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Sample records for black warrior basin

  1. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-04-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  2. Reservoir heterogeneity in carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-06-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  3. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carter Sandstone, North Blowhorn Creek oil unit and vicinity, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.

    1992-05-01

    This report presents accomplishments made in completing Task 3 of this project which involves development of criteria for recognizing reservoir heterogeneity in the Black Warrior basin. The report focuses on characterization of the Upper Mississippian Carter sandstone reservoir in North Blowhorn Creek and adjacent oil units in Lamar County, Alabama. This oil unit has produced more than 60 percent of total oil extracted from the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The Carter sandstone in North Blowhorn Creek oil unit is typical of the most productive Carter oil reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report synthesizes data derived from geophysical well logs and cores from North Blowhorn Creek oil unit to develop a depositional model for the Carter sandstone reservoir. The second part of the report describes the detrital and diagenetic character of Carter sandstone utilizing data from petrographic and scanning electron microscopes and the electron microprobe. The third part synthesizes porosity and pore-throat-size-distribution data determined by high-pressure mercury porosimetry and commercial core analyses with results of the sedimentologic and petrographic studies. The final section of the report discusses reservoir heterogeneity within the context of the five-fold classification of Moore and Kugler (1990).

  4. Structural controls on fractured coal reservoirs in the southern Appalachian Black Warrior foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshong, R.H., Jr.; Pashin, J.C.; McIntyre, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Coal is a nearly impermeable rock type for which the production of fluids requires the presence of open fractures. Basin-wide controls on the fractured coal reservoirs of the Black Warrior foreland basin are demonstrated by the variability of maximum production rates from coalbed methane wells. Reservoir behavior depends on distance from the thrust front. Far from the thrust front, normal faults are barriers to fluid migration and compartmentalize the reservoirs. Close to the thrust front, rates are enhanced along some normal faults, and a new trend is developed. The two trends have the geometry of conjugate strike-slip faults with the same ??1 direction as the Appalachian fold-thrust belt and are inferred to be the result of late pure-shear deformation of the foreland. Face cleat causes significant permeability anisotropy in some shallow coal seams but does not produce a map-scale production trend. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Water Management Strategies for Improved Coalbed Methane Production in the Black Warrior Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, Jack; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella; Mann, Steven; Merkel, David

    2013-10-31

    The modern coalbed methane industry was born in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama and has to date produced more than 2.6 trillion cubic feet of gas and 1.6 billion barrels of water. The coalbed gas industry in this area is dependent on instream disposal of co-produced water, which ranges from nearly potable sodium-bicarbonate water to hypersaline sodium-chloride water. This study employed diverse analytical methods to characterize water chemistry in light of the regional geologic framework and to evaluate the full range of water management options for the Black Warrior coalbed methane industry. Results reveal strong interrelationships among regional geology, water chemistry, and gas chemistry. Coalbed methane is produced from multiple coal seams in Pennsylvanian-age strata of the Pottsville Coal Interval, in which water chemistry is influenced by a structurally controlled meteoric recharge area along the southeastern margin of the basin. The most important constituents of concern in the produced water include chlorides, ammonia compounds, and organic substances. Regional mapping and statistical analysis indicate that the concentrations of most ionic compounds, metallic substances, and nonmetallic substances correlate with total dissolved solids and chlorides. Gas is effectively produced at pipeline quality, and the only significant impurity is N{sub 2}. Geochemical analysis indicates that the gas is of mixed thermogenic-biogenic origin. Stable isotopic analysis of produced gas and calcite vein fills indicates that widespread late-stage microbial methanogenesis occurred primarily along a CO{sub 2} reduction metabolic pathway. Organic compounds in the produced water appear to have helped sustain microbial communities. Ammonia and ammonium levels increase with total dissolved solids content and appear to have played a role in late-stage microbial methanogenesis and the generation of N{sub 2}. Gas production tends to decline exponentially, whereas water production

  6. Hydrodynamics of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin: Key to understanding reservoir performance and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashin, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Black Warrior Basin of the southeastern United States hosts one of the world's most prolific and long-lived coalbed methane plays, and the wealth of experience in this basin provides insight into the relationships among basin hydrology, production performance, and environmental issues. Along the southeast margin of the basin, meteoric recharge of reservoir coal beds exposed in an upturned fold limb exerts a strong control on water chemistry, reservoir pressure, and production performance. Fresh-water plumes containing Na-HCO3 waters with low TDS content extend from the structurally upturned basin margin into the interior of the basin. Northwest of the plumes, coal beds contain Na-Cl waters with moderate to high-TDS content. Carbon isotope data from produced gas and mineral cements suggest that the fresh-water plumes have been the site of significant bacterial activity and that the coalbed methane reservoirs contain a mixture of thermogenic and late-stage biogenic gases. Water produced from the fresh-water plumes may be disposed safely at the surface, whereas underground injection has been used locally to dispose of highly saline water. Wells in areas that had normal hydrostatic reservoir pressure prior to development tend to produce large volumes of water and may take up to 4 a to reach peak gas production. In contrast, wells drilled in naturally underpressured areas distal to the fresh-water plumes typically produce little water and achieve peak gas rates during the first year of production. Environmental debate has focused largely on issues associated with hydrologic communication between deep reservoir coal beds and shallow aquifers. In the coalbed methane fields of the Black Warrior Basin, a broad range of geologic evidence suggests that flow is effectively confined within coal and that the thick intervals of marine shale separating coal zones limit cross-formational flow. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrodynamics of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin: Key to understanding reservoir performance and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Black Warrior Basin of the southeastern United States hosts one of the world's most prolific and long-lived coalbed methane plays, and the wealth of experience in this basin provides insight into the relationships among basin hydrology, production performance, and environmental issues. Along the southeast margin of the basin, meteoric recharge of reservoir coal beds exposed in an upturned fold limb exerts a strong control on water chemistry, reservoir pressure, and production performance. Fresh-water plumes containing Na-HCO3 waters with low TDS content extend from the structurally upturned basin margin into the interior of the basin. Northwest of the plumes, coal beds contain Na-Cl waters with moderate to high-TDS content. Carbon isotope data from produced gas and mineral cements suggest that the fresh-water plumes have been the site of significant bacterial activity and that the coalbed methane reservoirs contain a mixture of thermogenic and late-stage biogenic gases. Water produced from the fresh-water plumes may be disposed safely at the surface, whereas underground injection has been used locally to dispose of highly saline water. Wells in areas that had normal hydrostatic reservoir pressure prior to development tend to produce large volumes of water and may take up to 4 a to reach peak gas production. In contrast, wells drilled in naturally underpressured areas distal to the fresh-water plumes typically produce little water and achieve peak gas rates during the first year of production. Environmental debate has focused largely on issues associated with hydrologic communication between deep reservoir coal beds and shallow aquifers. In the coalbed methane fields of the Black Warrior Basin, a broad range of geologic evidence suggests that flow is effectively confined within coal and that the thick intervals of marine shale separating coal zones limit cross-formational flow

  8. Carboniferous sediment dispersal in the Appalachian-Ouachita juncture: Provenance of selected late Mississippian sandstones in the Black Warrior Basin, Mississippi, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiangyang; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Alsleben, Helge

    2016-08-01

    The Black Warrior Basin is one of several Carboniferous foreland basins along the Appalachian-Ouachita fold-thrust belt in the southeastern United States. Sediment dispersal within the Black Warrior Basin has been a long-debated topic because of a complex tectonic history and the potential interaction between the Appalachian and Ouachita orogenic belts, as well as far field sediment sources. Three dispersal patterns have been proposed, including dispersal routes from the craton, dispersal via the Appalachian foreland, and dispersal from the arc side of the Ouachita suture, but sediment dispersal in the Black Warrior Basin remains inconclusive. In this study, sandstone modal analysis and U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology are used to document the provenance and potential dispersal patterns for selected Mississippian sandstone units in the Black Warrior Basin, Missouri, USA. Results show that the majority of the Lewis, Evans, Sanders, and Carter sandstones are sublitharenite to mature quartzarenite and fall within the Cratonic Interior field on Q-F-L diagrams. U-Pb detrital zircon analyses of the Lewis, Sanders, and Carter sandstones show that there are four distinctive age clusters, including a prominent Paleozoic age cluster (~ 350-500 Ma), a broad Grenville age cluster (~ 900-1350 Ma), and two minor age clusters of the Granite-Rhyolite (~ 1360-1600 Ma) and the Yavapai-Mazatzal (~ 1600-1800 Ma) provinces. All Mississippian sandstones have similar age distributions except for the Lewis sandstone, which lacks zircon grains from the Superior province (>~2500 Ma). Based on the compositional maturity, similarity of age distributions, and changes of relative abundance among different age groups, we conclude that the Late Mississippian sandstone units analyzed during this study were derived from the Laurussian craton and the northern part of the Appalachian foreland through a major axial drainage that occupied the Mississippi Valley Graben.

  9. Adsorption kinetics of CO2, CH4, and their equimolar mixture on coal from the Black Warrior Basin, West-Central Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Naney, M.T.; Blencoe, J.G.; Cole, D.R.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetic behavior of pure and mixed gases (CO2, CH4, approximately equimolar CO2 + CH4 mixtures, and He) on a coal sample obtained from the Black Warrior Basin at the Littleton Mine (Twin Pine Coal Company), Jefferson County, west-central Alabama. The sample was from the Mary Lee coal zone of the Pottsville Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian). Experiments with three size fractions (45-150????m, 1-2??mm, and 5-10??mm) of crushed coal were performed at 40????C and 35????C over a pressure range of 1.4-6.9??MPa to simulate coalbed methane reservoir conditions in the Black Warrior Basin and provide data relevant for enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations. The following key observations were made: (1) CO2 adsorption on both dry and water-saturated coal is much more rapid than CH4 adsorption; (2) water saturation decreases the rates of CO2 and CH4 adsorption on coal surfaces, but it appears to have minimal effects on the final magnitude of CO2 or CH4 adsorption if the coal is not previously exposed to CO2; (3) retention of adsorbed CO2 on coal surfaces is significant even with extreme pressure cycling; and (4) adsorption is significantly faster for the 45-150????m size fraction compared to the two coarser fractions. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Storage from Coal-fired Power Facilities in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Peter; Pashin, Jack; Carlson, Eric; Goodliffe, Andrew; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella; Mann, Steven; Thompson, Mason

    2012-08-31

    Coal-fired power plants produce large quantities of carbon dioxide. In order to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions from these power plants, it is necessary to separate and store the carbon dioxide. Saline formations provide a potential sink for carbon dioxide and delineating the capacity of the various known saline formations is a key part of building a storage inventory. As part of this effort, a project was undertaken to access the storage capacity of saline reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. This basin has been a productive oil and gas reservoir that is well characterized to the west of the two major coal-fired power plants that are north of Birmingham. The saline zones were thought to extend as far east as the Sequatchie Anticline which is just east of the power plants. There is no oil or gas production in the area surrounding the power plants so little is known about the formations in that area. A geologic characterization well was drilled on the Gorgas Power Plant site, which is the farthest west of two power plants in the area. The well was planned to be drilled to approximately 8,000 feet, but drilling was halted at approximately 5,000 feet when a prolific freshwater zone was penetrated. During drilling, a complete set of cores through all of the potential injection zones and the seals above these zones were acquired. A complete set of openhole logs were run along with a vertical seismic profile (VSP). Before drilling started two approximately perpendicular seismic lines were run and later correlated with the VSP. While the zones that were expected were found at approximately the predicted depths, the zones that are typically saline through the reservoir were found to be saturated with a light crude oil. Unfortunately, both the porosity and permeability of these zones were small enough that no meaningful hydrocarbon production would be expected even with carbon dioxide flooding. iv While this part of the basin was found to be unsuitable

  11. Origin of minerals in joint and cleat systems of the Pottsville Formation, Black Warrior basin, Alabama: Implications for coalbed methane generation and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, J.K.; Pashin, J.C.; Hatch, J.R.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Coalbed methane is produced from naturally fractured strata in the lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation in the eastern part of the Black Warrior basin, Alabama. Major fracture systems include orthogonal fractures, which consist of systematic joints in siliciclastic strata and face cleats in coal that strike northeast throughout the basin. Calcite and minor amounts of pyrite commonly fill joints in sandstone and shale and, less commonly, cleats in coal. Joint-fill calcite postdates most pyrite and is a weakly ferroan, coarse-crystalline variety that formed during a period of uplift and erosion late in the burial history. Pyrite forms fine to coarse euhedral crystals that line joint walls or are complexly intergrown with calcite. Stable-isotope data reveal large variations in the carbon isotope composition of joint- and cleat-fill calcite (-10.3 to + 24.3??? Peedee belemnite [PDB]) but only a relatively narrow range in the oxygen-isotope composition of this calcite (-16.2 to -4.1 ??? PDB). Negative carbon values can be attributed to 13C-depleted CO2 derived from the oxidation of organic matter, and moderately to highly positive carbon values can be attributed to bacterial methanogenesis. Assuming crystallization temperatures of 20-50??C, most joint- and cleat-fill calcite precipitated from fluids with ??18O ratios ranging from about -11 to +2 ??? standard mean ocean water (SMOW). Uplift and unroofing since the Mesozoic led to meteoric recharge of Pottsville strata and development of freshwater plumes that were fed by meteoric recharge along the structurally upturned, southeastern margin of the basin. Influxes of fresh water into the basin via faults and coalbeds facilitated late-stage bacterial methanogenesis, which accounts for the high gas content in coal and the carbonate cementation of joints and cleats. Diagenetic and epigenetic minerals can affect the transmissivity and storage capacity of joints and cleats, and they appear to contribute significantly to

  12. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in

  13. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong, Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2003-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants while enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Data from more than 4,000 coalbed methane wells in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama provide an opportunity to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of coal and to develop a geologic screening model for the application of carbon sequestration technology. This report summarizes stratigraphy and sedimentation, structural geology, geothermics, hydrology, coal quality, gas capacity, and production characteristics of coal in the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway and the implications of geology for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Coal in the Black Warrior basin is distributed among several fluvial-deltaic coal zones in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Most coal zones contain one to three coal beds that are significant targets for coalbed methane production and carbon sequestration, and net coal thickness generally increases southeastward. Pottsville strata have effectively no matrix permeability to water, so virtually all flow is through natural fractures. Faults and folds influence the abundance and openness of fractures and, hence, the performance of coalbed methane wells. Water chemistry in the Pottsville Formation ranges from fresh to saline, and zones with TDS content lower than 10,000 mg/L can be classified as USDW. An aquifer exemption facilitating enhanced recovery in USDW can be obtained where TDS content is higher than 3,000 mg/L. Carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid above a temperature of 88 F and a pressure of 1,074 psi. Reservoir temperature exceeds 88 F in much of the study area. Hydrostatic pressure gradients range from normal to extremely underpressured. A large area of underpressure is developed around closely spaced longwall coal mines, and areas of natural underpressure are distributed among the coalbed methane fields. The mobility and

  14. Wordsmiths & Warriors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mattisson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wordsmiths & Warriors relates a real journey of thousands of miles undertaken by David and Hilary Crystal. The result is a fascinating combination of English-language history and travelogue (the study gives detailed instructions on how to find each place mentioned. David is responsible for the descriptions, and Hilary, for the full-colour photographs. The book comprises a guide for those wishing to follow in their footsteps; at the same time, it reflects the chronology of the language. The Crystals visit places associated with such well-known writers as Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Wordsworth; dictionary compilers such as Johnson and Murray; and a number of well-known and lesser-known dialect writers, elocutionists, and grammarians. Warrior wordsmiths such as King Alfred are also mentioned.Wordsmiths & Warriors emphasises the centrality of the Anglo-Saxon, medieval and early modern periods in the development of the English language as it is known today. A progressive view of language change and transition is generally avoided in the study in favor of a more personal selection of texts. The scope of the book is wide, incorporating small villages as well as major cities, ancient texts and more modern ones. Fifty-seven chapters take us to places as far apart as St Albans, Peterborough, West Malvern, Grasmere, Bath, Pegwell Bay, Lindisfarne, Cerne Abbas, Bourne, Canterbury, and Oxford. Wordsmiths & Warriors gives its readers an appetite to know more as fascinating details about the relationship between places and literary works emerge. The most important names are included: Chaucer (Southwark and Canterbury; Shakespeare (Stratford-upon-Avon and Park Street, London – the location of the original Globe Theatre, Dryden, Burns, Wordsworth, Hardy, George Bernard Shaw, and Dylan Thomas. The Bible is discussed in detail in relation to a number of geographical locations, including Lutterworth, Leicestershire, where Wycliffe translated the Bible in the 14th

  15. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  16. SEO Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Jerkovic, John

    2010-01-01

    How can you make it easier for people to find your website? And how can you convert casual visitors into active users? SEO Warrior shows you how it's done through a collection of tried and true techniques, hacks, and best practices. Learn the nuts and bolts of search engine optimization (SEO) theory, the importance of keyword strategy, and how to avoid and remedy search engine traps. You'll also learn about search engine marketing (SEM) practices, such as Google AdWords, and how you can use social networking to increase your visibility. Ideal for web developers, savvy marketers, webmasters,

  17. REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia GAVUIK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is situated in a very important geopolitical manner. Consequently, a large-scale regional collaboration becomes possible within the Black Sea zone and countries get appropriate conditions to launch their activity in this context. Aim: The body of the article is going to analyze the BSEC as one of the most successful regional organizations in the Black Sea area. The paper aims to provide an overview of the regional players’ activity in the framework of the BSEC which are involved in sustaining and strengthening of this organization and also in continuing the reform process in it, developing in the same time relations of cooperation with the EU and other regional initiatives. Methods. This article embraces a row of different scientific methods of data analysis, predictive analytics, historical and statistical overview, descriptive method, case study etc. Results. The countries from the Black Sea basin are the most vulnerable to potential risks and shocks due to the instability of the region. This requires the interstate cooperation in the Black Sea area with no tradition in this field several decades ago. In the same time, countries like Turkey, Romania or Russia aspire to play the role of the regional leader, which can cause regional rivalries. With the help of the regional cooperation and the BSEC in particular, regional countries could learn how to work together for the common benefit. The creation of stable markets, interconnected and transparent regional organizations and initiatives would largely contribute to the security and stability of the Black Sea region.

  18. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Black Warrior Basin Province (065) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  19. Alien fish species in the Mediterranean – Black Sea Basin

    OpenAIRE

    ORAL, Muammer

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Alien Fish (Synonyms: non-native, non-indigenous, allochthonous, and exotic) species have been introduced to the Mediterranean-Black Sea Basin via the Suez Canal, Gibraltar or in ballast water. The number of alien fish species increased recently in the Black Sea-Mediterranean Basin because of the opening of the Suez Canal, climate change and international shipping activities. The aim of this review is to compile all relevant data for the alien fish species in both the Black and the M...

  20. Coalbed-methane production in the Appalachian basin: Chapter G.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.

    2014-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) occurs in coal beds of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) age in the northern, central, and southern Appalachian basin coal regions, which extend almost continuously from Pennsylvania southward to Alabama. Most commercial CBM production in the Appalachian basin is from three structural subbasins: (1) the Dunkard basin in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and northern West Virginia; (2) the Pocahontas basin in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; and (3) part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The cumulative CBM production in the Dunkard basin through 2005 was 17 billion cubic feet (BCF), the production in the Pocahontas basin through 2006 was 754 BCF, and the production in the part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama through 2007 was 2.008 TCF. CBM development may be regarded as mature in Alabama, where annual production from 1998 through 2007 was relatively constant and ranged from 112 to 121 BCF. An opportunity still exists for additional growth in the Pocahontas basin. In 2005, annual CBM production in the Pocahontas basin in Virginia and West Virginia was 85 BCF. In addition, opportunities are emerging for producing the large, diffuse CBM resources in the Dunkard basin as additional wells are drilled and technology improves.

  1. Evaluation of the potential effects of coalbed-methane well produced waters on aquatic life in the Black Warrior Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of coalbed methane well produced and treated waters on the biota of receiving streams designated and permitted for discharge. The study involved two primary parts. The first involved bioassays on selected invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. It was determined that there were apparent negative impacts on the more sensitive laboratory organisms only at chloride concentrations far in excess of levels observed in the receiving waters during the course of the study. The combined results, coupled with apparently variable tolerance of cultured organisms to chloride within individual tests, suggest that an unknown toxic factor exists in certain streams and that further testing is necessary to determine the identity of this factor. Results of tests on the other organisms yielded LC50's well above the regulatory limits. The second part of the study involved the sampling of receiving waters and there appeared to be no significant effect on the stream organisms or communities studied during the period of these investigations. This includes discharge at sites containing significantly more chloride in the effluent than 230 mg/L. Dilution was generally sufficient and significant in reducing instream concentrations to well below the regulatory limit 100 feet downstream of the points of discharge (POD's), although significantly raised chloride concentrations were found below POD's in streams experiencing drastically reduced flow volumes during the latter part of the summer. There is no compelling evidence that the produced water discharge had any major effects on the benthic macro-invertebrates and fish communities in the streams studied

  2. Black-tailed prairie dog management plan : Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan is for management of black-tailed prairie dogs on the Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District , Nebraska. A management plan is needed for...

  3. A basin-wide Black Sea Mnemiopsis leidyi database

    OpenAIRE

    Vladymyrov, Volodymyr; Kideys, Ahmet E.; Myroshnychenko, Volodymyr; SLIPETSKY Denis; Shiganova, Tamara; Abolmasova, Galina; Bingel, Ferit; TEZCAN Devrim; Ak, Yesim; ANNINSKY Boris; BAT, Levent; FINENKO Galina; GORBUNOV Vladimir; Isinibilir, Melek; KAMBURSKA Lyudmila

    2011-01-01

    A specific marine biological data management tool, the Black Sea Mnemiopsis leidyi database system was created within the European Commission 6th framework Black Sea SCENE project for the Black Sea region and is now being supported by the Permanent Secretariat of the Black Sea Commission. The core team of scientists studying M. leidyi in the Black Sea was brought together and all their available M. leidyi data and metadata were loaded into the common database. This works on the Internet and h...

  4. Subcrustal structure of the black sea basin from seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovskaya, T. B.; Gobarenko, V. S.; Yegorova, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    The P-wave travel time data from the earthquakes offshore and onshore around the Black Sea are used for the tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) velocity distribution in the lithosphere of the region. The preliminary refinement of the foci parameters (the coordinates and origin time) has reduced the random errors in the travel-time data. The earthquake data were supplemented by the previous deep seismic sounding (DSS) data on the profiles in Crimea and offshore off the Black Sea. The dataset included more than 4000 travel times overall. In order to eliminate the crustal effect, the travel times were reduced to a surface at a depth of 35 km corresponding to the mean Moho depth in the region. The improved crustal model was used for removing the contribution of the crust from the initial data. The new tomography method, which was recently developed by one of the authors and which relies on the assumption of smoothness of the lateral velocity variations, was applied for reconstructing the velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Black Sea up to a depth of 95 km. The lateral velocity variation maps at different depths and the vertical velocity distributions along the meridional and sublatitudinal cross sections across the Black Sea were constructed. High velocities were revealed in the subcrustal lithosphere, and the structural difference below two subbasins—the West Black Sea (WBS) and the East Black Sea (EBS) ones—was established. It shows that the high-velocity body below the WBS is located deeper than below the EBS and is distinguished by higher velocities. Based on these results, it is concluded that the lithosphere beneath the Black Sea has a continental origin.

  5. Knee Pain and the Weekend Warriors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Knee Pain and the Weekend Warriors Mercy Hospital Miami, FL March 17, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, live from Mercy Hospital in Miami, Florida. During the program, it’s ...

  6. Warehouse Warriors Take on Industrial Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Andrew; Rogers, Michael

    2003-01-01

    "Warehouse Warriors" is a cable channel program related to mastering household technologies. Student teams from Central Michigan University and Purdue University raced against time and each other to design and build a winning home-improvement project. (JOW)

  7. Tides in three enclosed basins: the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor P Medvedev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tides are the main type of sea level variability in the world ocean. However, oceanic tides penetrate weakly, or do not penetrate at all, into enclosed basins such as the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas. Consequently, only directly forced tides are formed in these basins. Long observation time series (up to 123 years in the Baltic Sea and 38 years in the Black and Caspian seas at numerous stations were used to precisely estimate tidal constituents. High-resolution spectra revealed fine structure of discrete peaks at tidal frequencies. The diurnal radiational constituent S1 (1 cpd, apparently associated with breeze winds, was found to play an important role in general tidal dynamics in these seas. Harmonic analysis of tides for individual yearly series with consecutive vector averaging over the entire observational period was applied to estimate mean amplitudes and phases of tidal constituents. Our findings indicate that the formation and predominance of diurnal or semidiurnal tides in these seas appears to depend on the frequency-selective properties of the basins. Thus, in the Baltic Sea with fundamental modal period of about 27 h, diurnal tides dominate in the major eastern gulfs. In the Black Sea resonant amplification of semidiurnal tides is observed in the northwestern part. The predominance of semidiurnal tides in the Caspian Sea has also probably a resonant nature. Maximum tidal heights estimated for a 100-year period are 23 cm in the Baltic Sea, 18 cm in the Black Sea and 21 cm in the southern Caspian Sea.

  8. Unioned layer for the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coal assessment area, Green River Basin, Wyoming (porbbfing.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of the spatial query layer for the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coalfield, Greater Green River Basin,...

  9. Geographic information system (GIS)-based maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields: Chapter C.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Kinney, Scott A.; Suitt, Stephen E.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more recent maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields (and the adjoining Black Warrior basin) is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compilation by Mast and others (1998) (see Trippi and others, this volume, chap. I.1). This map is part of a larger oil and gas field map for the conterminous United States that was derived by Mast and others (1998) from the Well History Control System (WHCS) database of Petroleum Information, Inc. (now IHS Energy Group). Rather than constructing the map from the approximately 500,000 proprietary wells in the Appalachian and Black Warrior part of the WHCS database, Mast and others (1998) subdivided the region into a grid of 1-mi2 (square mile) cells and allocated an appropriate type of hydrocarbon production (oil production, gas production, oil and gas production, or explored but no production) to each cell. Each 1-mi2 cell contains from 0 to 5 or more exploratory and (or) development wells. For example, if the wells in the 1-mi2 cell consisted of three oil wells, one gas well, and one dry well, then the cell would be characterized on the map as an area of oil and gas production. The map by Mast and others (1998) accurately shows the distribution and types of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Appalachian and Black Warrior basins, but it does not show the names of individual fields. To determine the locality and name of individual oil and gas fields, one must refer to State oil and gas maps (for example, Harper and others, 1982), which are generally published at scales of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 (see References Cited), and (or) published journal articles.

  10. Archaeal lipids and anaerobic oxidation of methane : A comparative study of the euxinic Black Sea and Cariaco Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Wakeham, S.G.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Black Sea and the Cariaco Basin are both large, euxinic marine basins in which methane concentrations are high and where anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important part of the carbon cycle. AOM can be recognized by lipid biomarkers that are specific to methanotrophic archaea involved a

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF GREAT SOIL GROUPS IN THE EAST BLACK SEA BASIN ACCORDING TO INTERNATIONAL SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    CUMHUR AYDINALP; EWART FITZPATRICK

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to classify great soil groups in the East Black Sea basin according to international soil classifi cation systems. 13 profi les of 3 great soil groups in this basin have been investigated and classifi ed according to system of FAO/UNESCO (1990), FitzPatrick (1988) and USDA Soil Taxonomy (1998) in this study.

  12. Making Sense of the Reality of Conflict in the Black Sea Basin Within the Context of the Theory of Securitization

    OpenAIRE

    TÜYSÜZOĞLU, Göktürk

    2014-01-01

    The Black Sea Basin has seen a dramatic change both in geographical extent and systemic sense after the Cold War. Completion of the Cold War induced the collapse of the political substructure which is fictionalised by the USSR for shaping the relations between the countries of the basin. Articulation of the basin into the competition that obtains within the scope of the international system has created conflict oriented scenery, when it’s converged with the historical problems, social tension...

  13. Age and Thickness of the Lithosphere within the Western and Eastern Basins of the Black Sea according to Geophysical Data

    OpenAIRE

    VERZHBITSKY, EUGENIY; LOBKOVSKY, IVAN KUZIN & LEOPOLD

    2002-01-01

    The ages of the western and eastern basins of the Black Sea have been estimated on the basis of heat-flow data. The obtained ages (70-60 Ma) are in good accord with the time of basins' origin as determined from seismic and magnetic data. During this time, the Black Sea opened as a back-arc basin to the north of the Pontide magmatic arc. The arc prehistory of the Pontides is confirmed by the existence of relict mantle seismicity, which is most active in the eastern Pontides. Nearly synchr...

  14. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Patchen; Katharine Lee Avary; John M. Bocan; Michael Hohn; John B. Hickman; Paul D. Lake; James A. Drahovzal; Christopher D. Laughrey; Jaime Kostelnik; Taury Smith; Ron Riley; Mark Baranoski

    2005-04-01

    The Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Research Consortium has made significant progress toward their goal of producing a geologic play book for the Trenton-Black River gas play. The final product will include a resource assessment model of Trenton-Black River reservoirs; possible fairways within which to concentrate further studies and seismic programs; and a model for the origin of Trenton-Black River hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs. All seismic data available to the consortium have been examined. Synthetic seismograms constructed for specific wells have enabled researchers to correlate the tops of 15 stratigraphic units determined from well logs to seismic profiles in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia and Kentucky. In addition, three surfaces for the area have been depth converted, gridded and mapped. A 16-layer velocity model has been developed to help constrain time-to-depth conversions. Considerable progress was made in fault trend delineation and seismic-stratigraphic correlation within the project area. Isopach maps and a network of gamma-ray cross sections supplemented with core descriptions allowed researchers to more clearly define the architecture of the basin during Middle and Late Ordovician time, the control of basin architecture on carbonate and shale deposition and eventually, the location of reservoirs in Trenton Limestone and Black River Group carbonates. The basin architecture itself may be structurally controlled, and this fault-related structural control along platform margins influenced the formation of hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs in original limestone facies deposited in high energy environments. This resulted in productive trends along the northwest margin of the Trenton platform in Ohio. The continuation of this platform margin into New York should provide further areas with good exploration potential. The focus of the petrographic study shifted from cataloging a broad spectrum of carbonate rocks that occur in the

  15. Serving Wounded Warriors in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    An influx of veterans is returning to the classroom; as many as a third are returning as wounded warriors with disabilities, such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury which affect classroom success. Research indicates that although many colleges and universities strive to support veterans by assisting with the GI Bill and…

  16. "Jade Warrior" sai Hispaanias kolm preemiat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Eesti osalusega Soome-Hiina kung fu film "Igavese armastuse sõdalane - Jade Warrior" võitis 1. Ibiza ja Formentera filmifestivalil kolm Falco d'Ori auhinda (AJ Annila - parim debüüt-lavastaja, Jukka Uusitalo - filmikunstniku töö eest, Henri Blomberg - operaatritöö eest)

  17. Knee Pain and the Weekend Warriors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talking a little bit about the kind of knee injuries that weekend warriors tend to have, and the ... symptom for those having either knee arthritis or knee injuries is obviously pain, and that’s obviously what drives ...

  18. Knee Pain and the Weekend Warriors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... their experience, both in the prevention, in the management, and the care they’re after of the weekend warrior. Those ... screen and open the door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. 17

  19. Origin of the yellow brine and the black brine in Sichuan Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spring water, geothermal water and Cretaceous brine in the outer zone of the Sichuan Basin has the Craig relationship, and they are cycling waters. The brine in the inner zone is mainly metasedimentary water. A basic feature of them is poor in 2H, but rich in 18O. The δD-values of the yellow brine in Jurassic and Upper Triassic aquifer of continental facies varies from -62.25 to -22.4, and the δ18O-values are -6.72 - +6.02. The δD-values of the black brine in marine aquifer (T2,T1,P,C,O and so on) varies from -49 to -25.1, and the 18O values are +3.89 - +6.14. The δD of yellow brine is similar to that of meteoric water, and the δD of the black brine is around that of crystallization water expelled from gypsum by anhydritization. Increases of salinity in Jurassic yellow brine result primarily from the evapotranspiration process. The salinity in Upper Triassic yellow brine in Aa sub-area originated from underlying rock salt which was leached by paleometeoric water. Triassic black brine derived from the mixing of the crystallization water leached from rock salt with the residual sea water after salt crystallization. In Zhigong, the composition of yellow brine has mainly been changed by the mixing of the yellow brine with the black brine. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Patchen; James Drahovzal; Larry Wickstrom; Taury Smith; Chris Laughery; Katharine Lee Avary

    2004-04-01

    Private- and public-sector stakeholders formed the new ''Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration Consortium'' and began a two-year research effort that will lead to a play book for Trenton-Black River exploration throughout the Appalachian basin. The final membership of the Consortium includes 17 gas exploration companies and 6 research team members, including the state geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, the New York State Museum Institute and West Virginia University. Seven integrated research tasks are being conducted by basin-wide research teams organized from this large pool of experienced professionals. More than 3400 miles of Appalachian basin digital seismic data have been quality checked. In addition, inquiries have been made regarding the availability of additional seismic data from government and industry partners in the consortium. Interpretations of the seismic data have begun. Error checking is being performed by mapping the time to various prominent reflecting horizons, and analyzing for any anomalies. A regional geological velocity model is being created to make time-to-depth conversions. Members of the stratigraphy task team compiled a generalized, basin-wide correlation chart, began the process of scanning geophysical logs and laid out lines for 16 regional cross sections. Two preliminary cross sections were constructed, a database of all available Trenton-Black River cores was created, and a basin-wide map showing these core locations was produced. Two cores were examined, described and photographed in detail, and were correlated to the network of geophysical logs. Members of the petrology team began the process of determining the original distribution of porous and permeable facies within a sequence stratigraphic framework. A detailed sedimentologic and petrographic study of the Union Furnace road cut in central Pennsylvania was completed. This effort will facilitate the calibration

  1. Education and Raising Awareness of Seismic Risk in the Black Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin Balan, Stefan; Alcaz, Vasile; Trifonova, Petya; Uker, Nalan; Tataru, Dragos

    2014-05-01

    The Project "Black Sea Earthquake Safety Net(work)" ESNET has the intention to educate and raise awareness of seismic risk in the Black Sea Basin in four countries: Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey. The project is financed through "The Black Sea Basin Joint Operational Programme", an EU operational programmes under European Neighborhood & Partnership Instrument (ENPI). The programme is financed by ENPI. The participation of Turkey is financed by Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance. It is implemented during the period 2007 - 2013. The project wants to contribute to the prevention of natural disasters generated by earthquakes in Black Sea Basin by developing a joint monitoring and intervention concept. All the countries involved in the project have their own studies, strategies, prevention and intervention systems in case of earthquakes, but until now there has not been an integrated approach so far in the Black Sea Basin. Given the cross-border character of seismic activity, it is necessary to have a cross-border approach on prevention, monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes. Main objectives : 1. The assessment of the disaster potential, with accent on the seismic risk degree and the earthquakes effects in the intervention area. For achieving the main objective is to have an accurate and up-to-date assessment of the potential of disasters provoked by earthquakes in the project area/regions. This assessment will be carried out at national level and will be used in designing the common concept/approach for dealing with earthquakes at regional level, thus ensuring the cross-border character of the objective. 2.To develop an integrated seismic monitoring and intervention concept. This integrated concept, built on the basis of the previous objective, will have a cross-border relevance and is at the core of the action. The monitoring and intervention in case of earthquakes will be coordinated among the participating countries based on this, thus a

  2. Applications of Geophysical and Geological Techniques to Identify Areas for Detailed Exploration in Black Mesa Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, S.; Reeves, T.K.; Sharma, Bijon; Szpakiewicz, M.

    1999-04-29

    A recent report submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (NIPER/BDM-0226) discussed in considerable detail, the geology, structure, tectonics, and history of oil production activities in the Black Mesa basin in Arizona. As part of the final phase of wrapping up research in the Black Mesa basin, the results of a few additional geophysical studies conducted on structure, stratigraphy, petrophysical analysis, and oil and gas occurrences in the basin are presented here. A second objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of relatively inexpensive, noninvasive techniques like gravity or magnetic in obtaining information on structure and tectonics in sufficient detail for hydrocarbon exploration, particularly by using the higher resolution satellite data now becoming available to the industry.

  3. The organic geochemistry of the Eocene-Oligocene black shales from the Lunpola Basin, central Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Wang, Chengshan; Duan, Yi; Li, Yalin; Hu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the depositional paleoenvironment and the potential hydrocarbons of the Eocene-Oligocene black shales from the Dingqinghu and Niubao Formations in the Lunpola Basin, central Tibet. Nineteen samples from two outcrop profiles were analysed. The contents of the total organic carbon (TOC) and sulphur were measured; other analyses included Rock-Eval pyrolysis, solvent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results indicated that the shales from the Dingqinghu and Niubao Formations are thermally immature. The pyrolysis data show that the shales contain Type I organic matter and that lacustrine algal are the main organic matter sources. The low pristane to phytane ratios and the high gammacerane indices indicate that the shales were deposited in a reducing, stratified, and hypersaline palaeo-lake, which is consistent with the climate information provided by the development history of palaeo-lakes from the Eocene to the Oligocene epochs.

  4. Paleoenvironmental and source rock assessment of black shales of Pennsylvanian Age, Powder River and northern Denver basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, J.L.; King, J.D.; Lubeck, C.M.; Leventhal, J.S.; Daws, T.A.

    1988-07-01

    Thin Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) organic-rich black shales (cumulative thickness < 50 ft) underlie much of the northern Denver basin and southeastern Powder River basin. In the Powder River basin, these shales are part of the middle member of the Minnelusa Formation. During Desmoinesian time, the present area of the southeastern Powder River basin and Nebraska was a shallow, at times highly saline, restricted sea. In contrast, in the present area of northeastern Colorado, black shales were deposited in a marine environment with normal salinity that was probably continuous with the Mid-Continent Pennsylvanian sea. Assessment of the paleoenvironment has been carried out using organic geochemical parameters. Shales deposited in the restricted basin setting contain abundant porphyrins (25,000-30,000 ppm relative to total extractable organic matter) and significant quantities of aryl isoprenoids. The aryl isoprenoid compounds (1) are evidence for the presence of the sulfur bacteria families Chlorobiaceae and possibly Chromatiaceae and (2) indicate that euxinic conditions existed in the water column. High ratios of sulfur to carbon in the shales support this interpretation. In contrast, extracts from black shale in the normal sea to the south contain lower porphyrin concentrations (generally less than 1000 ppm) and aryl isoprenoids are minor constituents or are absent. Sulfur/carbon ratios in these latter shales are similar to those observed for normal marine shales (that is, not euxinic conditions). Other paleoenvironmental indicators (sterane composition, alkane distribution) are consistent with these observations. Bulk organic matter in the black shales from both environments is type II and has good source potential for generation of liquid hydrocarbons during catagenesis. Pyrolysis yields of 50 kg/MT (50,000 ppm) are common, and in some shales, yield is 100 kg/MT (100,000 ppm).

  5. Creating a Geologic Play Book for Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Patchen; Taury Smith; Ron Riley; Mark Baranoski; David Harris; John Hickman; John Bocan; Michael Hohn

    2005-09-30

    Preliminary isopach and facies maps, combined with a literature review, were used to develop a sequence of basin geometry, architecture and facies development during Cambrian and Ordovician time. The main architectural features--basins, sub basins and platforms--were identified and mapped as their positions shifted with time. This is significant because a better understanding of the control of basin geometry and architecture on the distribution of key facies and on subsequent reservoir development in Ordovician carbonates within the Trenton and Black River is essential for future exploration planning. Good exploration potential is thought to exist along the entire platform margin, where clean grainstones were deposited in skeletal shoals from Indiana thorough Ohio and Ontario into Pennsylvania. The best reservoir facies for the development of hydrothermal dolomites appears to be these clean carbonates. This conclusion is supported by observations taken in existing fields in Indiana, Ontario, Ohio and New York. In contrast, Trenton-Black River production in Kentucky and West Virginia has been from fractured, but non-dolomitized, limestone reservoirs. Facies maps indicate that these limestones were deposited under conditions that led to a higher argillaceous content than the cleaner limestones deposited in higher-energy environments along platform margins. However, even in the broad area of argillaceous limestones, clean limestone buildups have been observed in eastern outcrops and, if present and dolomitized in the subsurface, may provide additional exploration targets. Structure and isopach maps developed as part of the structural and seismic study supported the basin architecture and geometry conclusions, and from them some structural control on the location of architectural features may be inferred. This portion of the study eventually will lead to a determination of the timing relative to fracturing, dolomitization and hydrocarbon charging of reservoirs in the

  6. Secondary lead poisoning in golden eagle and ferruginous hawk chicks consuming shot black-tailed prairie dogs, Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recreational shooting of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a common activity at Thunder Basin National Grassland (TSNG), Wyoming. The prairie dog...

  7. Eesti filmi "Jade Warrior" esilinastus Torontos / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2006-01-01

    Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendav fantaasiafilm "Igavese armastuse sõdalane - Jade Warrior" (Soome, Hiina ja Eesti ühistöö) esilinastus eile Toronto filmifestivalil. Andmed filmi tootmise ja levitamise kohta

  8. Predicted bulk composition of petroleum generated by Lower Cretaceous Wealden black shales, Lower Saxony Basin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegs, Volker; Mahlstedt, Nicolaj; Bruns, Benjamin; Horsfield, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The Berriasian Wealden Shale provides the favourable situation of possessing immature to overmature source rock intervals due to differential subsidence within the Lower Saxony Basin. Hydrocarbon generation kinetics and petroleum physical properties have been investigated on four immature Wealden Shale samples situated in different depth intervals and following the PhaseKinetics approach of di Primio and Horsfield (AAPG Bull 90(7):1031-1058, 2006). Kinetic parameters and phase prediction were applied to a thermally calibrated 1D model of the geodynamic evolution at the location of an overmature well. The immature source rocks of all depth intervals comprise kerogen type I being derived from the lacustrine algae Botryococcus braunii. Bulk kinetics of the lower three depth intervals (sample 2-4) can be described by one single activation energy E a, typical for homogeneous, lacustrine organic matter (OM), whereas sample 1 from the uppermost interval shows a slightly broader E a distribution which hints to a more heterogeneous, less stable OM, but still of lacustrine origin. Predicted physical properties of the generated petroleum fluids are characteristic of variably waxy, black oil possessing GOR's below 100 Sm3/Sm3 and saturations pressures below 150 bar. Petroleum fluids from the more heterogeneous OM-containing sample 1 can always be described by slightly higher values. Based on the occurrence of paraffinic, free hydrocarbons in the uppermost horizon of the overmature well and gas/condensate in the lower 3 depth intervals, two scenarios have been discussed. From the first and least realistic scenario assuming no expulsion from the source rock, it can be deduced that phase separation in the course of uplift can only have occurred in the uppermost interval containing the slightly less stable OM but not in the lower intervals being composed of a more stable OM. Therefore and taking secondary cracking into account, all depth intervals should contain gas

  9. Dust and Black Carbon Radiative Forcing Controls on Snowmelt in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Sara McKenzie

    Light absorbing impurities (LAIs), like dust and black carbon (BC), initiate powerful albedo feedbacks when deposited on snow cover, yet due to a scarcity of observations radiative forcing by LAIs is often neglected, or poorly constrained, in climate and hydrological models. This has important consequences for regions like the Colorado River Basin, where dust deposition to mountain snow cover frequently occurs in the upper basin in the springtime, a relatively new phenomenon since western expansion of the US. Previous work showed that dust on snow (DOS) enhances snowmelt by 3-7 weeks, shifts timing and intensity of runoff, and reduces total water yield. Here, advanced methods are presented to measure, model, and monitor DOS in the hydrologically sensitive Colorado River Basin. A multi-year multi-site spatial variability analysis indicates the heaviest dust loading comes from point sources in the southern Colorado Plateau, but also shows that lower levels of dust loading from diffuse sources still advances melt by 3-4 weeks. A high-resolution snow property dataset, including vertically resolved measurements of snow optical grain size and dust/BC concentrations, confirms that impurity layers remain in the layer in which they are deposited and converge at the surface as snow melts: influencing snow properties, rapidly reducing snow albedo, and increasing snowmelt rates. The optical properties of deposited impurities, which are mainly dust, are determined using an inversion technique from measurements of hemispherical reflectance and particle size distributions. Using updated optical properties in the snow+aerosols radiative transfer model SNICAR improves snow albedo modeling over a more general dust characterization, reducing errors by 50% across the full range of snow reflectance. Radiative forcing by LAIs in the CRB, estimated directly from measurements and updated optical properties, is most strongly controlled by dust concentrations in the uppermost surface layer

  10. Water resources of the Black Sea Basin at high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Srinivasan, Raghvan; Bacu, Victor; Lehmann, Anthony

    2014-07-01

    The pressure on water resources, deteriorating water quality, and uncertainties associated with the climate change create an environment of conflict in large and complex river system. The Black Sea Basin (BSB), in particular, suffers from ecological unsustainability and inadequate resource management leading to severe environmental, social, and economical problems. To better tackle the future challenges, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of the BSB coupling water quantity, water quality, and crop yield components. The hydrological model of the BSB was calibrated and validated considering sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. River discharges, nitrate loads, and crop yields were used to calibrate the model. Employing grid technology improved calibration computation time by more than an order of magnitude. We calculated components of water resources such as river discharge, infiltration, aquifer recharge, soil moisture, and actual and potential evapotranspiration. Furthermore, available water resources were calculated at subbasin spatial and monthly temporal levels. Within this framework, a comprehensive database of the BSB was created to fill the existing gaps in water resources data in the region. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of building a large-scale model in fine spatial and temporal detail. This study provides the basis for further research on the impacts of climate and land use change on water resources in the BSB.

  11. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Patchen; Chris Laughrey; Jaime Kostelnik; James Drahovzal; John B. Hickman; Paul D. Lake; John Bocan; Larry Wickstrom; Taury Smith; Katharine Lee Avary

    2004-10-01

    The ''Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration Consortium'' has reached the mid-point in a two-year research effort to produce a play book for Trenton-Black River exploration. The final membership of the Consortium includes 17 exploration and production companies and 6 research team members, including four state geological surveys, the New York State Museum Institute and West Virginia University. Seven integrated research tasks and one administrative and technology transfer task are being conducted basin-wide by research teams organized from this large pool of experienced professionals. All seismic data available to the consortium have been examined at least once. Synthetic seismograms constructed for specific wells have enabled researchers to correlate the tops of 10 stratigraphic units determined from well logs to seismic profiles in New York and Pennsylvania. In addition, three surfaces in that area have been depth converted, gridded and mapped. In the Kentucky-Ohio-West Virginia portion of the study area, a velocity model has been developed to help constrain time-to-depth conversions. Fifteen formation tops have been identified on seismic in that area. Preliminary conclusions based on the available seismic data do not support the extension of the Rome Trough into New York state. Members of the stratigraphy task team measured, described and photographed numerous cores from throughout the basin, and tied these data back to their network of geophysical log cross sections. Geophysical logs were scanned in raster files for use in detailed well examination and construction of cross sections. Logs on these cross sections that are only in raster format are being converted to vector format for final cross section displays. The petrology team measured and sampled one classic outcrop in Pennsylvania and ten cores in four states. More than 600 thin sections were prepared from samples in those four states. A seven-step procedure is being used to

  12. Effect Of Black Carbon Radiative Heating On Cloud Microphysics Over Indo-Gangetic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    Airborne black carbon (BC), the most significant particulate absorber of solar radiation in the atmosphere, is an important contributor to both global and regional-scale climate forcing (Tripathi et al., 2005). In context of cloud microphysics, freshly emitted pure BC particles are hydrophobic (i.e., bad cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)). However, exposure in the atmosphere may transform BC to a hydrophilic state if these particles are coated with additional materials, such as sulfate and organic carbon (OC). In a recent study, Conant et al. (2002) has examined the effect of radiative heating of BC on the critical supersaturation spectrum of internally mixed aerosols. Two main uncertainties introduced in this work are due to lack of knowledge of actual state of mixing and realistic distributions of different aerosol species. Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) in the northern India is one of the most polluted regions in the world. The cloud microphysical processes in IGB are very complex and it requires an in depth investigation for understanding of the aerosol-cloud interaction in the region (Tripathi, et al., 2007). In the present work, an attempt has been made to study the effect of radiative heating due to BC particles coated with hydrophilic materials on cloud microphysics over IGB. For this purpose, we have used (a) a two-layer radiative parameter model based on Mie theory (Toon and Ackerman, 1981) to calculate the particle (monodisperse) absorption cross section; (b) a three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer model, the spherical harmonics discrete ordinate method (SHDOM) (Evans,1998), which assumes a tropical continental atmosphere, to simulate the 3D spectral actinic flux over the study region; and (c) Extended Köhler theory (Conant et al., 2002) to simulate the effect the BC radiative heating on cloud droplet activation. The solar wavelength spectrum used ranges from 0.2 to 5 micrometer. Following the in situ measurements and modeling studies on mixing state (Dey

  13. Unlocking the hydrocarbon potential of the eastern Black Sea basin. Prospectivity of middle Miocene submarine fan reservoirs by seismic sequence stratigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : The objective of this paper is to present present depositional characteristics and hydrocarbon prospectivity of the middle Miocene submarine basin floor fan deposits from the exploration stand point of view by using seismic data available in the offshore eastern Black Sea basin. This basin is a Tertiary trough formed as a continuation of the Mesozoic oceanic basin. The hydrocarbon potential of the basin is believed to be high in the Tertiary section because of the existence of the elements necessary for generation, migration and entrapment of hydrocarbon. A sequence stratigraphic study has been carried out by using 2-d seismic data in the Turkish portion of the eastern Black Sea basin. The objective of the study was to determine periods of major clastic sediment influxes which might lead to identify good reservoir intervals and their spatial distribution in this basin. All basic seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation techniques and seismic facies analysis were used to identify times of these sand rich deposition periods. Sequence stratigraphy and seismic facies analysis indicate that the basinal areas of the middle Miocene sequences were dominated mainly by submarine fan complexes introduced in the lowstand stages and pelagic sediments deposited during the transgressive and highstand stages. It was proposed that Turkish portion of this basin which is one of the best frontier exploration area with its high potential left in the world, is glimpsing to those looking for good future exploration opportunities.

  14. Comparison of Vertical Distributions of Prokaryotic Assemblages in the Anoxic Cariaco Basin and Black Sea by Use of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xueju; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Putnam, Isabell F.; Astor, Yrene M.; Scranton, Mary I.; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y.; Taylor, Gordon T.

    2006-01-01

    Individual prokaryotic cells from two major anoxic basins, the Cariaco Basin and the Black Sea, were enumerated throughout their water columns using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the fluorochrome Cy3 or horseradish peroxidase-modified oligonucleotide probes. For both basins, significant differences in total prokaryotic abundance and phylogenetic composition were observed among oxic, anoxic, and transitional (redoxcline) waters. Epsilon-proteobacteria, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota were more prevalent in the redoxclines, where previous studies reported high rates of chemoautotrophic production relative to those in waters above and below the redoxclines. Relative abundances of Archaea in both systems varied between 1% and 28% of total prokaryotes, depending on depth. The prokaryotic community composition varied between the two anoxic basins, consistent with distinct geochemical and physical conditions. In the Black Sea, the relative contributions of group I Crenarchaeota (median, 5.5%) to prokaryotic communities were significantly higher (P < 0.001; n = 20) than those of group II Euryarchaeota (median, 2.9%). In contrast, their proportions were nearly equivalent in the Cariaco Basin. Beta-proteobacteria were unexpectedly common throughout the Cariaco Basin's water column, accounting for an average of 47% of 4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained cells. This group was below the detection limit (<1%) in the Black Sea samples. Compositional differences between basins may reflect temporal variability in microbial populations and/or systematic differences in environmental conditions and the populations for which they select. PMID:16597973

  15. Geostatistical Analysis of Winter Rainfall for 2013 in Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey (comparison of the past status and future projections)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaoglu, Beyza

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall is one of the most important climatic factor for environmental studies. Several methods (Thiessen polygon, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) and Kriging etc.) have been used by researchers for spatial interpolation of rainfall data. Kriging is a geostatistical method which is based on spatial correlation between neighbouring observations to predict attribute values at unsampled locations. The study area, Eastern Black Sea Basin is one of the highest rainfall accumulations in Turkey according to the measured station data (1942 - 2011). Eastern Black Sea Basin is the only basin in Turkey with an increase amount of winter (October, November, December) rainfall for 2013 in comparison to the long term mean and previous year winter rainfall. Regarding to the future projections (Ustaoglu, 2011), this basin has one of the strongest increasing trend according to the A2 scenario analysis obtained from RegCM3 regional climate model during the ten years periods (2011 - 2100). In this study, 2013 winter rainfall in the basin is highlighted and compared with the past and future rainfall conditions of the basin. Keywords: Geostatistical Analysis, Winter Rainfall, Eastern Black Sea Basin

  16. A regional ocean circulation model for the mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic Basin: implications for black shale formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. M. Topper

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High concentrations of organic matter accumulated in marine sediments during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs in the Cretaceous. Model studies examining these events invariably make use of global ocean circulation models. In this study, a regional model for the North Atlantic Basin during OAE2 at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary has been developed. A first order check of the results has been performed by comparison with the results of a recent global Cenomanian CCSM3 run, from which boundary and initial conditions were obtained. The regional model is able to maintain tracer patterns and to produce velocity patterns similar to the global model. The sensitivity of the basin tracer and circulation patterns to changes in the geometry of the connections with the global ocean is examined with three experiments with different bathymetries near the sponges. Different geometries turn out to have little effect on tracer distribution, but do affect circulation and upwelling patterns. The regional model is also used to test the hypothesis that ocean circulation may have been behind the deposition of black shales during OAEs. Three scenarios are tested which are thought to represent pre-OAE, OAE and post-OAE situations. Model results confirm that Pacific intermediate inflow together with coastal upwelling could have enhanced primary production during OAE2. A low sea level in the pre-OAE scenario could have inhibited large scale black shale formation, as could have the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Seaway in the post-OAE scenario.

  17. Restructuring of Turkey's electricity market and the share of hydropower energy: The case of the Eastern Black Sea Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the historical development of Turkey's electricity power sector, the efforts for introducing competition in the power industry in Turkey, and the concerns regarding restructuring in Turkey. The contribution of the hydropower energy potential in Turkey to the reconstruction of the electricity structure in Turkey is also investigated. Then, among the 25 hydrological basins in Turkey, the Eastern Black Sea Basin located in the northeast of Turkey, which has great advantages from the view point of small hydropower potential or hydropower potential without storage, is chosen as the case study to carry out some investigations concerning its potential and to analyze the contribution of the private sector (the corporate body) in regard to the development of hydro potential in this basin within the scope of the 4628 Electricity Market Law. With this law, concerning the restructuring of the electricity market, private sector investments in this segment have increased. In total, 1524 hydroelectric power projects with 22 360 MW installed capacity has been implemented until January 22nd, 2009 and this figure is continuously rising. (author)

  18. Point of Rocks, Black Butte faults, Green River Basin, Wyoming (grbfltg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a line representation of faults in a portion of the the Green River Basin. The fault data are part of the National Coal Resource...

  19. Magnetostratigraphy and radio-isotope dating of upper Miocene-lower Pliocene sedimentary successions of the Black Sea Basin (Taman Peninsula, Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, I.; Iosifidi, A.G.; Khramov, A.N.; Krijgsman, W.; Kuiper, K.; Langereis, C.G.; Popov, V.V.; Stoica, M.; Tomsha, V.A.; Yudin, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new chronology for the upper Miocene to Pliocene deposits of the Black Sea basin based on highresolution magnetostratigraphic data coupled with 40Ar/39Ar dating from the 475 m long Zheleznyi Rog section on the Taman Peninsula (Russia). This section comprises the stratigraphic interval o

  20. Trends and Projections of Climatic Extremes in the Black Volta Basin, West Africa: Towards Climate Change Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, F.

    2015-12-01

    The water resources of the Black Volta Basin in West Africa constitute a major resource for the four countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali) that share it. For Burkina Faso and Ghana, the river is the main natural resource around which the development of the diverse sectors of the two economies is built. Whereas Ghana relies heavily on the river for energy, land-locked Burkina Faso continuously develops the water for agricultural purposes. Such important role of the river makes it an element around which there are potential conflicts: either among riparian countries or within the individual countries themselves. This study documents the changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in the Black Volta Basin region for the past (1981-2010) and makes projections for the mid-late 21st century (2051-2080) under two emission scenarios; RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5. The Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) temperature- and precipitation-based indices are computed with the RClimdex software. Observed daily records and downscaled CORDEX data of precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures are used for historical and future trend analysis respectively. In general low emission scenarios show increases in the cold extremes. The region shows a consistent pattern of trends in hot extremes for the 1990's. An increasing trend in hot extremes is expected in the future under RCP 8.5 while RCP 2.5 shows reductions in hot extremes. Regardless of the emission scenario, projections show more frequent hot nights in the 21st century. Generally, the region shows variability in trends for future extreme precipitation indices with only a few of the trends being statistically significant (5% level). Results obtained provide a basic and first step to understanding how climatic extremes have been changing in the Volta Basin region and gives an idea of what to expect in the future. Such studies will also help in making informed decisions on water management

  1. Diagenesis and Fluid Flow History in Sandstones of the Upper Permian Black Jack Formation, Gunnedah Basin, Eastern Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Guoping; John B. KEENE

    2007-01-01

    The fluid flow history during diagenesis of sandstones in the Upper Permian Black Jack Formation of the Gunnedah Basin has been investigated through integrated petrographic observations, fluid inclusion investigations and stable isotope analyses. The early precipitation of mixed-layer illite/smectite, siderite, calcite, ankerite and kaolin proceeded at the presence of Late Permian connate meteoric waters at temperatures of up to 60℃. These evolved connate pore waters were also parental to quartz, which formed at temperatures of up to 87℃. The phase of maximum burial was characterized by development of filamentous illite and late calcite at temperatures of up to ~90℃. Subsequent uplifting and cooling led to deep meteoric influx from surface, which in turn resulted in dissolution of labile grains and carbonate cements, and formation of second generation of kaolin. Dawsonite was the last diagenetic mineral precipitated and its formation is genetically related to deep-seated mamagtic sourced CO2.

  2. Investigations on the Structure Tectonics, Geophysics, Geochemistry, and Hydrocarbon Potential of the Black Mesa Basin, Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Colin; Carroll, Herbert; Erickson, Richard; George, Steve; Guo, Genliang; Reeves,T.K.; Sharma, Bijon; Szpakiewicz, Michael; Volk, Len

    1999-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has instituted a basin-analysis study program to encourage drilling in underexplored and unexplored areas and increase discovery rates for hydrocarbons by independent oil companies within the continental United States. The work is being performed at the DOE's National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, by the Exploration and Drilling Group within BDM-Oklahoma (BDM), the manager of the facility for DOE. Several low-activity areas in the Mid-Continent, west, and southwest were considered for the initial study area (Reeves and Carroll 1994a). The Black Mesa region in northwestern Arizona is shown on the U.S. Geological Survey 1995 oil and gas map of the United States as an undrilled area, adapted from Takahashi and Gautier 1995. This basin was selected by DOE s the site for the initial NIPER-BDM survey to develop prospects within the Lower-48 states (Reeves and Carroll 1994b).

  3. Groundwater quality, age, and susceptibility and vulnerability to nitrate contamination with linkages to land use and groundwater flow, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan P.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin is located about 25 kilometers east of Colorado Springs, Colorado. The primary aquifer is a productive section of unconsolidated deposits that overlies bedrock units of the Denver Basin and is a critical resource for local water needs, including irrigation, domestic, and commercial use. The primary aquifer also serves an important regional role by the export of water to nearby communities in the Colorado Springs area. Changes in land use and development over the last decade, which includes substantial growth of subdivisions in the Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, have led to uncertainty regarding the potential effects to water quality throughout the basin. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Cherokee Metropolitan District, El Paso County, Meridian Service Metropolitan District, Mountain View Electric Association, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Groundwater Management District, Woodmen Hills Metropolitan District, Colorado State Land Board, and Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the stakeholders represented in the Groundwater Quality Study Committee of El Paso County conducted an assessment of groundwater quality and groundwater age with an emphasis on characterizing nitrate in the groundwater.

  4. Palynology of "black shale" sequences near the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary (Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Marcela

    Bratislava : Štátny geologický ústav Dionýza Štúra, 2007 - (Zlinská, A.). s. 88-88 ISBN 978-80-88974-91-8. [Paleontologická konferencia /8./. 14.06.2007-15.06.2007, Bratislava] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Cenomanian-Turonian boundary * palynomorphs * Bohemian Cretaceous Basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  5. Assessing the combined influence of TOC and black carbon in soil–air partitioning of PBDEs and DPs from the Indus River Basin, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs and ∑DPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002–0.53 ng g−1 in the surface soils while 1.43–22.1 and 0.19–7.59 pg m−3 in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (fBC) and total organic carbon (fTOC) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04–0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDE's congener profile suggested the input of penta–bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil–air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC−A). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area. - Highlights: • Model based calculations of black carbon-air partition coefficients for PBDEs. • Soil and air levels of PBDEs and DPs reported first time for ecologically important sites of the Indus River Basin, Pakistan. • Both, fBC and fTOC showed combined influence on soil–air partitioning of PBDEs in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan. - BC and TOC showed combined influence on soil–air partitioning of POPs i-e., PBDEs in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan

  6. The interplay between tectonics, sediment dynamics and gateways evolution in the Danube system from the Pannonian Basin to the western Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenco, Liviu; Munteanu, Ioan; ter Borgh, Marten; Stanica, Adrian; Tilita, Marius; Lericolais, Gilles; Dinu, Corneliu; Oaie, Gheorghe

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the natural evolution of a river-delta-sea system is important to develop a strong scientific basis for efficient integrated management plans. The distribution of sediment fluxes is linked with the natural connection between sediment source areas situated in uplifting mountain chains and deposition in plains, deltas and, ultimately, in the capturing oceans and seas. The Danube River-western Black Sea is one of the most active European systems in terms of sediment re-distribution that poses significant societal challenges. We aim to derive the tectonic and sedimentological background of human-induced changes in this system and discuss their interplay. This is obtained by analysing the tectonic and associated vertical movements, the evolution of relevant basins and the key events affecting sediment routing and deposition. The analysis of the main source and sink areas is focused in particular on the Miocene evolution of the Carpatho-Balkanides, Dinarides and their sedimentary basins including the western Black Sea. The vertical movements of mountains chains created the main moments of basin connectivity observed in the Danube system. Their timing and effects are observed in sediments deposited in the vicinity of gateways, such as the transition between the Pannonian/Transylvanian and Dacian basins and between the Dacian Basin and western Black Sea. The results demonstrate the importance of understanding threshold conditions driving rapid basins connectivity changes superposed over the longer time scale of tectonic-induced vertical movements associated with background erosion and sedimentation. The spatial and temporal scale of such processes is contrastingly different and challenging. The long-term patterns interact with recent or anthropogenic induced modifications in the natural system and may result in rapid changes at threshold conditions that can be quantified and predicted. Their understanding is critical because of frequent occurrence during

  7. Assessment of Micro-Basin Tillage as a Soil and Water Conservation Practice in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yuanyuan; Ou, Yang; Yan, Baixing; Xu, Xiaohong; Rousseau, Alain N.; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Micro-basin tillage is a soil and water conservation practice that requires building individual earth blocks along furrows. In this study, plot experiments were conducted to assess the efficiency of micro-basin tillage on sloping croplands between 2012 and 2013 (5°and 7°). The conceptual, optimal, block interval model was used to design micro-basins which are meant to capture the maximum amount of water per unit area. Results indicated that when compared to the up-down slope tillage, micro-basin tillage could increase soil water content and maize yield by about 45% and 17%, and reduce runoff, sediment and nutrients loads by about 63%, 96% and 86%, respectively. Meanwhile, micro-basin tillage could reduce the peak runoff rates and delay the initial runoff-yielding time. In addition, micro-basin tillage with the optimal block interval proved to be the best one among all treatments with different intervals. Compared with treatments of other block intervals, the optimal block interval treatments increased soil moisture by around 10% and reduced runoff rate by around 15%. In general, micro-basin tillage with optimal block interval represents an effective soil and water conservation practice for sloping farmland of the black soil region. PMID:27031339

  8. Occurrence of Highly Mature Organic Matter in Marine Black Shale Petroleum Source Rocks of Basal Cambrian from Northern Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Bingsong (于炳松); Hailiang DONG; CHEN Jianqiang (陈建强); CHEN Xiaolin (陈晓林); LIANG Shiyou (梁世友)

    2004-01-01

    More and more evidence indicates that organic matter (OM) in immature organic-rich sediments and sedimentary rocks is chemically adsorbed onto the outer surfaces of minerals and into interlayer (inner) surfaces of smectitic clay minerals in the form of amorphous molecular-scale carbon. But there have been few reports about the occurrence of highly mature OM in marine black shales (petroleum source rocks). The occurrence of highly mature OM in the black shales of basal Cambrian from northern Tarim Basin is studied in this paper. Based on the comprehensive analyses of total organic carbon contents (TOC), maximum thermolysis temperatures (T max ) of OM, mineral surface areas (MSA), and scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) and transmission electronic microscopic (TEM) observations of the black shales, it is concluded that the highly mature OM in the marine black shales of the basal Cambrian from northern Tarim Basin occurs in particulates ranging in size from 1 to 5 μm in diameter. Through the contrast of the occurrence of the highly mature OM in the black shales with that of the immature ones in modern marine continental margin sediments, some scientific problems are proposed, which are worth to study further in detail.

  9. "Jade Warrior" kupatab Soome sampo Hiina / Kätlin Kaldmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldmaa, Kätlin, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendav fantaasiafilm "Igavese armastuse sõdalane - Jade Warrior" (Soome, Hiina, Hollandi ja Eesti ühistöö) : stsenarist Iiro Küttner : režissöör Antti-Jussi Annila : võitluskunstide koreograaf Yu Yan Kai : osades Tommi Eronen, Zhang Jingchu, Markku Peltola. Lisatud Ave Randviiru, Elle Kulli ja Antti-Jussi Annila "Esimesed muljed"

  10. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrite, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the Black Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Western Basin from R/Vs GORIZONT and OKEANOGRAF, 1960 - 1969 (NODC Accession 0074609)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, Silicate, Nitrite, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the Black Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Western Basin of the...

  11. Fingerprint elements scatter analysis of terracotta warriors and horses of Qin's Mausoleum in pit No.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terracotta warriors and horses of Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum is famous in the world, but their original place of raw material is still a riddle up to now. 42 samples of pottery warriors and horses of Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum in pit No.3, 20 samples of clay nearby Museum of the terracotta warriors and horses of Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum are selected and prepared for analysis. The contents of 32 microelement are measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA), the eight elements are chosen as the fingerprint elements to complete scatter analysis. The results show that the raw material of terracotta warriors and horses in pit No.3 are closed to loam soil layer nearby Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum, but little far from loess layers. Thus the Lishan may be considered as original place of the raw materials of the terracotta warriors and horses of Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum, the kiln sites may be also neighborhood of Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum

  12. The caddisfly fauna (Insecta, Trichoptera) of the rivers of the Black Sea basin in Kosovo with distributional data for some rare species

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Ibrahimi; Mladen Kučinić; Agim Gashi; Linda Grapci Kotori

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adult caddisflies were collected from 12 stations in the Black Sea basin in Kosovo using UV light traps. Sixty-five of the seventy-six species reported in this paper are first records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna. The unexpected discovery of several species during this investigation: Agapetus delicatulus McLachlan, 1884, Psychomyia klapaleki Malicky, 1995, Tinodes janssensi Jacquemart, 1957, Hydropsyche emarginata Navas, 1923, Drusus botosaneanui Kumanski, 1968, Potamophylax rotund...

  13. Long-period magnetotelluric survey from the black forest through the Western Alps to the Po Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Magnetotelluric (MT) soundings in the period range of 8s to 100000s were carried out along a 400-kilometre-long North-South profile from the Black Forest through the Western Alps, with focus on the Ivrea Zone, to the Po Basin. Several RAP-Stations, MT devices developed at the University of Goettingen, were mounted to collect data between October 2008 and May 2009. The survey aims to investigate the evolution of the conductivity structures in the lower crust and mantle along the profile. MT-transfer functions were calculated to investigate the interruption of the intracrustal and asthenospheric high conductivity layers under the European Alps. Furthermore Sq-variations were considered to find out more about the structure of the upper mantle. First results with models made by MT-forward modelling are presented and additionally a comparison with seismic studies in the target areas and particularly about the Alpine Crustal root in the Po Plain is provided. First results indicate a lithospheric thickening under the collision zones.

  14. {sup 137}Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, Herve [IRSN, LERCM, Centre Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia M. [International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (CIESM), 16 Blvd de Suisse, MC-98000 Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Andral, Bruno [Ifremer, BP 330, F-83507 La Seyne sur Mer (France); Barisic, Delko [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Albaladejo, Jose Benedicto [Inst. Espanol de Oceanografi' a (IEO), Centro Oceanografico de Murcia - Calle Varadero No. 1, 30740 San Pedro del Pinatar (Spain); Bologa, Alexandru S. [National Institute for Marine Research and Development ' Grigore Antipa' , RO-900581, Constantza (Romania); Boudjenoun, Redouane [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Delfanti, Roberta [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia, e l' Ambiente (ENEA), Marine Environment Research Centre, La Spezia (Italy); Egorov, Victor N. [Inst. of Biology of the Southern Seas (IBSS), National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 2 Porspekt Nakhimova, 99 011 Sevastopol, Crimea (Ukraine); El Khoukhi, Tahar [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de la Maamora (CNESTEN), BP 1382 RP Rabat 10001 (Morocco); Florou, Heleni [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 153 10, P.O. Box 60228, Athens (Greece); Kniewald, Goran [Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Lab. for Trace Physical Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Inst., P.O. Box 1016, Bijenicka 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Noureddine, Abdelkader [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (COMENA), Centre de Radioprotection Recherche Nucleaire d' Algeret de Surete, Lab. d' Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, 2 Blvd F. Fanon - BP 399 Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria)] (and others)

    2008-07-01

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify {sup 137}Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured {sup 137}Cs levels were found to be very low (usually <1 Bq kg{sup -1} wet wt) {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area.

  15. 137Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was selected as unique biomonitor species to implement a regional monitoring programme, the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch (MMW), in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As of today, and upon standardization of the methodological approach, the MMW Network has been able to quantify 137Cs levels in mussels from 60 coastal stations and to produce the first distribution map of this artificial radionuclide at the scale of the entire Mediterranean and Black Seas. While measured 137Cs levels were found to be very low (usually -1 wet wt) 137Cs activity concentrations in the Black Sea and North Aegean Sea were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the western Mediterranean Basin. Such effects, far from representing a threat to human populations or the environment, reflect a persistent signature of the Chernobyl fallout in this area

  16. Variation of total organic carbon content along the stream Harsit, Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Adem; Önsoy, Hizir; Akinci, Görkem; Bulut, Volkan Numan

    2011-11-01

    The TOC in surface waters and wastewater is an important analytical parameter describing the total content of all organic substances containing carbon. In practice, the TOC originated from natural and anthropogenic sources, and even if it is not directly responsible for dangers on human health, its determination is important for any kind of water that is used by public. The aim of this study was to determine variation of total organic carbon (TOC) and total carbon (TC) content in the stream Harsit, which courses in Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey. Sampling was fortnightly conducted in each of the four seasons between March 2009 and February 2010. A total of 230 water samples were collected from ten sampling stations along the main branch of the stream Harsit with 143 km of length. Obtained TOC values were evaluated and used to classify the water quality of stream Harsit, according to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation (TWPCR). The annual average TOC content values for the stations were found between 2.33 and 6.97 mg/L. It was seen that the TOC content have increased along the streamcourse of Harsit until the fourth station, where reaches its maximum value. The TOC content, then, has decreased and the minimum value was observed in the eighth station. The results showed that, except in winter season, maximum TOC content observed in many of the water samples were above Class I water standard indicated in TWPCR, which classifies the water resources according to the different area of uses. It was also found that TOC has a small contribution to TC and the highest TOC content in stream waters were measured in Gumushane station where direct discharge of city wastewaters and solid waste dumping to the stream were observed. PMID:21229304

  17. Assessing the combined influence of TOC and black carbon in soil-air partitioning of PBDEs and DPs from the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-06-01

    Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs and ∑DPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002-0.53 ng g(-1) in the surface soils while 1.43-22.1 and 0.19-7.59 pg m(-3) in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (fBC) and total organic carbon (fTOC) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04-0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDE's congener profile suggested the input of penta-bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil-air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area. PMID:25795070

  18. Nisqually - Early Invasive Detection and Rapid Response by Refuge Weed Warriors

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nisqually NWR initiated a Refuge Weed Warrior program in 2003 to aid the Refuge in controlling nonnative invasive plant species. Volunteers are trained to identify,...

  19. Cytogenetic variation of repetitive DNA elements in Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes - Erythrinidae from white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Araújo dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hoplias malabaricus is a common fish species occurring in white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin. Its large distribution across distinct aquatic environments can pose stressful conditions for dispersal and creates possibilities for the emergence of local adaptive profiles. We investigated the chromosomal localization of repetitive DNA markers (constitutive heterochromatin, rDNA and the transposable element REX-3 in populations from the Amazonas river (white water, the Negro river (black water and the Tapajós river (clear water, in order to address the variation/association of cytogenomic features and environmental conditions. We found a conserved karyotypic macrostructure with a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (20 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics in all the samples. Heteromorphism in pair 14 was detected as evidence for the initial differentiation of an XX/XY system. Minor differences detected in the amount of repetitive DNA markers are interpreted as possible signatures of local adaptations to distinct aquatic environments.

  20. Cytogenetic variation of repetitive DNA elements in Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes - Erythrinidae) from white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fabíola Araújo Dos; Marques, Diego Ferreira; Terencio, Maria Leandra; Feldberg, Eliana; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo R

    2016-03-01

    Hoplias malabaricus is a common fish species occurring in white, black and clear water rivers of the Amazon basin. Its large distribution across distinct aquatic environments can pose stressful conditions for dispersal and creates possibilities for the emergence of local adaptive profiles. We investigated the chromosomal localization of repetitive DNA markers (constitutive heterochromatin, rDNA and the transposable element REX-3) in populations from the Amazonas river (white water), the Negro river (black water) and the Tapajós river (clear water), in order to address the variation/association of cytogenomic features and environmental conditions. We found a conserved karyotypic macrostructure with a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (20 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics) in all the samples. Heteromorphism in pair 14 was detected as evidence for the initial differentiation of an XX/XY system. Minor differences detected in the amount of repetitive DNA markers are interpreted as possible signatures of local adaptations to distinct aquatic environments. PMID:27007897

  1. Influential role of black carbon in the soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-09-01

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in surface soils and passive air samples from the Indus River Basin, and the influential role of black carbon (BC) in the soil-air partitioning process was examined. ∑26-PCBs ranged between 0.002-3.03 pg m(-3) and 0.26-1.89 ng g(-1) for passive air and soil samples, respectively. Lower chlorinated (tri- and tetra-) PCBs were abundant in both air (83.9%) and soil (92.1%) samples. Soil-air partitioning of PCBs was investigated through octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of the paired-t test revealed that both models showed statistically significant agreement between measured and predicted model values for the PCB congeners. Ratios of fBCKBC-AδOCT/fOMKOA>5 explicitly suggested the influential role of black carbon in the retention and soil-air partitioning of PCBs. Lower chlorinated PCBs were strongly adsorbed and retained by black carbon during soil-air partitioning because of their dominance at the sampling sites and planarity effect. PMID:25933089

  2. Concurrent and opposed environmental trends during the last glacial cycle between the Carpathian Basin and the Black Sea coast: evidence from high resolution enviromagnetic loess records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, Ulrich; Zeeden, Christian; Veres, Daniel; Obreht, Igor; Bösken, Janina; Marković, Slobodan B.; Eckmeier, Eileen; Fischer, Peter; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Danube Basin near to the Black Sea (Urluia quarry, Dobrogea, Romania). In order to investigate the potential of Danubian loess in recording millennial-scale palaeoclimate variability, a 22 m deep drill-core from the Titel loess plateau and a more than 15 metres thick LPSS from the Urluia quarry were contiguously sampled. Both sides provide improved insight into past climate evolution of the regions down to MIS 6. The presentation will focus on the down-core/down-section variability of χ and χfd as environmental proxy parameters. Based on these mineral magnetic proxies we can already draw the following conclusions: 1) The dust accumulation rates in both regions were relatively constant over the past c. 130 kyrs, even during full interglacial conditions. 2) In the studied sections, the pedo-complex S1 represents ± the Eemian and not the entire MIS 5, as previously assumed. 3) There are a lot of similarities between the mineral magnetic records of the Titel-Plateau (Vojvodina, South Carpathian Basin) and the Urluia quarry (Dobrogea, Lower Danube Basin) and also between these records and those from the Chinese Loess Plateau, but also fundamental differences. 4) During the early glacial (end of MIS5) we find no evidence for soil formation in the South Carpathian Basin whereas in the Dobrogea near to the Black Sea coast embryonic soils developed. On the contrary, during the younger part of MIS 3 (≤ 40 ka) near to the Black Sea coast soil humidity sharply decreased towards the LGM whereas in the South Carpathian Basin the mineral magnetic proxies indicate a relative maximum in pedogenesis/soil humidity. Sedimentological, geochemical, geochronological and palaeomagnetic investigations are in progress. They will provide further high quality data sets leading to an improved understanding of the Late Pleistocene environmental evolution in the Danube Basin.

  3. Tectonic and magmatic evolution of the northwestern Basin and Range and its transition to unextended volcanic plateaus: Black Rock Range, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, D.W.; Miller, E.; McWilliams, M.; Colgan, J.

    2008-01-01

    The seismically active eastern and western margins of the northern Basin and Range have been extensively studied, yet the northwestern margin of the province remains incompletely understood. The Black Rock Range of northwestern Nevada straddles the transition from the Basin and Range province to the south and east, and flat-lying volcanic plateaus to the west. This poorly understood range preserves a remarkably complete record of Cenozoic magmatism and provides an important window into the pre-Miocene history of the unextended volcanic plateaus of northeastern California and southern Oregon. Geologic mapping and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology from the northern Black Rock Range document three significant episodes of Eocene to middle Miocene volcanism. Eocene (35 Ma) basalts directly overlie Mesozoic granites and arc-related volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Locally erupted Oligocene to early Miocene (27-21 Ma) bimodal volcanic rocks comprise the bulk of the Cenozoic section and conformably overlie the Eocene basalt flows. These bimodal units include rhyolitic lavas, variably welded rhyolitic ash flows, unwelded ash-fall deposits, and thin basalt flows. In the neighboring Pine Forest Range ???20 km to the north, similar Oligocene to early Miocene units are overlain by more than 500 m of ca. 16.4 Ma Steens-equivalent basalt flows and are capped by ca. 16 Ma rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs. In the northern Black Rock Range, the ca. 16.4 Ma middle Miocene basalts are absent from the section, and a 16.2 Ma rhyolitic ash-flow tuff directly overlies the early Miocene flows. Basaltic and rhyolitic volcanic products in the northern Black Rock Range span 35-16 Ma, with many of the Oligocene volcanic units derived from local vents and dikes. Despite the map-scale complexities of locally derived lava flows, the Cenozoic section is broadly conformable and dips gently (???5??-10??) to the northwest. The region experienced no significant tilting between 35 and 16 Ma, with moderate tilting (???5

  4. Conservation and monitoring of a persecuted African lion population by Maasai warriors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolrenry, Stephanie; Hazzah, Leela; Frank, Laurence G

    2016-06-01

    Although Africa has many threatened species and biological hot spots, there are few citizen science schemes, particularly in rural communities, and there has been limited evaluation of existing programs. We engaged traditional Maasai warriors (pastoralist men aged 15 to 35) in community-based conservation and demographic monitoring of a persecuted African lion (Panthera leo) population. Through direct engagement, we investigated whether a citizen science approach employing local warriors, who had no formal education, could produce reliable data on the demographics, predation, and movements of a species with which their communities have been in conflict for generations. Warriors were given benefits such as literacy training and skill enhancement and engaged in the monitoring of the lions. The trained warriors reported on lion sign across an area nearly 4000 km(2) . Scientists worked together with the warriors to verify their reports and gather observations on the lion population. Using the verified reports and collected observations, we examined our scientific knowledge relative to the lion population preceding and during the citizen science program. Our observations showed that data quality and quantity improved with the involvement and training of the participants. Furthermore, because they engaged in conservation and gained personal benefits, the participants came to appreciate a species that was traditionally their foe. We believe engaging other local communities in biodiversity conservation and monitoring may be an effective conservation approach in rural Africa. PMID:27111059

  5. The effect of black carbon on reflectance of snow in the accumulation area of glaciers in the Baspa basin, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kulkarni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Himalayan glaciers are being extensively debated in scientific and public forums, as changes in their distribution can significantly affect the availability of water in many rivers originating in the region. The distribution of glaciers can be influenced by mass balance, and most of the glaciers located in the Pir Panjal and Greater Himalayan mountain ranges are losing mass at the rate of almost a meter per year. The Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA has also shifted upward by 400 m in the last two decades. This upward migration of ELA and the loss in mass could have been influenced by changes in temperature, precipitation and by the deposition of black carbon in the accumulation area of glaciers. The deposition of black carbon can reduce the albedo of snow in the accumulation area leading to faster melting of snow and causing more negative mass balance. In this investigation, a change in reflectance in the accumulation area of the Baspa basin is analysed for the year 2009, as the region has experienced extensive forest fires along with northern Indian biomass burning. The investigation has shown that: (1 The number of forest fires in the summer of 2009 was substantially higher than in any other year between 2001 and 2010; (2 the drop in reflectance in the visible region from April to May in the accumulation area was significantly higher in the year 2009 than in any other year from 2000 to 2012; (3 the temperature of the region was substantially lower than the freezing point during the active fire period of 2009, indicating the small influence of liquid water and grain size; (4 the drop in reflectance was observed only in the visible region, indicating role of contamination; (5 in the visible region, a mean drop in reflectance of 21± 5% was observed during the active fire period in the accumulation area. At some places, the drop was as high as 50 ± 5%. This can only be explained by the deposition of black carbon. The study suggests that a change

  6. The effect of black carbon on reflectance of snow in the accumulation area of glaciers in the Baspa basin, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A. V.; Vinay Kumar, G.; Negi, H. S.; Srinivasan, J.; Satheesh, S. K.

    2013-04-01

    Himalayan glaciers are being extensively debated in scientific and public forums, as changes in their distribution can significantly affect the availability of water in many rivers originating in the region. The distribution of glaciers can be influenced by mass balance, and most of the glaciers located in the Pir Panjal and Greater Himalayan mountain ranges are losing mass at the rate of almost a meter per year. The Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) has also shifted upward by 400 m in the last two decades. This upward migration of ELA and the loss in mass could have been influenced by changes in temperature, precipitation and by the deposition of black carbon in the accumulation area of glaciers. The deposition of black carbon can reduce the albedo of snow in the accumulation area leading to faster melting of snow and causing more negative mass balance. In this investigation, a change in reflectance in the accumulation area of the Baspa basin is analysed for the year 2009, as the region has experienced extensive forest fires along with northern Indian biomass burning. The investigation has shown that: (1) The number of forest fires in the summer of 2009 was substantially higher than in any other year between 2001 and 2010; (2) the drop in reflectance in the visible region from April to May in the accumulation area was significantly higher in the year 2009 than in any other year from 2000 to 2012; (3) the temperature of the region was substantially lower than the freezing point during the active fire period of 2009, indicating the small influence of liquid water and grain size; (4) the drop in reflectance was observed only in the visible region, indicating role of contamination; (5) in the visible region, a mean drop in reflectance of 21± 5% was observed during the active fire period in the accumulation area. At some places, the drop was as high as 50 ± 5%. This can only be explained by the deposition of black carbon. The study suggests that a change in snow albedo

  7. The caddisfly fauna (Insecta, Trichoptera of the rivers of the Black Sea basin in Kosovo with distributional data for some rare species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahimi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult caddisflies were collected from 12 stations in the Black Sea basin in Kosovo using UV light traps. Sixty-five of the seventy-six species reported in this paper are first records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna. The unexpected discovery of several species during this investigation: Agapetus delicatulus McLachlan, 1884, Psychomyia klapaleki Malicky, 1995, Tinodes janssensi Jacquemart, 1957, Hydropsyche emarginata Navas, 1923, Drusus botosaneanui Kumanski, 1968, Potamophylax rotundipennis (Brauer, 1857, Potamophylax schmidi Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1970, Ceraclea albimacula (Rambur, 1842, Helicopsyche bacescui Orghidan & Botosaneanu, 1953, Adicella filicornis (Pictet, 1834, Beraea maurus (Curtis, 1834 and Beraeamyia hrabei Mayer, 1937 illustrates that collections from poorly investigated areas in Europe will almost certainly revise the existing knowledge on the distribution of these and other species.

  8. The caddisfly fauna (Insecta, Trichoptera) of the rivers of the Black Sea basin in Kosovo with distributional data for some rare species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kučinić, Mladen; Gashi, Agim; Grapci-Kotori, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adult caddisflies were collected from 12 stations in the Black Sea basin in Kosovo using UV light traps. Sixty-five of the seventy-six species reported in this paper are first records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna. The unexpected discovery of several species during this investigation: Agapetus delicatulus McLachlan, 1884, Psychomyia klapaleki Malicky, 1995, Tinodes janssensi Jacquemart, 1957, Hydropsyche emarginata Navas, 1923, Drusus botosaneanui Kumanski, 1968, Potamophylax rotundipennis (Brauer, 1857), Potamophylax schmidi Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1970, Ceraclea albimacula (Rambur, 1842), Helicopsyche bacescui Orghidan & Botosaneanu, 1953, Adicella filicornis (Pictet, 1834), Beraea maurus (Curtis, 1834) and Beraeamyia hrabei Mayer, 1937 illustrates that collections from poorly investigated areas in Europe will almost certainly revise the existing knowledge on the distribution of these and other species. PMID:22539915

  9. The assemblage of fish of the Tyligul River (Black-Sea basin of South-West Ukraine)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutsokon, Y.; Kvach, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2015), s. 223-228. ISSN 1996-4536 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Tyligul River * fish * assemblage * Northern Black Sea * museum collections Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://bioweb.lnu.edu.ua/studia/pdf/201591/2015_9_1_382.pdf

  10. Tracking the fingerprints and combined TOC-black carbon mediated soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the Indus River Basin of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Sánchez-García, Laura; Rehman, Muhammad Yasir Abdur; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the first investigation of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in air and soil samples from ecologically important sites of the Indus River Basin, Pakistan. The concentrations of ∑39-PCNs in air and soil were found in a range between 1-1588 pg m(-3) and 0.02-23 ng g(-1) while the mean TEQ values were calculated to be 5.4E(-04) pg TEQ m(-3) and 1.6E(+01) pg TEQ g(-1), respectively. Spatially, air and soil PCN concentrations were found to be high at Rahim Yar Khan (agricultural region). Lower-medium chlorinated PCNs (sum of tri-, tetra- and penta-CNs) predominated in both air and soil, altogether constituting 87 and 86% of total PCNs in the two environmental matrices, respectively. According to the data, soil-air partitioning of PCNs was interpreted to be similarly controlled by the combined effect of black carbon and organic matter in the Indus River Basin, with no preferential implication of the recalcitrant organic form. PMID:26613673

  11. From Basin Black Shales to Platform Carbonate Rocks: A Study on Sequence Stratigraphy for the Lower Cambrian of the Upper-Yangtze Region in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the Upper-Yangtze region, especially in Guizhou Province and its adjacent areas, the Lower Cambrian is well developed and is marked by a succession from black shales of the basin facies to carbonate rocks of the platform facies. The drowning event of the platform occurring at the turn from Sinian to Cambrian resulted in a set of black shales, i.e. the Niutitang Formation, which makes up the bottom part of the Lower Cambrian. With the shoaling of the sedimentary environment, a set of carbonate rocks, i.e. the Qingxudong Formation, was formed in the top part of the Lower Cambrian. Thus, the Lower Cambrian in the study area makes up one second-order sequence that can be further subdivided into five third-order sequences, and forms a regularly cyclic succession of transgression-regression. There is a regularly vertical stacking pattern for the third-order sequences in the second-order sequence. From bottom to top, the succession of the "CS (condensed section)+HST (high-stand system tract)" of the third-order sequences is changed into the succession of the "TST (transgressive system tract)+CS+HST". Correspondingly, the drowning-type sequence boundary is changed into the exposure-type one. Therefore, both the second-order and the third-order sequences have similar sedimentary-facies architectures. A concomitant with these temporal changes,the Lower Cambrian with a thickness of 1000 m that contains five third-order sequences is changed into a condensed succession that cannot identify third-order sequences toward the southeast with the deepening of the sedimentary environment. According to the elementary features of the third-order sequences, i.e. the regularity o sedimentary-facies successions in space and the synchronism of sedimentary-environment changes in time, the detailed division of the third-order sequences at main logged sections in different paleogeographical background becomes the basis to establish the sequence-stratigraphic framework that can demonstrate

  12. Asceticism and the Pursuit of Death by Warriors and Monks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Jeremiah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong connection between martial arts and religious practices in Japan. Martial art practitioners, in an effort to utilize inner energy (ki and to eliminate fear, often turn to ascetic discipline. Mountain ascetics called yamabushi are known for their extreme, life-threatening training methods. Some of them, after ten years of mental and physical preparation, buried themselves alive, aspiring to become living Buddhas. This is the relatively unknown practice of self-mummification: a tradition that originated with Kukai, the founder of Shingon Buddhism. Approximately twenty individuals in Japan have successfully mummified themselves by means of ascetic discipline and special diets. The frame of mind developed while preparing for their deaths is the same mind-set that warriors strive to attain. Single-minded determination, the complete absence of fear, and the nonexistence of self are demonstrated in the actions of these individuals. These are the same qualities that are found in any master of the martial arts.

  13. An application of recently developed time series analysis to black market real exchange rates in the Pacific Basin countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kassimatis, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to perform a comprehensive time series analysis of real and nominal exchange rates for the following Pacific-Basin countries: Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand in the seventies and eighties. The largest part of the research concentrates on the behaviour of real exchange rates. Contrary to most research that has been carried out so far, the exchange rate quotations for the calculation of the real exchange r...

  14. Refugee warriors or war refugees? Iraqi refugees' predicament in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Leenders

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to disentangle a debate within the study of refugee crises and their security implications involving 'refugee warriors'. It situates the debate in the context of the Iraqi refugee crisis and its purported and real manifestations in three main host countries: Syria, Jordan and Leb

  15. Warrior Mothers as Heroines and Other Healing Imagery in the Finnish National Epic of "Kalevala."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Sirkku M. Sky

    2001-01-01

    Examines mother imagery from the Finnish mythological epic "Kalevala," and describes how they offer healing imagery for understanding and acceptance of one's own mother and subsequently one's self. Offers background to the "Kalevala" itself, its language and to warriors, shamans, and sages in general. Examines seven mother metaphors found in the…

  16. American Indian Females and Stereotypes: Warriors, Leaders, Healers, Feminists; Not Drudges, Princesses, Prostitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajimodiere, Denise K.

    2013-01-01

    This article is written by a Native female author. It delves into the historical stereotypes of Native females as drudges, princesses, and prostitutes perpetrated by media, movies, and literature. The author reviews research on the traditional and modern roles of Native females, including roles as warriors, leaders, and healers. Current literature…

  17. Nisqually - Early Detection Rapid Response, Monitoring and Mapping of High Priority Invasive Species with Nisqually NWRC Weed Warriors

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will continue a successful program of early detection and rapid response, monitoring and mapping of invasive species on Nisqually NWRC by Weed Warrior...

  18. Characterization of black volcanites from the Limay river basin, Patagonia, Argentina, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: an aid to infer human group mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of hunter-gatherers archaeological sites in the Limay river basin, Patagonia, Argentina, raised questions concerning the lithic technology. The chemical characterization of artifacts, rocks and possible sources of provenances could help to elucidate the hunter-gatherer mobility. In three archaeological sites-Rincon Chico 2 (RCh2/87; 14C 710 ± 60 BP), Cueva Traful I (CTI; 14C 9430 ± 230 BP) and Casa de Piedra de Ortega (CPO; 14C 2840 ± 80 BP), tools and debitage or discarded flakes made in black volcanic rock have been found. Nearby an extensive rock outcrop of black volcanite, Paso Limay quarry (CPL), with similar characteristics was located. Samples coming from these four sites were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. This characterization allowed the geochemical classification of the lithic material and to correlate the samples with the suspected source after a previous statistical analysis. The majority of the samples were classified as dacites and rhyolites. Only samples coming from CPO site, the closest place to CPL were made exclusively with the quarry rocks. A set of five samples from RCh2/87 and two samples from CTI appear to have same chemical composition as CPL in spite of this site is placed in the opposite bank of the Limay river suggesting that hunter-gatherers could accede to the quarry, eventually. Finally, only a set of five samples coming from RCh2/87 and CTI do not group with the quarry. This fact evidences the existence of secondary sources of supply. The information of this research allowed inferring ancient human mobility patterns in the region. (author)

  19. Remagnetization of lower Silurian black shale and insights into shale gas in the Sichuan Basin, south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dong; Yin, Hongwei; Liu, Mancang; Xie, Wuren; Wei, Guoqi; Li, Yongxiang

    2016-02-01

    The organic-rich lower Silurian shale of the Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin is the most important target for shale-gas exploration in China. Most Paleozoic rocks of the Sichuan Basin have experienced extraordinarily pervasive remagnetizations. To test a hypothesized connection between hydrocarbon generation and remagnetization and contribute to shale-gas exploration in the region, we undertook an integrated magnetic, geochemical, and petrographic study of 160 specimens from the shale. The results suggest that the shale contains a reliable remanent magnetization (Dec = 41.4°, Inc = 40.8°, and α95 = 6.8°). The magnetization predates tilting, and the paleopole plots close to the Late Triassic segment of the south China apparent polar wander path. The rock magnetic data and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations confirm that framboidal magnetites carry the bulk of the magnetization, which suggest a Late Triassic chemical remanent magnetization in the shale. 87Sr/86Sr and magnetic analyses indicate that the amount of magnetite was unaffected by fluid alterations around the veins but is strongly covariant with the amount of total organic matter. Moreover, SEM observations reveal possible evidence of the replacement of pyrite framboids by magnetite, probably in the presence of organic acids. These analyses, therefore, suggest that the remagnetization was caused by organic maturation rather than orogenic fluids and that the maturation occurred in the Late Triassic. This timing of organic maturation has been validated by independent modeling studies and provides important constraints on the complex thermal history of the Longmaxi Shale as well as contributing to shale-gas exploration efforts.

  20. Treatment of segregated black/grey domestic wastewater using constructed wetlands in the Mediterranean basin: the zer0-m experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, F; El Hamouri, B; Abdel Shafi, H; Baban, A; Ghrabi, A; Regelsberger, M

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about water shortage and pollution have received increased attention over the past few years, especially in developing countries with warm climate. In order to help local water management in these countries, the Euro-Mediterranean Regional Programme (MEDA) has financed the Zer0-m project (E-mail: www.zer0-m.org). As a part of this project, several constructed wetland (CW) pilot systems with different pre-treatments have been implemented in four Technological Demonstration Centres in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. The aim of this research was to establish appropriate designs for treatment of segregated domestic black (BW) and grey water (GW). We tested several different multistage CW configurations, consisting of horizontal and vertical subsurface flow CW for secondary treatment and free water systems as tertiary stage. CW removal efficiencies of TSS, COD, BOD(5), N-NH(4)(+), N-NO(3)(-), N(tot), total coliforms (TC) were evaluated for each of the implemented systems. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of CWs as a suitable technology for treating segregated domestic wastewater. A very efficient COD reduction (up to 98%) and nitrification (92-99%) was achieved for BW and GW in all systems. CW effluent concentrations were below 15 mg/L for BOD(5), 1 mg/L for N-NO(3)(-) and 0.5 mg/L for N-NH(4)(+) together with acceptable TC counts. Based on these results, we suggest adopting the design parameters used in this study for the treatment of segregated wastewater in the Mediterranean area. PMID:20057095

  1. Warrior Burials and the Elevation of a Military Elite in LHIIIC Achaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senn, Heidi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The collapse of Mycenaean civilization around 1200 B.C.E. left in its wake not only displaced and vulnerable settlements, but also a kind of ‘structural vacuum’ which forced populations to re-establish settlement patterns without the strict guidance of what had been a highly stratified and hierarchical authority under the Mycenaean palace centers. In a remote north-western region of ancient Hellas, the evidence of the so-called ‘warrior graves’ suggests that Achaian communities sought a decidedly military solution to the problems of re-organization and definition which confronted the reeling post-palatial population. In this article I will argue that the Achaian warriors, entombed so respectfully with the tools of their trade, were representative of a newly elevated military elite. *

  2. Geochemical correlation of oil from the Ayoluengo field to Liassic black shale units in the southwestern Basque-Cantabrian Basin (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, Santiago; Robles, Sergio [University of the Basque Country, Stratigraphy and Paleontology Dept., Bilbao (Spain); Dorronsoro, Carmen [University of the Basque Country, Geology Dept., Bilbao (Spain); Chaler, Roser; Grimalt, Joan O. [C.I.D.-C.S.I.C., Environmental Chemistry Dept., Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    A study of the Liassic sequence in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin has shown the presence of organic-rich (TOC, HI and S{sub 2} up to 8.7%, 760 and 56.5 mg/g, respectively) Pliensbachian-early Toarcian black shales that constitute the only feasible source rock for Ayoluengo oil. The stratigraphical and sedimentological data show that these black shales developed into a major transgressive sequence of hemipelagic Lotharingian-Toarcian facies, which suggests the presence of anoxic or near anoxic bottom water conditions in troughs during their deposition. The {delta}{sup 13}C composition, and a detailed study of the linear, branched, isoprenoid, steroid and hopanoid aliphatic hydrocarbons in these shales, marls and the Ayoluengo oil confirms this hypothesis. Specifically, the {delta}{sup 13}C values of the total solvent extract of the thicker shale (No. 2) and the oil are -29.93 and -29.88``per mille``, respectively; also a close similarity in the relative compositions of steranes and hopanes is observed between these samples. The distributions of these compounds exhibit several distinct features. The steranes in this shale and crude oil are characterized by a depletion of C{sub 28} vs C{sub 27} and C{sub 29} homologues (24 vs 32 and 44%, respectively), which is consistent with the carbon number sterane distributions generally observed among Upper Paleozoic to Liassic rock-sourced oils. Furthermore, hopanes and steranes are characterized by their high relative content of rearranged molecules. Diasteranes (13{beta}(H),17{alpha}(H)- and 13{alpha}(H),17{beta}(H)- series) are the dominant compounds among the steranes and significant amounts of 18{alpha}(H)-17{alpha}methyl-28-norhopanes (C{sub 27}, C{sub 29} and C{sub 30} homologues) and 17{alpha}(H)-15{alpha}-methyl- 27 norhopanes (C{sub 30} homologue) are found in the hopanoid hydrocarbons. Conversely, the proportion of these rearranged molecules in other sediment samples from the same formation decrease with increasing

  3. The Land Warrior Soldier System: a case study for the acquisition of soldier systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clifton, Nile L.; Douglas W. Copeland

    2008-01-01

    This project provides an analysis of the Army's acquisition of the Land Warrior (LW) Soldier System. Its objectives are to document the history of the LW and provide an overview of the program to establish the components of both its development and deployment and its associated business and management characteristics. The product is a document that provides an analysis of the actions taken and the obstacles encountered and how the materiel developers, warfighters, user representatives and...

  4. Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: the male warrior hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, M. M.; Navarrete, C.D.; Vugt, van, M.

    2012-01-01

    The social science literature contains numerous examples of human tribalism and parochialism—the tendency to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership, and treat ingroup members benevolently and outgroup members malevolently. We hypothesize that this tribal inclination is an adaptive response to the threat of coalitional aggression and intergroup conflict perpetrated by ‘warrior males’ in both ancestral and modern human environments. Here, we describe how male coalitional ...

  5. Cultural Conflict Mirrored by the Female Characters in the Woman Warrior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙贻红

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing the contradiction between the first immigrant American Chinese women and their America-born children as well as the inner emotional dilemma within the second immigrant women,this paper attempts to explore the cultural conflict manifested by female characters in The Woman Warrior,demonstrating the American immigrant women’s depression,desperation and bitterness in their adaptation to a new circumstance.

  6. Geohydrology, water quality, and preliminary simulations of ground-water flow of the alluvial aquifer in the Upper Black Squirrel Creek basin, El Paso County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, D.R.; Watts, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    The upper Black Squirrel Creek basin in eastern El Paso County, Colorado, is underlain by an alluvial aquifer and four bedrock aquifers. Groundwater pumpage from the alluvial aquifer has increased since the mid-1950's, and water level declines have been substantial; the bedrock aquifers virtually are undeveloped. Groundwater pumpage for domestic, stock, agricultural, and municipal uses have exceeded recharge for the past 25 years. The present extent of the effect of pumpage on the alluvial aquifer was evaluated, and a groundwater flow model was used to simulate the future effect of continued pumpage on the aquifer. Measured water level declines from 1974 through 1984 were as much as 30 ft in an area north of Ellicott, Colorado. On the basis of the simulations, water level declines from October 1984 to April 1999 north of Ellicott might be as much as 20 to 30 ft and as much as 1 to 10 ft in most of the aquifer. The groundwater flow models provided a means of evaluating the importance of groundwater evapotranspiration at various stages of aquifer development. Simulated groundwater evapotranspiration was about 43% of the outflow from the aquifer during predevelopment stages but was less than 3% of the outflow from the aquifer during late-development stages. Analyses of 36 groundwater samples collected during 1984 indicated that concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen generally were large. Samples from 5 of the 36 wells had concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen that exceeded drinking water standards. Water from the alluvial aquifer generally is of suitable quality for most uses. (USGS)

  7. ‘Introducing the Sensational Black Panther!’ Fantastic Four #52–53, the Cold War, and Marvel’s Imagined Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses Fantastic Four #52–53 (July–August 1966), in which Black Panther, Marvel’s first black superhero, premiered. It argues that the character as he appeared in these issues is best read as an example of ‘white on black’ representation, or white images of blacks centered on white interests, filtered through Marvel’s then-prevalent Cold War focus. The article first looks at the Fantastic Four as Cold Warriors to contextualize Black Panther. It then goes on to look at how Waka...

  8. ‘Introducing the Sensational Black Panther!’ Fantastic Four #52–53, the Cold War, and Marvel’s Imagined Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Lund

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses 'Fantastic Four' #52–53 (July–August 1966), in which Black Panther, Marvel’s first black superhero, premiered. It argues that the character as he appeared in these issues is best read as an example of ‘white on black’ representation, or white images of blacks centered on white interests, filtered through Marvel’s then-prevalent Cold War focus. The article first looks at the Fantastic Four as Cold Warriors to contextualize Black Panther. It then goes on to look at how Wa...

  9. 77 FR 15597 - Special Local Regulation; USAT Triathlon/Race Rowing Competition; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; USAT Triathlon/Race Rowing... the USAT Triathlon/Race Rowing Competition. Entry into, transiting in or anchoring in this area is... from safety hazards associated with the USAT Triathlon and Race Rowing Competition. Basis and...

  10. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Black Warrior Province (065) Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS as a method for illustrating the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution...

  11. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Black Warrior Province (065) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  12. Moessbauer study of fired Lishan clay and terra-cotta warriors and horses of Qin Dynasty (221 B.C.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sherds of terracotta warriors and horses and Lishan clay were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, XRF, NAA, thermal and chemical analyses. Lishan clay was testified as the original material of terracotta warriors and horses, the kilning of these warriors and horses was first carried out in an oxidizing atmosphere, and then changed to a predominantly reducing atmosphere. With refiring experiments, the temperatures of Q3 and Q4 samples were determined to be 830 ± 50 and 980 ± 50degC respectively. Transformations of Lishan clay were determined by firing in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The Moessbauer parameters of Lishan clay, which was taken after 2-24h firing, were changing up to 12h. (orig.)

  13. BlackBerry PlayBook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Corey

    2011-01-01

    Use your BlackBerry PlayBook for work and for play—this book shows you how For all you business road warriors who don't go anywhere without your BlackBerrys, the road just got a little more comfortable. The BlackBerry PlayBook is a tablet is your go-to-gadget for working on the go. Learn how to take full advantage of this powerful newcomer to the tablet market with this full-color For Dummies guide. You'll discover how to use your PlayBook to connect to corporate systems, manage your finances, keep track of your travel and other schedules—even how to use the PlayBook as an e-reade

  14. Three "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Series Appeared on the Market for the First Time%Three "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Series Appeared on the Market for the First Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Augu'st 28, "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Market Conference was held by Double Coin Group (Anhui) Warrior Tires Co., Ltd. in Shanghai with a subject of " Wonderful Combination to Start the Fu- ture". Warrior tires came into the market, which changed the pattern of the Chinese medium and high-end passenger car tire market dominated by foreign brands, mark- ing the beginning of the national brand to stand on the international medium and high-end passenger car tire market.

  15. Beyond the Mohawk Warrior: Reinterpreting Benjamin West’s Evocations of American Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Sienkewicz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay offers a reinterpretation of the narratives in John Galt’s 'The Life and Studies of Benjamin West' (1816 that introduce the artist’s encounters with, or evocations of, American Indians. This study grapples, in particular, with the iconic status of the narrative in which the young artist, newly arrived in Rome from the British Colony of Pennsylvania, is said to have exclaimed ‘My God, how like it is to a young Mohawk warrior!’ when he first encountered the 'Apollo Belvidere'. It questions whether West actually did liken the 'Apollo Belvidere ' to a Mohawk warrior in 1760, and instead resituates the narrative within concerns of transatlantic audience and international politics in 1816. Rather than the naïve exclamation of a provincial visitor to a European metropolis, this article contends that West’s remark, at least as retold within Galt’s narrative, was the calculated reflection of a cosmopolitan intellectual on matters of intercultural and transatlantic concern.

  16. Scientific responsibility for the dissemination and interpretation of genetic research: lessons from the "warrior gene" controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensley, D; King, M

    2008-06-01

    This paper discusses the announcement by a team of researchers that they identified a genetic influence for a range of "antisocial" behaviours in the New Zealand Māori population (dubbed the "warrior gene"). The behaviours included criminality, violence, gambling and alcoholism. The reported link between genetics and behaviour met with much controversy. The scientists were described as hiding behind a veneer of supposedly "objective" western science, using it to perpetuate "racist and oppressive discourses". In this paper we examine what went wrong in the dissemination of the research. We chose as our framework the debate around the "internal/external" responsibilities of scientists. Using this discourse we argue that when the researchers ventured to explain their research in terms of social phenomena, they assumed a duty to ensure that their findings were placed "in context". By "in context", we argue that evidence of any genetic influence on behavioural characteristics should not be reported in isolation, but instead presented alongside other environmental, cultural and socio-economic influences that may also contribute to the studied behaviour. Rather than imposing a new obligation on scientists, we find this duty to contextualise results is in keeping with the spirit of codes of ethics already in place. Lessons from the "warrior gene" controversy may assist researchers elsewhere to identify potential areas of conflict before they jeopardise research relationships, or disseminate findings in a manner that fuels misleading and/or potentially discriminatory attitudes in society. PMID:18511629

  17. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance......-styled references to, among other things, the culturally and ideologically effervescent interwar-period have made me curious as to what alternative possibilities – for instance ‘emancipation’ – a comparative analysis might disclose concerning the visual rhetoric of black. Thus, in conclusion, it is briefly...

  18. Psychology and photography: chimneys dreaming and chimneys warriors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilde Giani Gallino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article covers two aspects related to Psychology and Art. The first aspect concerns the similarities found between photography and various Schools of experimental psychology. For instance, the scientists of Psychology of ethological theory, and Non-verbal communication (NVC, observe with particular methodologies the non-verbal messages that animals and humans transmit to their peers through expressions, posture, gestures. The same is done by photographers (those who use the “camera” with a good knowledge of the medium and a “photographic  eye” when they look around, careful to catch an expression, any unusual attitude, or a gesture of friendship. Another School of psychology, the Gestalpsychologie (Gestalt: form, figure, configuration, attributes a decisive value to the perception of space, the foreground and the background, the perspective and vanishing points, the contrast between black and white. All aspects that effectively interest psychologists just as much as photographers. Finally, the second aspect relates to the art of Antony Gaudì and makes some hypothesis about the personality and behavior of the great architect, with regard to the construction of two houses, "Casa Batllo" and "Casa Mila": particularly because of the configuration or Gestalt of the "chimneys" that dominate the two buildings. In this study, cooperate each other psychological analysis and the art of photography. The last enables us to study also the details of the work of Gaudì, as can be seen in the pictures of this essay.

  19. Integrated stratigraphy of an organic matter enriched pelagic series (''black shales''). The Aptian-Albian of the Marches - Umbria basin (central Italy); Stratigraphie integree d'une serie pelagique a horizons enrichis en matiere organique (''black shales''). L'Aptien-Albien du bassin de Marches - Ombrie (Italie centrale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiet, N.

    1998-10-23

    The Aptian-Albian series of the Marches-Umbria basin is considered as a field analogue of most basin deposits of the same age located in the Atlantic domain. It corresponds to a pelagic sedimentation with alternations of marls, black shales, and limestones. The study of the black shales series has been carried out using a combination of petrological, geochemical and palynological data. The integration of these data allows to propose a detailed typology of these beds, to define a deposition mode with respect to the organic matter content and to precise the location of sources and transfer ways. A close relationship between the deposition of the black shales and the development of delta zones in the North-Gondwana margin is shown. A comparison with sub-actual analogues allows to explain their rhythmical organization within the sedimentation. A cyclo-stratigraphical approach of the overall series has been performed using the analysis of the sedimentary rhythms. A detailed time calibration (< 100 ka) of the Aptian and Albian epochs is proposed according to the planktonic foraminifera, the calcareous nano-fossils and the dyno-cysts populations. The M-0 magnetic chron has ben dated to 116.7 {+-} 0.7 Ma. The combination of all stratigraphical approaches has permitted to elaborate a subdivision of the series into deposition sequences. The forcing phenomena that led to the genesis of these sedimentary bodies are probably of astronomical-climatical origin. Then a relative sea-level curve has been constructed and compared with the existing reference curves published for the worldwide ocean and the Russian platform. The strong similarities between these curves and the amplitude of the relative variations (up to 80 m) suggest a control of the sedimentation of glacial-eustatic origin. Thus, several glaciation phases are proposed according to the low sea level deposits identified in the series (upper Gargasian, Clansayesian, upper Albian, middle Vraconian). (J.S.)

  20. A comparative study on the abundance and elemental composition of POM in three interconnected basins: the Black, the Marmara and the Mediterranean Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. COBAN-YILDIZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and elemental composition of suspended particulate organic matter in the upper layers of the interconnected Mediterranean, Marmara and Black Seas having different ecosystems were determined in 1990-1998. The aim was principally to compare the C:N:P ratio of seston and understand factors controlling the seston composition in near- and off-shore waters of these seas. In the Marmara Sea, euphotic zone average particulate concentrations varied regionally and seasonally between 10-35 ìM for POC, 0.4-4.5 ìM for PON and 0.05-0.45 ìM for PP. These concentrations are mostly above the off-shore Black Sea values but much greater than those measured in the open waters of the north-eastern Mediterranean whose near-shore data are comparable with the seston content of the deep Black Sea. Comparison of C:N:P ratios of seston reveals that atmospheric and land-based phosphorus input influences the C:P and N:P ratios in the near-shore waters. Apparent nutrient deficiencies observed in the water column were not as remarkable in the elemental composition of seston. Unexpectedly, in the NE Mediterranean, N:P ratios from regression analyses of particulate data are very low (7-9 in the coastal region but slightly increase to levels of 10-15 in the open sea. In the Sea of Marmara, the N:P ratios (7-12 of seston are as low as in the Mediterranean, being consistent with the particulate ratios of the Black Sea inflow and NO3:PO4 ratios of the Marmara sub-halocline water. The Black Sea seston is relatively rich in carbonaceous compounds with N:P ratio ranging merely between 15-17 in the open sea but 9-27 in coastal waters where riverine discharges markedly influence the stoichiometry of seston.

  1. Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous, Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment of physical characteristics and aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas, and measured selected water-quality properties in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the course of the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to environmental flow prescriptions for Big Cypress Bayou, Black Cypress Bayou, and Little Cypress Bayou. Data collection and analysis were done at mesohabitat- and reach-specific scales, where a mesohabitat is defined as a discrete area within a stream that exhibits unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover. Biological and physical characteristic data were collected from two sites on Big Cypress Bayou, and one site on both Black Cypress Bayou and Little Cypress Bayou. The upstream reach of Big Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346015 Big Cypress Bayou at confluence of French Creek, Jefferson, Texas) is hereinafter referred to as the Big Cypress 02 site. The downstream site on Big Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346017 Big Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) is hereinafter referred to as the Big Cypress 01 site and was sampled exclusively for mussels. The sites on Black Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346044 Black Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) and Little Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346071 Little Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) are hereinafter referred to as the Black Cypress and Little Cypress sites, respectively. A small range of streamflows was targeted for data collection, including a

  2. Pollution effects on stone benches of the Eagle Warriors Precinct at the Major Temple, Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During Major Temple archaeological site excavations in Downtown Mexico City, the precinct of one of the most important Mexica military caste, the Eagle Warriors, was discovered. The ceremonial enclosure is composed of three rooms surrounded by paintings on 11 stone benches placed against the walls. Nowadays, these paintings and the stones present the effects of different deterioration processes produced by the underground water level, high humidity, and the presence of soil, water, and air pollutants. Ion beam analysis of samples from the benches and wall paintings was performed using PIXE and RBS techniques. Using enrichment factors of elements relative to iron concentrations, possible contamination by sulfur and chlorine salts was found, as well as airborne zinc scavenged by rain

  3. Compliance Monitoring of Underwater Blasting for Rock Removal at Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project, 2009/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Skalski, J. R.; Seaburg, Adam

    2011-05-10

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) conducted the 20-year Columbia River Channel Improvement Project (CRCIP) to deepen the navigation channel between Portland, Oregon, and the Pacific Ocean to allow transit of fully loaded Panamax ships (100 ft wide, 600 to 700 ft long, and draft 45 to 50 ft). In the vicinity of Warrior Point, between river miles (RM) 87 and 88 near St. Helens, Oregon, the USACE conducted underwater blasting and dredging to remove 300,000 yd3 of a basalt rock formation to reach a depth of 44 ft in the Columbia River navigation channel. The purpose of this report is to document methods and results of the compliance monitoring study for the blasting project at Warrior Point in the Columbia River.

  4. Population development of the invader ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, in the Black Sea and in other seas of the Mediterranean basin

    OpenAIRE

    Shiganova, T.A.; Mirzoyan, Z.A.; Studenikina, E.A.; Volovik, S.P.; Siokou-Frangou, I.; S. ZERVOUDAKI; Christou, E. D.; Skirta, A.Y.; Dumont, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the last two decades of the twentieth century, the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz) has invaded the Black, Azov, Marmara and Aegean Seas, and, recently, the Caspian Sea. Here, we compare its spatial and temporal distribution, seasonal dynamics and the time and duration of reproduction. We also discuss factors that control its abundance throughout its invasive range and its effect on ecosystems. Observations are based on the long-term field data collected by three research institut...

  5. Screening for Infectious Diseases among Newly Arrived Migrants: Experiences and Practices in Non-EU Countries of the Mediterranean Basin and Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, Christian; Dente, Maria; Kärki, Tommi; Riccardo, Flavia; Rossi, Pasqualino; Declich, Silvia; Sea, Network For The Control Of Cross-border Health Threats In The Mediterranean Basin And Black

    2015-01-01

    Changing migration dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea and differences in infectious diseases (ID) burden between the countries of origin have raised questions whether public health actions are needed to avoid the transmission of ID. Screening newly arrived migrants for ID is one health monitoring option, offering opportunities for prevention, early detection and treatment. The authors conducted a survey among country experts in non-European Union countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea, i...

  6. Re-Examining Extreme Violence: Historical Reconstruction and Ethnic Consciousness in Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-rong Wu

    2014-01-01

    This article hinges on the ideological divide of extreme violence represented in 'Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale' with an aim to explore the cultural and political dimensions of the Wushe Incident. The first part of the article accounts for the historical setting of the film and the trope of beheading in the traditional Seediq culture. The second part discusses how Wei Te-sheng’s film sheds a new light on localized spectacles of decapitation and further tackles varied forms of violence ...

  7. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S1 x S2. We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  8. Distribution and migration of 90Sr in components of the Dnieper River basin and the Black Sea ecosystems after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change in 90Sr concentrations in hydrobionts, water and bottom sediments of the Chernobyl NPP pond-cooler, the Kievskoe and Kakhovskoe reservoirs, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident was studied. The environmental half-times for the decrease of 90Sr concentrations were determined: in water – 4.1–24.3 years; algae and flowering water plants – 3.6–7.7 years, in molluscs – 2.4–6.7 years, and in fish – 7.8–12.9 years. The time for 90Sr concentrations to decrease to pre-accident levels were estimated: in freshwater reservoirs and the northwest part of the Black Sea this was 32–44 years, and in freshwater hydrobionts this was 25–73 years. The contribution of dose from 90Sr to the hydrobionts, sampled from the Kakhovskoe reservoir, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea, has not reached values which could impact them during the entire post-accident period. This complex of comparative studies was carried out for the first time. -- Highlights: ► Regularities of change in 90Sr concentrations in the aquatic ecosystems were studied. ► Forecasts of time for 90Sr concentrations reduction to pre-accident levels were made. ► 90Sr CF values for hydrobionts did not depend on distance from the accident area. ► 90Sr is useful as a radiotracer for the chronological dating of the bottom sediments. ► Dose received by hydrobionts from 90Sr after accident period was determined

  9. Screening for Infectious Diseases among Newly Arrived Migrants: Experiences and Practices in Non-EU Countries of the Mediterranean Basin and Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Dente, Maria Grazia; Kärki, Tommi; Riccardo, Flavia; Rossi, Pasqualino; Declich, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Changing migration dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea and differences in infectious diseases (ID) burden between the countries of origin have raised questions whether public health actions are needed to avoid the transmission of ID. Screening newly arrived migrants for ID is one health monitoring option, offering opportunities for prevention, early detection and treatment. The authors conducted a survey among country experts in non-European Union countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea, in order to explore current ID screening practices and policies for newly arrived migrants. The association between the existence of guidelines and the proportion of refugees in the population was also estimated. Eighteen country experts responded (90%) out of the 20 invited. Eleven countries (61%) implemented screening programmes and six (38%) had national guidelines. Screening was performed most often for tuberculosis at the holding level. A higher proportion of refugees in the population was associated with the existence of guidelines for screening (p = 0.05). Fourteen experts (88%) considered screening among migrants useful. The results show that screening for ID in newly arrived migrants is relevant for non-EU countries of the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Common guidelines could be promoted focusing on both individual and public health benefits of screening programmes. PMID:26670237

  10. Se, As, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Pt, Au, Tl, Re traces in biogenic and abiogenic sulfides from Black Shales (Selwyn Basin, Yukon territories, Canada): A nuclear microprobe study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black shales can be an important source of rare metals such as Cu, Ag, As, Mo, Se, Tl, Cd, platinum group elements (PGE) and gold (Pasava et al., Econ. Geol. 91 (1996) 63). However, especially in the case of noble metals, carriers such as discrete minerals could not be identified. This nuclear microprobe study brings new data on the partition of rare metals in Fe-, Fe (Ni)-, Ni- (Fe)-, Ni- and Zn-sulfides from the Ni-Zn-Mo-PGE mineralized marin black shales (Selwyn Basin, Yukon Territories). Sulfides are present as mineralized vestimentiferan tube-worms which are pyritized. Fluid-mineral interaction led to transformation of these biogenic Fe-sulfides successively to Fe-Ni- and Ni-Fe-sulfides which is indicated by increasing Se contents. Ni-sulfides which are interstital to the tube worms represent remobilized material, they are richest in Se. Several tens to thousands ppm of Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo were located in the biomineralized and transformed tube worms. Antimony was located in Fe-Ni and Ni-, and Zn sulfides and Ag was present in Fe-Ni and Ni-Fe-sulfides. Pt and Au can also be related to submicron-sized inclusions in Fe-Ni sulfides. Hydrothermal fluids (at least 250 deg. C) precipitated silica around tube worms, intercalating submicron-sized sphalerites. Larger Zn-sulfides contain about 5000 ppm Cd and locally about 60 ppm In. Ba-rich K-feldspar contains Cl-rich Ag-Cd alloys

  11. Weed Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczynski, Sandy

    2007-01-01

    In these activities, middle school and high school students examine the threat of nonnative plant species to Hawaiian ecosystems. Students explore different viewpoints on alien plants and consider how beliefs and attitudes may affect others' decisions concerning nonnative plant species. Students also identify invasive plant characteristics and…

  12. Ice warriors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    2004-02-01

    Sitting under a glacier, SNSK's productive Svea North longwall mine is like no other. Situated on the Norwegian archipelago of Spitzbergen this is one of the Europe's two top producing coal mines and produced 2.7 mt of coal in 2003. A long tunnel has recently been built under the glacier with a conveyor system, to overcome problems of hauling coal along the ice road. The building of this tunnel is described in the article. The longwall mining operation and equipment used is described. 4 figs.

  13. 入侵生物金苹果螺在滇池流域的首次记录%A Record of the Invasive Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1819) at Black Dragon Spring, Dianchi Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽娜; Jonathan Davies; 陈小勇; 崔桂华; 杨君兴

    2007-01-01

    2004年10月,中国科学院昆明动物研究所首次发现金苹果螺(Pomacea canaliculata)入侵重要的水源保护区嵩明白邑黑龙潭.金苹果螺起源于中南美洲,在亚洲,它通过有意或无意的传播而逐渐扩散到菲律宾、越南、泰国、老挝、柬埔寨、马来西亚、印尼、巴布几内亚、韩国、日本和中国的南部.金苹果螺已成为水稻产区的最大害虫,给农业生产带来巨大的损失.为防止金苹果螺在云南扩散,目前已经实施了严格的预防、控制措施,同时开展了公众保护教育宣传活动.%The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1819) was first recorded at Black Dragon Spring, Dianchi Basin, Baiyi Township, Songming County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province, China, in October 2004. The water from the spring flows into the Songhuaba Reservoir, the major drinking water resource for Kunming City, and part of the Dianchi Lake basin. This is the first record of this invasive snail in the Dianchi Lake Basin. Pomacea canaliculata originates from Central and South America, and in Asia the snail has spread through deliberate and accidental introductions to the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Korea, Japan and South China. It has become a major pest in rice-growing areas, resulting in huge damage to crops. Strict prevention and control measures have to be implemented to prevent the spread of the snail in Yunnan, together with public awareness campaigns to inform the public of the dangers of this invasive snail.

  14. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  15. Biology of black bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802 fifty years after the introduction in a small drainage of the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO AZEVEDO ZOCCAL GARCIA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Garcia DAZ, Costa ADA, Leme GLA, Orsi ML. 2014. Biology of black bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802 fifty years after the introduction in a small drainage of the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Biodiversitas 15: 180-185. The dispersion of organisms by human actions has been the major source of changes in the natural distribution of species, making the introduction of non-native species a threat to biological diversity. Micropterus salmoides is a fish originating from North America, which was introduced in a lagoon in the Ecological Park of Fazenda Monte Alegre in southern Brazil over 50 years ago. The reproductive activity, weight-length relationship and relative condition factor were analyzed to evaluate the health parameters of the species. The result allows us to classify the reproductive activity of this population as moderate. It was found that the health condition patterns are identical to those theoretically expected. The occurrence of individuals downstream of the lagoon shows that the population has been presenting dispersion conditions to new environments, posing a threat to local biodiversity. Management measures, such as isolation or eradication of the population, are required to control the species within the studied site, and prevent its dispersion into natural watercourses.

  16. Modeling the impact of a hydropower reservoir on the habitat of a megaherbivore in the Black Volta Basin in Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manful, Desmond

    2010-05-01

    The Black Volta watershed is approximately 134 000 km2 in size at the gauge at Bamboi. It is part of the main 414 000 km2 Volta system. The Volta river was dammed at Akosombo in 1965 resulting in the largest man-made lake in the world, the Volta Lake. The Bui dam is a new 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the "hippo friendliness" of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the operating rules of the reservoir in the post-construction phase of the dam. A great deal of work has been done on the effects of stream flow changes on fish especially salmonids. Very little work however has

  17. A Bard’s eye view: Narrative mediation in Xena: Warrior Princess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Tigges

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present an analytical survey of various aspects of narrative mediation in the action-fantasy TV-series Xena: Warrior Princess, by discussing a number of structural, verbal as well as visual devices that justify the qualification of Xena as “art television”. What is particularly unique to this series is the manner in which Xena’s heroic exploits have reached the modern viewer, namely by means of the “scrolls” produced by Xena’s sidekick and bardic companion Gabrielle. Consecutive sections discuss and illustrate the role of Gabrielle as storyteller and narrative mediator, the function and presentation of her “scrolls”, the use of intertextual or remediating as well as regendering narration of familiar narratives from myth and history, and some of the narrative problems Gabrielle is made to encounter, such as writer’s block, writerly self-doubt and the power of the word taking over from “reality”.

  18. On the Women Image in The Woman Warrior-Based on the Theory of Lacan’s Symbolic Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Hua

    2016-01-01

    According to the theory of Lacan’s symbolic order, gender identity is determined by the culture that people live in. The culture is the chief determinant of women’s gender and their destiny. The Woman Warrior is the autobiographical novel of Maxine Hong Kingston, in which there are different women images who live in different cultures. The this paper focuses on ana-lyzing the tragic fate of“no name woman”who lives in traditional Chinese patriarchy culture and the hard experience of“I”who struggles between Chinese patriarchy culture and American feminism culture.

  19. Re-Examining Extreme Violence: Historical Reconstruction and Ethnic Consciousness in Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chia-rong

    2014-01-01

    This article hinges on the ideological divide of extreme violence represented in Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale with an aim to explore the cultural and political dimensions of the Wushe Incident. The first part of the article accounts for the historical setting of the film and the trope of beheading in the traditional Seediq culture. The second part discusses how Wei Te-sheng’s film sheds a new light on localized spectacles of decapitation and further tackles varied forms of violence ca...

  20. Proceedings of the Naval Postgraduate School and Office of Naval Research conference on Military Education for the 21st Century Warrior.

    OpenAIRE

    Palatas, Michael D.; Honegger, Barbara; Jones, Shelly A.; Daniel, Judy A.; Anderson, Craig

    1998-01-01

    Naval Postgraduate School, Office of Naval Research. Professional Military Education for the 21st Century Warrior. Conference Proceedings. 15 - 16 January 1998, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California. Reported by Shelly A Jones and Judy A. Daniel. Compiled by Barbara Honegger. Cover design by LT Craig Anderson. Edite by CDR Michael D. Palatas.

  1. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  2. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretic to increase urine flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other products, black tea is used for weight loss. In foods, ...

  3. MORPHOLOGY AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF DUSTFALL PARTICLES INSIDE EMPEROR QIN'S TERRA-COTTA WARRIORS AND HORSES MUSEUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tafeng Hu; Xuxiang Li; Jungang Dong; Bo Rong; Zhenxing Shen; Junji Gao; Shun-Cheng Lee; Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson

    2006-01-01

    Indoor dustfall samples were collected in Pit 1 and Pit 2 of Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses Museum in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China. The morphological and elemental analysis for long-term (>10 years) and short-term (~0.5 year) dustfall particles and lacquer pieces on the faces of partly assembled warriors were performed with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDX). The results showed that the majority of dustfall samples appeared to be composed of mineral dust particles, fly ash, and biological particles with different elemental compositions. Most of the mineral particles had irregular shapes with smooth edges. Small fioccules of calcium sulfate were more frequently observed in long-term dustfall samples than in short-term samples, implying a progressive chemical reaction between continuous dustfall particles and atmospheric sulfur dioxide. Crystals of calcium sulfate were also found near pits on both inner and outer surfaces of lacquer pieces, revealing an acid chemical reaction between sulfur dioxide and lacquer material as the cause of the formation of erosion pits and cracks on surface of lacquer pieces.

  4. Assessment of hydrologic conditions in potential coal-lease tracts in the Warrior coal field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Celso; Newton, John F.; Bingham, Roy H.

    1982-01-01

    Assessing the hydrology of potential Federal coal-lease tracts, because of their dissemination and limited data, requires some predictive capability. Four tracts assessed were located in the outcrop of three coal groups and of other relatively impermeable rocks in the Pottsville Formation. Physical settings of the tracts and most other areas in the Warrior coal field are similar. This results in similar ground-water and surface-water characteristics, in similar impacts resulting from surface coal mining, and in maximizing the transfer-ability of data. Assessments of the tracts reflected the small storage of water in underlying rocks and corresponding low yields to wells and to the base flow of streams. Ground water and surface water in undisturbed areas are generally of good quality. Some subbasins in the tracts have already been impacted by mining. Estimates of streamflow characteristics and the availability and quality of ground water in the tracts were made using available methodology , or assessments based on local and regional data. Estimates of the degree mineralization of surface-water were made using methodology developed from other coal hydrology work. Climatic, physiographic, hydrologic, and land-use data were analyzed by regressions to derive relations for assessing water quality in streams draining mined and unmined areas. In this approach, an equation was derived to estimate specific conductance. Additional equations, based on relations between specific conductance and other constituents, allow estimates of mine drainage indicators such as hardness, dissolved solids, and sulfate. Hydrologic assessments of the tracts, based on limited verification data, proved to be reasonably accurate. (USGS)

  5. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  6. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  7. Where’s BattleTech in MechWarrior Online? A Case Study in Game Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backe, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    MechWarrior Online (MWO) is a free-to-play combat simulation based on BattleTech, a tactical board game launched by FASA Corporation in 1984. MWO is only the latest of a long series of digital games based on the board game, yet both its commercial model and its dedicated online play set it apart...... from its predecessors. As with all online games, there is a lively discussion among players on both official and unofficial forums about the game, especially about the balancing of units. The most heavily contested issue is the upcoming first major expansion to the game, the Clan invasion. While this...... issues and created the most convincing interpretation of BattleTech rules to date. This is mostly due to PGI’s considerate interpolation of spatial and temporal measurements from BattleTech’s coarse granularity. The board game is played on a surface with hex squares of one inch in diameter, operating at...

  8. Are black holes totally black?

    CERN Document Server

    Grib, A A

    2014-01-01

    Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

  9. Scattering map for two black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Servio de Moura, A P; Moura, Alessandro P. S. de; Letelier, Patricio S.

    2000-01-01

    We study the motion of light in the gravitational field of two Schwarzschild black holes, making the approximation that they are far apart, so that the motion of light rays in the neighborhood of one black hole can be considered to be the result of the action of each black hole separately. Using this approximation, the dynamics is reduced to a 2-dimensional map, which we study both numerically and analytically. The map is found to be chaotic, with a fractal basin boundary separating the possible outcomes of the orbits (escape or falling into one of the black holes). In the limit of large separation distances, the basin boundary becomes a self-similar Cantor set, and we find that the box-counting dimension decays slowly with the separation distance, following a logarithmic decay law.

  10. Neutron activation analysis on source of raw material of terracotta warriors and horses in No.2 pit of Qin Shihuang's mausoleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32 trace element contents in each sample are measured by neutron activation analysis for the selected that 19 samples of terracotta warriors and horses from No.2 pit of Emperor Qin shihuang's Mausoleum, 20 samples clay nearby Qin's Mausoleum and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. The trend cluster analysis diagram is obtained after sorting the data. The results show that the samples from the No.2 pit of Emperor Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum have a close relationship with the clay samples from the neighborhood of the Mausoleum. Consequently, the source of raw materials of the terracotta warriors and horses may come from some places nearby the Mausoleum, the kiln sites may be also neighborhood of the Mausoleum. There is also a preliminary study on the relationship between the sealing earth of the Mausoleum, rammed earth and backfill of the No.2 pit and the clay from the nearby place

  11. Black market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way for states and subnational groups to acquire material, knowledge and equipment necessary to build a nuclear weapon or device are illegal transactions. These were singular in the past and did not cause the development of a nuclear black market. But all necessary components of a functioning black market exist. Therefore the further spread and extension of the use of nuclear power would enhance the threat of a nuclear black market, if the trade and use of specific nuclear material is not abandoned worldwide. (orig.)

  12. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  13. Black Sea desiccation during the Messinian Salinity Crisis: Fact or fiction?

    OpenAIRE

    Grothe, A.; Sangiorgi, F.; Mulders, Y.; Vasiliev, I.; Brinkhuis, H.; Stoica, M.; Krijgsman, W.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The late Miocene Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) was an extraordinary geologic event inthe Mediterranean Basin marked by massive salt accumulation and presumably basin desiccationas a consequence of the reduced water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean. The discoveryof a desiccation deposit in the Black Sea, the so-called Pebbly Breccia unit, was used to claimthat the Black Sea also became desiccated during the MSC. Erosional features interpretedfrom seismic profi les of the Black Sea margin, co...

  14. An analysis of interrelation between environment and socio-economic structure with special reference to water pollution in the Turkish Black Sea Basin : an integrated dynamic simulation modeling approach for water quality improvement policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ulger, Suleyman

    2004-01-01

    The Black Sea is recognized as one of regional seas, mostly damaged by human activities that inadequate and inappropriate planning has a significant role is destroying its biodiversity,habitats,fisheries,aesthetic and recreational value.Since long period,the Black Sea has been used for many purposes ranging from socioeconomic activities,as a transport route,and a place to dump solid/liquid waste.All of these uses have additional economic costs through their impacts on the environment.Largely ...

  15. Dede Korkut Hikâyelerinde Savaşçı Eğitimi Warrior Training In Dede Korkut Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfü Kerem BAŞAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When it is considered that Dede Korkut Stories are the fundamental element of Turkish literature because of including the informations on Turkish traditions, beliefs and life style; it can be said that the Book of Dede Korkut Stories is the unique source of Turkish Literature besides being the crossing point compositon from legend to folk narratives. It is because the life style of the Oguz Turks, told in the narratives, depends on the continuous struggle and movement, these struggles and movements take place on the plot of the these twelve stories. Oguz Turks struggled against not only nature but also enemy. So, being strong and a warrior are the factors in maintenance of their life style. The tough weather conditions, the continuous struggle againstother tribes around and dealing with hunting have primary effects onestablishing a warrior and fighter identity. Based on these struggles,Dede Korkut Stories have lots of scenes in which the future expectedwarrior hero is raised. It is because nomadic tribes, like Oguz Turks,based on powerful men, male child has great importance. It is why thechildren especially male ones had a special training on saving theirfamily members when they are refugee or when they have hard times instruggling against the other tribes. They have also trained on huntingand dealing with wild animals. In this study it is tried to define themessages of the stories related to the warrior training and the processof establishing a warrior character of Dede Korkut Stories`heroes. Dede Korkut Hikâyeleri, Türk edebiyatının temel taşlarından biri olması ve eski Türk gelenekleri, inanışları, hayat tarzı ile ilgili bilgiler sunması ve destandan halk hikâyesine geçiş döneminin en önemli eseri olması açısından eşsiz bir kaynaktır. Bu eserde yer alan on iki hikâyenin olay örgüsünde genel olarak birtakım mücadeleler yer almaktadır. Çünkü hikâyelerde anlatılan göçebe Oğuz Türklerinin hayat tarz

  16. Fischer Black

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes

    2013-01-01

    ReprintThis article was originally published by Wiley for the American Finance Association (Merton RC, Scholes MS. 1995. Fischer Black. J. Finance 50(5):1359–70). It is reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons © 1995. Reference formatting was updated to facilitate linking.

  17. Vinna Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honěk, J.; Franců, J.; Mikuláš, Radek; Pešek, J.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Tomanová-Petrová, P.

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 223-241 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  18. Improving Vocational Rehabilitation Access and Return to Work and Career Outcomes among African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War, and Vietnam War Era Veterans with Disabilities: A White Paper Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey L., Ed.: Johnson, Jean E., Ed.; Washington, Andre L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to present documents that discuss issues related to improving access to vocational rehabilitation services and return to work rates of African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War and Vietnam War Era veterans with disabilities. This monograph also includes a review of relevant literature on barriers to employment…

  19. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  20. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  1. The Black Sea one decade after the Bucharest Convention an overview of the international activities in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catastrophic degradation of the Black Sea in a period of four decade has been the major concern of the Black Sea countries and international communities since Bucharest Convention signed in 1992. The Black Sea Region has became a challenging international arena for political scientific and socio-economic activities. Intensive international programmes and establishment of governmental and Non Governmental Organizational structures of the 1990s including Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Black Sea Environmental Programme(BSEP), Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin, Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region Technical Cooperation Programme by the IAEA and establishment of the Black Sea Commission Permanent Secretariat are some of the major international efforts of the past decade that emphasizes the multi-nationality and large dimension of the Black Sea environmental management issues. The environmental degradation of the Black Sea is briefly reviewed based on the BSEP reports and data available for land based pollution sources. The environmental risk of marine vessel accidents are indicated and environmental safety concern is emphasized under the current conditions of intense energy transportation projects in the Black Sea and Caspian regions. The international policy actions, co-operation issues and scientific programmes of the past decade are overviewed with emphasis on the international achievements. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of continuation of the international commitments and sharing the political, scientific and socio-economic responsibility on the transboundary environmental pollution, rehabilitation and the safety issues of the Black Sea

  2. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  3. The “Sink” of the Danube River Basin: The Distal Danube Deep-Sea Fan

    OpenAIRE

    Lericolais, Gilles; Bourget, Julien; Jorry, Stephan; Irina POPESCU; Abreu, Victor; Jouannic, Gwenael; Bayon, Germain

    2012-01-01

    The Danube River Basin and the Black Sea represent a unique natural laboratory for studying source to sink and global change. We will address information on the “active sink” of the system, which represents the area of active deposition: sea level variation, sediment balance, and neotectonics. Also, we will discuss the evolution and quantification of climate, tectonics, and eustasy on the sedimentation in the western Black Sea basin, along both southern and northern margins, obtained from und...

  4. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies in the...

  5. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  6. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  7. Reaching soldiers with untreated substance use disorder: lessons learned in the development of a marketing campaign for the Warrior Check-Up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Thomas O; Walker, Denise D; Kaysen, Debra L; Roffman, Roger A; Mbilinyi, Lyungai; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-07-01

    The Warrior Check-Up, a confidential telephone-delivered intervention, is designed to reach active-duty soldiers with untreated substance-use disorder at a large U.S. military base. This paper describes the development and successful implementation of the study's marketing strategies at the recruitment period's midpoint (2010-2012). Qualitative analyses of focus groups (n = 26) and survey responses (n = 278) describe the process of campaign design. Measures of demographics, media exposure, post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression gathered from callers (n = 172) are used in quantitative analysis assessing the campaign's success in reaching this population. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed. Department of Defense provided study funding. PMID:23869462

  8. Reaching Soldiers with Untreated Substance Use Disorder: Lessons Learned in the Development of a Marketing Campaign for the Warrior Check-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Thomas O.; Walker, Denise D.; Kaysen, Debra L.; Roffman, Roger A.; Mbilinyi, Lyungai; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    The Warrior Check-Up, a confidential telephone-delivered intervention, is designed to reach active-duty soldiers with untreated substance-use disorder at a large US military base. This paper describes the development and successful implementation of the study’s marketing strategies at the recruitment period’s midpoint (2010–2012). Qualitative analyses of focus groups (n = 26) and survey responses (n = 278) describe the process of campaign design. Measures of demographics, media exposure, post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression gathered from callers (n = 172) are used in quantitative analysis assessing the campaign’s success in reaching this population. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed. Department of Defense provided study funding. PMID:23869462

  9. Chaotic dynamics of strings in charged black hole backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Pallab; Samantray, Prasant

    2016-01-01

    We study the motion of a string in the background of Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, in both AdS as well as asymptotically flat spacetimes. We describe the phase space of this dynamical system through largest Lyapunov exponent, Poincare sections and basins of attractions. We observe that string motion in these settings is particularly chaotic and comment on its characteristics.

  10. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  11. Decline of the Black Sea oxygen inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, Arthur; Stanev, Emil V.; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Murray, James W.; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2016-03-01

    We show that from 1955 to 2015, the inventory of oxygen in the Black Sea has decreased by 44 % and the basin-averaged oxygen penetration depth has decreased from 140 m in 1955 to 90 m in 2015, which is the shallowest annual value recorded during that period. The oxygenated Black Sea surface layer separates the world's largest reservoir of toxic hydrogen sulfide from the atmosphere. The threat of chemocline excursion events led to hot debates in the past decades arguing on the vertical stability of the Black Sea oxic/suboxic interface. In the 1970s and 1980s, when the Black Sea faced severe eutrophication, enhanced respiration rates reduced the thickness of the oxygenated layer. Re-increasing oxygen inventory in 1985-1995 supported arguments in favor of the stability of the oxic layer. Concomitant with a reduction of nutrient loads, it also supported the perception of a Black Sea recovering from eutrophication. More recently, atmospheric warming was shown to reduce the ventilation of the lower oxic layer by lowering cold intermediate layer (CIL) formation rates. The debate on the vertical migration of the oxic interface also addressed the natural spatial variability affecting Black Sea properties when expressed in terms of depth. Here we show that using isopycnal coordinates does not overcome the significant spatial variability of oxygen penetration depth. By considering this spatial variability, the analysis of a composite historical set of oxygen profiles evidenced a significant shoaling of the oxic layer, and showed that the transient "recovery" of the 1990s was mainly a result of increased CIL formation rates during that period. As both atmospheric warming and eutrophication are expected to increase in the near future, monitoring the dynamics of the Black Sea oxic layer is urgently required to assess the threat of further shoaling.

  12. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  13. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  14. Black Hole Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Strominger, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ``infinite statist...

  15. Phantom Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, C. J.; Zhang, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    The exact solutions of electrically charged phantom black holes with the cosmological constant are constructed. They are labelled by the mass, the electrical charge, the cosmological constant and the coupling constant between the phantom and the Maxwell field. It is found that the phantom has important consequences on the properties of black holes. In particular, the extremal charged phantom black holes can never be achieved and so the third law of thermodynamics for black holes still holds. ...

  16. Black Nuns as Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Theresa A.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the contributions of Black Roman Catholic nuns to Black education in the United States since the early 1800s. Also shows that, despite declining membership, the three existing religious orders continue to be active in Black education and social change. (GC)

  17. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions (Black Strings and Black Rings)

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    The last three years have again seen new exciting developments in the area of higher dimensional black objects. For black objects with noncompact higher dimensions, the solution space was exlored further within the blackfold approach and with numerical schemes, yielding a large variety of new families of solutions, while limiting procedures created so-called super-entropic black holes. Concerning compact extra dimensions, the sequences of static nonuniform black strings in five and six dimensions were extended to impressively large values of the nonuniformity parameter with extreme numerical precision, showing that an oscillating pattern arises for the mass, the area or the temperature, while approaching the conjectured double-cone merger solution. Besides the presentation of interesting new types of higherdimensional solutions, also their physical properties were addressed in this session. While the main focus was on Einstein gravity, a significant number of talks also covered Lovelock theories.

  18. Hard Bigotry, Low Expectations and Soft Support: Educating American African Boys in the United States with the Warrior Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winbush, Raymond A.

    2013-01-01

    Educating American Africans boys has been a mixture of political rhetoric, educational pedagogy, and historical neglect. Although American African educators have produced several models for effectively educating Black boys, most of them are dismissed as too "radical" by White researchers who have little understanding or experience in…

  19. Dissolved black carbon in Antarctic lakes: Chemical signatures of past and present sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Alia L.; Jaffé, Rudolf; Ding, Yan; McKnight, Diane M.

    2016-06-01

    The perennially ice-covered, closed-basin lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, serve as sentinels for understanding the fate of dissolved black carbon from glacial sources in aquatic ecosystems. Here we show that dissolved black carbon can persist in freshwater and saline surface waters for thousands of years, while preserving the chemical signature of the original source materials. The ancient brines of the lake bottom waters have retained dissolved black carbon with a woody chemical signature, representing long-range transport of black carbon from wildfires. In contrast, the surface waters are enriched in contemporary black carbon from fossil fuel combustion. Comparison of samples collected 25 years apart from the same lake suggests that the enrichment in anthropogenic black carbon is recent. Differences in the chemical composition of dissolved black carbon among the lakes are likely due to biogeochemical processing such as photochemical degradation and sorption on metal oxides.

  20. Effect of different absorbing materials on the performance of basin solar still under Libyan climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experimental study deals with a single-basin solar still using various absorbing materials with and without black painting. Different types of absorbing materials with and without black painting were used to enhance the solar still productivity through improvement in absorptivity. These materials are steel and aluminum with and without black painting and rubber. Two identical solar stills were manufactured using locally available materials. All the results were compared together to reach the best absorbing materials with and without painting that can be used for solar still. it was found that the rubber absorber has the highest water collection during daytime, followed by the black painted steel absorber, then by black painted aluminum absorber and steel without painting absorber. The average enhancement in the daily productivity was about 50% for the rubber absorber compared with the black painted aluminum absorber and about 43% for the rubber absorber compared with the black painted steel absorber.(author)

  1. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics. (paper)

  2. Black Hole Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  3. Black Flowers in Flatland

    CERN Document Server

    Alkac, Gokhan; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Asymptotically flat black holes in $2+1$ dimensions are a rarity. We study the recently found black flower solutions (asymptotically flat black holes with deformed horizons), static black holes, rotating black holes and the dynamical black flowers (black holes with radiative gravitons ) of the purely quadratic version of new massive gravity. We show how they appear in this theory and we also show that they are also solutions to the infinite order extended version of the new massive gravity, that is the Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity with an amputated Einsteinian piece. The same metrics also solve the topologically extended versions of these theories, with modified conserved charges and the thermodynamical quantities, such as the Wald entropy. Besides these we find new conformally flat radiating type solutions to these extended gravity models. We also show that these metrics do not arise in Einstein's gravity coupled to physical perfect fluids.

  4. Real Warriors Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... processes of building resilience, facilitating recovery and supporting reintegration of returning service members, veterans and their families. >> Read More Popular Topics reintegration resources relationships coping with stress combat stress resilience ...

  5. Behavior: Warriors Shaking Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Sonja E

    2016-08-22

    A basic precondition of social life is that conflicts must be resolved when you need each other. A new study shows that men affiliate more after one-on-one conflicts than women. This reflects the deep evolutionary history of male bonding. PMID:27554654

  6. Acoustic Investigations of Gas and Gas Hydrate Formations, Offshore Southwestern Black Sea*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, H. M.; Dondurur, D.; Ozel, O.; Atgin, O.; Sinayuc, C.; Merey, S.; Parlaktuna, M.; Cifci, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Black Sea is a large intercontinental back-arc basin with relatively high sedimentation rate. The basin was formed as two different sub-basins divided by Mid-Black Sea Ridge. The ridge is completely buried today and the Black Sea became a single basin in the early Miocene that is currently anoxic. Recent acoustic investigations in the Black Sea indicate potential for gas hydrate formation and gas venting. A total of 2500 km multichannel seismic, Chirp sub-bottom profiler and multibeam bathymetry data were collected during three different expeditions in 2010 and 2012 along the southwestern margin of the Black Sea. Box core sediment samples were collected for gas cromatography analysis. Wide spread BSRs and multiple BSRs are observed in the seismic profiles and may be categorized into two different types: cross-cutting BSRs (transecting sedimentary strata) and amplitude BSRs (enhanced reflections). Both types mimic the seabed reflection with polarity reversal. Some undulations of the BSR are observed along seismic profiles probably caused by local pressure and/or temperature changes. Shallow gas sources and chimney vents are clearly indicated by bright reflection anomalies in the seismic data. Gas cromatography results indicate the presence of methane and various components of heavy hydrocarbons, including Hexane. These observations suggest that the gas forming hydrate in the southwestern Black Sea may originate from deeper thermogenic hydrocarbon sources. * This study is supported by 2214-A programme of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK).

  7. Early Mesozoic history of the Black-Sea - Caucasus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmin, V.G. (Institute of Oceanology, Moscow (USSR))

    1988-08-01

    Marginal basins with ocean crust existed in the Black Sea area in Triassic time behind a volcanic arc built on top of the Hercynian basement of Pontides. The eastern extension of the arc was in the fore-Caucasus. Triassic sediments and volcanics, formed in forearc basins, can be traced from the southern slope of the Great Caucasus (Svanetia) to the Karakaya belt of Turkey. These sediments were deformed at the end of the Triassic when terranes derived from Gondwana collided with the active margin of Paleotethys. In Svanetia a succession of middle Paleozoic clastics (the Dizi series) deposited at the base of the north-facing continental slope, presumably on the passive margin of Gondwana. The Dizi series is either an independent terrane or forms a western extension of Iran, which collided with Eurasia at the same time. Displacement of the subduction zone to the south of the accreted terranes was accompanied by a major episode of extension on the active margin in Early Jurassic time; the marginal sea of the Great Caucasus and the intra-Pontide basin in Turkey were opened. In the late Middle Jurassic, Pontides collided with Crimea, closing the Triassic proto-Black Sea. Immediately after collision, continental rifting commenced, once again separating Pontides from Eurasia and manifesting the birth of the Black Sea basin. Oceanic crust began to grow in the latter in Senonian time.

  8. Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Spaans, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.

  9. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  10. Zooplankton of the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean: Similarities and dissimilarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. KOVALEV

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of data on abundance and biomass of zooplankton in the Eastern Mediterranean (EMED and the Black Sea shows major differences in the composition and structure of pelagic communities in the two basins. Few Mediterranean planktonic animals have invaded and acclimatised in the Black Sea. The great bulk of Black Sea species is represented by coastal inhabitants that spread throughout the whole basin. This process has been called “neritization” of the Black Sea fauna. Peculiarities in zooplankton assemblages of the Black Sea have been further strengthened over the last few decades due to increasing eutrophication and the massive invasion of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. The relative contribution of copepods, cladocerans, chaetognaths, and appendicularians to total zooplankton biomass has notably decreased , whereas gelatinous groups (mainly represented by Mnemiopsis and Aurelia aurita contributed up to 99% of total wet weight in 1995 in the Black Sea.The basic features of planktonic fauna in the Black Sea are mainly due do the geo-morphological characters of the basin and the limited exchanges with the EMED, that are confined to the surface-subsurface layers in the Dardanelles and Bosphorus Straits. However, the dramatic changes that recently occurred in the structure of zooplankton assemblages seem to have been caused by heavy anthropogenic impact on the pelagic system.

  11. Cosmic Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Eun-Joo; Cavaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Production of high-energy gravitational objects is a common feature of gravitational theories. The primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other nonperturbative gravitational entities. Cosmic black holes can be used to probe physical properties of the very early universe which would usually require the knowledge of the theory of quantum gravity. They may be the only tool to explore thermalisation of the early universe. Whereas the creation of cosmic black ...

  12. The New Black

    OpenAIRE

    Lettman-Hicks, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The New Black is a documentary that tells the story of how the African American community is grappling with the gay rights issue in light of the recent gay marriage movement and the fight over Civil Rights. The film documents activities, families and clergy on both sides of the campaign to legalize gay marriage and examines homophobia in the Black community's institutional pillar, the Black church, and reveals the Christian right wing's strategy of exploiting this phenomenon in order to pursu...

  13. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298

  14. Kerr black string flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We give a general illumination of a rotating black string falling into a rotating horizon in dimension D=5. It is a configuration of one smooth intersection between these two objects when the spacetime is axisymmetric and in the limit that the thickness of the black hole is much larger than the thickness of the black string. Following this configuration, we further extend them to the rotating and charged flows.

  15. Ten shades of black

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    The holographic principle has taught us that, as far as their entropy content is concerned, black holes in $(3+1)$-dimensional curved spacetimes behave as ordinary thermodynamic systems in flat $(2+1)$-dimensional spacetimes. In this essay we point out that the opposite behavior can also be observed in black-hole physics. To show this we study the quantum Hawking evaporation of near-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. We first point out that the black-hole radiation spectrum departs from the familiar radiation spectrum of genuine $(3+1)$-dimensional perfect black-body emitters. In particular, the would be black-body thermal spectrum is distorted by the curvature potential which surrounds the black hole and effectively blocks the emission of low-energy quanta. Taking into account the energy-dependent gray-body factors which quantify the imprint of passage of the emitted radiation quanta through the black-hole curvature potential, we reveal that the $(3+1)$-dimensional black holes effectively behave as p...

  16. Evidence for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2003-06-20

    Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity. PMID:12817138

  17. Black hole statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather, they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ''infinite statistics'' which resembles that of distinguishable particles and is realized by a q deformation of the quantum commutation relations

  18. Antigravity and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, D

    2006-01-01

    We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in quantization of gravity.

  19. Deforming regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, J C S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have deformed regular black holes which possess a general mass term described by a function which generalizes the Bardeen and Hayward mass terms. Using linear constraints in the energy-momentum tensor, the solutions are either regular or singular. That is, with this approach, it is possible to generate singular black holes from regular black holes and vice versa. Moreover, contrary to the Bardeen and Hayward regular solutions, the regular deformed metrics may violate the weak energy condition despite the presence of the spherical symmetry. Some comments on accretion of deformed black holes in cosmological scenarios are made.

  20. Black stain - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarise the fundamentals about black stain, its diagnosis and possible differential diagnoses as well as its microbiology and therapy. In addition, various studies investigating the relationship between black stain and dental caries are examined. Many studies report lower caries prevalence in children with black stain, but this finding could not be confirmed by all authors. Also, a negative relation between degree of staining and caries severity has been described. Reasons for these results are not yet clear but it was speculated that they are related to the specific oral microflora described in black stain-affected individuals. PMID:21594205

  1. "Black Capitalism": Toward Controlled Development of Black America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert E.

    1969-01-01

    Argues in favor of the connotation of the term "Black capitalism as the accumulation of capital resources by the Black people in a collective fashion for the benefit of the masses of Black people. (RJ)

  2. Black holes and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for instance, the UK

  3. Rotating Brane World Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Modgil, Moninder Singh; Panda, Sukanta; Sengupta, Gautam

    2001-01-01

    A five dimensional rotating black string in a Randall-Sundrum brane world is considered. The black string intercepts the three brane in a four dimensional rotating black hole. The geodesic equations and the asymptotics in this background are discussed.

  4. “The Woman Warrior versus The Chinaman Pacific: Must a Chinese American Critic Choose between Feminism and Heroism?” Conflicts in Feminism. Ed. Marianne Hirsch and Evelyn Fox Keller. New York: Routledge, 1990. 234-251

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, KK

    1991-01-01

    The chapter examines the tension between white feminism and ethnic feminism as well as between men and women in Asian American literary circles. Specifically it addresses Frank Chin’s attack on Maxine Hong Kingston over her depiction of Chinese sexism in The Woman Warrior and my own position as a literary critic torn between cultural nationalism and feminism. Using the opening of Kingston’s “China Men” as my point of departure, I urge Asian American men who feel “emasculated” by white culture...

  5. Petroleum systems modelling of the Muensterland Basin and Ruhr Basin with special emphasis on unconventional gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uffmann, A.K.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal

    2013-08-01

    A 3D petroleum system model was built for the area of the northern Rhenish Massif and Muensterland/Ruhr Basin in order to reconstruct burial and temperature histories as well as petroleum generation and storage. The basin contains numerous potential unconventional gas reservoirs, i.e. more than 100 Pennsylvanian (Westphalian and upper Namurian) coal seams and several black shales of Pennsylvanian and Mississippian age. The focus here is on the Upper Alum Sahle ('Hangende Alaunschiefer') representing the uppermost Mississippian.

  6. Evolution of massive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Volonteri, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I'll discuss black hole formation processes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and how massive black hole evolve in a hierarchical Universe...

  7. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N.; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface ...

  8. Training for Environmental Risks in the Black Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.V. Panaitescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Potential Emergency Situations Simulator (PESS for Constantza Maritime University (CMU should provide training and practicing of the students or course attendants in choosing the best strategies in a given emergency situation, which is an informational high entropy, multi-tasking, fast changing environment. The simulator is used for the realistic modeling of a crisis situation and it is useful for both marine officers and emergency situation officials. The simulator will be used as an educational instrument enabling the interactive study of the different emergency situations. It has the aim of training students to efficiently react to emergency situations such as a leak from a ship/chemical plant, fire, poisonous gas emissions, or any other situations that could show a potential danger. The trainee must be provided with realistic information and the response of the model on the actions of the trainee must be in accordance with the real conditions and scientific based. It must be possible to accelerate the simulation speed without loss of information or functionalities. The input of the external weather conditions is a must, as well as the trainee-oriented graphic interface. It must be possible to change the chemical and physical properties and characteristics of the different polluting agents. The simulator is also used to evaluate the best strategies to be followed in an ongoing crisis. In order to fulfill this aim, the simulation must have the capability to receive data from various sensors, transducers and servers. The courses are designed to accommodate up to six course participants. Each course includes course material such as course manuals and other documents. The courses include hands-on experience with simulator operations and maintenance. To help the start up of the simulated emergency situations training at Constantza Maritime University, we have made a manual which includes some well-designed exercises with scenarios, initial conditions and relevant documentation. The exercise documentation includes the exercise objectives, exercise guidance, instructor guidance, expected results and all other information to make the exercise successful for an inexperienced instructor.

  9. Carbon black recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process and apparatus for recovering carbon black from hot smoke which comprises passing the smoke through a cyclone separation zone following cooling, then through aggregate filter beds and regeneration of filter beds with clean off-gas which is recycled to the carbon black reaction zone as quench

  10. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t - r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  11. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Mehdipour, S.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t — r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  12. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  13. Black holes in inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.

    1997-08-01

    We summarise recent work on the quantum production of black holes in the inflationary era. We describe, in simple terms, the Euclidean approach used, and the results obtained both for the pair creation rate and for the evolution of the black holes.

  14. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  15. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  16. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  17. Late Miocene evolution of the Black Sea: insights from palynology and strontium isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Arjen; van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Stoica, Marius; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    During the late Miocene, the connection(s) between the Mediterranean Basin and the Atlantic Ocean deteriorated, which ultimately culminated in thick evaporite deposits and a water level drop in the Mediterranean Basin during the so-called Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97 - 5.33 Ma). It has been claimed that Black Sea, in response to the MSC, also desiccated but these claims have been proven incorrectly. Here we present palynological (dinoflagellate cysts and pollen) and strontium isotope ratios from two Black Sea records: the Zheleznyi Rog outcrop section and Deep Sea Drilling Project Hole 380A. Organic walled cyst-producing dinoflagellates are highly sensitive to even small changes in surface waters and strontium isotope ratios are excellent recorders of changing connectivity. Our records provide therefore more insights in the sensitivity of the Black Sea to Messinian Salinity Crisis and the general evolution of the late Miocene Black Sea.

  18. Black Sea Energy Security - Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We chose this theme to highlight the need for continuous and sustained human society to secure energy resources needed to survive, needs reflected in an increasingly in recent years in the strategies adopted at both states, as at the level of international organizations. Achieving security and stability in the wider Black Sea area has been among the priorities of each country's interests in this region. In this context, state and non-state actors were being called to come up with new solutions to achieve those interests. Certainly not in all cases the negotiations were completed or not yet found a generally accepted formula for others to apply, but most of them show off their values. The main environmental threats to security environment in the Black Sea region are represented by ethnic conflicts and territorial secessionism. A significant contribution to the security environment of the Black Sea region has the phenomenon of globalization, which in this region is manifested by a steady increase in traffic and volume of shipping passage of communication, which largely affects the security in the region. Globalization and the need for energy resources in the Black Sea was an important area not only as energy transport route, but as a potential supplier of material energy (oil and natural gas. Black Sea Basin can be stabilized and secured only by the will and input from all States and interested international organizations in pragmatic and effective institutional frameworks, meant to promote and protect the common interests of countries decided to participate in actions aimed at ensuring a stable environment security.

  19. Fluctuating Black Hole Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.

  20. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  1. Degassing of the Black Sea bottom: significance for geological exploration, ecology and navigation

    OpenAIRE

    ШНЮКОВ Е.Ф.; Янко, В. В.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a review of modern ideas about degassing (mainly methane) from the bottom of the Black Sea. The main goal is to describe methane emissions on the sea bottom, to delineate their spatial distribution, and to provide insight into their possible origin as well as their influence on ecosystems and navigation. It is shown that the Black Sea is the largest meromictic basin, waters of which are enriched with methane. As such, the basin holds great promise for new energy sourc...

  2. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  3. K Basin safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-12-16

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall.

  4. Geology, geochemistry and petrophysics of the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.B.; Hemmesch, N.T.; Mnich, C.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Aoudia, K.; Miskimins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Sequence stratigraphic analysis can be done on black shales, however it requires an integrated multidisciplinary approach. Sea-level cycles are expressed even in the middle of a shale basin and are expressed in lithofacies, mineralogy, geochemistry and well logs. The cycles are important for shale gas, impacting gas generation, storage and fracture development. Geology, geochemistry and petrophysics of the Woodford Shale, located in the Permian Basin of west Texas were discussed in this presentation. Specifically, the presentation discussed the stratigraphy in a black shale, motivation for rock properties research, and factor analysis results. It was concluded that cycles affect gas generation capacity and rock properties. tabs., figs.

  5. European Union's energy diplomacy in the wider Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Dudau, Radu; Lenes, Leonela

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses the strategic importance that the Caspian Basin hydrocarbons (especially natural gas) have to the EU's energy security, against the background of EU's increasing dependence on gas imports from the Russian Federation. The political engagement of various political actors of the EU (the European Commission, but also Member States and international energy majors) is analyzed with respect to the advancement of the competing transport projects transiting the Wider Black ...

  6. Black Youth Unemployment and the Black Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Linus A.

    This paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted to ascertain the attitudes of 400 employers, youth, and academic/community professionals in Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D.C., toward an approach to Black youth unemployment centered on the creation of jobs and training among minority businesses in selected metropolitan areas. Minority…

  7. The Black Family in American Economy: Black Capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeocha, Peter A.

    Black capitalism that is well planned and run is a source of enumerable benefits to the American society in general and to blacks in particular. It generates opportunities for blacks to perform in occupations which for many years were closed to them. For hundreds of years blacks have been despised and often looked down upon on account of the fact…

  8. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  9. Wada basin boundaries and basin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, H.E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In dynamical systems examples are common in which two or more attractors coexist, and in such cases the basin boundary is nonempty. We consider a two-dimensional diffeomorphism F (that is, F is an invertible map and both F and its inverse are differentiable with continuous derivatives), which has at

  10. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  11. Reserves in western basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W. [Scotia Group, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  12. Noncommutative Solitonic Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Chang-Young, Ee; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2012-01-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field using the Moyal product expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in the two noncommutative spatial directions. By numerical simulation we look for black hole solutions by increasing the non- commutativity parameter value starting from regular solutions with vanishing noncommutativity. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.

  13. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  14. Reflection from black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchiev, M Yu

    2003-01-01

    Black holes are presumed to have an ideal ability to absorb and keep matter. Whatever comes close to the event horizon, a boundary separating the inside region of a black hole from the outside world, inevitably goes in and remains inside forever. This work shows, however, that quantum corrections make possible a surprising process, reflection: a particle can bounce back from the event horizon. For low energy particles this process is efficient, black holes behave not as holes, but as mirrors, which changes our perception of their physical nature. Possible ways for observations of the reflection and its relation to the Hawking radiation process are outlined.

  15. Scalarized hairy black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn

  16. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  17. Scalarized Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  18. On Noncommutative Black Holes Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Faizal, Mir; Ulhoa, S C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze noncommutative deformation of the Schwarzschild black holes and Kerr black holes. We will perform our analysis by relating the commutative and the noncommutative metrics using an Moyal product. We will also analyze the thermodynamics of these noncommutative black hole solutions. We will explicitly derive expression for the corrected entropy and temperature of these black hole solutions.

  19. The Thermodynamics of Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wald Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.

  20. The Price of "Black Dominance."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of stereotyping black males as athletes, noting that over-identification with athletes and the world of physical performance limits black children's development by discouraging academic achievement. Examines the negative influence of mass media focus on black athletes, rappers, and stylized ghetto blackness. Discusses…

  1. The Thermodynamics of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Wald Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.

  2. Black Writers' Views of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Joyce

    1979-01-01

    Black literature of the 1960s reflected protest and an affirmation of Black power and Black consciousness. The 1970s have produced a counterwave in which Blacks, in order to achieve literary and financial recognition, have begun to focus less on race and social criticism and more on conservative and narcissistic themes. (Author/EB)

  3. Basin Hopping Graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...... basins when the direct transitions between them are “energetically favorable”. Edge weights endcode the corresponding saddle heights and thus measure the difficulties of these favorable transitions. BHGs can be approximated accurately and efficiently for RNA molecules well beyond the length range...

  4. Topics in black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two major aspects of particle creation by gravitational fields of black holes are studied: the neutrino emission from rotating black holes; and interactions between scalar particles emitted by a black hole. Neutrino emission is investigated under three topics: The asymmetry of the angular dependence of neutrino emission from rotating black holes; the production of a local matter excess by rotating black holes in a baryon symmetric universe; and cosmological magnetic field generation by neutrinos from evaporating black holes. Finally the author studies the effects of interactions on the black hole evaporation process

  5. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In four space-time dimensions black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory satisfy a number of theorems. In more than four space-time dimensions, however, some of the properties of black holes can change. In particular, uniqueness of black holes no longer holds. In five and more dimensions black rings arise. Thus in a certain region of the phase diagram there are three black objects with the same global charges present. Here we discuss properties of higher-dimensional vacuum and charged black holes, which possess a spherical horizon topology, and of vacuum and charged black rings, which have a ringlike horizon topology

  6. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  7. Black Widow Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dling boxes, firewood, lumber, and rocks, etc. The black widow is commonly found in the following places: • Outdoors - woodpiles, rubble piles, under stones, in hol- low stumps, and in rodent burrows, privies, sheds ...

  8. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m3, which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  9. Black Friday = Broget Branding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Black Friday er et godt eksempel på, hvordan ikke kun produktbrands og corporate brands rejser på tværs af landegrænser, men også traditioner som Halloween, Valentines Day og i dette tilfælde den ultimative tilbuds-fredag, som i USA går under navnet Black Friday. Men hvad er Black Friday i Danmark......? Essensen ved Black Friday er lave priser, og det er der ved første øjekast ikke mange brandingmuligheder forbundet ved, hvis man forstår branding som en måde at skabe ekstra værdi omkring sit produkt eller sin virksomhed. Som brand bliver man dog alligevel nødt til at forholde sig til konceptet, da det er...

  10. Black holes in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review we shall concentrate on the application of the concept of black hole to different areas in astrophysics. Models in which this idea is involved are connected with basically two areas in astrophysics: a) The death of massive stars due to gravitational collapse. This process would lead to the formation of black holes with stellar masses (10-20 M sun). The detection of these kind of - objects is in principle possible, by means of studying the so-called X-ray binary system. b) Active nuclei of galaxies, including quasars as an extreme case. In this case, the best model available to explain the generation of the enormous amounts of energy observed as well as several other properties, is accretion into a supermassive black hole (106-1010 M sun) in the center. The problem of the origin of such black holes is related to cosmology. (author)

  11. Messinian event in the black sea: Evidence of a Messinian erosional surface

    OpenAIRE

    GILLET, Hervé; Lericolais, Gilles; Réhault, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In 1975, sediment cores from leg DSDP 42b (sites 380A and 381) revealed a thin sediment layer in the Black Sea basin which points to a shallow water environment at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. With these facts and in the wake of hypothesis of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), it was proposed that the Black Sea, like the Mediterranean Sea, suffered a desiccation period at the end of the Messinian (Hsü, K.J. and Giovanoli, F., 1979. Messinian event in the Black Sea. Palaeogeography, Palaeo...

  12. Cosmic censorship inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Thorlacius, L

    2006-01-01

    A simple argument is given that a traversable Cauchy horizon inside a black hole is incompatible with unitary black hole evolution. The argument assumes the validity of black hole complementarity and applies to a generic black hole carrying angular momentum and/or charge. In the second part of the paper we review recent work on the semiclassical geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes.

  13. Quantum Black Holes as Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.

    1997-01-01

    In some respects the black hole plays the same role in gravitation that the atom played in the nascent quantum mechanics. This analogy suggests that black hole mass $M$ might have a discrete spectrum. I review the physical arguments for the expectation that black hole horizon area eigenvalues are uniformly spaced, or equivalently, that the spacing between stationary black hole mass levels behaves like 1/M. This sort of spectrum has also emerged in a variety of formal approaches to black hole ...

  14. Cosmological Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Stornaiolo, Cosimo

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model for the formation of the cosmological voids. We show that cosmological voids can form directly after the collapse of extremely large wavelength perturbations into low-density black holes or cosmological black holes (CBH). Consequently the voids are formed by the comoving expansion of the matter that surrounds the collapsed perturbation. It follows that the universe evolves, in first approximation, according to the Einstein-Straus cosmological model. We discuss...

  15. Quantum black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No particle theory can be complete without gravity. Einstein's theory of gravity is of the Euler-Lagrange form, but standard quantization procedure fails. In quantum gravity the higher order interactions have a dimensionality different form the fundamental ones, because Newton's constant G has dimensions and the renormalization procedure fails. Another problem with quantum gravity is even more mysterious. Suppose that we had regularized the gravitational forces at the small distance end in the way that the weak intermediate vector boson regularized the fundamental 4-fermion interaction vertex of the weak interactions. Then what we discover is that the gravitational forces are unstable. Given sufficiently large amount of matter, it can collapse under its own weight. Classical general relativity tells us what will happen: a black hole is formed. But how is this formulated in quantum theory. S. Hawking observed that when a field theory is quantized in the background metric of a black hole, the black hole actually emits particles in a completely random thermal way. Apparently black holes are just another form of matter unstable against Hawking decay. Unfortunately this picture cannot be complete. The problem is that the quantum version of black holes has infinite phase space, and other symptoms of a run-away solution. Black holes are the heaviest and most compact forms of matter that can be imagined. A complete particle theory can have nothing but a spectrum of black-hole like objects at it high-energy end. This is why it is believed that a resolution of the black hole problem will in time disclose the complete small-distance structure of our world. 6 references

  16. Thermal corpuscular black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number $N$ of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy $\\omega>m$). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temp...

  17. Black hairy tongue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although ...

  18. The influence of Black Sea Water inflow and its synoptic time-scale variability in the North Aegean Sea hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavropoulou, Apostolia-Maria; Mantziafou, Anneta; Jarosz, Ewa; Sofianos, Sarantis

    2016-02-01

    The exchange water fluxes between the Black Sea and the North Aegean Sea through the Dardanelles Strait constitute an essential factor for the general circulation of the region. The Black Sea Water (BSW) inflow to the Aegean plays an important role in the hydrography and circulation of the basin and can affect the North Aegean deep water formation processes. Numerical experiments evaluating the influence of the time-scale variability (synoptic and seasonal) and the seasonality (period of maximum/minimum) of the Black Sea Water inflow on the dynamics of the North Aegean basin were performed. The experiments were carried out for the period from August 2008 to October 2009, using observed upper and lower-layer fluxes from the Dardanelles Strait, high-resolution atmospheric forcing, and boundary conditions derived from an operational system (ALERMO). The large-scale spatial patterns of the circulation and the seasonal variability of the North Aegean circulation show that dynamics of the basin can effectively absorb most of the Black Sea Water inflow variability. The overall cyclonic circulation of the North Aegean Sea and the predominant cyclonic and anti-cyclonic features are robust and are little affected by the different lateral fluxes. However, differences in the seasonality of the BSW inflow have an important impact in the North Aegean water column structure, while the synoptic variability observed in the Black Sea Water inflow affects the kinetic energy of the basin and the pathway of the Black Sea Water plume.

  19. Early Mesozoic basin aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Early Mesozoic basin aquifers in the states of Massachusettes, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland,...

  20. Mitigation : Closed Basin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The upcoming meeting on waterfowl mitigation for the Closed Basin Project will have several people talk about possible changes to the waterfowl mitigation program....

  1. Tulare Basin protection plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tulare Basin Protection Plan has been initiated by The Nature Conservancy to elucidate the problems and opportunities of natural diversity protection....

  2. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  3. Charged Galileon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  4. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steven L Liebling

    2000-10-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  5. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  6. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  7. The Ebro river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria

    2011-01-01

    River basins worldwide are under pressure from economic activities. In Europe, the two main factors hindering the achievement of good chemical and ecological status of European river basins are pollution, mainly coming from agriculture, and hydromorphology (e.g. for navigation, hydroelectricity and flood control). The economic activities affect the chemical and ecological status of rivers, lakes and groundwater and deplete available soil, sediments and water resources. The w...

  8. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  9. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are transcontinental migration routes of wild birds from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting of many migratory bird species with a very high level of ...

  10. Virtual black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1996-03-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foamlike structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the nontrivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S2×S2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S2×S2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix S/ that does not factorize into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the θ angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The picture of virtual black holes given here also suggests that macroscopic black holes will evaporate down to the Planck size and then disappear in the sea of virtual black holes.

  11. Charged Galileon black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...

  12. Present state and perspectives of black coal mining development in Poland until the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaskowski, A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper evaluates black coal reserves in Poland in three basins. Upper Silesia, Lower Silesia and the Lublin basin. Minable coal reserves in the Upper and Lower Silesian basins up to a depth of 1000 m in operating coal mines and mines being constructed amount to 28,000 megatons (Mt). Minable coal reserves at a depth from 1000 to 1500 m in the two basins amount to 15,000 Mt. Minable coal reserves in new mining areas amount to 30,000 Mt (of this 21,000 Mt are reserves up to a depth not exceeding 1000 m). Minable coal reserves of the Lublin basin amount to 7,000 Mt. Total minable black coal reserves amount to 80,000 Mt. Coal losses in Polish coal mining are high. For 1 t of mined coal 2.5 t are lost (considering only minable reserves). The drastic decrease in coal output in 1981 is analyzed. The decrease was caused by reduction of the average working time of a miner from 356 days per year to 255 days per year. According to the most conservative forecast coal output will increase to 200 Mt in 1995 and to 210 Mt in the year 2000. According to the most optimistic forecast coal output will increase to 200 Mt in 1990 and to 240 Mt in the year 2000. Investment in black coal mines in Poland is also discussed.

  13. New tool for the Black Sea environmental safety: BlackSea Track Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubryakov, A. I.; Korotayev, G. K.; Thoorens, F.-X.; Liungman, O.; Ambjorn, C.

    2012-04-01

    Huge increases in the volume of oil being transported across the Black Sea have greatly increased the risk of oil pollution. Remote sensing data show that the majority of oil spills occur along major shipping routes, suggesting that shipping, rather than land-based oil installations have been the principal cause of concern. However, a single large spill from ships, platforms or land-based oil installations could severely impact biota and the economies of all coastal countries and could produce significant damage of the Black Sea ecosystem and fishing. Also, due to the semi-enclosed character of the basin, oil spill will definitely pollute coast of the basin suffering great losses to the recreation industry and potentially to the human health. Fighting oil pollution in the Black Sea is a great challenge. The challenge is likely to become even greater in the future as maritime traffic is expected to increase over the next few years, making offences and accidents more likely. The risks of shipwrecks and catastrophic oil spill necessitate the use of the modern technologies to effectively protect the marine environment. In turn, such technologies require high-quality products of operational oceanography. Recently such products are the products of the MyOcean project. The development of the Black Sea operational oceanography made it possible to transfer of cost-efficient technologies to the region to create a new tool against oil pollution and for life-saving in case of a shipwreck. The Black Sea Track Web (BSTW) system of accidental oil spill evolution forecast in the Black Sea has been created in the framework of MONINFO project. The system is based on the Seatrack Web (STW) model developing by the consortium of the Baltic Sea countries. It is adapted to the configuration of the Black Sea observing system and is implemented to the regional contingency plans. The BSTW system consists of three parts: - forcing in the form of forecasted stratification, sea currents and

  14. On the Dialogic Narrative Technique of The Woman Warrior%《女勇士》的对话性叙事策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏兰; 罗峰

    2012-01-01

    美国华裔小说家汤亭亭的作品《女勇士》一经出版就引发了批评界的激烈争论,作家运用独到的叙事策略,使得文本产生出"对话"的独特艺术效果。本文依据前苏联符号学家巴赫金的"对话"理论,从文本体裁在传记与小说之间的"复调"、母与女"对话"的叙事策略以及赞同式"对话"的二元融合三个方面,努力表明,作者如何实施对话性叙事策略,为各种思想意识构建了一个充分对话的平台,表达了华裔女性作家在展示主体身份的文学创作中,与所在国主流文化进行平等对话的愿望,从而建构了多元互动的全新文化景观。%The novel The Woman Warrior written by the Chinese American woman writer Maxine Song Kingston, aroused heated discussion and even disputes upon being published. With the unique narrative technique, the novel embodies dialogie features. Based on the dialogic theory of Bakhtin, the semiotician of the former Soviet Union, this paper analyzes the polyphony between biography and fiction, the narrative technique in the dialogue between mother and daughter and the binary fusion between the two parties of the dialogue, which provides a platform for different consciousnesses to equally communicate with each other. It reflects the possibility for the American Chinese to have a dialogue with the American mainstream and build a harmonious multicuhural prospect between sexes and races.

  15. Tunneling Through Black Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liu

    2007-01-01

    Hawking radiation of black ring solutions to 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory is analyzed by use of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. To get the correct tunneling amplitude and emission rate, we adopt and develop the Angheben-Nadalini-Vanzo-Zerbini covariant approach to cover the effects of rotation and electronic discharge all at once, and the effect of back reaction is also taken into account. This constitutes a unified approach to the tunneling problem. Provided the first law of thermodynamics for black rings holds, the emission rate is proportional to the exponential of the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Explicit calculation for black ring temperatures agrees exactly with the results obtained via the classical surface gravity method and the quasi-local formalism.

  16. Noncommutative black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give a general derivation, for any static spherically symmetric metric, of the relation Th=(K/2π) connecting the black hole temperature (Th) with the surface gravity (K), following the tunneling interpretation of Hawking radiation. This derivation is valid even beyond the semi-classical regime, i.e. when quantum effects are not negligible. The formalism is then applied to a spherically symmetric, stationary noncommutative Schwarzschild space-time. The effects of backreaction are also included. For such a black hole the Hawking temperature is computed in a closed form. A graphical analysis reveals interesting features regarding the variation of the Hawking temperature (including corrections due to noncommutativity and backreaction) with the small radius of the black hole. The entropy and tunneling rate valid for the leading order in the noncommutative parameter are calculated. We also show that the noncommutative Bekenstein-Hawking area law has the same functional form as the usual one

  17. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids. PMID:25768746

  18. Black Hole Bose Condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a cold, stable remnant

  19. Black Hole Bose Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2013-12-01

    General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a "cold", stable remnant.

  20. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  1. Rotating Black Droplet

    CERN Document Server

    Fischetti, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    We construct the gravitational dual, in the Unruh state, of the "jammed" phase of a CFT at strong coupling and infinite N on a fixed five-dimensional rotating Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta. When the angular momenta are all zero, the solution corresponds to the five-dimensional generalization of the solution first studied by Figueras, Lucietti, and Wiseman. In the extremal limit, when the angular momenta of the Myers-Perry black hole are maximum, the Unruh, Boulware and Hartle-Hawking states degenerate. We give a detailed analysis of the corresponding holographic stress energy tensor for all values of the angular momenta, finding it to be regular at the horizon in all cases. We compare our results with existent literature on thermal states of free field theories on black hole backgrounds.

  2. Turbulent Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Lehner, Luis

    2014-01-01

    We show that rapidly-spinning black holes can display turbulent gravitational behavior which is mediated by a new type of parametric instability. This instability transfers energy from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies--- a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse energy cascade displayed by 2+1-dimensional turbulent fluids. Our finding reveals a path towards gravitational turbulence for perturbations of rapidly-spinning black holes, and provides the first evidence for gravitational turbulence in an asymptotically flat spacetime. Interestingly, this finding predicts observable gravitational wave signatures from such phenomena in black hole binaries with high spins and gives a gravitational description of turbulence relevant to the fluid-gravity duality.

  3. Turbulent Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability—which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold—akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies—a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2 +1 )-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  4. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ∞≅2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  5. Slowly balding black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-10-01

    The “no-hair” theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively “frozen in” the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πcℏ), where Φ∞≈2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole’s magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  6. Black holes and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome ‘remnants’. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a ‘fuzzball’ structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: ► The information paradox is a serious problem. ► To solve it we need to find ‘hair’ on black holes. ► In string theory we find ‘hair’ by the fuzzball construction. ► Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.

  7. Exact solutions of higher dimensional black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Tomizawa, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We review exact solutions of black holes in higher dimensions, focusing on asymptotically flat black hole solutions and Kaluza-Klein type black hole solutions. We also summarize some properties which such black hole solutions reveal.

  8. Black light photography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisin, M.A. [Koon-Hall-Adrian Metallurgical, Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Black light photography of fluorescent penetrant and wet fluorescent magnetic particle indications can yield spectacular and useful results. The technique provides a lasting record of a flaw`s severity and location, as well as its physical relation to other components and important features. The procedures are easily learned and do not require sophisticated apparatus. In fact, equipment costs can often be justified on the basis of a single application. Using the techniques described in this article, black light photography can be a cost-effective, informative NDT tool.

  9. Noncommutative solitonic black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value. (paper)

  10. Noncommutative solitonic black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2012-05-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.

  11. Superfluid Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hennigar, Robie A; Tjoa, Erickson

    2016-01-01

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "$\\lambda$-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid $^4$He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically AdS hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  12. Virtual Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...

  13. Dancing with black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Aarseth, Sverre J

    2007-01-01

    We describe efforts over the last six years to implement regularization methods suitable for studying one or more interacting black holes by direct N-body simulations. Three different methods have been adapted to large-N systems: (i) Time-Transformed Leapfrog, (ii) Wheel-Spoke, and (iii) Algorithmic Regularization. These methods have been tried out with some success on GRAPE-type computers. Special emphasis has also been devoted to including post-Newtonian terms, with application to moderately massive black holes in stellar clusters. Some examples of simulations leading to coalescence by gravitational radiation will be presented to illustrate the practical usefulness of such methods.

  14. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  15. Scattering from black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging.

  16. Scattering from black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging

  17. Acoustic black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, M

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in a moving fluid provides a conceptually clean and powerful analogy for understanding black hole physics. As a teaching tool, the analogy is useful for introducing students to both General Relativity and fluid mechanics. As a research tool, the analogy helps clarify what aspects of the physics are kinematics and what aspects are dynamics. In particular, Hawking radiation is a purely kinematical effect, whereas black hole entropy is intrinsically dynamical. Finally, I discuss the fact that with present technology acoustic Hawking radiation is almost experimentally testable.

  18. Are Black Holes Springy?

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2014-01-01

    A $(3+1)$-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed $\\Omega_+$ can be used to define an effective spring constant, $k=m\\Omega_+^2$. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, $k = \\kappa $, which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: $2\\pi T = \\kappa - k$. Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force $F = 1/4$, which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  19. Black-pigmented sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Martínez-Girón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Black-pigmented sputum, also called "melanoptysis," is a symptom that may be observed in certain pathologies such us coal workers′ pneumoconiosis (anthracosis. The cavitation and liquefaction of a fibrosed mass by an infectious process (tuberculosis, infections by anaerobes, etc. or by ischemic necrosis may cause expectoration of a blackish secretion. We report the case of a patient with labor precedents as a coal worker, from whom abundant black sputum was obtained in the course of an incidental expectoration. Cyto-histological findings are shown and a differential diagnosis is established.

  20. Horndeski black hole geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyakova, D A

    2016-01-01

    We examine geodesics for the scalar-tensor black holes in the Horndeski-Galileon framework. Our analysis shows that first kind relativistic orbits may not be present within some model parameters range. This is a highly pathological behavior contradicting to the black hole accretion and Solar System observations. We also present a new (although very similar to those previously known) solution, which contains the orbits we expect from a compact object, admits regular scalar field at the horizon and and can fit into the known stability criteria.

  1. WiBasin: basin management through an integrated platform

    OpenAIRE

    Llort Pavon, Xavier; Sánchez-Diezma Guijarro, Rafael; Sancho, David; Rodríguez, Álvaro; Berenguer Ferrer, Marc; Sempere Torres, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present WiBasin, a cloud platform for basin and dam management. It includes different sources of precipitation (both observed and forecasted), integration over the catchment domain (to provide an aggregated value of potential rainfall accumulated over the basin) , and a complete dissemination environment (web-viewer, capability of issuing hazard warnings with configurable thresholds, SMS, mails, etc.)

  2. Reflections on a Black Mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2016-01-01

    A black mirror is an accelerated boundary that produces particles in an exact correspondence to an evaporating black hole. We investigate the spectral dynamics of the particle creation during the formation process.

  3. The black hole final state

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Maldacena, Juan

    2003-01-01

    We propose that in quantum gravity one needs to impose a final state boundary condition at black hole singularities. This resolves the apparent contradiction between string theory and semiclassical arguments over whether black hole evaporation is unitary.

  4. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  5. Conquering the Black Girl Blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lani Valencia; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly

    2015-10-01

    An examination of the literature on epidemiology, etiology, and use of services for this population reveals an insufficient application of culturally congruent approaches to intervening with black women. An exploration of the social work practice literature and other relevant fields indicate that black feminist perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a clearer understanding of the intersection and influence of oppression among black women struggling with psychiatric issues and provide a useful framework for mental health practice with this population. This article discusses the evolving black feminist thought and summarizes the scholarship on black women's mental health services needs and utilization issues. The article includes a discussion of black feminisms as an emerging mental health perspective, arguing that black feminist perspectives in therapy provide an ideal framework for services that are responsive to the values and health needs of black women. The article concludes with a case vignette that illustrates some of its points. PMID:26489355

  6. Recent decline of the Black Sea oxygen inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, A.; Stanev, E. V.; Beckers, J.-M.; Murray, J. W.; Grégoire, M.

    2015-10-01

    We show that from 1955 to 2013, the inventory of oxygen in the Black Sea has decreased by 36 % and the basin-averaged oxygen penetration depth has decreased from 140 m in 1955 to 90 m in 2013, which is the shallowest annual value recorded during that period. The oxygenated Black Sea surface layer separates the world's largest reservoir of toxic hydrogen sulphide from the atmosphere. The threat of chemocline excursion events led to hot debates in the past decades arguing on the vertical stability of the Black Sea oxic/suboxic interface. In the 1970s and 1980s the Black Sea faced severe eutrophication. Enhanced respiration rates reduced the thickness of the oxygenated layer. The consecutive increase of oxygen inventory in 1985-1995 supported arguments in favor of the stability of the oxic layer. Concomitant with a reduction of nutrient loads, this increase also supported the perception of a Black Sea recovering from eutrophication. More recently, atmospheric warming was shown to reduce the ventilation of the lower oxic layer by lowering Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) formation rates. The debate on the vertical migration of the oxic interface also addressed the natural spatial variability affecting Black Sea properties when expressed in terms of depth. Here we show that using isopycnal coordinates does not free from a significant spatial variability of oxygen penetration depths. Considering this spatial variability, the analysis of a composite historical set of oxygen profiles evidenced a significant shoaling of the oxic layer, and showed that the transient "recovery" of the 1990s was mainly a result of increased CIL formation rates during that period. As both atmospheric warming and eutrophication are expected to increase in the near future, monitoring the dynamics of the Black Sea oxic layer is required to assess the threat of further shoaling.

  7. Droughts in the Miocene of the Black Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Iuliana; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Grothe, Arjen; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    Since Miocene the Black Sea has been highly sensitive to fluctuations in the hydrological cycle. These fluctuations were principally determined by Black Sea's recurrently restricted connections to the Open Ocean and by its specific paleogeographic location between the dry Mediterranean domain and more humid higher northern latitudes. To determine the nature of changes in the hydrological budget of the Black Sea occurring during the late Miocene we use compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios on terrestrial and aquatic biomarkers extracted from two different locations: 1) the sedimentary succession of Zhelezniy Rog land based section of Taman in Russia and 2) the deep sea sedimentary succession recovered in 1975 from the Black Sea (DSDP 42B, Hole 380A). The carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of n-alkanes as well as alkenones and palynology indicate large environmental changes in the Black Sea and/or in the sources of the water entering the Black Sea during the late Miocene. The hydrogen isotopes of alkenones, showing an enrichment of more than 80 ‰ at the end of the Miocene, imply a major shift in basin hydrology, possibly resulting in severely increased salinity. These changes in hydrogen isotopic composition of the alkenones concur both with sharp shifts in reconstructed sea surface temperature and palynological assemblages. Two intervals with negative water budget were identified, most likely caused by enhanced evaporation. The older and longer dry/evaporative phase predates the Maeotian/Pontian boundary (regional stages) at ~6.1 Ma. The younger negative water budget phase is partly coeval to the Messinian salinity crisis of Mediterranean. Both shifts to highly evaporative conditions are recorded in both Taman Peninsula (Russia) and DSDP 42B 380A locations. These recurrent dryer phases were, most likely, the result of important hydrological changes over a significantly larger area around the Black Sea area during the upper Miocene.

  8. Recent decline of the Black Sea oxygen inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We show that from 1955 to 2013, the inventory of oxygen in the Black Sea has decreased by 36 % and the basin-averaged oxygen penetration depth has decreased from 140 m in 1955 to 90 m in 2013, which is the shallowest annual value recorded during that period. The oxygenated Black Sea surface layer separates the world's largest reservoir of toxic hydrogen sulphide from the atmosphere. The threat of chemocline excursion events led to hot debates in the past decades arguing on the vertical stability of the Black Sea oxic/suboxic interface. In the 1970s and 1980s the Black Sea faced severe eutrophication. Enhanced respiration rates reduced the thickness of the oxygenated layer. The consecutive increase of oxygen inventory in 1985–1995 supported arguments in favor of the stability of the oxic layer. Concomitant with a reduction of nutrient loads, this increase also supported the perception of a Black Sea recovering from eutrophication. More recently, atmospheric warming was shown to reduce the ventilation of the lower oxic layer by lowering Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL formation rates. The debate on the vertical migration of the oxic interface also addressed the natural spatial variability affecting Black Sea properties when expressed in terms of depth. Here we show that using isopycnal coordinates does not free from a significant spatial variability of oxygen penetration depths. Considering this spatial variability, the analysis of a composite historical set of oxygen profiles evidenced a significant shoaling of the oxic layer, and showed that the transient "recovery" of the 1990s was mainly a result of increased CIL formation rates during that period. As both atmospheric warming and eutrophication are expected to increase in the near future, monitoring the dynamics of the Black Sea oxic layer is required to assess the threat of further shoaling.

  9. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  10. Black Hole Evaporation. A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Benachenhou, Farid

    1994-01-01

    This thesis is a review of black hole evaporation with emphasis on recent results obtained for two dimensional black holes. First, the geometry of the most general stationary black hole in four dimensions is described and some classical quantities are defined. Then, a derivation of the spectrum of the radiation emitted during the evaporation is presented. In section four, a two dimensional model which has black hole solutions is introduced, the so-called CGHS model. These two dimensional blac...

  11. Towards noncommutative quantum black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole

  12. Towards Noncommutative Quantum Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Dominguez, J. C.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.; Sabido, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole.

  13. Brane-World Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chamblin, A; Reall, H S

    2000-01-01

    Gravitational collapse of matter trapped on a brane will produce a black hole on the brane. We discuss such black holes in the models of Randall and Sundrum where our universe is viewed as a domain wall in five dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We present evidence that a non-rotating uncharged black hole on the domain wall is described by a ``black cigar'' solution in five dimensions.

  14. Brane-world black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamblin, A.; Hawking, S. W.; Reall, H. S.

    2000-03-01

    Gravitational collapse of matter trapped on a brane will produce a black hole on the brane. We discuss such black holes in the models of Randall and Sundrum where our universe is viewed as a domain wall in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We present evidence that a non-rotating uncharged black hole on the domain wall is described by a ``black cigar'' solution in five dimensions.

  15. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  16. Black Hole: The Interior Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2016-01-01

    The information loss paradox is often discussed from the perspective of the observers who stay outside of a black hole. However, the interior spacetime of a black hole can be rather nontrivial. We discuss the open problems regarding the volume of a black hole, and whether it plays any role in information storage. We also emphasize the importance of resolving the black hole singularity, if one were to resolve the information loss paradox.

  17. Reversing the indus basin closure

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    After independence, a swift and extensive development of Indus river basin has intensified commitment of water resources. During dry period, the indication of over commitment and basin closure are visible. In the beginning 2000s, he river basin water resources were committed to more than 99% without any environmental flows. The paper tries to unfold drivers closing the Indus basin and the scope for change. Defining and implementing water allocation mechanism to ascertain equity, sustainabilit...

  18. 《女勇士》中"我"的分裂人格的后殖民语境解读%An Interpretation of the Split Personality of "I" in "The Woman Warrior"under a Post-colonial Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾向阳

    2016-01-01

    在汤亭亭的《女勇士》中,女主人公"我"的分裂人格是华裔女性在性别和种族压迫社会中被边缘化的病态表现,是自我身份焦虑的隐喻,将其置于后殖民主义的语境下分析,能为解读华裔女性特殊生存状态提供广阔的文化视野.%"I" in "The Woman Warrior" by Maxine Hong Kingston, possesses a split personality which is used as a metaphor for the pathological identity anxiety of the Chinese American women under both patriarchy and racism. Interpreta-tion of this metaphor under a post-colonial context can bring us a wider cultural vision for the special living conditions of the Chi-nese American women.

  19. Blacks and the Women's Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, Stephanie

    1989-01-01

    Although Black female leaders were influential in creating the modern women's movement, feminism has evolved differently for both Black and White women. Suggests that, although Black women have struggled largely against racial and economic inequalities, women of all colors and backgrounds should embrace their diversity and unite to oppose racism…

  20. The Strengths of Black Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert B.

    This report identifies and analyzes five strengths of black families: adaptability roles, strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, strong religious orientation, and achievement orientation. These five characteristics have been functional for the survival, advancement, and stability of black families. Most discussions of black families tend…

  1. Black carbon in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Van Breugel, P.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of black carbon were determined for a number of marine sediments. A comparison of black carbon based on thermal oxidation and hot concentrated nitric acid pretreatments revealed that the latter significantly overestimates combustion derived carbon phases. Black carbon accounts for abo

  2. Warped products and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes

  3. Black Progress: Convergence or Cleavage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    The popular view of a permanent Black underclass falling farther behind an expanding Black middle class is disputed by empirical evidence that the underclass is experiencing upward mobility. The discrepancy stems from social scientists' overreliance on cross-sectional data rather than longitudinal data in analyzing economic change among Blacks.…

  4. Warped products and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, S T

    2005-01-01

    We apply the warped product spacetime scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes.

  5. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  6. Dictionary of Black Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Wade; Runes, Richard N.

    This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…

  7. Black History Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  8. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  9. Gasification of black liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  10. Trichomicosis pubis: black variety.

    OpenAIRE

    Neri, I.; Frassetto, A; Pasquinelli, G.; Patrizi, A.

    1994-01-01

    A case of a 25 year old man with the black variety of trichomicosis pubis is presented on account of its extreme rareity. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that trichomicosis pubis is caused by bacterial colonisation of the pubic hair and shows that bacteria are able to penetrate cuticular horny cells directly through their free plasma membrane.

  11. Black hole magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.

  12. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  13. The Black Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Donald E.

    This study describes and assesses the basic problems of black males who enter educational administration as a career, showing the relationship between their cultural background and their aspirations in the field of administration of a large city school system. The role taken by the researcher is that of participant-observer. The collection of…

  14. South Bohemian basins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spudil, J.; Brož, B.; Dašková, Jiřina; Holcová, K.; Kvaček, Z.; Pešek, J.; Svobodová, Marcela; Sýkorová, Ivana; Teodoridis, V.

    Prague: Czech Geological Survey, 2014, s. 190-206 ISBN 978-80-7075-862-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0653 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : Tertiary basins * Czech Republic * Cenomanian and Tertiary lignite * geology * stratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  15. Pasco Basin hydrometeorological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides detailed precipitation and evapotranspiration distributions for the Pasco Basin for use in groundwater recharge calculations. The results are shown on precipitation and evapotranspiration distribution maps. The parameters, calculation methods, sensitivity determinations, and fitting methods used in the development of these maps are also discussed

  16. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.;

    2008-01-01

    genetically from the rest of the populations in the Mediterranean area. This result supports the hypothesis of a low incidence of the south-north genetic interchange at the western shores of the Mediterranean basin. A low genetic distance was found between populations in the Middle East and the western part...

  17. Restoring the Nile Basin

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Watershed management has come to be recognized as a critical issue in the Nile Basin. Upstream land use can cause degradation and soil erosion, resulting in lower agricultural yields locally and causing sedimentation downstream. The increased sediment load causes economic problems by reducing water quality, and irrigation and hydropower potential, as well as increasing flooding. This note ...

  18. Observational Evidence for Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Ramesh; McClintock, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers have discovered two populations of black holes: (i) stellar-mass black holes with masses in the range 5 to 30 solar masses, millions of which are present in each galaxy in the universe, and (ii) supermassive black holes with masses in the range 10^6 to 10^{10} solar masses, one each in the nucleus of every galaxy. There is strong circumstantial evidence that all these objects are true black holes with event horizons. The measured masses of supermassive black hole are strongly corr...

  19. Over spinning a black hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  20. Statistical mechanics of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed

  1. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  2. Bransfield Basin and Cordilleran Orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, I. W.; Austin, J. A.; Barker, D. H.; Christensen, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic uplift of the Andean Cordillera was initiated in the mid-Cretaceous with inversion of a composite marginal basin along 7500 km of the continental margin of South America, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego and the North Scotia Ridge. In the southernmost Andes, from 50-56 degrees S, the quasi-oceanic floor of this basin is preserved in the obducted ophiolitic rocks of the Rocas Verdes (Green Rocks) basin. We suggest that the basin beneath Bransfield Strait, 61-64 degrees S, separating the South Shetland Islands from the Antarctic Peninsula, constitutes a modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Marine geophysical studies of Bransfield basin have been undertaken over the past 12 years by the Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, under the auspices of the Ocean Sciences Division and United States Antarctic Program, National Science Foundation. These studies have elucidated the structure and evolution of Bransfield basin for comparison with the Rocas Verdes basin, with a view to eventual forward modeling of the evolution of a hypothetical cordilleran orogen by compression and inversion of the basin. These are the processes that can be observed in the tectonic transformation of the Rocas Verdes basin into the southernmost Andean cordillera, as South America moved rapidly westward in an Atlantic-Indian ocean hot-spot reference frame during the mid-Cretaceous. Multi-channel reflection seismic data from the Bransfield basin reveal an asymmetric structural architecture characterized by steeply-dipping normal faults flanking the South Shetlands island arc and gently dipping listric normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. Normal fault polarity reversals appear to be related to distributed loci of magmatic activity within the basin. This architecture is remarkably similar to that deduced from field structural studies of the Rocas Verdes basin. Notably, the oceanward-dipping, low angle normal faults along the Antarctic Peninsula margin

  3. Prisons of light : black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kitty

    What is a black hole? Could we survive a visit to one -- perhaps even venture inside? Have we yet discovered any real black holes? And what do black holes teach us about the mysteries of our Universe? These are just a few of the tantalizing questions examined in this tour-de-force, jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light - Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.

  4. Point mass Cosmological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Firouzjaee, Javad T

    2016-01-01

    Real black holes in the universe are located in the expanding accelerating background which are called the cosmological black holes. Hence, it is necessary to model these black holes in the cosmological background where the dark energy is the dominant energy. In this paper, we argue that most of the dynamical cosmological black holes can be modeled by point mass cosmological black holes. Considering the de Sitter background for the accelerating universe, we present the point mass cosmological background in the cosmological de Sitter space time. Our work also includes the point mass black holes which have charge and angular momentum. We study the mass, horizons, redshift structure and geodesics properties for these black holes.

  5. Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes

  6. Sedimentary basin analysis and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin-Dam; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Bong, Pil-Yoon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Since 1992 sedimentary basin analysis to assess petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Korean onshore and continental shelf have been carried out. The Cretaceous non-marine strata mainly occupy the Gyeongsang Basin in southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula and small basins such as Haenam and Gyeokpo depressions in western coastal areas. The Tertiary strata are mostly distributed in Domi, Cheju, Socotra subbasins, and Okinawa Trough in the South Continental Shelf, and Kunsan and Heuksan basins in the West. The basin evolution and petroleum potential for each basins are characterized as follow. The Cretaceous Gyeongsang sediments were deposited in three subbasins including Milyang, Euisung and Yongyang subbasins. The black shales in Nakdong and Jinju formations are interpreted to contain abundant organic matter during the deposition, thermal maturity reaching up to the zone of dry gas formation. Because porosity and permeability are too low, the sandstones can act as a tight gas reservoir rather than conventional oil and gas reservoir. The latest Cretaceous strata of Haenam and Kyeokpo depressions in western coastal area are correlated into the Yuchon Volcanic Group of the Gyeongsang Basin. Petroleum potential of the Early Cretaceous basin in the West Continental Shelf could be relatively high in terms of sedimentary basin filled with thick lacustrine sediments. The Kunsan basin in the West Continental Shelf originated in the Early Cretaceous time expanded during the Paleocene time followed by regional erosion at the end of Paleocene on which Neogene sediment have been accumulated. The Paleocene-Eocene sublacustrine shales may play an major role as a source and cap rocks. South Continental Shelf Basin is subdivided by Cheju subbasin in the center, Socotra Subbasin to the west, Domi Subbasin to the northeast and Okinawa Trough to the East. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, titled fault blocks, fault, unconformity

  7. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  8. Black Holes and Fourfolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Vercnocke, Bert

    2012-01-01

    We establish the relation between the structure governing supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric four- and five-dimensional black holes and multicenter solutions and Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of M-theory and type IIB string theory. We find that the known BPS and almost-BPS multicenter black hole solutions can be interpreted as GKP compactifications with (2,1) and (0,3) imaginary self-dual flux. We also show that the most general GKP compactification leads to new classes of BPS and non-BPS multicenter solutions. We explore how these solutions fit into N=2 truncations, and elucidate how supersymmetry becomes camouflaged. As a necessary tool in our exploration we show how the fields in the largest N=2 truncation fit inside the six-torus compactification of eleven-dimensional supergravity.

  9. Shape of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Clement, María E Gabach

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that celestial bodies tend to be spherical due to gravity and that rotation produces deviations from this sphericity. We discuss what is known and expected about the shape of black holes' horizons from their formation to their final, stationary state. We present some recent results showing that black hole rotation indeed manifests in the widening of their central regions, limits their global shapes and enforces their whole geometry to be close to the extreme Kerr horizon geometry at almost maximal rotation speed. The results depend only on the horizon area and angular momentum. In particular they are entirely independent of the surrounding geometry of the spacetime and of the presence of matter satisfying the strong energy condition. We also discuss the the relation of this result with the Hoop conjecture.

  10. Black-hole astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.

  11. Tectonic Structures offshore Trabzon-Rize Area in the Eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Sermet; Okay, Seda; Çifçi, Günay; Dondurur, Derman; Kim, Dae-Choul; Bae, Sung-Ho

    2015-04-01

    Black Sea has attracted many researchers's attention due to the historical formation and geological structure and these are still under discussion. However general view suggest that Black Sea is a back arc basin model formed behind the Pontid volcanic arc. Even though there are many studies conducted by both Turkish and international researches and petroleum company, there are still unresolved scientific questions. To better understand the regional geology and investigate the geological formations and fault systems existing in the region, approximately 1700 km high resolution multi-channel seismic reflection data were collected in the Eastern Black Sea (around Rize and Trabzon) in 2010. This study was carried out within the scope of cooperation between Dokuz Eylul University Marine Science and Technology and Pukyong National University (PKNU). Collected lines include the continental slope and deep basin. After the data was processed by the data processing program, geological structures like slip structures, turbidity and sediment waves has attracted attention commonly seen in the Black Sea region. Location of the faults that exist in the region, their extension and characteristics were also investigated. Although the basin shows opening feature during the formation, many fold structures caused by compression structure was also observed around the continental slope. East-west trending fold belt observed by interpretation of the seismic lines was associated with Trabzon fault which is thought to exist in the region. In addition to these, mud volcanoes and volcanic dome structures were also observed in the study area.

  12. Noncommutative Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bastos, C; Dias, N C; Prata, J N

    2010-01-01

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  13. Noncommutative Solitonic Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2011-01-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find t...

  14. Infinitely Coloured Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Mavromatos, Nick E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth(Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH, United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    We formulate the field equations for $SU(\\infty)$ Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, and find spherically symmetric black-hole solutions. This model may be motivated by string theory considerations, given the enormous gauge symmetries which characterize string theory. The solutions simplify considerably in the presence of a negative cosmological constant, particularly for the limiting cases of a very large cosmological constant or very small gauge field. The situation of an arbitrarily small gauge f...

  15. Beyond the black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)

  16. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Casadio(INFN, Bologna); Andrea Giugno; Octavian Micu; Alessio Orlandi

    2015-01-01

    We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractiv...

  17. Petroleum exploration potential of Tamtsag Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guo-qing; GUO Qing-xia; ZHANG Ya-jin; ZHAO Hong-wen

    2004-01-01

    The Tamtsag Basin is located in the extreme eastern portion of the Mongolia. The Basin and its counterpart in China (the Hailar Basin) are united a whole basin on the structural setting. In recent years, the Tamtsag Basin attracts more and more attention with the important exploration discovered in the 19th block by SOCO and in Hailar Basin of China. This paper discusses the exploration potential of Tamtsag Basin from the viewpoint of petroleum geology.

  18. Black holes reconsidered

    CERN Document Server

    Helfer, Adam D

    2011-01-01

    I review elements of the foundations of black-hole theory with attention to problematic issues, and describe some techniques which either seem to help with the difficulties or at least investigate their scope. The definition of black holes via event horizons has been problematic because it depends on knowing the global structure of space-time; often attempts to avoid this (e.g. apparent horizons) require knowledge of the interior geometry. I suggest studying instead the holonomy relating the exterior neighborhood of the incipient horizon to the regime of distant observers; at least in the spherically symmetric case, this holonomy will develop certain universal features, in principle observable from signals emitted from infalling objects. I discuss the theory of quantum fields in curved space-time, and the difficulties with Hawking's prediction of black-hole radiation. I then show that the usual, very natural, theory of quantum fields in curved space-time runs into difficulties when applied to measurement prob...

  19. Slowly balding black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    The "no hair" theorem, a key result in General Relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the "no hair" theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively "frozen-in" the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes $N_B = e \\Phi_\\infty /(\\pi c \\hbar)$, where $\\Phi_\\infty \\approx 2 \\pi^2 B_{NS} R_{NS}^3 /(P_{\\rm NS} c)$ is the initial magnetic flux through the hemisphere...

  20. Thermal corpuscular black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-06-01

    We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number N of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy m (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy ω >m ). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature in the continuum. We first find that, assuming the Hawking radiation is the leading effect of the internal scatterings, the corresponding N -particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M =N m and a Planckian distribution for E >M at the same Hawking temperature. From this collective state, we compute the partition function and obtain an entropy which reproduces the usual area law with a logarithmic correction precisely related with the Hawking component. By means of the horizon wave function for the system, we finally show the backreaction of modes with ω >m reduces the Hawking flux. Both corrections, to the entropy and to the Hawking flux, suggest the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass, if the black hole is in this particular quantum state.

  1. Attractors in Black

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S; Marrani, A

    2008-01-01

    We review recent results in the study of attractor horizon geometries (with non-vanishing Bekenstein-Hawking entropy) of dyonic extremal d=4 black holes in supergravity. We focus on N=2, d=4 ungauged supergravity coupled to a number n_{V} of Abelian vector multiplets, outlining the fundamentals of the special Kaehler geometry of the vector multiplets' scalar manifold (of complex dimension n_{V}), and studying the 1/2-BPS attractors, as well as the non-BPS (non-supersymmetric) ones with non-vanishing central charge. For symmetric special Kaehler geometries, we present the complete classification of the orbits in the symplectic representation of the classical U-duality group (spanned by the black hole charge configuration supporting the attractors), as well as of the moduli spaces of non-BPS attractors (spanned by the scalars which are not stabilized at the black hole event horizon). Finally, we report on an analogous classification for N>2-extended, d=4 ungauged supergravities, in which also the 1/N-BPS attrac...

  2. Non-Abelian magnetic black strings versus black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present d+1 -dimensional pure magnetic Yang-Mills (YM) black strings (or 1-branes) induced by the d -dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dilaton black holes. The Born-Infeld version of the YM field makes our starting point which goes to the standard YM field through a limiting procedure. The lifting from black holes to black strings (with less number of fields) is done by adding an extra, compact coordinate. This amounts to the change of horizon topology from S^{d-2} to a product structure. Our black string in 5 dimensions is a rather special one, with uniform Hawking temperature and non-asymptotically flat structure. As the YM charge becomes large the string gets thinner to tend into a breaking point and transform into a 4-dimensional black hole.

  3. The thermal and mechanical evolution of the Anadarko basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, David L.; Turcotte, Donald L.

    1984-08-01

    During the late Mississippian the style of subsidence and sedimentary facies in the Anadarko Basin changed significantly. This marked an interval of rapid subsidence that was unrelated to the pre-existing Cambro-Ordovician trough referred to as the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen. The sedimentary facies changed from black shales and carbonates to predominantly elastics of the Mississippian-Springer series. At the same time, widespread deposition changed to deposition in a narrow, geographically isolated trough. During a span of close to 23 m.y., extending into the middle Pennsylvanian, nearly 3.5 km of these clastic sediments were deposited in the narrow trough. On the south side of the basin, during the latter half of this time interval, reverse faulting and uplift of the Wichita Mountains accompanied subsidence in the basin. The timing of the uplift indicates that north-south shortening in the basin was not the primary cause of subsidence. This early narrow phase was followed by a return to widespread deposition in late Des Moinesian time, although with continued clastic sedimentation. During the early Permian, elastics graded into evaporites. Subsidence slowed continuously throughout this final widespread phase of subsidence. We model the formation of the Anadarko Basin in terms of elastic flexure of the lithosphere. In order to accommodate the early narrow phase, subsidence is attributed to crustal thinning accompanied by faulting. We show that the final widespread phase of subsidence was accommodated by lithospheric flexure and that the flexural rigidity of the elastic lithosphere increased from D = 4.1·10 30 dyne cm to D = 1.9·10 31 dyne cm during this period. This increase can be attributed to a decrease in heat flow with time. These two phases of subsidence in the Anadarko Basin are consistent with crustal thinning followed by thermal subsidence.

  4. Chaotic Scattering and Capture of Strings by Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, A V; Frolov, Andrei V.; Larsen, Arne L.

    1999-01-01

    We consider scattering and capture of circular cosmic strings by a Schwarzschild black hole. Although being apriory a very simple axially symmetric two-body problem, it shows all the features of chaotic scattering. In particular, it contains a fractal set of unstable periodic solutions; a so-called strange repellor. We study the different types of trajectories and obtain the fractal dimension of the basin-boundary separating the space of initial conditions according to the different asymptotic outcomes. We also consider the fractal dimension as a function of energy, and discuss the transition from order to chaos.

  5. Canterbury Basin Sea Level

    OpenAIRE

    Fulthorpe, C. S.; Institute for Geophysics John A. and Katherine G. Jackson School of Geosciences The University of Texas at Austin J.J. Pickle Research Campus, Building 196 (ROC) 10100 Burnet Road (R2200) Austin TX 78758-4445 USA; Hoyanagi, K.; Department of Geology Faculty of Science Shinshu University 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 Japan; Blum, P.; United States Implementing Organization Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Drive College Station TX 77845 USA; Guèrin, G.; Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W Palisades NY 10964 USA; Slagle, A. L.; Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W Palisades NY 10964 USA; Blair, S. A.; Department of Geological Sciences Florida State University 006 Carraway Building Tallahassee FL 32306 USA; Browne, G. H.; Hydrocarbon Section GNS Science PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand; Carter, R. M.; Marine Geophysical Laboratory James Cook University of North Queensland Townsville QLD 4811 Australia; Ciobanu, M.; Laboratoire de Microbiologie des Environnements Extrêmes CNRS UMR-6197 Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer Technopole Brest-Iroise Plouzane 29280 France; Claypool, G. E.; Organic Geochemist 8910 West 2nd Avenue Lakewood CO 80226 USA; Crundwell, M. P.; New Zealand Observer/Paleontologist (foraminifers) Paleontology and Environmental Change Section GNS Science PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Ding, X.; School of Marine Sciences China University of Geosciences (Beijing) 29 XueYuan Road, Haidian District Beijing P.R. China; George, S. C.; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences Macquarie University Sydney NSW 2109 Australia; Hepp, D. A.; MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences and Department of Geosciences University of Bremen Leobener Strasse MARUM Building, Room 2230 28359 Bremen Germany

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 317 was devoted to understanding the relative importance of global sea level (eustasy) versus local tectonic and sedimentary processes in controlling continental margin sedimentary cycles. The expedition recovered sediments from the Eocene to recent period, with a particular focus on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to recent, when global sea level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. Drilling in the Canterbury Basin,...

  6. Automated disposal of produced water from a coalbed methane well field, a case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the automated disposal system for produced water designed and operated by Taurus Exploration, Inc. This presentation draws from Taurus' case study in the planning, design, construction, and operation of production water disposal facilities for the Mt. Olive well field, located in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. The common method for disposing of water produced from coalbed methane wells in the Warrior Basin is to discharge into a receiving stream. The limiting factor in the discharge method is the capability of the receiving stream to assimilate the chloride component of the water discharged. During the winter and spring, the major tributaries of the Black Warrior River are capable of assimilating far more production water than operations can generate. During the summer and fall months, however, these same tributaries can approach near zero flow, resulting in insufficient flow for dilution. During such periods pumping shut-down within the well field can be avoided by routing production waters into a storage facility. This paper discusses the automated production water disposal system on Big Sandy Creek designed and operated by Taurus. This system allows for continuous discharge to the receiving stream, thus taking full advantage of Big Sandy Creek's assimilative capacity, while allowing a provision for excess produced water storage and future stream discharge

  7. Stimulated emission and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability of a black hole emitting m particles when n particles are incident on the black hole was first derived by Bekenstein and Meisels, and later, using a different method, by Panangaden and Wald. In another paper by Bekenstein, it was argued that black holes should have stimulated emission in all modes including the nonsuperradiant ones. In this paper, we use a model based on quantum field theory. We show that Bose-Einstein statistics enhances the probability for particles to scatter in the same direction. We also prove that a black hole is equivalent to a perfect blackbody surrounded by a mirror. In our model, the black hole does not exhibit stimulated emission in nonsuperradiant modes. We also compare the black hole to a gray body

  8. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  9. Black Hole Masses are Quantized

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Mukhanov, Slava

    2011-01-01

    We give a simple argument showing that in any sensible quantum field theory the masses of black holes cannot assume continuous values and must be quantized. Our proof solely relies on Poincare-invariance of the asymptotic background, and is insensitive to geometric characteristics of black holes or other peculiarities of the short distance physics. Therefore, our results are equally-applicable to any other localized objects on asymptotically Poincare-invariant space, such as classicalons. By adding a requirement that in large mass limit the quantization must approximately account for classical results, we derive an universal quantization rule applicable to all classicalons (including black holes) in arbitrary number of dimensions. In particular, this implies, that black holes cannot emit/absorb arbitrarily soft quanta. The effect has phenomenological model-independent implications for black holes and other classicalons that may be created at LHC. We predict, that contrary to naive intuition, the black holes a...

  10. Black hole's 1/N hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers

  11. Small black holes on cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find the metric of small black holes on cylinders, i.e. neutral and static black holes with a small mass in d-dimensional Minkowski space times a circle. The metric is found using an ansatz for black holes on cylinders proposed in J. High Energy Phys. 05, 032 (2002). We use the new metric to compute corrections to the thermodynamics which is seen to deviate from that of the (d+1)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. Moreover, we compute the leading correction to the relative binding energy which is found to be non-zero. We discuss the consequences of these results for the general understanding of black holes and we connect the results to the phase structure of black holes and strings on cylinders

  12. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River basin case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Jensen, Iris Hedegaard; Guzinski, R.;

    2015-01-01

    Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically based and distributed modeling schemes employing data...... assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. The objective of this study is to develop open-source software tools to support hydrologic forecasting and integrated water resources management in...... Africa. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations...

  13. Information Storage in Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    The information loss paradox for Schwarzschild black holes is examined, using the ADS/CFT correspondence extended to the $M_6 (4,2)$ bulk. It is found that the only option compatible with the preservation of the quantum unitarity is when a regular remnant region of the black hole survives to the black hole evaporation process, where information can be stored and eventually retrieved.

  14. Origin of supermassive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S. G.

    2007-01-01

    The origin of supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei is quite uncertain in spite of extensive set of observational data. We review the known scenarios of galactic and cosmological formation of supermassive black holes. The common drawback of galactic scenarios is a lack of time and shortage of matter supply for building the supermassive black holes in all galaxies by means of accretion and merging. The cosmological scenarios are only fragmentarily developed but propose and pretend to...

  15. Brane-world black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this talk, I present and discuss a number of attempts to construct black hole solutions in models with Warped Extra Dimensions. Then, a contact is made with models with Large Extra Dimensions, where black-hole solutions are easily constructed - here the focus will be on the properties of microscopic black holes and the possibility of using phenomena associated with them, such as the emission of Hawking radiation, to discover fundamental properties of our spacetime.

  16. Different sedimentological and thermal evolution of three north-pyrenean basins during their set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelalou, Roman; Nalpas, Thierry; Bousquet, Romain; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2015-04-01

    The Pyrenean belt is resulting in the inversion of several lower Cretaceous basins, separating the Iberia micro-plate from the Eurasia plate. The eat-west oriented basins are well known for their high-temperature metamorphism synchronous of the last deposits during Aptian-Albian times. For the first time, we present a combined sedimentological and thermal study of three north pyrenean basins (Boucheville, St Paul-de-Fenouillet and Bas-Agly). With the help of detailed stratigraphic logs of each basin, we propose restored cross-sections for the whole area. North-south sections across Boucheville and St Paul-de-Fenouillet basins show that theses basins have large asymmetrical structure. The Boucheville basin is a large anticline bordered by two isoclinal syncline highly skewed, while the St Paul-de-Fenouillet one is a unique syncline. Detailed sedimentalogical observations show common features for these basins: deposits of white limestones and breccias during the Jurassic time following by black sandstones with a calcareous matrix of lower Cretaceous age. On one hand, Jurassic limestones were deposited on a shelf environment and their thickness is homogeneous all over each basin. On the other hand, sandstones deposits seem to occur at greater depths during the Albian time and are displaying asymmetrical north-south variation of their thickness. The quantification of the temperature overprint occurred in the basin was done using the graphitisation of the carbonaceous material, and was measured by RAMAN spectroscopy (Lahfid et al. 2010). Despite their similar deposits, the mapping of the temperature-peak inside the three basins show contrasted thermal evolution. Then we document a lower temperature overprint around 150-200˚C in the northern basin {St Paul-de-Fenouillet) while the highest overprint up to 600˚C has been reached in the southern basin (Boucheville) in which diopside - scapolite and also probably olivine are occurring. These three north-pyrenean basin turn

  17. Impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis on Black Sea hydrology: Insights from hydrogen isotopes analysis on biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, I.; Reichart, G.-J.; Krijgsman, W.

    2013-01-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.96–5.33 Ma ago) was a dramatic oceanographic event, when evaporites kilometers thick precipitated in a desiccating Mediterranean basin, trapping more than 5% of the world's oceanic salt. Hydrological changes in the adjacent Black Sea and water exchange with the Medit

  18. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine (2010-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September ...

  19. History of expansion and anthropogenic collapse in a top marine predator of the Black Sea estimated from genetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, Michaël C; Snirc, Alodie; Frantzis, Alexandros; Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Oztürk, Bayram; Oztürk, Ayaka A; Austerlitz, Fréderic

    2012-01-01

    Two major ecological transitions marked the history of the Black Sea after the last Ice Age. The first was the postglacial transition from a brackish-water to a marine ecosystem dominated by porpoises and dolphins once this basin was reconnected back to the Mediterranean Sea (ca. 8,000 y B.P.). The

  20. Distributions of the subspecies of Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kylin, Hendrik; Bouwman, Hendrik; Louette, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The wintering area of the nominate subspecies of Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus fuscus is from Ethiopia across Uganda and the Congo basin to the Atlantic, while L. f. intermedius and L. f. graellsii winter in westernmost Africa. http:/dx.doi.org/10.1080/00063657.2011.555517 The Journal of the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO)

  1. Black holes and the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  2. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface in wavelengths above 1000 nm. On the other hand, carbon absorbs at those and longer wavelengths. Thus, it is possible to combine black silicon with carbon to create an artificial material with very low reflectivity over a wide spectral range. Here we report our results on coating conformally black silicon substrate with amorphous pyrolytic carbon. We present a superior black surface with reflectance of light less than 0.5% in the spectral range of 350 nm to 2000 nm. PMID:27174890

  4. Higher dimensional extremal black strings

    OpenAIRE

    H. W. Lee; Myung, Y. S.; Kim, Jin Young; Park, D. K.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the five and six-dimensional black strings within Einstein-Maxwell theory. The extremal black strings are endowed with the null Killing symmetry. We study the propagation of Einstein-Maxwell modes in the extremal black string background by using this symmetry. It turns out that one graviton is a propagating mode, while both the Maxwell $F$ and three-form $H$ fields are non-propagating modes. Further we discuss the stability and classical hair of the extremal black strings.

  5. How black holes saved relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda

    2016-02-01

    While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.

  6. Black report up-date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984, the Black Report published its results on the incidence of cancer and leukaemia in under 25-year olds in the village of Seascale and the surrounding area near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Since then the pressure group core, as a result of their own independent research, has discovered ten additional cases of childhood cancer which should have been included in the Black Report and a Further two cases since the Black Report was written. This represents an additional 31% over the initial numbers considered and a review of the Black Report is sought. (UK)

  7. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Appels, Michael; Kubiznak, David

    2016-01-01

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of a charged accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon -- even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability and phase structure of these black holes.

  8. Intracontinental basins and strong earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓起东; 高孟潭; 赵新平; 吴建春

    2004-01-01

    The September 17, 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake occurred in Linfen basin of Shanxi down-faulted basin zone. It is the first recorded M=8 earthquake since the Chinese historical seismic records had started and is a great earthquake occurring in the active intracontinental basin. We had held a Meeting of the 700th Anniversary of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 Earthquake in Shanxi and a Symposium on Intracontinental Basins and Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province on September 17~18, 2003. The articles presented on the symposium discussed the relationships between active intracontinental basins of different properties, developed in different regions, including tensional graben and semi-graben basins in tensile tectonic regions, compression-depression basins and foreland basins in compressive tectonic regions and pull-apart basins in strike-slip tectonic zones, and strong earthquakes in China. In this article we make a brief summary of some problems. The articles published in this special issue are a part of the articles presented on the symposium.

  9. Multiple oscillatory modes of the Argentine Basin. Part II. The spectral origin of the basin modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Vevier, F.; Gille, S.T.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the spectrum of barotropic basin modes of the Argentine Basin is shown to be connected to the classical Rossby basin modes of a flat-bottom (constant depth), rectangular basin. First, the spectrum of basin modes is calculated for the Argentine Basin, by performing a normal-mode analysi

  10. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Micu, Octavian; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-10-01

    We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (the bosons forming the black hole), and a continuous spectrum with energy $\\omega > m$ (representing the Hawking radiation and modelled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature). The $N$-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy $M = N m$ and a Planckian distribution for $E > M$ at the same Hawking temperature. The partition function is then found to yield the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related with the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with $\\omega > m$ is also shown to reduce the Hawking flux and the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass.

  11. stu Black Holes Unveiled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Yeranyan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The general solutions of the radial attractor flow equations for extremal black holes, both for non-BPS with non-vanishing central charge Z and for Z = 0, are obtained for the so-called stu model, the minimal rank-3 N = 2 symmetric supergravity in d = 4 space-time dimensions. Comparisons with previous partial results, as well as the fake supergravity (first order formalism and an analysis of the marginal stability of corresponding D-brane configurations, are given.

  12. Noncommutative black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Dias, N. C.; Prata, J. N.

    2010-04-01

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, η. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  13. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, C; Bertolami, O [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, N C; Prata, J N, E-mail: cbastos@fisica.ist.utl.p, E-mail: orfeu@cosmos.ist.utl.p, E-mail: ncdias@mail.telepac.p, E-mail: joao.prata@mail.telepac.p [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Avenida Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-04-01

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, {eta}. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  14. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, η. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  15. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casadio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce

  16. Black luminescent silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezoldt, Joerg [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologie, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Kups, Thomas [FG Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 1005765, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Stubenrauch, Mike [FG Mikromechanische Systeme, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 1005765, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Fischer, Michael [FG Elektroniktechnologie, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 1005765, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Black silicon is a fascinating multipurpose modification of bulk silicon which can be fabricated in a selforganized structure formation process during dry etching of bare silicon wafer leading to the formation of a high density of silicon needles. The smallest dimension of the tips approaches values between 1 and 2 nm. The silicon nanostructure exhibits an extremely low diffuse reflectivity. The nanosized tips and their coating with fluorine doped nonstoichiometric silicon dioxide are responsible for cathodoluminescence in the blue-green and red regions of the visible spectra (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Holographic Black Hole Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Karch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic quantities associated with black holes in Anti-de Sitter space obey an interesting identity when the cosmological constant is included as one of the dynamical variables, the generalized Smarr relation. We show that this relation can easily be understood from the point of view of the dual holographic field theory. It amounts to the simple statement that the extensive thermodynamic quantities of a large $N$ gauge theory only depend on the number of colors, $N$, via an overall factor of $N^2$.

  18. Black Holes, Black Swans, Black Magic: the Emerging Arts of Project Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Fluor Corporation executive to give Vecellio LectureBlacksburg, VA , September 16, 2013 Virginia Tech College of Engineering Bob Prieto, senior vice president, Fluor Corporation, will present the 2013 Vecellio Distinguished Lecture, titled “Black Holes, Black Swans, Black Magic: the Emerging Arts of Project Execution,” on Friday, Oct. 11 at 4 p.m. in Torgersen 2150. His talk will provide a whirlwind tour of some of the growing challenges in construction project execution and some of the emerg...

  19. Surfing a Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way

  20. Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.

  1. Spacetime Duality of BTZ Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Jeongwon; Kim, Won T.; Park, Young-Jai

    1999-01-01

    We consider the duality of the quasilocal black hole thermodynamics, explicitly the quasilocal black hole thermodynamic first law, in BTZ black hole solution as a special one of the three-dimensional low energy effective string theory.

  2. Stability and critical phenomena of black holes and black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We revisit the general topic of thermodynamical stability and critical phenomena in black hole physics, analyzing in detail the phase diagram of the five dimensional rotating black hole and the black rings discovered by Emparan and Reall. First we address the issue of microcanonical stability of these spacetimes and its relation to thermodynamics by using the so-called Poincare (or 'turning point') method, which we review in detail. We are able to prove that one of the black ring branches is always locally unstable, showing that there is a change of stability at the point where the two black ring branches meet. Next we study divergence of fluctuations, the geometry of the thermodynamic state space (Ruppeiner geometry) and compute the appropriate critical exponents and verify the scaling laws familiar from renormalization group theory in statistical mechanics. We find that, at extremality, the behavior of the system is formally very similar to a second order phase transition

  3. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  4. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  5. The eastern Black Sea-Caucasus region during the Cretaceous: New evidence to constrain its tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosson, Marc; Stephenson, Randell; Sheremet, Yevgeniya; Rolland, Yann; Adamia, Shota; Melkonian, Rafael; Kangarli, Talat; Yegorova, Tamara; Avagyan, Ara; Galoyan, Ghazar; Danelian, Taniel; Hässig, Marc; Meijers, Maud; Müller, Carla; Sahakyan, Lilit; Sadradze, Nino; Alania, Victor; Enukidze, Onice; Mosar, Jon

    2016-01-01

    We report new observations in the eastern Black Sea-Caucasus region that allow reconstructing the evolution of the Neotethys in the Cretaceous. At that time, the Neotethys oceanic plate was subducting northward below the continental Eurasia plate. Based on the analysis of the obducted ophiolites that crop out throughout Lesser Caucasus and East Anatolides, we show that a spreading center (AESA basin) existed within the Neotethys, between Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Later, the spreading center was carried into the subduction with the Neotethys plate. We argue that the subduction of the spreading center opened a slab window that allowed asthenospheric material to move upward, in effect thermally and mechanically weakening the otherwise strong Eurasia upper plate. The local weakness zone favored the opening of the Black Sea back-arc basins. Later, in the Late Cretaceous, the AESA basin obducted onto the Taurides-Anatolides-South Armenia Microplate (TASAM), which then collided with Eurasia along a single suture zone (AESA suture).

  6. Business Plan - Scholar Warriors (confidential)

    OpenAIRE

    Aujla, Kamaljit

    2013-01-01

    This is a business plan for a Martial arts academy which has been adapted to suit the needs of modern society and culture. The academy aims to increase customer value proposition by offering transport for children and teaching from a specially designed syllabus. In addition, childcare services will be offered in the form of an after school club, providing each child with transportation, a healthy meal and academic tuition. A competitive advantage will be achieved by combining these services, ...

  7. Theory "W": The Corporate Warrior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes power structure of corporations functioning under Theory W in which single leaders, in partnership with trusted followers, achieve corporate success. Basis of this industrial structure is attributed to social and developmental structures of prehistoric man and city states. Dimensions of W, X, Y, and Z theories are discussed. (MBR)

  8. Supersymmetric black holes in string theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaupt, T.

    2007-01-01

    We review recent developments concerning supersymmetric black holes in string theory. After a general introduction to the laws of black hole mechanics and to black hole entropy in string theory, we discuss black hole solutions in N=2 supergravity, special geometry, the black hole attractor equations and the underlying variational principle. Special attention is payed to the crucial role of higher derivative corrections. Finally we discuss black hole partition functions and their relation to t...

  9. Thermal BEC black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Casadio, Roberto; Micu, Octavian; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a...

  10. Thermal corpuscular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Casadio, Roberto; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number $N$ of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy $\\omega>m$). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature in the continuum. We first find that, assuming the Hawking radiation is the leading effect of the internal scatterings, the corresponding $N$-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy $M=N\\,m$ and a Planckian distribution for $E>M$ at the same Hawking temperature. From this collective state, we compute the partition function and obtain an entropy which reproduces the usual area law with a logarithmic correction preci...

  11. Virtual Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen William

    1996-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S^2\\times S^2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S^2\\times S^2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix \\ that does not factorise into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the \\theta angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The pic...

  12. Black hole thermodynamical entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsallis, Constantino [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Cirto, Leonardo J.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    As early as 1902, Gibbs pointed out that systems whose partition function diverges, e.g. gravitation, lie outside the validity of the Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) theory. Consistently, since the pioneering Bekenstein-Hawking results, physically meaningful evidence (e.g., the holographic principle) has accumulated that the BG entropy S{sub BG} of a (3+1) black hole is proportional to its area L{sup 2} (L being a characteristic linear length), and not to its volume L{sup 3}. Similarly it exists the area law, so named because, for a wide class of strongly quantum-entangled d-dimensional systems, S{sub BG} is proportional to lnL if d=1, and to L{sup d-1} if d>1, instead of being proportional to L{sup d} (d {>=} 1). These results violate the extensivity of the thermodynamical entropy of a d-dimensional system. This thermodynamical inconsistency disappears if we realize that the thermodynamical entropy of such nonstandard systems is not to be identified with the BG additive entropy but with appropriately generalized nonadditive entropies. Indeed, the celebrated usefulness of the BG entropy is founded on hypothesis such as relatively weak probabilistic correlations (and their connections to ergodicity, which by no means can be assumed as a general rule of nature). Here we introduce a generalized entropy which, for the Schwarzschild black hole and the area law, can solve the thermodynamic puzzle. (orig.)

  13. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  14. Quantum black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Schoutens, K; Verlinde, Erik; Schoutens, Kareljan; Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman

    1993-01-01

    We investigate a recently proposed model for a full quantum description of two-dimensional black hole evaporation, in which a reflecting boundary condition is imposed in the strong coupling region. It is shown that in this model each initial state is mapped to a well-defined asymptotic out-state, provided one performs a certain projection in the gravitational zero mode sector. We find that for an incoming localized energy pulse, the corresponding out-going state contains approximately thermal radiation, in accordance with semi-classical predictions. In addition, our model allows for certain acausal strong coupling effects near the singularity, that give rise to corrections to the Hawking spectrum and restore the coherence of the out-state. To an asymptotic observer these corrections appear to originate from behind the receding apparent horizon and start to influence the out-going state long before the black hole has emitted most of its mass. Finally, by putting the system in a finite box, we are able to deriv...

  15. Black hairy tongue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-08-21

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient's re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

  16. What, no black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipler has claimed that the inward flux of negative energy across the horizon which (according to the semi-classical approximation) accompanies the evaporation of a black hole would cause a solar mass black hole to evaporate in less than a second. It is shown that this claim is in error. (orig.)

  17. Nonlinear Electrodynamics and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, N; Breton, Nora; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    It is addressed the issue of black holes with nonlinear electromagnetic field, focussing mainly in the Born-Infeld case. The main features of these systems are described, for instance, geodesics, energy conditions, thermodynamics and isolated horizon aspects. Also are revised some black hole solutions of alternative nonlinear electrodynamics and its inconveniences.

  18. Black Component of Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Grobov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism of primordial black hole formation with specific mass spectrum is discussed. It is shown that these black holes could contribute to the energy density of dark matter. Our approach is elaborated in the framework of universal extra dimensions.

  19. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  20. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  1. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  2. Reconceptualizing Retirement for Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rose C.

    1987-01-01

    Examined subsample of nonworking older Black Americans (N=295) from the National Survey of Black Americans sample. Found four factors contributed significantly to respondents' unretired-retired status: indistinct line between lifetime and old age work patterns, view that occasional work is necessary, income from other than private pensions, and…

  3. Rejuvenating Chinese Nation and Remolding Its National Spirit---On An Ruoding’s "Doctrine of Warrior Soul"%复兴中华重铸黄魂--安若定的“大侠魂主义”述略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡可涛

    2015-01-01

    安若定的“大侠魂主义”产生于救国救民的社会实践之中。它以“宇宙魂”为本体,以“真情主义”、“热肠主义”、“无畏主义”为主要内容,以“怒观主义”、“美观主义”为认识论,其具体运用涉及到社会人生的方方面面。“大侠魂主义”体现了爱国主义、世界主义和生命主义的思想特质。它代表了一部分中国人对待民族前途与命运的思考,是实现中国民族伟大复兴之途上具有里程碑意义的思想探索。%An Ruoding was a participant of the National Revolution (1924-1927)led by Sun Yat-sen and one of the founders of some patriotic cultural societies active in the national salvation and resistance against Japan movement in the 1930s and 1940s as well as the chairman of the Chinese Young Labor Party,one of progressive parties in the period of Kuo Min Tang (KMT)administration.His"doctrine of warrior soul"originates from his social practice of saving the country and the people.With "the soul of the universe" as its noumenon,"the authentic feeling doctrine","the doctrine of enthusiasm and warm-heartedness",and"the fearless heroism" as its major contents,"the doctrine of indignation" and "the aestheticism" as its epistemology,"the doctrine of warrior soul" covers all aspects of social life in its application. It ideologically embodies patriotism, cosmopolitanism and the life doctrine.It represents some Chinese people’s reflection on the future and the fate of the Chinese nation and has become an ideological milestone in the course of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

  4. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  5. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  6. Prisons of Light - Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kitty

    1998-05-01

    In this jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science, acclaimed science writer Kitty Ferguson examines the discovery of black holes, their nature, and what they can teach us about the mysteries of the universe. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light--Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.

  7. Black Holes and Galaxy Metamorphosis

    CERN Document Server

    Holley-Bockelmann, K

    2001-01-01

    Supermassive black holes can be seen as an agent of galaxy transformation. In particular, a supermassive black hole can cause a triaxial galaxy to evolve toward axisymmetry by inducing chaos in centrophilic orbit families. This is one way in which a single supermassive black hole can induce large-scale changes in the structure of its host galaxy -- changes on scales far larger than the Schwarzschild radius ($O(10^{-5}) \\rm{pc}$) and the radius of influence of the black hole ($O(1)-O(100) \\rm{pc}$). We will discuss the transformative power of supermassive black holes in light of recent high resolution N-body realizations of cuspy triaxial galaxies.

  8. Black holes and the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Garriga, Jaume; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive blac...

  9. Quantum strings and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume

    2001-01-01

    The transition between (non supersymmetric) quantum string states and Schwarzschild black holes is discussed. This transition occurs when the string coupling $g^2$ (which determines Newton's constant) increases beyond a certain critical value $g_c^2$. We review a calculation showing that self-gravity causes a typical string state of mass $M$ to shrink, as the string coupling $g^2$ increases, down to a compact string state whose mass, size, entropy and luminosity match (for the critical value $g_c^2 \\sim (M \\sqrt{\\alpha'})^{-1}$) those of a Schwarzschild black hole. This confirms the idea (proposed by several authors) that the entropy of black holes can be accounted for by counting string states. The level spacing of the quantum states of Schwarzschild black holes is expected to be exponentially smaller than their radiative width. This makes it very difficult to conceive (even Gedanken) experiments probing the discreteness of the quantum energy levels of black holes.

  10. Numerical studies on the dynamics of the Northwestern Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. KOURAFALOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northwestern Black Sea shelf dynamics are studied with numerical simulations based on the Princeton Ocean Model. The study focus is on buoyancy and wind driven flows and on the transport and fate of low salinity waters that are introduced through riverine sources (the Danube, Dnestr and Dnepr Rivers, under the seasonal changes in atmospheric forcing. The study is part of the DANUBS project (NUtrient management in the DAnube basin and its impact on the Black Sea. The numerical simulations show that the coastal circulation is greatly influenced by river runoff and especially that of the Danube, which is dominant with monthly averaged values ranging from 5,000 m3 to 10,000 m3. The transport of low-salinity waters associated with the Danube runoff is greatly influenced by wind stress, topographic effects and basin-scale circulation patterns, such as changes in the position of the Rim Current.

  11. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived 137Cs and 90Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m−3, respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq 137Cs and 22 Bq 90Sr per m3 as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly 90Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of 90Sr and 137Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995–1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths. -- Highlights: • Concentration of 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea water is still relatively high. • The Black Sea continues to receive considerable radionuclide amount from the rivers. • The North-Crimean Canal is significant source of the Black Sea radioactivity. • Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea increased in the late 1990's. • Radionuclide remobilization from sediments leads to a further Black Sea pollution

  12. A taphonomic model for the Mesosauride assemblage of the Irati Formation (Paraná Basin, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, M B

    2003-01-01

    The Irati Formation (Permian, Paraná Basin, Brazil) is made up of a succession of black bituminous and nonbituminous shales and mudstones with interbedded carbonate layers, which record deposition in marine environments. Mesosaur remains are abundant at several sites in this formation, where they occur preserved in centimetre- thick beds and displaying various degrees of skeletal disarticulation. This paper seeks to establish a model to explain the processes that generated the mesosaurian tap...

  13. Slicing black hole spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Donato; Bittencourt, Eduardo; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.

    2015-04-01

    A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand, properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.

  14. Slicing black hole spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.

  15. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 25, 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor)...

  16. Rotating black hole and quintessence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Private Bag 54001, Durban (South Africa)

    2016-04-15

    We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass (M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α = -e{sup 2} ≠ 0 and ω = 1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α = 0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω, there exists a critical rotation parameter (a = a{sub E}), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a < a{sub E}, it describes a nonextremal black hole with Cauchy and event horizons, and no black hole for a > a{sub E}. We find that the extremal value a{sub E} is also influenced by the parameter ω and so is the ergoregion. (orig.)

  17. The renaissance of black phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Wang, Han; Huang, Shengxi; Xia, Fengnian; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-04-14

    One hundred years after its first successful synthesis in the bulk form in 1914, black phosphorus (black P) was recently rediscovered from the perspective of a 2D layered material, attracting tremendous interest from condensed matter physicists, chemists, semiconductor device engineers, and material scientists. Similar to graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), black P has a layered structure but with a unique puckered single-layer geometry. Because the direct electronic band gap of thin film black P can be varied from 0.3 eV to around 2 eV, depending on its film thickness, and because of its high carrier mobility and anisotropic in-plane properties, black P is promising for novel applications in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics different from graphene and TMDs. Black P as a nanomaterial has already attracted much attention from researchers within the past year. Here, we offer our opinions on this emerging material with the goal of motivating and inspiring fellow researchers in the 2D materials community and the broad readership of PNAS to discuss and contribute to this exciting new field. We also give our perspectives on future 2D and thin film black P research directions, aiming to assist researchers coming from a variety of disciplines who are desirous of working in this exciting research field. PMID:25820173

  18. Phase transition in black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    The present thesis is devoted towards the study of various aspects of the phase transition phenomena occurring in black holes defined in an Anti-de-Sitter (AdS) space. Based on the fundamental principles of thermodynamics and considering a grand canonical framework we examine various aspects of the phase transition phenomena occurring in AdS black holes. We analytically check that this phase transition between the smaller and larger mass black holes obey Ehrenfest relations defined at the critical point and hence confirm a second order phase transition. This include both the rotating and charged black holes in Einstein gravity. Apart from studying these issues, based on a canonical framework, we also investigate the critical behavior in charged AdS black holes. The scaling laws for these black holes are found to be compatible with the static scaling hypothesis. Finally, based on the usual framework of AdS/CFT duality, we investigate the phase transition phenomena occurring in charged hairy black holes defined...

  19. A nonsingular rotating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)

  20. Acceleration of Black Hole Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2012-05-01

    An alternative cosmological model called black hole universe has been recently proposed by the author. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole to the present state by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with an infinite number of layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we live, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of space-time, and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. In this study. we will analyze the acceleration of black hole universe that accretes its ambient matter in an increasing rate. We will also compare the result obtained from the black hole universe model with the measurement of type Ia supernova and the result from the big bang cosmology.

  1. Black powder in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

  2. Black Hole Grabs Starry Snack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end. The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light. The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.

  3. A nonsingular rotating black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Durban (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)

  4. K-Basins design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  5. K-Basins design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines

  6. Study of radioactivity among te Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone - results from the NIMH monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the NIMH at BAS investigations of the Black sea radioactivity were initiated in 1978 with a development of a monitoring campaign. Samples of sea waters, sediments and algae were collected from several sampling sites along the coastal zone and measured by gamma-spectrometry. Results on gamma-emitting radio-nuclide's measurements in the Black sea coastal waters were published in the 80's. After the Chernobyl accident during the period between 1986-1989 seasonal-fields sampling campaigns were organised and radioactivity of algae and bottom sediments was estimated. Harmonized sampling strategies, analytical procedures and related data information exchange for radioactivity of seawater, sediment and biota in coastal areas of Black Sea countries were developed under the IAEA TCP Black Sea Project. The present work reports results of the monitoring programme of the NIMH of Bulgaria developed in the frame of the IAEA projects for the Black Sea basin. From 1993 to 2005 regular seasonal sampling was performed in 5 sampling sites along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Results of the dissolved '1'3'7Cs concentrations in sea water, sand, algae, and fish samples are discussed. The data for the different radio-isotopes measured in algae, fish and sea sediment samples are given in comparison with other investigations. A complex assessment of Cs-137 concentrations as important tracer and indicator of the marine processes is made on a long-term basis. (author)

  7. 侠士与武士的社会学特征分析及对现代的影响%The Sociological Characteristics of Swordsmen and Warriors and Their Impacts on Modern Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢明明; 周荣

    2014-01-01

    侠士与武士是中日两国在各自历史时期的特殊历史人物,都为各自社会历史发展做出过重要贡献。通过对两者在人文社会学特征方面的比较分析,得出两者在文化精神、价值观念、道德内涵方面的差异。在此基础上,探讨了侠士精神和武士精神对现代社会的影响。%The Chinese swordsmen and Japanese warriors,known as special heroes in different historical periods,made great contributions to their social development.This paper makes a comparative analysis of the men’s sociological characteristics,figures out their differences in cultural spirit,value and morality and explores the impacts of their spirits on modern society.

  8. Chandler wobble excitation by catastrophic flooding of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boschi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely accepted that during the late Quaternary glaciation the Black Sea formed an isolated inland lake (Ross et al., 1970. New geological data and the recognition of sudden population movements away from the Black Sea coasts suggest that the basin was rapidly flooded through the Bosphorus sill 7150 years bp, causing a sea level rise of ~ 135 m in a few years (Ryan et al., 1997. As shown here, such a catastrophic redistribution of mass has significantly altered the amplitude of the Chandler wobble, the free motion of the pole of rotation around the main inertia axis of the Earth (Lambeck, 1980. We also estimate that during the flooding the pole of rotation was diverted from its secular path and shifted by ~ 30 m, at a rate of several meters per year. These rotational variations are found to be orders of magnitude larger than those produced by other short-term geophysical processes, such as earthquakes seismic moment release (O'Connell and Dziewonski, 1979; Chao et al.,1996, anthropogenic water impoundment (Chao, 1995, and tectonic mass movements (Alfonsi and Spada, 1998. The Black Sea flooding may thus be responsible for the most drastic change in the rotational parameters of the Earth in the recent history of our planet.

  9. The quantum gravitational black hole is neither black nor white

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, T P; Vaz, Cenalo

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the end state of black hole evaporation, the microscopic origin of black hole entropy, the information loss paradox, and the nature of the singularity arising in gravitational collapse - these are outstanding challenges for any candidate quantum theory of gravity. Recently, a midisuperspace model of quantum gravitational collapse has been solved using a lattice regularization scheme. It is shown that the mass of an eternal black hole follows the Bekenstein spectrum, and a related argument provides a fairly accurate estimate of the entropy. The solution also describes a quantized mass-energy distribution around a central black hole, which in the WKB approximation, is precisely Hawking radiation. The leading quantum gravitational correction makes the spectrum non-thermal, thus providing a plausible resolution of the information loss problem.

  10. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lamu basin of south-east Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagah, K.; Cloeter, J.J.; Maende, A. [National Oil Corp. of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1996-12-31

    The Lamu basin occupies the coastal onshore and offshore areas of south-east Kenya. This fault bounded basin formed as a result of the Paleozoic-early Mesozoic phase of rifting that developed at the onset of Gondwana dismemberment. The resultant graben was filled by Karroo (Permian-Early Jurassic) continental siliciclastic sediments. Carbonate deposits associated with the Tethyan sea invasion, dominate the Middle to Late Jurassic basin fill. Cessation of the relative motion between Madagascar and Africa in the Early Cretaceous, heralded passive margin development and deltaic sediment progradation until the Paleogene. Shallow seas transgressed the basin in the Miocene when another carbonate regime prevailed. The basin depositional history is characterized by pulses of transgressive and regressive cycles, bounded by tectonically enhanced unconformities dividing the total sedimentary succession into discrete megasequences. Source rock strata occur within Megasequence III (Paleogene) depositional cycle and were lowered into the oil window in Miocene time, when the coastal parts of the basin experienced the greatest amount of subsidence. The tectono-eustatic pulses of the Tertiary brought about source and reservoir strata into a spatial relationship in which hydrocarbons could be entrapped. A basement high on the continental shelf has potential for Karroo sandstone and Jurassic limestone reservoirs. Halokinesis of Middle Jurassic salt in Miocene time provides additional prospects in the offshore area. Paleogene deltaic sands occur in rotated listric fault blacks. A Miocene reef Play coincides with an Eocene source rock kitchen.

  11. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lamu basin of south-east Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagah, K.; Cloeter, J.J.; Maende, A. (National Oil Corp. of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1996-01-01

    The Lamu basin occupies the coastal onshore and offshore areas of south-east Kenya. This fault bounded basin formed as a result of the Paleozoic-early Mesozoic phase of rifting that developed at the onset of Gondwana dismemberment. The resultant graben was filled by Karroo (Permian-Early Jurassic) continental siliciclastic sediments. Carbonate deposits associated with the Tethyan sea invasion, dominate the Middle to Late Jurassic basin fill. Cessation of the relative motion between Madagascar and Africa in the Early Cretaceous, heralded passive margin development and deltaic sediment progradation until the Paleogene. Shallow seas transgressed the basin in the Miocene when another carbonate regime prevailed. The basin depositional history is characterized by pulses of transgressive and regressive cycles, bounded by tectonically enhanced unconformities dividing the total sedimentary succession into discrete megasequences. Source rock strata occur within Megasequence III (Paleogene) depositional cycle and were lowered into the oil window in Miocene time, when the coastal parts of the basin experienced the greatest amount of subsidence. The tectono-eustatic pulses of the Tertiary brought about source and reservoir strata into a spatial relationship in which hydrocarbons could be entrapped. A basement high on the continental shelf has potential for Karroo sandstone and Jurassic limestone reservoirs. Halokinesis of Middle Jurassic salt in Miocene time provides additional prospects in the offshore area. Paleogene deltaic sands occur in rotated listric fault blacks. A Miocene reef Play coincides with an Eocene source rock kitchen.

  12. Black holes and Higgs stability

    CERN Document Server

    Tetradis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.

  13. Black Hole Bound State Metamorphosis

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Abhishek; Saha, Arunabha; Sen, Ashoke

    2012-01-01

    N=4 supersymmetric string theories contain negative discriminant states whose numbers are known precisely from microscopic counting formulae. On the macroscopic side, these results can be reproduced by regarding these states as multi-centered black hole configurations provided we make certain identification of apparently distinct multi-centered black hole configurations according to a precise set of rules. In this paper we provide a physical explanation of such identifications, thereby establishing that multi-centered black hole configurations reproduce correctly the microscopic results for the number of negative discriminant states without any ad hoc assumption.

  14. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here. PMID:25768747

  15. The Black Hole Information Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Polchinski, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The black hole information problem has been a challenge since Hawking's original 1975 paper. It led to the discovery of AdS/CFT, which gave a partial resolution of the paradox. However, recent developments, in particular the firewall puzzle, show that there is much that we do not understand. I review the black hole, Hawking radiation, and the Page curve, and the classic form of the paradox. I discuss AdS/CFT as a partial resolution. I then discuss black hole complementarity and its limitations, leading to many proposals for different kinds of `drama.' I conclude with some recent ideas.

  16. Evaporation of primordial black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.

    The usual explanation of the isotropy of the universe is that inflation would have smoothed out any inhomogeneities. However, if the universe was initially fractal or in a foam like state, an overall inflation would have left it in the same state. I suggest that the universe did indeed begin with a tangled web of wormholes connecting pairs of black holes but that the inflationary expansion was unstable: wormholes that are slightly smaller correspond to black holes that are hotter than the cosmological background and evaporate away. This picture is supported by calculations with Raphael Bousso of the evaporation of primordial black holes in the s-wave and large N approximations.

  17. Thermodynamics of Lifshitz black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devecioǧlu, Deniz Olgu; Sarıoǧlu, Özgür

    2011-06-01

    We apply the recently extended conserved Killing charge definition of Abbott-Deser-Tekin formalism to compute, for the first time, the energies of analytic Lifshitz black holes in higher dimensions. We then calculate the temperature and the entropy of this large family of solutions, and study and discuss the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Along the way we also identify the possible critical points of the relevant quadratic curvature gravity theories. Separately, we also apply the generalized Killing charge definition to compute the energy and the angular momentum of the warped AdS3 black hole solution of the three-dimensional new massive gravity theory.

  18. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    CERN Document Server

    Solodukhin, S N

    2004-01-01

    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.

  19. Quantum black hole without singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefer, Claus

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the quantization of a spherical dust shell in a rigorous manner. Classically, the shell can collapse to form a black hole with a singularity. In the quantum theory, we construct a well-defined self-adjoint extension for the Hamilton operator. As a result, the evolution is unitary and the singularity is avoided. If we represent the shell initially by a narrow wave packet, it will first contract until it reaches the region where classically a black hole would form, but then re-expands to infinity. In a way, the state can be interpreted as a superposition of a black hole with a white hole.

  20. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  1. Black truffle cultivation: a global reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Reyna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: In recent decades the cultivation of the black truffle Tuber melanosporum has expanded across all the Mediterranean-climate regions, but also to other regions outside the European standard for the species. We aim to describe the current extent of T. melanosporum cultivation.Area of study: Tuber melanosporum plantations in Europe, the Mediterranean basin, Australia, New Zealand, China, America and South Africa.Material and Methods: The socioeconomic impact of T. melanosporum cultivation, the way in which the current situation has been achieved and the knowledge needed for its progress are reviewed.Research highlights: T. melanosporum has been successfully cultivated in several countries outside its natural area, but many practices are still empirical and thus yields cannot be guaranteed. The recent advances in molecular techniques and genome science are helping to overcome some of the difficulties traditionally constraining truffle research. The role of truffles as a transitional element between agricultural and forestry activities makes its cultivation a paradigm of sustainable rural development.Keywords: Tuber melanosporum; Europe; Australia; New Zealand; Chile; USA.

  2. Geochemistry of uranium in the Black Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhorov, V.A.; Bogushlavskij, S.G.; Babinets, A.E.; Solov' eva, L.V.; Kirchanova, A.I.; Kir' yanov, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    According to the results of expedition investigations on the base of SCOICH program (''Acade''Mmician Vernadsky'' and ichael Lomonosov'' shiptrips) main geometrical peculiarities of uranium distribution in deep water of the Black Sea including benthic and silt waters are studied. Sampling have been made from the surface layer across the whole width of the water and from benthic sediments (silt water). Uranium in samples has been determined by the adsorption-colorimetric method. Nonuniform uranium distribution (depending on water dynamics) over the basin area and across the whole width of water is established. Most of uranium is contained in the 0-500 m layer and in the eastern part of the sea. Uranium content decreases in depth, it is higher in the benthic water layer. It is shown that uranium decrease in a hydrogen-sulphide sea zone is conditioned by its reduction due to formation of more adsorption-active forms and effective sedimentation. Causes of differences in uranium content in silt waters have been found. High uranium concentrations in silt waters are confined to active sulphate reduction characterized by elevated values of pHsub(..beta..), alkalinity, Eh. In weak suphate reduction zones (pHsub(..beta..), Alsub(k) value decrease) in silt waters uranium content is lower as a result of sorption-active forms formation and their transition into the solid phase of sediments.

  3. Geochemistry of uranium in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the results of expedition investigations on the base of SCOICH program (''Acade''Mmician Vernadsky'' and ichael Lomonosov'' shiptrips) main geometrical peculiarities of uranium distribution in deep water of the Black Sea including benthic and silt waters are studied. Sampling have been made from the surface layer across the whole width of the water and from benthic sediments (silt water). Uranium in samples has been determined by the adsorption-colorimetric method. Nonuniform uranium distribution (depending on water dynamics) over the basin area and across the whole width of water is established. Most of uranium is contained in the 0-500 m layer and in the eastern part of the sea. Uranium content decreases in depth, it is higher in the benthic water layer. It is shown that uranium decrease in a hydrogen-sulphide sea zone is conditioned by its reduction due to formation of more adsorption-active forms and effective sedimentation. Causes of differences in uranium content in silt waters have been found. High uranium concentrations in silt waters are confined to active sulphate reduction characterized by elevated values of pHsub(#betta#), alkalinity, Eh. In weak suphate reduction zones (pHsub(#betta#), Alsub(k) value decrease) in silt waters uranium content is lower as a result of sorption-active forms formation and their transition into the solid phase of sediments

  4. Accretion, Primordial Black Holes and Standard Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Bibekananda; Singh, Lambodar Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Primordial Black Holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation time of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included.Thus depending on accretion efficiency more and more number of primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the idea that the primordial black holes are the proper candidate for dark matter.

  5. Black Hole Complementary Principle and Noncommutative Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the spirit of black hole complementary principle, we have found the noncommutative membrane of Scharzchild black holes. In this paper we extend our results to Kerr black hole and see the same story. Also we make a conjecture that spacetimes are noncommutative on the stretched membrane of the more general Kerr-Newman black hole.

  6. Graduating Black Males: A Generic Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Black males face a difficult educational battle. Across America, graduation statistics for Black males are sobering. The purpose of this study was to explore why Black males drop out of school and to examine the current employment status of the study participants. The research took place in rural North Carolina. Fifteen Black American male high…

  7. Interracial Sex Contact: Emphasis on Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, James E.

    1977-01-01

    The author discusses different social and historical factors surrounding four kinds of interracial sexual contact: (1) between Blacks from different parts of Africa; (2) between Blacks and American Indians; (3) between Black males and White females; and (4) between White males and Black females. He holds that miscegenation does nothing to solve…

  8. The Core Journal Concept in Black Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissinger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Black Studies scholars have shown interest in the core journal concept. Indeed, the idea of core journals for the study of the Black experience has changed several times since 1940. While Black Studies scholars are citing Black Studies journals with frequency, they also cite traditional disciplinary journals a great deal of the time. However,…

  9. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Nayak; P Singh

    2011-01-01

    Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes are the proper candidates for dark matter.

  10. Towards a Theory of Quantum Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Berezin, V.

    2001-01-01

    We describe some specific quantum black hole model. It is pointed out that the origin of a black hole entropy is the very process of quantum gravitational collapse. The quantum black hole mass spectrum is extracted from the mass spectrum of the gravitating source. The classical analog of quantum black hole is constructed.

  11. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  12. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  13. Cryo-Etched Black Silicon for Use as Optical Black

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karl Y.; White, Victor E.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Eastwood, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Stray light reflected from the surface of imaging spectrometer components in particular, the spectrometer slit degrade the image quality. A technique has been developed for rapid, uniform, and cost-effective black silicon formation based on inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching at cryogenic temperatures. Recent measurements show less than 1-percent total reflectance from 350 2,500 nm of doped black silicon formed in this way, making it an excellent option for texturing of component surfaces for reduction of stray light. Oxygen combines with SF6 + Si etch byproducts to form a passivation layer atop the Si when the etch is performed at cryogenic temperatures. Excess flow of oxygen results in micromasking and the formation of black silicon. The process is repeatable and reliable, and provides control over etch depth and sidewall profile. Density of the needles can be controlled to some extent. Regions to be textured can be patterned lithographically. Adhesion is not an issue as the nanotips are part of the underlying substrate. This is in contrast to surface growth/deposition techniques such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The black Si surface is compatible with wet processing, including processing with solvents, the textured surface is completely inorganic, and it does not outgas. In radiometry applications, optical absorbers are often constructed using gold black or CNTs. This black silicon technology is an improvement for these types of applications.

  14. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  15. Subsurface geology of the upper Devonian-lower Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippi black-shale sequence is an important source of natural gas in eastern Kentucky and with technological advances may be an important source of synthetic oil and uranium on the flanks of the Cincinnati arch. To enhance the understanding and development of these resources in the black-shale sequence, eight isopach maps, eight structure-contour maps and nine isopach maps of highly radioactive black shale were constructed. Structural features including the Rome trough, Rockcastle River uplift, Pine Mountain thrust fault, Kentucky River and Paint Creek fault zones and unnamed basinal areas in Greenup, Pike, and Knott counties were identified on the maps. Faults bounding the Rome trough and other structures were active intermittently throughout Late Devonian time. Other structures show only post-Devonian activity, whereas some show both Devonian and post-Devonian activity. Comparison of structure-contour and isopach maps allow the differentiation of syn- and post-sedimentray structural activity relative to the black-shale sequence. A north-south trending hinge line separates a broad platform area from an area of rapid eastward thickening into the Appalachian basin. Units 7 through 1 progressively onlap the Cincinnati arch; units 4 through 1 cover the arch

  16. Statistical mechanics of extended black objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend the considerations of a previous paper on black hole statistical mechanics to the case of black extended objects such as black strings and black membranes in 10-dimensional space-time. We obtain a general expression for the Euclidean action of quantum black p-branes and derive their corresponding degeneracy of states. The statistical mechanics of a gas of black p-branes is then analyzed in the microcanonical ensemble. As in the case of black holes, the equilibrium state is not thermal and the stable configuration is the one for which a single black object carries most of the energy. Again, neutral black p-branes obey the bootstrap condition and it is then possible to argue that their scattering amplitudes satisfy crossing symmetry. Finally, arguments identifying quantum black p-branes with ordinary quantum branes of different dimensionality are presented

  17. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  18. Switching off black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusion of the back-reaction in the Hawking effect leads to the result that, if vector boson fields predominate in nature, then black holes stop evaporating when their mass reaches a non-vanishing limiting value. (author)

  19. Formation of Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Evidence shows that massive black holes reside in most local galaxies. Studies have also established a number of relations between the MBH mass and properties of the host galaxy such as bulge mass and velocity dispersion. These results suggest that central MBHs, while much less massive than the host (~ 0.1%), are linked to the evolution of galactic structure. In hierarchical cosmologies, a single big galaxy today can be traced back to the stage when it was split up in hundreds of smaller components. Did MBH seeds form with the same efficiency in small proto-galaxies, or did their formation had to await the buildup of substantial galaxies with deeper potential wells? I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I will discuss black hole formation processes for `seed' black holes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and possible observational tests of these scenarios.

  20. Black generation using lightness scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewo, Tomasz J.

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes a method for constructing a lookup table relating a 3D CMY coordinate system to CMYK colorant amounts in a way that maximizes the utilization of the printer gamut volume. The method is based on an assumption, satisfied by most printers, that adding a black colorant to any combination of CMY colorants does not result in a color with more chroma. Therefore the CMYK gamut can be obtained from the CMY gamut by expanding it towards lower lightness values. Use of black colorant on the gray axis is enforced by modifying the initial distribution of CMY points through an approximate black generation transform. Lightness values of a resulting set of points in CIELAB space are scaled to fill the four-color gamut volume. The output CMYK values corresponding to the modified CIELAB colors are found by inverting a printer model. This last step determines a specific black use rate which can depend on the region of the color space.

  1. Black hole thermodynamics from decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Xiao-Kan

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach to the four laws of black hole thermodynamics by utilizing the thermodynamics of quantum coherence. Firstly, Hawking effect is attributed to the decoherence of the two-mode squeezed state in a black hole spacetime. Then use is made of the relative entropy between undecohered and decohered squeezed states whose monotonicity gives the zeroth and the second law, while the first law can be obtained either by the vanishing of the first derivative of relative entropy or by studying the effective thermal model generated by the modular Hamiltonian. Futhermore, information-theoretic arguments give a Planck's form of the third law of black hole thermodynamics. With this approach we can understand the laboratory analogues of black holes solely by quantum theory. This approach also opens a way to reconstruct classical geometry from quantum gravity.

  2. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihajoki, P.

    2016-04-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  3. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Pihajoki, Pauli

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength {\\lambda} = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  4. Black hole interior mass formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We argue by explicit computations that, although the area product, horizon radii product, entropy product, and irreducible mass product of the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are universal, the surface gravity product, the surface temperature product and the Komar energy product of the said horizons do not seem to be universal for Kerr-Newman black hole spacetimes. We show the black hole mass formula on the Cauchy horizon following the seminal work by Smarr [Phys Rev Lett 30:71 (1973), Phys Rev D 7:289 (1973)] for the outer horizon. We also prescribe the four laws of black hole mechanics for the inner horizon. A new definition of the extremal limit of a black hole is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Anatomy of a 2nd-order unconformity: stratigraphy and facies of the Bakken formation during basin realignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Orion; Canter, Lyn; Sonnenfeld, Mark; Williams, Mark [Whiting Oil and Gas Corp., Denver, CO (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Because classic Laramide compressional structures are relatively rare, the Williston Basin is often considered as structurally simple, but because of the presence of numerous sub-basins, simplistic lithofacies generalization is impossible, and detailed facies mapping is necessary to unravel Middle Bakken paleogeography. The unconformity above the Devonian Three Forks is explained by the infilling and destruction of the Devonian Elk Point basin, prepares the Bakken system, and introduces a Mississippian Williston Basin with a very different configuration. Black shales are too often considered as deposits that can only be found in deep water, but to a very different conclusion must be drawn after a review of stratigraphic geometry and facies successions. The whole Bakken is a 2nd-order lowstand to transgressive systems tract lying below the basal Lodgepole, which represents an interval of maximal flooding. This lowstand to transgressive stratigraphic context explains why the sedimentary process and provenance shows high aerial variability.

  6. The Black Hole Universe Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-06-01

    The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin

  7. Comments on Black Holes in Matrix Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Martinec, Emil J.

    1997-01-01

    The recent suggestion that the entropy of Schwarzschild black holes can be computed in matrix theory using near-extremal D-brane thermodynamics is examined. It is found that the regime in which this approach is valid actually describes black strings stretched across the longitudinal direction, near the transition where black strings become unstable to the formation of black holes. It is argued that the appropriate dynamics on the other (black hole) side of the transition is that of the zero m...

  8. Massive Black Holes: formation and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, Martin J.; Volonteri, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Observations have revealed us vast information on the population of local and distant black holes, but the detailed physical properties of these dark massive objects are still to be proven. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. We briefly review here the basic properties of the population of supermassive black holes,...

  9. Regular black hole in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok

    2008-01-01

    We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.

  10. Regular black hole in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find a new black hole in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare the thermodynamics of this black hole with that of a non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. (orig.)

  11. Regular black hole in three dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, Yun Soo [Inje University, Institute of Basic Science and School of Computer Aided Science, Gimhae (Korea); Yoon, Myungseok [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Spacetime, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-07-15

    We find a new black hole in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare the thermodynamics of this black hole with that of a non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. (orig.)

  12. Vacuum metastability with black holes.

    OpenAIRE

    Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evapor...

  13. Energy Extraction from Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Straumann, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    In this lecture I give an introduction to the rotational energy extraction of black holes by the electromagnetic Blandford-Znajek process and the generation of relativistic jets. After some basic material on the electrodynamics of black hole magnetospheres, we derive the most important results of Blandford and Znajek by making use of Kerr-Schild coordinates, which are regular on the horizon. In a final part we briefly describe results of recent numerical simulations of accretion flows on rota...

  14. Black Holes and String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, R C

    2001-01-01

    This is a short summary of my lectures given at the Fourth Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics. These lectures gave a brief introduction to black holes in string theory, in which I primarily focussed on describing some of the recent calculations of black hole entropy using the statistical mechanics of D-brane states. The following overview will also provide the interested students with an introduction to the relevant literature.

  15. Charged rotating noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we complete the program of the noncomutative geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newman-Janis algorithm in the case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.

  16. Charged rotating noncommutative black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto, Leonardo; Nicolini, Piero

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we complete the program of the noncomutative geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newman-Janis algorithm in the case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.

  17. Charged rotating noncommutative black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Modesto, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we complete the program of the Noncomutative Geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newmann-Janis algorithm in case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.

  18. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dain, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the three parameters that characterize the Kerr black hole (mass, angular momentum and horizon area) satisfy several important inequalities. Remarkably, some of these inequalities remain valid also for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this article recent results in this subject are reviewed.

  19. Black holes and cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely accepted that the complete gravitational collapse of a body always yields a black hole, and that naked singularities are never produced (the cosmic censorship hypothesis). The local (or strong) cosmic censorship hypothesis states that singularities which are even locally naked (e.g., to an observer inside a black hole) are never produced. This dissertation studies the validity of these two conjectures. The Kerr-Newman metrics describes the black holes only when M2 greater than or equal to Q2 + P2, where M is the mass of the black hole, a = J/M its specific angular momentum, Q its electric charge, and P its magnetic charge. In the first part of this dissertation, the possibility of converting an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole (M2 = a2 + Q2 + P2) into a naked singularity by the accretion of test particles is considered. The motion of test particles is studied with a large angular momentum to energy ratio, and also test particles with a large charge to energy ratio. The final state is always found to be a black hole if the angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the black hole are all much greater than the corresponding angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the test particle. In Part II of this dissertation possible black hole interior solutions are studied. The Cauchy horizons and locally naked timelike singularities of the charged (and/or rotating) solutions are contrasted with the spacelike all-encompassing singularity of the Schwarzschild solution. It is determined which portions of the analytic extension of the Reissner-Nordstroem solution are relevant to realistic gravitational collapse

  20. Dynamic black-hole entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.; Mukohyama, Shinji; Ashworth, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    We consider two non-statistical definitions of entropy for dynamic (non-stationary) black holes in spherical symmetry. The first is analogous to the original Clausius definition of thermodynamic entropy: there is a first law containing an energy-supply term which equals surface gravity times a total differential. The second is Wald's Noether-charge method, adapted to dynamic black holes by using the Kodama flow. Both definitions give the same answer for Einstein gravity: one-quarter the area ...