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Sample records for blast furnace granular

  1. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  2. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  3. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  4. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando, E-mail: bva@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Neves; Elton Silva; Silva, Sidiney Nascimento [Companhia Siderugica Nacional (CSN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10{sup 6} ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  5. Reduction disintegration mechanism of cold briquettes from blast furnace dust and sludge

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    Leandro Rocha Lemos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the reduction disintegration mechanism in ferriferous burden that is used in blast furnaces. The behavior of this burden in the granular zone of this metallurgical reactor is important for smooth operation. The objective of this work was to prepare cold self-reducing briquettes using blast furnace dust and sludge and binders and compare the reduction disintegration index (RDI of these agglomerates with conventional ferriferous burdens such as pellets, sinter and iron ore. In the present work, 25 different mixtures were prepared to produce briquettes in two geometries: pillow and cylindrical. The RDI value was determined for the briquettes that passed the tumbling test.

  6. Slag wool manufacturing from blast furnace slag

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    Володимир Петрович Руських

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Slag wool is the most expensive and valuable product of blast furnace slag processing. Slag wool is in great demand nowadays. The article highlights the factors influencing the mineral wool quality: chemical composition that determines the acidity of the module, the temperature of the molten slag and the required slag jet thickness consistency. Mineral wool is produced by blowing air or steam into a jet of molten slag. As a result of it the slag crushes into droplets stretching. The resulting wool contains 5% slag and 95% air. The quality of the obtained slag wool depends on the module acidity of the slag. The blast furnace slags of «Ilyich iron and steel works of Mariupol» and «Azovstal iron & steel works» are the main (short slags – they give short fibers. To obtain high-quality long fiber wool it is necessary to add admixtures into basic blast furnace slag to reduce its basicity. As a result of the fuel and energy rising prices and the necessity to reduce the slag wool cost it is necessary to develop a new technology with fiery-liquid slag, with the removal of iron compounds and sulphur from the melts and the introduction of corrective additives to improve the quality of slag wool. Good thermal conductivity (about 0,03 kcal/m∙h∙°C and other indicators (resistance, volume weight make it possible to use the materials from slag wool (pads, rigid and semi-rigid plates as heat and sound insulating materials

  7. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

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    Stanislav S. Gornostayev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs in a blast furnace (BF coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N2 and O2. The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallurgical site proves to be substantial, it could become a subject of environmental concern.

  8. Mathematical model and software for control of commissioning blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Onorin, O. P.; Shchipanov, K. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Blowing-in is a starting period of blast furnace operation after construction or major repair. The current approximation methods of blowing-in burden analysis are based on blowing-in practice of previously commissioned blast furnaces. This area is theoretically underexplored; there are no common scientifically based methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters. The purpose of this paper is development and scientific substantiation of the methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters in the blast furnace during the blowing-in period. Research methods are based on physical regularities of main processes running in the blast furnace, system analysis, and application of modern principles for development and construction of mathematical models, algorithms and software designed for automated control of complex production processes in metallurgy. As consequence of the research made by the authors the following results have been achieved: 1. A set of mathematical models for analysis of burden arrangement throughout the height of the blast furnace and for selection of optimal blast and gas dynamic parameters has been developed. 2. General principles for selection of the blowing-in burden composition and blast and gas dynamic parameters have been set up. 3. The software for the engineering and process staff of the blast furnace has been developed and introduced in the industry.

  9. Pellet reduction properties under different blast furnace operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Leimalm, Ulrika

    2006-01-01

    One of the aims of modern blast furnace (BF) ironmaking is to reduce coke consumption. One way is to increase the injection of reduction agents, such as pulverized coal. An increase in pulverized coal injection rate (PCR) will affect the blast furnace process and the conditions for iron oxide reduction. Changes in PCR influence the composition of the ascending gases and the in-furnace temperature isotherms. The performed tests involve full-scale, pilot and laboratory investigations. Raw mater...

  10. Investigation of accretion formation in a blast furnace shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klima, R.; Hoefer, O.; Chiarotti, U.; Fredman, T.; Hillmann, C.; Raipala, K.; Eriksson, J. (eds.) [BFI Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Accretions in the bosh, belly and shaft have a significant influence on blast furnace performance and on the service life of the refractory lining and the cooling system. To analyse the mechanisms of formation and dislodging of accretions, investigations were carried out at four different blast furnaces. Three blast furnaces were equipped with additional measurements to investigate the accretion formation process and to provide information for the development of accretion estimation models. Installation activities included thermocouples, heat-flux meters, staves with instrumentation for heat-flux measurement and a small horizontal lance. The distribution of accretions in the shaft was documented. Samples were taken out of accretions during blast furnace stoppages. Their acquisition was simplified with newly developed sampling devices. The samples were analysed to determine chemical and mineralogical properties and thermal conductivity. Samples were mainly made up of reduced iron or of coke and sinter structures glued together by zinc or alkali compounds. Together with a newly developed offline model for the simulation of accretion formation, different parameters influencing the formation process were identified. The main parameters are: burden material composition, blast furnace operating conditions; and the cooling system. Countermeasures to prevent excessive accretion growth were determined. They offer a better operational control of accretions. Different models to identify accretion formation were developed and an overview was presented. Different models were necessary to distinguish between the various measurement, cooling-system and blast-furnace setups. Most of the models are already implemented and in operational use. For some of them application at other blast furnaces was already realised or is possible. 9 refs., 18 figs., 20 tab.

  11. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  12. Radiometric report for a blast furnace tracing with radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, G.; Tanase, M.

    1995-01-01

    One of the methods to monitor refractory wall of blast furnace is its tracing with radioactive isotopes. The tracer isotope can be detected by two ways: the external dosimetric measurement at the armour of the blast furnace and/or the radiometric measurement of the iron sample charge by charge. Any change in radiometric situation of tracer radioisotope is recorded in a radiometric report. This paper presents an original concept of radiometric report based upon PARADOX and CORELDRAW soft kits. Their advantage are: quick and easy changes, easy recording of current radioactivity of tracer isotope, short history of changes, visual mapping of the tracer isotope and others. In this way we monitored 6 blast furnaces and more than 180 radioactive sources

  13. Studying and improving blast furnace cast iron quality

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    Т. К. Balgabekov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are presented the results of studies to improve the quality of blast furnace cast iron. It was established that using fire clay suspension for increasing the mould covering heat conductivity improves significantly pig iron salable condition and filtration refining method decreases iron contamination by nonmetallic inclusions by 50 – 70 %.

  14. Chloride ingress of carbonated blast furnace slag cement mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuizen, P.E.; Çopuroglu, O.; Polder, R.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands civil engineering structures, such as overpasses, bridges and tunnels are generally built using blast furnace slag cement (BFSC, CEM III/B) concrete, because of its high resistance against chloride penetration. Although the Dutch experience regarding durability performance of BFSC

  15. A research on ceramsite obtained from blast furnace slag and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to solve disposal problem of solid waste, blast furnace slag (BFS) and sewage sludge (SS) were tested as components for producing ceramsite. This study investigated the feasibility of that at different preheating and sintering temperature and duration and different mass ratios (BFS: SS: clay). The results show that ...

  16. Granulated blast furnace slag – A boon for foundry industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation efforts have been put together to employ Granulated Blast furnace (GBF) slag as mould material for replacement of existing silica sand either full or partial in foundry industry. Nishiyama procedure was assumed for appraising the same. The process factors reflected on for this were the % of ...

  17. Iron making technology with fuels and other materials injection in blast furnace tuyeres. Part 1. Auxiliary fuels characteristics and its influence in the blast furnace process; Tecnologia de fabricacion de arrabio con la inyeccion de combustibles y otros materiales por toberas en el horno alto. I parte. Caracteristicas de los combustibles auxiliares y su influencia en el proceso del horno alto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L. [Union de Empresas de Recuperacion de Materias Primas. Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Cores, A.; Formoso, A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas. Madrid (Spain); Babich, A.; Yaroshevskii, S. [Universidad Estatal Tecnologica de Donetsk. Ucrania (Ukraine)

    1998-06-01

    The injection of fuels by tuyeres in the blast furnace is a used practice in most furnaces with the principal aim to reduce the coke consumption by ton of pig iron produced. The nature of these fuels is very diverse and depends on the resources of each country and of the fuel price. At this moment the coal injection (pulverized and granular) is the most extended practice, and the number of furnaces with facilities for coal injection increases continuously. (Author) 14 refs.

  18. CFD‐DEM modelling of blast furnace tapping

    OpenAIRE

    Vango, Mathias; Pirker, Stefan; Lichtenegger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The campaign length of a blast furnace is limited by the hearth inner lining lifetime. In order to maximize the campaign length and ensure a good draining of hot metal and slag, a good understanding of the flow in the hearth is essential. Challenges in modelling the flow involve several continuous phases (hot metal, slag and hot blast) as well as the presence of the deadman, a dense bed of coke particles. The shape and position of the deadman depend on the weight of the burden column above an...

  19. Soil Stabilisation Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Kumar Pathak; Dr. V. Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Stabilisation is a broad sense for the various methods employed and modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used for a variety of engineering works. In today‟s day soil stabilisation is the major problem for civil engineers, either for construction of road and also for increasing the strength or stability of soil and reduces the construction cost. In this thesis the soil are stabilised by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and this material is ob...

  20. Blast furnace coke substitutes from Victorian brown coal

    OpenAIRE

    Mollah, Mamun

    2017-01-01

    Iron is usually produced from its ores using coke in a blast furnace (BF). Coke, a hard and macroporous carbon material, is produced from special coals (coking coals) and acts as fuel, smelting agent, and the permeable support for the charge to the BF. No material can completely replace coke in a BF. Coking coals are becoming harder (and more expensive) to obtain. Victorian brown coal (VBC) is accessible, cheap, with low mineral concentrations, which is favourable for iron production in a BF....

  1. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  2. Modelling of turbulent combustion in the blast furnace raceway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvinen, R.; Maekiranta, R. [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena concerning coke-gas -suspension and simultaneous combustion of solid coke particles and residual fuel oil in a blast furnace raceway are modelled. The flow field of suspension is predicted by using the two fluid model, which is based on the Eulerian method, in the Phoenics code. The standard k-e -model of turbulence is used. Pyrolysis of oil droplets is calculated with the own coded subroutine, which is based on the Lagrangian approach. Gas phase reaction rate is assumed to be controlled by chemical kinetics. Radiative heat transfer is calculated by using the six-flux method. Heterogenous surface reactions are used for the coke particles. Calculations without coke combustion show that due to a poor mixing in the hot blast, pyrolysis gases of residual fuel oil have not time enough to react with oxygen. It is obvious that if combustion of coke particles is taken into account, the oxygen content in the blast decreases to such a level, that unburnt pyrolysis gases can flow out of the raceway causing problems. The distribution of coke void fraction has been succeeded to predict in the raceway domain. Coke particles fall from the upper part of the raceway to the hot blast forming locally high concentrations, which affect very strongly the oxygen distribution of the hot blast. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  3. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  4. Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkki, J.; Tervola, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquidus temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 2 refs.

  5. Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

  6. X-ray diffractometry of steam cured ordinary Portland and blast-furnace-slag cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarini, G.; Djanikian, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    This work studies some aspects of the phases produced by hydration of ordinary and blast-furnace-slag cements, at normal conditions and steam cured (60 and 95 0 C), using an X-ray diffraction technique. The blast-furnace-slag cement was a mixture of 50% of ordinary Portland cement and 50% of blast-furnace-slag (separately grinding). After curing the X-ray diffraction reveals that, in relation to ordinary Portland cement, the main phases in blast-furnace-slag cement are hydrated silicates and aluminates, hydro garnet, etringitte and mono sulphate. After steam curing the hydration of blast-furnace-slag cement proceeds. This is a result of the slag activation by the curing temperature. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Simulation for the powder movement and accumulation in the lower part of blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Takashi [Mineral Resources Research Center, Nippon Steel Technoresearch, Futtsu-shi Chiba (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of unburnt char and coke powder in the blast furnace becomes material for discussion with the increase in injection rate of pulverized coal into the blast furnace. An analysis was made as to the simulation of powder accumulation at the deadman and dripping zone of blast furnace by using a powder/gas two-phases flow experimental data. When an excessive powder has penetrated at a low gas velocity, it brings an increment in holdup and the controlling factors are powder/gas ratio and gas velocity. An empirical formula used for estimating the powder hold-up in the blast furnace internal conditions has proposed based on similarity. The controlling {pi} numbers are Floude number, powder/gas ratio and particle diameter ratio of powder/lump. This empirical formular was connected with Blast Furnace Total Model `BRIGHT` for the simulation of powder amount distribution in the lower part of blast furnace. When Powder diameter Dk exceeds 100 {mu} and gas velocity becomes lower than 0.7m/s at PC1OOkg/T, the powder tends to accumulate in the deadman. These results was available for the decision of optimum blast conditions and optimum powder diameter in the high amount of pulverized coal injection to the blast furnace. (author) 10 refs.

  8. Influence of blast furnace gas flow speed on dust deposition characteristics in butterfly valve region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin WANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The blast furnace gas contains plenty of dust, which deposits easily on the bottom of seat sealing surface of the tri-eccentric butterfly valve in the pipeline, causing stuck and damage to the valve plate, thereby affects the production of the blast furnace and brings great economic loss. To derive the influence mechanism of effects of the blast furnace gas flow speed within the pipeline on the dust deposition laws in the butterfly valve region, a 3D model of the butterfly valve and its regional flow field is built with Pro/E software. Based on FLUENT module of ANSYS Workbench, along with standard k-ε turbulence model and DPM model, simulation analysis of moving trajectories of dust particles in butterfly valve region under 3 blast furnace gas flow speeds is conducted. Results show that the deposition mass of dust particles decreases firstly, then increases with the enlargement of valve plate opening angle under the blast furnace gas flow speed of 8 m/s, while decreases with the enlargement of valve plate opening under the blast furnace gas flow speeds of 12 m/s and 16 m/s. In the case of the valve plate opening angle of 15°, the deposition rate of dust particles increases with the growing of blast furnace gas flow speed, while decreases with the growing of blast furnace gas flow speed under the cases of valve plate opening angle of 45° and 75°. The research results provide a theoretical reference for the development of automatic dust removal system in the butterfly valve region of the blast furnace gas pipeline.

  9. Blast Wave Mitigation in Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontalier, Quentin; Lhoumeau, Maxime; Frost, David

    2017-06-01

    A common technique to mitigate the blast wave from a high explosive is to surround the explosive with a layer of inert particles or liquid. In the case of a powder layer in spherical geometry, the spherically expanding shock wave that propagates first within the porous powder bed has a complex structure and induces the formation of force chains through particles in contact, shock propagation in the interstitial gas, and leads to shock compaction and deformation of the particle bed. Overall, the shock accelerates the particles and heats the gas in the pores and the partition of the total energy between kinetic and internal energy is primarily a function of the layer porosity and mass ratio of material to explosive. This energy partition is explored computationally with a multiphase hydrocode as a function of the bed parameters and compared with the case of a homogeneous liquid. The results are compared with experiments which track the strength of the blast wave emerging from the material layer as well as the material velocity using high-speed photography. For a given mass ratio, the strength of the blast wave transmitted into the air and the material velocity are significantly lower for particle beds than liquid layers due to energy dissipation during compaction of the bed.

  10. Greener durable concretes through geopolymerisation of blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamane, N. P.; Nataraja, M. C.; Jeyalakshmi, R.; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2015-05-01

    The eco-friendliness of concrete is quantified by parameters such as ‘embodied energy’ (EE) and ‘embodied CO2 emission’ (ECO2e), besides duration of designed ‘service life’. It may be noted that ECO2e is also referred as carbon footprint (CF) in the literature. Geopolymer (GP) is an inorganic polymeric gel, a type of amorphous alumino-silicate product, which can be synthesised by polycondensation reactions. The concrete reported in this paper was prepared using industrial wastes in the form of blast furnace slag, fly ash as geopolymeric source materials and sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide as activators. Many mechanical properties such as compressive strength, chloride diffusion, steel corrosion, rapid chloride permeability test and rapid migration test are compared with Portland cement.

  11. Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain small volume of metals, sulfides of metals and gases. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of slag determinate their utilisation in different fields of industry.The paper presents results from the research of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag utilization in the concrete production. Pilotexperiments of the concrete production were performed, by that the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag with a fractions of 0–4mm;4–8mm; 8–16mm were used as a natural substitute. A cupola furnace slag and combination of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slagwere used in the experiments. The analysis results show that such concretes are suitable for less demanding applications.

  12. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

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    Verdeja, L. F.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.

    Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

  13. Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

    1982-04-30

    A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

  14. Influence of thermal charge preparation on coke comminution under blast-furnace operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-09-01

    Reactions of coke in the blast furnace are determined mainly by the nature of the coke itself which depends on the coal properties, its preparation and the coking conditions. In the blast furnace the coke reacts with alkali and alkaline earth metals in the burden. Preheated coal charges were found to absorb far less sodium and potassium carbonates than a conventional moist charge over an equivalent period, due to the smaller pore volume available.

  15. The design of system for operative planning of blast furnace production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malindžák Dušan

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A system for operative planning of blast furnace production process is described in the paper. The suggested system is based on the use of a new hierarchy of operative plans, consisting of one-month plan, (7+3 days plan, and 24-hour plan. The system allows smoothing of production process at the blast furnace plant, and at the same time satisfies all requirements of the steel plant regarding to the amount of pig iron.

  16. Numerical investigation of waste plastic: Injection in a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, A.; Morozumi, Y.; Hagiya, H.; Aoki, H.; Miura, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    In the present study, waste plastic injection in blast furnace processes is investigated numerically. A mathematical model developed in this study describes turbulent flows, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions in gas, particle and coke-bed phases, and particle trajectories. In the simulation, pulverized particles of coal or plastics are injected into a blowpipe with a nitrogen gas stream, and are then supplied to the raceway region in the coke particle bed. The difference in the gasification behaviors between coal and plastic particles are discussed. The effects of the diameter of plastic particles on the gasification behavior are also investigated. Coal particles are rapidly gasified in the blowpipe because of their small size. In contrast, the gasification of plastic particles rarely occurs in the blowpipe, even if small plastic particles are injected. In addition, the flows of plastic particles are biased in the blowpipe, and consequently the reaction zone of gasification is narrow. In the raceway of the coke bed, the pulverized coal particles exit the raceway due to their small diameter, and are then discharged from the coke bed without sufficient gasification. On the other hand, the plastic particles circulate in the raceway until the diameters thereof decrease below a critical diameter. As a result, since the gasification reaction progresses during the circulation, the combustion efficiency of plastic particles remains high even though the initial diameter of the plastic particles is large.

  17. Hot metal temperature prediction and simulation by fuzzy logic in a blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M. A.; Jimenez, J.; Mochon, J.; Formoso, A.; Bueno, F.; Menendez, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    This work describes the development and further validation of a model devoted to blast furnace hot metal temperature forecast, based on Fuzzy logic principles. The model employs as input variables, the control variables of an actual blast furnace: Blast volume, moisture, coal injection, oxygen addition, etc. and it yields as a result the hot metal temperature with a forecast horizon of forty minutes. As far as the variables used to develop the model have been obtained from data supplied by an actual blast furnaces sensors, it is necessary to properly analyse and handle such data. Especial attention was paid to data temporal correlation, fitting by interpolation the different sampling rates. In the training stage of the model the ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) and the Subtractive Clustering algorithms have been used. (Author) 9 refs

  18. Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements and concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhimov, R.; Rakhimova, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work has been the study of alkali-activated slag-zeolite cements and concretes based on them. Various compositions have been tested and some characteristics such as the compressive strength have been measured versus zeolite additions. A table lists the specific surface area and particle size distributions of different cements. The conclusions of the study are the following. First, alkali-activated slag cements and concretes based on them are effective for immobilization of radioactive wastes and the production of building structures, designed for high radiation load. Secondly, zeolite-containing mineral additions are able to increase the immobilization capacity and radiation resistance of alkali-activated blast furnace slag cements and concretes. Thirdly, the efficiency of different zeolite-containing additions - 10% to increase alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement strength was established. It is with alkaline components of water-glass, sodium carbonate, sodium sulphate. Fourth, the effective way of introducing zeolite additions in alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement is inter-grinding of the slag and addition. Increase in strength of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement stone is 40% higher than that of the stone of a mixture of separately milled components. Fifth, Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements with zeolite-containing additions with a compressive strength of 10.1 to 140 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements mortars with compressive strength from 35.2 to 97.7 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements concretes with compressive strength up to 84.5 MPa and frost resistant up to 800 cycles were obtained

  19. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  20. EFFECTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG ON NATURAL POZZOLAN-BASED GEOPOLYMER CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHSHAD YAZDANIPOUR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of geopolymer cement mixes were designed and produced by alkali-activation of a pumice-type natural pozzolan. Effects of blast-furnace slag on basic engineering properties of the mixes were studied. Different engineering properties of the mixes such as setting times and 28-day compressive strength were studied at different amounts of blast-furnace slag, sodium oxide content, and water-to-cement ratio. The mix comprising of 5 wt.% blast-furnace slag and 8 wt.% Na2O with a water-to-dry binder ratio of 0.30 exhibits the highest 28-day compressive strength, i.e. 36 MPa. Mixes containing 5 wt.% of ground granulated blast furnace slag showed the least efflorescence or best soundness. Laboratory techniques of X-ray diffractometry (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were utilized for characterizing a number of mixes and studying their molecular and micro-structure. Investigations done by scanning electron microscopy confirm that smaller blast-furnace slag particles react totally while the larger ones react partially with alkaline activators and contribute to the formation of a composite microstructure.

  1. Kinetics and physico-chemical properties of alkali activated blast-furnace slag/basalt pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El Didamony

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS is a by-product of the metallurgical industry and consists mainly of lime and calcium–magnesium aluminosilicates that defined as the glassy granular material formed by rapid cooling of molten slag with excess water resulting in an amorphous structure. Alkali-activated slag (AAS binders have taken a great interest from researchers due to its manufacturing process which has important benefits from the point of view of the lower energy requirements and lower emission of greenhouse gases with respect to the manufacturing of Portland cement. In this study, GBFS was replaced by 20, 40 and 60 wt.% of basalt activated by 6 wt.% of alkali mixture composed of 1:1 sodium hydroxide (SH and liquid sodium silicate (LSS mixed with sea water and cured in 100% relative humidity up to 90 days. The physic-chemical parameters were studied by determination of setting time, combined water content, bulk density and compressive strength. As the amount of basalt increases the setting time as well as compressive strength decreases while the bulk density increases. The compressive strength values of dried pastes are greater than those of saturated pastes. The hydrated products are identified by TGA/DTG analysis, IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  2. Evaluation of effectiveness of raw materials and materials use in a blast furnace department of a steelworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kardas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the quality of raw materials used in the production of blast furnace pig iron. The ferruginous sinter and pellets are the basic raw materials used in the process. The paper presents the impact of those raw materials quality on the effectiveness of the blast furnace process. The process effectiveness will be specified by means of selected process parameters.

  3. Automated information system for analysis and prediction of production situations in blast furnace plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, V. V.; Spirin, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    Advances in modern science and technology are inherently connected with the development, implementation, and widespread use of computer systems based on mathematical modeling. Algorithms and computer systems are gaining practical significance solving a range of process tasks in metallurgy of MES-level (Manufacturing Execution Systems - systems controlling industrial process) of modern automated information systems at the largest iron and steel enterprises in Russia. This fact determines the necessity to develop information-modeling systems based on mathematical models that will take into account the physics of the process, the basics of heat and mass exchange, the laws of energy conservation, and also the peculiarities of the impact of technological and standard characteristics of raw materials on the manufacturing process data. Special attention in this set of operations for metallurgic production is devoted to blast-furnace production, as it consumes the greatest amount of energy, up to 50% of the fuel used in ferrous metallurgy. The paper deals with the requirements, structure and architecture of BF Process Engineer's Automated Workstation (AWS), a computer decision support system of MES Level implemented in the ICS of the Blast Furnace Plant at Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works. It presents a brief description of main model subsystems as well as assumptions made in the process of mathematical modelling. Application of the developed system allows the engineering and process staff to analyze online production situations in the blast furnace plant, to solve a number of process tasks related to control of heat, gas dynamics and slag conditions of blast-furnace smelting as well as to calculate the optimal composition of blast-furnace slag, which eventually results in increasing technical and economic performance of blast-furnace production.

  4. Comparison of CO2 emission between COREX and blast furnace iron-making system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changqing; Han, Xiaowei; Li, Zhihong; Zhang, Chunxia

    2009-01-01

    Steel works faced increasing demand to minimize the emission of GHGs. The CO2 emissions of COREX and blast furnace iron-making system were compared. It is point out that COREX contribute little to CO2 emission reduction. Comparing to conventional blast furnace iron-making system, direct CO2 emissions of COREX is higher. Considering the credits of export gases for power generation, the total CO2 emission of COREX have advantages only when the COREX is joined with high-efficiency generating units which efficiency is greater than 45% and CO2 emission factor of the grid is higher than 0.9 kgCO2/kWh.

  5. The effect of soaking time on properties of blast furnace coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R.; Dash, P.S.; Krishnan, S.H.; Kumar, D. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2004-07-01

    Attempts were made to study the effect of soaking time on properties of blast furnace coke at Tata Steel. Plant trial indicated that when soaking time was increased the +50 mm size coke, mean size, and M{sub 40} indices improved. The CSR value exhibited no significant improvement after a certain limit. This may be due to stability of coke structure improvement in coke quality by increasing soaking time. To achieve the maximum improvement in coke cost, loss of output and heat consumption may be compensated by decreasing coke rate and improving productivity in the blast furnace. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Production analysis of methanol and hydrogen of a modificated blast furnace gas using nuclear energy of the high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschel, W.

    1985-12-01

    Modern blast furnaces are operated with a coke ration of 500 kg/t pig iron. The increase of the coke ratio to 1000 kg/t pig iron raises the content of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the blast furnace gas. On the basis of a blast furnace gas modificated in such a way, the production of methanol and hydrogen is investigated under the coupling of current and process heat from the high temperature reactor. Moreover the different variants are discussed, for which respectively a material and energetic balance as well as an estimation of the production costs is performed. Regarding the subsequent treatment of the blast furnace gas it turns out favourably in principle to operate the blast furnace with a nitrogen-free wind consisting only of oxygen and steam. The production costs show a strong dependence on the raw material costs, whose influence is shown in a nomograph. (orig.) [de

  7. Composite cements containing natural pozzolan and granulated blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irassar, E. F.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available For reasons of market demand and Portland cement production,the manufacture of cements with two or more separately ground additions to produce customized cements is becoming common practice.When pozzolan or slag content in this type of cements is high, however, the initial strength of the resulting product may be adversely impacted. This problem can be minimized by activating one or both of the replacement materials. The present study analyzes the effect of Portland cement additions such as physically activated natural pozzolan(up to 20% and/or granulated blast furnace slag (up to 35% on mortar flexural and compressive strength. The results show that higher strength is attained in ternary than binary cements. Initially (2 and 7 days, the highest compressive strengths are reached by mortars with up to 13% natural pozzolan and 5% slag, whereas at later ages mortars with larger proportions of additions are found to perform best.Debido a las exigencias del mercado y de la producción de cemento Portland, es cada vez más frecuente la elaboración de cementos con dos o más adiciones a partir de la molienda separada de sus constituyentes, dando origen a la formulación de los cementos a medida.Cuando el contenido de adiciones es alto, la utilización de puzolana y escoria en este tipo de cementos presenta la peculiaridad de disminuir la resistencia inicial del cemento resultante. Sin embargo, si algunas o ambas adiciones se activan, este problema puede minimizarse. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la incorporación al cemento Portland de puzolana natural (hasta 20% activada físicamente y/o escoria granulada de alto horno (hasta 35% sobre la resistencia a flexión y a compresión de morteros. Los resultados indican que los cementos ternarios presentan un mejor comportamiento resistente que los cementos binarios. Las máximas resistencias a compresión en las primeras edades (2 y 7 díasse alcanzan con hasta 13% de puzolana natural y 5% de

  8. Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

  9. A theoretical study using the multiphase numerical simulation technique for effective use of H2 as blast furnaces fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Adilson de Castro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical simulation procedure for analyzing hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide gases injections mixed with pulverized coals within the tuyeres of blast furnaces. Effective use of H2 rich gas is highly attractive into the steelmaking blast furnace, considering the possibility of increasing the productivity and decreasing the specific emissions of carbon dioxide becoming the process less intensive in carbon utilization. However, the mixed gas and coal injection is a complex technology since significant changes on the inner temperature and gas flow patterns are expected, beyond to their effects on the chemical reactions and heat exchanges. Focusing on the evaluation of inner furnace status under such complex operation a comprehensive mathematical model has been developed using the multi interaction multiple phase theory. The BF, considered as a multiphase reactor, treats the lump solids (sinter, small coke, pellets, granular coke and iron ores, gas, liquids metal and slag and pulverized coal phases. The governing conservation equations are formulated for momentum, mass, chemical species and energy and simultaneously discretized using the numerical method of finite volumes. We verified the model with a reference operational condition using pulverized coal of 215 kg per ton of hot metal (kg thm−1. Thus, combined injections of varying concentrations of gaseous fuels with H2, O2 and CO2 are simulated with 220 kg thm−1 and 250 kg thm−1 coals injection. Theoretical analysis showed that stable operations conditions could be achieved with productivity increase of 60%. Finally, we demonstrated that the net carbon utilization per ton of hot metal decreased 12%.

  10. Constructal design of a blast furnace iron-making process based on multi-objective optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiong; Chen, Lingen; Feng, Huijun; Qin, Xiaoyong; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    For the fixed total raw material cost and based on constructal theory and finite time thermodynamics, a BFIM (blast furnace iron-making) process is optimized by taking a complex function as optimization objective. The complex function is integrated with HM (hot metal) yield and useful energy of the BF (blast furnace). The optimal cost distribution of raw materials (namely “generalized optimal construct”) is obtained. The effects of some parameters, such as oxygen enrichment, blast temperature and pulverized coal dosage, on the optimization results are analyzed. The results show that the HM yield, useful energy and complex function are, respectively, increased by 3.13%, 2.66% and 2.90% after generalized constructal optimization. The utilization efficiencies of the BFG (blast furnace gas) and slag are 41.3% and 57.1%, respectively, which means that the utilization potentials of the BFG and slag can be further exploited. Increasing pulverized coal dosage and decreasing the agglomerate ratio can increase the complex function. The performance the BFIM process can be improved by adjusting the oxygen enrichment, blast temperature, blast dosage, pressure ratio of the Brayton cycle's air compressor and relative pressure drop of the air compressor inlet to their optimal values, respectively, which are new findings of this paper. - Highlights: • Constructal optimization of a blast furnace iron-making process is performed. • Finite time thermodynamic model of open Brayton cycle is adopted. • Weighting function is taken as optimization objective. • Optimal cost distribution of the raw materials is obtained.

  11. Innovation based on tradition : Blast furnace slag cement for durable concrete structures in Norway?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Nijland, T.; De Rooij, M.; Larsen, C.K.; Pedersen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) has been used to build reinforced concrete structures in marine and road environment in The Netherlands for nearly a century. The experience is good and structures with long service lives can be obtained, as has been shown by several field studies. This is caused by

  12. Development of engineered cementitious composites with limestone powder and blast furnace slag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Qian, S.; Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.; Li, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays limestone powder and blast furnace slag (BFS) are widely used in concrete as blended materials in cement. The replacement of Portland cement by limestone powder and BFS can lower the cost and enhance the greenness of concrete, since the production of these two materials needs less energy

  13. Effect of nut coke on the performance of the ironmaking blast furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Q.

    2013-01-01

    The blast furnace consumes a large amount of high quality metallurgy coke (size 35-80 mm) in addition to ore in the form of pellets and sinter. This coke is the coarse fraction, derived from the coke plant. The fine fraction (8 -35 mm), arise after sieving, named nut coke, can’t be directly used in

  14. The effect of blast furnace slag on the self-compactability of pumice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the effects of blast furnace slag, different water/(cement+mineral additive) ratios and pumice aggregates on some physical and mechanical properties of self-compacting lightweight aggregate concrete. In this study, pumice was used as lightweight ...

  15. Modeling of a self-healing process in blast furnace slag cement exposed to accelerated carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zemskov, S.V.; Ahmad, B.; Copuroglu, O.; Vermolen, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current research, a mathematical model for the post-damage improvement of the carbonated blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) exposed to accelerated carbonation is constructed. The study is embedded within the framework of investigating the effect of using lightweight expanded clay aggregate,

  16. Chloride-binding Effect of Blast Furnace Slag in Cement Pastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unlike previous investigations, this study attempted to make a clear distinction between the contributions of the two components in a blended cement consisting of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and ground blast furnace slag (BFS). These contributions of each component have been quantified. Relationships between the ...

  17. Improvement in blast furnace reaction efficiency through the use of highly reactive calcium rich coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, S.; Ayukawa, H.; Kitaguchi, H.; Tahara, T.; Matsuzaki, S.; Naito, M.; Koizumi, S.; Ogata, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Abe, T. [Nippon Steel Corp. Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    A method to produce coke in 'lump' form with high strength and reactivity through the addition of a catalyst was investigated in order to improve blast furnace reaction efficiency. The addition of Ca compounds to coal before carbonization was found to considerably increase the reactivity of the coke at a low temperature range in the thermal reserve zone of a blast furnace. Furthermore it was proved that strong, highly reactive 'lump' form coke could be produced by adding a Ca-rich non-caking coal and adjusting the coal blend composition. Based on this fundamental study, the Ca-rich coke was successfully produced in coke ovens on a commercial scale, both at Kimitsu and Muroran works. The use of the Ca-rich coke in the Muroran No. 2 blast furnace was found to cause a decrease in the reducing agent rate by 10kg/t-p. This technology, producing coke of high reactivity and strength through catalyst addition, is promising as a means of improving the reaction efficiency of a blast furnace.

  18. Improvement in blast furnace reaction efficiency through the use of highly reactive calcium rich coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, S.; Ayukawa, H.; Kitaguchi, H.; Tahara, T.; Matsuzaki, S.; Naito, M.; Koizumi, S.; Ogata, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Abe, T. [Nippon Steel Corporation Ltd, Futtsu (Japan). Environmental & Processing Technology Centre

    2006-03-15

    A method to produce coke in 'lump' form with high strength and reactivity through the addition of a catalyst was investigated in order to improve blast furnace reaction efficiency. The addition of Ca compounds to coal before carbonization was found to considerably increase the reactivity of the coke at a low temperature range equivalent to the thermal reserve zone temperature of a blast furnace. Furthermore it was proved that strong, highly reactive 'lump' form coke could be produced by adding a Ca-rich non-caking coal and adjusting the coal blend composition. Based on this fundamental study, the Ca-rich coke was successfully produced in coke ovens on a commercial scale, both at Kimitsu and Muroran works. The use of the Ca-rich coke in the Muroran No. 2 blast furnace was found to cause a decrease in the reducing agent rate by 10 kg/t-p. This technology, producing coke of high reactivity and strength through catalyst addition, is promising as a means of improving the reaction efficiency of a blast furnace.

  19. Granulated blast furnace slag – A boon for foundry industry | Murthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation efforts have been put together to employ Granulated Blast furnace (GBF) slag as mould material for replacement of existing silica sand either full or partial in foundry industry. Nishiyama procedure was assumed for appraising the same. The process factors reflected on for this were the % of ...

  20. A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

    2002-01-21

    This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

  1. The Iron Blast Furnace: A Study in Chemical Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treptow, Richard S.; Jean, Luckner

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the furnace from a chemical thermodynamics perspective. Examines the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy change for each reaction of importance. These properties are interpreted on the molecular level then used to deduce the conditions necessary for each reaction to occur in its intended direction. Chemical kinetics is also discussed.…

  2. Modelling and prediction of pig iron variables in the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxen, H.; Laaksonen, M.; Waller, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Heat Engineering Lab.

    1996-12-31

    The blast furnace, where pig iron for steelmaking is produced, is an extremely complicated process, with heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions between several phases. Very few direct measurements on the internal state are available in the operation of the process. A main problem in on-line analysis and modelling is that the state of the furnace may undergo spontaneous changes, which alter the dynamic behaviour of the process. Moreover, large internal disturbances frequently occur, which affect the product quality. The work in this research project focuses on a central problem in the control of the blast furnace process, i.e., short-term prediction of pig iron variables. The problem is of considerable importance for fuel economy, product quality, and for an optimal decision making in integrated steel plants. The operation of the blast furnace aims at producing a product (hot metal) with variables maintained on a stable level (close to their setpoints) without waste of expensive fuel (metallurgical coke). The hot metal temperature and composition affect the downstream (steelmaking) processes, so fluctuations in the pig iron quality must be `corrected` in the steel plant. The goal is to develop a system which predicts the evolution of the hot metal variables (temperature, chemical composition) during the next few taps, and that can be used for decision-making in the operation of the blast furnace. Because of the complicated behaviour of the process, it is considered important to include both deterministic and stochastic components in the modelling: Mathematical models, which on the basis of measurements describe the physical state of the process, and statistical (black-box) models will be combined in the system. Moreover, different models will be applied in different domains in order to capture structural changes in the dynamics of the process SULA 2 Research Programme; 17 refs.

  3. Hot metal temperature prediction in blast furnace using advanced model based on fuzzy logic tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.D.; Obeso, F.; Mochon, J.; Barea, R.; Jimenez, J.

    2007-05-15

    The present work presents a model based on fuzzy logic tools to predict and simulate the hot metal temperature in a blast furnace (BF). As input variables this model uses the control variables of a current BF such as moisture, pulverised coal injection, oxygen addition, mineral/coke ratio and blast volume, and it yields as a result of the hot metal temperature. The variables employed to develop the model have been obtained from data supplied by current sensors of a Spanish BF In the model training stage the adaptive neurofuzzy inference system and the subtractive clustering algorithms have been used.

  4. High temperature coke characteristics in the blast furnace:evaluation of coke properties in the raceway area

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Maria; Sundqvist Ökvist, Lena; Hyllander, Gunilla; Jansson, Björn; Björkman, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Core-drilling into the coke bed of raceway and hearth has been performed in the LKAB Experimental Blast Furnace (EBF®) during short stoppages aiming to characterize raceway conditions corresponding to different operational conditions. All coke operation, injection of pulverized coal and injection of a mixture of coal and blast furnace flue dust (BFD) were evaluated and compared. The samples have been studied regarding particle size and distribution, coke have been evaluated with chemical comp...

  5. A theoretical study using the multiphase numerical simulation technique for effective use of H2 as blast furnaces fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Adilson de Castro; Cyro Takano; Jun-ichiro Yagi

    2017-01-01

    We present a numerical simulation procedure for analyzing hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide gases injections mixed with pulverized coals within the tuyeres of blast furnaces. Effective use of H2 rich gas is highly attractive into the steelmaking blast furnace, considering the possibility of increasing the productivity and decreasing the specific emissions of carbon dioxide becoming the process less intensive in carbon utilization. However, the mixed gas and coal injection is a complex techn...

  6. Ground granulated blast furnace slag efficiency coefficient (k value) in concrete. Applications and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjuan, M. A.; Pineiro, A.; Rodriguez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a k-value for ground granulated blast-furnace slag or k-value has been added to the revision of the European standard EN 206-1:2000. The proposed values during the discussions in the working groups were very different because in most of cases the compressive strength was the only characteristic considered; while only in few cases the concrete durability was taken into account when ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added directly to the mix. Advantages and disadvantages of the k-values found in the literature are discussed in this paper. The final conclusion may be summarised suggesting a logical proposal of addressing to each country the choice of the k-value in function of the concrete application, environment and placing conditions selected according to their own experience. (Author) 15 refs.

  7. Ground granulated blast furnace slag efficiency coefficient (k value) in concrete. Applications and limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, M. A.; Pineiro, A.; Rodriguez, O.

    2011-07-01

    Recently, a k-value for ground granulated blast-furnace slag or k-value has been added to the revision of the European standard EN 206-1:2000. The proposed values during the discussions in the working groups were very different because in most of cases the compressive strength was the only characteristic considered; while only in few cases the concrete durability was taken into account when ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added directly to the mix. Advantages and disadvantages of the k-values found in the literature are discussed in this paper. The final conclusion may be summarised suggesting a logical proposal of addressing to each country the choice of the k-value in function of the concrete application, environment and placing conditions selected according to their own experience. (Author) 15 refs.

  8. Characteristics and propierties of oil-well cements additioned with blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% of the cement by weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activating solution partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. D...

  9. Potential modification of hydration of alkali activated mixtures from granulated blast furnace slag and fly ash

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomková, V.; Ovčačík, F.; Vlček, J.; Ovčačíková, H.; Topinková, M.; Vavro, M.; Martinec, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2012), s. 168-176 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0588 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : alkali-activated materials * blast furnace slag * mechanical activation * fly ash Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_02_168.pdf

  10. Productivity and performance of small scale blast furnaces; Produtividade e performance de altos fornos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Vamberto Ferreira de; Grandin, Friedrich Hans G.; Lanna, Pitagoras Gomes de; Castello Branco, Marco Antonio S.C. [Mannesmann SA, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-05-01

    This work presents some data concerning the re-start of the blast furnace number 2 of Mannesmann siderurgic company. The main characteristics concerning the operation with 100% coke fuel and the measurements adopted to increase the furnace productivity are described 2 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Oxygen blast furnace and combined cycle (OBF-CC) - an efficient iron-making and power generation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianwei, Y.; Guolong, S.; Cunjiang, K.; Tianjun, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A new iron and power generating process, oxygen blast furnace and combined cycle (OBF-CC), is presented. In order to support the opinion, the features of the oxygen blast furnace and integrated coal gasification and combined cycle (IGCC) are summarized. The relation between the blasting parameters and the output gas quantity, as well as caloric value is calculated based on mass and energy balance. Analysis and calculation indicate that the OBF-CC will be an efficient iron-making and power generation process with higher energy efficiency and less pollution

  12. Thermal analysis evaluation of the reactivity of coal mixtures for injection in the blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Ilha Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI is an important standard technology replacing coke partially by pulverized coal into the blast furnace that allows a significant reduction of hot metal costs and environmental impact, contributing to a decrease of coke requirements for ironmaking. Coals typically used in this process in Brazil are, at current time, exclusively imported from many countries, although economic important coal-measures occur in the southern part of the country. The Brazilian coals have a low rank, higher contents of inert components, proportioning nocoking properties and an expected high reactivity. Due to these caractheristics, these coals could be used for injection in the blast furnaces in order to decrease the dependency on high cost imported coals. The efficiency in the combustion and the coal reactivity are considered important parameters in the blast furnace, since a larger amount of char (unburned coal causes severe problems to the furnace operation. The aim of the present work is to compare the reactivity of a south Brazilian coal, obtained from Faxinal mine, with two imported coals and the blends of the Brazilian coal with the imported ones. The reactivity of these coals and their blends were evaluated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. In the experiments, various mass ratios of Faxinal coal and the imported coals were used to compose the blends. The gasification reaction with pure CO2 was conducted under isothermal conditions at 1050 °C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show the greater reactivity of the Faxinal coal. The additive behavior was confirmed. The blends with a composition of up to 50% Faxinal coal have parameters according to the usual limits used for PCI.

  13. An intervention for noise control of blast furnace in steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammadi, Rostam; Giahi, Omid; Aliabadi, Mohsen; Darvishi, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Noise pollution is currently a major health risk factor for workers in industries. The aim of this study was to investigate noise pollution and implement a control intervention plan for blast furnace in a steel industry. The measurement of sound pressure level (SPL) along with frequency analysis was done with the sound-level-meter Cell-450. Personal noise exposure was performed using dosimeter TES-1345 calibrated with CEL-282. Before planning noise controls, acoustic insulation properties of the furnace control unit and workers' rest room were assessed. Control room and workers' rest room were redesigned in order to improve acoustical condition. The SPL before intervention around the Blast Furnace was 90.3 dB (L) and its dominant frequency was 4000 Hz. Besides, noise transmission loss of the control and rest rooms were 10.3 dB and 4.2 dB, respectively. After intervention, noise reduction rates in the control and rest rooms were 27.4 dB and 27.7 dB, respectively. The workers' noise dose before and after the intervention was 240% and less than 100%, respectively. Improvement the workroom acoustic conditions through noise insulation can be considered effective method for preventing workers exposure to harmful noise.

  14. Static Holdup of Liquid Slag in Simulated Packed Coke Bed Under Oxygen Blast Furnace Ironmaking Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Liu, Yingli; Zhou, Zhenfeng; Wang, Jingsong; Xue, Qingguo

    2018-01-01

    The liquid-phase flow behavior of slag in the lower zone of a blast furnace affects the furnace permeability, performance, and productivity. The effects of pulverized coal injection (PCI) on the behavior of simulated primary slag flow were investigated by quantifying the effect of key variables including Al/Si ratio [Al2O3 (wt.%) to SiO2 (wt.%)] and the amount of unburnt pulverized coal (UPC) at 1500°C. Viscosity analysis demonstrated that the slag fluidity decreased as the Al/Si ratio was increased (from 0.35 to 0.50), resulting in gradual increase of the static holdup. Increasing the amount of UPC resulted in a significant increase of the static holdup. Flooding analysis was applied to determine the maximum static holdup, which was found to be 11.5%. It was inferred that the burnout rates of pulverized coal should exceed 78.6% and 83.9% in traditional and oxygen blast furnaces, respectively.

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) to Blast Furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chenn

    2008-01-01

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  17. Soot formation in a blast furnace - Prediction via a parametric study, using detailed kinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstroem, T.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Group

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the soot formation in a blast furnace fired with heavy fuel oil, using detailed kinetic modelling. This work has been concentrated on parameter studies that could explain under which conditions soot is formed and how that formation could be avoided. The parameters investigated were temperature, pressure, stoichiometric ratio, pyrolysis gas composition and reactor model. The calculations were based on a reaction mechanism that consists of 100 species and 446 reactions including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAM) up to 7 aromatic rings SULA 2 Research Programme; 4 refs.

  18. Leaching of Metal Ions from Blast Furnace Slag by Using Aqua Regia for CO2 Mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Hwan Bang; Seung-Woo Lee; Chiwan Jeon; Sangwon Park; Kyungsun Song; Whan Joo Jo; Soochun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS) was selected as the source of Ca for CO2 mineralization purposes to store CO2 as CaCO3. BFS was dissolved using aqua regia (AR) for leaching metal ions for CO2 mineralization and rejecting metal ions that were not useful to obtain pure CaCO3 (as confirmed by XRD analysis). The AR concentration, as well as the weight of BFS in an AR solution, was varied. Increasing the AR concentration resulted in increased metal ion leaching efficiencies. An optimum concentration of 2...

  19. Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich, A. I.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emmision would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas regenerating. Use of HRG in combination with high pulverized coal inyection PCI rate and oxigen enrichment in the blast could allow to keep and to increase the competitiveness of the blast furnace process. Calculations using a mathematical model show that the HRG injection in combination with pulverized coal (PC and enriching blast with oxigen can provide an increase in PC rate up to 300-400 kg/tHM and a rise in the furnace productivity by 40-50 %. Blast furnace operation with full oxigen blast (100 % of process oxigen with the exception for the hot blast is possible when HRG is injected.

    La tasa de inyección de combustibles fósiles está limitada a causa de la caída de la temperatura de llama en el raceway (cavidad frente a las toberas y a problemas en la región del "hombre muerto" y en la zona cohesiva. La inyección por tobera de gases reductores calientes (GRC, que se producen por gasificación de carbón de bajo grado o generación de gas de tragante, será la próxima etapa para lograr un considerable ahorro adicional de coque, una zona del "hombre muerto" bien definida, además de un aumento en la productividad del horno alto y para minimizar el impacto ambiental debido a una disminución de la emisión de dióxido de carbono. El uso de GRC en combinación con una tasa elevada de inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP con viento enriquecido en oxígeno, podrá permitir mantener y aumentar la competitividad del proceso del horno

  20. Continual Measuring of Local Stress Values on Shell of the Blast Furnace Hearth and of Total Shell Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bigoš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with installation of strain gauges on the external surface of the blast furnace shell in two rows, whereas there will be defi ned 8 measuring points in every row. The fi nal result is evaluation of data obtained during up to 45 days of the operation. In this papers are commentary and discussions to measured time behaviours. The main purpose of this measuring was investigation of impact of salamander on blast furnace shell expansion after its lay off , cooling and next starting of operation.

  1. Off-gas dust in an experimental blast furnace:Part 1: Characterization of flue dust, sludge and shaft fines

    OpenAIRE

    Leimalm, Ulrika; Lundgren, Maria; Sundqvist Ökvist, Lena; Björkman, Bo

    2010-01-01

    In blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, efforts are made to decrease coke consumption, which can be done by increasing the pulverized coal injection rate (PCR). This will cause changes in in-furnace reduction conditions, burden distribution, demands on raw material strength, etc. In order to maintain stable operation, but also to obtain low amounts of material losses through the off-gas, it is important to understand fines generation and behaviour in the BF. Off-gas dust and shaft fines generated i...

  2. Effects of heat treatments of coal on coke destruction under blast furnace conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-09-01

    This paper discusses results of investigations on effects of chemical reactions in a blast furnace on coke disintegration and destruction. The investigations were carried out by the VUKhIN Institute branch in Kuznetsk. Effects of silicates and carbonates of sodium, potassium and zinc on mechanical coke properties were investigated under laboratory conditions. Coke samples were placed in a reactor and were treated by vapors of metal compounds. Coke produced from a coal mixture with conventional moisture content and from preheated coal mixture was used. Coal properties are given in a table. Design of laboratory equipment used for tests is shown in 2 schemes. Heat treatments influenced coke porosity and its structural strength. Proportion of large pores accessible to sodium and potassium in coke from preheated coal was 4.5 times lower than in coke from a conventional mixture. Adsorption of sodium and potassium on coke from preheated charge was lower (from 0.22% to 0.24%) than on coke from a conventional mixture (from 2.5% to 2.9%). Adsorption of alkali metals on coke reduced its structural strength and increased coke oxidation rate by carbon dioxide. Use of heat treatments of coal for coking reduced adsorption of alkali metals on coke in a blast furnace, increased coke structural strength and reduced coke oxidation rate by carbon dioxide. (16 refs.) (In Russian)

  3. A Novel Technique for Making Cold Briquettes for Charging in Blast Furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, M K; Mishra, S; Sarkar, S; Samal, S K; Mishra, B

    2016-01-01

    Different metallurgical wastes are generated during pyro processing of iron ore, which is used for making sponge iron or hot metal and for producing steel. Apart from these wastes, coke fines are generated during the coke making, and iron ore fines are generated during mining of iron ore. Although iron ore fines are used for making pellet after beneficiation still, it generates a huge quantity of iron ore waste during beneficiation with comparatively lower iron content. In the present study, briquettes are made by a stiff extrusion process from metallurgical waste like iron ore fines and coke fines with the addition of Portland cement as a binder and clay as a rheology modifier. Physical properties of the briquettes are evaluated, and reducibility of the briquettes is studied in comparison to lumpy iron ore. Phase analysis and microstructural analysis of the briquettes and lumpy iron ore are carried out after firing at different temperatures in the simulated blast furnace condition. Physical and mineralogical properties are correlated with the reducibility of the briquettes and lumpy iron ore. Briquettes made by a stiff extrusion process show a better mechanical strength fired at a different temperature to take the load of burden and better reducibility than lumpy iron ore. The briquettes after self-curing are charged to a 23 mt3 blast furnace which shows encouraging results. (paper)

  4. A new concept of auxiliary fuel injection through tuyeres in blast furnaces developed by numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Orlando de Almeida Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Injection of powdered materials in blast furnaces is a great option for reducing costs, increasing productivity and satisfy the environmental norms. Thus, this paper presents a study on the use of a flame stabilization system with rotation, designed to promote greater coal injection in the combustion zone, reducing losses and increasing the efficiency of the equipment. A physical model was used to evaluate scattering of pulverized fuel and is compared with numerical results in the same scale. In the second step, a combustion model was added to the numerical simulation, using dimensions of a real blast furnace. Fields like temperature, velocity and behavior of chemical reactions were analyzed. The results showed that double lances promote better particle injection when compared with simple lance for reduced material injection. The new injection system proposed, with swirl numbers of 0.12 and 0.24, promoted a better injection of both reduced material and temperature in the raceway zone. The swirl 0.24 showed superior performance when compared to other injection systems.

  5. Multi-parameter measurements in a blast furnace using interactions of neutrons and γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Horikoshi, Kiyomi

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the possibility of multi-parameter measurements to meet the requirements for more precise and stable control of a blast furnace. A basic concept of such measurements is to make use of multi-radiations of neutrons and γ-rays, and to obtain multi-types of information on conditions of materials (iron ore and coke) inside the blast furnace. A prototype gauge was assembled and examined which consisted of a radiation source of 252 Cf, a neutron moderator, a lead shield, a bismuth germanate detector, a stainless casing and a control unit. Laboratory experiments showed that the gauge could measure the quantities to be essential to estimate material conditions. In practice, it clearly distinguished between iron ore and coke layers, and at the same time measured bulk density of iron contained in iron ore by counting thermal neutron capture γ-rays from iron. It also gave the information on material bulk density by detecting Compton scattered γ-rays from material, i.e. iron ore and coke. Finally, reducibility of iron ore was calculated by using both bulk densities. Relative accuracy of measurements was reasonable in practical use. The possibility of realization of the gauge has been proved and the on-line trial will be expected in the near future. (author)

  6. Calcium Extraction from Blast-Furnace-Slag-Based Mortars in Sulphate Bacterial Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Estokova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater structures, such as treatment plants or sewers can be easily affected by bio-corrosion influenced by microorganisms living in waste water. The activity of these microbes results in deterioration and can cause the reduction in structural performance of such structures. In order to improve the durability of mortar and concrete, different admixtures are being used and the best impact is observed in cement based materials combined with blast furnace slag. In this study, mortar samples with blast furnace slag were exposed to bacterial sulphate attack for 90 and 180 days. The leaching of calcium ions from the cement matrix and equivalent damaged depths of studied mortar samples were evaluated. The results showed more significant leaching of samples placed in bacterial environment, compared to the samples placed in non-bacterial environment. Similarly, the equivalent damaged depths of mortars were much higher for the bacteria-influenced samples. The slag-based cement mortars did not clearly show improved resistance in bacterial medium in terms of calcium leaching.

  7. Sulphate removal over barium-modified blast-furnace-slag geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtti, Hanna; Luukkonen, Tero; Niskanen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Sari; Kangas, Teija; Tynjälä, Pekka; Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarkkinen, Minna; Kemppainen, Kimmo; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-11-05

    Blast-furnace slag and metakaolin were geopolymerised, modified with barium or treated with a combination of these methods in order to obtain an efficient SO4(2-) sorbent for mine water treatment. Of prepared materials, barium-modified blast-furnace slag geopolymer (Ba-BFS-GP) exhibited the highest SO4(2-) maximum sorption capacity (up to 119mgg(-1)) and it compared also favourably to materials reported in the literature. Therefore, Ba-BFS-GP was selected for further studies and the factors affecting to the sorption efficiency were assessed. Several isotherms were applied to describe the experimental results of Ba-BFS-GP and the Sips model showed the best fit. Kinetic studies showed that the sorption process follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics. In the dynamic removal experiments with columns, total SO4(2-) removal was observed initially when treating mine effluent. The novel modification method of geopolymer material proved to be technically suitable in achieving extremely low concentrations of SO4(2-) (<2mgL(-1)) in mine effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Novel Technique for Making Cold Briquettes for Charging in Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, M. K.; Mishra, S.; Mishra, B.; Sarkar, S.; Samal, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    Different metallurgical wastes are generated during pyro processing of iron ore, which is used for making sponge iron or hot metal and for producing steel. Apart from these wastes, coke fines are generated during the coke making, and iron ore fines are generated during mining of iron ore. Although iron ore fines are used for making pellet after beneficiation still, it generates a huge quantity of iron ore waste during beneficiation with comparatively lower iron content. In the present study, briquettes are made by a stiff extrusion process from metallurgical waste like iron ore fines and coke fines with the addition of Portland cement as a binder and clay as a rheology modifier. Physical properties of the briquettes are evaluated, and reducibility of the briquettes is studied in comparison to lumpy iron ore. Phase analysis and microstructural analysis of the briquettes and lumpy iron ore are carried out after firing at different temperatures in the simulated blast furnace condition. Physical and mineralogical properties are correlated with the reducibility of the briquettes and lumpy iron ore. Briquettes made by a stiff extrusion process show a better mechanical strength fired at a different temperature to take the load of burden and better reducibility than lumpy iron ore. The briquettes after self-curing are charged to a 23 mt3 blast furnace which shows encouraging results.

  9. Effect of recycling blast furnace flue dust as pellets on the sintering performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Iron and Steel Company generates a great amount of blast furnace flue dust. The recovery of metals and carbon from this flue dust becomes a very important demand due to the increase of the price of coke breeze and the decrease of the primary source of metals. At the same time, it make the environment more safe by decreasing pollution. Introducing these dust fines in the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus, this study aims at investigating the production of pellets resulting from these fines, using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of iron ore. The sintering experiments were performed using flue dust as pellets as a substitute of coke breeze. The results revealed that, sintering properties such as inter strength increases with using the flue dust pellets, while productivity of both the sinter machine and sinter machine at blast furnace yard decreases. Also the vertical velocity of the sinter machine and the weight loss during the reduction of produced the sinter by hydrogen decrease.

  10. Use of blast-furnace slag in making durable concrete for waste management repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, R.F.; Beaudoin, J.J.; Philipose, K.E.

    1991-02-01

    Waste repositories for the belowground disposal of low-level radioactive waste rely greatly on the durability of concrete for their required 500-year service life. A research program is in progress based on laboratory testing of concretes containing either Type 1 cement or cements containing 65 and 75 percent of blast-furnace slag, each at 4 water-cement ratios. It has been established that the degradation of the concrete will depend on the rate of ingress of corrosive agents - chlorides, sulphate ions and CO 2 . The ionic profiles and the kinetics of diffusion of these ions in the concretes have been measured by Secondary Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) techniques, and the results plotted according to a mathematical model. Predictions for service life of the concrete have been made from this model. These predictions have been correlated with properties of the concrete obtained from micro-structural, thermochemical and permeability measurements. The improvements in concrete durability due to blast-furnace slag additions are illustrated and discussed

  11. Properties and application of carbon composite brick for blast furnace hearth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao K.X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of carbon composite brick was produced via the microporous technique using natural flack graphite, α-Al2O3 and high-quality bauxite chamotte (Al2O3≥87 mass% as raw materials with fine silicon powder as additive. The composition and microstructure of the obtained carbon composite were characterized using chemical analysis, XRD and SEM with EDS. The high temperature properties of thermal conductivity, oxidization and corrosion by molten slag and hot metal of the composite were analyzed. Based on these, the type of carbon composite brick worked in a blast furnace hearth for six years was further sampled at different positions. The protective layer was found and its chemical composition and microscopic morphology were investigated. It is found that the carbon composite brick combines the good properties of both the conventional carbon block and ceramic cup refractory. The protective layer near the hot face consists of two separated sublayers, i.e. the slag layer and the carbon layer. A certain amount of slag phase is contained in the carbon layer, which is caused by the reaction of coke ash with the refractory. No obvious change in the chemical composition of the protective layer along the depth of the sidewall is found. This work provides a useful guidance for the extension of the lifetime of blast furnace hearths.

  12. Exergo-Ecological Assessment Of Auxiliary Fuel Injection Into Blast-Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanek W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgy represents complex technological chain supplied with different kinds of primary resources. Iron metallurgy based on blast-furnace process, dominates in world steel production. Metallurgical coke is the basic fuel in this case. Its production is connected with several environmental disadvantageous impacts. One of them is the extended production chain from primary energy to final energy. The reduction of coke consumption in the process can be achieved e.g. by injection of auxiliary fuels or increasing the thermal parameters in the process. In present injection of pulverised coal dominates while recirculation of top-gas seems to be future technology. However, the latter one requires the CO2 removal that additionally extended the production chain. The evaluation of resources management in complex energy-technological systems required application of advanced method based on thermodynamics. In the paper the system exergo-ecological assessment of pulverised coal injection into blast-furnace and top-gas recirculation has been applied. As a comparative criterion the thermo-ecological cost has been proposed.

  13. Determination of the coke bed voidage in the blast furnace hearth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havelange, O.; Danloy, G.; Venturini, M.J. [and others] [CRM, Liege (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of the research were to develop and apply techniques and model tools allowing an online evaluation of the blast furnace hearth conditions and its permeability, in order to guarantee a stable furnace operation and to control the refractory wear through early corrective actions. CRM determined the coke bed voidage in the hearth of BFB of Cockerill-Sambre by two techniques: one based on pressure measurement inside the taphole and the other based on electromotive force measurement. A mathematicalmodel was developed taking into account the movements of the deadman. ln order to continuously determine the hot metal flow rate, BFI measured the filling level in the runner at BF 2 of TKS. A statistical wear model evaluated the cross-sectional runner geometry. The data have been fed into a model to calculate the coke bed voidage on multiple taphole blast furnaces. To control the wear caused by preferential liquid flow, Corus IJmuiden developed a monitoring of temperature and heat flux information from purpose-installed duplex thermocouples. This information has been correlated over time to identify any persistent trends and used to evaluate control measures such as blocked tuyeres and process shutdowns. Industrial trials at Fos BF1 enabled IRSID to propose a picture to describe the effects of the central coke charging practice. IRSID used the Fluent code to describe the liquid flow in the hearth with regard to the deadman conditions and to simulate tracer experiments. From studies of the behaviour of the hearth skull, Corus UK proposed a method for its monitoring. The iron flow rate was measured by using strain gauges attached to the torpedo ladles, and the slag flow rate was estimated from the slag pelletiser current. Data from tuyere core drilling samples were examined to estimate the voidage in the hearth. 38 refs., 127 figs.

  14. Application of encapsulated lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate as a self-healing agent in blast furnace slag mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisomphon, K.; Copuroglu, O.; Fraaij, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the potential of using expanded clay lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3) solution which is eventually encapsulated by a cement paste layer to produce a self-healing system in blast furnace slag cement mortars. It was found that the technique

  15. Analysis of the Rheological Behaviour of Selected Semi-Solid Slag Systems in Blast Furnace Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migas P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of liquid and semi-solid systems of slag and hot metal in a blast furnace are extremely important from the perspective of their dripping in the unit. The rheological nature and the values of the dynamic viscosity coefficient of liquid and semi-solid phases - slag and hot metal - determine the permeability of the zones in which those systems exist. The modelling of dripping processes and e.g. static and dynamic holding/retention of liquid in the bed, requires an accurate description of the rheological behaviour of slag and iron systems. Determining the liquid flow through the lump bed of the blast furnace is based on the assumption that liquids in the unit in the whole range of their occurrence are similar to a Newtonian ideal liquid. This study presents an analysis of the findings of high-temperature rheometric measurements of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO systems, liquid, semi-solid slags of the blast furnace type doped with TiO2 and solids in the form of TiN. The tests were performed within a temperature range of 1310-1490°C. Also measurement results for glycerol solutions with concentrations of 86% and 100% at the ambient temperature, simulating blast furnace slags with various contents of solids - PC, anthracite - are presented.

  16. The influence of blast furnace slag, fly ash and silica fume on corrosion of reinforced concrete in marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    Chloride penetration from sea water may cause corrosion of reinforcement in concrete structures. Adding reactive inorganic materials such as blast furnace slag, fly ash or silica fume to the cement matrix improves the resistance against chloride penetration as compared to Portland cement concrete. A

  17. Research on Reasonable Particle Size of Coal Blends for Blast Furnace Injection: Semi Coke and Bituminous Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyang; Xu, Runsheng; Song, Tengfei; Zhang, Pengcheng

    Semi coke, a byproduct in the chemical industry, is a new fuel for blast furnace injection in China. In this study, semi coke and bitumite were milled into different size, ranged from 0.147mm to under 0.074mm. The content of volatile matter and ash, which affect the combustibility of semi coke, were measured using muffle furnace. The mixture, in which the proportion of coal in different sizes changed, was blend by semi coke and bitumite with different size. Activation energy calculation and the comprehensive combustion characteristic index of all kinds of blends was also discussed. The result obtained by Thermogravimetry -Derivative Thermogravimetry curves indicates that the smaller the size of mixture is, the lower for the characteristic temperature, and the better for its combustibility, Semi coke can be a substitute for anthracite in blast furnace injection.

  18. Influence of thermal charge preparation on coke comminution under blast-furnace operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation is described for the study of structural breakdown of coke by thermochemical action of alkali and alkaline-earth metal vapors under blast furnace operating conditions. Bench-scale test facilities are described in which a pair of coke samples are exposed to the metal vapors then subjected to gasification. Structural strength tests were performed before and after each experiment. Coke samples were obtained in either moist or thermally prepared condition. The value of thermal charge preparation (heat treatment of the coal at 150/sup 0/C in a fluidized bed) was established, since it shifts the pore size distribution to the smaller size, thereby retarding adsorption of the metal vapors. 16 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Stabilisation of erodible soil by fly ash and blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraratna, B.; Salim, W. [Civil Engineering Division, University of Wollongong, N.S.W., Wollongong (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    Residual soils are found on large terrains which are often subjected to considerable erosion. This paper presents a detailed laboratory evaluation of the effect of fly ash and blast furnace slag on two different soils: (a) culluvium (sandy loam) from New South Wales, Australia and (b) erodible dispersive clay from northeast Thailand. Geotechnical tests were conducted to determine the compaction characteristics and the compressive and shear strength properties of the blended and natural soil specimens. The effect of the above mentioned industrial wastes on the rate of erosion and on the associated pH levels is also investigated. Fine grained fly ash is found to be useful as a void filler if used in substantial quantities, whereas selfhardening milled slag is more effective in terms of improving the internal friction angle of the treated soil. 18 refs.

  20. Correlation of the Processing Parameters in the Formation of Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag Geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, I. H.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Yong, H. C.; Ming, L. Y.; Panias, D.; Sakkas, K.

    2017-06-01

    Geopolymers are inorganic materials with huge potential applications including building material, fire resistant materials, and agricultural construction materials. Various parameters influenced the final properties of these geopolymer concretes. This study developed the effects of several factors such as solid-to-liquid ratio, NaOH concentration, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio on the compressive strength of granulated ground blast furnace slag (GGBFS) by statistical design of experiment (DOE) approach. Analysis of the experimental results through ANOVA exhibited that the specimen with NaOH concentration of 10M, Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio equals to 2.5, and solid-to-liquid ratio of 3.0 curing at room temperatures for 28 days was potential of highest strength (168.705 MPa) in the considered procedure. Besides, the relationship between compressive strength and influential factors could be suitably by fraction factorial design method.

  1. Solid-fluid characteristics at the blast furnace hearth according to the nodal wear model (NWM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.; Barbes, M. A.; Barbes, M. F.; Marinas, E.; Ayala, N.; Mochon, J.; Verdeja, L. F.; Garcia, F.

    2009-01-01

    The coke porosity is one of the most important variables that can affect the pig iron production and the lining corrosion. Up to now, the existing bibliography about lining corrosion always connects a deeper wear to an increase in the fluid flow (pig iron) at the blast furnace hearth. However, there is no evidence of any deterministic model that could link, from the theoretical point of view, the following variables: lining corrosion, porosity of dead coke and flow of pig iron at the hearth. Besides justifying the lining corrosion profiles, the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) can be an effective instrument to interpret the coke porosity and the pig iron speed rates that are generated inside the hearth. (Author) 23 refs

  2. Chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated by sodium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovtun, Maxim, E-mail: max.kovtun@up.ac.za; Kearsley, Elsabe P., E-mail: elsabe.kearsley@up.ac.za; Shekhovtsova, Julia, E-mail: j.shekhovtsova@gmail.com

    2015-06-15

    This paper presents results of a study on chemical acceleration of a neutral granulated blast-furnace slag activated using sodium carbonate. As strength development of alkali-activated slag cements containing neutral GBFS and sodium carbonate as activator at room temperature is known to be slow, three accelerators were investigated: sodium hydroxide, ordinary Portland cement and a combination of silica fume and slaked lime. In all cements, the main hydration product is C–(A)–S–H, but its structure varies between tobermorite and riversideite depending on the accelerator used. Calcite and gaylussite are present in all systems and they were formed due to either cation exchange reaction between the slag and the activator, or carbonation. With accelerators, compressive strength up to 15 MPa can be achieved within 24 h in comparison to 2.5 MPa after 48 h for a mix without an accelerator.

  3. Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 2 9Si and 2 7Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

  4. Drying shrinkage of mortars with limestone filler and blast-furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco, M. F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990's the use of cements made with port land clinker and two mineral admixtures, called ternary or blended cements, has grown considerably. Nowadays, cements containing several combinations of fly ash and silica fume, blast-furnace slag and silica fume or blast-furnace slag and limestone filler are commonly used. There are numerous works on the influence of blended cements on the fresh state and mechanical properties of mortar and concrete, but the their deformations due to drying shrinkage are not so well described. Analysis of drying shrinkage is relevant because this property influences the possibility of cracking occurrence and, hence, the deterioration of mechanical and durable properties of concrete structures. This paper evaluates the influence on the drying shrinkage of mortars of variable contents of limestone filler and/or blast-furnace slag in Portland cement. Additionally, flexion strength and non evaporable water content were evaluated. Test results show that the inclusion of these mineral admixtures, Joint or separately, increments drying shrinkage of mortars at early ages. Despite this fact, mortars made with limestone filler cement are less susceptible to cracking than mortars made with cements incorporating blast-furnace slag or both admixtures.

    Durante los años 90 el uso de cementos fabricados con clínker Portland y dos adiciones suplementarias (cementos ternarios o compuestos se ha incrementado en forma considerable. En la práctica, es cada vez más común el empleo de estos cementos conteniendo combinaciones de ceniza volante y humo de sílice, escoria y humo de sílice o escoria y filler calcáreo. En la actualidad existen numerosos estudios sobre la influencia de los cementos compuestos en las características en estado fresco y las propiedades mecánicas de morteros y hormigones, pero las deformaciones que estos materiales sufren debido a la retracción por secado no son tan conocidas. El análisis de

  5. Interactions of Various types between Rock and Alkali-Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mec Pavel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated binders (AAB are very intensively studied materials nowadays. Because of possible usage as secondary raw materials, they can be environmentally efficient. Intensive research is focused especially on binder matrix, composition and its structure. For industrial usage, it is necessary to work with some aggregate for the preparation of mortars and concretes. Due to different structures of alkali-activated binders, the interaction with the aggregate will be different in comparison to an ordinary Portland cement binder. This paper deals with the study of interactions between several types of rocks used as aggregate and alkali-activated blast furnace slag. The research was focused especially on mechanical properties of prepared mortars.

  6. Visualisation of a mathematical model of blast furnace operation for distance learning purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced educational technologies like Virtual Laboratories are being developed and launched in order to equip customers from higher education institutions, research and industry with efficient tools, supporting their work and operating new skills-training methods. Visual Model "Blast Furnace" based on a mathematical balance model of the blast furnace process has been developed for distance learning (DL purposes. It processes entered parameters and outputs both operating and learning results. The model simulates also sinter and pellets manufacture as well as operation of hot stove. The teacher and learners can interact with each other using software interface which allows to monitor the activity of the learners, answer their questions, and analyse the learning results. The model is an ingredient of the "Virtual Lab Ironmaking".

    Se desarrollan y presentan tecnologías avanzadas de educación, como los Laboratorios Virtuales, para suministrar a los clientes de las instituciones de educación superior, investigación e industria, en apoyo de su trabajo, nuevos y eficientes métodos de operación y técnicas especiales de adiestramiento. Se ha desarrollado el Modelo Visual de "Horno Alto" basado en un modelo matemático del balance del proceso del horno alto, para fines de educación a distancia. Procesa los parámetros de entrada y salida en operación y los resultados de la enseñanza. El modelo también simula la fabricación de sinter y pelets, además de la operación de las estufas. El profesor y alumnos pueden interactuar entre sí usando un software que permite seguir la marcha de la actividad de los alumnos, responder a sus preguntas y analizar los resultados del aprendizaje. El modelo es parte del "Laboratorio Virtual de Fabricación de Arrabio".

  7. Numerical investigation of particle-blast interaction during explosive dispersal of liquids and granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontalier, Q.; Lhoumeau, M.; Milne, A. M.; Longbottom, A. W.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    Experiments show that when a high-explosive charge with embedded particles or a charge surrounded by a layer of liquid or granular material is detonated, the flow generated is perturbed by the motion of the particles and the blast wave profile differs from that of an ideal Friedlander form. Initially, the blast wave overpressure is reduced due to the energy dissipation resulting from compaction, fragmentation, and heating of the particle bed, and acceleration of the material. However, as the blast wave propagates, particle-flow interactions collectively serve to reduce the rate of decay of the peak blast wave overpressure. Computations carried out with a multiphase hydrocode reproduce the general trends observed experimentally and highlight the transition between the particle acceleration/deceleration phases, which is not accessible experimentally, since the particles are obscured by the detonation products. The dependence of the particle-blast interaction and the blast mitigation effectiveness on the mitigant to explosive mass ratio, the particle size, and the initial solid volume fraction is investigated systematically. The reduction in peak blast overpressure is, as in experiments, primarily dependent on the mass ratio of material to explosive, with the particle size, density, and initial porosity of the particle bed playing secondary roles. In the near field, the blast overpressure decreases sharply with distance as the particles are accelerated by the flow. When the particles decelerate due to drag, energy is returned to the flow and the peak blast overpressure recovers and reaches values similar to that of a bare explosive charge for low mass ratios. Time-distance trajectory plots of the particle and blast wave motion with the pressure field superimposed, illustrate the weak pressure waves generated by the motion of the particle layer which travel upstream and perturb the blast wave motion. Computation of the particle and gas momentum flux in the multiphase

  8. Study of the reduction mechanism of ironsands with addition of blast furnace bag dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiangdong; Chen, Yunfei; Liu, Yiran

    2018-02-01

    To improve the reduction properties of ironsands carbon-containing briquettes, the behavior of ironsand during reduction by the addition of blast furnace bag dust (BFBD) is studied using a high temperature resistance furnace, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the reduction mechanism is discussed in this study. The results showed that the reduction level and compressive strength of ironsand carbon-containing briquettes could be promoted by increasing the proportion of BFBD. When the addition rate of BFBD was 31.25%, the metallization rate and compressive strength increased from 82.1% and 21.5 N/a to 91.4% and 172.5 N/a, respectively. Metallic iron reduced from BFBD particles favored the carbon gasification reaction, which enhanced the internal CO concentration, and then promoted the FeTiO3 reduction to Fe in ironsand. Meanwhile, a large amount of the liquid phase generated during the reduction process also favored Fe2+ diffusion, spread of iron joined crystals and the growth of crystals, which resulted in the improvement of the compressive strength of the ironsand carbon-containing briquettes.

  9. Compare pilot-scale and industry-scale models of pulverized coal combustion in an ironmaking blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing; Zulli, Paul

    2013-07-01

    In order to understand the complex phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), mathematical models have been developed at different scales: pilot-scale model of coal combustion and industry-scale model (in-furnace model) of coal/coke combustion in a real BF respectively. This paper compares these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model capability. The model development is discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model capability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that these PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The in-furnace model is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviors and then optimizing the PCI operation in practice.

  10. Effect of incorporation of fly ash and granulated blast furnace in the electrochemical behavior of concretes of commercial cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Junco, O. J.; Pineda-Triana, Y.; Vera-Lopez, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the research properties evaluation pastes of commercial cement (CPC), mixed with fly ash (FA) and granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS). Initially, the sample of 30 combinations were evaluated in terms of compressive strength to establish the optimal proportions from raw material. After that, four optimized blends were characterized during the setting and hardening process. Electrochemical tests were performed on concrete cylinders samples prepared with cementitious materials and a structural steel rod placed in the center of the specimen. With the objective to evaluate the performance before corrosion, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects were taken into consideration. The findings showed that commercial cements blended with fly ash and blast furnace slag as the ones used in this research presents a decreased behavior in mechanical and corrosion strength regarding to CPC. (Author)

  11. Effect of Na3PO4 on the Hydration Process of Alkali-Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Kalina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the utilization of different non-traditional cements and composites has been increasing. Alkali-activated cementitious materials, especially those based on the alkali activation of blast furnace slag, have considerable potential for utilization in the building industry. However, alkali-slag cements exhibit very rapid setting times, which are too short in some circumstances, and these materials cannot be used for some applications. Therefore, it is necessary to find a suitable retarding admixture. It was shown that the sodium phosphate additive has a strong effect on the heat evolution during alkali activation and effectively retards the hydration reaction of alkali-activated blast furnace slag. The aim of the work is the suggestion of a reaction mechanism of retardation mainly based on Raman and X‑ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  12. Similarities between pinch analysis and classical blast furnace analysis methods. Possible improvement by synthesis. Paper no. IGEC-1-004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryman, C.; Grip, C.-E.; Franck, P.-A.; Wikstrom, J.-O.

    2005-01-01

    Pinch analysis originated at UMIST in the 1970's. It has since then been used as a method for energy analysis and optimisation of industrial systems. The blast furnace process for reducing iron oxide to molten iron is a very important process unit in the metallurgical industry. It is a counter-current shaft process with a wide temperature range and gaseous, solid and liquid phases present in different zones. Because of this the blast furnace acts as a system of different sub-processes rather than a single process. The analysis tools developed to describe the process are in some respects similar to the tools of pinch analysis. The exchange between the two fields of knowledge has yet been negligible. In this paper the methods are described and compared. Problems, possibilities and advantages with an exchange and synthesis of knowledge are discussed. (author)

  13. Ternary Blends of High Aluminate Cement, Fly ash and Blast-furnace slag for Sewerage Lining Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, L. C.; Kuo, C. P.

    2018-01-01

    High aluminate cement (HAC), fly ash (FA) and blast-furnace slag (BFS) have been treated sustainable materials for the use of cement products for wastewater infrastructure due to their capabilities of corrosion resistance. The purpose of this study is to optimize a ternary blend of above mentioned materials for a special type of mortar for sewerage lining. By the using of Taguchi method, four control parameters including water/cementitious material ratio, mix water content, fly ash content and blast-furnace slag content were considered in nine trial mix designs in this study. By evaluating target properties including (1) maximization of compressive strength, (2) maximization of electricity resistance and (3) minimization of water absorption rate, the best possible levels for each control parameter were determined and the optimal mix proportions were verified. Through the implementation of the study, a practical and completed idea for designing corrosion resistive mortar comprising HAC, FA and BSF is provided.

  14. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Filip P.; Berić Ivana M.; Jovanović Petar M.; Jovanović Aca D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reductio...

  15. Results of tuyere coke sampling with regard to application of appropriate coke strength after reaction (CSR) for a blast furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Shiau J-S.; Ko Y-C.; Ho C-K.; Hung M-T.

    2017-01-01

    Raising pulverized coal injection (PCI) will decrease coke rate, but increase the residence time of coke and abrasion in the blast furnace (BF). Thus, insufficient coke strength will generate more coke fines in the lower BF and result in lower permeability and production of hot metal (HM). For understanding the behavior of coke at various HM productivities, a tuyere coke sampler was used to collect the coke samples for measuring the coke strength. Firstly, ...

  16. Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, M.; Bowen, P.; Kappl, M.; Butt, H. J.; Stuer, M.; Pecharromán, C.; Aschauer, U.; Puertas, F.

    2012-01-01

    The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomi...

  17. Simulation of blast furnace operation during the substitution of coke and pulverized coal with granulated waste plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Tihomir M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using the waste plastic as reducing agent in blast furnace for obtaining pig iron is in focus for the past couple year. The simulation of blast furnace process in BFC software has been performed in order to analyze the coke and coals saving, CO2 emission and determining the economic benefits. Three different batches were made for comparative analysis, depending on the batch composition and input of batch components into the blast furnace: case 1 (C1, case 2 (C2 and case 3 (C3. The base case, C1 contains sinter (bulk material which is needed for obtaining 1 tone of pig iron, quartz which provides slag alkalinity and coke as reducing and energy agent. C2 has the same components as C1, but contains pulverized coal instead one part of coke and C3 contains granulated waste plastic instead coke in an approximately the same amount as pulverized coal. The substitution of coke with pulverized coal and waste plastic is 18.6 % and 25.2 %, respectively. The economic, productivity and ecologic aspects have been analyzed. The consumption of each tone of waste plastic in blast furnace saves 360 $, which is 18 times more than its price, bearing in mind that the market price of coke is 380 $/t % and waste plastic 20 $/t. Regarding the specific productivity, it decreases from 2.13 for C1 to 1.87 for C3. From an environmental aspect there are two main benefits: reduction of CO2 emission and impossibility of dioxin formation. The CO2 emission was 20.18, 19.46 and 17.21 for C1, C2 and C3, respectively.

  18. CONTACT STRENGTH OF MECHANOACTIVATED FINE CONCRETES FROM GRANULATED BLAST-FURNACE SLAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Bolshakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Strengthening of fine concrete contact zone by mechanical processing of all components of the concrete mix in a mixer-activator and aggregate application with rough surface. Methodology. Rotary activator PC-06, developed by Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Technology, was used as a mixer-activator to achieve this purpose. Granulated blast furnace slag, having a more developed rough surface than sand, was used as fine aggregate. This apparatus provides intensive homogeneous mixing of concrete mix components, processing of raw materials (purification of their particles from contaminants, and mechanical destruction of granulated blast furnace slag surface layers and other components of the mix. Findings. During the preparation work, experimental research of new formations composition of fine concretes, using differential thermal and x-ray phase analysis methods, and physical-mechanical properties of fine concretes in accordance with the applicable standards of Ukraine, were carried out. It is established that the phase composition of new formations of fine concretes made from activated and non-activated mixes, is not changed. Their main difference is the size of generated effects and temperature intervals of occurrence of these peaks. Thus, in fine concretes made on the basis of the activated mixes, magnitude of effects is less, indicating a higher hydration degree of its components. Besides, TG curves of concrete specimens show that weight loss of gel calcium hydrosilicate of concrete from a mechanically activated mix is 0.5...0.7 % more than of concrete from a non-activated mix, which indicates a larger number of these formations in concrete from activated mixes. In general, concretes of different composition, made from a mix, processed in the mixer-activator, have higher mechanical strength. Originality. Ideas about the influence of mechanical activation of components of fine concrete mixes with forming humidity in a

  19. Effect of air-cooled slag and granulated blast furnace slag addition as substitutor on fly ash based geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmaji, Andrie; Imran, Aishah Mahyarni; Sunendar, Bambang; Lazuardi, Muhammad Sofyan; Khairunnasari, Ikhsan; Sobandi, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Air Cooled Slag and Granulated Blast Furnace Slag is a waste material from steelmaking process that not utilized, even though it rich in silica and CaO that can increase mechanical properties of building materials. Therefore, this material is potential as substitutor for geopolymer. Geopolymer is an alkali activated material consists of aluminosilicate precursor activated by NaOH and waterglass as activator. One of the common aluminosilicate binder used is fly ash. Geopolymer was made by mixing fly ash and air cooled slag or granulated blast furnace slag in certain ratio with alkali activator solution. The aim for this study is to obtain the best ratio of slag to fly ash binder that produces the highest compressive strength. The best compressive strength was 29.80 MPa achieved in fly ash:air cooled slag 40:60 ratio and 31.33 MPa achieved in fly ash:granulated blast furnace slag 40:60 ratio. X-Ray Diffraction test showed the appearance of anorthite (Ca, Na (Al, Si)4 O8). FTIR characterization showed the appearance of siloxo and sialate bonding which commonly found in geopolymerization.

  20. Modelling of Coke Layer Collapse during Ore Charging in Ironmaking Blast Furnace by DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Yoichi; Mio, Hiroshi; Orimoto, Takashi; Nomura, Seiji

    2017-06-01

    A technical issue in an ironmaking blast furnace operation is to realize the optimum layer thickness and the radial distribution of burden (ore and coke) to enhance its efficiency and productivity. When ore particles are charged onto the already-embedded coke layer, the coke layer-collapse phenomenon occurs. The coke layer-collapse phenomenon has a significant effect on the distribution of ore and coke layer thickness in the radial direction. In this paper, the mechanical properties of coke packed bed under ore charging were investigated by the impact-loading test and the large-scale direct shear test. Experimental results show that the coke particle is broken by the impact force of ore charging, and the particle breakage leads to weaken of coke-layer strength. The expression of contact force for coke in Discrete Element Method (DEM) was modified based on the measured data, and it followed by the 1/3-scaled experiment on coke's collapse phenomena. Comparing a simulation by modified model to the 1/3-scaled experiment, they agreed well in the burden distribution.

  1. Modelling of Coke Layer Collapse during Ore Charging in Ironmaking Blast Furnace by DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narita Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A technical issue in an ironmaking blast furnace operation is to realize the optimum layer thickness and the radial distribution of burden (ore and coke to enhance its efficiency and productivity. When ore particles are charged onto the already-embedded coke layer, the coke layer-collapse phenomenon occurs. The coke layer-collapse phenomenon has a significant effect on the distribution of ore and coke layer thickness in the radial direction. In this paper, the mechanical properties of coke packed bed under ore charging were investigated by the impact-loading test and the large-scale direct shear test. Experimental results show that the coke particle is broken by the impact force of ore charging, and the particle breakage leads to weaken of coke-layer strength. The expression of contact force for coke in Discrete Element Method (DEM was modified based on the measured data, and it followed by the 1/3-scaled experiment on coke’s collapse phenomena. Comparing a simulation by modified model to the 1/3-scaled experiment, they agreed well in the burden distribution.

  2. Characterization of dust from blast furnace cast house de-dusting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof

    2017-10-01

    During casting of liquid iron and slag, a considerable amount of dust is emitted into the cast house of a blast furnace (BF). Usually, this dust is extracted via exhaust hoods and subsequently separated from the ventilation air. In most BFs the cast house dust is recycled. In this study a sample of cast house dust was split by air classification into five size fractions, which were then analysed. Micrographs showed that the dominating particle type in all size fractions is that of single spherical-shaped particles. However, some irregular-shaped particles were also found and in the finest size fraction also some agglomerates were present. Almost spherical particles consisted of Fe and O, while highly irregular-shaped particles consisted of C. The most abundant element was Fe, followed by Ca and C. These elements were distributed relatively uniformly in the size fractions. As, Cd, Cu, K, Pb, S, Sb and Zn were enriched significantly in the fine size fractions. Thus, air classification would be an effective method for improved recycling. By separating a small fraction of fines (about 10-20%), a reduction of the mass of Zn in the coarse dust recycled in the range of 40-55% would be possible.

  3. Preparation of glass-forming materials from granulated blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M.; Sáinz, E.; Lopez, F. A.

    1996-10-01

    Glass precursor materials, to be used for the vitrification of hazardous wastes, have been prepared from blast furnace slag powder through a sol-gel route. The slag is initially reacted with a mixture of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) and mineral acid (HNO3 or H2SO4) to give a sol principally consisting of Si, Ca, Al, and Mg alkoxides. Gelation is carried out with variable amounts of either ammonia or water. The gelation rate can be made as fast as desired by adding excess hydrolizing agent or else by distilling the excess alcohol out of the alkoxide solution. The resulting gel is first dried at low temperature and ground. The powder thus obtained is then heat treated at several temperatures. The intermediate and final materials are characterized by thermal analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. From the results, the operating conditions yielding a variety of glass precursors differing in their composition are established. The method, in comparison with direct vitrification of slag, presents a number of advantages: (1) the glass precursor obtained devitrifies at higher temperatures; (2) it enables the adjustment, to a certain extent, of the chemical composition of the glass precursor; and (3) it permits recovering marketable materials at different stages of the process.

  4. Characterisation of magnesium potassium phosphate cements blended with fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Laura J.; Bernal, Susan A.; Walling, Samuel A.; Corkhill, Claire L.; Provis, John L.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium potassium phosphate cements (MKPCs), blended with 50 wt.% fly ash (FA) or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) to reduce heat evolution, water demand and cost, were assessed using compressive strength, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy on 25 Mg, 27 Al, 29 Si, 31 P and 39 K nuclei. We present the first definitive evidence that dissolution of the glassy aluminosilicate phases of both FA and GBFS occurred under the pH conditions of MKPC. In addition to the main binder phase, struvite-K, an amorphous orthophosphate phase was detected in FA/MKPC and GBFS/MKPC systems. It was postulated that an aluminium phosphate phase was formed, however, no significant Al–O–P interactions were identified. High-field NMR analysis of the GBFS/MKPC system indicated the potential formation of a potassium-aluminosilicate phase. This study demonstrates the need for further research on these binders, as both FA and GBFS are generally regarded as inert fillers within MKPC

  5. The Mechanical Properties of Foamed Concrete containing Un-processed Blast Furnace Slag

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    Awang H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, supplementary cementation materials have been utilized as cement or filler replacements to heighten the properties of concrete. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effects of un-processed blast furnace slag (RS on the compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths of foam concrete over periods of 7, 14 and 28 days. The introduction of slag to the cement begins at 30% and rises to 70% of the total content. Six mixes, which include the control mix with a similar mix ratio (1:2:0.45 and a dry density of 1300 kg/m3 is generated. Taking into consideration, from the total weight of the cementation material, 1% of super- plasticizer (PS-1 is added to the mixes with slag content. Test results revealed that the most favourable (optimum replacement level of un-processed slag in foam concrete is 30%. This represents a commercial advantage as the cement requirement is reduced from 414 Kg/m3 to 290 Kg/m3. On the 28th day, the optimum mix showed higher values than the control mix by 32% for compressive strength, 46.5% for splitting tensile strength and 61% for flexural strength.

  6. Characteristics of Portland blast-furnace slag cement containing cement kiln dust and active silica

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    A. Abdel Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation dealt with the effect of active silica, silica fume (SF or rice husk ash (RHA, on the mechanical and physico-chemical characteristics of the hardened blended cement pastes made of Portland blast-furnace slag cement (PSC containing cement kiln dust (CKD cured under normal conditions. Two blends made of PSC and CKD, improved by SF and two blends made of PSC and CKD improved by RHA were investigated. Hardened blended cement pastes were prepared from each cement blend by using water/cement ratio (W/C of 0.30 by weight and hydrated for various curing ages of 1, 3, 7, 28 and 90 days at the normal curing conditions under tap water at room temperature. Each cement paste was tested for its physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics; these characteristics include: compressive strength and kinetics of hydration. The phase composition of the formed hydration products was identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential thermal analysis (DTA. It was found that the partial substitution of PSC by 10% and 15% of CKD is associated with an increase in the rate of hydration and a subsequent improvement of compressive strength of hardened PSC–CKD pastes. In addition, the replacement of PSC, in PSC–CKD blends, by 5% active silica was accompanied by further improvement of the physico-mechanical characteristics of the hardened PSC–CKD pastes.

  7. Green binding material using alkali activated blast furnace slag with silica fume

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    Mohamad Sayed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently million tons of cement is produced in Egypt accompanied with million tons of CO2 emission which causes annually negative impact on the environment. Granulated blast furnace slag and silica fume are produced as by-product from iron and chemical industries with limited recycling facility. This paper represents an experimental study aimed to safe ferrosilicon alloy of slag and silica fume to produce cementless binding material using both of Sodium Hydroxide and water glass liquid (Sodium Silicate as alkaline activator. Experimental program was designed to study silica/slag ratio, percentage of alkali activator, water/binding ratio, incorporation of superplasticizer, and curing condition on the properties of the produced binding material. Compressive strength and mineralogical analysis were conducted on the polymeric binding material to asses the effectiveness of the main variables. The tests were divided into two stages; in the first stage compressive strength was conducted for all mixes while X-ray, microscopic scan (SEM, and infrared analysis (IR were carried out for the most pronounced promising mixes. The results showed that ratio of 25% of silica/slag is the most effective ratio and 5% of each of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Silicate was the optimum percentage of the alkaline activator. Additionally the use of superplasticizer is essential as it positively reduces the mixing water and maintains the binding material with acceptable workability.

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis of Blast Furnace Slag Waste Heat-Recovery System Integrated with Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, W. J.; Li, P.; Lei, W.; Chen, W.; Yu, Q. B.; Wang, K.; Qin, Q.

    2015-05-01

    The blast furnace (BF) slag waste heat was recovered by an integrated system stage by stage, which combined a physical and chemical method. The water and coal gasification reactions were used to recover the heat in the system. Based on the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermodynamic analysis of the system was carried out by the enthalpy-exergy diagram. The results showed that the concept of the "recovery-temperature countercurrent, energy cascade utilization" was realized by this system to recover and use the high-quality BF slag waste heat. In this system, the high-temperature waste heat was recovered by coal gasification and the relatively low-temperature waste heat was used to produce steam. The system's exergy and thermal recycling efficiency were 52.6% and 75.4%, respectively. The exergy loss of the integrated system was only 620.0 MJ/tslag. Compared with the traditional physical recycling method producing steam, the exergy and thermal efficiencies of the integrated system were improved significantly. Meanwhile, approximately 182.0 m3/tslag syngas was produced by coal gasification. The BF slag waste heat will be used integrally and efficiently by the integrated system. The results provide the theoretical reference for recycling and using the BF slag waste heat.

  9. Physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics of blast furnace slag on durability of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogarajah Elakneswaran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A partial replacement of Portland cement (PC by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS is an effective method to improve the durability of concrete due to its lower diffusivity and higher chemical resistance compared to PC. Further, the microstructure of GGBFS blended cementitious materials controls the physicochemical properties and performance of the materials in concrete. Therefore, understanding of cement hydration and cementing behavior of GGBFS is essential to establish microstructure property relationship for predicting performance. In this study, hydration, microstructure development, and chloride ingress into GGBFS-blended cement have been investigated. Solid-phase assemblage and pore solution chemistry of hydrating PC and cement blended with GGBFS were predicted using thermodynamic model and compared with experimental data. A mathematical model integrating PC hydration, GGBFS reaction, thermodynamic equilibrium between hydration products and pore solution, ionic adsorption on C-S-H, multi-component diffusion, and microstructural changes was developed to predict chloride ingress into GGBFS blended cementitious materials. The simulation results on chloride profiles for hydrated slag cement paste, which was prepared with 50% of replacement of PC with GGBFS, were compared with experimental results. The model quantitively predicts the states of chloride such as free, adsorbed on C-S-H, and chemically bound as Friedel’s salt.

  10. Effect of the Basicity on the Crystallization Behavior of Titanium Bearing Blast Furnace Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilong, Hu; Ruirui, Wei; Leizhang, Gao; Lu, Liu; Chenguang, Bai

    2018-03-01

    Basicity of titanium bearing blast furnace (BF) slag is critical for its crystallization behavior. Thermodynamics calculation indicates that rutile is the main phase after crystallization (or at room temperature). It precipitates during the cooling when the basicity of the slag is lower than 0.7. With increasing basicity, perovskite appears and becomes the main phase instead which contains titanium. Crystallization temperature of perovskite is higher than that of rutile and the other phases. Namely, perovskite crystallizes firstly from the molten slag during decreasing temperature. XRD analysis shows that CaTi21O38 is the main phase with a basicity of 0.6. CaMg0.39Al0.87Ti0.48Si1.26O6, CaTiSiO5 and CaMgSi2O6 are the main crystallization phases with a basicity of 0.8. The difference between experimental and thermodynamics calculation is due to the complicate crystallization behavior of the multiple slag under super cooling rate. When the slag basicity increases to 1.1, the main precipitatied phase is perovskite, which agrees well with theory calculation. In addition, the crystal structure of the synthesized titanium bearing slag is basically similar regardless of the basicity.

  11. Removal of Hexavalent Chromium in Portland Cement Using Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag Powder

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    Sungchul Bae

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS under different alkaline conditions, we studied the mechanisms and extents of Cr(VI reduction and sorption and compared them to reactions with Portland cement (PC. We also investigated the effects of mixing PC/GGBS ratios on Cr(VI dissolution after carbonating the substrates. We observed a complete sorption and reduction of Cr(VI to Cr(III in a GGBS-in-Ca(OH2 solution (pH > ~12.5 after 10 h, whereas in distilled water (pH = ~11.5 GGBS exhibited only marginal sorption and reduction (20%. Cr reactions with dissolved ions in supernatants derived from GGBS indicated that the anions dissolved from GGBS act as a reducing agent for Cr(VI in a Ca(OH2 solution. Soft X-ray absorption microscopy identified a partial reduction of Cr(VI to Cr(III on the GGBS surface. The carbonation of pure PC paste substantially increased the amount of dissolved Cr(VI in a solution phase whereas a 5 wt % replacement of PC with GGBS significantly reduced the amount of dissolved Cr(VI. We concluded that in the mixed paste during the early curing stage GGBS reduced a significant fraction of Cr(VI to Cr(III and that the Cr(III adsorbed in the GGBS-PC mixture’s hydration products does not readily dissolve, even under carbonation conditions.

  12. Blast furnace dust and phosphorous slag, new materials for use in road engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Díaz, R.

    2017-12-01

    This article proposes an alternative to the use of phosphorus slag and blast furnace dust, by-products of the steel industry, due to the negative environmental impact caused by its accumulation. Taking into account the above, the pertinence of the use of these by-products in asphalt mixtures for the construction of roads is studied. In this way, the origin and its properties are presented, as well as their physical and chemical characteristics. Once the tests have been carried out, it is determined that these by-products have adequate characteristics for their use since they do not present toxicity problems. Following this, the design of the mixtures is carried out to determine the mechanical and dynamic properties and thus determine the proportion to be replaced with the conventional materials. Taking into account the results it is concluded that its use is feasible since the mixture with these by-products presents acceptable resilient modulus parameters and improvement in some verification parameters.

  13. Effect of blast furnace slag on self-healing of microcracks in cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haoliang; Ye, Guang; Damidot, Denis

    2014-01-01

    The physico-chemical process of self-healing in blast furnace slag cement paste was investigated in this paper. With a high slag content i.e., 66% in cement paste and saturated Ca(OH) 2 solution as activator, it was found that the reaction products formed in cracks are composed of C-S-H, ettringite, hydrogarnet and OH–hydrotalcite. The fraction of C-S-H in the reaction products is much larger than the other minerals. Large amount of ettringite formed in cracks indicates the leaching of SO 4 2− ions from the bulk paste and consequently the recrystallization. Self-healing proceeds fast within 50 h and then slows down. According to thermodynamic modeling, when the newly formed reaction products are carbonated, the filling fraction of crack increases first and then decreases. Low soluble minerals such as silica gel, gibbsite and calcite are formed. Compared to Portland cement paste, the potential of self-healing in slag cement paste is higher when the percentage of slag is high. - Highlights: • Self-healing reaction products in slag cement paste were characterized. • Self-healing reaction products formed in time were quantified with image analysis. • Self-healing in slag cement paste was simulated with a reactive transport model. • Effect of carbonation on self-healing was investigated by thermodynamic modeling. • Effect of slag on self-healing was discussed based on experiments and simulation

  14. Early and late hydration of supersulphated cements of blast furnace slag with fluorgypsum

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    Bazaldúa-Medellín, M. E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydration, strength development and composition of hydration products of supersulphated cements were characterized from the first 48 hours up to 360 days. Two compositions of 80% Blast furnace slag, 10–15% Fluorgypsum and 10–5% Portland cement were cured in dry and wet conditions. The main hydration products were ettringite and C-S-H since the first hours and up to 360 days as evidenced by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The strength was favored by higher fluorgypsum contents and lower Portland cement contents. These cements generated heats of hydration of 40–57 KJ/Kg after 28 hours, which are lower than portland cement.Se realizó la caracterización de la hidratación, desarrollo de resistencia y la composición de los productos de hidratación de los cementos supersulfatados durante las primeras 48 horas y hasta 360 días. Se estudiaron dos composiciones de 80% de Escoria de alto horno, 10–15% de Fluoryeso y 10–5% de Cemento portland, se curaron en condiciones secas y húmedas. Los principales productos de hidratación fueron etringita y C-S-H desde las primeras horas y hasta 360 días, como se evidenció por difracción de rayos X, análisis térmico y microscopía electrónica de barrido. La resistencia se favoreció con mayor contenido de fluoryeso y bajos contenidos de cemento portland. Estos cementos generaron calores de hidratación de 40–57 KJ/Kg después de 28 horas, los cuales resultan más bajos que los generados por el cemento portland.

  15. Charcoal injection in blast furnaces (Bio-PCI: CO2 reduction potential and economic prospects

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    Cristobal Feliciano-Bruzual

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is under pressure to reduce its CO2 emissions, which arise from the use of coal. In the long-term, the injection of pulverized particles of charcoal from biomass through blast furnace tuyeres, in this case called Bio-PCI, is an attractive method from both an environmental and metallurgical viewpoint. The potential of Bio-PCI has been assessed in terms of its CO2 abatement potential and economic viewpoint. A cost objective function has been used to measure the impact of biochar substitution in highly fuel-efficient BF among the top nine hot metal producers; estimations are based on the relevant cost determinants of ironmaking. This contribution aims to shed light on two strategic questions: Under what conditions is the implementation of Bio-PCI economically attractive? Additionally, where is such a techno-economic innovation likely to be taken up the earliest? The results indicate the potential for an 18–40% mitigation of CO2. Findings from the economic assessment show that biochar cannot compete with fossil coal on price alone; therefore, a lower cost of biochar or the introduction of carbon taxes will be necessary to increase the competitiveness of Bio-PCI. Based on the current prices of raw materials, electricity and carbon taxes, biochar should be between 130.1 and 236.4 USD/t and carbon taxes should be between 47.1 and 198.7 USD/t CO2 to facilitate the substitution of Bio-PCI in the examined countries. In regard to implementation, Brazil, followed by India, China and the USA appeared to be in a better position to deploy Bio-PCI.

  16. Hydration Properties of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (GGBS Under Different Hydration Environments

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    Shuhua LIU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydration properties of various cementitious materials containing Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS, two alkali-activated slag cements (AAS-1 and AAS-2 in which sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide act as alkaline activators respectively, supersulfated cement (SSC and slag Portland cement(PSC, are compared with ordinary Portland cement (OPC to investigate the effect of activating environment on the hydration properties in this study by determining the compressive strength of the pastes, the hydration heat of binders within 96 hours, and the hydration products at age of 28 days. The results show that C-S-H gels are the main hydrated products for all cementitious systems containing GGBS. Ca(OH2 is the hydration products of OPC and PSC paste. However, ettringite and gypsum crystals instead of Ca(OH2 are detected in SSC paste. Additionally, tobermorite, a crystalline C-S-H, and calcite are hydrated products in AAS-1. Tobermorite, cowlesite and calcite are hydrated products of AAS-2 as well. Based on strength results, AAS-1 paste exhibits the highest compressive strength followed by POC, PSC, SSC in order at all testing ages and AAS-2 give the lowest compressive strength except for the early age at 3 days, which is higher than SSC but still lower than PSC. From hydration heat analysis, alkalinity in the reaction solution is a vital factor influencing the initial hydration rate and the initial hydration rate from higher to lower is AAS-2, AAS-1, OPC, PSC and SSC. Although AAS possesses a faster reaction rate in the initial hours, cumulative hydration heat of AAS is comparably lower than that of OPC, but higher than those of PSC and SSC in turn, which indicates that the hydration heat of clinkers is much higher than that of slag.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14934

  17. Durability and compressive strength of blast furnace slag-based cement grout for special geotechnical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Special foundations, most prominently micropiles and soil anchors, are frequently used in construction today. In Spain, the grout for these special technical applications is generally prepared with portland cement, although the codes and standards in place stipulate only the minimum compressive strength required, with no mention of cement type. Those texts also establish a range of acceptable water:cement ratios. In the present study, durability and compressive strength in cement grout prepared with blast furnace slag cement at different w/c ratios are characterised and compared to the findings for a reference portland cement grout. The results show that slag grout exhibits greater durability than the portland cement material and complies with the compressive strength requirements laid down in the respective codes.Actualmente es muy frecuente el empleo de cimentaciones especiales, entre las que destacan los micropilotes y los anclajes. En España, las lechadas de cemento para estos trabajos geotécnicos especiales se preparan habitualmente con cemento Portland, aunque las diferentes normativas al respecto no restringen el tipo de cemento a emplear, siempre que se alcance una determinada resistencia a compresión. Respecto a la dosificación de las lechadas, la normativa permite emplear diferentes relaciones agua/cemento dentro de un determinado rango. En vista de ello, en este trabajo se han caracterizado las propiedades de durabilidad y resistencia a compresión de lechadas de cemento preparadas con un cemento con escoria de alto horno y con diferentes relaciones a/c, tomando como referencia de comportamiento lechadas de cemento Portland. El uso de un cemento con escoria conlleva una mejora en la durabilidad de las lechadas, cumpliendo los requisitos de resistencia a compresión establecidos por la normativa.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of the partial oxidation of coke oven gas for indirect reduction of iron oxides in a blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Hsu, Chih-Liang; Du, Shan-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The partial oxidation of a COG (coke oven gas) in a blast furnace is examined in this work using thermodynamic analysis. LTIR and HTIR (Low-temperature and high-temperature indirect reduction) of iron oxides in a blast furnace are also studied. The influences of the reaction temperature, M/H (methane-to-hematite) ratio, and O/F (oxygen-to-fuel) ratio on CH 4 conversion and iron oxide reduction are examined. Within the investigated ranges of the parameters, a higher reaction temperature is conducive to CH 4 conversion, while at least 97.64% of Fe 2 O 3 is reduced. In LTIR, Fe 3 O 4 is the prime product, with a high level of solid carbon formation. The entire LTIR reaction is characterized by exothermic behavior, so that no additional heat is required to trigger COG partial oxidation and IR. In HTIR, increasing the reaction temperature facilitates CO-based IR and suppresses H 2 -based IR. A higher temperature produces more Fe, so as to enhance the iron oxide reduction reactions; meanwhile, the FeO reduction is governed by H 2 and CH 4 . When the reaction temperature is higher than 800 °C and the M/H ratio is lower than unity, a heat supply is required to drive HTIR. The O/F ratio in LTIR and HTIR should be controlled below 2 to retard carbon formation and drive iron oxide reduction. - Highlights: • Direct partial oxidation of coke oven gas in blast furnace is analyzed thermodynamically. • A higher reaction temperature is conducive to CH 4 conversion and syngas production. • At least 97.64% of Fe 2 O 3 is converted. • The low-temperature indirect reduction is characterized by exothermic behavior. • The oxygen-to-fuel molar ratio in indirect reduction should be controlled below 2

  19. Simultaneous utilization of neutrons and γ-rays from 252Cf for condition measurement inside a blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Tominaga, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the possibility of the realization of a multi-function radiation gauge to meet the requirement for more precise and stable control of a blast furnace. A basic concept of the gauge is to measure some quantities with simultaneous use of multi-radiations of neutrons and γ-rays, and to obtain multi-types of information on material flow and gas flow representing the conditions inside the blast furnace. The prototype gauge was assembled and examined which consisted of a radiation source of 252 Cf (3.7 MBq), neutron moderator, lead shield, a bismuth germanate detector, stainless casing and a control unit. Laboratory experiments showed that the gauge could measure the quantities to be essential to estimate the blast furnace conditions. In practice, it clearly distinguished between iron ore and coke layers, and at the same time measured bulk density (1.0-1.5 g/cm 3 ) of iron contained in iron ore by counting thermal neutron capture γ-rays (6.5-8.5 MeV) from iron. It also gave the information on material bulk density (0.5-2.5 g/cm 3 ) by detecting Compton scattered γ-rays (1.0-1.5 MeV) from material, i.e. iron ore and coke. The relative accuracies in the measurement of iron bulk density and material bulk density were estimated to be within 1 and 4% in 300 s counting time, respectively. The possibility of the gauge has been proved and the on-line trial will be expected in the near future. (author)

  20. Recycling of blast furnace sludge by briquetting with starch binder: Waste gas from thermal treatment utilizable as a fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobíková, Klára; Plachá, Daniela; Motyka, Oldřich; Gabor, Roman; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Vallová, Silvie; Seidlerová, Jana

    2016-02-01

    Steel plants generate significant amounts of wastes such as sludge, slag, and dust. Blast furnace sludge is a fine-grained waste characterized as hazardous and affecting the environment negatively. Briquetting is one of the possible ways of recycling of this waste while the formed briquettes serve as a feed material to the blast furnace. Several binders, both organic and inorganic, had been assessed, however, only the solid product had been analysed. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of briquetting using commonly available laundry starch as a binder while evaluating the possible utilization of the waste gas originating from the thermal treatment of the briquettes. Briquettes (100g) were formed with the admixture of starch (UNIPRET) and their mechanical properties were analysed. Consequently, they were subjected to thermal treatment of 900, 1000 and 1100°C with retention period of 40min during which was the waste gas collected and its content analysed using gas chromatography. Dependency of the concentration of the compounds forming the waste gas on the temperature used was determined using Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix. Starch was found to be a very good binder and reduction agent, it was confirmed that metallic iron was formed during the thermal treatment. Approximately 20l of waste gas was obtained from the treatment of one briquette; main compounds were methane and hydrogen rendering the waste gas utilizable as a fuel while the greatest yield was during the lowest temperatures. Preparation of blast furnace sludge briquettes using starch as a binder and their thermal treatment represents a suitable method for recycling of this type of metallurgical waste. Moreover, the composition of the resulting gas is favourable for its use as a fuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Jiménez, A.

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline-sulphate activation processes of a Spanish granulated blast furnace slag (Avilés, Ensidesa have been studied. Activator solutions used were: deionized water (as reference solution, Ca(OH2 (3,5∙10-3N, NaOH (1N, Na2CO3 (2N, CaSO4∙2H2O (3,0∙10-3N at 25ºC. The influence of the nature of alkaline or sulphate solution cation on slag activation process was verified. Sodium solutions decrease the induction period while calcium solutions increase it. Slag reaction degree was also determined, likewise the nature of the different reaction products formed as a function of the activator solution nature.

    Se han estudiado los procesos de activación alcalinosulfáticos de una escoria granulada de alto horno española (Avilés, Ensidesa. Las disoluciones activantes utilizadas fueron: H2O desionizada (como disolución de referencia, Ca(OH2 (3,5∙10-3N, NaOH (1N, Na2CO3 (2N, CaSO4∙2H2O (3,0∙10-3N a 25ºC. Se ha comprobado la influencia de la naturaleza del catión de la disolución alcalina o sulfática sobre el proceso de activación de la escoria. Las disoluciones sódicas disminuyen el período de inducción, mientras que las disoluciones cálcicas lo incrementan. También se determinó el grado de reacción de la escoria, así como la naturaleza de los distintos productos de reacción formados, en función de la naturaleza de la disolución activante.

  2. BIO-PCI, Charcoal injection in Blast Furnaces: State of the art and economic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliciano-Bruzual, C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The injection of grinded particles of charcoal through the tuyeres in Blast Furnaces, here coined Bio-PCI, presents as an attractive and plausible alternative to significantly reduce the CO2 emissions generated during hot metal production. In this contribution a summary of the technological fundaments, benefits and limitations of the incorporation of Bio-PCI is presented. Additionally the principal economic challenges of renewables fuel in ironmaking are exposed, with especial interest in the main productions costs of charcoal making. In this sense, a strategic question arises: can the residual biomass drive the emergence of Bio-PCI?, our analysis leads to conclude that the use of residual biomass (e.g. agricultural and forestry residues may significantly reduce the production cost in 120-180 USD/t in comparison to primary woods sources, this naturally increment the economical attractiveness of Bio-PCI substitution.La inyección de carbón vegetal por toberas en Altos Hornos, aqui denominada Bio-PCI, se presenta como una forma atractiva y realista de reducir significativamente las emisiones de CO2 generadas durante la producción de arrabio. En esta contribución se presenta un resumen de los fundamentos tecnológicos, los beneficios y las limitaciones de la incorporación de la tecnología del Bio-PCI. Adicionalmente se exponen los retos económicos que enfrentan los combustibles renovables a los fósiles, con especial interés en los principales costos de producción del carbón vegetal. En este sentido se plantea una pregunta estratégica: ¿puede la biomasa residual impulsar el desarrollo de la Bio-PCI?. Nuestro análisis conlleva a concluir que la utilización de biomasa residual (residuos forestales y agrícolas puede reducir sensiblemente el costo del carbón vegetal entre 120-180 USD/t en comparación con biomasa primaria, incrementando su competitividad frente al carbón mineral.

  3. Mechanical behaviour of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-activated metakaolin blended pastes. Statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuera, I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study and development of alternative, more ecoefficient binders than portland cement are attracting a good deal of scientific and technological interest. Binders obtained from the chemical interaction between calcium silico-aluminous materials and highly alkaline solutions are one of several types of such possible cements. The present paper discusses the mechanical behaviour and mineralogical composition of blended pastes made from NaOH-activated vitreous blast furnace slag and metakaolin. The aim of the study was to determine how parameters such as the slag/metakaolin ratio, activating solution concentration and curing temperature affect strength development in these binders. A statistical study was conducted to establish the impact of each variable and model strength behaviour in these alkaline cements. The conclusion drawn is that activator concentration and the slag/metakaolin ratio are both determinant parameters.

    El estudio y desarrollo de cementos alternativos y más eco-eficientes que el cemento Portland es un tema de gran impacto a nivel científico y tecnológico. Entre esos posibles cementos se encuentran los cementos alcalinos que son materiales conglomerantes obtenidos por la interacción química de materiales silico-aluminosos cálcicos y disoluciones fuertemente alcalinas. En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento mecánico y la composición mineralógica de mezclas de escoria vítrea de horno alto y metacaolín activadas alcalinamente con disoluciones de NaOH. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer cómo afectan parámetros tales como la relación escoria/metacaolín, la concentración de la disolución activadora y la temperatura de curado, al desarrollo resistente de las mezclas. A través del estudio estadístico realizado se ha podido establecer la influencia de cada variable y modelizar el comportamiento resistente de estos cementos alcalinos. Se concluye que la concentración del activador y la relaci

  4. Natural pozzolan-and granulated blast furnace slag-based binary geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robayo, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the synthesis at ambient temperature (25±3 °C of binary geopolymer systems based on natural volcanic pozzolan and granulated blast furnace slag. Na2SiO3 and NaOH were used as alkaline activators. The effects of the SiO2/Al2O3, Na2O/Al2O3 ratio and the amount of slag added (from 0 to 30% on the reaction kinetics, compressive strength and microstructure of the final product were studied. To characterise the geopolymer pastes, techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used. The results indicate the possibility of obtaining a geopolymer cement with a compressive strength of up to 48.11 MPa after 28 days of curing at ambient temperature whose characteristics are comparable to those of commercial portland cement.Este trabajo describe la síntesis a temperatura ambiente (25±3 °C de sistemas geopoliméricos de tipo binario basados en una puzolana natural de origen volcánico y escoria siderúrgica de alto horno usando activadores alcalinos basados en la combinación de Na2SiO3 y NaOH. Se estudió el efecto de la relación SiO2/Al2O3, Na2O/Al2O3 y la cantidad de escoria adicionada en niveles entre el 0 y 30% sobre la cinética de reacción, la resistencia a la compresión y la microestructura del producto final. Para la caracterización de las pastas geopoliméricas se utilizaron técnicas como difracción de rayos X (DRX, espectroscopia infrarroja (FTIR y microscopia electrónica de barrido (MEB. Los resultados conseguidos revelan la posibilidad de obtener un cementante geopolimérico con una resistencia a la compresión de hasta 48,11 MPa a los 28 días de curado a temperatura ambiente cuyas características son comparables a las de un cemento portland comercial.

  5. Characteristics and propierties of oil-well cements additioned with blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% of the cement by weight with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activating solution partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the C-S-H gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la activación alcalina de cementos Pórtland con incorporación de escoria de horno alto (20% y 30% con respecto al peso de cemento para su posible aplicación en la construcción de pozos petrolíferos. Los estudios de hidratación realizados indican que en mezclas cemento/escoria, la disolución activadora de silicato sódico inhibe parcialmente la disolución de las fases silicato del cemento Pórtland originando un retraso de su hidratación así como la menor precipitación de productos de reacción. Dicha parcial inhibición de los procesos reactivos en las mezclas cemento/escoria originan resistencias mecánicas significativamente inferiores a las pastas de cemento Portland hidratadas con agua. Finalmente, los estudios de 29Si y 27Al RMN MAS y BSE/EDX indican que el gel C-S-H formado en pastas de mezcla cemento/escoria activadas alcalinamente presenta Al en posiciones tetraédricas y bajas relaciones Ca/Si.

  6. Magnesium alloys and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials: Reduction of galvanic corrosion using alkali hydroxide activated blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, D.; Muzeau, B.; Stefan, L.; Sanchez-Canet, J.; Monguillon, C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Embedded in cement, magnesium is corroded by residual water present in porosity of the matrix. • Corrosion is enhanced by galvanic phenomenon when magnesium is in contact with graphite. • Galvanic corrosion of magnesium in contact with graphite debris is shown to be severe with ordinary Portland cement. • Galvanic corrosion is significantly lowered in high alkali medium such as sodium hydroxide. • Sodium hydroxide activated blast furnace slag is a convenient binder to embed magnesium. - Abstract: Magnesium alloys and graphite from spent nuclear fuel have been stored together in La Hague plant. The packaging of these wastes is under consideration. These wastes could be mixed in a grout composed of industrially available cement (Portland, calcium aluminate…). Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of Brucite resulting in a slow corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, and the quality of wasteform, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics. Many types of calcium based cements have been tested and most of them have caused strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together because of galvanic corrosion. Exceptions are binders based on alkali hydroxide activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) which are presented in this article.

  7. Carbothermic Reduction Reactions at the Metal-Slag Interface in Ti-Bearing Slag from a Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Zu; Zhang, Jian-Liang; Liu, Zheng-Jian; Du, Cheng-Bo

    2017-11-01

    Carbothermic reduction reactions at the metal-slag interface and the mechanisms of iron loss during the smelting of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite in a blast furnace are still not clear as a result of the limited ability to observe the high-temperature zone of a blast furnace. The chemical composition of a Ti-bearing slag was determined by x-ray fluorescence and x-ray diffraction. The interfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The interfacial chemical reactions were deduced based on the characterization results and on the thermodynamic calculations performed using Factsage 6.4. The results indicated that the forms of iron in the slag were iron droplets wetted by Ti(C x , N1- x ), mechanically separated by iron and iron oxide. The different forms possessed unique characteristics and were formed by different mechanisms. Iron droplets wetted by Ti(C x , N1- x ) were generated through a series of interfacial reactions between TiO2 in the slag and [C] and [N] in the metal. Iron droplets without attached Ti(C x , N1- x ) were mainly located on the edges of pores and were attributed to the reduction of Fe x O in the slag. Insufficient reduction of iron-bearing minerals made it difficult for iron droplets to aggregate and separate from the slag, which created an Fe x O-enriched zone.

  8. Magnesium alloys and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials: Reduction of galvanic corrosion using alkali hydroxide activated blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, D., E-mail: david.chartier@cea.fr [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Muzeau, B. [DEN-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Stefan, L. [AREVA NC/D& S - France/Technical Department, 1 place Jean Millier 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Sanchez-Canet, J. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Monguillon, C. [DEN-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Embedded in cement, magnesium is corroded by residual water present in porosity of the matrix. • Corrosion is enhanced by galvanic phenomenon when magnesium is in contact with graphite. • Galvanic corrosion of magnesium in contact with graphite debris is shown to be severe with ordinary Portland cement. • Galvanic corrosion is significantly lowered in high alkali medium such as sodium hydroxide. • Sodium hydroxide activated blast furnace slag is a convenient binder to embed magnesium. - Abstract: Magnesium alloys and graphite from spent nuclear fuel have been stored together in La Hague plant. The packaging of these wastes is under consideration. These wastes could be mixed in a grout composed of industrially available cement (Portland, calcium aluminate…). Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of Brucite resulting in a slow corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, and the quality of wasteform, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics. Many types of calcium based cements have been tested and most of them have caused strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together because of galvanic corrosion. Exceptions are binders based on alkali hydroxide activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) which are presented in this article.

  9. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Filip P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reduction of the quantity of coke, whose production requires large amounts of energy, reduction of harmful exhaust emission and increase productivity of blast furnaces through the reduction of production costs. The project was complex and had high costs, so that it was necessary to predict risk events and plan responses to identified risks at an early stage of implementation, in the course of the project design, in order to minimise losses and implement the project in accordance with the defined time and cost limitations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179081: Researching contemporary tendencies of strategic management using specialized management disciplines in function of competitiveness of Serbian economy

  10. Chloride transport testing of blast furnace slag cement for durable concrete structures in Norway : From 2 days to one year age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; de Rooij, M.R.; Larsen, CK; Pedersen, B; Beushausen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) has been used in reinforced concrete structures in marine and road environment in The Netherlands for nearly a century. Experience is good and long service lives can be obtained. In Norway experience with BFSC is scarce. In The Netherlands, a high resistance against

  11. Chloride transport testing of blast furnace slag cement for durable concrete structires in Norway: From 2 days to one year age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Rooij, M.R. de; Larsen, C.K.; Pedersen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) has been used in reinforced concrete structures in marine and road environment in The Netherlands for nearly a century. Experience is good and long service lives can be obtained. In Norway experience with BFSC is scarce. In The Netherlands, a high resistance against

  12. Reference materials for ratio of moisture content and bulk density of blast furnace coke for neutron moisture and density meters: development and use experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Savelov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with reference materials for moisture and bulk density of blast furnace coke for graduation of neutron moisture and density meters. Reference materials are produced from substances and materials which element content is identical to coke elemental content coke.

  13. Using a Mathematical Model of Counter-Current Flow in a Blast Furnace to Evaluate Reducibility of Iron-Ore-Bearing Raw Materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pustějovská, P.; Tůma, J.; Staněk, Vladimír; Křišťál, Jiří; Jursová, s.; Bilík, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 4 (2015), s. 320-328 ISSN 1611-3683 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : blast furnace * ore burden reducibility * kinetic model Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.021, year: 2015

  14. The setting time of a clay-slag geopolymer matrix: the influence of blast-furnace-slag addition and the mixing method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perná, Ivana; Hanzlíček, Tomáš

    112, Part 1, JAN 20 (2016), s. 1150-1155 ISSN 0959-6526 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : blast-furnace slag * geopolymer * setting time * mixing method * solidification * recycling Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 5.715, year: 2016

  15. The interaction of pH, pore solution composition and solid phase composition of carbonated blast furnace slag cement paste activated with aqueous sodium monofluorophosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempl, J.; Copuroglu, O.

    2015-01-01

    Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) is a waste product of industrial steel production and a common additive in the cement industry in Northern European countries. However, cementitious materials made from slag-rich cement, particularly CEM III /B, are very susceptible to carbonation. Recent investigations have

  16. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  17. Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudenau, H. W.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace operation with low coke rate, high amount of auxiliary hydrocarbons and use of nut coke causes a change in coke quality requirements. In particular, not burned in the raceway residues of injected substances (char and ash can influence the coke behaviour. Therefore combustion efficiency of various organic wastes with and without pulverized coal injection (PCI and coal char has been investigated under the raceway simulation conditions. Mixing of various substances improves their combustion efficiency. Study on coke gasification by carbon dioxide in the presence of char showed that with the increase of char concentration, coke strength reduction becomes smaller. The reactivity of char with CO2 is higher than that of coke. Therefore char is consumed preferentially. In presence of injected char, total pore volume in coke and its wear resistance were increased. Coke reactivity and microstructure in the presence of various kinds of ash has been studied. Many ash spheres were observed on the surface of coke matrix and its size was dependent on ash properties.

    La operación del horno alto con una tasa baja de coque, una cantidad elevada de hidrocarburos auxiliares y el empleo de coque calibrado, origina un cambio en las necesidades de calidad del coque. En particular, pueden influir en el comportamiento del coque los residuos inquemados en el raceway (cavidad enfrente a las toberas del horno de las sustancias que se inyectan (char y cenizas. El char es el residuo de carbón que se origina después que el carbón libera sus sustancias volátiles. Por tanto, se ha investigado la eficiencia de la combustión de varios residuos orgánicos con y sin inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP y char, bajo las condiciones de simulación del raceway. La mezcla de varias sustancias mejora la eficiencia a la combustión. El estudio de la gasificación del coque por el dióxido de carbono en la

  18. The Use of Blast Furnace Slag for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater in Sweden—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Johansson Westholm

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on Phosphorus (P removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%, P removal in field trials was much lower, ranging from 40 to 53%. In addition, a number of problems have been observed in BFS field testing including clogging, sulfuric odor and environmental (regulatory concerns about possible leaching of heavy metals from the slag. In spite of these problems, and questioning by the environmental regulatory authorities, research continues to provide evidence that BFS can be regarded as a suitable filter media, and attempts have also been undertaken in order to further improve the P-removal capacity of this adsorbing material.

  19. Injection of natural gas in the blast furnace tuyeres three of the Usiminas, Ipatinga Plant; Injecao de gas natural nas ventaneiras do alto-forno 3 da Usiminas, Usina de Ipatinga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Murilo Alves Tito de; Rosa, Ericson Rimen Ribeiro; Oliveira, Claudiney Freitas de; Hostt, Helton [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Gerencia Geral de Reducao

    2011-12-21

    The reduction in production costs is a major strategic objectives of Usiminas and the use of natural gas in the Blast Furnace 3 (BF 3) contribute to achieve this goal. The use of natural gas as fuel in the BF 3 to reduce the use of metallurgical coke (main fuel) and reduces production losses during periods of maintenance in the pulverized coal injection system and improving operational control of the Blast Furnace. The work presents the deployment of the natural gas injection and the performance obtained by the BF 3 from the start of injection, with a focus on reducing consumption of metallurgical coke and stable operation of blast furnace (author)

  20. Results of tuyere coke sampling with regard to application of appropriate coke strength after reaction (CSR for a blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiau J-S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising pulverized coal injection (PCI will decrease coke rate, but increase the residence time of coke and abrasion in the blast furnace (BF. Thus, insufficient coke strength will generate more coke fines in the lower BF and result in lower permeability and production of hot metal (HM. For understanding the behavior of coke at various HM productivities, a tuyere coke sampler was used to collect the coke samples for measuring the coke strength. Firstly, the difference of sampled coke under the conditions of various HM productivities was explored. Secondly, the BF operating conditions and causes of generating more coke fines was correlated by testing the coke reaction rate after reaction. Finally, according to the above analysis results, the relative regression equations had been obtained for sampling coke properties, BF operation conditions and BF permeability. Furthermore, the coke strength after reaction (CSR quantitative target and its online system at various blast conditions were set to provide some reference for coke and HM production.

  1. The Balance of Titanium and Vanadium in the Blast Furnace with the Use of Sinter Containing a Titanium-Vanadium-Magnetite Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzik, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation concerned the use of sinter containing a titanium-vanadium-magnetite concentrate for the production of pig iron. Sinter containing 0,46 to 0,51 % TiO2 and 0,056 to 0,060 % vanadium was used for pig iron production in the blast furnace. Introducing 200 kg of this concentrate to the1 Mg sinter mix did not cause any deterioration of sinter quality.

  2. Plant Growth and Water Purification of Porous Vegetation Concrete Formed of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber and Styrene Butadiene Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate porous vegetation concrete formed using the industrial by-products blast furnace slag powder and blast furnace slag aggregates. We investigated the void ratio, compressive strength, freeze–thaw resistance, plant growth and water purification properties using concretes containing these by-products, natural jute fiber and latex. The target performance was a compressive strength of ≥12 MPa, a void ratio of ≥25% and a residual compressive strength of ≥80% following 100 freeze–thaw cycles. Using these target performance metrics and test results for plant growth and water purification, an optimal mixing ratio was identified. The study characterized the physical and mechanical properties of the optimal mix, and found that the compressive strength decreased compared with the default mix, but that the void ratio and the freeze–thaw resistance increased. When latex was used, the compressive strength, void ratio and freeze–thaw resistance all improved, satisfying the target performance metrics. Vegetation growth tests showed that plant growth was more active when the blast furnace slag aggregate was used. Furthermore, the use of latex was also found to promote vegetation growth, which is attributed to the latex forming a film coating that suppresses leaching of toxic components from the cement. Water purification tests showed no so significant differences between different mixing ratios; however, a comparison of mixes with and without vegetation indicated improved water purification in terms of the total phosphorus content when vegetation had been allowed to grow.

  3. Simultaneous removal of Ni(II), As(III), and Sb(III) from spiked mine effluent with metakaolin and blast-furnace-slag geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Tero; Runtti, Hanna; Niskanen, Mikko; Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarkkinen, Minna; Kemppainen, Kimmo; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-01-15

    The mining industry is a major contributor of various toxic metals and metalloids to the aquatic environment. Efficient and economical water treatment methods are therefore of paramount importance. The application of natural or low-cost sorbents has attracted a great deal of interest due to the simplicity of its process and its potential effectiveness. Geopolymers represent an emerging group of sorbents. In this study, blast-furnace-slag and metakaolin geopolymers and their raw materials were tested for simultaneous removal of Ni(II), As(III) and Sb(III) from spiked mine effluent. Blast-furnace-slag geopolymer proved to be the most efficient of the studied materials: the experimental maximum sorption capacities for Ni, As and, Sb were 3.74 mg/g, 0.52 mg/g, and 0.34 mg/g, respectively. Although the capacities were relatively low due to the difficult water matrix, 90-100% removal of Ni, As, and Sb was achieved when the dose of sorbent was increased appropriately. Removal kinetics fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. Our results indicate that geopolymer technology could offer a simple and effective way to turn blast-furnace slag to an effective sorbent with a specific utilization prospect in the mining industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of seawater mixing and curing on strength characteristics and porosity of ground granulated blast-furnace slag concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiwijaya; Hamada, H.; Sagawa, Y.; Yamamoto, D.

    2017-11-01

    Generally, in the concrete industry, several billion tons of fresh water are annually used for mixing water, curing water and cleaning water. Nevertheless, the utilization of seawater in the concrete industry is prohibited, because it increases the risk of corrosion of steel bars in concrete. This study presents strength characteristics and porosity of seawater mixed concrete and tap water mixed concrete incorporating Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (GGBS) with water-binder ratio (W/B) of 40%, 50% and 60%. The influence of seawater mixing, GGBS and curing conditions such as tap water curing (TC), seawater curing (SC) and air curing (AC) on the strength and porosity of concrete were evaluated. Based on investigation result, it was shown that there is no significant influence of seawater mixing in improving strength of GGBS concrete up to 365 days in TC and SC. Effectiveness of seawater-mixing on strength enhancement of GGBS concrete is larger in air curing than in water curing. Porosity of seawater-mixed concrete is decreased compared to tap water-mixed concrete in all curing conditions.

  5. High calcium fly ash geopolymer stabilized lateritic soil and granulated blast furnace slag blends as a pavement base material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phummiphan, Itthikorn; Horpibulsuk, Suksun; Rachan, Runglawan; Arulrajah, Arul; Shen, Shui-Long; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2018-01-05

    Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) was used as a replacement material in marginal lateritic soil (LS) while class C Fly Ash (FA) was used as a precursor for the geopolymerization process to develop a low-carbon pavement base material at ambient temperature. Unconfined Compression Strength (UCS) tests were performed to investigate the strength development of geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis were undertaken to examine the role of the various influencing factors on UCS development. The influencing factors studied included GBFS content, Na 2 SiO 3 :NaOH ratio (NS:NH) and curing time. The 7-day soaked UCS of FA geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends at various NS:NH ratios tested was found to satisfy the specifications of the Thailand national road authorities. The GBFS replacement was found to be insignificant for the improvement of the UCS of FA geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends at low NS:NH ratio of 50:50. Microstructural analysis indicated the coexistence of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (CSH) and Sodium Alumino Silicate Hydrate products in FA geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends. This research enables GBFS, which is traditionally considered as a waste material, to be used as a replacement and partially reactive material in FA geopolymer pavement applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance and Behaviour of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Imparted to Geopolymer Concrete Structural Elements and Analyzed with ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rajesh Antonyamaladhas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the behaviour of geopolymer concrete using ground granulated blast furnace slag and steel fibre to compare with M40 grade cement concrete. The cast GPC specimens were placed in a hot curing chamber at 60∘C temperature for 24 hours and tested after 1, 7, 14, and 28 days of ambient curing to find the strength and durability of hardened concrete. The optimum value of compressive strength was attained at 12 Molarities. Fly ash was replaced by GGBS in GPC with different proportions such as 0% to 60% at 5% interval; the optimum strength value was obtained on 40% replacement. From the test results, the compressive, split-tensile, and flexural strength of GPC specimens were 20%, 43%, and 53% higher than those of the control specimens. Based on the optimum strength mix proportion, the structural elements were cast to investigate the stress-strain relations. The GPC beam and L-section showed 33% and 16% higher value. From the results of acid and sulphate resistance tests, it was found that the strength and weight ratio of GPC were higher than the control specimens. From the simulations, it was found that the experimental test results were approximately equal to the ANSYS.

  7. Recycling ground granulated blast furnace slag as cold bonded artificial aggregate partially used in self-compacting concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesoğlu, Mehmet; Güneyisi, Erhan; Mahmood, Swara Fuad; Öz, Hatice Öznur; Mermerdaş, Kasım

    2012-10-15

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), a by-product from iron industry, was recycled as artificial coarse aggregate through cold bonding pelletization process. The artificial slag aggregates (ASA) replaced partially the natural coarse aggregates in production of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Moreover, as being one of the most widely used mineral admixtures in concrete industry, fly ash (FA) was incorporated as a part of total binder content to impart desired fluidity to SCCs. A total of six concrete mixtures having various ASA replacement levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) were designed with a water-to-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.32. Fresh properties of self-compacting concretes (SCC) were observed through slump flow time, flow diameter, V-funnel flow time, and L-box filling height ratio. Compressive strength of hardened SCCs was also determined at 28 days of curing. It was observed that increasing the replacement level of ASA resulted in decrease in the amount of superplasticizer to achieve a constant slump flow diameter. Moreover, passing ability and viscosity of SCC's enhanced with increasing the amount of ASA in the concrete. The maximum compressive strength was achieved for the SCC having 60% ASA replacement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of aluminium free castable for blast furnace trough materials. Koro toiyo Al mutenka nagashikomizai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaoi, H.; Tsutsui, N.; Suzuki, T. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Yoshino, H.; Sugiyama, K.; Yasuda, N.; Ninomiya, H.; Itose, S. (Harima Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))

    1992-09-10

    In recent years a densification of castable materials is being developed in order to elongate a life of the blast furnace trough. As a risk of dry expansion in the drying process becomes to be higher due to it, the castable materials added the metallic Al are being used as a countermeasure against it. Since the metallic Al generates the hydrogen gas by a reaction with the water and forms the vent holes, it is superior in an explosion resistance. When the hydrogen gas generated by a reaction of this metallic Al retains during a period from the execution to the curing, there is a danger to generate an explosion by catching a fire. Accordingly in this repost, the organic foaming agent was added as the castable materials free from the metallic Al. As a result, an explosion resistance could be raised substantially. This is thought due to generation of N2 gas because the hydrolysis occurs in an alumina cement-water system. The microporess caused by a generation of N2 gas are a size of about 10[mu]m, or many of them are bigger than it. Although the effect of the added organic foaming agent on the various material property values is a little, an appropriate quantity is thought to be within 0.2%. 1 ref., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Reductive solidification/stabilization of chromate in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by ascorbic acid and blast furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xian; Zhou, Min; Wu, Xian; Han, Yi; Geng, Junjun; Wang, Teng; Wan, Sha; Hou, Haobo

    2017-09-01

    Fly ash is a hazardous byproduct of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). Cementitious material that is based on ground-granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) has been tested and proposed as a binder to stabilize Pb, Cd, and Zn in MSWI fly ash (FA). Cr, however, still easily leaches from MSWI FA. Different reagents, such as ascorbic acid (VC), NaAlO 2 , and trisodium salt nonahydrate, were investigated as potential Cr stabilizers. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) showed that VC significantly improved the stabilization of Cr via the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). VC, however, could interfere with the hydration process. Most available Cr was transformed into stable Cr forms at the optimum VC content of 2 wt%. Cr leaching was strongly pH dependent and could be represented by a quintic polynomial model. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive analysis revealed that hollow spheres in raw FA were partially filled with hydration products, resulting in the dense and homogeneous microstructure of the solidified samples. The crystal structures of C-S-H and ettringite retained Zn and Cr ions. In summary, GGBFS-based cementitious material with the low addition of 2 wt% VC effectively immobilizes Cr-bearing MSWI FA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Influence of B2O3 and Basicity on Viscosity and Structure of Medium Titanium Bearing Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Bian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of B2O3 and basicity (CaO/SiO2 on the viscous behavior and structure of medium titanium bearing blast furnace slag (MTBBFS were investigated. High temperature viscosimeter was applied to measure the viscosities of CaO-SiO2-MgO-TiO2-Al2O3-B2O3 slag system and X-ray diffraction (XRD, NBO/T ratio, and structure parameter Q were employed to analyze its network structure. The results showed that the viscosity decreased and break point temperature increased with increasing basicity to 1.20. However B2O3 addition gave rise to a decrease in slag viscosity and break point temperature inspite of basicity. The more B2O3 content leads to the more pronounced variation, especially for the slag with larger basicity. The conventional NBO/T formula was revised to predict the structure variation of relatively complicated medium Ti bearing slag based on the work of Yanhong Gao and other researchers. The increase of B2O3 content in slag made parameter Q turn from Q2 to Q1, suggesting that network structure became simpler. It was also noticed that the addition of B2O3 could suppress the formation of perovskite.

  11. Thermostrengthening modes in getting heat-strengthened pellets in weak oxidizing atmosphere with residual carbon for blast furnace melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Євген Валерійович Чупринов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the laboratory tests, that are close to industrial modes of bowl pelletizers and roasting bowl operations, thermostrengthening modes of raw pellets have been worked out and selected, the main technological feature of the pellets being the presence of rolled up solid fuel. The results, obtained in the tests, showed that the selected modes make it possible to get heat-strengthened pellets with the maximum amount of residual carbon in the final product. The results, demonstrating the effect of the heating rate on the process parameters, in particular, on the content of residual carbon in the obtained heat-strengthened pellets are important. It has been shown that increasing the heating rate of raw pellets from 100 to 500°C/min, and cooling rate of the heat-strengthened pellets from 100 to 600°C/min with decreasing oxygen content in the heat-carrying agent for gas burning in the burners and cooling gas from 21% to 10,3-5,1% make it possible to increase the content of residual carbon in the heat-strengthened pellets from 0,8-1,9% to 3,5-3,7%. The obtained heat-strengthened pellets with the residual carbon not only satisfy all the requirements of the blast furnace melting, but also possess better metallurgical characteristics than oxidized heat-strengthened pellets

  12. The Characterization of Fixation of Ba, Pb, and Cu in Alkali-Activated Fly Ash/Blast Furnace Slag Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koplík

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The fixation of heavy metals (Ba, Cu, Pb in an alkali-activated matrix was investigated. The matrix consisted of fly ash and blast furnace slag (BFS. The mixture of NaOH and Na-silicate was used as alkaline activator. Three analytical techniques were used to describe the fixation of heavy metals—X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. All heavy metals formed insoluble salts after alkaline activation. Ba was fixed as BaSO4, and only this product was crystalline. EDS mapping showed that Ba was cumulated in some regions and formed clusters. Pb was present in the form of Pb(OH2 and was dispersed throughout the matrix on the edges of BFS grains. Cu was fixed as Cu(OH2 and also was cumulated in some regions and formed clusters. Cu was present in two different chemical states; apart from Cu(OH2, a Cu–O bond was also identified.

  13. Effect of γ-irradiation on the electrical conductivity of some soda lime silicate glass containing blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elalaily, N.A.; Khalil, Magda M.I.; Ahmed, L.S.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of electric field strength on conduction in soda lime silicate glass doped with blast furnace slag with different concentration was studied and the value of jump distance was calculated. The structure and the mixed anion effect in the conductivity have been examined by measuring the electrical conductivity of glass samples at temperature ranging between 20 and 250 deg. C. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of the examined glasses are divided into three ranges depending on the temperature range. The first is from room temperature to about 49.5 deg. C, the second is at a temperature range of 60.3-104 deg. C where the glass shows a decrease in its conductivity with the increase in temperature. This was followed by another increase in the electrical conductivity with the increase in temperature. The results also showed that the glass becomes more insulating as the slag content increased. The effect of irradiation was also studied by exposing glass samples to two different irradiation doses. It can be noticed that irradiation causes an increase in the electrical conductivity, especially at high temperature. The results were discussed and correlated according to the molecular structure of the prepared glass

  14. Thermal treatment of simulant plutonium contaminated materials from the Sellafield site by vitrification in a blast-furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, N.C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Schwarz, R.R.; Bingham, P.A.; Stennett, M.C.; Corkhill, C.L.; Heath, P.G.; Hand, R.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); James, M.; Pearson, A. [Sellafield Ltd., Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Morgan, S. [Sellafield Ltd., Hinton House, Risley, Warrington WA3 6GR (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Storage of 200 L drums of PCM waste at the Sellafield site, UK. Abstract: Four waste simulants, representative of Plutonium Contaminated Materials (PCMs) at the Sellafield site, were vitrified through additions of Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS). Ce (as a Pu surrogate) was effectively partitioned into the slag product, enriched in an amorphous CaO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} phase when other crystalline phases were also present. Ce L{sub 3} edge XANES data demonstrated Ce to be present as trivalent species in the slag fraction, irrespective of the waste type. Estimated volume reductions of ca. 80–95% were demonstrated, against a baseline of uncompacted 200 L PCM waste drums. The dissolution behaviour of PCM slag wasteforms was investigated at 50 °C in saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution under N{sub 2} atmosphere, to simulate the hyperalkaline anoxic environment of a cementitious UK Geological Disposal Facility for Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). These experiments demonstrated the performance of the slag wasteforms to be comparable to that of other vitrified ILW materials considered potentially suitable for geological disposal.

  15. Carbonation Characteristics of Alkali-Activated Blast-Furnace Slag Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Il Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated ground granulated blast-slag (AAS is the most obvious alternative material for ordinary Portland cement (OPC. However, to use it as a structural material requires the assessment and verification of its durability. The most important factor for a durability evaluation is the degree of carbonation resistance, and AAS is known to show lower performance than OPC. A series of experiments was conducted with a view to investigate the carbonation characteristics of AAS binder. As a consequence, it was found that the major hydration product of AAS was calcium silicate hydrate (CSH, with almost no portlandite, unlike the products of OPC. After carbonation, the CSH of AAS turned into amorphous silica gel which was most likely why the compressive strength of AAS became weaker after carbonation. An increase of the activator dosage leads AAS to react more quickly and produce more CSH, increasing the compaction, compressive strength, and carbonation resistance of the microstructure.

  16. Hot metal temperature prediction and simulation by fuzzy logic in a blast furnace; Prediccion y simulacion, mediante logica difusa, de la temperatura de salida del arrabio en un horno alto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M. A.; Jimenez, J.; Mochon, J.; Formoso, A.; Bueno, F. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CENIM. Madrid (Spain); Menendez, J. L. [ACERALIA. Gijon Asturias (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This work describes the development and further validation of a model devoted to blast furnace hot metal temperature forecast, based on Fuzzy logic principles. The model employs as input variables, the control variables of an actual blast furnace: Blast volume, moisture, coal injection, oxygen addition, etc. and it yields as a result the hot metal temperature with a forecast horizon of forty minutes. As far as the variables used to develop the model have been obtained from data supplied by an actual blast furnaces sensors, it is necessary to properly analyse and handle such data. Especial attention was paid to data temporal correlation, fitting by interpolation the different sampling rates. In the training stage of the model the ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) and the Subtractive Clustering algorithms have been used. (Author) 9 refs.

  17. Feasibility and economic analysis of solid desiccant wheel used for dehumidification and preheating in blast furnace: A case study of steel plant, Nanjing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Yipeng; Zhang, Yufeng; Sheng, Ying; Kong, Xiangrui; Du, Song

    2015-01-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of huge energy consumption from conventional dehumidification using lithium bromide adsorption refrigerating (LBARD) system, a novel desiccant wheel dehumidification and preheating (DWDP) system using two-stage desiccant wheel for blast furnace is brought forward. The DWDP system was designed for dehumidification and preheating in blast furnace of steel plant. It takes waste heat in the slag flushing water as desiccant regeneration and preheating energy. To validate the feasibility of the new DWDP system, experimental studies were conducted based on a steel plant in Nanjing, China. The experiment was designed to use DWDP system in humid outdoor climates e.g. summer seasons. The experimental results indicate that the moisture removal capacity of DWDP system can reach 8.7 g/kg which will lead to the improvement of steel production by 0.9% and the coal is saved of about 2100 tons per year. With the DWDP system, the energy consumed by cooling tower of slag flushing water can decrease 7.3%. All of these energy saved equates to 10.3 million CNY annually. A comparison of initial investment and operating cost between DWDP system and LBRAD system was then carried out. The results show that the initial investment and operating cost of DWDP system is 37% and 57% of present LBARD system, and the payback period is shortened 66%. - Highlights: • A novel two-stage desiccant wheel dehumidification system for blast furnace is proposed. • Average moisture removal of 8.7 g/kg is achieved and dehumidification efficiency is 47%. • Outlet humidity ratio is less than 10 g/kg that satisfies the requirement of blast air. • Waste heat in slag flushing water is utilized and 61.4 million kJ is saved annually. • The investment and operating cost is 37% and 57% of former dehumidification system

  18. Data-Driven Nonlinear Subspace Modeling for Prediction and Control of Molten Iron Quality Indices in Blast Furnace Ironmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ping; Song, Heda; Wang, Hong; Chai, Tianyou

    2017-09-01

    Blast furnace (BF) in ironmaking is a nonlinear dynamic process with complicated physical-chemical reactions, where multi-phase and multi-field coupling and large time delay occur during its operation. In BF operation, the molten iron temperature (MIT) as well as Si, P and S contents of molten iron are the most essential molten iron quality (MIQ) indices, whose measurement, modeling and control have always been important issues in metallurgic engineering and automation field. This paper develops a novel data-driven nonlinear state space modeling for the prediction and control of multivariate MIQ indices by integrating hybrid modeling and control techniques. First, to improve modeling efficiency, a data-driven hybrid method combining canonical correlation analysis and correlation analysis is proposed to identify the most influential controllable variables as the modeling inputs from multitudinous factors would affect the MIQ indices. Then, a Hammerstein model for the prediction of MIQ indices is established using the LS-SVM based nonlinear subspace identification method. Such a model is further simplified by using piecewise cubic Hermite interpolating polynomial method to fit the complex nonlinear kernel function. Compared to the original Hammerstein model, this simplified model can not only significantly reduce the computational complexity, but also has almost the same reliability and accuracy for a stable prediction of MIQ indices. Last, in order to verify the practicability of the developed model, it is applied in designing a genetic algorithm based nonlinear predictive controller for multivariate MIQ indices by directly taking the established model as a predictor. Industrial experiments show the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shiyun; Ni, Kun; Li, Jinmei

    2012-07-01

    A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C-S-H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563-938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO(4)(2-) from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO(4)(2-) releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO(4)(2-) from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m(-2), which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shiyun; Ni Kun; Li Jinmei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum has suitable workability. ► The strength of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is higher than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. ► The dry shrinkage of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is lower than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. ► The leaching of sulfate ion of mortar is studied. - Abstract: A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C–S–H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563–938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO 4 2- from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO 4 2- releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO 4 2- from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m −2 , which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum.

  1. The Environmental Impact and Cost Analysis of Concrete Mixing Blast Furnace Slag Containing Titanium Gypsum and Sludge in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyoung Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the environmental effects and cost of the Industrial Waste addictive Blast Furnace Slag (W-BFS using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and compared it to general BFS. The environmental impacts of W-BFS were as follows: 1.12 × 10−1 kg-CO2 eq/kg, 3.18 × 10−5 kg-Ethylene eq/kg, 4.79 × 10−4 kg-SO2 eq/kg, 7.15 × 10−4 kg-PO43− eq/kg, 7.15 × 10−4 kg-CFC11 eq/kg and 3.94 × 10−3 kg-Antimony eq/kg. Among the environmental impact category, GWP and AP were 9.28 × 10−2 kg-CO2 eq/kg and 3.33 × 10−4 kg-SO2 eq/kg at a raw material stage, accounting for 80% and 70% of total environmental impact respectively. In EP, POCP and ADP, in addition, raw material stage accounted for a great portion in total environmental impact because of “W” among input materials. In ODP, however, compared to the environmental impact of raw materials, oil, which was used in transporting BFS to the W-BFS manufacturing factory, was more influential. In terms of GWP, POCP and ODP, W-BFS was higher than general BFS. In terms of AP, EP and ADP, in contrast, the former was lower than the latter. In terms of cost, W-BFS (41.7 US$/ton was lower than general BFS by about 17% because of the use of waste additives comprised of industrial wastes instead of natural gypsum ,which has been commonly used in general BFS. In terms of GWP and POCP, the W-BFS mixed (30% concrete was lower than plain concrete by 25%. In terms of AP and EP, the former was lower than the latter by 30%. In terms of ADP, furthermore, W-BFS mixed (30% concrete was lower than plain concrete by 11%. In aggregate-related ODP, however, almost no change was found. In terms of cost, when W-BFS was added by 10% and 30%, it was able to reduce cost by 3% and 7% respectively, compared to plain concrete. Compared to BFS-mixed concrete as well, cost could be saved by 1% additionally because W-BFS (US$41.7/ton is lower than common cement (US$100.3/ton by about 60% in terms of production costs.

  2. Rheology and zeta potential of cement pastes containing calcined silt and ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi, B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC. When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and the ratio for the slag was a constant 30 % by weight of the blend. Rheological and zeta potential tests were conducted to evaluate paste electrokinetics and rheological behaviour. The findings showed that burnt silt is apt for use as an addition to cement for SCC manufacture.

    En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la posibilidad de utilizar los lodos procedentes de embalses como adición en la fabricación del hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Con la calcinación, estos materiales se vuelven más reactivos debido a la transformación en metacaolín, del caolín que forma parte de su composición. Las materias primas empleadas en esta investigación son: cemento Pórtland, lodos de embalse calcinados y escorias granuladas de horno alto. Se prepararon pastas de cemento con mezclas que contenían dos o tres de estos materiales. El porcentaje de reemplazo de los lodos calcinados osciló entre el 10 y el 20 % en peso del cemento, mientras que el de la escoria fue del 30 % en peso de la mezcla. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos reológicos y de potencial zeta para evaluar el comportamiento electrocinético y reológico de las distintas pastas. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, una vez calcinados, los lodos de embalse son aprovechables como adición al cemento con destino a la preparación de HAC.

  3. Rice husk ash as a source of silica in alkali-activated fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the viability of using an agro-industrial by-product, rice husk ash (RHA from a Colombian rice company’s combustion facility, as a total replacement for the commercial sodium silicate ordinarily used in alkaliactivated binders. Fly ash (FA, granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and binary 50FA:50GBFS blended pastes were activated with a mix of sodium hydroxide and either sodium silicate or one of two types of RHA. The pastes were characterised for strength, mineralogy and microstructure. The findings showed that the agro-industrial by-product can be used to yield alkali-activated materials with 7-day mechanical strengths on the order of 42 MPa. The study confirmed that both amorphous silica and part of the crystalline silica present in RHA participate in the alkaline activation process, providing the alkalinity is suitably adjusted.Este estudio evalúa la viabilidad de utilizar un subproducto agroindustrial, la ceniza de cascarilla de arroz (RHA proveniente de un equipo combustor de una empresa Arrocera en Colombia, como reemplazo total de la sílice aportada por el silicato de sodio comercial en sistemas cementicios activados alcalinamente. Se prepararon pastas de ceniza volante (FA, de escoria de alto horno (GBFS y un sistema binario 50FA:50GBFS, que fueron activadas por una mezcla de silicato de sodio e hidróxido de sodio, y por dos tipos de RHA. Las mezclas se caracterizaron mecánica, mineralógica y microestructuralmente. Los resultados demuestran que es posible obtener materiales activados alcalinamente con resistencias mecánicas del orden de 42 MPa, a 7 días de curado, utilizando el subproducto agroindustrial. Este estudio corrobora que tanto la sílice amorfa como parte de la sílice cristalina presente en RHA tienen la posibilidad de participar en el proceso de activación alcalina, siempre y cuando las condiciones de alcalinidad estén adecuadamente ajustadas.

  4. Repulsion forces of superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media, from AFM measurements to rheological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios, M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrostatic and steric repulsion induced by different superplasticizers on ground granulated blast furnace slag in alkaline media have been studied. The superplasticizers were sulfonated naphthalene, sulfonated melamine, vinyl copolymer, and polycarboxylate- based admixtures. With these superplasticizers the slag suspensions had negative zeta potentials, ranging from -3 to -10 mV. For the first time the adsorbed layer thicknesses for superplasticizers on slag using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy has been measured. To model the interparticle force interactions an effective Hamaker constant was computed from dielectric properties measured on a dense slag sample produced by spark plasma sintering. The obtained results conclude that the dispersion mechanism for all the superplasticizers studied in the present work is mainly dominated by the steric repulsion. Results were then used in a yield stress model, YODEL, to predict the yield stress with and without the superplasticizers. Predictions of the yield stress agreed well with experimental results.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado la repulsión electrostática y estérica inducida por diferentes aditivos superplastificantes en sistemas de escoria de horno alto en medios alcalinos. Se han estudiado aditivos superplastificantes basados en naftaleno, melamina, copolímeros vinílicos y basados en policarboxilato. Estos aditivos inducen en la escoria un potencial zeta negativo, entre -3 y -10 mV. Por primera vez, se ha determinado el grosor de la capa de aditivo adsorbido sobre la escoria mediante microscopía de fuerzas atómicas (AFM. Para modelizar las fuerzas de interacción entre partículas, se ha determinado la constante efectiva de Hamaker de la escoria a partir de las propiedades dieléctricas de una muestra de escoria obtenida mediante sinterización spark plasma sintering. Los resultados obtenidos concluyen que el mecanismo de dispersión de los superplastificantes

  5. Energy saving in the pig iron production in the blast furnace no. 5; Ahorro de energia en la produccion de arrabio en el alto horno No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Diaz, Ricardo A.; J Quiroz, Francisco; Rodriguez, Rita Patricia; Banuelos Garza, Yolanda [Altos Hornos de Mexico, S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA) is an iron and steel industry integrated to Grupo Acereros del Norte in Monclova, in the Coahuila state. With an a installed capacity of 3.1 millions of tons per annum o liquid steel. In its installations, AHMSA has the highest capacity blast furnace installed in Mexico, blast furnace No. 5, that has a useful volume of 2,163 cubic meters, designed to produce 4,800 tons of pig iron per day. The basic goal to achieve in the operations involved in the production of steel through the pig iron production in the blast furnace, is the hot metal production at the lowest attainable cost within the quality requirements specified by the steel makers. The most important criterion for the recognition of the attained success is the fuel consumption per ton of pig iron produced, with coke as the main fuel fed to the blast furnace and therefore of the greatest impact on the final product cost. AHMSA contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently it is pending the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of liquid iron. In response to this, and faced to the true need of diminishing the production costs in the process of making pig iron, new practices have been implemented in the use of complementary fuels to partially substitute the metallurgical coke as an energy source for the blast furnace process. The use of natural gas, fuel oil and the gradual increase of the temperature of hot blow, have strongly impacted the metallurgical coke consumption, lowering it considerably and diminishing the costs per ton of pig iron in blast furnace No. 5. Another important issue, is the utilization of coke fines resulting form the sieving of the same, directly fed to the furnace load. This practice reduced the coke consumption, and most of all, the output of our coking plants was increased on being utilized at the maximum coke production

  6. Forensic Investigation of AC and PCC Pavements with Extended Service Life : Volume 3 : Petrographic Examination of Blast Furnace Slag Aggregate Concrete Cores taken from PCC Pavements in Cuyahoga County , Ohio : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Air-cooled blast furnace slag has been used as a coarse : aggregate in portland cement-based pavement concretes : since at least the early 1900s. Many of these concretes : have performed satisfactorily. In recent times a number : of PCC slag aggre...

  7. Influence of the activator concentration on the kinetics of the alkaline activation process of a blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Jiménez, A.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of activator solution concentration on hydration kinetics of an alkaline activated blast furnace slag has been studied. The alkaline activator used was a mix of waterglass (Na2SiO3∙nH2O and NaOH solution (of variable concentration. Final activator concentrations were 3,4 and 5 % Na2O wt. with respect to the slag total weight. Degree of reaction (α was determined from hydration heat values obtained through isothermal conduction calorimetry. From the results obtained it is deduced that a treshold value of 4 % Na2O wt. exists. For those concentrations and at test temperatures (except for 25ºC and 3 % Na2O wt., the mechanism controlling hydration reaction for a values higher than 0.5, is a diffusion process. This process is described by .Jander equation [D3=(1-(1-α1/32=(k/r2t=0,0426(t/t0,5]. The activation energy obtained for that process is of approximately 50-58 Kj/mol.

    Se ha estudiado la influencia de la concentración de la disolución activante en la cinética de hidratación de una escoria granulada de alto horno, activada alcalinamente a distintas temperaturas. El activador alcalino utilizado fue una mezcla de water glass (Na2SiO3∙nH2O con una disolución de NaOH (de concentración variable. Las concentraciones finales del activador alcalino fueron: 3, 4 y 5 % en peso de Na2O respecto a la masa total de escoria. El grado de reacción (α se determinó a partir de valores de calor de hidratación obtenidos por calorimetría de conducción isotérmica. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que existe un valor umbral de concentraciones en torno al 4 % en peso de Na2O. También para dichas concentraciones y a las temperaturas de ensayo (excepto a 25ºC con un 3 % en peso de Na2O, el mecanismo que controla la reacción de hidrataci

  8. Improving the properties of geopolymer containing oil-contaminated clay, metakaolin, and blast furnace slag by applying nano-SiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huan-Lin; Lin, Deng-Fong; Chen, Shih-Chieh

    2017-07-01

    In this study, geopolymer specimens based on calcined oil-contaminated clays (OCCs), metakaolin replacements of OCCs, and blast furnace slag were manufactured by the addition of nano-SiO 2 to improve their properties. The effects of adding 0, 1, 2, or 3% nano-SiO 2 on the properties and microstructures of the geopolymer specimens were determined using compressive strength tests, flow tests, setting time tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and silicon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Si-NMR). The results showed that the setting time and flowability of the geopolymer specimens decreased and the compressive strength increased as the amount of nano-SiO 2 increased. These results were supported by the SEM and Si-NMR assays. This study suggests that the addition of nano-SiO 2 was beneficial and improved the properties of the geopolymer specimens containing calcined OCC.

  9. Application of Ground Granulate Blast Furnace Slag-Steel Slag Composite Binder in a Massive Concrete Structure under Severe Sulphate Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A composite mineral binder was prepared by mixing ground granulate blast furnace slag (GGBS and steel slag (GGBS/steel slag ratios are 1 : 1 or 3 : 2 by mass. The application of a composite binder in a massive concrete structure under severe sulphate attack is discussed by determining the hydration heat, adiabatic temperature increase, compressive strength, elastic modulus, chloride ion permeability, and sulphate attack resistance. The results show that the hydration heat of the composite binder decreases greatly when the cement replacement ratio increases to 50% at 45°C. The adiabatic temperature rise of the concrete containing the composite mineral admixture decreases significantly. Concrete containing the composite mineral admixture has a lower early elastic modulus and satisfactory late-age compressive strength. The composite mineral admixture can improve the resistance to chloride ion permeability and sulphate attack resistance of concrete, especially during temperature match curing.

  10. The Influence of Allocation on the Carbon Footprint of Electricity Production from Waste Gas, a Case Study for Blast Furnace Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri Van Mierlo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Producing electricity from waste gas is an after treatment for waste gas while recovering the energy content. This paper addresses the methodology to calculate the effect that waste gas energy recovery has on lowering the impact of climate change. Greenhouse gases are emitted while burning the waste gas. However, a thorough study should include the production of the feedstock as well as the production of the infrastructure. A framework is developed to calculate the environmental impact of electricity production from waste gas with a life cycle approach. The present paper has a twofold purpose: to assess the climate change impact of generating electricity with blast furnace gas (BFG as a waste gas from the steel industry; and to establish a sensitivity assessment of the environmental implications of different allocation rules.

  11. Use of Cement Kiln Dust, Blast Furnace Slag and Marble Sludge in the Manufacture of Sustainable Artificial Aggregates by Means of Cold Bonding Pelletization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three different samples of solid industrial wastes cement kiln dust (CKD, granulated blast furnace slag and marble sludge were employed in a cold bonding pelletization process for the sustainable production of artificial aggregates. The activating action of CKD components on the hydraulic behavior of the slag was explored by evaluating the neo-formed phases present in several hydrated pastes. Particularly, the influence of free CaO and sulfates amount in the two CKD samples on slag reactivity was evaluated. Cold bonded artificial aggregates were characterized by determining physical and mechanical properties of two selected size fractions of the granules for each studied mixture. Eighteen types of granules were employed in C28/35 concrete manufacture where coarser natural aggregate were substituted with the artificial ones. Finally, lightweight concretes were obtained, proving the suitability of the cold bonding pelletization process in artificial aggregate sustainable production.

  12. Effect of High-Temperature Curing Methods on the Compressive Strength Development of Concrete Containing High Volumes of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonsuk Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the high-temperature curing methods on the compressive strength of concrete containing high volumes of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS. GGBS was used to replace Portland cement at a replacement ratio of 60% by binder mass. The high-temperature curing parameters used in this study were the delay period, temperature rise, peak temperature (PT, peak period, and temperature down. Test results demonstrate that the compressive strength of the samples with PTs of 65°C and 75°C was about 88% higher than that of the samples with a PT of 55°C after 1 day. According to this investigation, there might be optimum high-temperature curing conditions for preparing a concrete containing high volumes of GGBS, and incorporating GGBS into precast concrete mixes can be a very effective tool in increasing the applicability of this by-product.

  13. Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag; Cementos petroleros con adicion de escoria de horno alto. Caracteristicas y propiedades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. {sup 2}9Si and {sup 2}7Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

  14. Effect of incorporation of fly ash and granulated blast furnace in the electrochemical behavior of concretes of commercial cement; Efecto de la incorporacion de ceniza volante y escoria de horno alto en el comportamiento electroquimico de concretos de cemento comercial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Junco, O. J.; Pineda-Triana, Y.; Vera-Lopez, E.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the findings of the research properties evaluation pastes of commercial cement (CPC), mixed with fly ash (FA) and granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS). Initially, the sample of 30 combinations were evaluated in terms of compressive strength to establish the optimal proportions from raw material. After that, four optimized blends were characterized during the setting and hardening process. Electrochemical tests were performed on concrete cylinders samples prepared with cementitious materials and a structural steel rod placed in the center of the specimen. With the objective to evaluate the performance before corrosion, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects were taken into consideration. The findings showed that commercial cements blended with fly ash and blast furnace slag as the ones used in this research presents a decreased behavior in mechanical and corrosion strength regarding to CPC. (Author)

  15. Use of plastics in blast furnace processes: A contribution to ecologically and economically acceptable recycling of plastic waste; Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen - ein Beitrag zum oekologischen und oekonomischen Recycling von Altkunststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janz, J. [Stahlwerke Bremen GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The use of plastics in blast furnace processes has a number of advantages. For one thing, existing facilities can be used with only slight reconstruction measures. Next, the blast furnace process does not necessarily require plastics and therefore is independent of the available plastics volume. Further, it has a high utilisation potential. For example, the Bremen blast furnace No. II has only 8 nozzles out of 32 which are suited for plastics, but it can utilize 70,000 t/a, which is more than 13 percent of the total plastics volume collected by DSD. Indepenent eco-balances have shown that there is no better technology on the market at the moment. (orig) [Deutsch] Mit der Kunststoffverwertung im Hochofen steht ein Verfahren zur Verfuegung, das sich gleich in mehrfacher Hinsicht vor der Konkurrenz auszeichnet. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Verwertungen wird eine bereits vorhandene Anlage genutzt, an der lediglich zusatzeinrichtungen benoetigt werden. Gleichzeitig wird abfallpolitische Flexibilitaet dadurch erreicht, dass der Hochofen nicht auf das Reduktionsmittel Kunststoff angewiesen ist. Von wesentlicher Bedeutung ist auch die hohe Verwertungskapazitaet eines Hochofens. Unabhaengige Oekobilanzen und eigene Messungen haben zweifelsfrei gezeigt, dass ein besseres Verfahren zur Zeit nicht auf dem Markt ist. (orig)

  16. Estimation of Corrosion-Free Life for Concrete Containing Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag under a Chloride-Bearing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung In Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of chloride transport by diffusion in concrete containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS was mathematically estimated to predict the corrosion-free service life of concrete structures exposed to seawater environment. As a factor to corrosiveness of steel embedment, replacement ratio of GGBS was selected, accounting for 25 and 50% to total binder. As a result, it was found that an increase in the GGBS content resulted in an increase in the chloride binding capacity, which would give rise to a lower chloride diffusion rate, thereby reducing the risk of chloride-induced corrosion. When it comes to the sensitivity of parameters to service life, the effective diffusivity showed a marginal influence on serviceability, irrespective of GGBS contents while surface chloride content and critical threshold concentration revealed more crucial factors to long term chloride diffusion. As the GGBS replacement increased, the variation in service life has become less influential with changing parameters. Substantially, GGBS concrete at high replacement ratio enhanced the service life due to a combination of dense pore structure and enhanced chloride binding capacity.

  17. Data-Driven Robust RVFLNs Modeling of a Blast Furnace Iron-Making Process Using Cauchy Distribution Weighted M-Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ping; Lv, Youbin; Wang, Hong; Chai, Tianyou

    2017-09-01

    Optimal operation of a practical blast furnace (BF) ironmaking process depends largely on a good measurement of molten iron quality (MIQ) indices. However, measuring the MIQ online is not feasible using the available techniques. In this paper, a novel data-driven robust modeling is proposed for online estimation of MIQ using improved random vector functional-link networks (RVFLNs). Since the output weights of traditional RVFLNs are obtained by the least squares approach, a robustness problem may occur when the training dataset is contaminated with outliers. This affects the modeling accuracy of RVFLNs. To solve this problem, a Cauchy distribution weighted M-estimation based robust RFVLNs is proposed. Since the weights of different outlier data are properly determined by the Cauchy distribution, their corresponding contribution on modeling can be properly distinguished. Thus robust and better modeling results can be achieved. Moreover, given that the BF is a complex nonlinear system with numerous coupling variables, the data-driven canonical correlation analysis is employed to identify the most influential components from multitudinous factors that affect the MIQ indices to reduce the model dimension. Finally, experiments using industrial data and comparative studies have demonstrated that the obtained model produces a better modeling and estimating accuracy and stronger robustness than other modeling methods.

  18. Effects of Experimental Parameters on the Extraction of Silica and Carbonation of Blast Furnace Slag at Atmospheric Pressure in Low-Concentration Acetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungsun Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace slag (BFS, a calcium-rich industrial byproduct, has been utilized since 2005 as a mineral carbonation feedstock for CO2 sequestration, producing calcium carbonate precipitates. In this study, the conditions for the dissolution of Ca and Si in acetic acid, and subsequent carbonation, were elaborated. For this purpose, the retardation of the polymerization of silicon was attempted by varying the concentration of acetic acid, temperature, and leaching time. An inductively coupled plasma (ICP analysis revealed that both the Ca and Si dissolved completely within 30 min in 5% acetic acid at room temperature. This high dissolution value can be attributed to the fact that Ca was bound to O rather than to Si, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The use of CO2-absorbed monoethanolamine enabled the complete carbonation of BFS at ambient conditions without the need for a pH swing. The presence of dissolved silica was found to affect the polymorphs of the precipitated CaCO3. We believe that this process offers a simple method for manipulating the composites of products obtained by mineral carbonation diminishing the leaching residues.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE THIXOTROPY OF OIL-WELL CEMENTS USED FOR CEMENTING LOST CIRCULATION ZONES: EFFECT OF PLASTER AND BLAST FURNACE SLAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bouziani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cementing of oil and gas wells can be a very delicate operation. Among the concerns of service companies, during this operation are the nature and conditions of the formations in well. This is the case of cementing operations in southern Algeria, specifically on the fields of In-Amen, where the formations in lost zones are naturally weak and highly permeable. In these areas, drilling fluids (muds and cements pumped will be, completely or partially lost, what we call "lost circulation". Thixotropic cements are useful to overcome lost circulation problems. They are characterized by a special rheological behavior, allowing it to plug lost zones when they are pumped.Our work aims to assess the thixotropy of cements perapred with two types of cement (class G Asland cement and CEM I 42.5 portland cement with the plaster, using a viscometer with coaxial cylinder (couette type. Moreover, the effect of blast furnace slag (LHF on the properties and thixotropic mixtures prepared was also studied. The results show that portland cement (available locally can produce mixes with higher and more stable thixotropy than the class G cement (from importation, which is a practical and economical for cementing job operations in wells with loss zones. The results also show that the effect of LHF is positive, since in addition to his contribution to long term performances, especially the durability of hardened concrete, it improves the thixotropy of cement made of plaster.

  20. Data-Driven Robust M-LS-SVR-Based NARX Modeling for Estimation and Control of Molten Iron Quality Indices in Blast Furnace Ironmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Guo, Dongwei; Wang, Hong; Chai, Tianyou

    2017-09-29

    Optimal operation of an industrial blast furnace (BF) ironmaking process largely depends on a reliable measurement of molten iron quality (MIQ) indices, which are not feasible using the conventional sensors. This paper proposes a novel data-driven robust modeling method for the online estimation and control of MIQ indices. First, a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) model is constructed for the MIQ indices to completely capture the nonlinear dynamics of the BF process. Then, considering that the standard least-squares support vector regression (LS-SVR) cannot directly cope with the multioutput problem, a multitask transfer learning is proposed to design a novel multioutput LS-SVR (M-LS-SVR) for the learning of the NARX model. Furthermore, a novel M-estimator is proposed to reduce the interference of outliers and improve the robustness of the M-LS-SVR model. Since the weights of different outlier data are properly given by the weight function, their corresponding contributions on modeling can properly be distinguished, thus a robust modeling result can be achieved. Finally, a novel multiobjective evaluation index on the modeling performance is developed by comprehensively considering the root-mean-square error of modeling and the correlation coefficient on trend fitting, based on which the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II is used to globally optimize the model parameters. Both experiments using industrial data and industrial applications illustrate that the proposed method can eliminate the adverse effect caused by the fluctuation of data in BF process efficiently. This indicates its stronger robustness and higher accuracy. Moreover, control testing shows that the developed model can be well applied to realize data-driven control of the BF process.

  1. Nanosized zero-valent iron as Fenton-like reagent for ultrasonic-assisted leaching of zinc from blast furnace sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.mikhailov@misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, 4 Leninskiy prospekt, Moscow, 119049 (Russian Federation); Komarov, Sergey [Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8576 (Japan); Levina, Vera; Gusev, Alexander; Issi, Jean-Paul; Kuznetsov, Denis [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, 4 Leninskiy prospekt, Moscow, 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • nZVI is used as Fenton-like reagent for activation of Zn leaching from the BFS. • nZVI has positive effect on kinetics of Zn leaching though with some loss of efficiency. • A complex ultrasonic-assisted method for BFS recycling is proposed. - Abstract: Ultrasonic-assisted sulphuric acid leaching combined with a Fenton-like process, utilizing nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI), was investigated to enhance the leaching of zinc from the blast furnace sludge (BFS). The leaching of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) from the sludge was investigated using Milli-Q water/BFS ratio of 10 and varying the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, sulphuric acid, the temperature, the input energy for ultrasound irradiation, and the presence or absence of nZVI as a Fenton reagent. The results showed that with 1 g/l addition of nZVI and 0.05 M of hydrogen peroxide, the kinetic rate of Zn leaching increased with a maximum dissolution degree of 80.2%, after 5 min treatment. In the absence of nZVI, the maximum dissolution degree of Zn was 99.2%, after 15 min treatment with 0.1 M of hydrogen peroxide. The rate of Zn leaching at several concentrations of hydrogen peroxide is accelerated in the presence of nZVI although a reduction in efficiency was observed. The loss of Fe was no more than 3%. On the basis of these results, the possible route for BFS recycling has been proposed (BFS slurry mixed with sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide is recirculated under ultrasonic irradiation then separated).

  2. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  3. INFLUENCE OF THE MODERN SYSTEMS OF THE BLAST STEEL-FURNACE ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS CONTROL ON CAPACITY AND TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL INDICES OF MELTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Andrianov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of time under the current, electric energy rate, electrodes rate at working of arc steel-furnace with new transformer of capacity 95 MBA and with regulating system SIMELT-AC-NEC are noted.

  4. Electrosynthesis of Ti5Si3, Ti5Si3/TiC, and Ti5Si3/Ti3SiC2 from Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag in Molten CaCl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangshu; Zou, Xingli; Zheng, Kai; Lu, Xionggang; Chen, Chaoyi; Li, Xin; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu

    2018-04-01

    Ti5Si3, Ti5Si3/TiC, and Ti5Si3/Ti3SiC2 have been electrochemically synthesized from the Ti-bearing blast furnace slag/TiO2 and/or C mixture precursors at a cell voltage of 3.8 V and 1223 K to 1273 K (950 °C to 1000 °C) in molten CaCl2. The pressed porous mixture pellets were used as the cathode, and a solid oxide oxygen-ion-conducting membrane (SOM)-based anode was used as the anode. The phase composition and morphologies of the cathodic products were systematically characterized. The final products possess a porous nodular microstructure due to the interconnection of particles. The variations of impurity elements, i.e., Ca, Mg, and Al, have been analyzed, and the result shows that Ca and Mg can be almost completely removed; however, Al cannot be easily removed from the pellet due to the formation of Ti-Al alloys during the electroreduction process. The electroreduction process has also been investigated by the layer-depended phase composition analysis of the dipped/partially reduced pellets to understand the detailed reaction process. The results indicate that the electroreduction process of the Ti-bearing blast furnace slag/TiO2 and/or C mixture precursors can be typically divided into four periods, i.e., (i) the decomposition of initial Ca(Mg,Al)(Si,Al)2O6, (ii) the reduction of Ti/Si-containing intermediate phases, (iii) the removal of impurity elements, and (iv) the formation of Ti5Si3, TiC, and Ti3SiC2. It is suggested that the SOM-based anode process has great potential to be used for the direct and facile preparation of Ti alloys and composites from cheap Ti-containing ores.

  5. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace - Transformational Ironmaking Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Kao [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Debski, Paul [Andritz Metals Inc.,Canonsburg, PA (United States)

    2014-11-19

    The U. S. steel industry has reduced its energy intensity per ton of steel shipped by 33% since 1990. However, further significant gains in energy efficiency will require the development of new, transformational iron and steelmaking processes. The Paired Straight Hearth Furnace (PSH) process is an emerging alternative high productivity, direct reduced iron (DRI) technology that may achieve very low fuel rates and has the potential to replace blast furnace ironmaking. The PSH furnace can operate independently or may be coupled with other melting technologies to produce liquid hot metal that is both similar to blast furnace iron and suitable as a feedstock for basic oxygen steelmaking furnaces. The PSH process uses non-metallurgical coal as a reductant to convert iron oxides such as iron ore and steelmaking by-product oxides to DRI pellets. In this process, a multi-layer, nominally 120mm tall bed of composite “green balls” made from oxide, coal and binder is built up and contained within a moving refractory hearth. The pellet bed absorbs radiant heat energy during exposure to the high temperature interior refractory surfaces of the PSH while generating a strongly reducing gas atmosphere in the bed that yields a highly metalized DRI product. The PSH concept has been well tested in static hearth experiments. A moving bed design is being developed. The process developers believe that if successful, the PSH process has the potential to replace blast furnaces and coke ovens at a fraction of the operating and capital cost while using about 30% less energy relative to current blast furnace technology. DRI output could also feed electric arc furnaces (EAFs) by displacing a portion of the scrap charge.

  6. Energetic analysis versus exergetic analysis of charcoal blast furnace of V and M do Brazil; Analise energetica versus analise exergetica do alto forno a carvao vegetal da V and M do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira [V e M do BRASIL S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Franca, Geraldo Augusto Campolina; Lemos, Ricardo Jose Fernandes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    The energetic analysis is the traditional method of quantification of the energy used in an operation involving physical and chemical processes and transference and/or conversion of energy. Generally used through energetic balance that is based on the first law of thermodynamics to evaluate the energetic efficiency. This balance is used to determine and reduce the loss of energy. Although an energy balance does not provide information about the energy degradation or resources during a process and do not quantify the potential or quality of the energy fluxes and material that flow in a system and come out as products and losses. The exergetic analysis goes beyond the limitations of the first law of thermodynamics. The concept of exergy is based in the second law of thermodynamics. The objective of this paper is to compare the more suitable analysis method aiming the identification of the energy economy potentials and consequently the reduction in the emissions of the greenhouse gases, through the balance of mass, energy and exergy of the blast furnace 1 of V and M do Brazil. (author)

  7. Granular flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2012-01-01

    Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing ...... on the shear flow of dry granular materials and granule-liquid mixture....

  8. The influence of chemical composition and fineness on the performance of alkali activated cements obtained from blast furnace slags; A influencia da composicao quimica e da finura no desempenho de cimentos alcali ativados obtidos com escorias de alto forno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langaro, Eloise Aparecida; Matoski, Adalberto, E-mail: elolangaro@hotmail.com, E-mail: adalberto@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba (Brazil); Luz, Caroline Angulski da; Buth, Islas Stein; Moraes, Maryah Costa de; Pereira Filho, Jose Ilo, E-mail: angulski@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: islas_sb@hotmail.com, E-mail: maryah_moraes@hotmail.com, E-mail: ilofilho@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Pato Branco, PR (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    New binders are being developed for concrete in order to reduce the environmental impact mainly related to CO{sub 2} emissions. Alkali -activated cements (CATs) are obtained from lime-aluminosilicate materials and an alkali activator and can reduce by 80% the emission of CO{sub 2} compared to Portland Cement (PC). Papers have also shown physical and mechanical properties similar or higher than those presented by the PC, however, the activation of raw material is complex. Recent papers have also have showed a strong influence of the characteristics of raw material on the performance of CAT, however, little mentioned in the literature.. Therefore, this paper aimed to analyze the influence of characteristics of blast furnace slag (fineness and chemical composition) on the behavior of activated alkali cements. For this purpose, two slags were used, A and B, which were submitted to different milling times; and activated using 5% of NaOH. Mortars and pastes were prepared for compressive strength testing (7 and 28 days), measurements of heat of hydration and investigation of microstructure (XRD and DSC) were made. The results showed that the mortar made with slag A reached a very good mechanical performance, close to 48MPa at 28 days, and higher formation of CSH, in opposite of slag B. The probable hypothesis of this study is that the system formed in CAT made with slag A (containing more Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) could provide CSH with a greater incorporation of Al and a lower crystallinity, increasing the mechanical strength. (author)

  9. Desempenho de telhas de escória de alto forno e fibras vegetais em protótipos de galpões Performance of tiles composed of blast furnace slag and vegetable fiber in prototype barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela N. da Conceição

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Busca-se, em todo o mundo, a substituição do cimento amianto por alternativas seguras para o ambiente e para a saúde do trabalhador, além de econômicas, razão por que o uso de fibras vegetais como aglomerado em países tropicais onde estes resíduos são abundantes, tem-se mostrado bastante viável. No presente experimento foram comparadas telhas de cimento amianto pintadas com tinta reflexiva, telhas cerâmicas e telhas compostas de uma matriz à base de cimento Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735, escória de alto-forno (EAF e sílica ativa, reforçadas com fibras de polpa celulósica de sisal (Agave sisalana. Utilizaram-se protótipos de galpões avícolas nos quais o calor produzido pelas aves foi simulado por lâmpadas incandescentes. Para caracterização do ambiente térmico lançou-se mão dos índices de conforto: ITU (índice de temperatura e umidade, ITGU (índice de temperatura de globo e umidade, CTR (carga térmica radiante e entalpia (H em que os resultados demonstraram que as telhas compostas apresentaram comportamento térmico semelhante ao das telhas cerâmicas, podendo ser utilizadas em substituição às telhas de cimento amianto.The substitution of cement asbestos by safer and equally economical alternatives has being searched for throughout the world. The usage of vegetal staple fiber as agglomerate in tropical countries where these residues are abundant has shown it self to be viable. In this study, roofing tiles fabricated with cement base Portland CPII 32Z (ABNT NBR-5735, blast furnace slag (EAF, active silica reinforced with cellulose pulp staple fibers of sisal (Agave sisalana were compared with cement asbestos roofing tiles with white paint and ceramic roofing tiles. Prototypes of poultry facilities were used and lamps simulated the heat produced by the birds. Indices ITU, ITGU, CTR and entalpy (H were employed for the characterization of the thermal atmospheric comfort and the results showed that the alternative

  10. Granular patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Aranson, Igor S

    2009-01-01

    This title presents a review of experiments and novel theoretical concepts needed to understand the mechanisms of pattern formation in granular materials. An effort is made to connect concepts and ideas developed in granular physics with new emergent fields, especially in biology, such as cytoskeleton dynamics.

  11. Avaliação das possibilidades de escórias de siderurgia como corretivos da acidez do solo Evaluation of blast furnace slags as correctives for soil acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Pimentel Wutke

    1962-01-01

    .This paper presents preliminary results obtained in a greenhouse test in which blast furnace slags and other lime materials were compared as soil correctives. Comparisons were made between dolomitic limestone, calcitic limestone, oyster-shell lime, slag from iron production and slag from steel production by the Martin-Siemens basic procedure. These materials were compared at two different rates. General application of NPK fertilizers was made and the control treatment received no lime. The soybean variety Abura (Glycine max (L. Merril was utilized as an indicator plant; four plants were grown in each pot. Final grain production was measured and soil samples were collected, from the pots, in order to check the pH and exchangeable acidity (H+ + Al+3. The results obtained showed that under the conditions of the test, the dolomitic limestone, the calcitic limestone and the oyster-shell lime were all equally efficient in their corrective effect. The slag from steel production showed an intermediary effect, while the slag from iron prodution appeared to be the least efficient. The grain yield from these treatments did not presente any statistically significant difference. The actual grinding of the materials used in the experiment seemed satisfactory. A finer grinding is not deemed necessary unless it is required by the legislation covering the commerce of soil correctives.

  12. Development and start up of a co-injection system of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace no. 4; Desarrollo y puesta en operacion de un sistema de co-inyeccion de alquitran/gas natural en el alto horno no. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon Rodriguez, Manuel I.; Mata Esparza, Hector Rolando; Arevalo Ballesteros, Gerardo [Altos Hornos de Mexico S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The crisis has attracted the world`s attention on the need for energy conservation and the development in a greater extent the utilization of carbon base fuels and other energy sources (nuclear energy). Being a blast furnace, not only an energy consumer but also an energy producer, the greatest contribution to the pig iron cost is the energy needed to melt and reduce to metallic state the iron ores, this energy is mainly derived from coke. The dependence on coal via the coking plant to produce first fusion iron is incremented day after day as a result of the high levels of production. Altos Hornos de Mexico (AHMSA), contemplated within its strategic plan, the reduction in the production of its coking plants derived from the natural aging of its furnaces, consequently the shortage of coke for productions higher than 2.6 MMT of pig iron is pending. The injection of fuels into a blast furnace through its nozzles is a technology used for the diminishing the coke consumption of coke, its use implies a change in the philosophy of the blast furnace operation, and is currently employed in most of the blast furnaces of the world. AHMSA taking advantage of coal tar production (approx. 130 tons/day) in its coking plants decided the design and put into operation a co-injection system of coal tar and natural gas. The activities tending to carry out this project were initiated on April 1993, performing all of them with its own resources, completing them on July 18, 1993, day on which the injection of coal tar/natural gas in blast furnace No. 4 in a stable form. To date (October 1993), the coal tar injection has been increased up to 36 kg/ton of pig iron. During the injection periods, the presence of operational, mechanical and instrumentation problems have not been an obstacle for the evolution on the injection, fulfilling its function of substituting coke in a replacing relationship of 1:1, i.e. 1 kg of coal tar per each kg of coke, without affecting the product quality

  13. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  14. Electromelt furnace evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, G.A.; Welch, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high

  15. Identification and detection of murine leukemia blasts by flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Human leukemia has been determined and classified with the help of flow cytometry for the past two decades. Past attempts to detect leukemia blasts relied on both forward and side scatter (FSC and SSC) based on cell size and granularity. However, this technique failed to show a clean separation of blasts from normal lineage cells. In 1993, Borowitz, et al developed flow cytometric analysis to distinguish human leukemia blasts from other normal lineage cells by using fluorescence-conjugated CD...

  16. Blast Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    Team Leader Risa Scherer Blast Mitigation Interior and Laboratory Team Leader Blast Technologies POC’s Government Point Of Contacts (POCs): To...to yield injury assessments at higher fidelities and with higher confidence UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Risa Scherer Blast Mitigation Interior and

  17. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  18. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  19. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Furnaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces that are effective as of February 1,...

  1. IRON ORE SINTER PRODUCTION USING ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST AS RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bridi Telles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The steel production through Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF generates approximately 15% to 20% of Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD. This waste is considered dangerous due to the presence of metals as lead and cadmium that leach in contact with water. Because of this, the EAFD recycling becomes an alternative to diminish the costs with landfills and environmental harms caused by the waste. The iron ore sintering is a process that reuses most part of powders generated by the steelmaking. However the EAFD is not reused in this process because it contains zinc. The zinc is highly detrimental inside blast furnaces causing heavy crusts and affecting the thermodynamic equilibrium of the process. Therefore, this work studies the EAFD reuse in the iron ore sintering process to produce iron ore sinter with zinc contents between the limits established for blast furnaces.

  2. Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with diff erent addition of water glass, bentonite and cement. Quality of briquettes was tested by compression – strength test and by break down test in green state, after drying and afterstoring (1 month.

  3. Radioactive waste melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Junpei.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a radioactive waste melting furnace excellent in heat insulating property, capable of exchanging only refractory materials with lesser amount of contamination. Namely, an heat insulation layer is disposed on the outer wall of the melting furnace. A refractory layer is disposed on the inner wall being in contact with molten materials in the melting furnace. A metal vessel covering the refractory layer is interposed between the heat insulation layer and the refractory layer. In addition, a metal outer shell covering the heat insulation layer is disposed on the heat insulation layer on the outer wall of the melting furnace. Bricks comprising, for example, alumina, carbon, zircon, magnesia or chromia having a low heat conductivity are used for the outer wall heat insulation layer irrespective of the melting performance. The refractory layer on the inner wall is made of bricks comprising chromia, alumina and zircon as molten materials of low basicity and chromia and magnesia as molten materials of high basicity. The materials of the metal vessel may be ordinary carbon steels, cast irons, or stainless steels. The refractory layer is taken out from the melting furnace together with the metal vessel, and only the refractory layer can be removed. Radiation contamination is eliminated. The metal vessel can be used again. (I.S.)

  4. Granular media : flow & agitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksman, Joshua Albert

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is about weakly driven granular flows and suspensions. Chapter 1 is an overview of the current knowledge of slow granular flows in so-called split-bottom geometries, which in essence consist of a disk rotating at the bottom of a container. In chapter 2 we study dry granular flows in this

  5. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  6. Non-carbon induction furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  7. Improved Casting Furnace Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, David Donald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to ensure more consistent casting results and remove some schedule variance associated with casting, an improved casting furnace concept has been developed. The improved furnace uses the existing arc melter hardware and glovebox utilities. The furnace concept was designed around physical and operational requirements such as; a charge sized of less than 30 grams, high heating rates and minimal additional footprint. The conceptual model is shown in the report as well as a summary of how the requirements were met.

  8. SITUATIONAL CONTROL OF HOT BLAST STOVES GROUP BASED ON DECISION TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Kobysh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was developed the control system of group of hot blast stoves, which operates on the basis of the packing heating control subsystem and subsystem of forecasting of modes duration in the hot blast stoves APCS of iron smelting in a blast furnace. With the use of multi-criteria optimization methods, implemented the adjustment of control system conduct, which takes into account the current production situation that has arisen in the course of the heating packing of each hot blast stove group. Developed a situation recognition algorithm and the choice of scenarios of control based on a decision tree.

  9. Granular acute lymphoblastic leukaemia of childhood: a morphological phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, P J; Lilleyman, J S

    1987-01-01

    Three hundred and twenty consecutive children with lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), treated on the Medical Research Council UKALL VIII schedule, had their Romanowsky stained diagnostic marrows reviewed for the presence of azurophil granules in blast cell cytoplasm. Twenty patients (7%) had greater than 5% blasts showing this feature; 19 had the cell phenotype of "common ALL." Male children and those with French-American-British (FAB) L2 morphology predominantly showed this feature. There was also a strong correlation between granularity and non-diffuse acid phosphate positivity, but no obvious difference between the 20 patients in their response to treatment emerged during a minimum follow up of 15 months. The "granular" variant occurs in around 7% of children with ALL, but has no clear prognostic importance. Morphologists should be aware of its existence and incidence to avoid confusion with acute myeloid leukaemia. Images p252-a PMID:3470317

  10. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  11. CORELESS INDUCTION FURNACE. CONSTRUCTIVE DIFFERENCES, OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Saharevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main tendencies of development of induction crucible furnaces are considered. constructive differences of crucible furnaces in comparison with fuel furnaces are given. The area of their application is specified.

  12. Cystic Granular Cell Ameloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Thillaikarasi, Rathnavel; Balaji, Jayaram; Gupta, Bhawna; Ilayarja, Vadivel; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata; Vidula, Balachander; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam; Ponniah, Irulandy

    2010-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive benign epithelial odontogenic tumor, while unicystic ameloblastoma is a relatively less aggressive variant. Although rare in unicystic or cystic ameloblastoma, granular cell change in ameloblastoma is a recognized phenomenon. The purpose of the present article is to report a case of cystic granular cell ameloblastoma in 34-year old female.

  13. A research on ceramsite obtained from blast furnace slag and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... This study investigated the feasibility of that at different preheating and sintering temperature ... 2002), lime (Guozhuo et al., 2009), fly ash (Gengying and. Xiaohua, 2003; Halit et al., 2008) to produce ... BFS in this study was obtained from the energy factory of MA. STEEL GROUP, MaAnShan, China. BFS is ...

  14. Granulated blast furnace slag – A boon for foundry industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predetermined quantities of sodium silicate and Fe-Si powder were added to the mould ingredients; blending was conducted in a timeframe of five ... were analyzed and same was reported. Figure 2 ... particles with foaming action around it, which can be clearly visible from the obtained SEM images of the moulds under.

  15. Identification of possible non-stationary effects in a new type of vortex furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrin Evgeniy Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an experimental study of pressure and velocity pulsations in the model of improved vortex furnace with distributed air supply and vertically oriented nozzles of the secondary blast. Investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of a swirling flow with different regime parameters was conducted in an isothermal laboratory model (in 1:25 scale of vortex furnace using laser Doppler measuring system and pressure pulsations analyzer. The obtained results have revealed a number of features of the flow structure, and the spectral analysis of pressure and velocity pulsations allows to speak about the absence of large-scale unsteady vortical structures in the studied design.

  16. Granular gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Brilliantov, Nikolai

    2003-01-01

    While there is not yet any general theory for granular materials, significant progress has been achieved for dilute systems, also called granular gases. The contributions in this book address both the kinetic approach one using the Boltzmann equation for dissipative gases as well as the less established hydrodynamic description. The last part of the book is devoted to driven granular gases and their analogy with molecular fluids. Care has been taken so as to present the material in a pedagogical and self-contained way and this volume will thus be particularly useful to nonspecialists and newcomers to the field.

  17. Análise fluido-dinâmica do escoamento em ensaio de permeabilidade ao ar de argamassas preparadas com cimento Portland de alto-forno Fluid-dynamic analysis of the flow in air permeability measurement of mortars prepared with blast-slag furnace Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Pereira

    2008-06-01

    . These studies not only have evaluated the permeability of porous media, but also to analyze the behavior of the fluid during the flow. Being about to the cement based materials, the measuring of the permeability becomes basic so that the durability of these can be estimate, therefore is the permeability that controls the rate of ingression and movement of deleterious agents inside these materials. Thus, diverse methodologies and mathematical equations have been used to foresee the permeability of cementitious materials, however, some discrepancies and nonsense in the results have been found. Amongst the used methodologies to measure the permeability of porous media, one meets developed it by Thenoz, which it has demonstrated good results in cement based materials. Thus, this work aims at, by means of assay of permeability to air, carried through in accordance with the methodology of Thenoz, to evaluate the fluid-dynamic behavior of air during the assay of permeability in mortars. For this, mortars prepared with two types of Portland cement of blast furnace (CP IIE-32 and CP III - 32, two relations water/cement (0.5 and 0.6 and ages of 14 and 28 days were used. By means of the gotten results it was possible to observe that during the draining the compressibility of air can be ignored, the regimen of draining can be considered as to plate, demonstrating that the methodology proposal for Thenoz and used mathematical equations can result in coefficients of trustworthy air permeability, therefore phenomena and considerations that could influence in this type of flow can be neglected, in accordance with what it is considered by literature.

  18. Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Cynthia

    2014-09-01

    Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

  19. Arc -furnace Flicker Compensation in Ethiopia.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    series capacitors nor the translater scheme is appli- cable where more ... The arc furnace is of conventional design. The furnace ... power of the furnace. This reactor had three tappings and a short-circuiting switch. REQUIREMENTS OF THE COMPENSATOR. The fluctuations could be caused by the furnace on whichever ...

  20. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  1. Granular computing: perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, JingTao; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Pedrycz, Witold

    2013-12-01

    Granular computing, as a new and rapidly growing paradigm of information processing, has attracted many researchers and practitioners. Granular computing is an umbrella term to cover any theories, methodologies, techniques, and tools that make use of information granules in complex problem solving. The aim of this paper is to review foundations and schools of research and to elaborate on current developments in granular computing research. We first review some basic notions of granular computing. Classification and descriptions of various schools of research in granular computing are given. We also present and identify some research directions in granular computing.

  2. Generating electricity and heat from lean gas. Dual fuel engine generates electricity and process heat from cupola furnace gas; Strom und Waerme aus Schwachgas gewinnen. Zuendstrahlmotor erzeugt Strom und Prozesswaerme aus Kupolofengas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirn, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    White-hot molten iron flows into the launder. The blast of heat released provides visitors with an impressive demonstration of the amount of energy flowing in foundries. Large volumes of carbon (coke) are used for the melting process in the cupola furnace, whereby a combustible process gas is formed as a by-product. This so-called cupola furnace gas has a low heating value and has previously been completely combusted for generating the hot blast in the cupola furnace's recuperator. However, in this process only around 35 % of the contained energy is used thermally. Now it is possible to utilise the remaining 65 % of the chemically bound energy that was previously not used in most foundries: a modified biogas combined heat and power plant runs with cupola furnace gas (CFG) from the melting furnace. (orig.)

  3. Skid resistance performance of asphalt wearing courses with electric arc furnace slag aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagia, Fotini

    2009-05-01

    Metallurgical slags are by-products of the iron and steel industry and are subdivided into blast furnace slag and steel slag according to the different steel-producing processes. In Greece, slags are mostly produced from steelmaking using the electric arc furnace process, and subsequently are either disposed in a random way or utilized by the cement industry. Steel slag has been recently used, worldwide, as hard aggregates in wearing courses in order to improve the skidding resistance of asphalt pavements. At the Highway Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki research has been carried out in the field of steel slags, and especially in electric arc furnace (EAF) slag, to evaluate their possible use in highway engineering. In this paper, the recent results of anti-skidding performance of steel slag aggregates in highway pavements are presented.

  4. Impact of granular drops

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  5. High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop a high efficiency solar furnace core that greatly lessens the heat losses from the furnace core, either greatly reducing the amount of...

  6. Granular Cell Tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necrosis within the tumor was absent, no mitosis was. Granular cell tumors are seldom diagnosed identified in the section and the edges of the accurately clinically. The lesion in this case was sample were tumor free (Figure 2). mistaken for a sebaceous cyst and following ulceration resembled carcinoma of the vulvar.

  7. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  8. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A cylindrical furnace with three heating zones, capable of providing a temperature of 1100°C, has been fabricated to enable recording of absorption spectra of high temperature species. The temperature of the furnace can be controlled to ± 1°C of the set temperature. The salient feature of this furnace is that the material ...

  9. Type-2 fuzzy granular models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Mauricio A; Castro, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.

  10. Model investigations 3D of gas-powder two phase flow in descending packed bed in metallurgical shaft furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    B. Panic; K. Janiszewski

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the second phase of model investigations of static pressure radial distribution conducted on 4 levels of bed height. During the phase the diameter of glass bed particles was increased, blast-furnace pellets were introduced as bed and iron powder was used as powder. Experiments were carried out with regard to gas velocity, bed and powder type and size of bed particles. The radial distribution of 3 fractions of powder accumulated in the bed – static powder, dynamic powder an...

  11. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  12. Furnace profile effects on glass shell formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Holleran, T.P.; Downs, R.L.; Homyk, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    In the course of blowing glass shells in a furnace drop tower it has been observed that furnace temperature profile affects shell aspect ratio. Wall uniformity appears less sensitive to temperature profile as long as some minimum-time/temperature history is achieved for a given glass composition. Quantitative results will be reported from experiments wherein the furnace temperature profile is systematically varied and the resultant shells are statistically analyzed for aspect ratio and wall uniformity

  13. Granular flows : fluidization and anisotropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, Gerrit Herman

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the flow of granular materials (e.g. sand). Even though a single particle is a simple object, the collective behavior of billions of particles can be very complex. In a surprisingly large amount of cases, it is not exactly known how a granular material behaves, and this while

  14. Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

    2004-01-24

    In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

  15. Tracer tests on furnaces at Metalloys Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.; Wedepohl, A.

    1983-01-01

    During 1980, thirteen double tests were carried out with five radioactive isotopes on three furnaces at Metalloys Limited, near Meyerton. Each double test involved the introduction of a sample of coke impregnated with lanthanum and a sample of irradiated manganese ore ( 54 Mn or 59 Fe), irradiated quartzite ( 46 Sc), or irradiated coal ( 46 Sc, 59 Fe, and 60 Co). The tests were conducted on the three large furnaces for the production of high-carbon ferromanganese, viz M10, M11, and M12. The radioactivity of samples of the metal and the slag leaving the furnace was measured by the Isotopes and Activation Division of the Atomic Energy Board (AEB). Response curves and computer analyses are presented on the elution of the tracers from the furnaces. The response curves for the tracers, which were inserted close to the electrodes, are discussed so that the salient differences between their passage through the three furnaces can be established. The results obtained give support to the findings of a dig-out carried out on furnace M10 during 1977. The metal and slag products of furnace M12 were subjected to mineralogical investigation so that the major phases in the furnace products could be determined. Details of the calculation of the mean residence time for material in furnace M12 are given in an appendix

  16. The thermal treatment of electric arc furnace dust under low gas phase pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Derda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of laboratory tests on the process of thermal reduction of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD in the temperature range from 1273 to 1473 K. Before proceeding to the experimental tests, a thermodynamic analysis was made using the computer program FactSage® with the aim of determining the optimal conditions for the dust components reduction reaction to proceed. The results of tests carried out, respectively, under atmospheric pressure conditions and under reduced pressure conditions are presented, where carbon in the form of graphite and blast-furnace dust (containing approx. 40 % of carbon was used as the reducer. The test results represent the effect of reduced pressure on the potential for intensifying the process of zinc removal from the dust. The degree of zinc extraction was considerably higher compared to the results of tests carried out under atmospheric pressure conditions.

  17. Influence of Addition of Briquettes with Dust Content into the Charge of Electric Induction Furnace on Cast Iron Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribulová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foundry dust from blasting and grinding of castings contain a high amount of iron, ergo it is possible its recycling in foundry process.Dust was compacted by briquetting, two kinds of briquettes were prepared (A contained 95% magnetic part of dust from casting blasting+5% bentonite and B contained 95% mixture of dust from casting grinding and magnetic part of dust from casting blasting + 5%bentonite and used as a part of charge into the electric induction furnace. It was found that addition of briquettes has had an influence of a chemical composition of cast iron above all on content of sulphur, phosphorus and silicon. It was not reflected in decrease in tensile strength and in microstructure. Yield of metal from briquettes was not lower then 70%.

  18. Using a Time Granularity Table for Gradual Granular Data Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    The majority of today’s systems increasingly require sophisticated data management as they need to store and to query large amounts of data for analysis and reporting purposes. In order to keep more “detailed” data available for longer periods, “old” data has to be reduced gradually to save space...... is 6 months old aggregate to 2 minutes level from 1 minute level and so on. The proposed solution introduces a time granularity based data structure, namely a relational time granularity table that enables long term storage of old data by maintaining it at different levels of granularity and effective...

  19. Using a Time Granularity Table for Gradual Granular Data Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    The majority of today’s systems increasingly require sophisticated data management as they need to store and to query large amounts of data for analysis and reporting purposes. In order to keep more “detailed” data available for longer periods, “old” data has to be reduced gradually to save space...... is 6 months old aggregate to 2 minutes level from 1 minute level and so on. The proposed solution introduces a time granularity based data structure, namely a relational time granularity table that enables long term storage of old data by maintaining it at different levels of granularity and effective...

  20. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    our laboratory. The components and accessories required for operating this furnace are described here. The salient feature of this furnace is that it contains three separate heating zones. The heating zone at .... spectrograph, the electronic absorption spectrum of C1Π ← X1Σ system of InBr at. ~ 2800 Å. The bands of C ← X ...

  1. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  2. Biomass furnace: projection and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

  3. Granular cast iron with boron and its application to the mixing of concrete for protection against nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention aims to propose a concrete additive which, alone, brings together a high density property able to stop the gamma radiations, combined with a large cross section, able to capture the thermal neutrons. With this in view, the first object of the invention is the application of granular cast iron containing around 0.1 to 5% boron by weight. Its further object is the fabrication of this granular material, characterized by a preparation in the cupola furnace into which is injected a boron compound, preferably ore containing boron [fr

  4. Design and Development of Tilting Rotary Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Varun, V.; Tejesh, P.; Prashanth, B. N.

    2018-02-01

    Casting is the best and effective technique used for manufacturing products. The important accessory for casting is furnace. Furnace is used to melt the metal. A perfect furnace is one that reduces the wastage of material, reduces the cost of manufacturing and there by reduces the cost of production. Of all the present day furnaces there may be wastage of material, and the chances of increasing the time of manufacturing as the is continuous need of tilting of the furnace for every mould and then changing the moulds. Considering these aspects, a simple and least expensive tilting rotary furnace is designed and developed. The Tilting and Rotary Furnace consists of mainly melting chamber and the base. The metal enters the melting chamber through the input door that is provided on the top of the melting chamber. Inside the melting chamber there is a graphite furnace. The metal is melted in the graphite crucible. An insulation of ceramic fibre cloth is provided inside the furnace. The metal is melted using Propane gas. The propane gas is easily available and economic. The gas is burned using a pilot burner. The pilot burner is more efficient that other burners. The pilot burner is lit with a push button igniter. The pilot burner is located at the bottom of the combustion chamber. This enables the uniform heating of the metal inside the crucible. The temperature inside the melting chamber is noted using a temperature sensor. The gas input is cut-off if the temperature is exceeding a specific temperature. After the melting of the metal is done the furnace is tilted and after the mould is filled it is rotated. The external gears are used to controlling the tilting. The results of studies carried out for the design & development of low cost, simple furnace that can be mounted anywhere on the shop floor and this can be very much useful for the education purposes and small scale manufacturing. The furnace can be rotated in 360 degrees and can help in reducing the time taken

  5. 3D Model Studies on the Effect of Bed and Powder Type Upon Radial Static Pressure and Powder Distribution in Metallurgical Shaft Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panic B.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of gases in metallurgical shaft furnaces has a decisive influence on the course and process efficiency. Radial changes in porosity of the bed cause uneven flow of gas along the radius of the reactor, which sometimes is deliberate and intentional. However, holdup of solid particles in descending packed beds of metallurgical shaft furnaces can lead to unintentional changes in porosity of the bed along the radial reactor. Unintentional changes in porosity often disrupt the flow of gas causing poor performance of the furnace. Such disruptions of flow may occur in the blast furnace due to high level of powder content in gas caused by large amount of coal dust/powder insufflated as fuel substitute. The paper describes the model test results of radial distribution of static pressure and powder hold up within metallurgical reactor. The measurements were carried out with the use of 3D physical model of two-phase flow gas-powder in the moving (descending packed bed. Sinter or blast furnace pellets were used as packed bed while carbon powder or iron powder were used as the powder. Wide diversity within both static pressure distribution and powder distribution along the radius of the reactor were observed once the change in the type of powder occurred.

  6. Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of furnace thermal dynamics, and design of control systems are addressed. The optical scanning system is shown to greatly improve pyrometer measurement repeatability, particularly where heavy floating slag accumulations cause surface temperature gradients. Thermal dynamics of the furnaces were determined by applying least-squares system identification techniques to actual production data. A unity feedback control system utilizing a proportional-integral-derivative compensator is designed by using frequency-domain techniques. 14 refs

  7. Programmable temperature regulator of VAO-1 furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahalka, F.

    1979-01-01

    A programmable temperature controller is described for a furnace for high-level waste processing. Furnace temperature is controlled by a program compiled from a combination of 3 parts with different linear increments or decrements of time dependent temperature and 2 parts with isothermal control for over a preset period. The equipment consists essentially of a programming unit, a programmed digital-to-analog converter and a power unit. The design is described in detail and its specifications are given. The maximum operating temperature of 1500 degC may be reached in the furnace charge section. (B.S.)

  8. Distribution of trace metals at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Hopewell Furnace, located approximately 50 miles northwest of Philadelphia, was a cold-blast, charcoal iron furnace that operated for 113 years (1771 to 1883). The purpose of this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, was to determine the distribution of trace metals released to the environment from an historical iron smelter at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). Hopewell Furnace used iron ore from local mines that contained abundant magnetite and accessory sulfide minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, and other metals. Ore, slag, cast iron furnace products, soil, groundwater, stream base flow, streambed sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled for this study. Soil samples analyzed in the laboratory had concentrations of trace metals low enough to meet Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection standards for non-residential use. Groundwater samples from the supply well met U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water regulations. Concentrations of metals in surface-water base flow at the five stream sampling sites were below continuous concentration criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediment at the five stream sites were below probable effects level guidelines for protection of aquatic organisms except for copper at site HF-3. Arsenic, copper, lead, zinc, and possibly cobalt were incorporated into the cast iron produced by Hopewell Furnace. Manganese was concentrated in slag along with iron, nickel, and zinc. The soil near the furnace has elevated concentrations of chromium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to background soil concentrations. Concentrations of toxic elements were not present at concentrations of concern in water, soil, or stream sediments, despite being elevated in ore, slag, and cast iron furnace products. The base-flow surface-water samples indicated good overall quality. The five sampled sites generally had

  9. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Mark M [Charlotte, NC; True, Bradford G [Charlotte, NC

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  10. A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

    1999-04-20

    Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

  11. Cast construction elements for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piekarski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents sketches and photos of the cast creep-resistant components used in various types of heat treatment furnaces. The shape of the elements results from the type of the operation carried out in the furnace, while dimensions are adjusted to the size of the furnace working chamber. The castings are mainly made from the high-alloyed, austenitic chromium-nickel or nickel-chromium steel, selecting the grade in accordance with the furnace operating conditions described by the rated temperature, the type and parameters of the applied operating atmosphere, and the charge weight. Typical examples in this family of construction elements are: crucibles, roller tracks, radiant tubes and guides. The majority of castings are produced in sand moulds.

  12. Metallurgy of mercury in Almaden: from aludel furnaces until Pacific furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero-Manzanares, J.; Garrido Saenz, I.; Mata Cabrera, F.; Rubio Mesas, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the different types of furnaces for roasting cinnabar, used in the metallurgy of quicksilver over the centuries of exploitation of the Almaden Mines (Spain). Some of these techniques are part of our industrial heritage. They have contributed to name UNESCO World Heritage Site the vast technological legacy of these mines recently. This research contributes to close the long way of metallurgical activity from aludel furnaces until Pacif furnaces, first and lasted technology to produce on an industrial scale. It is delved into the most relevant aspects having to do with the type, evolution and number of furnaces existing on each of the periods. (Author)

  13. Voltage stabilizers for high temperature furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, J.

    1966-10-01

    The stabilization of furnace temperatures in the range 1500-2500 C has been achieved by controlling the effective (rms) value of the supply voltage of the heating element. Temperature variations are less than, or equal to, one degree C in the whole working range of the furnace. Two types of set-ups have been developed: one is static, the other takes use of a servo-motor. (author) [fr

  14. A simple furnace for neutron diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, F.P.; Bennett, C.E.G.

    1979-01-01

    A simple yet effective high temperature furnace for heating crystals or powder specimens for neutron diffraction studies on a theta/2theta diffractometer is described. The furnace can maintain samples at temperatures up to 1573 K, in air, with a stability of +- 4 K for periods of many hours. Specimen temperature is uniform within 12 K, or much less with the use of a silica sleeve. (Auth.)

  15. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  16. Energy Saving in Industrial Annealing Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ÇANKA KILIÇ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an energy efficiency studies have been carried out in a natural gas-fired rolling mill annealing furnace of an industrial establishment. In this context, exhaust gas from the furnace has been examined in terms of waste heat potential. In the examinations that have been made in detail; waste heat potential was found as 3.630,31 kW. Technical and feasibility studies have been carried out to realize electricity production through an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system for evaluating the waste heat potential of the annealing furnace. It has been calculated that 1.626.378,88 kWh/year of electricity can be generated by using the exhaust gas waste heat of the annealing furnace through an ORC system to produce electric energy with a net efficiency of 16%. The financial value of this energy was determined as 436.032,18 TL/year and the simple repayment period of the investment was 8,12 years. Since the annealing period of the annealing furnace is 2800 hours/year, the investment has not been found to be feasible in terms of the feasibility studies. However, the investment suitability can be assured when the annealing furnace is operating at full capacity for 8,000 hours or more annually.

  17. Recent Results from BLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, D.K.

    2005-01-01

    The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid experiment, BLAST, at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Laboratory is designed to study in a systematic manner the spindependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems at momentum transfers below 1 GeV/c. Utilizing a polarized electron beam, highly polarized internal gas targets of H and D, and a symmetric detector configuration, BLAST is able to make simultaneous measurements of several reaction channels for different combinations of beam helicity and target polarization (vector for H, both vector and tensor for D). BLAST will provide new data on the nucleon and deuteron form factors as well as study few body physics and pion production. Preliminary results are presented

  18. DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Trescot, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials.

  19. Why granular media are thermal after all

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mario; Jiang, Yimin

    2017-06-01

    Two approaches exist to account for granular behavior. The thermal one considers the total entropy, which includes microscopic degrees of freedom such as phonons; the athermal one (as with the Edward entropy) takes grains as elementary. Granular solid hydrodynamics (GSH) belongs to the first, DEM, granular kinetic theory and athermal statistical mechanics (ASM) to the second. A careful discussion of their conceptual differences is given here. Three noteworthy insights or results are: (1) While DEM and granular kinetic theory are well justified to take grains as elementary, any athermal entropic consideration is bound to run into trouble. (2) Many general principles are taken as invalid in granular media. Yet within the thermal approach, energy conservation and fluctuation-dissipation theorem remain valid, granular temperatures equilibrate, and phase space is well explored in a grain at rest. Hence these are abnormalities of the athermal approximation, not of granular media as such. (3) GSH is a wide-ranged continuum mechanical description of granular dynamics.

  20. Gas cleaning with Granular Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Natvig, Ingunn Roald

    2007-01-01

    The panel bed filter (PBF) is a granular filter patented by A. M. Squires in the late sixties. PBFs consist of louvers with stationary, granular beds. Dust is deposited in the top layers and on the bed surface when gas flows through. PBFs are resistant to high temperatures, variations in the gas flow and hot particles. The filter is cleaned by releasing a pressure pulse in the opposite direction of the bulk flow (a puff back pulse). A new louver geometry patented by A. M. Squires is the filte...

  1. Granular cell ameloblastoma of mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansari, Trupti R; Samanta, Satarupa T; Trivedi, Priti P; Shah, Manoj J

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a neoplasm of odontogenic epithelium, especially of enamel organ-type tissue that has not undergone differentiation to the point of hard tissue formation. Granular cell ameloblastoma is a rare condition, accounting for 3-5% of all ameloblastoma cases. A 30-year-old female patient presented with the chief complaint of swelling at the right lower jaw region since 1 year. Orthopantomogram and computed tomography scan was suggestive of primary bone tumor. Histopathologically, diagnosis of granular cell ameloblastoma of right mandible was made.

  2. Traffic and Granular Flow '11

    CERN Document Server

    Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11

    2013-01-01

    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena.   The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.

  3. Comparison of a burning mass ceramics coating in laboratory furnace and instrustrial furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, R.A.L.; Castro, J.R. de S.

    2012-01-01

    This work intends to analyze the differences obtained in the technological properties of a ceramic coating after firing in two distinct environments, laboratory furnace and industrial furnace. For this, was characterized a ceramic mass used in the production of porous coating. The analyzes were performed chemical, mineralogical and thermal mass in that. The specimens were obtained by compacting and burned in the maximum temperature of 1140 deg C in two furnaces, laboratory and industrial. The technological tests were performed linear shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density and mechanical strength. The microstructure was evaluated by ray-X diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that both furnaces provided significant differences in analyzed specimens, such as increased strength and low water absorption in the fired samples in a laboratory furnace, for example. (author)

  4. Expanded rock blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST, including buffer blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidman, J.P.; Chung, S.H. [ICI Explosives (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A discrete element computer program named DMC{_}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in 2-D. DMC{_}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts. The blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST have been expanded to include independently dipping geologic layers, top surface, bottom surface and pit floor. The pit can also now be defined using coordinates based on the toe of the bench. A method for modeling decked explosives has been developed which allows accurate treatment of the inert materials (stemming) in the explosive column and approximate treatment of different explosives in the same blasthole. A DMC{_}BLAST user can specify decking through a specific geologic layer with either inert material or a different explosive. Another new feature of DMC{_}BLAST is specification of an uplift angle which is the angle between the normal to the blasthole and a vector defining the direction of explosive loading on particles adjacent to the blasthole. A buffer (choke) blast capability has been added for situations where previously blasted material is adjacent to the free face of the bench preventing any significant lateral motion during the blast.

  5. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  6. Granular boycott effect: How to mix granulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, J.; Mazozi, T.

    1999-11-01

    Granular material can display the basic features of the Boycott effect in sedimentation. A simple experiment shows that granular material falls faster in an inclined tube than in a vertical tube, in analogy with the Boycott effect. As long as the inclination of the tube is above the avalanche threshold, descent of granular material in the tube causes internal convection which in turn results in an efficient mixture of the granular components. By contrast, as in analogous experiments in two dimensions, a vertical fall of granular material occurs via successive block fragmentation, resulting in poor mixing.

  7. From Numeric Models to Granular System Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Pedrycz

    2015-03-01

    To make this study self-contained, we briefly recall the key concepts of granular computing and demonstrate how this conceptual framework and its algorithmic fundamentals give rise to granular models. We discuss several representative formal setups used in describing and processing information granules including fuzzy sets, rough sets, and interval calculus. Key architectures of models dwell upon relationships among information granules. We demonstrate how information granularity and its optimization can be regarded as an important design asset to be exploited in system modeling and giving rise to granular models. With this regard, an important category of rule-based models along with their granular enrichments is studied in detail.

  8. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  9. Glass Furnace Project, October 1982-March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, K.M.; Klingler, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the Glass Furnace Project currently under way at Mound, a treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste is being evaluated that will combine volume reduction and immobilization in one step. Initial work focused on demonstrating the ability of the furnace to efficiently incinerate nonradioactive, simulated power-plant waste and on determining the adequacy of immobilization in a soda-lime silica matrix. Further evaluation of the system will involve a demonstration of the combustion and containment of radioactive waste. In preparation for this next phase of the program, preliminary investigation and design work were conducted during the past six months. 5 figures, 1 table

  10. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  11. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  12. Blasting agents and initiation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2000-01-01

    Although blasting differs between and within each industry, as a whole, the mines and quarries are making a shift from a purely ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) mixture to a blend of emulsion and ANFO on a straight emulsion. Non-electric (shock tube) initiation systems have provided a viable alternative to the electric detonator (blasting cap). Explosives manufacturers are seeing their roles changes to being blasting contractors or consultants rather than just suppliers. The article discusses these trends and gives examples of typical blasting techniques and amounts of blasting agent used at large USA surface coal mines. Electric caps are still used in blasting underground coal. The Ensign Bickford Co. (EBCo) is developing electronic detonators and has been field testing an electronic initiator, the DIGIDET detonator, for the last four years. When commercially available, electronic detonators will be accurate but will come with a hefty price tag. 2 photos.

  13. Entropy of jammed granular matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Christopher

    Granular matter can be considered a non-equilibrium system, such that equilibrium statistics is insufficient to describe the dynamics. A phase transition occurs when granular materials are compressed such that a nonzero stress develops in response to a strain deformation. This transition, referred to as the jamming transition, occurs at a critical volume fraction, φc depending on friction and preparation protocol. Analysis of the jamming transition produces a phase diagram of jammed granular matter for identical spheres, characterized by the critical volume fraction, φc and the average coordination number, Z. The boundaries of the phase diagram are related to well-defined upper and lower limits in the density of disordered packings; random close packing (RCP) and random loose packing (RLP). Frictional systems, such as granular matter, exhibit an inherent path dependency resulting in the loss of energy conservation, an important facet of equilibrium statistics. It has been suggested Edwards that the volume-force (V-F) ensemble, wherein volume replaces energy as the conservative quantity, may provide a sufficient framework to create a statistical ensemble for jammed granular matter. Treating a jammed system via the V-F ensemble introduces an analogue to temperature in equilibrium systems. This analogue, "compactivity", measures how compact a system could be and governs fluctuation in the volume statistics. Randomness in statistical systems is typically characterized by entropy, the equation of state derived from the number of microstates available to the system. In equilibrium statistical mechanics, entropy provides the link between these microstates and the macroscopic thermodynamic properties of the system. Therefore, calculating the entropy within the V-F ensemble can relate the available microscopic volume for each grain to the macroscopic system properties. The entropy is shown to be minimal at RCP and maximal at the minimum RLP limit, via several methods

  14. HYPERELASTIC MODELS FOR GRANULAR MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humrickhouse, Paul W; Corradini, Michael L

    2009-01-29

    A continuum framework for modeling of dust mobilization and transport, and the behavior of granular systems in general, has been reviewed, developed and evaluated for reactor design applications. The large quantities of micron-sized particles expected in the international fusion reactor design, ITER, will accumulate into piles and layers on surfaces, which are large relative to the individual particle size; thus, particle-particle, rather than particle-surface, interactions will determine the behavior of the material in bulk, and a continuum approach is necessary and justified in treating the phenomena of interest; e.g., particle resuspension and transport. The various constitutive relations that characterize these solid particle interactions in dense granular flows have been discussed previously, but prior to mobilization their behavior is not even fluid. Even in the absence of adhesive forces between particles, dust or sand piles can exist in static equilibrium under gravity and other forces, e.g., fluid shear. Their behavior is understood to be elastic, though not linear. The recent “granular elasticity” theory proposes a non-linear elastic model based on “Hertz contacts” between particles; the theory identifies the Coulomb yield condition as a requirement for thermodynamic stability, and has successfully reproduced experimental results for stress distributions in sand piles. The granular elasticity theory is developed and implemented in a stand- alone model and then implemented as part of a finite element model, ABAQUS, to determine the stress distributions in dust piles subjected to shear by a fluid flow. We identify yield with the onset of mobilization, and establish, for a given dust pile and flow geometry, the threshold pressure (force) conditions on the surface due to flow required to initiate it. While the granular elasticity theory applies strictly to cohesionless granular materials, attractive forces are clearly important in the interaction of

  15. BeoBLAST: distributed BLAST and PSI-BLAST on a Beowulf cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J D; Dunbrack, R L; Manion, F J; Ochs, M F

    2002-05-01

    BeoBLAST is an integrated software package that handles user requests and distributes BLAST and PSI-BLAST searches to nodes of a Beowulf cluster, thus providing a simple way to implement a scalable BLAST system on top of relatively inexpensive computer clusters. Additionally, BeoBLAST offers a number of novel search features through its web interface, including the ability to perform simultaneous searches of multiple databases with multiple queries, and the ability to start a search using the PSSM generated from a previous PSI-BLAST search on a different database. The underlying system can also handle automated querying for high throughput work. Source code is available under the GNU public license at http://bioinformatics.fccc.edu/

  16. Tunnel blasting - recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.E.

    1999-05-01

    While tunnelling machines are more efficient than previously, there are still areas where blasting is a more efficient method of advance. Drilling and design methods are increasingly sophisticated, as is choice of explosive. Explosive deployment must be carefully calculated so as to avoid desensitisation. Nitroglycerine may be used as slurries; bulk mixing on site of ANFO is also practised in mining in the UK. Electric detonators, Nonel tubes, and electronic detonators are also increasingly employed.

  17. Sintering furnace for remote fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.

    1978-10-01

    Component testing and evaluation of a chemical vapor deposition Re/W muffle has been initiated. Hydrogen permeation testing and thermal cycling behavior will be evaluated. Fabrication of prototype 10-12 Kg furnace is scheduled for completion late in 1979, at which time testing of the system will be initiated

  18. Electric melting furnace for waste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    To avoid electric troubles or reduction of waste processing performance even when platinum group elements are contained in wastes to be applied with glass solidification. For this purpose, a side electrode is disposed to the side wall of a melting vessel and a central electrode serving as a counter electrode is disposed about at the center inside the melting vessel. With such a constitution, if conductive materials are deposited at the bottom of the furnace or the bottom of the melting vessel, heating currents flow selectively between the side electrode and the central electrode. Accordingly, no electric currents flow through the conductive deposits thereby enabling to prevent abnormal heating in the bottom of the furnace. Further, heat generated by electric supply between the side electrode and the central electrode is supplied efficiently to raw material on the surface of the molten glass liquid to improve the processing performance. Further, disposition of the bottom electrode at the bottom of the furnace enables current supply between the central electrode and the bottom electrode to facilitate the temperature control for the molten glass in the furnace than in the conventional structure. (I.S.)

  19. INVESTIGATIONS ON OPERATION OF ROTARY TILTING FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotary tilting furnace (RTF is a new type of fuel furnaces, that provide the most efficient heating and recycling of polydisperse materials. The paper describes results of the investigations on thermal processes in the RTF, movement of materials and non-isothermal gas flow during kiln rotary process. The investigations have been carried out while using physical and computer simulations and under actual operating conditions applying the pilot plant. Results of the research have served as a basis for development of recommendations on the RTF calculations and designing and they have been also used for constructional design of a rotary tilting furnace for heating and melting of cast iron chips, reduction smelting of steel mill scale, melting of aluminum scrap, melting of lead from battery scrap. These furnaces have a high thermal efficiency (~50 %, technological flexibility, high productivity and profitability. Proven technical solutions for recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals develop the use of RTF in the foundry and metallurgical industry as the main technological unit for creation of cost-effective small-tonnage recycling of metal waste generated at the plants. The research results open prospects for organization of its own production for high-quality charging material in Belarus in lieu of imported primary metal. The proposed technology makes it possible to solve environmental challenge pertaining to liquidation of multi-tonnage heaps of metal-containing wastes.

  20. Mott transition in granular aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, N.; Lerer, S.; Levy, A.; Hacohen-Gourgy, S.; Almog, B.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Morenzoni, E.; Deutscher, G.

    2015-01-01

    A Mott transition in granular Al films is observed by probing the increase of the spin-flip scattering rate of conduction electrons as the nanosize metallic grains are being progressively decoupled. The presence of free spins in granular Al films is directly demonstrated by μ SR measurements. Analysis of the magnetoresistance in terms of an effective Fermi energy shows that it becomes of the order of the grains electrostatic charging energy at a room temperature resistivity ρ300 K≈50000 μ Ω cm , at which a metal to insulator transition is known to exist. As this transition is approached the magnetoresistance exhibits a heavy-fermion-like behavior, consistent with an increased electron effective mass.

  1. Dilatancy in Slow Granular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabla, Alexandre J.; Senden, Tim J.

    2009-06-01

    When walking on wet sand, each footstep leaves behind a temporarily dry impression. This counterintuitive observation is the most common illustration of the Reynolds principle of dilatancy: that is, a granular packing tends to expand as it is deformed, therefore increasing the amount of porous space. Although widely called upon in areas such as soil mechanics and geotechnics, a deeper understanding of this principle is constrained by the lack of analytical tools to study this behavior. Using x-ray radiography, we track a broad variety of granular flow profiles and quantify their intrinsic dilatancy behavior. These measurements frame Reynolds dilatancy as a kinematic process. Closer inspection demonstrates, however, the practical importance of flow induced compaction which competes with dilatancy, leading more complex flow properties than expected.

  2. Granular rheology in zero gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossis, G [LPMC UMR 6622, Universite de Nice, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Grasselli, Y [EAI Tech CERAM, Rue A Einstein, BP 085, 06902 Sophia Antipolis Cedex (France); Volkova, O [LPMC UMR 6622, Universite de Nice, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

    2004-05-12

    We present an experimental investigation on the rheological behaviour of model granular media made of nearly elastic spherical particles. The experiments are performed in a cylindrical Couette geometry and the experimental device is placed inside an aeroplane undergoing parabolic flights to cancel the effect of gravity. The corresponding curves, shear stress versus shear rate, are presented, and a comparison with existing theories is proposed. The quadratic dependence on the shear rate is clearly shown, and the behaviour as a function of the solid volume fraction of particles exhibits a power law function. It is shown that theoretical predictions overestimate the experimental results. We observe, at intermediate volume fractions, the formation of rings of particles regularly spaced along the height of the cell. The differences observed between experimental results and theoretical predictions are discussed and related to the structures formed in the granular medium submitted to the external shear.

  3. Dynamic similarity in granular locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrin, Ken; Slonaker, James; Zhang, Qiong

    2017-11-01

    To model the flow of granular media with high accuracy, a number of subtleties arise and complex constitutive relations are needed to address them. However, making certain rheological simplifications produces a framework that is simple enough to obtain global rule-sets that can be used to aid in design without having to solve any partial differential equations or perform discrete element simulations. This talk will show how reduced-order rule-sets such as the Resistive Force Theory can be obtained from a basic frictional plasticity model, and how plasticity can further be used to produce a family of scaling laws in granular locomotion reminiscent of `wind tunnel' scaling laws in fluid dynamics. These are verified with experiments and numerical simulations.

  4. Strain localisation in granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Desrues , Jacques

    1984-01-01

    This study is devoted to strain localisation in Granular materials. Both experimental and theoretical results have been obtained.The first part of the thesis is a review of the methods and theories about rupture in sols mechanics and more generally, in solid mechanics. The classical framework of Shear Band analysis is presented, and the main results available for different classes of materials are discussed.The second part describes an experimental study of strain localisation in sand specime...

  5. Thermal Analysis of an Industrial Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Filipponi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Industries, which are mainly responsible for high energy consumption, need to invest in research projects in order to develop new managing systems for rational energy use, and to tackle the devastating effects of climate change caused by human behavior. The study described in this paper concerns the forging industry, where the production processes generally start with the heating of steel in furnaces, and continue with other processes, such as heat treatments and different forms of machining. One of the most critical operations, in terms of energy loss, is the opening of the furnace doors for insertion and extraction operations. During this time, the temperature of the furnaces decreases by hundreds of degrees in a few minutes. Because the dispersed heat needs to be supplied again through the combustion of fuel, increasing the consumption of energy and the pollutant emissions, the evaluation of the amount of lost energy is crucial for the development of systems which can contain this loss. To perform this study, CFD simulation software was used. Results show that when the door opens, because of temperature and pressure differences between the furnace and the ambient air, turbulence is created. Results also show that the amount of energy lost for an opening of 10 min for radiation, convection and conduction is equal to 5606 MJ where convection is the main contributor, with 5020 MJ. The model created, after being validated, has been applied to perform other simulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the furnace. Results show that reducing the opening time of the door saves energy and limits pollutant emissions.

  6. Temperature profiles in high gradient furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fripp, A. L.; Debnam, W. J.; Woodell, G. A.; Berry, R.; Crouch, R. K.; Sorokach, S. K.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate temperature measurement of the furnace environment is very important in both the science and technology of crystal growth as well as many other materials processing operations. A high degree of both accuracy and precision is acutely needed in the directional solidification of compound semiconductors in which the temperature profiles control the freezing isotherm which, in turn, affects the composition of the growth with a concomitant feedback perturbation on the temperature profile. Directional solidification requires a furnace configuration that will transport heat through the sample being grown. A common growth procedure is the Bridgman Stockbarger technique which basically consists of a hot zone and a cold zone separated by an insulator. In a normal growth procedure the material, contained in an ampoule, is melted in the hot zone and is then moved relative to the furnace toward the cold zone and solidification occurs in the insulated region. Since the primary path of heat between the hot and cold zones is through the sample, both axial and radial temperature gradients exist in the region of the growth interface. There is a need to know the temperature profile of the growth furnace with the crystal that is to be grown as the thermal load. However it is usually not feasible to insert thermocouples inside an ampoule and thermocouples attached to the outside wall of the ampoule have both a thermal and a mechanical contact problem as well as a view angle problem. The objective is to present a technique of calibrating a furnace with a thermal load that closely matches the sample to be grown and to describe procedures that circumvent both the thermal and mechanical contact problems.

  7. A Review on the Dissection of Quenched Blast Furnaces—Spanning from the Early 1950s to the 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since its invention until the 1950s, the iron blast furnace was viewed as a strange ‘black box’. Its operation was largely empirical and much of the information needed for monitoring and control of the process was yet to be known. More complete information was needed concerning the process such as the reduction of iron-bearing raw materials, the distribution of materials throughout the stack, the size, location, and structure of the fusion zone, and the transfer of silicon, sulfur, and carbon to the slag and metal. Hence, to obtain a better understanding of the blast furnace process, some iron-makers came up with the idea of quenching the contents of the furnace following normal operations. This was done in a neutral nitrogen atmosphere. The quenched contents were then sampled for analysis. Thus, this paper was written to discuss such works, spanning from the early 1950s to the 1970s. Care has been taken to include most of their findings and readers who have a fair amount of iron-making knowledge should be able to see and understand the in-furnace phenomena as the ‘black box’ unfolds itself. Most of the text will be focused on two important studies into the matter, the first being the U.S. Bureau of Mines case in 1959 and the next being the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ studies in the 1970s. The contribution of these works to modern day blast furnace operation is also discussed in the paper.

  8. Impact Compaction of a Granular Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Todd, Steve; Grady, Dennis

    2017-06-01

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Although, the mechanical behavior of granular materials have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of these materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This paper describes how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure the compaction process for granular materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequently used for computational modelling. The experimental technique relies on a gas-gun driven plunger system to generate a compaction wave through a volume of granular material. This volume of material has been redundantly instrumented along the bed length to track the progression of the compaction wave, and the piston displacement is measured with Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Using the gathered experimental data along with the initial material tap density, a granular material equation of state can be determined.

  9. High productivity vacuum blasting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process

  10. Granular packing as model glass formers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yujie

    2017-01-01

    Static granular packings are model hard-sphere glass formers. The nature of glass transition has remained a hotly debated issue. We review recent experimental progresses in using granular materials to study glass transitions. We focus on the growth of glass order with five-fold symmetry in granular packings and relate the findings to both geometric frustration and random first-order phase transition theories. (paper)

  11. AUTOMATION OF GLASS TEMPERING FURNACE BY USING PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah BÜYÜKYILDIZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a furnace which is used for observation of environments under high temperature, and also used for manufacturing of glasses which are resisted to high temperature has been designed and implemented. Automation of this system has been done by using PLC. Operating parameters of furnace such as materials entering, the furnace, the local temperature control of furnace, cooling control and materials outing have been sensed with Hall Effect Sensor. Furthermore, the observation of parameters of furnace on screen has been provided with SCADA software. Obtained products have been shown the system works successfully.

  12. The production of pig iron from crushing plant waste using hot blast cupola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusno Isnugroho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A production of pig iron has been conducted from crushing plant waste. The process of preparing pig iron was using hot blast cupola (HBC furnace which was injected with charcoal powder to improve temperature process and reduction zone in the furnace. The process was started by washing process and magnetic separation of raw material as an effort to improve iron content degree from crushing plant waste. The next process was preparing the composite pellet with the particle size of −80 + 100 mesh and with the composition of 80% iron ore, 15% wood charcoal, and 5% bentonite. The result of pellet size was 2.5–4.0 mm. The experiment was continued to reduce pellet composite in the HBC furnace. The pig iron produced from this process contained of 93.62%Fe, 3.5%C, 1.55%Si, 0.87%Mn, 0.05%P, and 0.087%S.With this result, the pig iron produced already fulfill the metallurgical specification to be used in smelting industry. Keywords: Pig iron, Pellet, Injection, Charcoal, Hot blast cupola

  13. Control blasting of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Tetsuo

    1981-01-01

    With the need of decommissioning nuclear power plants, it is urgently required to establish its methods and standards. In Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., experimental feasibility studies have been made on explosive demolition method i.e. the controlled blasting for the massive concrete structures peculiar to nuclear power plants, considering low radiation exposure, safety and high efficiency. As such, four techniques of line drilling, cushion blasting, pre-splitting and guide hole blasting, respectively, are described with photographs. Assuming the selective demolition of activated concrete structures, the series of experiments showed the good results of clear-cut surfaces and the effect of blasting was confined properly. Moreover, the scattering of debris in blasting was able to be entirely prevented by the use of rubber belts. The generation of gas and dust was also little due to the small amount of the charge used. (J.P.N.)

  14. PREVALENCE OF RICE BLAST AND VARIETAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    search-screening site grown to an improved vari- ety, Tox 3050, was heavily blasted. There was no blast incidence at Damongo. in Upper East. Region, there was severe incidence of blast in farmers' fields at Bawku and PVS nurseries and farmers' fields at Nyorigu. There was no blast at. Manga, Navrongo, Tono, Sandema, ...

  15. Evaluation of GLUT-1 in the granular cell tumour and congenital granular cell epulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Giovanna Ribeiro; Caldeira, Patrícia Carlos; Johann, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues; Andrade Marigo, Helenicede; Souza, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machadode; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

    2013-07-01

    The glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) protein is a useful marker for perineurial cells. Because of the possible neuroectodermal histogenesis of the granular cell tumour and congenital granular cell epulis, the aim of this study was to assess the immunoexpression of GLUT-1 protein in granular cell tumour and congenital granular cell epulis to aid in clarifying their histogenesis. The protocol of this study was approved by the Committee of Bioethics in Research at Universidade Federal Minas Gerais. Six cases of granular cell tumour and three cases of congenital granular cell epulis were submitted to immunohistochemistry for GLUT-1 and S-100 using the streptavidin-biotin standard protocol. Five cases of granular cell tumour were located on the tongue and one case on the upper lip. All cases of congenital granular cell epulis were observed in the alveolar ridge of newborns. All lesions evaluated proved to be immunonegative for GLUT-1. S-100 was found to be positive in all granular cell tumours and negative in congenital granular cell epulis. Neither granular cell tumour nor congenital granular cell epulis is directly related to perineurial cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  17. Waste stabilization/solidification of an electric arc furnace dust using fly ash-based geopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Fernandez Pereira; Y. Luna; X. Querol; D. Antenucci; J. Vale [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). School of Industrial Engineering

    2009-07-15

    The stabilization/solidification (S/S) of a carbon steel electric arc furnace (EAF) dust containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr or Zn using geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolinite, metakaolinite and blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of EAF waste with these geopolymeric materials and class F fly ash have been processed for studying the potential of geopolymers as waste immobilizing agents. Compressive strength tests and leaching tests for determining the efficiency of heavy metal immobilisation have been carried out. Comparison of fly ash-based geopolymer systems with classic Portland cement stabilization methods has also been accomplished. Compressive strength values far better than those achieved by hydraulic S/S methods were easily obtained by geopolymer solids at 28 days. Regarding leachability, the geopolymer S/S solids also manifested in general a better behaviour, showing very promising results. 40 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  18. BOMB BLAST: PATTERN AND NATURE OF INJURIES

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmaji Master; Chandra Sekhar; Rangaiah

    2015-01-01

    Bomb blast cause injury on large groups of people by multiple mechanisms. Bomb blast injuries differ from the conventional description of trauma complexity. Primary injuries are caused by blast wave and over pressure. Secondary injuries are caused by flyin g debris and cause shrapnel wounds. Tertiary injuries are caused by blast wind due to forceful impact and quaternary injuries are caused by other vectors like heat, radiation etc. Combined injuries, especially blast and...

  19. Power and efficiency of wood burning furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, D.; Froment, G.; Kubala, J.F.; Chantret, A.; Renault, G.

    1982-06-01

    In 1981 an automated test rig for wood boilers was set up at the COSTIC. The special characteristics of wood combustion made it necessary to develop a computerized measuring method that enables the progress of this combustion to be followed step by step in the furnaces. After a number of preliminary adjustments, it is possible to move on to a series of tests during which the essential difficulty is to assess the wood consumption.

  20. GAS MOVEMENT IN ROTARY TILTING FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of gas movement and heat and mass transfer processes in the rotary tilting furnace (RTF at the heat treatment of disperse materials. The study was performed through computer modeling using software packages ANSYS CFX and Solid Works Flow Simulation. The results were used to design RTF with different capacity and application and helped to improve their technical and economic characteristics.

  1. Improvements in or relating to furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spooner, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A furnace is described having crucibles made of carbon and suitable for producing metal carbides, particularly single or mixed carbides of uranium and plutonium, from oxides. The internal surface of each crucible, which surface would otherwise in use contact the crucible contents, is covered by a layer of a refractory substance other than carbon, to which a carbide has a substantially lesser tendency to stick than to carbon. (U.K.)

  2. Effects of furnace atmosphere pressure on fabrication process of hollow glass microspheres in drop-tower furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xiaobo; Li Bo; Chen Sufen; Zhang Zhanwen; Shi Tao

    2010-01-01

    To fabricate high quality hollow glass microspheres (HGMs)by sol-gel technology for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the effects of furnace atmosphere pressure on the transformation process from gel particles to HGMs and the resulting quality of HGMs were investigated by numerical simulation and experiments. The results show that decreasing of furnace atmosphere pressure can increase diameter of HGMs and decrease wall thickness of HGMs. Decreasing furnace atmosphere pressure can extend the refining time of liquid HGMs, however, the heat transfer coefficient between liquid and furnace atmosphere pressure decreases significantly with the decreasing of furnace atmosphere pressure. As a result, the refining degree and the quality of HGMs descend quickly with furnace atmosphere pressure. When the furnace atmosphere pressure is lower than 0.5 x 10 5 Pa, the sphericity, concentricity and surface finish can not satisfy the restrict requirements of ICF targets. (authors)

  3. Nucleation in Sheared Granular Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Frank; Radin, Charles; Swinney, Harry L.; Schröter, Matthias

    2018-02-01

    We present an experiment on crystallization of packings of macroscopic granular spheres. This system is often considered to be a model for thermally driven atomic or colloidal systems. Cyclically shearing a packing of frictional spheres, we observe a first order phase transition from a disordered to an ordered state. The ordered state consists of crystallites of mixed fcc and hcp symmetry that coexist with the amorphous bulk. The transition, initiated by homogeneous nucleation, overcomes a barrier at 64.5% volume fraction. Nucleation consists predominantly of the dissolving of small nuclei and the growth of nuclei that have reached a critical size of about ten spheres.

  4. Nucleation in Sheared Granular Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Frank; Radin, Charles; Swinney, Harry L; Schröter, Matthias

    2018-02-02

    We present an experiment on crystallization of packings of macroscopic granular spheres. This system is often considered to be a model for thermally driven atomic or colloidal systems. Cyclically shearing a packing of frictional spheres, we observe a first order phase transition from a disordered to an ordered state. The ordered state consists of crystallites of mixed fcc and hcp symmetry that coexist with the amorphous bulk. The transition, initiated by homogeneous nucleation, overcomes a barrier at 64.5% volume fraction. Nucleation consists predominantly of the dissolving of small nuclei and the growth of nuclei that have reached a critical size of about ten spheres.

  5. Ultra-high vacuum compatible image furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, A; Boeuf, J; Bauer, A; Russ, B; Löhneysen, H v; Pfleiderer, C

    2011-01-01

    We report the design of an optical floating-zone furnace for single-crystal growth under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible conditions. The system is based on a commercial image furnace, which has been refurbished to be all-metal sealed. Major changes concern the use of UHV rotary feedthroughs and bespoke quartz-metal seals with metal-O-rings at the lamp stage. As a consequence, the procedure of assembling the furnace for crystal growth is changed completely. Bespoke heating jackets permit to bake the system. For compounds with elevated vapor pressures, the ultra-high vacuum serves as a precondition for the use of a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 10 bar. In the ferromagnetic Heusler compound Cu(2)MnAl, the improvements of purity result in an improved stability of the molten zone, grain selection, and, hence, single-crystal growth. Similar improvements are observed in traveling-solvent floating-zone growth of the antiferromagnetic Heusler compound Mn(3)Si. These improvements underscore the great potential of optical float-zoning for the growth of high-purity single crystals of intermetallic compounds.

  6. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    -rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  7. Storage and discharge of a granular fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco-Martinez, Hector; van Gerner, H.J.; Ruiz-Suarez, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments and computational simulations are carried out to study the behavior of a granular column in a silo whose walls are able to vibrate horizontally. The column is brought to a steady fluidized state and it behaves similar to a hydrostatic system. We study the dynamics of the granular

  8. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  9. Characterization of Unbound Granular Materials for Pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    This research is focused on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of unbound granular road base materials (UGMs). An extensive laboratory investigation is described, in which various methods for determination of the mechanical properties of granular materials are examined for their

  10. Structure characteristics and combustibility of carbonaceous materials from blast furnace flue dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Di; Zhang, Jianliang; Wang, Guangwei; Conejo, Alberto N.; Xu, Runsheng; Wang, Haiyang; Zhong, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The combustion properties of carbonaceous materials in dust were investigated. • The mico-structures of carbon materials in dusts were exemplified distinctly. • The carbon activity differences were depended on their diverse mico-structures. • Kinetic parameters were obtained in the method of nonlinear least-squares fitting. • VM and RPM model for carbonaceous materials in dust and their pyrolytic coke. - Abstract: The structure characteristics and combustibility of carbonaceous materials from gravitational dust and bag dust of hop pocket were investigated using laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, polarization microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Simultaneously, coal char and pyrolyzed coke were used as comparison. The acid-washing process was performed to avoid the effects of inorganic matters and beneficiate carbonaceous materials in dust. Three representative gas-solid reactivity models, random pore model, volume model, and unreacted core model were applied to study kinetic parameters. Results showed that carbonaceous materials in dust were mainly originated from coke fines and those in bag dust of hop pocket presented a high reactivity, mainly attributed to its more disordered crystalline structure and higher porosity. It was concluded from kinetic analysis that volume model was the best model for simulating the combustion process. The activation energies of bag dust of hop pocket, gravitational dust and coke calculated by this model were 118.6 kJ/mol, 141.7 kJ/mol, 156.1 kJ/mol, respectively, indicating carbon in bag dust of hop pocket are easily reacted with oxygen and proving its high combustibility.

  11. The effect of blast furnace slag on the self-compactability of pumice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-04-02

    Apr 2, 2018 ... So far, the use of pumice was dependent on the availability and limited in the countries where it is locally .... admixture was used to reduce the risk of segregation and to increase the cohesion in some cases. ..... diameter of 50 cm is related to flow rate and plastic viscosity of concrete. The shear stress and ...

  12. The US merchant blast furnace coke market: current state of play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloe, A. [Shenango Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (US)

    2004-07-01

    A five page text is accompanied by a set of 11 slides/overheads. The talk discussed the reasons why the presenter believes that coke prices will stay above their historical levels for the foreseeable future. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. The effect of blast furnace slag on the self-compactability of pumice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faculty of Architecture & Design, Department of Architecture, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey; Engineering & Architecture Faculty, Department of Civil Engineering, Erzurum Technical University, 25070 Erzurum, Turkey; Engineering Faculty, Department of Civil Engineering, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum, ...

  14. STUDY ON SOFTENING AND DROPPING PROPERTIES OF METALIZED BURDEN INSIDE BLAST FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-yang Tuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inferences of burden metallization rate on softening-melting dropping properties were investigated through softening-melting dropping test of three kinds of metalized burden pressure drop. The results indicated that the softeningmelting temperature interval of pre-reduction mixed burden is bigger than primeval mixed burden, the melting interval narrow with the rise of metallization rate of ferric burden as well as dropping temperature interval. The average pressure drop, maximum pressure drop and softening-melting dropping properties eigenvalue decrease with the rise of metallization rate of ferric burden. Besides, the dropping temperature of burden reduces with the rise of carbon content of molten iron. The combination high metalized burden and higher carbon content of molten iron is benefit to decreasing thickness of cohesive zone and improve permeability of cohesive zone.

  15. Chloride-binding Effect of Blast Furnace Slag in Cement Pastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  16. Granulated blast furnace slag – A boon for foundry industry | Murthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  17. Chloride-binding Effect of Blast Furnace Slag in Cement Pastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... which chloride can be bound as Friedel's salt. The work of. Brown and Bothe1 and Siegwartet al.2 indicated that both the C3A and the C4AF phases contribute to chloride binding, although. C4AF to a lesser extent than the C3A.3 Birnin-Yauri and Glasser4 also suggested the formation of oxychloride ...

  18. Influence of the soluble fraction of blast furnace slag on the growth of some algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, H.

    1977-01-01

    The sea water-soluble fraction of the pulverized slag was prepared in anaerobic condition, and mixed with a basal medium in various ratios for preparation of a culture medium, on which the growth of a diatom, Skeletonema costatum, was suppressed. The inhibitory effect of the soluble fraction to this alga was reduced to a certain degree when the culture medium had been aerated with nitrogen preceding inoculation. The growth of Skel. costatum was also inhibited on the basal medium containing the untreated slag powder in various amounts, while it was stimulated when the slag powder was washed for several days before addition to the basal medium. The soluble fraction of the slag affected unfavorably the growth of a laver, Porphyra yezoensis, also. A diatom, Nitzschia closterium, was able to grow closely adhering to the slag powder. The inhibitory effect of the soluble fraction of the slag to algae seems to be caused largely by potassium or sodium sulfide, and slightly by sulfur oxides and some heavy metals dissolved in trace amounts.

  19. Two-stage high temperature sludge gasification using the waste heat from hot blast furnace slags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, disposal of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants and recovery of waste heat from steel industry, become two important environmental issues and to integrate these two problems, a two-stage high temperature sludge gasification approach was investigated using the waste heat in hot slags herein. The whole process was divided into two stages, i.e., the low temperature sludge pyrolysis at ⩽ 900°C in argon agent and the high temperature char gasification at ⩾ 900°C in CO2 agent, during which the heat required was supplied by hot slags in different temperature ranges. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic mechanisms were identified and it was indicated that an Avrami-Erofeev model could best interpret the stage of char gasification. Furthermore, a schematic concept of this strategy was portrayed, based on which the potential CO yield and CO2 emission reduction achieved in China could be ∼1.92∗10(9)m(3) and 1.93∗10(6)t, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. REPAIR, RESTORATION AND MODERNIZATION OF THE ELECTRODE HORNS ON BLAST STEEL FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Petroviçh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at efficient observation of technological process the repair, restoration and modernization of such complex and important constructions as consoles for electrodes by the plant efforts is more preferable in comparison with purchase of new consoles, that allows for the plant to save considerable means.

  1. Study on the durability of concrete using granulated blast furnace slag as fine aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongsheng; Liu, Qiang; Xue, Xinxin; He, Peiyuan

    2018-03-01

    In order to assessing the durability of concrete using granulated blastfurnace slag (GBS) as fine aggregate and compare it with natural river sand concrete, three different size of specimen were produced by using the same mix proportion with 3 different water cement ratios and 3 replacement ratios, and using it to measure the three aspects on the durability of concrete including freeze-thaw performance, dry-shrinkage performance and anti-chloride-permeability performance. In this paper. The test results show that using GBS as fine aggregate can slightly improve anti-chloride-permeability performance and dry-shrinkage performance of concrete in the condition of low water cement ratio, on the other hand, using GBS or natural river sand as fine aggregate has almost similar durability of concrete.

  2. Innovation based on tradition: blast furnace slag cement for durable concrete structures in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Nijland, T.G.; Rooij, M.R. de; Larsen, C.K.; Pedersen, B.

    2014-01-01

    road environment in The Netherlands for nearly a century. The experience is good and structures with long service lives can be obtained, as has been shown by several field studies. This is caused by a high resistance against chloride penetration and a high electrical resistivity, demonstrated both

  3. Study of some health physics parameters of bismuth-ground granulated blast furnace slag shielding concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sandeep, E-mail: sandeep0078monu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala (India); Singh, Sukhpal, E-mail: sukhpal-78@rediffmail.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University, Patiala (India)

    2016-05-06

    The Bismuth-ground granulated blastfurnace slang (Bi-GGBFS) concrete samples were prepared. The weight percentage of different elements present in Bi-GGBFS Shielding concretewas evaluated by Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX). The exposure rate and absorbed dose rate characteristics were calculated theoretically for radioactive sources namely {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs. Our calculations reveal that the Bi-GGBFS concretes are effective in shielding material for gamma radiations.

  4. Pulverized coal and iron ore injection in the blast furnace. Kohlenstaub- und Eisenerzeinblasen in den Hochofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudenau, H.W. (Lehrstuhl fuer Metallurgie, Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde, RWTH, Achen (Germany)); Kiesler, R. (Lehrstuhl fuer Metallurgie, Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde, RWTH, Achen (Germany)); Rudack, M. (Lehrstuhl fuer Metallurgie, Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde, RWTH, Achen (Germany)); Shibata, Koichiro (Lehrstuhl fuer Metallurgie, Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde, RWTH, Achen (Germany))

    1993-07-19

    Various mixtures of pulverized coal and iron ores have been investigated in terms of their combustion and reduction behaviour. The results show that the iron ore is reduced to wustite by the reducing gases generated by the pulverized coal, and that subsequently, a smelting reduction takes place between liquid wustite and residual carbon from the coal combustion. This proves that the reduction of the iron ore affects the combustion properties of the coal. A mixture of 30% Carajas ore and 70% gas coal proved appropriate. A positive injection operation may be theoretically expected up to a characteristic O/C ratio of 1.86. This corresponds to a theoretical injection rate of 327 kg/t hot metal (229 kg coal/t hot metal and 98 kg ore/t hot metal); no smelting reduction could be established below an O/C ratio of 1.86. (orig.)

  5. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO 2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO 2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO 2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  6. Traffic and Granular Flow’05

    CERN Document Server

    Pöschel, Thorsten; Kühne, Reinhart; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    The conference series Tra?c and Granular Flow has been established in 1995 and has since then been held biannually. At that time, the investigation of granular materials and tra?c was still somewhat exotic and was just starting to become popular among physicists. Originally the idea behind this conference series was to facilitate the c- vergence of the two ?elds, inspired by the similarities of certain phenomena and the use of similar theoretical methods. However, in recent years it has become clear that probably the di?erences between the two systems are much more interesting than the similarities. Nevertheless, the importance of various interrelations among these ?elds is still growing. The workshop continues to o?er an opportunity to stimulate this interdisciplinary research. Over the years the spectrum of topics has become much broader and has included also problems related to topics ranging from social dynamics to - ology. The conference manages to bring together people with rather di?erent background, r...

  7. Traffic and Granular Flow ’03

    CERN Document Server

    Luding, Stefan; Bovy, Piet; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings are the fifth in the series Traffic and Granular Flow, and we hope they will be as useful a reference as their predecessors. Both the realistic modelling of granular media and traffic flow present important challenges at the borderline between physics and engineering, and enormous progress has been made since 1995, when this series started. Still the research on these topics is thriving, so that this book again contains many new results. Some highlights addressed at this conference were the influence of long range electric and magnetic forces and ambient fluids on granular media, new precise traffic measurements, and experiments on the complex decision making of drivers. No doubt the “hot topics” addressed in granular matter research have diverged from those in traffic since the days when the obvious analogies between traffic jams on highways and dissipative clustering in granular flow intrigued both c- munities alike. However, now just this diversity became a stimulating feature of the ...

  8. PRN 2001-2: Acute Toxicity Data Requirements For Granular Pesticide Products, Including Those With Granular Fertilizers in the Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR Notice announces guidance intended to streamline the acute toxicity review and classification process for certain granular pesticide products, including those products that contain granular fertilizers.

  9. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  10. Comparison of Predictive Control Methods for High Consumption Industrial Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Stojanovski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn.

  11. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  12. The BLAST experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, D.; Akdogan, T.; Alarcon, R.; Bertozzi, W.; Booth, E.; Botto, T.; Calarco, J.R.; Clasie, B.; Crawford, C.; DeGrush, A.; Dow, K.; Dutta, D.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fatemi, R.; Filoti, O.; Franklin, W.; Gao, H.; Geis, E.; Gilad, S.; Hersman, W.

    2009-01-01

    The Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The detector and experimental program were designed to study, in a systematic manner, the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems. As such the data will provide improved measurements for neutron, proton, and deuteron form factors. The data will also allow details of the reaction mechanism, such as the role of final state interactions, pion production, and resonances to be studied. The experiment used: a longitudinally polarized electron beam stored in the South Hall Storage Ring; a highly polarized, isotopically pure, internal gas target of hydrogen or deuterium provided by an atomic beam source; and a symmetric, general purpose detector based on a toroidal spectrometer with tracking, time-of-flight, Cherenkov, and neutron detectors. Details of the experiment and operation are presented.

  13. Granular gases under extreme driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, W.; Machta, J.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2010-08-01

    We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular-dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high-energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

  14. Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.

    2015-04-01

    We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image

  15. Onset of Convection in Strongly Shaken Granular Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Peter; Eshuis, P.G.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Alam, Meheboob; van Gerner, H.J.; van der Weele, J.P.; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Strongly vertically shaken granular matter can display a density inversion: A high-density cluster of beads is elevated by a dilute gaslike layer of fast beads underneath (“granular Leidenfrost effect”). For even stronger shaking the granular Leidenfrost state becomes unstable and granular

  16. Continuum description of avalanches in granular media.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.

    2000-12-05

    A continuum theory of partially fluidized granular flows is proposed. The theory is based on a combination of the mass and momentum conservation equations with the order parameter equation which describes the transition between flowing and static components of the granular system. We apply this model to the dynamics of avalanches in chutes. The theory provides a quantitative description of recent observations of granular flows on rough inclined planes (Daerr and Douady 1999): layer bistability, and the transition from triangular avalanches propagating downhill at small inclination angles to balloon-shaped avalanches also propagating uphill for larger angles.

  17. Storage and discharge of a granular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Martinez, Hector; van Gerner, Henk Jan; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2008-02-01

    Experiments and computational simulations are carried out to study the behavior of a granular column in a silo whose walls are able to vibrate horizontally. The column is brought to a steady fluidized state and it behaves similar to a hydrostatic system. We study the dynamics of the granular discharge through openings at the bottom of the silo in order to search for a Torricelli-like behavior. We show that the flow rate scales with the wall induced shear rate, and at high rates, the granular bed indeed discharges similar to a viscous fluid.

  18. Granular-relational data mining how to mine relational data in the paradigm of granular computing ?

    CERN Document Server

    Hońko, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This book provides two general granular computing approaches to mining relational data, the first of which uses abstract descriptions of relational objects to build their granular representation, while the second extends existing granular data mining solutions to a relational case. Both approaches make it possible to perform and improve popular data mining tasks such as classification, clustering, and association discovery. How can different relational data mining tasks best be unified? How can the construction process of relational patterns be simplified? How can richer knowledge from relational data be discovered? All these questions can be answered in the same way: by mining relational data in the paradigm of granular computing! This book will allow readers with previous experience in the field of relational data mining to discover the many benefits of its granular perspective. In turn, those readers familiar with the paradigm of granular computing will find valuable insights on its application to mining r...

  19. Energy Efficiency Model for Induction Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Asit Kr

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a system of a solar induction furnace unit was design to find out a new solution for the existing AC power consuming heating process through Supervisory control and data acquisition system. This unit can be connected directly to the DC system without any internal conversion inside the device. The performance of the new system solution is compared with the existing one in terms of power consumption and losses. This work also investigated energy save, system improvement, process control model in a foundry induction furnace heating framework corresponding to PV solar power supply. The results are analysed for long run in terms of saving energy and integrated process system. The data acquisition system base solar foundry plant is an extremely multifaceted system that can be run over an almost innumerable range of operating conditions, each characterized by specific energy consumption. Determining ideal operating conditions is a key challenge that requires the involvement of the latest automation technologies, each one contributing to allow not only the acquisition, processing, storage, retrieval and visualization of data, but also the implementation of automatic control strategies that can expand the achievement envelope in terms of melting process, safety and energy efficiency.

  20. Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trizac, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Granular gases are composed of macroscopic bodies kept in motion by an external energy source such as a violent shaking. The behaviour of such systems is quantitatively different from that of ordinary molecular gases: due to the size of the constituents, external fields have a stronger effect on the dynamics and, more importantly, the kinetic energy of the gas is no longer a conserved quantity. The key role of the inelasticity of collisions has been correctly appreciated for about fifteen years, and the ensuing consequences in terms of phase behaviour or transport properties studied in an increasing and now vast body of literature. The purpose of this book is to help the newcomer to the field in acquiring the essential theoretical tools together with some numerical techniques. As emphasized by the authors-who were among the pioneers in the domain- the content could be covered in a one semester course for advanced undergraduates, or it could be incorporated in a more general course dealing with the statistical mechanics of dissipative systems. The book is self-contained, clear, and avoids mathematical complications. In order to elucidate the main physical ideas, heuristic points of views are sometimes preferred to a more rigorous route that would lead to a longer discussion. The 28 chapters are short; they offer exercises and worked examples, solved at the end of the book. Each part is supplemented with a relevant foreword and a useful summary including take-home messages. The editorial work is of good quality, with very few typographical errors. In spite of the title, kinetic theory stricto sensu is not the crux of the matter covered. The authors discuss the consequences of the molecular chaos assumption both at the individual particle level and in terms of collective behaviour. The first part of the book addresses the mechanics of grain collisions. It is emphasized that considering the coefficient of restitution ε -a central quantity governing the inelasticity of

  1. Advanced Granular System Modeling, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spaceports of the future will utilize new granular materials in unique applications including insulation for cryogenic tanks and Lunar regolith processing for usable...

  2. Sliding through a superlight granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2009-12-01

    We explore the penetration dynamics of an intruder in a granular medium composed of expanded polystyrene spherical particles. Three features distinguish our experiment from others studied so far in granular physics: (a) the impact is horizontal, decoupling the effects of gravity and the drag force; (b) the density of the intruder rho(i) is up to 350 times larger than the density of the granular medium rho(m); and (c) the way the intruder moves through the material, sliding at the bottom of the column with small friction. Under these conditions we find that the final penetration D scales with (rho(i)/rho(m)) and the drag force Fd and D saturate with the height of the granular bed.

  3. NMR Measurements of Granular Flow and Compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Eiichi

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used to measure statistical distributions of granular flow velocity and fluctuations of velocity, as well as spatial distributions of particulate concentration, flow velocity, its fluctuations, and other parameters that may be derived from these. All measurements have been of protons in liquid-containing particles such as mustard seeds or pharmaceutical pills. Our favorite geometry has been the slowly rotating partially filled rotating drum with granular flow taking place along the free surface of the particles. All the above-mentioned parameters have been studied as well as a spatial distribution of particulate diffusion coefficients, energy dissipation due to collisions, as well as segregation of non-uniform mixtures of granular material. Finally, we describe some motions of granular material under periodic vibrations.

  4. Acoustical properties of double porosity granular materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Rodolfo; Umnova, Olga

    2011-11-01

    Granular materials have been conventionally used for acoustic treatment due to their sound absorptive and sound insulating properties. An emerging field is the study of the acoustical properties of multiscale porous materials. An example of these is a granular material in which the particles are porous. In this paper, analytical and hybrid analytical-numerical models describing the acoustical properties of these materials are introduced. Image processing techniques have been employed to estimate characteristic dimensions of the materials. The model predictions are compared with measurements on expanded perlite and activated carbon showing satisfactory agreement. It is concluded that a double porosity granular material exhibits greater low-frequency sound absorption at reduced weight compared to a solid-grain granular material with similar mesoscopic characteristics.

  5. Spatial correlations in compressible granular flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noije, T.P.C.; Ernst, M.H.; Brito, R.

    The clustering instability in freely evolving granular fluids manifests itself in the density-density correlation function and structure factor. These functions are calculated from fluctuating hydrodynamics. As time increases, the structure factor of density fluctuations develops a maximum, which

  6. Noise induces rare events in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khain, Evgeniy; Sander, Leonard M.

    2016-09-01

    The granular Leidenfrost effect [B. Meerson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 024301 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.024301; P. Eshuis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258001 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.258001] is the levitation of a mass of granular matter when a wall below the grains is vibrated, giving rise to a hot granular gas below the cluster. We find by simulation that for a range of parameters the system is bistable: the levitated cluster can occasionally break and give rise to two clusters and a hot granular gas above and below. We use techniques from the theory of rare events to compute the mean transition time for breaking to occur. This requires the introduction of a two-component reaction coordinate.

  7. Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    directly to the brain after craniotomy 154 or 240 kPa Unknown 2.8 or 20 kPa 40 kPa 1 or 10 MPa Redistribution of phosphorylated neurofilament H...m a: 1𔃻) .... !l ~ Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury 767 colleagues55 compared neuropsychological test results in a group of primarily...patterns between blast and non-blast-injured subjects, thus providing no support at the neuropsychological level that blast is different. However

  8. Service robot for hull-blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Zaragoza, Francisco José; Iborra García, Andrés José; Álvarez Torres, María Bárbara; Marín García, Fulgencio; Fernández Meroño, José María

    2001-01-01

    Present grit blasting technology for hull cleaning is very pollutant, environmentally unaffordable, and it is progressively forbidden in the most environmental countries (mainly north of Europe). At the time being, the above methodology has been partially substituted by ultra highpressure water blasting, however they do not show as good performance as the grit blasting systems. This paper describes a service robot for hull blasting. The technology we developed consists of the cleanin...

  9. Granular materials flow like complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Binquan; Cao, Yixin; Li, Jindong; Xia, Chengjie; Li, Zhifeng; Dong, Haipeng; Zhang, Ang; Zhang, Jie; Kob, Walter; Wang, Yujie

    2017-11-16

    Granular materials such as sand, powders and foams are ubiquitous in daily life and in industrial and geotechnical applications. These disordered systems form stable structures when unperturbed, but in the presence of external influences such as tapping or shear they 'relax', becoming fluid in nature. It is often assumed that the relaxation dynamics of granular systems is similar to that of thermal glass-forming systems. However, so far it has not been possible to determine experimentally the dynamic properties of three-dimensional granular systems at the particle level. This lack of experimental data, combined with the fact that the motion of granular particles involves friction (whereas the motion of particles in thermal glass-forming systems does not), means that an accurate description of the relaxation dynamics of granular materials is lacking. Here we use X-ray tomography to determine the microscale relaxation dynamics of hard granular ellipsoids subject to an oscillatory shear. We find that the distribution of the displacements of the ellipsoids is well described by a Gumbel law (which is similar to a Gaussian distribution for small displacements but has a heavier tail for larger displacements), with a shape parameter that is independent of the amplitude of the shear strain and of the time. Despite this universality, the mean squared displacement of an individual ellipsoid follows a power law as a function of time, with an exponent that does depend on the strain amplitude and time. We argue that these results are related to microscale relaxation mechanisms that involve friction and memory effects (whereby the motion of an ellipsoid at a given point in time depends on its previous motion). Our observations demonstrate that, at the particle level, the dynamic behaviour of granular systems is qualitatively different from that of thermal glass-forming systems, and is instead more similar to that of complex fluids. We conclude that granular materials can relax

  10. Granular materials flow like complex fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Binquan; Cao, Yixin; Li, Jindong; Xia, Chengjie; Li, Zhifeng; Dong, Haipeng; Zhang, Ang; Zhang, Jie; Kob, Walter; Wang, Yujie

    2017-11-01

    Granular materials such as sand, powders and foams are ubiquitous in daily life and in industrial and geotechnical applications. These disordered systems form stable structures when unperturbed, but in the presence of external influences such as tapping or shear they `relax', becoming fluid in nature. It is often assumed that the relaxation dynamics of granular systems is similar to that of thermal glass-forming systems. However, so far it has not been possible to determine experimentally the dynamic properties of three-dimensional granular systems at the particle level. This lack of experimental data, combined with the fact that the motion of granular particles involves friction (whereas the motion of particles in thermal glass-forming systems does not), means that an accurate description of the relaxation dynamics of granular materials is lacking. Here we use X-ray tomography to determine the microscale relaxation dynamics of hard granular ellipsoids subject to an oscillatory shear. We find that the distribution of the displacements of the ellipsoids is well described by a Gumbel law (which is similar to a Gaussian distribution for small displacements but has a heavier tail for larger displacements), with a shape parameter that is independent of the amplitude of the shear strain and of the time. Despite this universality, the mean squared displacement of an individual ellipsoid follows a power law as a function of time, with an exponent that does depend on the strain amplitude and time. We argue that these results are related to microscale relaxation mechanisms that involve friction and memory effects (whereby the motion of an ellipsoid at a given point in time depends on its previous motion). Our observations demonstrate that, at the particle level, the dynamic behaviour of granular systems is qualitatively different from that of thermal glass-forming systems, and is instead more similar to that of complex fluids. We conclude that granular materials can relax

  11. Small-signal analysis of granular semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey, E-mail: aapo.varpula@tkk.f [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-11-01

    The small-signal ac response of granular n-type semiconductors is calculated analytically using the drift-diffusion theory when electronic trapping at grain boundaries is present. An electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) model of a granular n-type semiconductor is presented. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is very good in a broad frequency range at low dc bias voltages.

  12. Small-signal analysis of granular semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    The small-signal ac response of granular n-type semiconductors is calculated analytically using the drift-diffusion theory when electronic trapping at grain boundaries is present. An electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) model of a granular n-type semiconductor is presented. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is very good in a broad frequency range at low dc bias voltages.

  13. A constitutive law for dense granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jop, Pierre; Forterre, Yoël; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2006-06-08

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  14. Open fireplace furnace as an adequate heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terbrack, E.

    The fireplace furnace is a furnace for the open fireplace. It is connected to the existing fuel-oil or gas central heating and is used for house heating and warm water preparation when the fire in the fireplace is on. It combines the romanticism of the open fireplace with the necessity of saving fuel oil and gas, ensuring heat supply.

  15. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  16. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 kg...

  17. Design and Construction of Oil Fired Compact Crucible Furnace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a prelude to necessary industrialization, foundries are springing up in various parts of Nigeria and most of these foundries rely on oil fired furnaces in their operation. This study is aimed at developing an oil fired crucible furnace from locally sourced materials for foundries in Nigeria. In our design, a new system of fuel ...

  18. Development of a cylindrical gas-fired furnace for reycling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the development of a cylindrical gas-fired furnace, which could be used for recycling aluminum in small-scale foundries in Nigeria. The crucible, combustion chamber, suspension shaft and bearings were appropriately sized. The furnace chamber was 410 mm high and 510 mm diameter and had a ...

  19. Estimation of slagging in furnaces; Kuonaavuuden ennustaminen kivihiilen poelypoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, T.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, K.; Oeini, J.; Koskiahde, A.; Jokiniemi, J.; Pyykkoenen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Understanding and estimation of slagging in furnaces is essential in the design of new power plants with high steam values or in modifications like low-NO{sub x} retrofits in existing furnaces. Major slagging yields poor efficiency, difficult operation and high maintenance costs of the plant. The aim of the project is to develop a computational model for slagging in pulverized coal combustion. The model is based on Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) analysis of mineral composition of the coal and physical models for behaviour of minerals inside a furnace. The analyzed mineral particles are classified to five composition classes and distributed to calculational coal particles if internal minerals of coal. The calculational coal particles and the external minerals are traced in the furnace to find out the behaviour of minerals inside the furnace. If the particle tracing indicates that the particle hits the heat transfer surface of the furnace the viscosity of the particle is determined to see if particle is sticky. The model will be implemented to 3D computational fluid dynamics based furnace simulation environment Ardemus which predicts the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and combustion in a furnace. (orig.)

  20. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires shall be... used between the blasting cable and detonator circuitry shall— (1) Be undamaged; (2) Be well insulated...

  1. BLEVE blast by expansion-controlled evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, A.C. van den; Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a new method to calculate the blast effects originating from an exploding vessel of liquefied gas. Adequate blast calculation requires full knowledge of the blast source characteristics, that is, the release and subsequent evaporation rate of the flashing liquid. Because the

  2. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Cullis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  3. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe 3 O 4 . Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe 2 O 3 . Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs

  4. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  5. Chemotaxis of large granular lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohajdak, B.; Gomez, J.; Orr, F.W.; Khalil, N.; Talgoy, M.; Greenberg, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are capable of directed locomotion (chemotaxis) was tested. A population of LGL isolated from discontinuous Percoll gradients migrated along concentration gradients of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP), casein, and C5a, well known chemoattractants for polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as interferon-β and colony-stimulating factor. Interleukin 2, tuftsin, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibronectin were inactive. Migratory responses were greater in Percoll fractions with the highest lytic activity and HNK-1 + cells. The chemotactic response to f-MLP, casein, and C5a was always greater when the chemoattractant was present in greater concentration in the lower compartment of the Boyden chamber. Optimum chemotaxis was observed after a 1 hr incubation that made use of 12 μm nitrocellulose filters. LGL exhibited a high degree of nondirected locomotion when allowed to migrate for longer periods (> 2 hr), and when cultured in vitro for 24 to 72 hr in the presence or absence of IL 2 containing phytohemagluttinin-conditioned medium. LGL chemotaxis to f-MLP could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the inactive structural analog CBZ-phe-met, and the RNK tumor line specifically bound f-ML( 3 H)P, suggesting that LGL bear receptors for the chemotactic peptide

  6. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The packing of particles can change radically during cyclic loading such as in an earthquake or when shaking a container to compact a powder. A large hole (1) is maintained by the particles sticking to each other. A small, counterclockwise strain (2) collapses the hole, and another large strain (3) forms more new holes which collapse when the strain reverses (4). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (after T.L. Youd, Packing Changes and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Journal of the Geotechnical Engieering Division, 103: GT8,918-922, 1977)(Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center.)(Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  7. Passive Separation of Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Joseph; Lievano, Diana

    2013-11-01

    Despite its industrial importance, particle separation techniques remain typically quite ``low tech'' and often are energy-intensive (e.g., sieving) or environmentally unfriendly (e.g., froth floatation) or both. Rate-based separation processes, on the other hand, represent a unique approach to particle separation that has the potential to be more flexible, more efficient, and more environmentally friendly than existing ``low tech'' techniques. In the present paper, we highlight a passive granular separation technique, where particles of differing properties flow through a device often called a Galton board. In this type of device, the gravity-driven flow of particles down an inclined plane causes collisions between the particles and distributed pegs along the board. Collisions between particles as well as between particles and pegs results in a diffusion-like motion of particles perpendicular to the flow. The extent of separation (i.e., how far one type of particle is removed from another) depends on the different distances traversed by the two types of particles and, ultimately, on the collision rate and energy dissipation for particle-peg events. A simple theory, based on statistics and single-collision mechanics, will be set forth for comparison with our results.

  8. Self-assembled granular towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Vazquez, Felipe; Moreau, Florian; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Dorbolo, Stephan; GroupResearch; Applications in Statistical Physics Team

    2013-03-01

    When some water is added to sand, cohesion among the grains is induced. In fact, only 1% of liquid volume respect to the total pore space of the sand is necessary to built impressive sandcastles. Inspired on this experience, the mechanical properties of wet piles and sand columns have been widely studied during the last years. However, most of these studies only consider wet materials with less than 35% of liquid volume. Here we report the spontaneous formation of granular towers produced when dry sand is poured on a highly wet sand bed: The impacting grains stick on the wet grains due to instantaneous liquid bridges created during the impact. The grains become wet by the capillary ascension of water and the process continues, giving rise to stable narrow sand towers. Actually, the towers can reach the maximum theoretical limit of stability predicted by previous models, only expected for low liquid volumes. The authors would like to thank FNRS and Conacyt Mexico for financial support. FPV is a beneficiary of a movility grant from BELSPO/Marie Curie and the University of Liege.

  9. Microfluidics of soft granular gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ryan; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E.

    Microfluidic methods for encapsulating cells and particles typically involve drop making with two immiscible fluids. The main materials constraint in this approach is surface tension, creating inherent instability between the two fluids. We can eliminate this instability by using miscible inner and outer phases. This is achieved by using granular micro gels which are chemically miscible but physically do not mix. These microgels are yield stress materials, so they flow as solid plugs far from shear gradients, and fluidize where gradients are generated - near an injection nozzle for example. We have found that tuning the yield stress of the material by varying polymer concentration, device performance can be controlled. The solid like behavior of the gel allows us to produces infinitely stable jets that maintain their integrity and configuration over long distances and times. These properties can be combined and manipulated to produce discrete particulate bunches of an inner phase, flowing inside of an outer phase, well enough even to print a Morse code message suspended within flow chambers about a millimeter in diameter moving at millimeters a second.

  10. Domain enhanced lookup time accelerated BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratyn Grzegorz M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BLAST is a commonly-used software package for comparing a query sequence to a database of known sequences; in this study, we focus on protein sequences. Position-specific-iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST iteratively searches a protein sequence database, using the matches in round i to construct a position-specific score matrix (PSSM for searching the database in round i + 1. Biegert and Söding developed Context-sensitive BLAST (CS-BLAST, which combines information from searching the sequence database with information derived from a library of short protein profiles to achieve better homology detection than PSI-BLAST, which builds its PSSMs from scratch. Results We describe a new method, called domain enhanced lookup time accelerated BLAST (DELTA-BLAST, which searches a database of pre-constructed PSSMs before searching a protein-sequence database, to yield better homology detection. For its PSSMs, DELTA-BLAST employs a subset of NCBI’s Conserved Domain Database (CDD. On a test set derived from ASTRAL, with one round of searching, DELTA-BLAST achieves a ROC5000 of 0.270 vs. 0.116 for CS-BLAST. The performance advantage diminishes in iterated searches, but DELTA-BLAST continues to achieve better ROC scores than CS-BLAST. Conclusions DELTA-BLAST is a useful program for the detection of remote protein homologs. It is available under the “Protein BLAST” link at http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Nick V. Grishin, and Frank Eisenhaber.

  11. Discrete Element Modeling of Complex Granular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movshovitz, N.; Asphaug, E. I.

    2010-12-01

    Granular materials occur almost everywhere in nature, and are actively studied in many fields of research, from food industry to planetary science. One approach to the study of granular media, the continuum approach, attempts to find a constitutive law that determines the material's flow, or strain, under applied stress. The main difficulty with this approach is that granular systems exhibit different behavior under different conditions, behaving at times as an elastic solid (e.g. pile of sand), at times as a viscous fluid (e.g. when poured), or even as a gas (e.g. when shaken). Even if all these physics are accounted for, numerical implementation is made difficult by the wide and often discontinuous ranges in continuum density and sound speed. A different approach is Discrete Element Modeling (DEM). Here the goal is to directly model every grain in the system as a rigid body subject to various body and surface forces. The advantage of this method is that it treats all of the above regimes in the same way, and can easily deal with a system moving back and forth between regimes. But as a granular system typically contains a multitude of individual grains, the direct integration of the system can be very computationally expensive. For this reason most DEM codes are limited to spherical grains of uniform size. However, spherical grains often cannot replicate the behavior of real world granular systems. A simple pile of spherical grains, for example, relies on static friction alone to keep its shape, while in reality a pile of irregular grains can maintain a much steeper angle by interlocking force chains. In the present study we employ a commercial DEM, nVidia's PhysX Engine, originally designed for the game and animation industry, to simulate complex granular flows with irregular, non-spherical grains. This engine runs as a multi threaded process and can be GPU accelerated. We demonstrate the code's ability to physically model granular materials in the three regimes

  12. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  13. Parallel BLAST on split databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathog, David R

    2003-09-22

    BLAST programs often run on large SMP machines where multiple threads can work simultaneously and there is enough memory to cache the databases between program runs. A group of programs is described which allows comparable performance to be achieved with a Beowulf configuration in which no node has enough memory to cache a database but the cluster as an aggregate does. To achieve this result, databases are split into equal sized pieces and stored locally on each node. Each query is run on all nodes in parallel and the resultant BLAST output files from all nodes merged to yield the final output. Source code is available from ftp://saf.bio.caltech.edu/

  14. Control buildings for blast resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    Offers advice on interior design for blast-resistant control buildings. Suggests that for the comfort and safety of occupants, special attention must be paid to internal finishes and color schemes. Considers external treatment (e.g. panels, cladding fixings, thermal insulation), air intakes and exhausts, internal finishes (e.g. stud lining method), and internal walls and partitions. Presents diagrams showing construction method for a control building; elimination of ''cold bridge'' at eaves level; staggering door openings to minimize blast effects; and flexure of concrete walls without affecting the inner lining.

  15. Blast Responses and Vibration of Flood-Defense Structures under High-Intensity Blast Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghee Ryu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented the blast behavior of flood-defense structures subjected to high-intensity loadings such as blast shock waves. In order to understand the blast behavior of weir structures, PHAST program was used to predict blast loadings in consideration of material reactivity and congestion levels. Environment factors such as weather data and atmospheric parameters were also considered in this study. Then, nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed using the ABAQUS platform to evaluate structural responses and blast vibration of concrete weir structures subjected to various types of blast loadings, due to uncertainties of the magnitude and durations of blast loads as a function of distance from the explosion. It was shown that the blast damage to concrete weir structure was significantly influenced by congestion levels or material reactivity. Also, the stress concentration under blast loading was observed at the connection area between the concrete weir body and stilling basin.

  16. Fragment Size Distribution of Blasted Rock Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug, Jasmin; Strelec, Stjepan; Gazdek, Mario; Kavur, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Rock mass is a heterogeneous material, and the heterogeneity of rock causes sizes distribution of fragmented rocks in blasting. Prediction of blasted rock mass fragmentation has a significant role in the overall economics of opencast mines. Blasting as primary fragmentation can significantly decrease the cost of loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Blast fragmentation chiefly depends on the specific blast design (geometry of blast holes drilling, the quantity and class of explosive, the blasting form, the timing and partition, etc.) and on the properties of the rock mass (including the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock mass elastic Young modulus, the rock discontinuity characteristics and the rock density). Prediction and processing of blasting results researchers can accomplish by a variety of existing software’s and models, one of them is the Kuz-Ram model, which is possibly the most widely used approach to estimating fragmentation from blasting. This paper shows the estimation of fragmentation using the "SB" program, which was created by the authors. Mentioned program includes the Kuz-Ram model. Models of fragmentation are confirmed and calibrated by comparing the estimated fragmentation with actual post-blast fragmentation from image processing techniques. In this study, the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model has been used for an open-pit limestone quarry in Dalmatia, southern Croatia. The resulting calibrated value of the rock factor enables the quality prognosis of fragmentation in further blasting works, with changed drilling geometry and blast design parameters. It also facilitates simulation in the program to optimize blasting works and get the desired fragmentations of the blasted rock mass.

  17. Axisymmetric collapses of granular columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, Gert; Huppert, Herbert E.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Hallworth, Mark A.

    2004-06-01

    Experimental observations of the collapse of initially vertical columns of small grains are presented. The experiments were performed mainly with dry grains of salt or sand, with some additional experiments using couscous, sugar or rice. Some of the experimental flows were analysed using high-speed video. There are three different flow regimes, dependent on the value of the aspect ratio a {=} h_i/r_i, where h_i and r_i are the initial height and radius of the granular column respectively. The differing forms of flow behaviour are described for each regime. In all cases a central, conically sided region of angle approximately 59(°) , corresponding to an aspect ratio of 1.7, remains undisturbed throughout the motion. The main experimental results for the final extent of the deposit and the time for emplacement are systematically collapsed in a quantitative way independent of any friction coefficients. Along with the kinematic data for the rate of spread of the front of the collapsing column, this is interpreted as indicating that frictional effects between individual grains in the bulk of the moving flow only play a role in the last instant of the flow, as it comes to an abrupt halt. For a {reach r_infty is given by t_infty {=} 3(h_i/g)(1/2} {=} 3(r_i/g)({1/2}a^{1/2)) , where g is the gravitational acceleration. The insights and conclusions gained from these experiments can be applied to a wide range of industrial and natural flows of concentrated particles. For example, the observation of the rapid deposition of the grains can help explain details of the emplacement of pyroclastic flows resulting from the explosive eruption of volcanoes.

  18. Holden gas-fired furnace baseline data. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherspoon, K.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Holden gas-fired furnace is used in the enriched uranium recovery process to dry and combust small batches of combustibles. The ash is further processed. The furnace operates by allowing a short natural gas flame to burn over the face of a wall of porous fire brick on two sides of the furnace. Each firing wall uses two main burners and a pilot burner to heat the porous fire brick to a luminous glow. Regulators and orifice valves are used to provide a minimum gas pressure of 4 in. water column at a rate of approximately 1,450 scf/h to the burners. The gas flow rate was calculated by determining the gas flow appropriate for the instrumentation in the gas line. Observed flame length and vendor literature were used to calculate pilot burner gas consumption. Air for combustion, purging, and cooling is supplied by a single blower. Rough calculations of the air-flow distribution in piping entering the furnace show that air flow to the burners approximately agrees with the calculated natural gas flow. A simple on/off control loop is used to maintain a temperature of 1,000 F in the furnace chamber. Hoods and glove boxes provide contamination control during furnace loading and unloading and ash handling. Fan EF-120 exhausts the hoods, glove boxes, and furnace through filters to Stack 33. A review of the furnace safety shows that safety is ensured by design, interlocks, procedure, and a safety system. Recommendations for safety improvements include installation of both a timed ignition system and a combustible-gas monitor near the furnace. Contamination control in the area could be improved by redesigning the loading hood face and replacing worn gaskets throughout the system. 33 refs., 16 figs

  19. Collapse of tall granular columns in fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Avalanches, landslides, and debris flows are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water, and air as a multi-phase system. In order to describe the mechanism of immersed granular flows, it is important to consider both the dynamics of the solid phase and the role of the ambient fluid. In the present study, the collapse of a granular column in fluid is studied using 2D LBM - DEM. The flow kinematics are compared with the dry and buoyant granular collapse to understand the influence of hydrodynamic forces and lubrication on the run-out. In the case of tall columns, the amount of material destabilised above the failure plane is larger than that of short columns. Therefore, the surface area of the mobilised mass that interacts with the surrounding fluid in tall columns is significantly higher than the short columns. This increase in the area of soil - fluid interaction results in an increase in the formation of turbulent vortices thereby altering the deposit morphology. It is observed that the vortices result in the formation of heaps that significantly affects the distribution of mass in the flow. In order to understand the behaviour of tall columns, the run-out behaviour of a dense granular column with an initial aspect ratio of 6 is studied. The collapse behaviour is analysed for different slope angles: 0°, 2.5°, 5° and 7.5°.

  20. Collapse of tall granular columns in fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Avalanches, landslides, and debris flows are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water, and air as a multi-phase system. In order to describe the mechanism of immersed granular flows, it is important to consider both the dynamics of the solid phase and the role of the ambient fluid. In the present study, the collapse of a granular column in fluid is studied using 2D LBM - DEM. The flow kinematics are compared with the dry and buoyant granular collapse to understand the influence of hydrodynamic forces and lubrication on the run-out. In the case of tall columns, the amount of material destabilised above the failure plane is larger than that of short columns. Therefore, the surface area of the mobilised mass that interacts with the surrounding fluid in tall columns is significantly higher than the short columns. This increase in the area of soil - fluid interaction results in an increase in the formation of turbulent vortices thereby altering the deposit morphology. It is observed that the vortices result in the formation of heaps that significantly affects the distribution of mass in the flow. In order to understand the behaviour of tall columns, the run-out behaviour of a dense granular column with an initial aspect ratio of 6 is studied. The collapse behaviour is analysed for different slope angles: 0°, 2.5°, 5° and 7.5°.

  1. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2016-03-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. We also find that, similar to Lighthill's results using resistive force theory in viscous fluids, the sawtooth swimmer is the optimal waveform for propulsion speed at a given power consumption in granular media. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  2. Reversibility in locomotion in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, William; Goldman, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    A recent study of a self-deforming robot [Hatton et al., PRL, 2013] demonstrated that slow movement in dry granular media resembles locomotion in low Re fluids, in part because inertia is dominated by friction. The study indicated that granular swimming was kinematically reversible, a surprise because yielding in granular flow is irreversible. To investigate if reciprocal motions lead to net displacements in granular swimmers, in laboratory experiments, we study the locomotion of a robotic ``scallop'' consisting of a square body with two flipper-like limbs controlled to flap forward and backward symmetrically (a flap cycle). The body is constrained by linear bearings to allow motion in only one dimension. We vary the the flapping frequency f, the body/flipper burial depth d, and the number of flaps N in a deep bed of 6 mm diameter plastic spheres. Over a range of f and d, the N = 1 cycle produces net translation of the body; however for large N, a cycle produces no net translation. We conclude that symmetric strokes in granular swimming are irreversible at the onset of self-deformation, but become asymptotically reversible. work supported by NSF and ARL.

  3. Mask materials for powder blasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    Powder blasting, or abrasive jet machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials such as glass, silicon and ceramics. The particle jet (which

  4. INCREASED RELIABILITY OF ELECTRIC BLASTING

    OpenAIRE

    Kashuba, Oleh Ivanovych; Skliarov, L I; Skliarov, A L

    2017-01-01

    The problems of improving reliability of an electric blasting method using electric detonators with nichrome filament bridges. It was revealed that in the calculation of the total resistance of the explosive network it is necessary to increase to 24% of the nominal value

  5. An analysis of the heap construction by long hole blasting for in-situ leaching of blasted ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shijiao

    1999-01-01

    The author establishes specific requirements for heap construction by blasting on the basis of the mechanism for in situ leaching of blasted ore, analyses the feasibility of heap construction by long hole blasting, selection of the blast plan and the relevant technological problems, and gives a case of heap construction by long hole blasting in Renhua uranium mine

  6. Granular cell tumor of the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salour, Hossein; Tavakoli, Mehdi; Karimi, Saeed; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Faghihi, Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    To report a case of granular cell tumor as a rare orbital pathology. A 50-year-old female presented with a 4-year history of diplopia, right ocular displacement and a firm nontender mass in her right lower lid. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the orbit disclosed a well-defined mass in the right inferior orbit involving the right inferior rectus. Subtotal excision of the mass was performed, and histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies revealed granular cell tumor. Subsequently, the tumor recurred and exenteration was required as multiple sessions of radiotherapy failed to prevent the residual tumor from growing. Granular cell tumor, though very rare in the orbit, should be considered in patients with orbital masses especially in cases with involvement of the inferior rectus muscle. Infiltrative tumors may be impossible to completely resect and can rapidly recur following surgery.

  7. Granular Cell Tumor of the Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Salour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of granular cell tumor as a rare orbital pathology. Case report: A 50-year-old female presented with a 4-year history of diplopia, right ocular displacement and a firm nontender mass in her right lower lid. Computed tomography (CT scan of the orbit disclosed a well-defined mass in the right inferior orbit involving the right inferior rectus. Subtotal excision of the mass was performed, and histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies revealed granular cell tumor. Subsequently, the tumor recurred and exenteration was required as multiple sessions of radiotherapy failed to prevent the residual tumor from growing. Conclusion: Granular cell tumor, though very rare in the orbit, should be considered in patients with orbital masses especially in cases with involvement of the inferior rectus muscle. Infiltrative tumors may be impossible to completely resect and can rapidly recur following surgery.

  8. Wet granular matter a truly complex fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Herminghaus, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    This is a monograph written for the young and advanced researcher who is entering the field of wet granular matter and keen to understand the basic physical principles governing this state of soft matter. It treats wet granulates as an instance of a ternary system, consisting of the grains, a primary, and a secondary fluid. After addressing wetting phenomena in general and outlining the basic facts on dry granular systems, a chapter on basic mechanisms and their effects is dedicated to every region of the ternary phase diagram. Effects of grain shape and roughness are considered as well. Rather than addressing engineering aspects such as existing books on this topic do, the book aims to provide a generalized framework suitable for those who want to understand these systems on a more fundamental basis. Readership: For the young and advanced researcher entering the field of wet granular matter.

  9. 11th Traffic and Granular Flow Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Daamen, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    The Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow brings together international researchers from different fields ranging from physics to computer science and engineering to discuss the latest developments in traffic-related systems. Originally conceived to facilitate new ideas by considering the similarities of traffic and granular flow, TGF'15, organised by Delft University of Technology, now covers a broad range of topics related to driven particle and transport systems. Besides the classical topics of granular flow and highway traffic, its scope includes data transport (Internet traffic), pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, intercellular transport, swarm behaviour and the collective dynamics of other biological systems. Recent advances in modelling, computer simulation and phenomenology are presented, and prospects for applications, for example to traffic control, are discussed. The conference explores the interrelations between the above-mentioned fields and offers the opportunity to stimulate interdisciplinar...

  10. Conversion of Furnace oil fired boiler to biomass(Gliricidia) fired (External/Internal) furnace boiler : NA

    OpenAIRE

    Channa Gaya Siriwardhana, Kahandawa Arachchilage

    2010-01-01

    In the present era, with the prevailing competition, the cost of production plays a vital role. As the price of petroleum oils, especially diesel and furnace oil are growing at a steeper rate than solid fuel price, finding a substitute for furnace oil is one of the alternative available. Furnace oil used in boilers can be totally substitute by biomass with an equivalent ratio of 3.5:1 kg/liter on the basis of calorific value. This may results in saving of more than 60% of operating cost and w...

  11. Surface instabilities in shock loaded granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandan, K.; Khaderi, S. N.; Wadley, H. N. G.; Deshpande, V. S.

    2017-12-01

    The initiation and growth of instabilities in granular materials loaded by air shock waves are investigated via shock-tube experiments and numerical calculations. Three types of granular media, dry sand, water-saturated sand and a granular solid comprising PTFE spheres were experimentally investigated by air shock loading slugs of these materials in a transparent shock tube. Under all shock pressures considered here, the free-standing dry sand slugs remained stable while the shock loaded surface of the water-saturated sand slug became unstable resulting in mixing of the shocked air and the granular material. By contrast, the PTFE slugs were stable at low pressures but displayed instabilities similar to the water-saturated sand slugs at higher shock pressures. The distal surfaces of the slugs remained stable under all conditions considered here. Eulerian fluid/solid interaction calculations, with the granular material modelled as a Drucker-Prager solid, reproduced the onset of the instabilities as seen in the experiments to a high level of accuracy. These calculations showed that the shock pressures to initiate instabilities increased with increasing material friction and decreasing yield strain. Moreover, the high Atwood number for this problem implied that fluid/solid interaction effects were small, and the initiation of the instability is adequately captured by directly applying a pressure on the slug surface. Lagrangian calculations with the directly applied pressures demonstrated that the instability was caused by spatial pressure gradients created by initial surface perturbations. Surface instabilities are also shown to exist in shock loaded rear-supported granular slugs: these experiments and calculations are used to infer the velocity that free-standing slugs need to acquire to initiate instabilities on their front surfaces. The results presented here, while in an idealised one-dimensional setting, provide physical understanding of the conditions required to

  12. Innovation in electric arc furnaces scientific basis for selection

    CERN Document Server

    Toulouevski, Yuri N

    2013-01-01

    This book equips a reader with knowledge necessary for critical analysis of  innovations in electric arc furnaces and helps to select the most effective ones and for their successful implementation. The book also covers general issues related to history of development, current state and prospects of steelmaking in Electric Arc Furnaces. Therefore, it can be useful for everybody who studies metallurgy, including students of colleges and universities. The modern concepts of mechanisms of Arc Furnace processes are are discussed in the book at the level sufficient to solve practical problems: To help readers lacking knowledge required in the field of heat transfer as well as hydro-gas dynamics, it contains several chapters which provide the required minimum of information in these fields of science. In order to better assess different innovations, the book describes experience of the application of similar innovations in open-hearth furnaces and oxygen converters. Some promising ideas on key issues regarding int...

  13. Radial furnace shows promise for growing straight boron carbide whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, E.

    1967-01-01

    Radial furnace, with a long graphite vaporization tube, maintains a uniform thermal gradient, favoring the growth of straight boron carbide whiskers. This concept seems to offer potential for both the quality and yield of whiskers.

  14. Elements of the electric arc furnace's environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, Adrian; Semenescu, Augustin; Costoiu, Mihnea; Marcu, Dragoş

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the polluting generating mechanisms for steel making in the Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF). The scheme for the environment's polluting system through the EAF is designed and presented in this paper. The ecological experimenting consisted of determining by specialized measures of the dust percentage in the evacuated gases from the EAF and of thereof gas pollutants. From the point of view of reducing the impact on the environment, the main problem of the electric arc furnace (EAF) is the optimization of the powder collecting from the process gases, both from the furnace and from the work-area. The paper deals with the best dependence between the aggregate's constructive, functional and technological factors, which are necessary for the furnace's ecologization and for its energetically-technologically performances increasing.

  15. CMOS Thermal Ox and Diffusion Furnace: Tystar Tytan 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Names: CMOS Wet Ox, CMOS Dry Ox, Boron Doping (P-type), Phos. Doping (N-Type)This four-stack furnace bank is used for the thermal growth of silicon...

  16. High-temperature diffraction experiments with mirror furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boysen, H.; Frey, F.

    1999-01-01

    The design and performances of the mirror furnace of neutron scattering experiments at high temperatures are described and illustrated by examples. Neutron diffraction is an invaluable tool for investigating the structure of solids at high temperatures. In materials science there is an increasing interest in high temperature physical properties both from a technological and a scientific point of view, including e.g. ceramics, refractories, fuel cells. Most interesting high-temperature compounds are oxides, for which conventional resistance furnaces operating in vacuum cannot be used because of possible oxygen loss and/or decomposition processes. The mirror furnace is the ideal alternative as it is operated in air or any other desired atmosphere and experiments can be performed in situ, i.e. under real working conditions. For example, additional attachments like electrodes on the sample raise no problems. Here, we give a review of the recent investigations using the mirror furnace. (authors)

  17. Optimization of the melting process of electrical furnaces in drenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haxhiaj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The weight, composition and loads are the main parameters of the melting process in electrical furnace. The charge is roasted in rotary furnace. Roasting of charge which consists of Drenas and Albanians ore is done at about 950°C. Also, article has the experimental analyses that modify some parameters of the production which are the reduction of quantity of limestone and the increase of quantity of quartz in the charge. The paper analysis the possibility of mixing the ore from Kosova with lateritic ore from Albania with the aim of reducing the acidity of weight which is loaded in the electrical furnace. The composition of the furnace must satisfy the ratio 1:10 of ore from Kosova and Albania.

  18. Alloying and Casting Furnace for Shape Memory Alloys, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept in the proposed project is to create a melting, alloying and casting furnace for the processing titanium based SMA using cold crucible techniques. The...

  19. Modular Distributed Concentrator for Solar Furnace, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to develop a lightweight approach to achieving the high concentrations of solar energy needed for a solar furnace achieving temperatures of...

  20. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics

    2000-01-01

    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  1. Anisotropy in cohesive, frictional granular media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luding, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The modelling of cohesive, frictional granular materials with a discrete particle molecular dynamics is reviewed. From the structure of the quasi-static granular solid, the fabric, stress, and stiffness tensors are determined, including both normal and tangential forces. The influence of the material properties on the flow behaviour is also reported, including relations between the microscopic attractive force and the macroscopic cohesion as well as the dependence of the macroscopic friction on the microscopic contact friction coefficient. Related to the dynamics, the anisotropy of both structure and stress are exponentially approaching the maximum

  2. Granular cell tumors of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Batsakis, J G; Courtney, R M

    1979-06-01

    Forth-two granular cell tumors of the head and neck were collected and studied with light and electron microscopy. Granular cells were found in four odontogenic tumors, two congenital epulides of newborn infants, and 36 myoblastoma lesions of the skin and mucous membranes. Support is presented for the hypothesis that granular cells represent an unusual nonspecific degenerative process and that nonodontogenic granular cell tumors develop from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells that subsequently undergo autophagocytosis.

  3. Carburization of stainless steel furnace tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabal, E.; Molina, C. [Refineria Isla, Curazao, S.A., P.O. Box 3843. Curacao, (Netherlands Antilles); Hau, J.L.; Mayorga, A.G. [PDVSA-Intevep. P.O. Box 76343. Caracas 1070A, Venezuela (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    Stainless steel containing molybdenum are usually recommended to resist naphtenic acid corrosion in vacuum heaters. In 1993 the original 5Cr-1/2Mo roof tubes of the furnace in a vacuum unit were replaced by stainless steel 316 Ti to minimize tube replacement and increase heater reliability. Unexpectedly, some of the new tubes failed after only three years of service and just one year after undergoing the last inspection. The damage occurred in the form of deep holes and perforations, starting from the outside tube surface on the fireside. Coke build-up occurred due to severe operating conditions, overheating the tubes on the fireside, above 675 Centigrade. Metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) examination revealed internal and external carburization of the material due to the presence of coke and combustion ashes, respectively. The increase in the skin metal temperature facilitated the diffusion of carbon from these carbon-rich deposits into the low carbon content material (0.023%). Depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries due to the massive formation of chromium carbides, resulted in a severe intergranular corrosion attack by molten salts rich in vanadium and sulfur produced by asphalt burning. Normal operating practice demands the use of steam for the heater tubes to control coke build-up. This practice had been first reduced and then eliminated, during the past two years prior to the failure, because of economic incentives. This paper describes the root cause analysis conducted to account for these premature tube failures. (Author)

  4. Carburization of stainless steel furnace tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabal, E.; Molina, C.; Hau, J.L.; Mayorga, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Stainless steel containing molybdenum are usually recommended to resist naphtenic acid corrosion in vacuum heaters. In 1993 the original 5Cr-1/2Mo roof tubes of the furnace in a vacuum unit were replaced by stainless steel 316 Ti to minimize tube replacement and increase heater reliability. Unexpectedly, some of the new tubes failed after only three years of service and just one year after undergoing the last inspection. The damage occurred in the form of deep holes and perforations, starting from the outside tube surface on the fireside. Coke build-up occurred due to severe operating conditions, overheating the tubes on the fireside, above 675 Centigrade. Metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) examination revealed internal and external carburization of the material due to the presence of coke and combustion ashes, respectively. The increase in the skin metal temperature facilitated the diffusion of carbon from these carbon-rich deposits into the low carbon content material (0.023%). Depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries due to the massive formation of chromium carbides, resulted in a severe intergranular corrosion attack by molten salts rich in vanadium and sulfur produced by asphalt burning. Normal operating practice demands the use of steam for the heater tubes to control coke build-up. This practice had been first reduced and then eliminated, during the past two years prior to the failure, because of economic incentives. This paper describes the root cause analysis conducted to account for these premature tube failures. (Author)

  5. The Flexibility of Pusher Furnace Grate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słowik J.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lifetime of guide grates in pusher furnaces for heat treatment could be increased by raising the flexibility of their structure through, for example, the replacement of straight ribs, parallel to the direction of grate movement, with more flexible segments. The deformability of grates with flexible segments arranged in two orientations, i.e. crosswise (perpendicular to the direction of compression and lengthwise (parallel to the direction of compression, was examined. The compression process was simulated using SolidWorks Simulation program. Relevant regression equations were also derived describing the dependence of force inducing the grate deformation by 0.25 mm ‒ modulus of grate elasticity ‒ on the number of flexible segments in established orientations. These calculations were made in Statistica and Scilab programs. It has been demonstrated that, with the same number of segments, the crosswise orientation of flexible segments increases the grate structure flexibility in a more efficient way than the lengthwise orientation. It has also been proved that a crucial effect on the grate flexibility has only the quantity and orientation of segments (crosswise / lengthwise, while the exact position of segments changes the grate flexibility by less than 1%.

  6. 77 FR 59979 - Pure Magnesium (Granular) From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Pure Magnesium (Granular) From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on pure magnesium (granular) from China would be likely to lead to continuation or...), entitled Pure Magnesium (Granular) from China: Investigation No.731-TA- 895 (Second Review). Issued...

  7. Similarity of Ferrosilicon Submerged Arc Furnaces With Different Geometrical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machulec B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine reasons of unsatisfactory production output regarding one of the 12 MVA furnaces, a comparative analysis with a furnace of higher power that showed a markedly better production output was performed. For comparison of ferrosilicon furnaces with different geometrical parameters and transformer powers, the theory of physical similarity was applied. Geometrical, electrical and thermal parameters of the reaction zones are included in the comparative analysis. For furnaces with different geometrical parameters, it is important to ensure the same temperature conditions of the reaction zones. Due to diverse mechanisms of heat generation, different criteria for determination of thermal and electrical similarity for the upper and lower reaction zones were assumed contrary to other publications. The parameter c3 (Westly was assumed the similarity criterion for the upper furnace zones where heat is generated as a result of resistive heating while the parameter J1 (Jaccard was assumed the similarity criterion for the lower furnace zones where heat is generated due to arc radiation.

  8. Assessing energy efficiency of electric car bottom furnaces intended for thermal energization of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhegorodov, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with a new concept of electric furnaces for roasting and thermal energization of vermiculite and other minerals with vibrational transportation of a single-layer mass under constant thermal field. The paper presents performance calculation and comparative assessment of energy data for furnaces of different modifications: flame and electric furnaces with three units, furnaces with six units and ones with series-parallel connection of units, and furnaces of new concept.

  9. CrocoBLAST: Running BLAST efficiently in the age of next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristão Ramos, Ravi José; de Azevedo Martins, Allan Cézar; da Silva Delgado, Gabrielle; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Ürményi, Turán Peter; Silva, Rosane; Koca, Jaroslav

    2017-11-15

    CrocoBLAST is a tool for dramatically speeding up BLAST+ execution on any computer. Alignments that would take days or weeks with NCBI BLAST+ can be run overnight with CrocoBLAST. Additionally, CrocoBLAST provides features critical for NGS data analysis, including: results identical to those of BLAST+; compatibility with any BLAST+ version; real-time information regarding calculation progress and remaining run time; access to partial alignment results; queueing, pausing, and resuming BLAST+ calculations without information loss. CrocoBLAST is freely available online, with ample documentation (webchem.ncbr.muni.cz/Platform/App/CrocoBLAST). No installation or user registration is required. CrocoBLAST is implemented in C, while the graphical user interface is implemented in Java. CrocoBLAST is supported under Linux and Windows, and can be run under Mac OS X in a Linux virtual machine. jkoca@ceitec.cz. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Collective phenomena in vertically shaken granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Pieter Gerben

    2008-01-01

    Granular matter is the general name for materials consisting of grain-like solids and can be encountered everywhere in our daily life, for instance in the form of sand, sugar, cereals and pills. Numerous industries deal with these kinds of materials, which often cause severe problems during

  11. Vortex jamming in superconductors and granular rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Hajime; Nogawa, Tomoaki; Kim, Bongsoo

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that a highly frustrated anisotropic Josephson junction array (JJA) on a square lattice exhibits a zero-temperature jamming transition, which shares much in common with those in granular systems. Anisotropy of the Josephson couplings along the horizontal and vertical directions plays roles similar to normal load or density in granular systems. We studied numerically static and dynamic response of the system against shear, i.e. injection of external electric current at zero temperature. Current-voltage curves at various strength of the anisotropy exhibit universal scaling features around the jamming point much as do the flow curves in granular rheology, shear-stress versus shear-rate. It turns out that at zero temperature the jamming transition occurs right at the isotropic coupling and anisotropic JJA behaves as exotic fragile vortex matter: it behaves as a superconductor (vortex glass) in one direction, whereas it is a normal conductor (vortex liquid) in the other direction even at zero temperature. Furthermore, we find a variant of the theoretical model for the anisotropic JJA quantitatively reproduces universal master flow-curves of the granular systems. Our results suggest an unexpected common paradigm stretching over seemingly unrelated fields-the rheology of soft materials and superconductivity.

  12. Pion showers in highly granular calorimeters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-02

    –80 GeV in high granular electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters are presented. Data were used for the first time to investigate the separation of the neutral and charged hadron showers. The result is important to verify the ...

  13. Granular Data Description: Designing Ellipsoidal Information Granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiubin; Pedrycz, Witold; Li, Zhiwu

    2017-12-01

    Granular computing (GrC) has emerged as a unified conceptual and processing framework. Information granules are fundamental constructs that permeate concepts and models of GrC. This paper is concerned with a design of a collection of meaningful, easily interpretable ellipsoidal information granules with the use of the principle of justifiable granularity by taking into consideration reconstruction abilities of the designed information granules. The principle of justifiable granularity supports designing of information granules based on numeric or granular evidence, and aims to achieve a compromise between justifiability and specificity of the information granules to be constructed. A two-stage development strategy behind the construction of justifiable information granules is considered. First, a collection of numeric prototypes is determined with the use of fuzzy clustering. Second, the lengths of the semi-axes of ellipsoidal information granules to be formed around such prototypes are optimized. Two optimization criteria are introduced and studied. Experimental studies involving synthetic data set and data sets coming from the machine learning repository are reported.

  14. Deposition and shaking of dry granular piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, M.

    2003-01-01

    A friction force model describing reversible stick-slip transition during contact has been developed with the special purpose to simulate the deposition of granular material. A test with a mass on a conveyor belt kept in position by a spring shows that a numerical simulation of the dynamics of such

  15. Pion showers in highly granular calorimeters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New results on properties of hadron showers created by pion beam at 8–80 GeV in high granular electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters are presented. Data were used for the first time to investigate the separation of the neutral and charged hadron showers. The result is important to verify the prediction of the PFA ...

  16. Anomalous infrared absorption in granular superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.L.; Garland, J.C.; Tanner, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Granular superconductors are shown to have a far-infrared absorption that is larger when the samples are superconducting than when they are normal. By constrast, theoretical models for these materials predict that when the samples become superconducting, the absorption should decrease

  17. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  18. Structure and cluster formation in granular media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The two most important phenomena at the basis of granular media are excluded volume and dissipation. The former is captured by the hard sphere model and is responsible for, e.g., crystallization, the latter leads to interesting structures like clusters in non-equilibrium dynamical, freely cooling states. The freely cooling ...

  19. Anomalous intruder response in diverse granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyarte Galvez, Loreto Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    The definition of granular matter is extremely broad; any collection of conglomeration of particles larger than 100 micrometers can be considered as part of this group, and virtually the entire universe is composed of them. Examples are found in many fields, e.g. in nature (dunes, avalanches,

  20. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials

  1. Fireside carburization of stainless steel furnace tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabal, E.; Molina, C. [PDVSA-Refineria Isla, Curayao (Netherlands); Mayorga, A.; Hau, J.L. [PDVSA-Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-11-01

    Most heavy Venezuelan crudes are recognized for having a high total acid number (TAN) that is usually associated with a high tendency to produce naphthenic acid corrosion. To resist this type of corrosion in vacuum heaters, 9Cr-1Mo steel and stainless steels containing molybdenum are usually recommended. In 1993 the original 5Cr-1/2Mo roof tubes of the furnace in a vacuum unit were replaced by stainless steel 316Ti to minimize tube replacement and increase heater reliability. Unexpectedly, some of the new tubes failed after only three years of service, and just one year after undergoing the last turnaround inspection. The damage occurred in the form of deep holes and perforations, starting from the outside tube surface on the fireside. Coke build-up occurred due to severe operating conditions, overheating the tubes on the fireside, above 675 C (1250 F). Metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) examination revealed internal and external carburization of the material due to the presence of coke and combustion ashes, respectively. The increase in the skin metal temperature facilitated the diffusion of carbon from these carbon-rich deposits into the low carbon content material (0.023 O/O).Depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries due to the massive formation of chromium carbides, resulted in a severe intergranular corrosion attack by molten salts rich in vanadium and sulfur due to asphalt burning. Normal operating practice demands the use of steam for the heater tubes to control coke build-up. This practice had been first reduced and then eliminated, during the past two years prior to the failure, because of economic incentives. This paper describes the root cause analysis conducted to account for these premature tube failures.

  2. Granular flow over inclined channels with constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Study of granular flows down inclined channels is essential in understanding the dynamics of natural grain flows like landslides and snow avalanches. As a stepping stone, dry granular flow over an inclined channel with a localised constriction is investigated using both continuum methods and particle simulations. Initially, depth-averaged equations of motion (Savage & Hutter 1989) containing an unknown friction law are considered. The shallow-layer model for granular flows is closed with a friction law obtained from particle simulations of steady flows (Weinhart et al. 2012) undertaken in the open source package Mercury DPM (Mercury 2010). The closed two-dimensional (2D) shallow-layer model is then width-averaged to obtain a novel one-dimensional (1D) model which is an extension of the one for water flows through contraction (Akers & Bokhove 2008). Different flow states are predicted by this novel one-dimensional theory. Flow regimes with distinct flow states are determined as a function of upstream channel Froude number, F, and channel width ratio, Bc. The latter being the ratio of the channel exit width and upstream channel width. Existence of multiple steady states is predicted in a certain regime of F - Bc parameter plane which is in agreement with experiments previously undertaken by (Akers & Bokhove 2008) and for granular flows (Vreman et al. 2007). Furthermore, the 1D model is verified by solving the 2D shallow granular equations using an open source discontinuous Galerkin finite element package hpGEM (Pesch et al. 2007). For supercritical flows i.e. F > 1 the 1D asymptotics holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel. This computationally efficient closed 1D model is validated by comparing it to the computationally more expensiveaa three-dimensional particle simulations. Finally, we aim to present a quasi-steady particle simulation of inclined flow through two rectangular blocks separated by a gap

  3. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  4. Interspecies Scaling in Blast Neurotrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    Armour Systems Symposium 2014 in Cambridge, England. 6.1 Introduction The increased risk of exposure to blast in both military and civilian settings...Physiological Processes in Homeothermic Animals." Annual Review of Physiology 43, 1: 301-22. Capehart, B and Bass, D. 2012. "Review: managing ...CI, Calvente, RR, Lillo, VM and Canas, JM. 2007. " Management and analysis of out-of-hospital health-related responses to simultaneous railway

  5. CO2 blasting in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankerckhoven, Patrick

    1995-01-01

    Carbon dioxide blasting can be used during the lifetime of nuclear facilities to remove deposited contamination and reduce the dose to personnel during repair and maintenance. By contrast with conventional mechanical or chemical decontamination methods, it does not leave additional secondary wastes. During the process, liquid CO 2 is expanded and converted into dry snow which is compressed and extruded to form small dry ice pellets. These low temperature pellets are blasted at high speed in a stream of compressed air against the surface to be treated where the mechanical and thermal shock embrittles the contaminating layer and severs its bond with the surface. The dry ice sublimes into the atmosphere as CO 2 gas and the loosened contamination can be removed via a ventilation and filtration system. Some examples of the effective use of CO 2 blasting are given. They include decontamination of: a supercompactor used on radioactive waste drums; the walls and floors of a nuclear fuel fabrication plant; the vacuum vessel of the Joint European Torus, hot cells; a phosphate fertilizer plant contaminated by radium 226. (UK)

  6. Rodent model of direct cranial blast injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Reed; Simard, Philippe F; Driscoll, Ian; Keledjian, Kaspar; Ivanova, Svetlana; Tosun, Cigdem; Williams, Alicia; Bochicchio, Grant; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury resulting from an explosive blast is one of the most serious wounds suffered by warfighters, yet the effects of explosive blast overpressure directly impacting the head are poorly understood. We developed a rodent model of direct cranial blast injury (dcBI), in which a blast overpressure could be delivered exclusively to the head, precluding indirect brain injury via thoracic transmission of the blast wave. We constructed and validated a Cranium Only Blast Injury Apparatus (COBIA) to deliver blast overpressures generated by detonating .22 caliber cartridges of smokeless powder. Blast waveforms generated by COBIA replicated those recorded within armored vehicles penetrated by munitions. Lethal dcBI (LD(50) ∼ 515 kPa) was associated with: (1) apparent brainstem failure, characterized by immediate opisthotonus and apnea leading to cardiac arrest that could not be overcome by cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (2) widespread subarachnoid hemorrhages without cortical contusions or intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhages; and (3) no pulmonary abnormalities. Sub-lethal dcBI was associated with: (1) apnea lasting up to 15 sec, with transient abnormalities in oxygen saturation; (2) very few delayed deaths; (3) subarachnoid hemorrhages, especially in the path of the blast wave; (4) abnormal immunolabeling for IgG, cleaved caspase-3, and β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP), and staining for Fluoro-Jade C, all in deep brain regions away from the subarachnoid hemorrhages, but in the path of the blast wave; and (5) abnormalities on the accelerating Rotarod that persisted for the 1 week period of observation. We conclude that exposure of the head alone to severe explosive blast predisposes to significant neurological dysfunction.

  7. A new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraka, K.; Oikawa, H.; Shimizu, T.; Kadoya, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J.

    2013-01-01

    More and more NMIs are realizing their primary scale themselves with fixed-point blackbodies as their reference standard. However, commercially available fixed-point blackbody furnaces of sufficient quality are not always easy to obtain. CHINO Corp. and NMIJ, AIST jointly developed a new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace. The new furnace has such features as 1) improved temperature uniformity when compared to previous products, enabling better plateau quality, 2) adoption of the hybrid fixed-point cell structure with internal insulation to improve robustness and thereby to extend lifetime, 3) easily ejectable and replaceable heater unit and fixed-point cell design, leading to reduced maintenance cost, 4) interchangeability among multiple fixed points from In to Cu points. The replaceable cell feature facilitates long term maintenance of the scale through management of a group of fixed-point cells of the same type. The compact furnace is easily transportable and therefore can also function as a traveling standard for disseminating the radiation temperature scale, and for maintaining the scale at the secondary level and industrial calibration laboratories. It is expected that the furnace will play a key role of the traveling standard in the anticipated APMP supplementary comparison of the radiation thermometry scale

  8. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  9. Swift GRBs and the blast wave model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, P.A.; van der Horst, A.J.; Starling, R.L.C.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The complex structure of the light curves of Swift GRBs has made their interpretation and that of the blast wave caused by the burst, more difficult than in the pre-Swift era. We aim to constrain the blast wave parameters: electron energy distribution, p, density profile of the circumburst medium,

  10. Measurement and Modelling of Blast Movement to Reduce Ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    with comprehensive monitoring using high speed video and blast movement markers. 2. Develop site specific models ... The Blast Movement Monitor (BMM) is a system developed and patented by the JKMRC, University .... at Ahafo mine, the current practice was to mine to pre-blast grade boundaries (from blast hole drilling.

  11. prevalence of rice blast and varietal screening in ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    search-screening site grown to an improved vari- ety, Tox 3050, was heavily blasted. There was no blast incidence at Damongo. In Upper Iiast. Region, there was severe incidence of blast in farmers' fields at Bawku and PVS nurseries and farmers' fields at Nyorigu. There was no blast at. Manga, Navrongo, Tono, Sandema, ...

  12. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonar Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  13. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonar, Prasad; Sharma, Ishan; Singh, Jayant

    2017-06-01

    Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  14. Constitutive law of dense granular matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The frictional properties of dense granular matter under steady shear flow are investigated using numerical simulation. Shear flow tends to localize near the driving boundary unless the coefficient of restitution is close to zero and the driving velocity is small. The bulk friction coefficient is independent of shear rate in dense and slow flow, whereas it is an increasing function of shear rate in rapid flow. The coefficient of restitution affects the friction coefficient only in such rapid flow. Contrastingly, in dense and slow regime, the friction coefficient is independent of the coefficient of restitution and mainly determined by the elementary friction coefficient and the rotation of grains. It is found that the mismatch between the vorticity of flow and the angular frequency of grains plays a key role to the frictional properties of sheared granular matter.

  15. Mathematics and Mechanics of Granular Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, James M

    2005-01-01

    Granular or particulate materials arise in almost every aspect of our lives, including many familiar materials such as tea, coffee, sugar, sand, cement and powders. At some stage almost every industrial process involves a particulate material, and it is usually the cause of the disruption to the smooth running of the process. In the natural environment, understanding the behaviour of particulate materials is vital in many geophysical processes such as earthquakes, landslides and avalanches. This book is a collection of current research from some of the major contributors in the topic of modelling the behaviour of granular materials. Papers from every area of current activity are included, such as theoretical, numerical, engineering and computational approaches. This book illustrates the numerous diverse approaches to one of the outstanding problems of modern continuum mechanics.

  16. Slow creep in soft granular packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ishan; Fisher, Timothy S

    2017-05-14

    Transient creep mechanisms in soft granular packings are studied numerically using a constant pressure and constant stress simulation method. Rapid compression followed by slow dilation is predicted on the basis of a logarithmic creep phenomenon. Characteristic scales of creep strain and time exhibit a power-law dependence on jamming pressure, and they diverge at the jamming point. Microscopic analysis indicates the existence of a correlation between rheology and nonaffine fluctuations. Localized regions of large strain appear during creep and grow in magnitude and size at short times. At long times, the spatial structure of highly correlated local deformation becomes time-invariant. Finally, a microscale connection between local rheology and local fluctuations is demonstrated in the form of a linear scaling between granular fluidity and nonaffine velocity.

  17. Traffic and Granular Flow ’07

    CERN Document Server

    Chevoir, François; Gondret, Philippe; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This book covers several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Three main topics are treated: road traffic, granular matter, and biological transport. Different points of view, i.e. modelling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations, are considered. Sub-topics include: highway or urban vehicular traffic (dynamics of traffic, macro/micro modelling, measurements, data analysis, security issues, psychological issues), pedestrian traffic, animal traffic (e.g. social insects), collective motion in biological systems (molecular motors...), granular flow (dense flows, intermittent flows, solid/liquid transition, jamming, force networks, fluid and solid friction), networks (biological networks, urban traffic, the internet, vulnerability of networks, optimal transport networks) and cellular automata applied to the various aforementioned fields.

  18. Submarine granular flow down a rough plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Maxime; Cassar, Cyril; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2003-11-01

    We lead experiments of submarine granular flows in a water tank. The particles are spherical 100 microns glass beads and flow down a rough inclined plane from a reservoir with a controlled opening. Different flow regimes are observed, the flow velocity and thickness are measured. The basal water pressure is also measured and give information on the suspension rate of the flow. No flow was observed for an angle below 24 degrees. The flow velocity increases smoothly for a [24-36] degrees inclination range, and a strong velocity increase occurs for inclination over 36 degrees. The thickness of the flow decreases when inclination increases but no abrupt change of thickness is observed around 36 degrees. That suggests that a transition exists between a granular regime, where friction on the rough plane and particle contacts are dominant, and a suspension regime where basal friction vanishes. A thin film ripple instability is also observed for large inclination angles.

  19. Evaluating Energy Flux in Vibrofluidized Granular Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows require sustained input of energy for fluidization. A level of fluidization depends on the amount of heat flux provided to the flow. In general, the dissipation of the grains upon interaction balances the heat inputs and the resultant flow patterns can be described using hydrodynamic models. However, with the increase in packing fraction, the heat fluxes prediction of the cell increases. Here, a comparison is made for the proposed theoretical models against the MD simulations data. It is observed that the variation of packing fraction in the granular cell influences the heat flux at the base. For the elastic grain-base interaction, the predictions vary appreciably compared to MD simulations, suggesting the need to accurately model the velocity distribution of grains for averaging.

  20. Particle Segregation in Dense Granular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John Mark Nicholas Timm

    2018-01-01

    Granular materials composed of particles with differing grain sizes, densities, shapes, or surface properties may experience unexpected segregation during flow. This review focuses on kinetic sieving and squeeze expulsion, whose combined effect produces the dominant gravity-driven segregation mechanism in dense sheared flows. Shallow granular avalanches that form at the surface of more complex industrial flows such as heaps, silos, and rotating drums provide ideal conditions for particles to separate, with large particles rising to the surface and small particles percolating down to the base. When this is combined with erosion and deposition, amazing patterns can form in the underlying substrate. Gravity-driven segregation and velocity shear induce differential lateral transport, which may be thought of as a secondary segregation mechanism. This allows larger particles to accumulate at flow fronts, and if they are more frictional than the fine grains, they can feedback on the bulk flow, causing flow fingering, levee formation, and longer runout of geophysical mass flows.

  1. Granularity controlled irradiation response of cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, N.C.; Behera, D.; Mohanty, T.; Mohanta, D.; Kanjilal, D.; Mehta, G.K.; Pinto, R.

    1999-01-01

    Confining to an energy range where ions can neither create defects through elastic energy loss nor they can create defects through latent track formation, we study the effect of 140 MeV Si-ion irradiation in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO). We show that the evolution of superconducting and normal state properties in such situation is largely governed by the initial defects structure, particularly the grain boundary characteristics of the YBCO system. Both intra- and inter-granular defect structure in films of two batches were made widely different by having Ag as composite and substituent in one and by aging the other prior to irradiation. Evolution of the resistivity vs temperature characteristics in these films with ion fluence reveals the importance of Ag in bringing about both inter- and intra-granular modifications and making the films insensitive to ion irradiation

  2. Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSTON, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed Loss on Ignition (LOI) equipment, including a model 1608FL CMTM Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform LOI testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an expected airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet G1 filter will be flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A

  3. Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, D.C.

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed LOI equipment, including a model 1608FL CM{trademark} Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform Loss on Ignition (LOI) testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet Glfilter will he flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A.

  4. Experiments and DEM Simulations of Granular Ratcheting

    OpenAIRE

    Zorzi Gianluca; Artoni Riccardo; Gabrieli Fabio

    2017-01-01

    In this work we studied the effect of cyclic loading on a granular packing by means of numerical simulations and experiments. A confined packing of glass beads was prepared and one of the walls was moved cyclically with a prescribed amplitude of the order of the particle diameter. Different amplitudes were tested, and their effect on the free surface evolution, the force transmitted to the moving wall and the displacement patterns in the material was characterized. Discrete numerical simulati...

  5. Biological and robotic movement through granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    We discuss laboratory experiments and numerical simulations of locomotion of biological organisms and robots on and within a granular medium. Terrestrial locomotion on granular media (like desert and beach sand) is unlike locomotion on rigid ground because during a step the material begins as a solid, becomes a fluid and then re-solidifies. Subsurface locomotion within granular media is unlike swimming in water for similar reasons. The fluidization and solidification depend on the packing properties of the material and can affect limb penetration depth and propulsive force. Unlike aerial and aquatic locomotion in which the Navier-Stokes equations can be used to model environment interaction, models for limb interaction with granular media do not yet exist. To study how the fluidizing properties affect speed in rapidly running and swimming lizards and crabs, we use a trackway composed of a fluidized bed of of 250 μm glass spheres. Pulses of air to the bed set the solid volume fraction 0.59lizard and a species of crab (masses 20 grams) reveal that as Q increases, the average running speed of an animal decreases proportionally to √M/A-const(1-Q/Qf) where M is the mass of the animal and A is a characteristic foot area. While the crabs decrease speed by nearly 75 % as the material weakens to a fluid, the zebra tailed lizard uses long toes and a plantigrade foot posture at foot impact to maintain high speed ( 1.5 m/sec). We compare our biological results to systematic studies of a physical model of an organism, a 2 kg hexapedal robot SandBot. We find that the robot speed sensitively depends on φ and the details of the limb trajectory. We simulate the robot locomotion by computing ground reaction forces on a numerical model of the robot using a soft-sphere Molecular Dynamics code.

  6. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2015-01-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of valida...

  7. Arching Structures in Granular Sedimentary Deposits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulaviak, Lukáš; Hladil, Jindřich; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří; Saint-Lary, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 246, SEP (2013), s. 269-277 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110; GA AV ČR IAAX00130702; GA MŠk(CZ) LG11014 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : wet granulars * deposit * arching structure Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; DB - Geology ; Mineralogy (GLU-S) Impact factor: 2.269, year: 2013

  8. Swimming in a granular frictional fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    X-ray imaging reveals that the sandfish lizard swims within granular media (sand) using axial body undulations to propel itself without the use of limbs. To model the locomotion of the sandfish, we previously developed an empirical resistive force theory (RFT), a numerical sandfish model coupled to an experimentally validated Discrete Element Method (DEM) model of the granular medium, and a physical robot model. The models reveal that only grains close to the swimmer are fluidized, and that the thrust and drag forces are dominated by frictional interactions among grains and the intruder. In this talk I will use these models to discuss principles of swimming within these granular ``frictional fluids". The empirical drag force laws are measured as the steady-state forces on a small cylinder oriented at different angles relative to the displacement direction. Unlike in Newtonian fluids, resistive forces are independent of speed. Drag forces resemble those in viscous fluids while the ratio of thrust to drag forces is always larger in the granular media than in viscous fluids. Using the force laws as inputs, the RFT overestimates swimming speed by approximately 20%. The simulation reveals that this is related to the non-instantaneous increase in force during reversals of body segments. Despite the inaccuracy of the steady-state assumption, we use the force laws and a recently developed geometric mechanics theory to predict optimal gaits for a model system that has been well-studied in Newtonian fluids, the three-link swimmer. The combination of the geometric theory and the force laws allows us to generate a kinematic relationship between the swimmer's shape and position velocities and to construct connection vector field and constraint curvature function visualizations of the system dynamics. From these we predict optimal gaits for forward, lateral and rotational motion. Experiment and simulation are in accord with the theoretical prediction, and demonstrate that

  9. Spatial correlations in compressible granular flows

    OpenAIRE

    Van Noije, T. P. C.; Ernst, M. H.; Brito López, Ricardo

    1998-01-01

    The clustering instability in freely evolving granular fluids manifests itself in the density-density correlation function and structure factor. These functions are calculated from fluctuating hydrodynamics. As time increases, the structure factor of density fluctuations develops a maximum, which shifts to smaller wave numbers (growing correlation length). Furthermore, the inclusion of longitudinal velocity fluctuations changes long-range correlations in the flow field qualitatively and exten...

  10. Simulation of 2D Granular Hopper Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhusong; Shattuck, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Jamming and intermittent granular flow are big problems in industry, and the vertical hopper is a canonical example of these difficulties. We simulate gravity driven flow and jamming of 2D disks in a vertical hopper and compare with identical companion experiments presented in this session. We measure and compare the flow rate and probability for jamming as a function of particle properties and geometry. We evaluate the ability of standard Hertz-Mindlin contact mode to quantitatively predict the experimental flow.

  11. State variables in dense granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen

    2009-11-01

    Granular materials are integral to many parts of our daily lives, from the coffee beans that fuel our mornings to the coal that fuels our power plants. Two related aspects of their dynamics are particularly striking: their ability to exhibit both solid-like and liquid-like behavior, and the presence of highly heterogeneous force chains in which the magnitude of the local stress varies widely over short distances. These distinctive behaviors are connected to the fact that granular materials are always out of equilibrium: first, because they are typically both driven and dissipative, but also because they remain in metastable states even when they aren't being driven. I will present recent results from several experiments ranging from the theoretically-motivated (the equilibration of state variables within a non-equilibrium system) to the practical (particle-segregation by size). The results of these experiments elucidate the complex behaviors which underlay granular dynamics, and provide a reason to hope that statistical physics might hold the keys to explaining the observed phenomena.

  12. Energy dissipation and clustering in granular streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitukaitis, Scott; Royer, John; Gruetjen, Helge; Jaeger, Heinrich

    2009-11-01

    The presence of weak cohesive forces between macroscopic grains can lead to the break up of a free falling granular stream, similar to the surface-tension-driven break up of a liquid streamfootnotetext Royer, J. R. et al. Nature 459 1110 - 1113 (2009).. This sensitivity to minute forces suggests that these free falling streams could serve as a tool to probe the interactions between grains. In order to investigate the connection between the stream dynamics and the grain-grain interactions, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of a granular stream freely falling out of a hopper varying the cohesion and inelasticity of the grains. We find that in the absence of cohesive forces the stream breaks apart into isolated grains, in contrast to the clustering observed in simulations of inelastic granular gases. For sufficiently high cohesive forces we reproduce the break up of stream into droplets, while with lower cohesive forces the stream breaks up into smaller clusters consisting of only a few grains. Measuring the change in contact number and decay of velocity fluctuations with depth, we characterize the different regions of the force-inelasticity phase space.

  13. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  14. Characterization of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn

    2015-11-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but a recently proposed resistive force theory (RFT) in granular media has been shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ this model to investigate the swimming characteristics of an undulating slender filament of both finite and infinite length. For infinite swimmers, similar to results in viscous fluids, the sawtooth waveform is found to be optimal for propulsion speed at a given power consumption. We also compare the swimming characteristics of sinusoidal and sawtooth swimmers with swimming in viscous fluids. More complex swimming dynamics emerge when the assumption of an infinite swimmer is removed. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  15. Small solar system bodies as granular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hestroffer Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asteroids and other Small Solar System Bodies (SSSBs are currently of great scientific and even industrial interest. Asteroids exist as the permanent record of the formation of the Solar System and therefore hold many clues to its understanding as a whole, as well as insights into the formation of planetary bodies. Additionally, SSSBs are being investigated in the context of impact risks for the Earth, space situational awareness and their possible industrial exploitation (asteroid mining. In all these aspects, the knowledge of the geophysical characteristics of SSSB surface and internal structure are of great importance. Given their size, constitution, and the evidence that many SSSBs are not simple monoliths, these bodies should be studied and modelled as self-gravitating granular systems in general, or as granular systems in micro-gravity environments in particular contexts. As such, the study of the geophysical characteristics of SSSBs is a multi-disciplinary effort that lies at the crossroads between Granular Mechanics, Celestial Mechanics, Soil Mechanics, Aerospace Engineering and Computer Sciences.

  16. Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Eissa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.

  17. Propulsion via flexible flapping in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Ding, Yang; Pietrzyk, Kyle; Elfring, Gwynn; Pak, On Shun

    2017-11-01

    Biological locomotion in nature is often achieved by the interaction between a flexible body and its surrounding medium. The interaction of a flexible body with granular media is less understood compared with viscous fluids partially due to its complex rheological properties. In this work, we explore the effect of flexibility on granular propulsion by considering a simple mechanical model in which a rigid rod is connected to a torsional spring that is under a displacement actuation using a granular resistive force theory. Through a combined numerical and asymptotic investigation, we characterize the propulsive dynamics of such a flexible flapper in relation to the actuation amplitude and spring stiffness, and we compare these dynamics with those observed in a viscous fluid. In addition, we demonstrate that the maximum possible propulsive force can be obtained in the steady propulsion limit with a finite spring stiffness and large actuation amplitude. These results may apply to the development of synthetic locomotive systems that exploit flexibility to move through complex terrestrial media. Funding for Z.P. and Y.D. was partially provided by NSFC 394 Grant No. 11672029 and NSAF-NSFC Grant No. U1530401.

  18. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    One of three Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) test cells after flight on STS-79 and before impregnation with resin. Note that the sand column has bulged in the middle, and that the top of the column is several inches lower than the top of the plastic enclosure. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  19. Mechanics of Granular Materials Test Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown from all three sides by its video camera during STS-89. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  20. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A test cell for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown in its on-orbit configuration in Spacehab during preparations for STS-89. The twin locker to the left contains the hydraulic system to operate the experiment. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Note: Because the image on the screen was muted in the original image, its brightness and contrast are boosted in this rendering to make the test cell more visible. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  1. Mechanics of Granular Materials-3 (MGM-3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sture, Stein; Alshibi, Khalid; Guynes, Buddy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Scientists are going to space to understand how earthquakes and other forces disturb grains of soil and sand. They will examine how the particle arrangement and structure of soils, grains and powders are changed by external forces and gain knowledge about the strength, stiffness and volume changes properties of granular materials at low pressures. The Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment uses the microgravity of orbit to test sand columns under conditions that cannot be obtained in experiments on Earth. Research can only go so far on Earth because gravity-induced stresses complicate the analysis and change loads too quickly for detailed analysis. This new knowledge will be applied to improving foundations for buildings, managing undeveloped land, and handling powdered and granular materials in chemical, agricultural, and other industries. NASA wants to understand the way soil behaves under different gravity levels so that crews can safely build habitats on Mars and the Moon. Future MGM experiments will benefit from extended tests aboard the International Space Station, including experiments under simulated lunar and Martian gravity in the science centrifuge.

  2. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lee E.; Fisher, Andrew M.; Tagge, Chad A.; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A.; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W.; Goletiani, Cezar J.; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M.; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A.; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D.; Budson, Andrew E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F.; Moss, William C.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Stanton, Patric K.; McKee, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein–linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

  3. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lee E; Fisher, Andrew M; Tagge, Chad A; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W; Goletiani, Cezar J; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A; Cantu, Robert C; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K; Wolozin, Benjamin L; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D; Budson, Andrew E; Kowall, Neil W; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F; Moss, William C; Cleveland, Robin O; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Stanton, Patric K; McKee, Ann C

    2012-05-16

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory.

  4. Modernization of two gas-fired shaft annealing furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthof, G.; Porst, G.; Raczek, S.

    1986-04-01

    The objective was to modernize two existing shaft-type annealing furnaces used for the heat treatment of grey iron castings with the aim of reducing the consumption of gaseous fuel, minimize the formation of scale, decrease maintenance expense and apply more automatic control to the annealing process. This was to be achieved by an optimum combination of new types of construction materials and advanced firing and control equipment. The author describes the furnace in its condition prior to and after reconstruction. The operating results obtained after reconstruction were found to justify the costs incurred. The payback period is roughly one year.

  5. Optimizing of Work Arc Furnace to Decopperisation of Flash Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bydałek A.W.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Discusses an attempt to optimize the operation of an electric furnace slag to be decopperisation suspension of the internal recycling process for the production of copper. The paper presents a new method to recover copper from metallurgical slags in arc-resistance electric furnace. It involves the use of alternating current for a first period reduction, constant or pulsed DC in the final stage of processing. Even distribution of the electric field density in the final phase of melting caused to achieve an extremely low content of metallic copper in the slag phase. They achieved by including the economic effects by reducing the time reduction.

  6. Modelling and control of a diffusion/LPCVD furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaard, H.; Dekoning, W. L.

    1988-12-01

    Heat transfer inside a cylindrical resistance diffusion/Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) furnace is studied with the aim of developing an improved temperature controller. A model of the thermal behavior is derived, which covers the important class of furnaces equipped with semitransparent quartz process tubes. The model takes into account the thermal behavior of the thermocouples. Currently used temperature controllers are shown to be highly inefficient for very large scale integration applications. Based on the model an alternative temperature controller of the LQG (linear quadratic Gaussian) type is proposed which features direct wafer temperature control. Some simulation results are given.

  7. Measurement and analysis methods for flicker at arc furnace installations

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ing. \\Vith electrical power networks expanding beyond their original design limits and the various non-linear loads on the network, power quality has become an important issue in electrical engineering. Some of the largest non-linear loads on the power network are arc furnaces used to melt various metal orrs and scrap metal. In this study the focus is on fliCker as a power quality issue and more specifically the measurement and analysis methods of flicker at arc furnace installations. By...

  8. Adaptive temperature profile control of a multizone crystal growth furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur, C.; Sharpless, R. B.; Duval, W. M. B.; Rosenthal, B. N.

    1991-01-01

    An intelligent measurement system is described which is used to assess the shape of a crystal while it is growing inside a multizone transparent furnace. A color video imaging system observes the crystal in real time, and determines the position and the shape of the interface. This information is used to evaluate the crystal growth rate, and to analyze the effects of translational velocity and temperature profiles on the shape of the interface. Creation of this knowledge base is the first step to incorporate image processing into furnace control.

  9. Video monitoring system for enriched uranium casting furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, P.C.

    1978-03-01

    A closed-circuit television (CCTV) system was developed to upgrade the remote-viewing capability on two oralloy (highly enriched uranium) casting furnaces in the Y-12 Plant. A silicon vidicon CCTV camera with a remotely controlled lens and infrared filtering was provided to yield a good-quality video presentation of the furnace crucible as the oralloy material is heated from 25 to 1300/sup 0/C. Existing tube-type CCTV monochrome monitors were replaced with solid-state monitors to increase the system reliability.

  10. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  11. Status of the BLAST experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    The BLAST experiment is beginning operation at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment will study the spin dependent electro-magnetic interaction in few nucleon systems at momentum transfers between 0.1 and 1.0 GeV 2 . This will provide improved measurements of the nucleon form factors, particularly G E n , as well as study the structure of D and 3 He. Other reaction channels such as pion production and inclusive scattering will also be studied. The experiment, physics goals, and current status are described briefly. (orig.)

  12. Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of historical iron slag, Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine; Seal, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site in southeastern Pennsylvania, which features an Fe smelter that was operational in the 18th and 19th centuries, is dominated by three slag piles. Pile 1 slag, from the Hopewell Furnace, and pile 2 slag, likely from the nearby Cornwall Furnace, were both produced in cold-blast charcoal-fired smelters. In contrast, pile 3 slag was produced in an anthracite furnace. Ore samples from the nearby Jones and Hopewell mines that fed the smelter are mainly magnetite-rich with some sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite) and accessory silicates (quartz, garnet, feldspar, and clay minerals). Slag piles 1 and 2 are similar mineralogically containing predominantly skeletal and dendritic aluminian diopside and augite, skeletal forsteritic olivine, glass, rounded blebs of metallic Fe, and exotic quartz. Olivine is a major phase in all samples from pile 2, whereas it occurs in only a few samples from pile 1. Samples of the <2 mm-size fraction of surface composite slag material or crushed slag from at depth in piles 1 and 2 are mineralogically similar to the large surface slag fragments from those piles with the addition of phases such as feldspars, Fe oxides, and clay minerals that are either secondary weathering products or entrained from the underlying bedrock. Pile 3 slag contains mostly skeletal forsteritic olivine and Ti-bearing aluminian diopside, dendritic or fine-grained subhedral melilite, glass, euhedral spinel, metallic Fe, alabandite–oldhamite solid solution, as well as a sparse Ti carbonitride phase. The bulk chemistry of the slag is dominated by Al2O3 (8.5–16.2 wt.%), CaO (8.2–26.2 wt.%), MgO (4.2–24.7 wt.%), and SiO2 (36.4–59.8 wt.%), constituting between 81% and 97% of the mass of the samples. Piles 1 and 2 are chemically similar; pile 1 slag overall contains the highest Fe2O3, K2O and MnO, and the lowest MgO concentrations. Pile 3 slag is high in Al2O3, CaO and S, and low in Fe2O3, K2O and SiO2

  13. Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of historical iron slag, Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    The Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site in southeastern Pennsylvania, which features an Fe smelter that was operational in the 18th and 19th centuries, is dominated by three slag piles. Pile 1 slag, from the Hopewell Furnace, and pile 2 slag, likely from the nearby Cornwall Furnace, were both produced in cold-blast charcoal-fired smelters. In contrast, pile 3 slag was produced in an anthracite furnace. Ore samples from the nearby Jones and Hopewell mines that fed the smelter are mainly magnetite-rich with some sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite) and accessory silicates (quartz, garnet, feldspar, and clay minerals). Slag piles 1 and 2 are similar mineralogically containing predominantly skeletal and dendritic aluminian diopside and augite, skeletal forsteritic olivine, glass, rounded blebs of metallic Fe, and exotic quartz. Olivine is a major phase in all samples from pile 2, whereas it occurs in only a few samples from pile 1. Samples of the 2 O 3 (8.5–16.2 wt.%), CaO (8.2–26.2 wt.%), MgO (4.2–24.7 wt.%), and SiO 2 (36.4–59.8 wt.%), constituting between 81% and 97% of the mass of the samples. Piles 1 and 2 are chemically similar; pile 1 slag overall contains the highest Fe 2 O 3 , K 2 O and MnO, and the lowest MgO concentrations. Pile 3 slag is high in Al 2 O 3 , CaO and S, and low in Fe 2 O 3 , K 2 O and SiO 2 compared to the other piles. In general, piles 1 and 2 are chemically similar to each other, whereas pile 3 is distinct – a conclusion that reflects their mineralogy. The similarities and differences among piles in terms of mineralogy and major element chemistry result from the different smelting conditions under which the slag formed and include the fuel source, the composition of the ore and flux, the type of blast (cold versus hot), which affects the furnace temperature, and other beneficiation methods. The three distinct slag piles at Hopewell are enriched in numerous trace elements, such as As (up to 12 mg/kg), Cd (up to 0.4 mg

  14. Settling properties of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and aerobic granular sludge molasses (AGSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Saad, Azlina; Aini Dahalan, Farrah; Ibrahim, Naimah; Yasina Yusuf, Sara; Aqlima Ahmad, Siti; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul

    2018-03-01

    Aerobic granulation technology is applied to treat domestic and industrial wastewater. The Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) cultivated has strong properties that appears to be denser and compact in physiological structure compared to the conventional activated sludge. It offers rapid settling for solid:liquid separation in wastewater treatment. Aerobic granules were developed using sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with intermittent aerobic - anaerobic mode with 8 cycles in 24 hr. This study examined the settling velocity performance of cultivated aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and aerobic granular sludge molasses (AGSM). The elemental composition in both AGS and AGSM were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results showed that AGSM has higher settling velocity 30.5 m/h compared to AGS.

  15. The role of fluid viscosity in an immersed granular collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Geng Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Instabilities of immersed slopes and cliffs can lead to catastrophic events that involve a sudden release of huge soil mass. The scaled deposit height and runout distance are found to follow simple power laws when a granular column collapses on a horizontal plane. However, if the granular column is submerged in a fluid, the mobility of the granular collapse due to high inertia effects will be reduced by fluid-particle interactions. In this study, the effects of fluid viscosity on granular collapse is investigated qualitatively by adopting a numerical approach based on the coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM and discrete element method (DEM. It is found that the granular collapse can be dramatically slowed down due to the presence of viscous fluids. For the considered granular configuration, when the fluid viscosity increases. the runout distance decreases and the final deposition shows a larger deposit angle.

  16. Mechanical trapping of particles in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimov, Abdulla; Mavko, Gary; Mukerji, Tapan; Al Ibrahim, Mustafa A.

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical trapping of fine particles in the pores of granular materials is an essential mechanism in a wide variety of natural and industrial filtration processes. The progress of invading particles is primarily limited by the network of pore throats and connected pathways encountered by the particles during their motion through the porous medium. Trapping of invading particles is limited to a depth defined by the size, shape, and distribution of the invading particles with respect to the size, shape, and distribution of the host porous matrix. Therefore, the trapping process, in principle, can be used to obtain information about geometrical properties, such as pore throat and particle size, of the underlying host matrix. A numerical framework is developed to simulate the mechanical trapping of fine particles in porous granular media with prescribed host particle size, shape, and distribution. The trapping of invading particles is systematically modeled in host packings with different host particle distributions: monodisperse, bidisperse, and polydisperse distributions of host particle sizes. Our simulation results show quantitatively and qualitatively to what extent trapping behavior is different in the generated monodisperse, bidisperse, and polydisperse packings of spherical particles. Depending on host particle size and distribution, the information about extreme estimates of minimal pore throat sizes of the connected pathways in the underlying host matrix can be inferred from trapping features, such as the fraction of trapped particles as a function of invading particle size. The presence of connected pathways with minimum and maximum of minimal pore throat diameters can be directly obtained from trapping features. This limited information about the extreme estimates of pore throat sizes of the connected pathways in the host granular media inferred from our numerical simulations is consistent with simple geometrical estimates of extreme value of pore and

  17. Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the

  18. Granular computing analysis and design of intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Information granules, as encountered in natural language, are implicit in nature. To make them fully operational so they can be effectively used to analyze and design intelligent systems, information granules need to be made explicit. An emerging discipline, granular computing focuses on formalizing information granules and unifying them to create a coherent methodological and developmental environment for intelligent system design and analysis. Granular Computing: Analysis and Design of Intelligent Systems presents the unified principles of granular computing along with its comprehensive algo

  19. Flowability of granular materials with industrial applications: an experimental approach

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Serra, Joel; Romero Morales, Enrique Edgar; Rodríguez Ferran, Antonio; Caba, Joan; Arderiu, Xavier; Padullés, Josep-Manel; González, Juanjo

    2017-01-01

    Designing bulk material handling equipment requires a thorough understanding of the mechanical behaviour of powders and grains. Experimental characterization of granular materials is introduced focusing on flowability. A new prototype is presented which performs granular column collapse tests. The device consists of a channel whose design accounts for test inspection using visualization techniques and load measurements. A reservoir is attached where packing state of the granular material can ...

  20. Preliminary 2D numerical modeling of common granular problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyser, Emmanuel; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Granular studies received an increasing interest during the last decade. Many scientific investigations were successfully addressed to acknowledge the ubiquitous behavior of granular matter. We investigate liquid impacts onto granular beds, i.e. the influence of the packing and compaction-dilation transition. However, a physically-based model is still lacking to address complex microscopic features of granular bed response during liquid impacts such as compaction-dilation transition or granular bed uplifts (Wyser et al. in review). We present our preliminary 2D numerical modeling based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) using nonlinear contact force law (the Hertz-Mindlin model) for disk shape particles. The algorithm is written in C programming language. Our 2D model provides an analytical tool to address granular problems such as i) granular collapses and ii) static granular assembliy problems. This provides a validation framework of our numerical approach by comparing our numerical results with previous laboratory experiments or numerical works. Inspired by the work of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005), we studied i) the axisymetric collapse of granular columns. We addressed the scaling between the initial aspect ratio and the final runout distance. Our numerical results are in good aggreement with the previous studies of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005). ii) Reproducing static problems for regular and randomly stacked particles provides a valid comparison to results of Egholm (2007). Vertical and horizontal stresses within the assembly are quite identical to stresses obtained by Egholm (2007), thus demonstating the consistency of our 2D numerical model. Our 2D numerical model is able to reproduce common granular case studies such as granular collapses or static problems. However, a sufficient small timestep should be used to ensure a good numerical consistency, resulting in higher computational time. The latter becomes critical