mechanics, nociception and behavioral outcomes. Experimental findings have examined strains across the facet joint as a mechanism of whiplash injury, and suggested a capsular strain threshold or a vertebral distraction threshold for whiplash-related injury, potentially producing neck pain. (4) Injuries to the facet capsule region of the neck are a major source of post-crash pain. There are several hypotheses on how whiplash-associated injury may occur and three of these injuries are related to strains

  11. Use of self-expanding covered stent and negative pressure wound therapy to manage late rectal perforation after injury from an improvised explosive device: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, M Tahir; Coskun, Ali K; Sinan, Huseyin; Saydam, Mehmet; Akay, Emin O; Peker, Subutay; Ogunc, Gokhan; Demirbas, Sezai; Peker, Yusuf

    2014-06-01

    Blast injuries, caused by explosions accompanied by high-pressure waves, produce tissue damage in the acute period, followed in the later period by circulatory disorders due to vascular endothelial damage and related tissue necrosis. Blunt rectal perforation is rare and difficult to diagnose. In the acute period following blast pelvic injuries, the main objectives are to stop bleeding, minimise contamination and preserve the patient's life. The patient in this report had major vascular injuries, severe pelvic injury and, in the later period, rectal perforation because of vascular endothelial damage caused by the blast effect. Our aim was to treat the patient conservatively because of his poor general condition. We placed a self-expanding covered stent (SECS) into the rectum and then applied negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT; V.A.C.® Therapy, KCI) to the pelvic region and perirectal area. At the end of the treatment, the rectal perforation was closed, and the patient was discharged with healing. In this article, we discuss the novel use of an SECS with NPWT and review related literature.

  12. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xiong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG. In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes, our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes, blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

  13. Injuries in Irish dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.

  14. Features of energy distribution for blast vibration signals based on wavelet packet decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Tong-hua; LI Xi-bing; DAI Ta-gen; PENG Zhen-bin

    2005-01-01

    Blast vibration analysis constitutes the foundation for studying the control of blasting vibration damage and provides the precondition of controlling blasting vibration. Based on the characteristics of short-time nonstationary random signal, the laws of energy distribution are investigated for blasting vibration signals in different blasting conditions by means of the wavelet packet analysis technique. The characteristics of wavelet transform and wavelet packet analysis are introduced. Then, blasting vibration signals of different blasting conditions are analysed by the wavelet packet analysis technique using MATLAB; energy distribution for different frequency bands is obtained. It is concluded that the energy distribution of blasting vibration signals varies with maximum decking charge,millisecond delay time and distances between explosion and the measuring point. The results show that the wavelet packet analysis method is an effective means for studying blasting seismic effect in its entirety, especially for constituting velocity-frequency criteria.

  15. An Energy-Based Safety Evaluation Index of Blast Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined peak particle velocity (PPV and frequency safety criterion for blast vibration is widely used in blasting engineering. However, some field investigations are inconsistent with this criterion. On the basis of field investigations, it is found that there are two failure modes of structures subjected to blasting seismic waves, that is, first-excursion failure and cumulative plastic damage failure. Moreover, the nature of structural responses under blast vibrations is a process of energy input, transformation, and dissipation. Therefore, an energy-based dual safety standard is proposed in this work to more comprehensively explain all failure modes of structures under blast vibrations. To this end, structures are simplified into elastic-plastic single degree of freedom (SDOF systems with bilinear restoring force models, and energy responses of SDOF systems are then determined using the Newmark-β method. From the energy responses, the maximum instantaneous input energy and hysteretic energy are selected as the basis of the dual safety criterion, because they can reflect first-excursion failure and cumulative plastic damage failure, respectively. Finally, field investigations in a blasting site in Zunyi, Guizhou province, China, are used to prove that compared to the PPV-frequency criterion the proposed energy-based dual safety criterion is more capable of assessing the damage potential of blast vibrations.

  16. Evaluation of blast-induced vibration effects on structures 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Rim; Jeon, Gyu Shick; Lee, Dae Soo; Joo, Kwang Ho; Lee, Woong Keon [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chang Ha; Chung, So Keul; Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Hee Soon; Chun, Sun Woo; Park, Yeon Jun; Synn, Joong Ho; Choi, Byung Hee [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Due to the difficulties of obtaining construction site for new plants, following ones are inevitably being built in the site adjacent to existing power plants. Therefore considerable thought has been recently given to the dynamic loading generated by blasting works near the plants to maintain the safety of structures and facilities in power plants. Our own standard for safety level of blast vibration is not prepared yet, and foreign standards have been generally employed without theoretical and experimental verification. Safety-related structures of power plants and facilities have to be protected against the effects of possible hazards due to blast vibration. Earthquakes have been considered a major dynamic design loading as a requirement of plant design, but the effects of blast-induced vibration are not. In order to ensure the safety, rational safe criterion should be established and blast design should be satisfy it, which requires the development of a model for prediction of vibration level through more systematic measurement and analysis. The main objectives of the study are : to provide background data for establishing the rational safe vibration limits, to develop models for prediction of blast vibration level, to establish safe blast design criterion, and to accumulate techniques for field measurements, data acquisition and analysis (author). 80 refs., 347 figs.

  17. Integrating Gene Ontology and Blast to predict gene functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng-gang; MO Zhi-hong

    2007-01-01

    A GoBlast system was built to predict gene function by integrating Blast search and Gene Ontology (GO) annotations together. The operation system was based on Debian Linux 3.1, with Apache as the web server and Mysql database as the data storage system. FASTA files with GO annotations were taken as the sequence source for blast alignment, which were formatted by wu-formatdb program. The GoBlast system includes three Bioperl modules in Perl: a data input module, a data process module and a data output module. A GoBlast query starts with an amino acid or nucleotide sequence. It ends with an output in an html page, presenting high scoring gene products which are of a high homology to the queried sequence and listing associated GO terms beside respective gene poducts. A simple click on a GO term leads to the detailed explanation of the specific gene function. This avails gene function prediction by Blast. GoBlast can be a very useful tool for functional genome research and is available for free at http://bioq.org/goblast.

  18. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Joel B; Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-01

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  19. Behavior of RCC Structural Members for Blast Analysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. C. M. Deshmukh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available n today’s scenario threat of enemies and terrorist attack is increasing. Therefore consideration of blast load in analysis and design is essential. A bomb explosion within or nearby outside the building can cause catastrophic failure of building. Blast loads have, in the recent past, become important service loads for certain categories of structure. An important task in blast resistance design is to make a realistic prediction of blast pressure. The distance of explosion from the structure is an important datum, governing the magnitude and duration of blast loads. In the present study, the RCC frame was analyzed by using conventional code for gravity loads using moment resisting frame. The blast load was calculated using UFC-340-02 (2008 or IS 4991-1968 for 500 kg and 100 Kg TNT at standoff distance of 10m and 30m from face of column at first floor level. The triangular impulse was applied as nodal time history at all front face joints. The analysis was performed using Computer aided software. The response of structure of will be evaluated under various blast scenarios. The response will be checked for safety of the structure on many parameters like displacement, acceleration and velocity.

  20. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Joel B., E-mail: joel.b.stewart2.civ@mail.mil; Pecora, Collin, E-mail: collin.r.pecora.civ@mail.mil [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  1. Work injuries and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feveile, Helene

    2009-01-01

    PROBLEM: This study estimated the hazard ratio for disability pension retirement (DPR) for persons who have experienced a work injury causing absence lasting at least one day after the accidental injury occurred and to estimate the fraction of DPR attributable to work injuries. METHODS: A total...... of 4,217 male and 4,105 female employees from a national survey were followed up for subsequent DPR. RESULTS AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT: Having had a work injury was a strong predictor of DPR among men. After control for age, smoking, body mass index, body postures, and physical demands......, the hazard ratio (HR) among those employees who had ever experienced a work injury was 1.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.68). No association was found among women. SUMMARY: Having had a reportable work injury is a strong predictor of subsequent DPR for men....

  2. Soccer injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Radiology Department, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  3. Injuries in women's basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B

    2008-03-01

    Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.

  4. Soccer injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Anne

    2009-12-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.

  5. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...

  6. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  7. Karate and karate injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    McLatchie, G

    1981-01-01

    The origins of karate and its evolution as a sport are described. Karate injuries tend to occur in three main areas: the head and neck, the viscera, and the limbs. Effective legislation controlling karate, which could help prevent injuries, is lacking at the moment and should be established. Recommendations for the prevention of injury include the introduction of weight classes, mandatory provision of protective equipment such as padded flooring, and the outlawing of certain uncontrollable m...

  8. Modelling and Testing of Blast Effect On the Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuli, Lucia; Jangl, Štefan; Papán, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    As a blasting agent in the blasting and mining engineering, has been using one of so called new generation of explosives which offer greater flexibility in their range and application, and such explosive is ANFO. It is type of explosive consists of an oxidiser and a fuel (ammonium nitrate and fuel oil). One of such ANFO explosives which are industrially made in Slovakia is POLONIT. The explosive is a mixture of ammonium nitrate, methyl esters of higher fatty acids, vegetable oil and red dye. The paper deals with the analysis of structure subjected to the blast load created by the explosion of POLONIT charge. First part of paper is describing behaviour and characteristic of blast wave generated from the blast (detonation characteristics, physical characteristics, time-history diagram etc.) and the second part presents the behaviour of such loaded structures, because of the analysis of such dynamical loaded structure is required knowing the parameters of blast wave, its effect on structure and the tools for the solution of dynamic analysis. The real field tests of three different weight of charges and two different structures were done. The explosive POLONIT was used together with 25 g of ignition explosive PLNp10. Analytical and numerical model of blast loaded structure is compared with the results obtained from the field tests (is compared with the corresponding experimental accelerations). For the modelling structures were approximated as a one-degree system of freedom (SDOF), where the blast wave was estimated with linear decay and exponential decay using positive and negative phase of blast wave. Numerical solution of the steel beam dynamic response was performed via FEM (Finite Element Method) using standard software Visual FEA.

  9. Portland cement-blast furnace slag blends in oilwell cementing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D.T.; DiLullo, G.; Hibbeler, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Recent investigations of blast furnace slag cementing technologies. have been expanded to include Portland cement/blast furnace slag blends. Mixtures of Portland cement and blast furnace slag, while having a long history of use in the construction industry, have not been used extensively in oilwell cementing applications. Test results indicate that blending blast furnace slag with Portland cement produces a high quality well cementing material. Presented are the design guidelines and laboratory test data relative to mixtures of blast furnace slag and Portland cements. Case histories delineating the use of blast furnace slag - Portland cement blends infield applications are also included.

  10. Promising blast resistance entries from 20th-23rd IRBN in Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUPeiliang; YUANXiaoping; ZHAOXinhua; SHENYing

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation for blast resistances of rice entries of 20th to 23rd International Rice Blast Nursery (IRBN) was conducted at CNRRI during 1990-1993. The resistance to seedling blast (SB)was evaluated in a greenhouse at 3-4 leaf stage with artificial inoculation while resistance to leaf blast (LB) and neck blast (NB) were evaluated in the natural field as instructed by the International Network of Genetic Evaluation for Rice (INGER). Materials with high level of blast resistante and good agronomic traits were selected andre-evaluated in suoceeding years.

  11. Analysis of the blasting effect on the electric shove loading efficiency of the open pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Tian-guang; SUN Ying

    2008-01-01

    The connection between blasting cost and comprehensive cost is the main concern.Some blasting effect factors (such as unit explosive consumption,uniformity of blockness,shape and porosity of blasting heap),which had an influence on electric shove loading efficiency,were analyzed.In the end a project to properly increase in blasting cost to decrease the comprehensive cost was put forward.At the same time,the hole-by-hole blasting is effective technology to improve blasting effect.

  12. Acute injuries in Taekwondo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter-Brust, K; Leistenschneider, P; Dargel, J; Springorum, H P; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P

    2011-08-01

    Although Taekwondo is becoming an increasingly popular sport, there is a lack of reliable epidemiologic data on Taekwondo injuries. To perform an epidemiologic study on the variety of types of injury in professional and amateur Taekwondo athletes and to find a relation between Taekwondo style, skill level, weight-class and warm-up routine and the occurrence of injuries, we analysed the injury data using a 7-page questionnaire from a total of 356 Taekwondo athletes who were randomly selected. Overall, we registered a total of 2,164 injuries in 356 athletes. Most traumas were contusions and sprains in the lower extremities. Professional Taekwondo athletes have an increased risk of injury in comparison to recreational athletes. Taekwondo style, weight class and tournament frequency have an influence on the athlete's injury profile. Warm-up routines were found to have a positive effect on injury rates. Overall, Taekwondo may be considered a rather benign activity, if injuries during Taekwondo tournaments can be avoided. If not, Taekwondo can result in serious musculoskeletal problems.

  13. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2011-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  14. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  15. Evaluation of copper slag blast media for railcar maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagers, N. W.; Finlayson, Mack H.

    1989-06-01

    Copper slag was tested as a blasting substitute for zirconium silicate which is used to remove paint from railroad cars. The copper slag tested is less costly, strips paint faster, is produced near the point of need, provides a good bonding surface for paint, and permits the operator to work in a more comfortable position, i.e., standing nearly erect instead of having to crouch. Outdoor blasting with the tested Blackhawk (20 to 40 mesh) copper slag is also environmentally acceptable to the State of Utah. Results of tests for the surface erosion rate with copper slag blasting are included.

  16. Evaluation of copper slag blast media for railcar maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagers, N. W.; Finlayson, Mack H.

    1989-01-01

    Copper slag was tested as a blasting substitute for zirconium silicate which is used to remove paint from railroad cars. The copper slag tested is less costly, strips paint faster, is produced near the point of need, provides a good bonding surface for paint, and permits the operator to work in a more comfortable position, i.e., standing nearly erect instead of having to crouch. Outdoor blasting with the tested Blackhawk (20 to 40 mesh) copper slag is also environmentally acceptable to the State of Utah. Results of tests for the surface erosion rate with copper slag blasting are included.

  17. Computation of Blast Pressures foam Propellant for Compaction of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Agarwal

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of blast pressure characteristics is a pre-requisite for a suitable application of foam propellant to emergency military construction such as compacting of the soil from an aircraft using the foam propellant. The foam propellant considered here is a combination of hydrazine and ammonium perchlorate. The blast pressure is found to be a function of the quantity of foam propellant used and the distance of the observation point. This paper attempts to compute the blast pressure versus time characteristics of a foam propellant strip.

  18. Hybrid S2/Carbon Epoxy Composite Armours Under Blast Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, F.; Meo, Michele; Wright, A.; French, M.; Bernabei, M.

    2012-06-01

    Civil and military structures, such as helicopters, aircrafts, naval ships, tanks or buildings are susceptible to blast loads as terroristic attacks increases, therefore there is the need to design blast resistant structures. During an explosion the peak pressure produced by shock wave is much greater than the static collapse pressure. Metallic structures usually undergo large plastic deformations absorbing blast energy before reaching equilibrium. Due to their high specific properties, fibre-reinforced polymers are being considered for energy absorption applications in blast resistant armours. A deep insight into the relationship between explosion loads, composite architecture and deformation/fracture behaviour will offer the possibility to design structures with significantly enhanced energy absorption and blast resistance performance. This study presents the results of a numerical investigation aimed at understanding the performance of a hybrid composite (glass/carbon fibre) plate subjected to blast loads using commercial LS-DYNA software. In particular, the paper deals with numerical 3D simulations of damages caused by air blast waves generated by C4 charges on two fully clamped rectangular plates made of steel and hybrid (S2/Carbon) composite, respectively. A Multi Materials Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (MMALE) formulation was used to simulate the shock phenomenon. For the steel plates, the Johnson-Cook material model was employed. For the composite plates both in-plane and out-of-plane failure criteria were employed. In particular, a contact tiebreak formulation with a mixed mode failure criteria was employed to simulate delamination failure. As for the steel plates the results showed that excellent correlation with the experimental data for the two blast load conditions in terms of dynamic and residual deflection for two different C4 charges. For the composite plates the numerical results showed that, as expected, a wider delamination damage was observed

  19. Hand injuries as an indicator of other associated severe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossoughi, Faranak; Krantz, Brent; Fann, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Retrospective data were collected from a level 1 trauma center registry. A total of 472 patients with hand injuries were admitted to the trauma unit between January 2000 and March 2004. Forty-four per cent of patients with hand injuries had life-threatening injuries. Fifty-one per cent of them had motor vehicle crash-related injuries. Motorcycle crashes were the next most common cause followed by explosions, falls, gunshots, machinery, stabs, bites, crushes, and so on. Frequency of associated injuries was as follows: head injuries, 31 per cent, including skull fractures, 22 per cent; spine injuries, 18 per cent, including spine fractures 18 per cent; chest injuries, 36 per cent, including rib fractures, 15 per cent; and abdominal injuries, 13 per cent. The authors focused on the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Motor vehicle crashes were most common cause of hand injuries. The most common organs to be injured were chest and head. The most common head injury was skull fracture. Other injuries in decreasing order were spine and rib fractures. These data may be helpful in assessing ambulatory patients in the emergency room, in those hand injuries maybe indicative of other simultaneous life-threatening or disabling injuries.

  20. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...