WorldWideScience

Sample records for black south african

  1. What do young black South Africans think about AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, D

    1992-07-01

    In South Africa, a fatalistic attitude prevails among young black youth toward prevention of HIV transmission. Many of the 3 million black migrant laborers in single-sex hostels have many partners who are prostitutes. Due to culture, race, and class, black women are so oppressed that they cannot even require sex partners to wear condoms. Blacks perceive condoms as a governmental means to control population growth. The Centre for Health and Social Studies has learned that 14-17 year old blacks have been sexually active for a long time, so it has decided to also market its AIDS prevention program to 11-13 year olds. AIDS has not yet reached epidemic proportions in South Africa, however, and a full scale intervention program implemented between the end of 1992 and mid-1993 could stem the epidemic. The Health and Refugee Trust has developed a data base about the attitudes of South African refugees toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. It plans to distribute educational materials to hostels, squatter settlements, and rural communities. The Transport and General Workers Union has also set up an AIDS prevention program since truckers are at high risk of HIV infection. At the end of 1991, 445,000 people in South Africa have been infected with HIV. Heterosexuality is the predominate mode of HIV transmission among blacks, but among whites, it is homosexuality. Educated, affluent whites tend to be knowledge about AIDS and practice safer sex. Among the working class whites, however, knowledge levels are high, but they do not necessarily practice safer sex. Awareness tends to be quite high among blacks, but they do not generally practice safer sex. South Africa and the US are the only 2 developed countries that do not provide health care for all. This weak system limits AIDS prevention efforts. 80% of whites have health insurance compared with only 7% of blacks. PMID:12317691

  2. South African black generation Y students' perceptions of local black celebrity endorsers' credibility / Boitumelo Vincent Molelekeng

    OpenAIRE

    Molelekeng, Boitumelo Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The use of celebrity endorsers is a popular marketing strategy in many countries. Typically, many marketers believe that using celebrities is a viable marketing strategy for attracting customers, increasing market share and improving sales for their market offerings. The celebrity endorsement strategy using local celebrities is increasing in South Africa. Many South African marketers are now using popular local black celebrities in an attempt to attract the prosperous black emerging middle cl...

  3. Examining the Generalizability of Problem-Solving Appraisal in Black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, P. Paul; Pretorius, T. B.; Wei, Meifen; Lee, Dong-gwi; Wang, Yu-Wei

    2002-01-01

    Examines the generalizability of the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) through research with Black South African samples. The estimates of the factor structure as well as other reliability and validity estimates provided strong support for the generalizability of the PSI to South African Black college students. The results also provided partial…

  4. Fibrinogen concentration and its role in CVD risk in black South Africans - effect of urbanisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Marlien; De Maat, Moniek P. M.; Jerling, Johann C.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Kruger, Annamarie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate correlates of fibrinogen concentration in black South Africans, as well as its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and whether urbanisation influences this association. A total of 1,006 rural and 1,004 urban black South Africans from the PURE s

  5. Adjustment of Black Students at a Historically White South African University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennett, Justin; Finchilescu, Gillian; Gibson, Kerry; Strauss, Rosanna

    2003-01-01

    Examined the adjustment of African black and white freshman students(n=335) at a white South African university. Finds that the black students reported lower levels of social adjustment and personality adjustment, but not differences in academic adjustment or institutional commitment. Includes references. (CMK)

  6. Job-hopping amongst African Black senior management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanyile C.C. Nzukuma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study focuses on understanding labour turnover trends amongst African Black senior managers in South Africa. There is a perception that turnover amongst African Black senior managers is higher than average. There is also a perception that African Black senior managers are only motivated by financial rewards when considering job change.Research purpose: The study focused on understanding why African Black senior managers have a propensity to change jobs and how organisations can resolve the trend.Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the push and pull factors for African Black senior managers in organisations.Research design, approach and method: The research was conducted in two phases, namely as part of a qualitative study and a quantitative study: Creswell (2003 refers to this approach as triangulation. The target population was African Black senior managers on the database of a large Human Resources Consultancy, The South African Rewards Association and the Association of Black Actuaries and Investment Professionals (ABSIP (n = 2600. A total of 208 usable responses were received.Main findings: The main findings and contribution to the field of study was that African Black senior managers do not trust organisations with their career development. They would rather take control of their own career development by moving from organisation to organisation to build their repertoire of skills and competence. They want to be in charge of their careers. This finding has profound implications for organisations employing African Black managers in the senior cadre.Practical/managerial implications: Managers of African Black senior managers need to create attractive employee value propositions that address the main findings. Contribution/value-add: The research shows that African Black senior managers generally seek corporate environments that encourage a sense of belonging and with a clear career growth plan.

  7. Rising diabetes prevalence among urban-dwelling black South Africans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheeta Peer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of and the association of psychosocial risk factors with diabetes in 25-74-year-old black Africans in Cape Town in 2008/09 and to compare the prevalence with a 1990 study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A randomly selected cross-sectional sample had oral glucose tolerance tests. The prevalence of diabetes (1998 WHO criteria, other cardiovascular risk factors and psychosocial measures, including sense of coherence (SOC, locus of control and adverse life events, were determined. The comparison of diabetes prevalence between this and a 1990 study used the 1985 WHO diabetes criteria. RESULTS: There were 1099 participants, 392 men and 707 women (response rate 86%. The age-standardised (SEGI prevalence of diabetes was 13.1% (95% confidence interval (CI 11.0-15.1, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT 11.2% (9.2-13.1 and impaired fasting glycaemia 1.2% (0.6-1.9. Diabetes prevalence peaked in 65-74-year-olds (38.6%. Among diabetic participants, 57.9% were known and 38.6% treated. Using 1985 WHO criteria, age-standardised diabetes prevalence was higher by 53% in 2008/09 (12.2% (10.2-14.2 compared to 1990 (8.0% (5.8-10.3 and IGT by 67% (2008/09: 11.7% (9.8-13.7; 1990: 7.0% (4.9-9.1. In women, older age (OR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.03-1.08, p<0.001, diabetes family history (OR: 3.13, 95%CI: 1.92-5.12, p<0.001, higher BMI (OR: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.20-1.82, p = 0.001, better quality housing (OR: 2.08, 95%CI: 1.01-3.04, p = 0.047 and a lower SOC score (≤ 40 was positively associated with diabetes (OR: 2.57, 95%CI: 1.37-4.80, p = 0.003. Diabetes was not associated with the other psychosocial measures in women or with any psychosocial measure in men. Only older age (OR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.02-1.08, p = 0.002 and higher BMI (OR: 1.10, 95%CI: 1.04-1.18, p = 0.003 were significantly associated with diabetes in men. CONCLUSIONS: The current high prevalence of diabetes in urban-dwelling South Africans, and the likelihood of further rises given the high

  8. Physical activity energy expenditure and sarcopenia in black South African urban women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, Herculina S.; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J.; Tieland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) we

  9. Private Sector Investment in Black Education and Training: Rescuing South African Capitalism from Apartheid's Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Andre

    1989-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the factors contributing to increased involvement by South African business and industry in Black education and training; (2) the Urban Foundation's commitment to non-formal education in Black communities; (3) intervention by American corporations; and (4) the dramatic failure of capitalist initiatives. Contains 55 references. (SV)

  10. Black Economic Empowerment Disclosures by South African Listed Corporations: The Influence of Ownership and Board Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ntim, Collins G.; Soobaroyen, Teerooven

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which South African listed corporations voluntarily disclose information on black economic empowerment (BEE) in their annual and sustainability reports using a sample of 75 listed corporations from 2003 to 2009. BEE is a form of socio-economic affirmative action championed by the African National Congress (ANC)-led government to address historical imbalances in business participation and ownership in South Africa. We find that block ownership and institut...

  11. Employers' perceptions of Black South African English usage / Henrietta Ntombi Tlaka

    OpenAIRE

    Tlaka, Henrietta Ntombi

    2001-01-01

    The common usage of Black South African English (BSAE) forms the main focus of this study. Its usage by members of the black population has caused a major debate on language standards and usage, and acceptance of BSAE as a variety of English. The purpose of this study was to establish employers' perceptions of BSAE usage by employees (and prospective employees). The employers' preferences, views on re-standardisation of English and the usage of English in South Africa were established. ...

  12. The Genetics of POAG in Black South Africans: A Candidate Gene Association Study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Susan E. I.; Carmichael, Trevor R.; Allingham, R. Rand; Hauser, Michael; Ramsay, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Multiple loci have been associated with either primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or heritable ocular quantitative traits associated with this condition. This study examined the association of these loci with POAG, with central corneal thickness (CCT), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and with diabetes mellitus in a group of black South Africans (215 POAG cases and 214 controls). The population was homogeneous and distinct from other African and European populations. Single SNPs in the MYOC,...

  13. Black economic empowerment in the South African coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    South Africa has experienced great change and progress in the ten years since the end of apartheid and the inauguration of its first democratic government. Back in 1994, many were concerned about whether such a young and fragile democracy could survive. The new government needed to unify the country, while bringing about the significant change necessary to address the massive racial inequality at the heart of the apartheid system. The article explains actions and initiatives taken under the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) programme, one of which is the establishment of Eyesizwe Coal. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  14. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea

    2006-01-01

    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  15. Understanding consumption patterns of the established and emerging South African black middle class

    OpenAIRE

    Ronelle Burger; Megan Louw; Brigitte Barbara Isabel de Oliveira Pegado; Servaas van der Berg

    2014-01-01

    Existing empirical research on consumption patterns of the South African black middle class leans either on the theory of conspicuous consumption or culture-specific utility functions. This paper departs from treatment of the black middle class as a homogenous group. By differentiating between a securely established group, with characteristics and consumption patterns similar to the white middle class, and an emerging group, often with weaker productive characteristics, it formally introduces...

  16. Sex discrimination from the glenoid cavity in black South Africans: morphometric analysis of digital photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, P James

    2011-11-01

    Given that skeletal material recovered from medicolegal contexts is often incomplete or damaged, forensic anthropologists need to have a variety of techniques at their disposal in order to correctly determine the sex of unidentified human remains. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to produce practical standards for discriminating the sex of black South Africans using measurements of the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Standardized digital photographs of the left glenoid fossa were taken for 60 males and 60 females drawn from the Pretoria Bone Collection. An image analysis software program was then used to collect height, breadth, area, and perimeter data from each digital photograph. All four dimensions of the glenoid cavity were highly sexually dimorphic in this population group (p Classification sex biases were below 5.0% for all equations. These results demonstrate that the analysis of glenoid cavity size provides a highly accurate method for discriminating the sex of black South Africans. PMID:20814691

  17. Cancer prevention: attitudes and practices among black South African university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to investigate the attitudes and practices of cancer prevention among Black South African university students.

    Opsomming
    Die doelwit van hierdie navorsing was om die houdings en praktyke vir die voorkoming van kanker onder swart studente aan Universiteite in Suid Afrika na te vors. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  18. Education services and resilience processes: Resilient Black South African students' experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Linda C. Theron; Adam M.C. Theron

    2014-01-01

    The resilience literature is increasingly drawing attention to formal service provision as a means for social ecologies to support children's and youths' positive adjustment to challenging life circumstances. This article interrogates the universality and simplicity of this argument. Using a secondary data analysis of the life stories of 16 resilient, Black South African students from impoverished families, we show that education services predominated students' childhood and youth experie...

  19. The genetics of POAG in black South Africans: a candidate gene association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan E I; Carmichael, Trevor R; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael; Ramsay, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Multiple loci have been associated with either primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or heritable ocular quantitative traits associated with this condition. This study examined the association of these loci with POAG, with central corneal thickness (CCT), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and with diabetes mellitus in a group of black South Africans (215 POAG cases and 214 controls). The population was homogeneous and distinct from other African and European populations. Single SNPs in the MYOC, COL8A2, COL1A1 and ZNF469 gene regions showed marginal associations with POAG. No association with POAG was identified with tagging SNPs in TMCO1, CAV1/CAV2, CYP1B1, COL1A2, COL5A1, CDKN2B/CDKN2BAS-1, SIX1/SIX6 or the chromosome 2p16 regions and there were no associations with CCT or VCDR. However, SNP rs12522383 in WDR36 was associated with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.00008). This first POAG genetic association study in black South Africans has therefore identified associations that require additional investigation in this and other populations to determine their significance. This highlights the need for larger studies in this population if we are to achieve the goal of facilitating early POAG detection and ultimately preventing irreversible blindness from this condition. PMID:25669751

  20. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M.; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1(act)) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1(act) and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, fu

  1. The Frequency of Cytochrome P450 2E1 Polymorphisms in Black South Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Chelule

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1 gene reportedly modify the metabolic activity of CYP2E1 enzyme, and have been associated with increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oesophagus in high prevalence areas such as China. To assess the frequency of these polymorphisms in Black South Africans, a population with a high incidence of oesophageal SCC, this study examined genomic DNA from 331 subjects for restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 (RsaI and PstI digestion. The frequency of the CYP2E1 c1/c1 and c1/c3 genotypes was 95% and 5% respectively. The frequency of the CYP2E1 allele distribution was found to be markedly different between Chinese and South African populations; hence it is important to place racial differences into consideration when proposing allelic variants as genetic markers for cancer.

  2. Portraits of resilience : writing a socio-cultural history of a black South African location with the Ngilima photographic collection. Benoni, 1950s-1960s.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feyder, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    This thesis engages with the ongoing debate regarding how photographs can contribute to the writing of black South African history. In the field of South African visual history, a significant literature explores the “white gaze” that emanates from the administrative and missionary photographic archi

  3. Tobacco use among black South African university students: attitudes, risk awareness and health locus of control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Peltzer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To provide data on African/black South African university students’ tobacco use status, belief in the benefits to health of not smoking, risk awareness in terms of knowledge of the links between smoking and disease, health locus of control, value for health, subjective health status and well-being. Design: Cross sectional. Setting: University of the North Subjects: 793 Black University students from non-health courses chosen by random sampling, of these 370 (46.7% were males and 423 (53.3% were females in the age range of 18 to 25 years (M age 21.0 years, SD=3.48. Main Outcome Measures: A measure of smoking, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, the Health as a Value Scale, and a measure for subjective health and subjective well-being. Results: The average prevalence of current tobacco use was 15% in men and 1% in women. The proportion of tobacco users who were classified as light users (1-10 per day averaged 10% in men and 1% in women. Age and being male were significantly positively associated with status and frequency of tobacco use. Awareness of the link between smoking and lung cancer was high (93%, but awareness of the role of smoking in heart disease was very low (16%. The importance to health of not smoking was associated with smoking status (non-smoking versus smoking. Overall, 75% of the current smokers stated that they would like to reduce the amount they smoked. Poor subjective health status and low subjective well-being was associated with smoking status. No significant differences were found among non-tobacco users and tobacco users in relation to the three subscales of the Health Locus of Control (Internal, Chance, and Powerful others and Value for health. Conclusion: For about 9% of the male students investigated, a high risk exists to become regular tobacco users for the next 30 years.

  4. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relebohile Phatoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation.Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and ‘othering’. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof.

  5. The Association of Endothelin-1 with Markers of Arterial Stiffness in Black South African Women: The SABPA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Susara du Plooy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data exist regarding endothelin-1 (ET-1, a vasoactive contributor in vascular tone, in a population subjected to early vascular deterioration. We compared ET-1 levels and explored its association with markers of arterial stiffness in black and white South Africans. Methodology. This cross-sectional substudy included 195 black (men: n=99; women: n=95 and 197 white (men: n=99; women: n=98 South Africans. Serum ET-1 levels were measured as well as markers of arterial stiffness (blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and arterial compliance. ET-1 levels were higher in black men and white women compared to their counterparts after adjusting for C-reactive protein. In both single and partial (adjusting for body mass index and gamma glutamyl transferase regression analyses ET-1 correlated with age, interleukin-6, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity in black women. In multivariate regression analyses the independent association of ET-1 with systolic blood pressure (Adj. R2=0.13; β=0.28, p<0.01 and pulse pressure (Adj. R2=0.11; β=0.27, p<0.01 was confirmed in black women only. ET-1 additionally associated with interleukin-6 in black women (p<0.01. Conclusion. Our result suggests that ET-1 and its link with subclinical arteriosclerosis are potentially driven by low-grade inflammation as depicted by the association with interleukin-6 in the black female cohort.

  6. Satisfaction with personal and environmental quality of life: a black South African informal settlement perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Westaway

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted with 487 black adult residents of a South African informal settlement (151 men and 336 women to ascertain satisfaction with personal and environmental quality of life. It was hypothesised that: (1 health status and life satisfaction were the underlying dimensions of personal quality of life (PQOL; (2 health status and life satisfaction were more strongly associated with PQOL than environmental quality of life (EQOL; and (3 life satisfaction and satisfaction with EQOL were positively related. Seventy per cent of respondents rated their health as good or better. Age, schooling and employment status were significantly related to health, life satisfaction and PQOL. Reliability (internal consistency coefficients were 0.77 for the 5-item life satisfaction scale and 0.82 for the 12-item EQOL measure. Factor analysis showed that safety and security was the major unmet service need. Health status and life satisfaction explained 38% of the variance in PQOL; health status explained only 4% of the variance in EQOL. Life satisfaction was significantly related to EQOL (r = 0.16, p = 0.01. The results provided support for all three hypotheses. It was concluded that the life satisfaction and EQOL measures had good reliability; there was a definite need for a safety and security programme; and good health was a more important predictor of PQOL than EQOL.

  7. Predictors of success for african black physiotherapy students in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mbambo-Kekana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available high school performance and aptitude tests are usually used to predict success at university, but this may not be applicable when the ethnic group of the student is considered. The aim of this study was to investigate factors  that  predict  success  of  African  black  students  in  physiotherapy programmes and whether these factors are influenced by race. A mixed methods approach was used. one hundred and twenty eight graduates who graduated between 2000 and 2005 from eight universities in South Africa and six heads of Physiotherapy Departments participated in the research. A  postal  questionnaire  comprising  closed  and  open-ended questions was used  for  graduate  and  in-depth  interviews  were conducted  with  heads  of Departments. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive analysis as well as inferential statistics using Chi square tests and logistic regression. Qualitative data was analysed using content analysis. of the participants, 59% of the African black students were successful compared to 90% of the white students.  A significant association was found between race and success with factors such as sharing a residence room, obtaining information about university support systems from classmates, feeling part of the group of classmates and choosing physiotherapy as the first choice of career being predictors of success. Students also highlighted determination to succeed and become a physiotherapist, financial and family support, and a favourable learning environment to contribute to success. HOD interviews associated adequate knowledge about the physiotherapy profession, proficiency in the language of instruction, academic discipline, relevant support and integration in the class with success. It is recommended that matriculation results should not be the only predictors of success but tertiary institutions should consider broader factors such as residential accommodation and a

  8. Reconsidering the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African proverb about the locust’s head in the context of poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndikho Mtshiselwa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While South Africa attained liberation from the apartheid rule in 1994, the legacy of colonialism and apartheid – in the form of poverty and economic inequality – continues to haunt black South Africans. The aim of this article is to make a case for the equitable sharing of South Africa’s mineral wealth amongst all its citizens with the view to alleviate poverty. Firstly, this article provides a reflection on the Freedom Charter and suggests that the values of the Charter, for instance, the sharing of resources and wealth, are relevant in South Africa today. Secondly, it is argued in the present article that the preferential option for the poor which is upheld in the black theology of liberation is equally relevant in post-apartheid South Africa where many black South Africans remain poor. Thirdly, this article argues that the African proverb, Bana ba motho ba ngwathelana hlogo ya tšie [The siblings share the head of a locust], also echoes the idea of equitable sharing of resources with a view to alleviate poverty. Lastly, the author submits that the idea of equitable sharing of resources and wealth that is echoed in the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African wise saying support the equitable redistribution of the mineral wealth to the benefit of all South Africans.

  9. A group of black South Africans' experience of telling their untold stories about the apartheid era / Jacques Vermeulen

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The aim or this research was to explore a group of black South Africans' experiences of telling their untold stories of survival about the apartheid era. The expectation was that if they did become more aware of these alternative stories, it could have a far-reaching effect on their lives. Research indicates that when attention is given to these narratives they may be a powerful tool in not only recovering the story but also in focusing on the survivors' own consciousness and g...

  10. The chimera of redistribution: 'Black Economic Empowerment' (BEE) in the South African fishing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ponte, Stefano; van Sittert, Lance

    2006-01-01

    Redistributive processes do not belong to the pantheon of Neo-liberalism. In this framework, inequality of resources can only be addressed by equality of opportunity. Even in ‘softer’ impersonations of Neo-liberalism, corporate (mis)behaviour is tamed by corporate social responsibility, not by state disciplinary action. Yet, in the context of post-apartheid South Africa, the state can not ignore political pressure for redistribution, even if only rhetorically. The process of Black Economic Em...

  11. White South Africans' Reactions to Black Advancement: A Two-Sample Confirmatory Investigation of the Structure of Attitude Using an Analogy to the Multitrait-Multimethod Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Terence R.; Chemel, Charles S.

    1991-01-01

    A questionnaire measuring affective, conative, and cognitive responses to 3 aspects of Black advancement in the workplace was administered to 128 White English-speaking and 140 Afrikaans-speaking South Africans. Results of confirmatory, single-group, and multigroup analyses of the data indicate that the structures were very similar across the…

  12. Gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health among Black South African men who have sex with men: A further exploration of unexpected findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Sandfort; H. Bos; J. Knox; V. Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated,

  13. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms, dietary fat intake, obesity and serum lipid concentrations in black and white South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Yael T; van der Merwe, Lize; Evans, Juliet; Collins, Malcolm; Lambert, Estelle V; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H

    2014-06-24

    This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat intake adiposity increased in the IVS3 +281 GT+GG and IVS4 +869 AA or AG genotypes. In white women, with increasing omega-3 (n-3) intake and decreasing n-6:n-3 ratio, body mass index (BMI) decreased in those with the -174 C allele, IVS3 +281 T allele and IVS4 +869 AG genotype. In the white women, those with the IVS3 +281 T allele had lower triglycerides. Further, with increasing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA); triglyceride and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (T-C:HDL-C) ratio decreased in those with the -174 C allele. In black women, with increasing total fat intake, triglycerides and T-C:HDL-C ratio increased in those with the IVS4 +869 G allele. This study is the first to show that dietary fat intake modulates the relationship between the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white SA women.

  14. Gatekeeping and its impact on father involvement among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makusha, Tawanda; Richter, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Involved and caring fatherhood contributes to the health and wellbeing of children, women and men. The corollary is also true - men, women and children are affected when fathers are not involved or supportive of their children. Many factors affect fathers' involvement, including women's attitudes, the history and nature of the relationship between mother and father, and the cultural context. This study explores gatekeeping and its impact on father involvement among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Among married couples, gatekeeping occurs with respect to childcare and housework through women's attempts to validate their maternal identity according to socially and culturally constructed gender roles. Among unmarried, non-resident parents, women control father-child contact and involvement, with mothers and/or their families either facilitating or inhibiting father involvement. In this context, we found that cultural gatekeeping had a huge impact on father involvement, with the non-payment of inhlawulo or lobola regulating father-child involvement. In a country like South Africa, where there is high non-marital fertility and father-child non-residence, future research, parenting and family programmes should focus on strategies that encourage positive paternal involvement as well as maternal and cultural support for father involvement, regardless of parental relationship and residence status. PMID:26501893

  15. REDUCED GLUTEAL EXPRESSION OF ADIPOGENIC AND LIPOGENIC GENES IN BLACK SOUTH AFRICAN WOMEN IS ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY-RELATED INSULIN RESISTANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H.; Evans, Juliet; Keswell, Dheshnie; Stimson, Roland H.; Livingstone, Dawn E.W.; Hayes, Philip; Adams, Kevin; Dave, Joel A.; Victor, Hendriena; Levitt, Naomi S.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Walker, Brian R.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Olsson, Tommy; Kahn, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Black South African women are less insulin sensitive than their white counterparts, despite less central and greater peripheral fat deposition. We hypothesized that this paradox may be explained, in part, by differences in the adipogenic capacity of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Objective To measure adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in abdominal and gluteal SAT depots, and determine their relationships with insulin sensitivity (SI) in South African women. Design Cross-sectional. Participants 14 normal-weight (BMI 30 kg/m2) black and 13 obese white premenopausal South African women. Main outcomes SI (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) in relation to expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in abdominal and gluteal SAT depots. Results With increasing BMI, black women had less visceral fat (P=0.03) and more abdominal (P=0.017) and gynoid (P=0.041) SAT but had lower SI (P<0.01) than white women. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes was proportionately lower with obesity in black, but not white women in the gluteal and deep SAT depots (P<0.05 for ethnicity x BMI effect). In black women only, the expression of these genes correlated positively with SI (all P<0.05), independently of age and fat mass. Conclusions Obese black women have reduced SAT expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes compared to white women, which associates with reduced SI. These findings suggest that obesity in black women impairs SAT adipogenesis and storage, potentially leading to insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21956425

  16. In search of genetic markers for nonsyndromic deafness in Africa: a study in Cameroonians and Black South Africans with the GJB6 and GJA1 candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Jason; Lebeko, Kamogelo; Nziale, Jean Jacques Noubiap; Dandara, Collet; Makubalo, Nomlindo; Wonkam, Ambroise

    2014-07-01

    Deafness is the most common sensory disability in the world and has a variety of causes. Globally, mutations in GJB2 have been shown to play a major role in nonsyndromic deafness, but this has not been seen in Africans. Two other connexin genes, GJB6 and GJA1, have been implicated in hearing loss but have seldom been investigated in African populations. We set out to investigate the role of genetic variation in GJB6 and GJA1 in a group of Cameroonian and South African Blacks with nonsyndromic recessive hearing loss. A subset of 100 patients, affected with nonsyndromic hearing loss, from a cohort that was previously shown not to have GJB2 mutation, was analyzed by Sanger sequencing of the entire coding regions of GJB6 and GJA1. In addition, the large-scale GJB6-D3S1830 deletion was also investigated. No pathogenic mutation was detected in either GJB6 or GJA1, nor was the GJB6-D3S1830 deletion detected. There were no statistically significant differences in sequence variants between patients and controls. Mutations in GJB6 and GJA1 are not a major cause of nonsyndromic deafness in this group of Africans from Cameroon and South Africa. Currently, there is no sufficient evidence to support their testing in a clinical setting for individuals of African ancestry.

  17. The professional identity of black South African teachers : personal and professional struggles in a disjunction between policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Problem area for discussion This thesis sets out to describe and deliberate on the concept of the professional identity of black teachers in South Africa. The historical and cultural context of South Africa stretching from apartheid rule to the first years of democratisation creates a frame around this study, within which I have investigated the life and work of this professional group who performs a very significant job in the process of developing a young democracy. Although this study ...

  18. Life "Inside the Shell" A Needs Survey of Spinal Cord-Injured Wheelchair Users in a Black South African Township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Jacklyn

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes experiences of 88 Black spinal cord-injured and wheelchair bound adults living in Soweto, South Africa. Discrimination in the areas of income, education, housing, transport, social attitudes, family life, and social participation are reported by the respondents. (DB)

  19. An investigative study of the experiences of elderly people in a South African black township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Chigali

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences which impact on aspects of the lives and sense of well-being of elderly people in a township in South Africa in order to make recommendations for future service delivery. A cross- sectional, qualitative survey was carried out in Mfuleni Township, a part of the Cape Metropolitan Region in the Western Cape.  Sixteen people of ages ranging from 60-82 years were conveniently selected from a group of elderly people who meet regularly at a community centre. Data were collected through focused  group discussions and unstructured interviews. Analysis of data revealed three main categories namely, psychological/ emotional, socio-economic and health, under which different themes emerged. The experiences of individuals in a given society may vary, but somehow, their basic rights tend to be universal as revealed by the literature. Loneliness and isolation, lack of recreation facilities, loss of dignity and respect, poor health services and lack of shelter are some of the experiences expressed by the elderly people in this sample. These experiences highlight the need for clearly stated policies andcommitment by governmental and non-governmental structures, appropriate health service strategies and improved socio-economic standards supported by properly researched data.

  20. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia P. Steyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544, stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E and women (33.4%E in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01 in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016, saturated fat (p = 0.001, monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002 and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046. Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001. Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers.

  1. Secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted Black South African Boys living in a township in the North West Province

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Herculina Salome; Mamabolo, Ramoteme Lesley; Monyeki, Makama Andries; Pienaar, Anita Elizabeth; Toriola, Abel; Van Ridder, Johannes Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    It is known that sexual maturation is dependent on genetic and environmental factors and socio-economic status. The purpose of this study was to describe secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted black South African boys from a low socio-economic status living in a township in the North West Province. A total of 129 boys aged 12 to 16 years participated in the study. Height and weight were measured according to the standard protocol suggested by the International Society of ...

  2. Foraging ecology of an endemic shorebird, the African Black Oystercatcher ( Haematopus moquini) on the south-east coast of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Sophie; Bonnevie, Bo; McQuaid, Christopher; Jaquemet, Sébastien

    2009-09-01

    We investigated small-medium (1-300 km) scale variation in the foraging ecology of the African Black Oystercatcher during its breeding season, using traditional diet analysis coupled with carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Fieldwork was conducted between January and March 2006 and 2007, on rocky shores on the south-east coast of South Africa at East London, Kenton and Port Elizabeth. Middens of shelled prey left by adults feeding their chicks were collected from five territories and the abundances of the collected prey on the foraging areas were estimated using quadrats. Blood samples from 45 birds (16 females, 10 males and 19 chicks) and tissues from the predominant prey species on the territory of each breeding pair were collected for isotope analysis. The Manly-Chesson selectivity index revealed that adults feed their chicks preferentially with the limpet Scutellastra cochlear and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, if available. A slight enrichment in the 15N stable-carbon isotope signature was observed towards the west in both prey and oystercatchers. Differences in isotope signatures between males and females from the same breeding pair indicate sex-related differences in the diet. Both had signatures indicating a mixed diet, but with males exhibiting a signature closer to that of limpets and females closer to that of mussels. In the single case where mussels were rare on the feeding territory, the two members of a pair showed carbon signatures which were identical and very similar to that of limpets. These results indicate dietary partitioning between genders in breeding pairs.

  3. Hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations among South African black Generation Y students / Riané Cherylise Zeeman

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeman, Riané Cherylise

    2013-01-01

    With the South African retail industry being a major and attractive industry, marketers and retailers are pressured to obtain and maintain a competitive advantage by developing marketing strategies that appeal to various consumers. Retailers need to focus on satisfying consumers’ needs, as well as offering a full shopping experience. Shopping entails more than the mere selection of products. Consumers’ motivation or driving force behind the act of shopping is embedded in satisfying internal n...

  4. Antibodies against six human herpesviruses in relation to seven cancers in black South Africans: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruff P

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with certain human herpesviruses have been established as risk factors for some cancer types. For example, Epstein-Barr Virus is considered a cause of Burkitt's lymphoma and other immunosuppression related lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal cancer. Several other human herpesviruses have been linked to cancers but the totality of evidence is inconclusive. Methods We conducted a systematic sub-study from within an ongoing case control study of adult black South Africans to investigate the relationship between antibodies to six human herpesviruses and seven cancer groups that may be caused by infectious agents. Subjects had incident cancers of the oral cavity(n = 88, the cervix(n = 53, the prostate(n = 66, Hodgkin lymphoma(n = 83, non-Hodgkin lymphoma(n = 80, multiple myeloma(n = 94 or leukaemia(n = 203. For comparison, patients with other cancers(n = 95 or cardiovascular disease(n = 101 were randomly selected from within the study. Patients were interviewed and their blood was tested for IgG antibodies against HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV-EBNA, CMV and HHV-6 using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Because these viruses are highly prevalent in this population, optical density results from the assays were used as an indirect, quantitative measure of antibody level. Results There was significant variation in the mean log antibody measures for HSV-2, VZV, CMV and HHV-6 between the disease groups. However, none of the specific cancer groups had significantly higher mean log antibody measures for any of the viruses compared to either control group. In a more detailed examination of seven associations between cancers and herpesviruses for which there had been prior reports, two statistically significant associations were found: a decreasing risk of myeloid leukaemia and an increasing risk of oral cancer with increasing tertiles of antibodies against HHV-6 compared to all other patients (p-trend = 0.03 and 0

  5. Black doctors and discrimination under South Africa's apartheid regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digby, Anne

    2013-04-01

    This article discusses an under-researched group and provides an analytical overview of the comparative experiences of African, Indian and Coloured doctors at South African universities during the apartheid era. It probes diversity of experience in training and practice as well as gendered differentiation amongst black students before going on to discuss the careers and political activism of black doctors as well as the impact of recent transformational change on their position. It briefly assesses how singular this South African experience was.

  6. A preliminary factor analytic investigation into the firstorder factor structure of the Fifteen Factor Plus (15FQ+ on a sample of Black South African managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seretse Moyo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The Fifteen Factor Questionnaire Plus (15FQ+ is a prominent personality questionnaire that organisations frequently use in personnel selection in South Africa.Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to undertake a factor analytic investigation of the first-order factor structure of the 15FQ+.Motivation for the study: The construct validity of the 15FQ+, as a measure of personality, is necessary even though it is insufficient to justify its use in personnel selection.Research design, approach and method: The researchers evaluated the fit of the measurement model, which the structure and scoring key of the 15FQ+ implies, in a quantitative study that used an ex post facto correlation design through structural equation modelling. They conducted a secondary data analysis. They selected a sample of 241 Black South African managers from a large 15FQ+ database.Main findings: The researchers found good measurement model fit. The measurement model parameter estimates were worrying. The magnitude of the estimated model parameters suggests that the items generally do not reflect the latent personality dimensions the designers intended them to with a great degree of precision. The items are reasonably noisy measures of the latent variables they represent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should use the 15FQ+ carefully on Black South African managers until further local research evidence becomes available.Contribution/value-add: The study is a catalyst to trigger the necessary additional research we need to establish convincingly the psychometric credentials of the 15FQ+ as a valuable assessment tool in South Africa.

  7. Coal: a South African success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boers, R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the South African coal mining industry, including exports domestic use of coal, coal geology and mining methods, employment, labour relations, benefits and social amenities provided for workers, safety and environmental aspects including land reclamation. Also discusses the implications of sanctions on coal and the mining industry, and argues that sanctions have not achieved and cannot achieve the stated objective of the social and political emancipation of black South Africa. Concludes that in order to defeat apartheid, South Africa, needs economic growth and encouragement for those attempting reform.

  8. The South African Woman and the Immigrant Lover: Myths and Dynamics of Cross-Border Love Relationships in a Post-Apartheid South African Community

    OpenAIRE

    Tafira, Chimusoro Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Love relationships between black South African women and immigrant men have not been given adequate attention by researchers of migration, refugee studies, and those concerned with anti-immigrant attitudes and violence. In this paper, based on ethnographicr esearch conducted in the Alexandra township of Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2009, I argue that cross-border love relationships provoke sexual and racial jealousies between the two sets of manhood: South African and black African immigran...

  9. An overview of South African psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa. PMID:22432681

  10. An overview of South African psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa.

  11. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelda de Lange

    Full Text Available Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT. We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009 but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%. Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  12. Switching on After Nine: Black gay-identified men's perceptions of sexual identities and partnerships in South African towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Joanne E; Tocco, Jack Ume; Osmand, Thomas; Sandfort, Theo; Lane, Tim

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable diversity, fluidity and complexity in the expressions of sexuality and gender among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some non-gay identified MSM are known colloquially by gay-identified men in Mpumalanga, Province, South Africa, as 'After-Nines' because they do not identify as gay and present as straight during the day but also have sex with other men at night. Based on, key informant interviews and focus group discussions in two districts in Mpumalanga, we explored Black gay-identified men's perceptions of and relationships with After-Nine men, focusing on sexual and gender identities and their social consequences. Gay-identified men expressed ambivalence about their After-Nine partners, desiring them for their masculinity, yet often feeling dissatisfied and exploited in their relationships with them. The exchange of sex for commodities, especially alcohol, was common. Gay men's characterisation of After-Nines as men who ignore them during the day but have sex with them at night highlights the diversity of how same-sex practicing men perceive themselves and their sexual partners. Sexual health promotion programmes targeting 'MSM' must understand this diversity to effectively support the community in developing strategies for reaching and engaging different groups of gay and non-gay identified men. PMID:26878380

  13. Quo vadis South African universities?

    OpenAIRE

    Johann RE lutjeharms

    2007-01-01

    The Economist has recently identified some specific factors that explain why European universities are not competing adequately with their American counterparts. These factors are used here to evaluate South African government policy for universities. It is demonstrated that this current policy is directly contrary to what is now internationally considered best for universities in a knowledge economy.

  14. "Six Packs and Big Muscles, and Stuff like That". Primary School-Aged South African Boys, Black and White, on Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the salience of sport in the lives of eight-year-old and nine-year-old South African primary school boys. Drawing on ethnographic and interview data, I argue that young boys' developing relationship with sport is inscribed within particular gendered, raced and classed discourses in South Africa. Throughout the paper I show…

  15. In black south africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. de Lange (Zelda); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman); T. Hoekstra (Tiny); K.R. Conradie (Karin); J.C. Jerling (Johann); M. Pieters (Marlien)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractData on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysi

  16. Urban–rural and gender differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet and physical activity among young black South Africans between 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheeta Peer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs have increased in South Africa over the past 15 years. While these usually manifest during mid-to-late adulthood, the development of modifiable risk factors that contribute to NCDs are usually adopted early in life. Objective: To describe the urban–rural and gender patterns of NCD risk factors in black adolescents and young adults (15- to 24-year-olds from two South African Demographic and Health Surveys conducted 5 years apart. Design: An observational study based on interviews and measurements from two cross-sectional national household surveys. Changes in tobacco and alcohol use, dietary intake, physical inactivity, and overweight/obesity among 15- to 24-year-olds as well as urban–rural and gender differences were analysed using logistic regression. The ‘Surveyset’ option in Stata statistical software was used to allow for the sampling weight in the analysis. Results: Data from 3,186 and 2,066 black 15- to 24-year-old participants in 1998 and 2003, respectively, were analysed. In males, the prevalence of smoking (1998: 21.6%, 2003: 19.1% and problem drinking (1998: 17.2%, 2003: 15.2% were high and increased with age, but in females were much lower (smoking – 1998: 1.0%, 2003: 2.1%; problem drinking – 1998: 4.2%, 2003: 5.8%. The predominant risk factors in females were overweight/obesity (1998: 29.9%, 2003: 31.1% and physical inactivity (2003: 46%. Urban youth, compared to their rural counterparts, were more likely to smoke (odds ratio (OR: 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.09–1.75, have high salt intake (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.12–2.78, be overweight/obese (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.14–1.69, or be physically inactive (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12–1.89. However, they had lower odds of inadequate micronutrient intake (OR: 0.46, 95% CI 0.34–0.62, and there was no overall significant urban– rural difference in the odds for problem drinking but among females the odds were higher in

  17. ON THE CHOICE ADDRESS FORMS: INTIMATE ADDRESS FORMS AS IN-GROUP IDENTITY MARKERS OF BLACK SOUTH AFRICANS IN 'INVICTUS' MOVIE

    OpenAIRE

    Prihantoro Prihantoro

    2012-01-01

    Invictus is a movie which is adapted from a true story of how the South African President, Nelson Mandela, tried to unite South Africa by supporting the national rugby team, Springbok, which used to be the symbol of Apartheid. His relation with other characters in this movie is reflected from the address forms and the choice is influenced by many aspects like social distance among the participants, age difference, formality scale etc. This paper focuses on the choice of address forms used amo...

  18. South African AIDS plan criticised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidley, P

    1998-10-17

    In a television broadcast, Deputy President Mbeki of South Africa announced a campaign against HIV/AIDS that would involve coordination between various government departments and nongovernmental organizations. Mbeki, who is associated with Virodene (a drug treatment for AIDS that is considered a scam), replaced President Mandela at the last minute in the broadcast. Two days after the broadcast, the government refused to support treatment of pregnant women infected with HIV with zidovudine to prevent transmission of the virus to the baby. The treatment is considered cost-effective by AIDS workers and public health officials. According to Mark Heywood of the AIDS law project at Witwatersrand University, 16% of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were HIV-positive in 1997; this means that about 3 million South Africans (8% of the population) were living with HIV. Heywood said that the government believes there are 1500 new cases daily. By the end of 1998, 3.5 million South Africans will be living with HIV. Although the government is asking other sectors to join in the campaign, what the government is doing is unclear. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is second only to transmission of the virus through heterosexual sex in South Africa. PMID:9841037

  19. "Outstanding Individuals Do Not Arise from Ancestrally Poor Stock": Racial Science and the Education of Black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Stephen W.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the construction of racial scientific discourse within the milieu of an extremely racially segregated society. Traces the influence of capitalism, racism, Social Darwinism, eugenics, and "racial science" on the pedagogy of modern apartheid in South Africa. Finds evidence of pervasive effects of "scientific" ideas on public policy and…

  20. Schooling in Black and White: Assimilationist Discourses and Subversive Identity Performances in a Desegregated South African Girls' School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Research on school desegregation in South Africa has largely documented an assimilationist process. As in educational contexts elsewhere, the assimilationist position presupposes that learners from non-dominant groups are made to change their ways of being on entering schools from which they were previously excluded. Drawing on an ethnographic…

  1. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008) and Zoo City (2010) are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published i...

  2. Perspectives of Black South African Managers Regarding Advancement into Senior Corporate Management Positions: Implications for Human Resource Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mokoele, Johannes Matata

    1997-01-01

    South Africa (SA) is undergoing a transformation of governance from apartheid to a new country of inclusion and involvement of previously disenfranchised groups. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) is as an official document to guide efforts at nation-building. Human resource development (HRD) is a key component. As used in this study, HRD is broadly conceptualized as the deployment of human resources for the purposes of nation- building in SA. Consequently, an integral par...

  3. Effectiveness of selected marketing activities in creating brand equity in the South african clothing market amongst black Generation Y students

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, Heleneze-Tiane

    2015-01-01

    The global fashion market is an increasingly desirable industry sector for many marketers. The apparel and textile industry, in particular, is one of the largest and most globalised industries worldwide. The fashion industry is experiencing significant change due to clothing retailers transforming into transnational businesses, thereby increasing the availability of clothing fashion brands in more countries worldwide. In South Africa, the fashion retail industry is experiencing a proliferatio...

  4. Schistosomes in South African penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhoun, Jitka A; Horne, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009-2012, faeces of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus L.) from South African rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. In total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. Their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. Selected DNA fragments (18S, 28S and ITS rDNA) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in GenBank. The shape of the eggs suggests that they belong to the genus Gigantobilharzia; however, due to the insufficient stage of knowledge of the genus and limited number of species available for comparison, we were not able to assign the isolate unambiguously to this genus based on either the egg morphology or the results of molecular analysis.

  5. Mycotoxins in South African traditionally brewed beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhav, B; Naicker, V

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally brewed alcoholic beverages are regularly consumed by most ethnic black South Africans. Maize and barley, both of which are used for producing locally brewed alcoholic beer, are frequently contaminated by mycotoxin-producing moulds. The study was undertaken to investigate whether these toxins are present in raw grains and the traditional beers imbibed by the local black African population. It was established that the raw ingredients (sorghum, sorghum malt grains, maize grits), commercially produced traditional beers (Utshwala and Utshwala special) and home-brewed beers (Umqombotha, Isiqatha, Imfulamfula) were contaminated by bacteria and fungi (both yeasts and moulds). The contaminating moulds were isolated and identified. The contaminated samples were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, zearalenone, citrinin, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A using a multi-mycotoxin thin-layer chromatography screening method and the toxins were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Grain samples were infected by. Aspergillus flavus, A. alliaceus, A. clavatus, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. Sorghum malt grain samples contained the toxin zear alenone. No mycotoxin-producing fungi were present in the fermented beers but two of six commercial beer samples contained aflatoxins (200 and 400 microg l(-1) and 45% (13 of 29) of the home-brewed beers had zear alenone (range 2.6-426 microg l(-1) and/or ochratoxin A (3-2340 microg l(-1). PMID:11811766

  6. The response of South African professional psychology associations to apartheid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, L J

    1990-01-01

    Professional psychology associations in South Africa have overtly and covertly furthered the aims of apartheid. Guidance about the ethical obligations of psychologists in the South African context has been singularly lacking, and as a result blacks have not been attracted to the profession of psychology in sufficient numbers to administer to psychological needs of the client population. The political dimension of psychological practice in South Africa needs to be addressed directly so that healing strategies relevant to the burgeoning racial conflict in South Africa can be implemented.

  7. AN ALTERNATIVE VIEW OF SOUTH AFRICAN ARTILLERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Lillie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been said that 'Necessity is the mother of invention' and there can be few countries, if any, where this is more true than in South Africa.In the late 1930's, prior to World War II, the South African Artillery was severely restricted due to its lack of mobility. The inventiveness shown in tackling this probelm is surely not a thing of the past and the possiblity of adapting South African artillery to current South african needs in warfare should not be overlooked. The South African Defence Force is not able to purchase armament in a free and open market place and the costs of developing new artillery are prohibitive in a country of South Africa's size. it will be argued that it is necessary and possible, in the short term, to take what is currently available and adapt this to South Africa's needs.

  8. Disability and masculinity in South African autosomatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken J. Lipenga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the representation of disability by disabled black South African men as portrayed in two texts from the autosomatography genre, which encompasses first-person narratives of illness and disability. Drawing on extracts from Musa E. Zulu’s The language of me and William Zulu’s Spring will come, the article argues that physical disability affects heteronormative concepts of masculinity by altering the body, which is the primary referent for the construction and performance of hegemonic masculinity. In ableist contexts, the male disabled body may be accorded labels of asexuality. This article therefore reveals how male characters with disabilities reconstruct the male self by both reintegrating themselves within the dominant grid of masculinity and reformulating some of the tenets of hegemonic masculinity.

  9. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  10. Professor Bennie van der Walt: a bridge between white Afrikaners and black Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Turaki

    2010-01-01

    This article honours Professor Bennie van der Walt as a bridge builder between white Afrikaners and black Africans as well as a renowned Christian scholar. Historical Western colonialism in South Africa divided its citizens against each other by means of white racism and apartheid. The whites in general were pitched against the blacks on the basis of white racism and its doctrine of apartheid. This doctrine of separation of races kept the white Afrikaners from the Bantu Africans. However, apa...

  11. A high burden of hypertension in the urban black population of Cape Town: the cardiovascular risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheeta Peer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, associations and management of hypertension in the 25-74-year-old urban black population of Cape Town and examine the change between 1990 and 2008/09 in 25-64-year-olds. METHODS: In 2008/09, a representative cross-sectional sample, stratified for age and sex, was randomly selected from the same townships sampled in 1990. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were determined by administered questionnaires, clinical measurements and fasting biochemical analyses. Logistic regression models evaluated the associations with hypertension. RESULTS: There were 1099 participants, 392 men and 707 women (response rate 86% in 2008/09. Age-standardised hypertension prevalence was 38.9% (95% confidence interval (CI: 35.6-42.3 with similar rates in men and women. Among 25-64-year-olds, hypertension prevalence was significantly higher in 2008/09 (35.6%, 95% CI: 32.3-39.0 than in 1990 (21.6%, 95% CI: 18.6-24.9. In 2008/09, hypertension odds increased with older age, family history of hypertension, higher body mass index, problematic alcohol intake, physical inactivity and urbanisation. Among hypertensive participants, significantly more women than men were detected (69.5% vs. 32.7%, treated (55.7% vs. 21.9% and controlled (32.4% vs. 10.4% in 2008/09. There were minimal changes from 1990 except for improved control in 25-64-year-old women (1990∶14.1% vs. 2008/09∶31.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The high and rising hypertension burden in this population, its association with modifiable risk factors and the sub-optimal care provided highlight the urgent need to prioritise hypertension management. Innovative solutions with efficient and cost-effective healthcare delivery as well as population-based strategies are required.

  12. Burden of Diabetes and First Evidence for the Utility of HbA1c for Diagnosis and Detection of Diabetes in Urban Black South Africans: The Durban Diabetes Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, Thomas R.; Pirie, Fraser J.; Esterhuizen, Tonya M.; O’Leary, Brian; McCarthy, Mark I.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Motala, Ayesha A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is recommended as an additional tool to glucose-based measures (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] and 2-hour plasma glucose [2PG] during oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]) for the diagnosis of diabetes; however, its use in sub-Saharan African populations is not established. We assessed prevalence estimates and the diagnosis and detection of diabetes based on OGTT, FPG, and HbA1c in an urban black South African population. Research Design and Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster sampling of adults aged ≥18 years in Durban (eThekwini municipality), KwaZulu-Natal. All participants had a 75-g OGTT and HbA1c measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the overall diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c, using OGTT as the reference, and to determine optimal HbA1c cut-offs. Results Among 1190 participants (851 women, 92.6% response rate), the age-standardised prevalence of diabetes was 12.9% based on OGTT, 11.9% based on FPG, and 13.1% based on HbA1c. In participants without a previous history of diabetes (n = 1077), using OGTT as the reference, an HbA1c ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%) detected diabetes with 70.3% sensitivity (95%CI 52.7–87.8) and 98.7% specificity (95%CI 97.9–99.4) (AUC 0.94 [95%CI 0.89–1.00]). Additional analyses suggested the optimal HbA1c cut-off for detection of diabetes in this population was 42 mmol/mol (6.0%) (sensitivity 89.2% [95%CI 78.6–99.8], specificity 92.0% [95%CI: 90.3–93.7]). Conclusions In an urban black South African population, we found a high prevalence of diabetes and provide the first evidence for the utility of HbA1c for the diagnosis and detection of diabetes in black Africans in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27560687

  13. Are ethnic and gender specific equations needed to derive fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance in children of South asian, black african-Caribbean and white European origin? Results of the assessment of body composition in children study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500. Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z; B: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z; C: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z+weight}. RESULTS: Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A. The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A. Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations

  14. The Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa: A Product of The Entire Black World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgwebi Snail

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo ilustra cómo el surgimiento del Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica puede estar diametralmente unido a la emergencia de los movimientos de Conciencia Negra y Black Power en América. Pretende demostrar además cómo, en el contexto africano, el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra fue impulsado por el nacionalismo africano y cómo ese nacionalismo fue moldeado y transformado por pensadores africanos de la década de los 50 y 60 en el Panafricanismo. El artículo también mostrará similitudes y diferencias entre la Negritud Africana y el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra. El texto de nuevo explicará de manera cronológica cómo el Garveyismo, la Conciencia Negra en América y el nacionalismo africano, la personalidad africana y la Negritud en África contribuyeron al surgimiento del Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica. El estudio advierte de que la falta de comprensión de estos antecedentes, podría llevar a la confusión y a una mala interpretación de concepto vital en la historia de África. Finalmente, este trabajo busca hacer hincapié en la historización del desarrollo del por qué el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica no puede estar divorciado del contexto global.____________________ABSTRACT:The paper illustrates how the rise of the Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa can be diametrically tied up with the emergence of the Black Consciousness and Black-Power Movements in America. It goes further to demonstrate how, in the African context, the Black Consciousness Movement was given impetus by African nationalism and how that nationalism was later moulded and shaped by African thinkers of the 1950’s and 1960’s into Pan Africanism. The paper, will also try to show similarities and the disparities between Negritude African personality and the Black Consciousness Movement. The paper will again explain in a chronological manner how Garveyism, Black Consciousness in America and African Nationalism in

  15. Sequencing of GJB2 in Cameroonians and Black South Africans and comparison to 1000 Genomes Project Data Support Need to Revise Strategy for Discovery of Nonsyndromic Deafness Genes in Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Jason; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Dandara, Collet; Makubalo, Nomlindo; Wright, Galen; Entfellner, Jean-Baka Domelevo; Tiffin, Nicki; Wonkam, Ambroise

    2014-11-01

    Mutations in the GJB2 gene, encoding connexin 26, could account for 50% of congenital, nonsyndromic, recessive deafness cases in some Caucasian/Asian populations. There is a scarcity of published data in sub-Saharan Africans. We Sanger sequenced the coding region of the GJB2 gene in 205 Cameroonian and Xhosa South Africans with congenital, nonsyndromic deafness; and performed bioinformatic analysis of variations in the GJB2 gene, incorporating data from the 1000 Genomes Project. Amongst Cameroonian patients, 26.1% were familial. The majority of patients (70%) suffered from sensorineural hearing loss. Ten GJB2 genetic variants were detected by sequencing. A previously reported pathogenic mutation, g.3741_3743delTTC (p.F142del), and a putative pathogenic mutation, g.3816G>A (p.V167M), were identified in single heterozygous samples. Amongst eight the remaining variants, two novel variants, g.3318-41G>A and g.3332G>A, were reported. There were no statistically significant differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls. Principal Components Analyses differentiated between Africans, Asians, and Europeans, but only explained 40% of the variation. The present study is the first to compare African GJB2 sequences with the data from the 1000 Genomes Project and have revealed the low variation between population groups. This finding has emphasized the hypothesis that the prevalence of mutations in GJB2 in nonsyndromic deafness amongst European and Asian populations is due to founder effects arising after these individuals migrated out of Africa, and not to a putative "protective" variant in the genomic structure of GJB2 in Africans. Our results confirm that mutations in GJB2 are not associated with nonsyndromic deafness in Africans.

  16. South African Artillery in the Eighties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Lillie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from the Second World War armed with the then completely adequate 25 pounder and BL 5.5" guns, the South African Field Artillery continued to use the same guns operationally over thirty years later.When the armed forces of South Africa were thrown into a conventional conflict during the Angolan Civil War in 1975, the gunners found their equipment to be woefully inadequate. Soviet made artillery systems in the hands of the Russian-backed forces possessed ranges far in excess of the Second World War vintage South African systems and brought home in a very real way the need for drastic modernisation of the artillery branch of the South African Army.

  17. Sexual dimorphism in cranial morphology among modern South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Gabriele Christa; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Stull, Kyra E; Kenyhercz, Michael W

    2015-07-01

    Pattern expressions of morphoscopic cranial traits vary across populations with classification accuracies being highly dependent on the reference collection to which unknown skulls are compared. Despite recent developments in population-specific standards for South Africans, researchers have not addressed the accuracy of morphological methods. Several studies demonstrate differences in sexual dimorphism between South Africans and North Americans, warranting a need to re-evaluate sex estimation methods in South Africa. The purposes of this study were to test the reliability and accuracy of the Walker (2008) method and to examine patterns of sexual dimorphism among South Africans. A total of 245 modern Black and White South African male and female crania from the Pretoria Bone Collection, University of Pretoria, were scored using the Walker (2008) methodology. Cohen's kappa was used to evaluate reliability of the method, and percent correct assessed validity of the method. Logistic regression was utilised to create modified population-specific formulae. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was moderate to excellent (0.60-0.90), except for the mental eminence (0.40). The percent correct results for sex were 80% or higher for combinations of glabella, mastoid and menton and between 68% and 73% for menton, mastoid, orbital and nuchal margin using logistic equations of Walker (2008). White males had the highest (94-97%) and White females had the lowest (31-62%) percent correct. The low accuracies obtained when using Walker's (2008) equations emphasised the need for population-specific sex estimation models. Modified formulae for South Africans were created, yielding higher classification rates (84-93%) than when North American standards were employed. PMID:25394745

  18. "You Must Know Where You Come From": South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural…

  19. Change, organisational culture and the development of the South African Military Academy to 2009.

    OpenAIRE

    G.E. Visser; G. A. J. Van Dyk

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of change and organisational culture on the growth and development of the South African Military Academy. It explores the impact of Nationalist Party rule since 1948 and black majority rule since 1994 on the institutional culture of the South African military and how that influenced the development of the Military Academy. This is intertwined with an investigation of the nature and impact of the diverging military and academic subcultures at...

  20. Producing permanence: employment, domesticity and the flexible future on a South African border farm

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    What does it mean to be ‘permanent’ in an increasingly flexible world of work? On the Zimbabwean-South African border, white farmers guard against risk by investing in portfolios of estates and emphasizing their mobility. But the farms rely on core black workforces of resident ‘general workers’, known as mapermanent. The lives of mapermanent embody temporal contradictions in South African agriculture. Work regimes depend on arrangements established through long-term residence in labour compou...

  1. Dual Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco among South African Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantao, Masego; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors associated with dual use of tobacco products in a population of black South African adolescents. Methods: Data were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed by a representative sample of grade 8 students from 21 randomly selected secondary state schools in the Limpopo Province, South Africa (n =…

  2. Eating attitudes, body image satisfaction and self-esteem of South African Black and White male adolescents and their perception of female body silhouettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study of urban high schools in Johannesburg, South Africa, sought to examine eating attitudes, body image and self-esteem among male adolescents (n = 391). Anthropometric measurements, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Rosenberg self-esteem, body image satisfaction and perception of females were collected at age 13, 15 and 17 years. Descriptive analysis was done to describe the sample, and non-parametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test was used to test for significant differences between data that were not normally distributed (EAT-26). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analyses were conducted to test for associations between self-esteem scores and eating attitudes, body mass indices and body image satisfaction scores. To assess the differences between groups that were normally distributed chi-square tests were carried out. Ethnic differences significantly affected adolescent boys' body mass index (BMI), eating attitudes and self-esteem; White boys had higher self-esteem, BMI and normal eating attitudes than the Black boys did. BMI was positively associated with self-esteem (p = 0.01, r = 0.134) and negatively with dieting behaviour in White boys (p = 0.004, r = -0.257), and with lower EAT-26 bulimic and oral control scores in Black boys. In conclusion, the findings highlight ethnic differences and a need to better understand cultural differences that influence adolescent attitudes and behaviour.

  3. Capacity Building in South African Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGruder, Charles H.; Dunsby, Peter; Whitelock, Patricia; Norris, Lawrence; Assamagan, Ketevi; Holbrook, Jarita; Imara, Nia; Oluseyi, Hakeem; Medupe, Thebe

    2016-01-01

    South Africa (SA) has had great success in creating major astronomical facilities - SALT, KAT and MeerKAT. However, the existing SA astronomical community is almost entirely white. The lack of black scientists (80% of SA population is black) is obviously one of the many legacies of apartheid and a major initiative was required to rectify the situation. The National Astrophysics and Space Science Program (NASSP) is aimed at ensuring the development of high level physics skills within SA, and specifically takes graduates with bachelor's degrees in math or the physical sciences and prepares them to do PhDs in astrophysics and related disciplines. However, in 2003 when NASSP was established, there were no black SA astronomers, who could act as role models and mentors. This jeopardized the chances of success of NASSP and with it astronomy in SA. An American organization, the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) received a $355,000 grant from the WK Kellogg Foundation to increase the number of black SA astronomers. It enabled African American scientists - both professionals and students - to participate in NASSP. The African American professionals taught NASSP courses and acted as role models and mentors. The project was an overwhelming success. From its beginning in 2003, the NASSP honors program graduates have gone on to a Master's or PhD program at a rate of 60% (USA rate: 35%). American participation started in 2008. In the very next year the number of black students jumped dramatically, reaching 80% in 2013 and this level continued in 2010-2014. We believe this increase and its maintenance is in large part due to bringing black SA students from SA historically black colleges for two weeks to expose them to astronomy, to a one year program to allow them to catch up academically and to the mentoring activities of the members of NSBP.

  4. Caring School Leadership: A South African Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vyver, Cornelius P.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Meyer, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals' rating of their care-giving and…

  5. Changing governance structures in South African agribusiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyer, O.T.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Rooyen, van C.J.; Kirsten, J.F.; Haese, D' L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the changing governance structures in the South African agri-food sector. Changing legislative and market conditions forced agribusiness managers to rethink their governance structures to ensure the competitiveness of the agri-food sector. They had to adapt to the new structure

  6. The South African species of Teucrium (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available While writing up the three South African species of  Teucrium for the Flora o f Southern Africa it became necessary to replace two well-known names as follows:  T. trifidum Retz. (1779 ( = T.  capense Thunb., 1800 and  T. kraussii Codd  {=T. riparium Hochst., 1845, non Rafin., 1838.

  7. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  8. Co-evolution between the South African venture capital industry and the South [African] government

    OpenAIRE

    Aluko, Olumide Mayowa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the current discourse around co-evolution, this study investigates co-evolution between the South African venture capital industry and the South African government. Using a qualitative method which involved gathering data from archival sources and contemporary interviews, this study extends the growing literature on the co-evolution of organizations and their institutional environment in three ways. First, the study shows that the co-evolution that occurs between or...

  9. 'They think that gays have money': gender identity and transactional sex among Black men who have sex with men in four South African townships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masvawure, Tsitsi B; Sandfort, Theo G M; Reddy, Vasu; Collier, Kate L; Lane, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Transactional sex has not been studied much among men who have sex with men in Africa. Consequently, little is understood about attitudes towards the practice, the circumstances that give rise to it or how transactional sex relationships are managed. We conducted in-depth interviews with 81 Black men aged 20-44 from four low-resourced townships in Tshwane, South Africa. We found that transactional sex was a widely used strategy for initiating and sustaining relationships with regular and casual partners, and was motivated by both the need for subsistence and for consumption. Alcohol-based exchanges in particular provided men in the townships with a covert and safe platform to communicate erotic, sexual and romantic attraction to other men, and bars and other drinking places were a popular venue for meeting potential sexual partners. The majority of 'feminine-identifying' men had engaged in transactional sex as the providers of money and material goods compared to men who identified as either 'masculine' or as 'both masculine and feminine'. Surprisingly, however, this did not necessarily give them greater control in these relationships. Our study provides an initial foray into a complex sociosexual phenomenon and suggests that gender identity is an important construct for understanding transactional sex relationships among men in Africa. PMID:25714033

  10. Physical activity and physical fitness profiles of South African women

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Madelein; Strydom, Gert Lukas; Wilders, Cilas Jacobus

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the leisure time physical activity (LTPA) participation and physical fitness (PF) levels of South African women of the various ethnic groups. Individuals between the ages of 30 and 60 years (=41.0; ±=4.6) who were part of a cross-sectional non-randomized availability population who voluntarily participated, were used in this study. The group that formed part of the physical activity survey included 3273 subjects (Asian =262; black=1357; coloured=239;...

  11. An expanded analysis of pharmacogenetics determinants of efavirenz response that includes 3'-UTR single nucleotide polymorphisms among Black South African HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelize eSwart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Efavirenz (EFV is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor prescribed as part of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. Despite administration of fixed doses of EFV, inter-individual variability in EFV plasma concentrations has been reported. Poor treatment outcomes such as the development of adverse drug reactions or treatment failure have been linked to EFV concentrations outside the therapeutic range (1 - 4 µg/mL. The drug metabolising enzyme (DME, CYP2B6, is primarily responsible for EFV metabolism with minor contributions by CYP2A6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, UGT2B7 and CYP1A2. Genes coding for DMEs have been shown to be regulated by microRNAs through targeting the 3'-untranslated region. Genetic variation in the 3'-UTR, in addition to genetic variation in the coding regions, could potentially be used to explain a larger proportion of the inter-individual variability observed in drug response. Methods: SNPs in CYP1A2, CYP2B6, UGT2B7 and NR1I2 (PXR were selected for genotyping among 222 Bantu-speaking South African HIV-infected patients receiving EFV-containing HAART. This study is a continuation of earlier pharmacogenetics studies emphasizing specifically the role of genetic variation in the 3'-UTR of genes which products are either pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic targets of EFV.Results: In addition to CYP2B6 c.516G>T and c.983T>C SNPs, the CYP2B6 c.1355A>G SNP was identified as pharmacogenetics determinant of EFV concentration among CYP2B6 intermediate and extensive metabolisers (carriers of either c.516G/G+c.983T/T or c.516G/G+c.983T/C or c.516G/T+c.983T/T genotypes. NR1I2 c.522C>T and NR1I3 c.239-1089T>C SNPs were predictors of EFV concentration among CYP2B6 poor metabolisers (carriers of either c.516T/T or c.983C/C or both c.516G/T and c.983T/C genotypes.Conclusion: Genotyping results provide support for comprehensive studies of genetic variation in the 3'-UTR of genes coding for DMEs and their

  12. The South African Consumer Market

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Martins

    2007-01-01

    Investors interested in the private consumer market of South Africa have to take note of the size of the market but also of the diversity of its population as well as the methods of segmentation followed by the advertising media. South Africa houses 47 million people of different race groups and has 11 official languages. The country consists of nine provinces and vast differences occur among some of them in their population composition and economic activities. In the light of the above, this...

  13. Rethinking "relevance": South African psychology in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wahbie

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the phenomenon known as the "relevance debate" in South African psychology. It begins with a historical overview of the contours of the discipline in that country before describing the controversy's international dimensions, namely, the revolutionary politics of 1960s higher education and the subsequent emergence of cognate versions of the debate in American, European, and "Third World" psychology. The article then details how South Africa's "relevance" project enjoyed a special affinity with an assortment of ethnic-cultural, national, and continental myths and metaphors, all of which served the interests of the political formations of the day. It discusses how, in present-day South Africa, the intelligentsia has become an important catalyst for the so-called African Renaissance, which seeks to provide "relevant" solutions for the regeneration of African society. However, the global hegemony of what began in the 1970s as a "second academic revolution," aided by the lifting of the academic boycott of South Africa, has blunted the once critical edge of "relevance" discourse. A new mode of knowledge production now holds sway, the outcome of a dramatic reformulation of the capitalist manifesto in which the values of the "May 68" generation have been hijacked by a managerialist rationality. In light of the capitalization of the knowledge-production enterprise, it is concluded that the idiom of "relevance" has outlived its usefulness. PMID:23421936

  14. Validation of the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire in 1st generation Black African-Caribbean and South Asian UK migrants: A sub-study to the Ethnic-Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening (E-ECHOES study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Stanley

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We determined the diagnostic accuracy of the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire (ECQ in 1st generation Black African-Caribbean UK migrants as previous diagnostic questionnaires have been found to be less accurate in this population. We also determined the diagnostic accuracy of translated versions of the ECQ in 1st generation South Asian UK migrants, as this has not been investigated before. Methods Subjects were recruited from the Ethnic-Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening (E-ECHOES study, a community based screening survey for heart failure in minority ethnic groups. Translated versions of the ECQ were prepared following a recognised protocol. All participants attending screening between October 2007 and February 2009 were asked to complete the ECQ in the language of their choice (English, Punjabi, Bengali, Urdu, Hindi or Gujarati. Subjects answering positively to experiencing leg pain or discomfort on walking were asked to return to have Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI measured. Results 154 out of 2831 subjects participating in E-ECHOES (5.4% were eligible to participate in this sub-study, for which 74.3% returned for ABPI assessment. Non-responders were younger than participants (59[9] vs. 65[11] years; p = 0.015. Punjabi, English and Bengali questionnaires identified participants with Intermittent Claudication, so these questionnaires were assessed. The sensitivities (SN, specificities (SP, positive (PPV and negative (NPV predictive values were calculated. English: SN: 50%; SP: 68%; PPV: 43%; NPV: 74%. Punjabi: SN: 50%; SP: 87%; PPV: 43%; NPV: 90%. Bengali: SN: 33%; SP: 50%; PPV: 13%; NPV: 73%. There were significant differences in diagnostic accuracy between the 3 versions (Punjabi: 83.8%; Bengali: 45%; English: 62.2%; p Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ECQ is not as sensitive or specific a diagnostic tool in 1st generation Black African-Caribbean and South Asian UK migrants than in the Edinburgh

  15. "Community Psychology Is for Poor, Black People": Pedagogy and Teaching of Community Psychology in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolissen, Ronelle; Rohleder, Poul; Bozalek, Vivienne; Swartz, Leslie; Leibowitz, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The term "community" holds historical connotations of political, economic, and social disadvantage in South Africa. Many South African students tend to interpret the term "community" in ways that suggest that community and community psychology describe the experiences of exclusively poor, black people. Critical pedagogies that position the…

  16. A South African perspective on global imbalances

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, G.

    2011-01-01

    Financial inflows into South African financial markets have resumed in 2009 and gained momentum in 2010, largely as a result of low interest rates and an oversupply of liquidity in advanced economies. As an emerging-market country with a current-account defi cit, South Africa is to some extent reliant on these inflows to fund its own external imbalance. However, fi nancial infl ows have exerted significant upward pressure on the exchange rate of the rand, with negative effects on the exportin...

  17. South African History Online's Education Programme.

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, Varushka

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines South African History Online as a NGO that focuses on the enhancement of history especially at school level. The advent of digital and social media platforms has changed the way scholars learn and the way they perceive their world. The book, paper and journals should no longer provide the exclusive model for historical knowledge to be passed on. With this in mind, SAHO has developed a comprehensive online programme that focuses on the current curriculum a...

  18. Caring school leadership: a South African study

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Vyver, C.P.; Van der Westhuizen, P C; Meyer, L.W.

    2014-01-01

    The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals’ rating of their care-giving and teachers’ experiences thereof and thirdly to identify the determinants of care that contributed the most and the least towards principals’ care-givi...

  19. Astronomy for teachers: A South African Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witt, Aletha; West, Marion; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Gouws, Eldrie

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has nominated Astronomy as a “flagship science” and aims to be an international Astronomy hub through projects such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the South African Large Telescope (SALT). These projects open up career opportunities in maths, science and engineering and therefore offers a very real door for learners to enter into careers in science and technology through Astronomy. However, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) and Annual National Assessment (ANA) have highlighted that South Africa’s Science and Mathematics education is in a critical condition and that South African learners score amongst the worst in the world in both these subjects. In South Africa Astronomy is generally regarded as the worst taught and most avoided Natural Science knowledge strand, and most teachers that specialised in Natural Sciences, never covered Astronomy in their training.In order to address these issues a collaborative project between the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) was initiated, which aims to assist teachers to gain more knowledge and skills so that they can teach Astronomy with confidence. By collaborating we aim to ensure that the level of astronomy development will be raised in both South Africa and the rest of Africa.With the focus on Teaching and Learning, the research was conducted within a quantitative paradigm and 600 structured questionnaires were administered to Natural Science teachers in Public primary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. This paper reports the findings of this research and makes recommendations on how to assist teachers to teach Astronomy with confidence.

  20. Psychology and Ubuntu : therapeutic meetings in a South African context

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore therapeutic meetings in a South African context. Utilising a qualitative research method, I have examined how South African therapists work in a multicultural context, asking questions regarding challenges the therapists met, what elements existed in the African context that influence healing. I proposed that the concept of Ubuntu could provide an African perspective to balance the western notion of psychotherapy. I also explored what adjustments thera...

  1. Innovation in South African Science Education (Part 2): Factors Influencing the Introduction of Instructional Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M. Allyson; Rogan, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Described are some of the factors that have influenced the introduction of instructional change into Black South African classrooms. The Science Education Project of the 1980s, teacher uncertainty, pupil expectations, the epistemology of science education, resources, and the image of innovation are discussed. (CW)

  2. Histories of the Everyday: Domestic Workers in the South African Literary Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Jansen

    2015-01-01

    This article departs from the premise that the South African literary ar­chive has many gaps concerning the experiences of black people and argues that these gaps can perhaps be partially filled by ‘mining’ old and recent literary texts by white Afrikaans authors which feature domestic worker charac

  3. Developing Self-Expression and Community among South African Women with Persona Doll Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Dorothy Yumi

    2014-01-01

    Township-dwelling Black South African women must cope with an array of traumatizing stressors that stunt individual voice and diminish the creation of supportive female communities. At issue was the capacity of women under these conditions to thrive as individuals and contributing members of society, thus the rationale for this project study. The…

  4. Acculturative Experiences of Black-African International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boafo-Arthur, Susan

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the number of international students pursuing higher education in the U.S. since 2001. Upon arrival, students are often beset with feelings of isolation and alienation, which are characteristic of adjusting to a new culture. African International students, specifically Black-African international students,…

  5. Consumer ethnocentrism and conspicuousness of South African imports in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    John, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Focus of the study The study examines the nature and effects of consumer ethnocentrism and conspicuousness of imports on consumer reactions toward South African products in Mozambique. Purpose The purpose of the study is threefold: (1) to indicate those groups of Mozambican consumers who are more ethnocentric and who see greater conspicuousness in South African imports; (2) to indicate those groups of consumers whose consumer ethnocentric responses to South African versus Moza...

  6. "Kitchen cupboard drinking": a review of South African women's secretive alcohol addiction, treatment history, and barriers to accessing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Liezille; Naidoo, Av; Reddy, S P

    2009-01-01

    How Black women are represented, conceptualized, and researched in the field of psychology has dramatic and far-reaching effects on arriving at an understanding of personality and psychopathology. This point becomes especially salient as researchers try to develop alternative strategies for researching gendered experiences and for generating meaningful information about African women's experiences of alcohol misuse. On the African continent, there is a paucity of research on Black women's access to alcohol treatment. Therefore, this review has implications for research and practice with the potential to stimulate future health disparities research affecting Black African women. The article focuses on a South African population and explores the importance of theorizing alcohol misuse and sex by discussing the history of alcohol misuse in South Africa, women and alcohol misuse in South Africa, and women's treatment history; interpreting women's experiences of treatment; and addressing recommendations for future research.

  7. Stress and ethical behaviour among South African managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebben van Zyl

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress and ethical behaviour among South African managersThe South African business world is increasingly characterised by unethical behaviour and commercial crimes. Involvement of managers is contributing up to 80% of the total costs of white collar crime. In order to try to understand the situation, the current South African managerial climate is analysed.This analysis clearly indicates that South African managers function in stressful circumstances which can give rise to unethical behaviour. A theoretical model for ethical behaviour is therefore discussed and used as a basis for practical suggestions in order to improve the situation.

  8. Influence of Adiposity on Insulin Resistance and Glycemia Markers Among U.K. Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean, and White European Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Claire M Nightingale; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G; Jonathan C K Wells; Sattar, Naveed; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes risk between South Asians and white Europeans originate before adult life and are not fully explained by higher adiposity levels in South Asians. Although metabolic sensitivity to adiposity may differ between ethnic groups, this has been little studied in childhood. We have therefore examined the associations among adiposity, insulin resistance, and glycemia markers in children of different ethnic origins. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-secti...

  9. Use of irradiation to improve the safety and quality of ethnic South African foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa is a multi-cultural country with different eating habits and food preferences. Traditional African foods such as beef and chicken tripe form a part of the diet of black South Africans. These foods are laborious to prepare, not generally available commercially, and have limited shelf life. Other popular ethnic foods in South Africa include meat products such as 'biltong' (intermediate moisture dried meat) and 'boerewors' (spicy sausage) consumed by all population groups. These foods have the potential to cause food poisoning. Very limited information is available on the microbial ecology of these ethnic foods. Moreover, no significant research has been conducted on the use of irradiation to improve the microbiological safety and increase shelf life without adversely affecting sensory quality. The overall objective is to determine the effect of irradiation, alone and in combination with other processing technologies, on the microbiological and sensory quality of selected, refrigerated, ethnic South African foods and/or meals

  10. South African Association of Veterinary Technologists : congress abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The following are abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 'Back to Basics Congress' of the South African Association of Veterinary Technologists (SAAVT, 15-16 September 2009, Batter Boys, Pretoria, South Africa.

  11. Singapore Airlines and South African Airways Sign Codeshare Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ From 15 September 2006, Singapore Airlines' customers will be able to travel to more destinations in South Africa thanks to a new codeshare agreement signed by Singapore Airlines and South African Airways (SAA).

  12. Pseudoachondroplasia: Report on a South African family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Moosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoachondroplasia is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia that results in disproportionately short stature, severe brachydactyly with strikingly lax small joints, malalignments of the lower limbs, and characteristic radiological features. Although named ‘false achondroplasia’, the entity is a distinct condition, in which affected individuals are born with normal length and have a normal facies, but is often only recognised after the age of 2 years, when the disproportion and waddling gait become evident. We report on an affected South African father and daughter, and highlight their clinical and radiographic features.

  13. The Birth of a South African Child Development Center for 2- to 6-Year-Olds: An International Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarie, Darlene; Cherian, Lily

    2012-01-01

    Providing high-quality education and care for young children at a historically Black university in rural South Africa was a challenging task. But despite many obstacles, two teacher educators (an American and a South African) worked together, partnered with a surprising collection of others, seized every possible opportunity, and persisted, seeing…

  14. South African food allergy consensus document 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary. PMID:26046164

  15. Professor Bennie van der Walt: a bridge between white Afrikaners and black Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Turaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article honours Professor Bennie van der Walt as a bridge builder between white Afrikaners and black Africans as well as a renowned Christian scholar. Historical Western colonialism in South Africa divided its citizens against each other by means of white racism and apartheid. The whites in general were pitched against the blacks on the basis of white racism and its doctrine of apartheid. This doctrine of separation of races kept the white Afrikaners from the Bantu Africans. However, apartheid as a form of political, social, cultural and religious racism is now history in South Africa. The role which Professor Van der Walt played in bridging the gap between this racial divide is highly commendable and needs to be acknowledged and appreciated, hence the primary objective of this article in honour of his 71st birthday. Furthermore, the article discusses the immense contributions of Professor Bennie van der Walt to Christian scholarship in Africa.

  16. Disaster management and humanitarian logistics – A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilna L. Bean

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This paper provides an overview of the South African humanitarian logistics context. Even though humanitarian logistics plays a critical role in the aftermath of disasters, it extends far beyond events that can typically be classified as ‘disasters’. Therefore the implication of the South African humanitarian logistics context on future research and collaboration opportunities in South African humanitarian logistics is also discussed. Finally, two recent case studies in the South African humanitarian logistics environment are discussed.

  17. South African national bibliography on radioanalytical chemistry to December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography covers publications on radioanalytical chemistry authored or co-authored by South Africans while affiliated to South African institutions even if the work was carried out at foreign laboratories. Author and subject indexes are included, the latter dividing the material into activation analysis, both delayed and prompt, and radioanalytical methods. The bibliography covers work published to the end of 1977

  18. Internationalization of Higher Education: A South African Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensburg, Ihron; Motala, Shireen; David, Solomon Arulraj

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of South African universities continues to be shaped by both apartheid and more recent post-apartheid policies. Yet the South African university system is mainly an elite, low participation and high attrition system, offering a medium quality education. Moreover, there is uneven attention to the opportunities that…

  19. Knowledge about Inquiry: A Study in South African High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined…

  20. The South African energy sector: issues and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Describes aspects of the South African energy sector including: energy policy; energy supply and demand; the role of coal in the South African economy; electricity consumption and the electrification programme; liquid fuels; natural gas; uranium; renewable energy; and the environmental implications. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. THE PERFORMANCE OF SOUTH AFRICAN SHARED SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Ramphal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Many South African companies are adopting the shared services methodology because this structure has led to lower operating costs, greater business efficiency, and improved internal service quality in international companies. Part of a doctoral study on shared services in South African companies shows that their business unit managers have not yet experienced positive rewards from their shared services. This article reports on this study, and suggests a larger-scale research project to validate these findings and to investigate the reasons for the poor performance.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Baie Suid-Afrikaanse maatskappye maak toenemend gebruik van die ‘shared services’- metodologie omdat die struktuur daarvan kan lei tot ʼn afname in operasionele koste, verbeterde besigheidseffektiwiteit, en verhoogde diensgehalte in internasionale maatskappye. ʼn Doktorale studie oor ‘shared services’ in Suid-Afrikaanse maatskappye wys daarop dat individuele besigheidseenheidsbestuurders nie ʼn positiewe belewenis het met ‘shared services’ nie. Hierdie artikel verwys na dié studie, en stel voor dat ʼn meer omvangryke navorsingsprojek onderneem word om die bevindinge te staaf, sowel as om die redes vir swak prestasie te ondersoek.

  2. COLLABORATION IN SOUTH AFRICAN ENGINEERING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sooryamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The production of scientific publications in engineering in South Africa has expanded over the last three decades. Because engineering is an important science, this expansion has implications for the growth and development of the economy. Drawing on a sample range of years of the publications stored in the ISI Web of Knowledge, the engineering publications of South Africans for a 30-year period from 1975-2005 are analysed. This analysis shows that the production of scientific publications in engineering by South African researchers has increased during the analysed period; that the number of researchers per publication has grown; that the number of countries collaborating with South Africa has increased; and that the number of sole-authored papers has decreased. Domestic collaboration (between researchers within South Africa has decreased, while international collaboration has grown considerably. The key objective of the paper is to find out whether the production of publications is related to the level of collaboration, and to see how collaboration can be regressed from other known variables. It is clear from the study that collaboration is a decisive factor in the production of scientific publications in engineering in South Africa.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING Die produksie van wetenskaplike publikasies in ingenieurswese in Suid-Afrika het oor die afgelope drie dekades toegeneem. Aangesien ingenieurswese ‘n belangrike wetenskap is, beïnvloed dié toename die groei en ontwikkeling van die ekonomie. Deur na ‘n monster van voormalige publikasies op die “ISI Web of Science” te kyk, is die publikasies in ingenieurswese deur Suid-Afrikaners oor ‘n 30 jaar periode van 1975-2005 geanaliseer. Die analise toon dat die produksie van wetenskaplike publikasies in ingenieurswese deur Suid-Afrikaanse navorsers toegeneem het oor dié tydperk; dat die aantal navorsers per publikasie gegroei het; dat daar ‘n toename was in die

  3. The emergence of the Black Methodist Consultation and its possible prophetic voice in post-apartheid South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ndikho Mtshiselwa

    2015-01-01

    Racism is an issue which the activism of the Black Methodist Consultation (BMC) was set to address during the South African apartheid rule, a view which black theologians and church historians generally accept. This observation brought to mind, in turn, the influence that the Black Consciousness philosophy and the black theology of liberation had on the establishment of the BMC. Recounting such an influence, this article provides a reflection on the formation of the BMC in 1975. In such ...

  4. Raman spectroscopic study of ancient South African domestic clay pottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legodi, M A; de Waal, D

    2007-01-01

    The technique of Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the composition of ancient African domestic clay pottery of South African origin. One sample from each of four archaeological sites including Rooiwal, Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop was studied. Normal dispersive Raman spectroscopy was found to be the most effective analytical technique in this study. XRF, XRD and FT-IR spectroscopy were used as complementary techniques. All representative samples contained common features, which were characterised by kaolin (Al2Si2O5(OH)5), illite (KAl4(Si7AlO20)(OH)4), feldspar (K- and NaAlSi3O8), quartz (alpha-SiO2), hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), montmorillonite (Mg3(Si,Al)4(OH)2 x 4.5 5H(2)O[Mg]0.35), and calcium silicate (CaSiO3). Gypsum (CaSO4 x 2H2O) and calcium carbonates (most likely calcite, CaCO3) were detected by Raman spectroscopy in Lydenburg, Makahane and Graskop shards. Amorphous carbon (with accompanying phosphates) was observed in the Raman spectra of Lydenburg, Rooiwal and Makahane shards, while rutile (TiO(2)) appeared only in Makahane shard. The Raman spectra of Lydenburg and Rooiwal shards further showed the presence of anhydrite (CaSO4). The results showed that South African potters used a mixture of clays as raw materials. The firing temperature for most samples did not exceed 800 degrees C, which suggests the use of open fire. The reddish brown and grayish black colours were likely due to hematite and amorphous carbon, respectively. PMID:16839805

  5. Agreements concerning the employment of foreign black labour in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteside, Alan; Patel C

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper, comparison of bilateral international agreements concerning black African migrant workers from countries of Southern Africa employed in South Africa R - covers recruitment, labour contracts, workers representation, remittances, tax deduction, administrative aspects of frontier crossing, health insurance, unemployment benefit, irregular migrants, and duration of agreements.

  6. "Women ... Mourn and Men Carry on": African Women Storying Mourning Practices--A South African Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-01-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to…

  7. 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism: Analysis in South African Autistic Individuals

    KAUST Repository

    Arieff, Zainunisha

    2010-06-01

    The serotonin transporter promoter length polymorphism (5-hydroxytryptamine transporter length polymorphism; 5-HTTLPR) has long been implicated in autism and other psychiatric disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has a positive effect on treating some symptoms of autism. The effects of these drugs vary in individuals because of the presence of the S or L allele of 5-HTTLPR. Studies performed on various autistic populations have found different allele frequencies for the L and S alleles. Allele frequencies and genotypes of the South African autistic populations (African, mixed, and Caucasian) were compared with matching South African ethnic control populations. The *S/*S genotype was found to be highly significantly associated with all the South African autistic ethnic populations. In the South African African population the *S/*S genotype was present in 7 (33%) of the autistic individuals but in none of the control subjects, yielding infinitely large odds of developing autism. The odds of developing autism with the *S/*S genotype compared to the *L/*L genotype increased 10.15-fold in the South African mixed group and 2.74-fold in the South African Caucasian population. The allele frequency of the South African autistic population was also compared with studies of other autistic populations around the world, and highly significant differences were found with the Japanese, Korean, and Indian population groups. The difference was not significant for the French, German, Israeli, Portuguese, and American groups. This is the first South African study of autistic individuals of different ethnic backgrounds that shows significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of 5-HTTLPR. The results of this study open new avenues for investigating the role of transmission of the L and S alleles in families with autism in South Africa.

  8. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN FLOWER INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    van Rooyen, I.M.; van Rooyen, Johan

    1998-01-01

    In this paper some interesting findings from recent studies regarding the economic aspects of the South African flower industry are highlighted. By looking at South Africa’s competitiveness and doing a comparative advantage study, an international perspective is firstly developed. The contribution of the flower industry in the South African economy is then discussed. This includes a case study on flower growers in the Gauteng Province. The final section notes some challenges for this indust...

  9. The Self-Concept Level of Black Adolescents with and without African Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Francis; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored the self-concept level of Black adolescents with and without African names, and of their parents, using the Terrell and Taylor Black Ideology Scale and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Adolescents with African names demonstrated significantly higher scores on the Black self-concept scales than did those without African names.…

  10. Recent Developments Regarding South African Common and Customary Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Schoeman-Malan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will concentrate on the development in the common law of succession and administration of estates versus the customary law of succession and inheritance as well as the winding up of estates pursuant to constitutional tendencies, case law, and statutory reform over the last ten years. The principles of customary law of succession and inheritance have become a contentious issue since the commencement of the Constitution and Bill of Rights which provide for a human rights dispensation in South Africa. As a pluralistic legal system was retained, the inevitable conflict between the principles of customary law of succession and the Constitution soon came to the fore. Although the South African Law Reform Commission reported on this issue and submitted their recommendations to the Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development, the report was never formally published. Aspects of intestate succession and the administration of estates of deceased blacks were challenged in court on constitutional grounds. This eventually lead to a number of principles of customary law being declared unconstitutional, and consequently invalid, by the Courts who had no choice but to provide relief until such time as the legislature enacted a lasting solution. As far as the intestate succession is concerned, the Intestate Succession Act 81 of 1987 was extended to all persons in South Africa, including those adhering to a system of customary law. No distinction will, for purposes of succession, be made in future between legitimate and illegitimate children, between a first born son and other siblings or between men and women. Notwithstanding several court judgments in this regard, the Intestate Succession Act has not been amended by the Legislature as yet. As far as the historical discrepancy in the winding up and administration of estates is concerned, all estates, including intestate estates of black persons that have to devolve under customary law, in the

  11. “You Must Know Where You Come From”: South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural coding. Beliefs about the function of religion were captured by the following themes: provides support, connection to the past, moral compass, promotes healthy development, and intersections between African traditional practices and Christian beliefs. Themes are discussed and directions for future research are presented. In addition, applications of the current research and implications for promoting youths' resilience are offered. PMID:24932064

  12. "You Must Know Where You Come From": South African Youths' Perceptions of Religion in Time of Social Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S; Lewin, Nina; Norris, Shane A

    2013-11-01

    This study examined South African youths' perceptions of religion during a period of social and economic transition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 Black South African youth (age 18) living in the Johannesburg-Soweto metropolitan area. Data were analyzed in a manner consistent with grounded theory methodology and structural coding. Beliefs about the function of religion were captured by the following themes: provides support, connection to the past, moral compass, promotes healthy development, and intersections between African traditional practices and Christian beliefs. Themes are discussed and directions for future research are presented. In addition, applications of the current research and implications for promoting youths' resilience are offered. PMID:24932064

  13. Skin lighteners, Black consumers and Jewish entrepreneurs in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lynn M

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the rise and decline of South Africa's lucrative and controversial skin-lighteners market through examination of the business history of the largest manufacturers, Abraham and Solomon Krok, and their evolving personas as millionaires and philanthropists. Such examination reveals how the country's skin-lighteners trade emerged as part of the broader growth of a black consumer market after the Second World War and how elements of that market became the target of anti-apartheid protests in subsequent decades. It also demonstrates how the Kroks' experiences as second-generation Jewish immigrants shaped their involvement in the trade and how, later, their self-identification as Jewish philanthropists informed their efforts to rehabilitate their reputations following South Africa's 1990 ban on all skin lighteners. Such efforts include the building of Johannesburg's highly acclaimed Apartheid Museum, modelled after the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. This article explores the profound ironies that some South Africans see in the fact that a museum dedicated to commemorating those who suffered under and, ultimately, triumphed against state racism was financed by a family fortune generated through the sale of skin lighteners to black consumers.

  14. Black History Month 2005 to focus on "African Diaspora"

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    "The African Diaspora" is the theme of the 2005 Black History Month observances at Virginia Tech, which will feature talks by noted scholars, films, theatrical performances, discussions, a formal dinner, and a beauty pageant. Programs, most of which are free and open to the public, actually begin with Martin Luther King Jr. Day commemorations and continue until the end of February.

  15. Why do some South African ethnic groups have very high HIV rates and others not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris; Zondo, Sizwe

    2011-04-01

    The differences in HIV prevalence between South Africa's racial/ethnic groups (19.9%, 3.2%, and 0.5% among 15-49-year-old blacks, coloureds and whites, respectively) are as big as those between the countries with the highest and lowest levels of HIV prevalence worldwide. These large racial/ethnic differences are largely determined by different sexual network structures. In networks among black South Africans, sexual partnerships are more likely to be arranged concurrently - a configuration that leads to exponential increases in the spread of HIV. An examination of the historical origins of polygamy (where it is normative for partnerships to be arranged concurrently) and monogamy (serial or lifetime) reveals that it is the practice of universal monogamy in stratified societies which is the outlier. The ideology and practice of universal monogamy originated in Europe as the result of several factors, most prominently conflicts between the Christian Church and the nobility. After its imposition in Europe, the European colonial project would see this ideology disseminated around the world. Under the influence of liberalism it would mutate into a secular and unacknowledged value-programme of monogamy as a universal norm. This value-programme and practice of monogamy (mostly serial) is still the norm for white South Africans; thus, this sexual behaviour 'spandrel' (by-product of other historical processes) is a large contributor to the lower levels of HIV prevalence among whites. In pre-colonial African societies, polygyny was normative, and the Christian value-programme of monogamy never achieved the hegemonic status it did in Europe and other areas of conquest. Married black African men who converted to Christianity were no less likely to have additional sexual partners, but only more likely to conceal them. The ongoing secrecy about having concurrent partners has contributed to the connectedness of sexual networks among black Africans at large and in this manner has

  16. Chapitre 8. The South African Network of skills abroad (SANSA): the South African experience of scientific diaspora networks

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Mercy

    2013-01-01

    Note portant sur l’auteur Introduction This paper will present a case study of the South African Network of Skills Abroad (SANSA) as a specific example of a scientific diaspora network. It will start by providing a brief sketch of the South African landscape, both in terms of its economy and other development indicators and will also look at the issue of brain drain as it effects South African society. This is done to provide a context and background to the establishment of the SANSA network ...

  17. Participation and Research of Astronomers and Astrophysicists of Black African Descent (1900–2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Urama, Johnson

    The second half of the Twentieth Century witnessed the emergence of the first modern Astronomers and Astrophysicists of Black African descent. In this paper we enumerate these researchers and briefly describe their activities. We also describe the broader social and political contexts which have impacted their participation and research. We focus primarily on researchers in the United States of America (28) and in Nigeria (19) who have together produced over 90% of the astronomical researchers known to the authors. We briefly mention researchers from other countries including South Africa (3) and in Eurasia (2). We conclude by describing the pioneering researchers and disseminators of the Black African Diaspora's contribution of to the modern astronomical sciences.

  18. Participation and Research of Astronomers and Astrophysicists of Black African Descent (1900 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Urama, Johnson

    The second half of the Twentieth Century witnessed the emergence of the first modern Astronomers and Astrophysicists of Black African descent. In this paper we enumerate these researchers and briefly describe their activities. We also describe the broader social and political contexts which have impacted their participation and research. We focus primarily on researchers in the United States of America (28) and in Nigeria (19) who have together produced over 90% of the astronomical researchers known to the authors. We briefly mention researchers from other countries including South Africa (3) and in Eurasia (2). We conclude by describing the pioneering researchers and disseminators of the Black African Diaspora's contribution of to the modern astronomical sciences.

  19. African migrants in South Africa : an interactional perspective / Shingairai Chigeza

    OpenAIRE

    Chigeza, Shingairai

    2012-01-01

    The movement of African migrants from their countries of origin to other countries in search of a better future will continue to increase. However, such movement is accompanied by many challenges. Literature indicates that African migrants in South Africa face challenges such as cultural differences, exploitation and xenophobia. In the context of migration, migrants and citizens constantly interact with one another. The relational patterns between African migrants and citizens accordingly nee...

  20. Analysing post-apartheid gender and racial transformation in medical education in a South African province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taskeen Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In light of global concerns about insufficient numbers of doctors, midwives, and nurses, the World Health Organization (WHO has identified the scale-up of the production of medical professionals who are competent and responsive to community needs as urgent and necessary. Coincident with this imperative, South African medical schools have also had to consider redressing apartheid-era inequities in access to medical education and changing the racial and gender profile of medical graduates to be representative of the population. In this article, we explore progress and challenges with regard to transformation, defined as intentional and planned changes aimed at addressing historical disadvantages, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using data on medical school admissions and graduations from the Health and Education Departments for the period 1999–2011. Admission and graduation statistics of 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2011 were analysed according to race and gender. Results: The results show that there has been progress in transforming the race and gender composition of medical students and graduates, in line with the transformation strategies of the South African government. In 1999, black African enrolments and graduates were conspicuously low in two of the three medical schools in the Gauteng province. By 2011, an almost six-fold increase in black African student enrolments was seen in one medical school that was previously designated as a white institution. In contrast, at the historically black medical school, whites only represented 0.40% of enrolments in 1999 and 7.4% in 2011. Since 1999, the number and proportion of female medical enrolments and graduates has also increased substantially. Conclusion: While there has been progress with redressing historical disparities and inequities in terms of race and gender, further efforts are needed to ensure that student

  1. Modelling the South African fruit export infrastructure: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Ortmann

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A description is provided of work performed as part of the fruit logistics infrastructure project commissioned by the South African Deciduous Fruit Producers’ Trust and coordinated by the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, as described in [Van Dyk FE & Maspero E, 2004, An analysis of the South African fruit logistics infrastructure, ORiON, 20(1, pp. 55–72]. After a brief introduction to the problem, two models (a single-commodity graph theoretic model and a multi-commodity mathematical programming model are derived for determining the maximal weekly flow or throughput of fresh fruit through the South African national export infrastructure. These models are solved for two extreme seasonal export scenarios and the solutions show that no export infrastructure expansion is required in the near future - observed bottlenecks are not fundamental to the infrastructure and its capacities, but are rather due to sub-optimal management and utilisation of the existing infrastructure.

  2. Establishing priorities for advocacy in South African Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mametja, D; Jinabhai, C C; Ngwane, N; Dolan, C; Twala, J; Mackenzie, A; Gear, J; Russo, R; Tollman, S; Pugh, A

    1993-01-01

    To develop an appropriate health policy agenda, the National Progressive Primary Health Care Network (NPPHC) and the South African Health and Social Services Organization (SAHSSO) conducted situational analyses in 4 areas: an informal peri-urban area within the Durban functional region in Natal, a rural area in the Mhala-Mapulaneng district in the North Eastern Transvaal, the informal settlement of Botshabelo in the Orange Free State, and a dense township dwelling in Soweto. The analyses were based on interviews with health workers and community leaders, a national survey, and a questionnaire for health service administrators. All 4 areas were characterized by poverty, unemployment, low educational levels, lack of a clean water supply or refuse removal system, housing shortages or overcrowding, and political violence. Preventable diseases, such as water-borne diarrhea and malnutrition, cause substantial morbidity, yet health services tend to be inaccessible, distributed inequitably, of poor quality, and with unclear administrative structures. Community members interviewed indicated that clinic fees were too high, especially given the low quality of care, and there was a general mistrust of the competency of doctors and nurses. There was a lack of consensus on the meaning of community participation; some viewed it as a vehicle for empowerment, while others felt the strategy would be exploited as a means to deny government assistance. Overall, respondents were supportive of a greater role for community health workers and more involvement on the part of nongovernmental organizations. A priority, at present, is attention to the many socioeconomic factors that are compromising the health of black South Africans and overshadowing the rationalization of health services. PMID:12345439

  3. Respiratory outcomes among South African coal miners at autopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Murray, J. [University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban (South Africa). Center for Occupational & Environmental Health

    2005-09-01

    Studies of dose-response relationships between respiratory outcomes at autopsy and coal dust exposure are limited. The Pathology Automation System (PATHAUT) database of South African miners, is one of the largest autopsy databases of occupational lung disease. This study described the prevalence of respiratory outcomes among South African coal miners at autopsy, and determined whether dose response relationships existed between emphysema and exposure. Autopsies conducted from 1975 to 1997 on coal miners with exclusive coal mining exposure and having exposure duration information (n = 3,167) were analyzed from PATHAUT Logistic regression was used to determine relationships between exposure and outcomes, controlling for race, smoking and age on a subset for whom smoking history was available (n = 725). The prevalence of silicosis, tuberculosis (TB), coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), and moderate and marked emphysema were 10.7%, 5.2%, 7.3%, and 64%, respectively. All diseases, except TB, were associated with exposure duration. Black miners had 8.3 and 1.2 fold greater risks for TB and CWP, respectively, than white miners. White miners had an increased risk of 1.4 and 5.4 for silicosis and moderate to marked emphysema, respectively. In models unadjusted for age, and including smoking, moderate to marked emphysema was strongly associated with exposure duration (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.9-5.9 for highest tercile of exposure duration). Exposure-related risk estimates were reduced when age was introduced into the model. However age and duration of exposure were highly correlated, = 0. 68) suggesting a dilution of the exposure effect by age. There were significant dose related associations of disease, including emphysema, with coal dust exposure.

  4. Diabetes and Other Disorders of Glycemia in a Rural South African Community

    OpenAIRE

    Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Gouws, Eleanor; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glycemia (IFG), and associated risk factors in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test using the 1998 World Health Organization criteria for disorders of glycemia. RESULTS—Of 1,300 subjects...

  5. Knowledge and learning: views of a sample of South African higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Van der Merwe; Werner Nell

    2013-01-01

    This study explored views of knowledge and learning held by a sample of 14 Black South African first year university students (age range = 18-24, 50% female). Data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews, group interviews and focus group interviews. The data was subjected to thematic qualitative content analysis. A majority of the participants evidenced a pre-reflective epistemological perspective characterized by the beliefs that knowledge is certain and absolute rather than rel...

  6. Teaching Experiences of African American Educators in the Rural South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidore, Ellene; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.

    2010-01-01

    A scarcity of research exists regarding the voices of African American teachers who taught in the rural South. In this study, we report the life experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of three female African American educators as they pertain to their experiences teaching before, during, and after desegregation. Three female African…

  7. Integration into the South African Core Economy: Household Level Covariates

    OpenAIRE

    Sten Dieden

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to further improve the understanding of income generation among the formerly underprivileged and often impoverished majority of households in South Africa. This study uses household survey data for the analysis of households' integration into the South African core economy. The emerging picture of household income generation is one that disputes common perceptions of the multitude of means by which African households are assumed to generate their income. The majority ...

  8. The emergence of the Black Methodist Consultation and its possible prophetic voice in post-apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndikho Mtshiselwa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Racism is an issue which the activism of the Black Methodist Consultation (BMC was set to address during the South African apartheid rule, a view which black theologians and church historians generally accept. This observation brought to mind, in turn, the influence that the Black Consciousness philosophy and the black theology of liberation had on the establishment of the BMC. Recounting such an influence, this article provides a reflection on the formation of the BMC in 1975. In such a reflection, the hypothesis is that the prophetic voice of the BMC is crucial in post-apartheid South Africa. Firstly, the interconnectedness of the Black Consciousness philosophy, the black theology of liberation and the BMC is highlighted. Secondly, the article proceeds to navigate the possible prophetic voice of the BMC in post- apartheid South Africa. In the end, this article sees the BMC as a crucial interlocutor of liberation in present South Africa.

  9. Persuasion - South African language in action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ridge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The issue of which English should be privileged in South Africa has been hotly debated This article argues against the binary thinking that has fuelled this debate. It contends that standard English should be taught since it is the proper or appropriate choice in particular contexts. Competence in standard English would extend and enhance learners' repertoires. However, unless the richly textured variety of "other" Englishes is accommodated in the classroom, there is a strong danger of what Phillipson (1992 terms linguicism. The article argues that a possible means of exploring the richly textured varieties in use in South Africa would be to focus on the choice of accent in radio advertisements. Some suggestions are outlined as to how a critical awareness of the persuasive effict of particular accents in particular contexts can be developed Finally, a plea is made for stylistic experimentation to be honoured in South African classrooms as a further means of exploring the language resources in South Africa. Die debat random die soort Engels wat in Suid-Afrika bevoordeel behoort te word is nog steeds aan die gang. In hierdie artikel word daar aangevoer dat dit die gevolg is van die binere denke oor hierdie saak Daar word beweer dat Standaard-Engels onderrig behoort te word aangesien dit die maak van 'n korrekte of geskikte keuse in bepaalde kontekste behels. Vaardigheid in Standaard-Engels salleerders se repertoire uitbrei en versterk Dit beteken egter nie dat die ryk tekstuurverskeidenheid van die "ander" soorte Engels in die k/askamer buite rekening gelaat mag word nie. Indien dit sou gebeur, bestaan die gevaar van wat Phil/ipson (1992 "linguisisme" noem. Volgens die artikel is die bestudering van radioadvertensies, met die fokus op die keuse van k/em, 'n moontlike manier om die ryk tekstuurverskeidenheid van Engels wat in Suid-Afrika gebruik word te ondersoek Bepaalde voorstelle word aan die hand gedoen oor hoe 'n kritiese bewustheid ontwikkel

  10. Junctophilin 3 (JPH3) expansion mutations causing Huntington disease like 2 (HDL2) are common in South African patients with African ancestry and a Huntington disease phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Amanda; Mitchell, Claire; Essop, Fahmida; Tager, Susan; Temlett, James; Stevanin, Giovanni; Ross, Christopher; Rudnicki, Dobrila; Margolis, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by abnormal movements, cognitive decline, and psychiatric symptoms, caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene on chromosome 4p. A CAG/CTG repeat expansion in the junctophilin-3 (JPH3) gene on chromosome 16q24.2 causes a Huntington disease-like phenotype (HDL2). All patients to date with HDL2 have some African ancestry. The present study aimed to characterize the genetic basis of the Huntington disease phenotype in South Africans and to investigate the possible origin of the JPH3 mutation. In a sample of unrelated South African individuals referred for diagnostic HD testing, 62% (106/171) of white patients compared to only 36% (47/130) of black patients had an expansion in HTT. However, 15% (20/130) of black South African patients and no white patients (0/171) had an expansion in JPH3, confirming the diagnosis of Huntington disease like 2 (HDL2). Individuals with HDL2 share many clinical features with individuals with HD and are clinically indistinguishable in many cases, although the average age of onset and diagnosis in HDL2 is 5 years later than HD and individual clinical features may be more prominent. HDL2 mutations contribute significantly to the HD phenotype in South Africans with African ancestry. JPH3 haplotype studies in 31 families, mainly from South Africa and North America, provide evidence for a founder mutation and support a common African origin for all HDL2 patients. Molecular testing in individuals with an HD phenotype and African ancestry should include testing routinely for JPH3 mutations.

  11. The South African media's (re colonisation of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Tyson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper seeks to reveal the patterns of power, influence and ownership that South African media houses are having over Namibians and Namibian media outlets. The hypothesis is that there has recently been an increased interest in Namibia as a source of further revenue for South African media businesses as well as an opportunity for further strengthening ties of cultural and language issues between the two countries. In addition there might also be increased opportunities for South African political perspectives to be further advanced through linkages with Namibian media outlets.
    The paper further seeks to expand academic discourse to include those countries, such as Namibia, living in South Africa’s cultural and economic shadow, and, in a larger sense, looks at the increasingly regional and even nature of media systems in Africa.
    It tries to move these discussions into everyday discourse, as opposed to the margins, where, as McMillin (2007:68 says:
    we fail to understand the incredible impact of colonialism on the development of their media systems, the regional influence of these systems, and the unique character they take on as they assert their postcolonial identities and meet the challenges of globilization.
    The research refers to the unique position of Namibia, having been, firstly, a German colony, and, later, a South African ‘administered territory’, and makes reference to the implications this had on the shaping and control over the media environment.
    The findings reveal an increase in South African influence and shareholding over Namibian media companies and content. This parallel has strengthened economic ties with South Africa, and in particular the influence of South African retail chains and their stock levels of Namibian versus South African publications.

  12. Supplement to South African national bibliography on radioanalytical chemistry: South African authors only. 1975-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South African National Bibliography on Radioanalytical Chemistry was initiated by Dr Max Peisach of the National Accelerator Centre, Faure (formerly SUNI) and is intended to cover books, papers and reports published by South African scientists while affiliated to South African institutes, even if the work was carried out at foreign laboratories. The first edition (SUNI 56) covered material published to the end of 1977. The present edition is a supplement to the former and covers the period 1975 to 1982. The papers are divided into two categories. The first consists of papers on activation analysis, whether delayed or prompt and deals with the following: charged particle activation analysis, neutron activation analysis, photon activation and x-ray (including particle-induced x-ray emission, PIXE), prompt analysis and scattering, but is restricted to nuclear particle scattering. The second category deals with radioanalytical methods. To restrict the subject matter to those papers which stress the analytical approach and use nuclear techniques, this category has been sub-divided into the following subjects: absolute standardisation; computer techniques directly concerned with analysis; counting techniques for measuring radionuclides, nuclear particles or emissions; environmental monitoring related to the measurement of radioactive substances; instrumentation and techniques related to nuclear analytical methodology; isotope dilution analysis; low activity measurements; natural radioactivity counting; radiography; radiotracer methods excluding the routine diagnostic use of radionuclides in medicine and separation techniques. Titles are arranged in order of the year of publication, and with each year in alphabetical order of the surname of the first (and thereafter the next) author

  13. Exploring South Africa’s ‘black diamonds’ at live music performances

    OpenAIRE

    Martinette Kruger; Melville Saayman

    2014-01-01

    Problem under investigation: This exploratory study fills a gap in the literature by profiling ‘black diamonds’, the South African up-and-coming middle-class market, at live music concerts. Design, methodology and approach: A destination-based survey at five concerts in South Africa in 2012 extracted a sample of 164 black diamond attendees from the rest of the audience. The attendance motives of this sample were used to identify different market segments within the sample.Findings and implica...

  14. The South African Border War (1966 - 1989) a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The South African Border War – or the Bush War - was a quite remarkable conflict that took place in the border region between South-West-Africa (Namibia), Angola and the Republic of South Africa between 1966 and 1989 which makes it one of the longest conflicts on the African continent. The conflict...... rivaling tribes. The post-colonial states, which subsequently emerged from the struggle, were mostly characterized by dictatorships, instability, and poverty and often with a mainly Marxist political agenda. In contrast South Africa was not ruled by any colonial power and continued throughout...... – and initially with some success - their capitalist, nationalist government, and policy of apartheid headed by the white minority elite. This paper does not intend to describe or explain the South African Border War as a whole, but will focus on the insurgency and counterinsurgency campaign that took place...

  15. The evolution and consolidation of the timeshare industry in a developing economy: The South African experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayde R. Pandy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The timeshare industry is one of most under-researched aspects of tourism accommodation. Within existing scholarship most writings pertain to industry development and challenges in the USA and Europe. This paper provides an examination of the evolution and consolidation of the timeshare industry in South Africa from the 1980s to the present-day. The South African timeshare industry is revealed as one of the most mature in the international timeshare economy. Historically, the industry confronted parallel challenges to those in developed countries in respect of adapting the product to local conditions and confronting a tarnished image from the impact of unscrupulous developers. Currently the South African timeshare sector faces different challenges including service management and consumer dissatisfaction, marginalization within the tourism economy, and the need to address the emerging Black middle class market.

  16. Examining African self-consciousness and Black racial identity as predictors of Black men's psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Martin R; Mahalik, James R

    2005-02-01

    This study investigated African self-consciousness and Black racial identity as predictors of psychological distress and self-esteem for Black men. One hundred thirty Black men from a college and community sample completed the African Self-Consciousness Scale, the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-B, the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Canonical correlation analysis found 2 significant roots with the 1st root indicating that Black men whose attitudes reflected Preencounter and Immersion racial identity attitudes and who do not resist against anti-African/Black forces reported greater psychological distress and less esteem. Results from the 2nd root suggested that Black men whose attitudes reflect greater Internalization racial identity attitudes, greater resistance to anti-African/Black forces, and less identification with Blacks reported greater self-esteem. PMID:15727493

  17. South Africa's Grey Diplomats; Visits by South African Warships to Foreign Countries 1946 - 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Wessels

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The primary role of the South African Navy is to defend the Republic of South Africa, its citizens and interests. In times of peace the Navy has an equally important role to play, for example to conduct assistance operations, including diplomatic support. During the first 75 years of the history of the South African Navy (1922-1997, its warships took part in about 70 flag-showing cruises. In this article a review is given of the 68 flag-showing cruises by South Africa's grey diplomats in the years from 1946 (when the South African Naval Forces were reconstituted to 1996 (i.e. on the eve of the Navy's 75th anniversary. The aim is to ascertain the nature, extent and value of the South African Navy's diplomatic role.

  18. "I Don't Know Who to Blame": HIV-Positive South African Women Navigating Heterosexual Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Women who become HIV infected through heterosexual transmission are faced with the task of making sense of how they became infected. This paper presents a qualitative analysis based on interviews with 35 HIV-positive South African Black women. A specific theme, that blame of a male partner was avoided or disavowed in interviews, is explored in…

  19. An Investigation of Ethnic Differences in the Motivation and Strategies for Learning of Students in Desegregated South African Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, David; McInerney, Dennis; Akande, Adebowale; Lee, Clement

    2003-01-01

    Compared school motivation and use of deep processing (an indicator of learning quality) among black and white South African students from two recently integrated secondary schools. Student surveys found no significant ethnic group differences. Both groups considered working hard and having interest in school tasks to be more important than…

  20. PUBLISHING SOUTH AFRICAN SCHOLARSHIP IN THE GLOBAL ACADEMIC COMMUNITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Elizabeth

    2015-09-20

    South Africa's academic publishing history has been profoundly influenced by its colonial heritage. This is reflected in the publication of Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society (later, the Royal Society of South Africa) from 1878. Although the Society and journal sought to promote original research about South Africa, it was modelled after the Royal Society in London and formed part of an imperial scientific community. As the local higher education institutions grew more independent and research-focused, local scholarly publishing developed as well, with university presses playing an increasingly important role. The University of South Africa (Unisa) Press started publishing departmental journals in the 1950s, with a focus on journals that 'speak to the student', and it is today the only South African university press with an active journals publishing programme. As external funding declined and the country became intellectually isolated in the high apartheid period, the Press managed to attract journals that could no longer be subsidized by learned societies and other universities. More recently, new co-publishing arrangements have brought South African journals back into an international intellectual community. Although some argue that this constitutes a re-colonization of South African knowledge production, it is also an innovative strategy for positioning local research in a global context.

  1. Global security of radioactive sources: The South African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the perspective of South Africa on a number of issues relating to the security of radioactive sources, including manufacture, regulatory control and security, vulnerabilities and orphan sources, and information confidentiality. The paper also presents conclusions and recommendations from a South African viewpoint. (author)

  2. "Wake Up! HIV is at Your Door": African American Faith Leaders in the Rural South and HIV Perceptions: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aholou, Tiffiany M; Cooks, Eric; Murray, Ashley; Sutton, Madeline Y; Gaul, Zaneta; Gaskins, Susan; Payne-Foster, Pamela

    2016-12-01

    In Alabama, 70 % of new HIV cases are among African Americans. Because the Black Church plays an important role for many African Americans in the south, we conducted qualitative interviews with 10 African American pastors recruited for an HIV intervention study in rural Alabama. Two main themes emerged: (1) HIV stigma is prevalent and (2) the role of the Black Church in addressing HIV in the African American community. Our data suggest that pastors in rural Alabama are willing to be engaged in HIV prevention solutions; more formalized training is needed to decrease stigma, strengthen HIV prevention and support persons living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26883229

  3. Telling or selling? Experiencing South African cultural heritage tourism products

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovic, Milena; Saayman, Melville

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of the experience economy the unique experiential value of cultural heritage products comes to the forefront of cultural tourism development and is the main value proposition for emerging destinations, including South Africa. As South Africa’s democracy divedends had paid out by 1998, South African Tourism was left with an array of dormant cultural heritage resources (still) unable to turn them into meaningful tourist experiences. The reason is lack of understanding of tourist...

  4. Cumulative benefits from trade liberalization for the South African economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Matthias; Freytag, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    South Africa's trade barriers are still relatively high compared to other emerging market economies, and its industrial policy still preferentially treats certain industries. Based on a static GTAP model, we estimate the economic impact of further trade liberalization on the South African economy. We particularly take into account core NTB's on tradable commodities and the costs imposed by cross-border trade facilitation, which is particularly inefficient in South Africa. Our results indicate...

  5. The South African National Defence Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This research paper is an evaluation of The Souch African National Defence Force´s (SANDF) involvement in Peace Support Operations.......This research paper is an evaluation of The Souch African National Defence Force´s (SANDF) involvement in Peace Support Operations....

  6. ‘No condom, no sex’: Easy to say, but not possible for all South African women

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna E. Maree

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in South African women. The human papillomavirus(HPV) is the biggest risk factor for developing this cancer. However, condom use protects against HPV transmission. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether Black women living in Tshwane, South Africa, were able to protect themselves against cervical cancer by insisting on condom use. The study was exploratory, qualitative and contextual, and a convenience snowball sampling method was used. Th...

  7. Naming and exploring the causes of collective violence against African migrants in post-apartheid South Africa: Whither Ubuntu?

    OpenAIRE

    Dassah, M O

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa, attacks mainly directed at black non-South Africans, is a rampant, longstanding phenomenon notwithstanding the spirit of Ubuntu which is thought to permeate the social fabric. Assumptions have been made in various labels describing the attacks, raising concerns about their appropriateness. Further, various explanations and hypotheses have been advanced about causes of or reasons for the attacks. The root causes of the attacks need to be properly understood for ...

  8. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  9. Exploring the current application of professional competencies in human resource management in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Schutte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Human research (HR practitioners have an important role to play in the sustainability and competitiveness of organisations. Yet their strategic contribution and the value they add remain unrecognised.Research purpose: The main objective of this research was to explore the extent to which HR practitioners are currently allowed to display HR competencies in the workplace, and whether any significant differences exist between perceived HR competencies, based on the respondents’ demographic characteristics.Motivation for the study: Limited empirical research exists on the extent to which HR practitioners are allowed to display key competencies in the South African workplace.Research approach, design, and method: A quantitative research approach was followed. A Human Resource Management Professional Competence Questionnaire was administered to HR practitioners and managers (N = 481.Main findings: The results showed that HR competencies are poorly applied in selected South African workplaces. The competencies that were indicated as having the poorest application were talent management, HR metrics, HR business knowledge, and innovation. The white ethic group experienced a poorer application of all human research management (HRM competencies compared to the black African ethnic group.Practical/managerial implications: The findings of the research highlighted the need for management to evaluate the current application of HR practices in the workplace and also the extent to which HR professionals are involved as strategic business partners.Contribution/value-add: This research highlights the need for the current application of HR competencies in South African workplaces to be improved.

  10. Grappling with Change: The South African Electricity Supply Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the debate over the future structure of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) with focus on the electricity distribution industry (EDI) segment. The importance of both new and old institutions in the ESI in facilitating change is discussed. The perspective is that of an outside observer who spent nearly 2 years following events in the South African ESI. The ESI situation reviewed here is very complex and connected to a myriad of other economic, financial, cultural, social, and political issues

  11. DSM-defined anxiety disorders symptoms in South African youths: Their assessment and relationship with perceived parental rearing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Loxton, Helene; Neumann, Anna; du Plessis, Michelle; King, Neville; Ollendick, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated DSM-defined anxiety symptoms in South African youths. Children and adolescents (N = 701) from various cultural groups completed the SCARED and a questionnaire measuring perceived parental rearing behaviors. Results indicated that the psychometric properties of the SCARED were satisfactory in the total sample of South African youths, and acceptable in colored and black children and adolescents. Further, colored and black youths displayed higher SCARED scores than white youths, and there were also differences in the perceived parental rearing behaviors of the cultural groups. White youths generally rated their parents' rearing behaviors as less anxious, overprotective, and rejective, but more emotionally warm than colored and black youths. Finally, positive correlations were found between anxious rearing, overprotection, and rejection and anxiety symptoms. The clinical and research implications of these findings are briefly discussed. PMID:16137645

  12. Darwin’s legacy in South African evolutionary biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Johnson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the two decades after publication of the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin facilitated the publication of numerous scientific papers by settler naturalists in South Africa. This helped to establish the strong tradition of natural history which has characterised evolutionary research in South African museums, herbaria and universities. Significant developments in the early 20th century included the hominid fossil discoveries of Raymond Dart, Robert Broom, and others, but there was otherwise very little South African involvement in the evolutionary synthesis of the 1930s and 1940s. Evolutionary biology developed into a distinct discipline in South Africa during the 1970s and 1980s when it was dominated by mammalian palaeontology and a vigorous debate around species concepts. In the post-apartheid era, the main focus of evolutionary biology has been the construction of phylogenies for African plants and animals using molecular data, and the use of these phylogenies to answer questions about taxonomic classification and trait evolution. South African biologists have also recently contributed important evidence for some of Darwin’s ideas about plant–animal coevolution, sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in speciation. A bibliographic analysis shows that South African authors produce 2–3% of the world’s publications in the field of evolutionary biology, which is much higher than the value of about 0.5% for publications in all sciences. With its extraordinary biodiversity and well-developed research infrastructure, South Africa is an ideal laboratory from which to advance evolutionary research.

  13. Supplier–customer relationships: Weaknesses in south african automotive supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Naude; J. A. Badenhorst-Weiss

    2012-01-01

    The South African automotive industry, which is an important sector in the South African economy, needs to function efficiently if it is to compete internationally. However, South African automotive components manufacturers (ACMs) are not internationally competitive and automotive assemblers, also known as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), often import cheaper components from abroad. All parties in the South African automotive supply chains need each other to ensure optimal efficiency ...

  14. The African Renaissance and its relation to the geosciences: a South African perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtimkulu, M. N.; Motloung, M.; Graham, I. T.; Eriksson, P. G.; Bumby, A. J.

    2001-08-01

    Implicit in the African Renaissance is the synergy between government, the private sector, the educated minority and the disadvantaged majority. For this concept to work, belief and commitment must arise first from the African individual, whatever his or her potential contribution may be. The geosciences in South Africa provide a currently vibrant example of such cooperation, which has the potential to contribute significantly to the upliftment of the country and its neighbouring states. Based largely on personal interviews with various role players, from the Presidency of South Africa, through ministerial levels, the corporate sector and down to the individual, we present a spectrum of viewpoints and initiatives which are starting to result in practical implementation of the African revival. An end to conflict and xenophobia, the entrenchment of democratic government and corporate expression of the entrepreneurial spirit are essential to provide the framework within which the individual African can become a "Renaissance Man or Woman".

  15. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  16. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEA and T). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa's vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa's commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  17. South African Trade Policy Matters: Trade Performance and Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence Edwards; Robert Z. Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    South African trade policy has exerted a major influence on the composition and aggregate growth of trade. In the Apartheid period, trade protection seriously impeded both exports and imports, and the economy depended on favorable global commodity price trends to avoid running into an external constraint. South Africa developed a comparative advantage in capital-intensive primary and manufactured commodities partly because of its natural resource endowments but also because the pattern of pro...

  18. The role of urban design in South African corridor development

    OpenAIRE

    Comrie, Henri Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The joyous advent of democracy in South Africa in 1994 brought real promise of an improvement in the life chances for millions of marginalised South Africans. There was reason for many citizens to have great faith in the new order after decades of sustained struggle. Effective state intervention and the spatial reorganisation of society seemed a realistic prospect in a country blessed with abundant natural resources and an established industrial base. The power of the state to affect change a...

  19. Mental illness and lost income among adult South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Crick; Myer, Landon; Dan J Stein; Williams, David R.; Flisher, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Little is known regarding the links between mental disorder and lost income in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between mental disorder and lost income in the first nationally representative psychiatric epidemiology survey in South Africa. Methods A probability sample of South African adults was administered the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview schedule to assess the presence of mental ...

  20. A FEW SOUTH AFRICAN CENTS' WORTH ON BITCOIN

    OpenAIRE

    Annamart Nieman

    2015-01-01

    This article is aimed at augmenting current awareness of virtual currencies ("VCs") in the South African legal community. To this end, it introduces the reader to VCs in general and decentralised convertible VCs ("DCVCs") in particular. Due to their design and interaction with the real economy and currency, DCVCs are on the radar of many financial regulators worldwide. As Bitcoin is considered the leading type of DCVC in terms of value and volume, its early beginnings in South Africa are prob...

  1. The South African National Accelerator Centre and its research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    An overview of the South African National Accelerator Centre and its research activities is given with emphasis on medium energy nuclear physics and nuclear data measurements for medical use. Also presented is a preliminary result of {sup 40}Ca(p,p`x) spectrum measurement for 392 MeV which has been carried out at RCNP, Osaka University, under the South Africa-Japan collaborative programme. (author)

  2. What is Ubuntu? Different Interpretations among South Africans of African Descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe and systematize the different answers to the question 'What is Ubuntu?' that I have been able to identify among South Africans of African descent (SAADs). I show that it is possible to distinguish between two clusters of answers. The answers of the first cluster all...... define ubuntu as a moral quality of a person, while the answers of the second cluster all define ubuntu as a phenomenon (for instance a philosophy, an ethic, African humanism, or, a wordview) according to which persons are interconnected. The concept of a person is of central importance to all the...

  3. Creating a Learning Climate: A South African Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrim, Nasima Mohamed Hoosen; Basson, Johan Schutte

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether there were differences in how one public and two private South African organizations created a learning climate. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on a survey and comparative analysis of specific departments in a chemical and gas company, an insurance company, and a…

  4. South Africans and Mexicans in Florida: intergroup conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambou, Elie

    2011-01-01

    Newly arriving immigrants from Southern Africa and Mexicans do not get on well in the sunbelt state of Florida. A persistent theme emerging from discussions with South Africans on their relationship with Mexicans is that both sides perceive the other as culturally ethnocentric. The antagonistic relationship between both social groups is due to strong ethnic bonds and the clash of cultures. PMID:21905325

  5. Shifting South African Learners towards Greater Autonomy in Scientific Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Hobden, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This report describes how teachers support ninth-grade students who are doing scientific investigations in Natural Sciences in South African schools. This is of interest as allowing students to participate in inquiry-based investigations is a significant shift from traditional practices. It presents a new challenge to teachers as it signals an…

  6. The Transformation of Music Education: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Alethea

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I reflect on transformation in South African education policy, post-1994. The new curriculum for schools was underpinned by the democratic values of the constitution and was a time of renewal for music education. However, over time as the original curriculum documents were revised, the focus of promoting indigenous traditions was…

  7. Job Satisfaction in a South African Academic Library in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Genevieve

    2010-01-01

    Job satisfaction was investigated at a South African university library undergoing change on many fronts. The study included 31 members of staff and the data were gathered via interviews/questionnaires, informed by standard HRM job satisfaction theory. The study found a "love-hate" relationship between respondents and their work. The key positive…

  8. Intellectual Disability in the Context of a South African Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromberg, Jennifer; Zwane, Esther; Manga, Prashiela; Venter, Andre; Rosen, Eric; Christianson, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Childhood disabilities, including intellectual disabilities (ID), are thought to occur in 5-17% of children in developing countries around the world. In order to identify and describe the childhood disabilities occurring in a rural South African population, as well as the context in which they occur, a study was carried out in the Bushbuckridge…

  9. Burnout of Academic Staff in South African Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmann, S.; Barkhuizen, N.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess the psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) for academic staff in South African higher education institutions and to investigate differences between the burnout levels of different demographic groups. A survey design was used, with stratified…

  10. Linguistic Ideologies in Multilingual South African Suburban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoe, Pinky; McKinney, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on language in South African schooling frequently draws attention to the problematic hegemony of English and the lack of access to quality education in the home language of the majority of learners, often drawing on the metaphor of a gap or a disjuncture between post-apartheid language in education policy (LiEP) and its…

  11. Dress Codes in Post-Apartheid South African Workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Terri; Nodoba, Gaontebale

    2009-01-01

    There are many factors that influence dress code decision making in formal and informal business arenas. In South Africa, with its colonial and apartheid history followed by an exuberant resurgence of Africanism, factors such as diversity of race, ethnicity, religion, and culture play a critical role in lifestyle and worldview. These many and…

  12. Paraphilia and sex offending - A South African criminal law perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Pieter; Stevens, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the link between sexual deviance and criminality has been described and documented, asserted by psychiatry, and manifested in law. Laws that have regulated sexual behaviour have referred to terms such as 'sexual deviation', 'sexual perversion' or even archaic moral terms such as 'unnatural acts and unspeakable crimes against nature'. A possible link between sexual perversion, psychopathy, and criminality, specifically manifesting in sexual homicide, has been the subject of remarkable research in forensic psychiatry. This contribution examines the phenomenon of paraphilia with specific reference to its definition, diagnostic classification and characteristics, as well as a few selections of incidences of paraphilia in South African criminal case law. A brief assessment is made of how South African criminal courts have dealt with paraphilia. In this regard, an analysis is made of the criminal liability of the paraphiliac. The South African response to sexual deviation as addressed in the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 will also be addressed with reference to its efficacy in addressing paraphilia within South African criminal law. The interface between criminal law and medical ethics within the context of this theme will also be canvassed. In conclusion, recommendations for possible reform are canvassed. PMID:27182003

  13. Lessons from the South African Electricity Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Bayliss, Kate

    2008-01-01

    South Africa is suffering an electricity crisis. Blackouts have been widespread and the impact disastrous. Electricity supply is predicted to constrain growth for at least the next five years. How could this have occurred when until recently South Africa had a surplus of cheap electricity? This One Pager explores the causes. (...)

  14. Environmental stressors, low well-being, smoking, and alcohol use among South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, David W; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2011-05-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N = 2195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2195 Black, mixed ancestry ("Colored"), Indian, and White youth, aged 12-17 years old (mean age = 14.6; SD = 1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant's preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies.

  15. Race and psychological distress: the South african stress and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Pamela Braboy; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Herman, Allen; Williams, Stacey L; Redmond, Deidre L

    2010-12-01

    We analyze data from the South African Stress and Health Study, a nationally representative in-person psychiatric epidemiologic survey of 4,351 adults conducted as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative between January 2002 and June 2004. All blacks (Africans, Coloreds, and Indians) initially report higher levels of non-specific distress and anger/hostility than whites. Access to socioeconomic resources helps explain differences in non-specific distress between Coloreds and whites and Indians and whites. However, only when social stressors are considered do we find few differences in psychological distress (i.e., non-specific distress and anger/hostility) between Africans and whites. In addition, self-esteem and mastery have independent effects on non-specific distress and anger/hostility, but differences between Coloreds and whites in feelings of anger/hostility are not completely explained by self-esteem and mastery. The findings contribute to the international body of work on social stress theory, challenge underlying assumptions of the minority status perspective, and raise a series of questions regarding mental health disparities among South Africans.

  16. South African pension fund conversions: Dealing with environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. George

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse South African pension fund conversions from defined benefit to defined contribution structures and to develop a model for dealing with environmental change. Design/Methodology/Approach: Qualitative research methodology was used. Industry experts were interviewed to obtain a macro view of the phenomenon and specific manifestations of the phenomenon were also considered in case studies.Feedback from semi-structured interviews was categorised into several emergent themes. Within-case and cross-case analyses were conducted. Findings: Results indicated that an environmental shock exerted a substantial influence on the course of events. Under these: Various factors combined to drive organisational evolution (i.e. adaptation to the environment. Adaptation speed was inappropriate and exceeded that which was required for sufficient thought. Uncertainty and vacuum circumstances arose leading to consequences that require redress. The relative power of the stakeholders changed and influenced the strategic outcome. An imbalance in stakeholder interests arose and ethical factors became consequential. Business acted to restore certainty for itself.Implications: This paper provides insight into organisational behaviour during periods of environmental shock. Environmental shock can be defined as "a condition that arises where business or societal rules are inadequate, or do not exist, to deal with unfolding events". An environmental shock has greater magnitude than a competitive shock, and can include several competitive shocks.Originality/Value: Analysis of pension fund conversions revealed organisational behaviour during periods of environmental shock and the emerging model can be applied in other instances of environmental shock, such as broad-based black economic empowerment (B-B BEE, land redistribution, sanctions and constitutional development.

  17. Black Americans, Africa and History: A Reassessment of the Pan-African and Identity Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Tunde

    1998-01-01

    Examines the paradigm of Pan-Africanism and the identity construct in the historic and cultural contexts of blacks outside of Africa, critiquing theories on the African identity construct. Suggests that black American identity is too complex for this simplification and must be considered within the context of world acculturation. Contains 34…

  18. Black African Parents' Experiences of an Educational Psychology Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Zena

    2014-01-01

    The evidence base that explores Black African parents' experiences of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) is limited. This article describes an exploratory mixed methods research study undertaken during 2009-2011, that explored Black African parents' engagement with a UK EPS. Quantitative data were gathered from the EPS preschool…

  19. Leaving Home: The Challenges of Black-African International Students Prior to Studying Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Elizabeth Frances; Hyams-Ssekasi, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Much of the literature on international students centres on their experiences once they arrive in their host countries. This study explores the preparations of Black-African students for leaving their home countries to study abroad. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 50 Black-African students studying at one British university. The…

  20. [Conceptual parameters of the facial arc and articulators adapted for black Africans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Dindin, A C; Djeredou, K B; N'Dindin-Guinan, B; Assi, K D

    2005-12-01

    Articulators and facial arc always used in dentistry are not adapted to African black people. Their use provokes many errors in the setting of models on articulators. In this work, authors propose facial arc and articulator parameters conceptions that are suited to black Africans.

  1. Determinants of sexual activity and its relation to cervical cancer risk among South African Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Anna-Lise

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive cervical cancer is the commonest cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in South African women. This study provides information on adult women's sexual activity and cervical cancer risk in South Africa. Methods The data were derived from a case-control study of hormonal contraceptives and cervical cancer risk. Information on age of sexual debut and number of lifetime sexual partners was collected from 524 incident cases and 1541 hospital controls. Prevalence ratios and adjusted prevalence ratios were utilised to estimate risk in exposures considered common. Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated where the outcome was uncommon, using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The median age of sexual debut and number of sexual partners was 17 years and 2 respectively. Early sexual debut was associated with lower education, increased number of life time partners and alcohol use. Having a greater number of sexual partners was associated with younger sexual debut, being black, single, higher educational levels and alcohol use. The adjusted odds ratio for sexual debut Conclusion Lower socio-economic status, alcohol intake, and being single or black, appear to be determinants of increased sexual activity in South African women. Education had an ambiguous effect. As expected, cervical cancer risk is associated with increased sexual activity. Initiatives to encourage later commencement of sex, and limiting the number of sexual partners would have a favourable impact on risk of cancer of the cervix and other sexually transmitted infections

  2. Developmental issues in chiropractic: a South African practitioner and patient perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Mouton, Johan

    2007-01-01

    of the 3 domains investigated. Issues such as the apparent lack of conceptual identity of chiropractic; the absence of a coherent, marketable model of chiropractic practice; and poor interprofessional relationships with mainstream health care stakeholders were observed. The issue of integrated public...... health care practices as part of the education process and the concomitant perceived lack of exposure especially to black South Africans emerged as interesting and pertinent developmental themes in the local context. CONCLUSIONS: The international discourse related to issues in the domains of philosophy...

  3. South African uranium resource and production capability estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa, along with Canada and the United States, submitted forecasts of uranium capacities and capabilites to the year 2025 for the 1979 'Red Book' edition. This report deals with the methodologies used in arriving at the South African forecasts. As the future production trends of the South African uranium producers cannot be confidently defined, chiefly because uranium is extracted as a by-product of the gold mining industry and is thus highly sensitive to market fluctuations for both uranium and gold, the Evaluation Group of the Atomic Energy Board has carried out numerous forecast exercises using current and historical norms and assuming various degrees of 'adverse', 'normal' and 'most favourable' conditions. The two exercises, which were submitted for the 'Red Book', are shown in the Appendices. This paper has been prepared for presentation to the Working Group on Methodologies for Forecasting Uranium Availability of the NEA/IAEA Steering Group on Uranium Resources

  4. Research on undergraduate mathematics education: A South African perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansie Harding

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on undergradute mathematics education is a relatively new field that originated less than 20 years ago in the United States of America (USA, and that is known under the acronymn RUME (Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education. In South Africa researchers in this field form a small but strong group that originated at the University of Pretoria. In this article a brief overview is firstly given on the international increase in interest and activities in this research field. Secondly the research field is viewed from a South African perspective. Examples of research projects are discussed, as well as the career path that leads to research in this field. Finally local activities and existing international ties are considered. The aim of this article is to give a South African overview of the research field and activities, hoping to motivate and stimulate research in this important and growing field.

  5. How diverse is the diet of adult South Africans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyn Nelia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the current study was to measure dietary diversity in South Africans aged 16 years and older from all population groups as a proxy of food security. Methods A cross-sectional study representative of adults from all specified ages, provinces, geographic localities, and socio-economic strata in South Africa was used (n = 3287. Trained interviewers visited participants at their homes during the survey. Dietary data was collected by means of a face validated 24 hour recall which was not quantified. A dietary diversity score (DDS was calculated by counting each of 9 food groups. A DDS Results The provinces with the highest prevalence of poor dietary diversity (DDS Conclusion Overall the majority of South Africans consumed a diet low in dietary variety. The tribal areas and informal urban areas were worst affected and eggs, legumes and vitamin A rich fruit and vegetables, were the least consumed.

  6. English South African children’s literature and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Jenkins

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies of nature conservation and literary criticism of fiction concerned with the natural environment provide some pointers for the study of South African children’s literature in English. This kind of literature, in turn, has a contribution to make to studies of South African social history and literature. There are English-language stories, poems and picture books for children which reflect human interaction with nature in South Africa since early in the nineteenth century: from hunting, through domestication of the wilds, the development of scientific agriculture, and the changing roles of nature reserves, to modern ecological concern for the entire environment. Until late in the twentieth century the literature usually endorsed the assumption held by whites that they had exclusive ownership of the land and wildlife. In recent years English-language children’s writers and translators of indigenous folktales for children have begun to explore traditional beliefs about and practices in conservation.

  7. Critically examining language bias in the South African adaptation of the WAIS-III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl D Foxcroft

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In response to the growing demand for a test of cognitive ability for South African adults, the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC adapted the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, third edition (WAIS-III for Englishspeaking South Africans. The standardisation sample included both first and second language English speakers who were either educated largely in English or Afrikaans. The purpose of this article is to critically examine the adaptation process undertaken by the HSRC when standardising the WAIS-III for English-speaking South Africans by deliberating whether sufficient attention was paid to establishing if the measure was equivalent for various groups of English first and second language test-takers. In performing this critical examination, international test adaptation guidelines and standards, psychometric conventions, and national and international research findings were contemplated. The general conclusion reached was that the equivalence of the WAIS-III across diverse language groups has not been unequivocally established and there are indications that some bias may exist for English second language test-takers, especially if they are black or Afrikaans-speaking. Based on these conclusions, recommendations are made regarding the way forward.

  8. Urbanisation and coronary heart disease mortality among African Americans in the US South.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, E; Strogatz, D; Armstrong, D; Wing, S

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Despite significant declines since the late 1960s, coronary mortality remains the leading cause of death for African Americans. African Americans in the US South suffer higher rates of cardiovascular disease than African Americans in other regions; yet the mortality experiences of rural-dwelling African Americans, most of whom live in the South, have not been described in detail. This study examined urban-rural differentials in coronary mortality trends among African American...

  9. Patterns of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseases in black Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fary Ka Elhadj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is not well described in black Africans while some data suggesting the disease is exceptional in this race. A retrospective study of patients with ADPKD followed in nephrology department of a teaching hospital in Dakar (January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2005 was therefore undertaken. Prevalence of ADPKD was one in 250. Mean age was 47 ± 5 years with a predominance of male (57%. High blood pressure (HBP was present in 68% of patients. Other renal manifestations were flank pain, hematuria and proteinuria. Majority of patients had impaired renal function at time of diagnosis. Extra-renal cysts were essentially found in liver (45.5%, pancreas and seminal vesicles. Main complications: ESRD (51% occurred within a 6 year mean period, urinary tract infection (13% and cerebral haemorrhage (2%. HBP control, in general needed 2 or more antihypertensive drugs. Fourteen patients died, ten patients had been on haemodialysis and four others died from uremic compli-cations. In conclusion, ADPKD in black African adults is not rare and probably underdiagnosed. Early HBP and ESRD are likely more frequent than in other races. Earlier ultrasound detection and strategies to preserve renal function should be offered to at-risk individuals to improve outcomes.

  10. Key Copyright Issues in African Distance Education: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Caroline B.

    2011-01-01

    This report draws primarily on the results of the recently concluded African Copyright and Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project, which investigated copyright and access to learning materials in face-to-face, distance education (DE), and dual-mode tertiary educational institutions in Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa,…

  11. Oppression and resiliency in a post-apartheid South Africa: unheard voices of Black gay men and lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Kevin J

    2004-08-01

    Guided by photovoice, a form of participatory action research that uses documentary photography and storytelling, this study examines how Black gay men and lesbians view themselves in relation to White gay men and lesbians in South Africa. Participants were from 4 South African townships and included 4 women, and 3 men. Participants discussed interracial dating, a lack of education, and information regarding differing sexualities and health care. They reported being sexually and physically assaulted for challenging the heterosexual status quo. Other themes that emerged from this study were classism, cultural traditions of visiting African healers, and segregated social spaces. Amidst oppression and despair, participants showed signs of strength, hope, and optimism.

  12. USING THE SOUTH AFRICAN EXCELLENCE MODEL TO FOCUS IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES IN SOUTH AFRICA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R Smit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: South African companies wish to join the world class family. As the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award in the USA and the European Quality Award in Europe have been effected, the South African Quality Institute (SAQI pioneered and developed a National Quality Award together with leading South African companies. The South African Award model is a full hybrid of the Malcolm Baldrige and European Foundation Quality models. The awards process is now managed by the South African Excellence Foundation. This model enables companies to assess their excellence levels and use benchmarks towards improved quality, service and costs. The model has been ratified by the administrators of both of the aforementioned awards. The criteria in the award lend themselves to measurement by self assessment. This paper explains the model and its application as a foundation to strategic planning.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Maatskapye in Suid Afrika moet op die wereldmark kan presteer. Amerika het die Malcolm Baldrige Kwaliteitstoekenning en Europa die Europese Kwaliteitstoekenning.vir uitmuntende prestasie in die besigheidswereld daargestel. Die Suid Afrikaanse Kwaliteitsinstituut (SAQI het in 1997 'n Suid Afrikaanse eweknie ontwikkel. Die Suid Afrikaanse Kwaliteitstoekenning is deur die administrateurs van eersgenoemde pryse aanvaar. Die lokale Kwaliteitstoekennings word tans deur die Suid Afrikaanse Uitmuntentheidfondasie geadministreer. Die Kwaliteitstoekenning model kan gebruik word am self-meting toe te pas met die doel om besigheids prestasie te verbeter. Hierdie geskrif stel die Suid Afrikaanse model daar stel en verduidelik hoe dit vir strategiese beplanning toegepas kan word.

  13. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvert Melanie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  14. Living wills and advance directives in South African Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The legal status of living wills and advance directives in South African Law will be considered. Presently there is no reported judgment of a court in South Africa which has directly ruled on the validity of an advance directive or living will. In a case decided in 1992 the issue as to whether to discontinue life supporting treatment was decided with reference to the legal persuasions of society and whether, in light of these, it would be reasonable to discontinue artificial feeding of the patient. The judge indicated that just as a living person has an interest in the disposal of his body so did he think that the patient's wishes as expressed when he was in good health should be given effect. In South African law every person is legally entitled to refuse medical treatment even if the consequences may be to hasten death. The South African Law Convention has extensively investigated the issue in its report entitled Report on Euthanasia and the Artificial Preservation of Life in 1998. Certain problems were identified and a draft bill was suggested.

  15. Generalized thickness of the Minnelusa Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the generalized thickness of the Minnelusa Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota. The...

  16. Saturated thickness of the Minnelusa aquifer, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the saturated thickness of the Minnelusa aquifer, Black Hills area, South Dakota. The...

  17. South African Cities: A Social Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, John

    1986-01-01

    Traces the history of the development of cities in South Africa, paying special attention to the development of urban social controls. Three eras are identified: (1) mercantilism, (2) imperialism, and (3) apartheid. Concludes that enormous human costs are entailed by these attempts at social engineering. (JDH)

  18. The South African Nursing Association - Quo Vadis

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. van Huyssteen

    1984-01-01

    The S.A. Nursing Association, as defined in Section 38 of the Nursing Act 1978 (No.50 of 1978), as amended, represents the profession of nursing and midwifery in the Republic of South Africa. It is therefore a statutary body and has been one since 1944 when the first Nursing Act was promulgated.

  19. A perspective of South African unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Basdevant, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Based on stylized facts on South Africa, this article provides a simple theoretical framework to analyze the relations between reducing working time, unemployment, education and growth. It is flexible enough to provide some main macro-economic implications of work sharing, especially in terms of education and growth.

  20. Bullying during the Intermediate School Phase: A South African Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, P.; Grobler, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Bullying in the intermediate school phase was studied, using the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (R-OBVQ). The total sample comprised 360 grade 4 to 6 pupils from English-medium, single-sex schools in Bloemfontein, South Africa. To ensure a more homogeneous sample, the grade (grades 4 to 6) and race (black and white) of the participants…

  1. The relationship between demographic variables and leisure perceptions of selected South African first year university students / J.T. Weilbach.

    OpenAIRE

    Weilbach, Johannes Theron

    2013-01-01

    Participation in campus leisure and recreation programmes can provide university students with various benefits, but the provision of effective leisure programmes are complicated by the changes that have taken place in the demographic composition of the student population attending South African universities. Increases in the proportion of black students attending university, and decreases in the proportion of white students means that current students possibly exhibit leisure behaviours that...

  2. Selectivity of Black Return Migration to the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Larry H.; Hansen, Kristin A.

    1977-01-01

    The probability of blacks moving from the South has been directly related to years of school completed. Of those who leave, the most highly educated are the most likely to return. This and other evidence fails to support the hypothesis that return of the least capable migrants accounts for why southern-born blacks in the North earn more than…

  3. The Dilemma of the Historically Black Universities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilorah, R.

    2006-01-01

    The historical black universities (HBUs) in South Africa were established by the apartheid government to serve black students banned from attending segregated white-only universities. These universities were poorly funded compared to the white-only universities. The poor funding affected their output (research and postgraduates) adversely. With…

  4. Psychological career resources of working adults: A South African survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to explore broad trends regarding how individuals from various age, educational, marital, race and gender groups in the South African organisational context differ in terms of their psychological career resources, as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory. A sample of 2 997 working adults registered as students at a South African higher distance education institution participated in this study. The results indicate significant differences between the various biographical variables and the participants’ psychological career resources. In the context of employment equity, and with more women entering the workplace, this study is expected to contribute important knowledge that will inform career development practices concerned with enhancing employees’ career meta-competencies as an important element of their general employability.

  5. A knowledge sharing framework in the South African public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Mkhize

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy, organisations are shifting their investment focus to intellectual capital in order to sustain a competitive advantage in the global marketplace. Organisational survival is increasingly dependent on the organisation’s ability to create and distribute knowledge that contributes to the improvement of performance. The purpose of this article is to evaluate individual knowledge-acquisition and sharing practices in the South African public sector. I applied the techniques of grounded theory analysis to extract themes from data that could provide insight into the knowledge sharing that takes place in the South African public sector. Findings revealed that the informal sharing of knowledge takes place in discussion forums within communities of practice through web-based, socially orientated platforms. These communities of practice are widespread throughout the public sector and are established with the purpose of soliciting expert knowledge from those who have been using open-source software successfully.

  6. Embodied history. Uniqueness and exemplarity of South African AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassin, Didier

    2002-01-01

    The exceptionality of AIDS in South Africa, both for its epidemiological features and public controversies, seems to have its correspondence in the exceptionalism of South African history, with its unprecedented regime of apartheid and its unexpected turn to democracy. The article shows that AIDS in this country can simultaneously be seen as unique (because of the historical context in which it is inscribed) and exemplar (of social determinants observed in other countries characterised by similar past or present of domination). As an alternative to cultural and behavioural models of the epidemic which have been widely spread on the African continent, the concept of embodiment of history is proposed in order to account for both the structural facts underlying the epidemic (inequality, violence, migration) and the construction of collective as well as individual narratives of the disease (including victimisation and accusation).

  7. SOUTH AFRICAN ORDERS DECORATIONS AND MEDALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ploeger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This book was written by authors representing the SA Army, Air Force and Navy each an authority in his field, and is the standard reference on the subject of South Africa's many prestigious military and civil awards. Yet it is no dull tract, or of interest to the specialist only. The book is profusely illustrated and written in a lively and entertaining style.

  8. THE HISTORY OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN FORCES IN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Van der Waag

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the exception of a few dissertations and theses, the most important works dealing with South Africa's role in the First World War are official histories. In addition to the work now under review - undertaken at the request of General Smuts and described by Buchan's biographer as a 'war debt' which he (Buchan had to discharge - three other books detailing South Africa's role in various First World War campaigns, have appeared. J.G.W. Leipoldt's history entitled The Union of South Africa and the Great War 1914-1918 appeared anonymously in 1924; while J.J. Collyer's works on the German South West and East African campaigns were published in 1937 and 1939 respectively. All of these were official histories, the last three being published by the General Staff in Pretoria.

  9. The South African coal industry - a millennium review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, G.H.; Phillips, H.R. [University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2001-06-01

    South Africa is a significant contributor to southern Africa and Europe's coal needs and is expected to remain in this important position for the foreseeable future. This review paper of the South African coal mining industry highlights that, although abundant, the easily mineable reserves will become depleted within the next quarter century. Socio-economic issues of unique, local importance such as the HIV/AIDS pandemic as well as policies propagated by South Africa's post-apartheid government are detailed, as are programmes in research and development that will ensure that South Africa's long term coal industry is, at the every least, maintained. 11 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. South African life orientation teachers: (not) teaching about sexuality diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Renée; Francis, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Although South Africa is one of the most progressive countries in the world in terms of constitutional and legislative rights for LGBT individuals, education is one of many social arenas where these ideals are not carried out. Interviews with 25 practicing teachers revealed very little description of practice, but widely divergent understandings around sexual diversity that drew on various authoritative discourses, including religious teachings, educational policy, science, and the powerful human rights framework of the South African constitution. Implications for teacher education include directly engaging with these discourses and providing training, teaching materials, and practical guidelines based on existing policy.

  11. Evaluating the MBTI® Form M in a South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper J.J. van Zyl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Psychological instruments require continued refinement, updating andevaluation.Research purpose: To investigate the reliability, validity and differential item functioning ofthe MBTI® Form M across groups in South Africa using Classical Test Theory (CTT and ItemResponse Theory (IRT methods.Motivation for the study: To add to the continual research and improvement of the MBTI®Form M through the investigation of its psychometric properties across groups in South Africa.Research design, approach and method: This study falls within the quantitative researchparadigm. Classical test theory methods and Rasch analysis were used to evaluate thefunctioning of the MBTI Form M across gender and ethnic groups. A cross-sectional study wascompleted consisting of 10 705 South African respondents.Main findings: Excellent reliability was found for the instrument across groups in thesample. Good evidence for construct validity was found using exploratory factor analysis andconfirmatory factor analysis. Some evidence for uniform bias was found across ethnic andgender groups and a few items reflected non-uniform DIF across gender groups only. Theeffect of uniform and non-uniform DIF did not appear to have major practical implications forthe interpretation of the scales.Practical/managerial implications: The results provided evidence that supports thepsychometric validity of the MBTI instrument in the South African context.Contribution/value-add: This study is the largest study to date regarding the psychometricfunctioning of the MBTI instrument in South Africa. It contributes to the evolution of theinstrument in line

  12. South African Agricultural Policy 1994 to 2004: Some reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Viljoen, Machiel F.

    2005-01-01

    Time constraints limits this paper to giving a brief overview of a selection of only the most important events on the policy front. The aim is to set the stage for the conference by giving a synoptic overview of South African agricultural policy between 1994 and 2004. To put the policy development in historical and developmental perspective, relevant pre-1994 realities will be mentioned first. After outlining the policy development between 1994 and 2004, the presentation concludes with some 2...

  13. Women in the South African Labour Market, 1995 - 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Carlene van der Westhuizen; Sumayya Goga; Morne Oosthuizen

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has found that changing policies and attitudes and improved economic performance have impacted on the labour market dynamics for women and the increased feminisation of the South African labour force since the mid-1990s has been well documented. While employment has increased more rapidly for women than for men over the period, it has been suggested that women are overrepresented in low-income, less secure employment. In addition, insufficient jobs were created to absorb the a...

  14. Population Pharmacokinetics of Ethambutol in South African Tuberculosis Patients▿

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Siv; Davidse, Alistair; Wilkins, Justin; van der Walt, Jan-Stefan; Simonsson, Ulrika S. H.; Karlsson, Mats O.; Smith, Peter; McIlleron, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Ethambutol, one of four drugs in the first-line antitubercular regimen, is used to protect against rifampin resistance in the event of preexisting resistance to isoniazid. The population pharmacokinetics of ethambutol in South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were characterized using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Patients from 2 centers were treated with ethambutol (800 to 1,500 mg daily) combined with standard antitubercular medication. Plasma concentrations of ethambutol wer...

  15. A new labour era for South African Airways

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Rust; Swart, K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In the light of the South African Airways (SAA) (and Heathrow airport) strike in July 2005, an opportunity exists to evaluate the situation in order to address related problems in the future. The role of labour and specifically labour relations in the air travel industry highlights some important factors related to the industry. This paper aims to highlight the specific factors that will address possible reasons for poor workplace relations in SAA. Furthermore, a workable labou...

  16. Book review: Organisational behaviour: A contemporary South African perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Thatcher

    2004-01-01

    Authors: Helen Schultz (Ed.), Jeffrey Bagraim, Tracy Potgieter, Conrad Viedge, Amanda Werner Publisher: Van Schaik Publishers According to the authors the aim of this book is to present an interdisciplinary approach to the understanding of organisational behaviour within the contemporary South African environment. Within this framework, the book targets (senior) undergraduate and postgraduate students in Industrial/Organisational Psychology and Human Resources Management. The text is written ...

  17. Burnout and work engagement among South African psychologists / B. Roothman

    OpenAIRE

    Roothman, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Although numerous and divergent stressors are inherent to the professional life of a psychologist, research regarding burnout and its antipode, work engagement in psychologists is sparse. The current research sought to investigate the nature of and the relationship between job demands, job resources, burnout and work engagement in a group of South African psychologists. The Job Demand-Resources (JD-R) model was employed as the foundation from which to understand and explain the process of...

  18. Trade liberalisation and labour demand within South African manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence Edwards; Alberto Behar

    2005-01-01

    Using new detailed tariff data, wages disaggregated by skill level and firm level information, this paper ascertains the relationships between trade, technology and labour demand and investigates the effects of tariff changes on factor prices in South African manufacturing. We find evidence that trade liberalization and technological change have affected the skill structure of employment. Export orientation, raw materials imports, training, investment in computers and firm age are positively ...

  19. Beyond survival: Challenges facing South African automotive component exporters

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Naude; C. O'Neill

    2006-01-01

    Purpose and Objective: The South African automotive component industry faces huge challenges in a very competitive global market. The primary focus of this research article is to determine the challenges facing exporters within this industry with special reference to selected sub-sectors. The challenges are approached from a supply chain perspective only. Problem Investigated: The research problem of this study was to identify these unique challenges and ascertain whether the implement...

  20. The Role of Media in South African Health and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    John Smallwood; Danie Venter

    2011-01-01

    A large number of fatalities and injuries occur in the South African construction industry.Traditionally, the print media have dedicated editorial, published news, articles andletters, and have exposed abusive or non-conforming conditions and practices in termsof H&S. Literature also indicates that the print media can influence and has an impacton H&S.Given the level of fatalities and injuries and the potential role of the print media, a postalsurvey was conducted among editors of con...

  1. South African banks and the unbanked: Progress and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Andrie Schoombee

    2004-01-01

    Consideration is given to what the big four South African banks have done since the late nineties to open up their lending facilities to the unbanked, taking cognisance of the trends internationally, finally leading to a conclusion as to the most appropriate strategy for the future. The banks' focus has been on lending to low-income salaried individuals, making use of the downscaling strategy. Inappropriate credit technologies in this very competitive market segment led to a serious setback i...

  2. Travel behaviour of tourists to a South African holiday resort

    OpenAIRE

    Slabbert, Elmarie; Van Vuuren, Clarise Letitia

    2011-01-01

    Travel behaviour refers to the way in which tourists behave according to their attitudes before, during and after travelling. Knowledge regarding travel behaviour can assist in marketing, product planning and development which can increase the number of visitors to tourism products such as resorts. However, it was found that very little research has been conducted regarding the travel behaviour of tourists visiting South African resorts. The purpose of this study was to determine the travel b...

  3. Financial planning for retirement amongst South African professional soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    J Maseko; J. Surujlal

    2013-01-01

    Logically, financially-educated individuals should make better financial decisions for their families, increasing their economic security and well-being. The purpose of this study was to explore the financial planning and personal financial management of South African professional soccer players. In the process, a variety of issues were investigated. The research focused on the following important question: Why is financial literacy important particularly for soccer players who experience sho...

  4. DEFINING SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten, Johann F.; Zyl, Johan van

    1998-01-01

    South African agriculture is comprised of mainly two categories of farmers -- the subsistence farmers in the former homeland areas and the large-scale commercial (mainly white) farmers. This is in contrast with the situation in many other countries in the world where one would find a whole range of farm sizes, ranging from the very small or subsistence farmer to the very large farmer/agribusiness. The paper highlights the situation of small-scale farmers in an international context and compar...

  5. Influence Strategies in South African Wine Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Ewert

    2015-11-01

    Drawing on a number of detailed case studies, in this paper we investigate this conclusion in more depth. By doing so, we try to explain which paths South African producer cellars have or have not chosen, and why. As global value chain theory posits that the governance structure of value chains are of crucial importance, we will pay particular interest to the design of the chains as a success factor.

  6. Emerging multinationalists: The South African hospital industry overseas

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, Jon

    2008-01-01

    The opening of the economy to trade and investment is affecting health systems worldwide - including those dominated by publicly subsidised and provided healthcare as public sector markets are opening-up to private investors and suppliers. Multinational Companies (MNCs) operating in the hospital sector are gaining momentum and, as this paper reveals, they are not only from rich developed countries. Through a case-study of three South African private hospital firms, the focus in this paper is ...

  7. Proportionality in enterprise development of South African towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitland T. Seaman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated proportionalities in the enterprise structures of 125 South African towns through examining four hypotheses, (1 the magnitude of enterprise development in a town is a function of the population size of the town; (2 the size of an enterprise assemblage of a town is a function of the town’s age; (3 there are statistically significant relationships, and hence proportionalities, between the total number of enterprises in towns and some, if not all, of the enterprise numbers of different business sectors in towns; and (4 the implications of proportionalities have far-reaching implications for rural development and job creation. All hypotheses were accepted on the basis of statistically significant (p < 0.05 correlations, except for the second hypothesis – the age of a town does not determine the size of its enterprise assemblage. Analysis for the fourth hypothesis suggested that there are two broad entrepreneurial types in South African towns: ‘run-of-the-mill’ entrepreneurs and ‘special’ entrepreneurs, which give rise to different enterprise development dynamics. ‘Run-of-the-mill’ enterprises are dependent on, and limited by, local demand and if there is only a small demand, the entrepreneurial space is small. By comparison, ‘special’ enterprises have much larger markets because their products and/or services are exportable. We propose that the fostering of ‘special’ entrepreneurs is an imperative for local economic development in South African towns.

  8. Analysis of pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikediobi Ogechi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our knowledge of pharmacogenetic variability in diverse populations is scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we characterised population frequencies of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African population groups. We genotyped 211 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs in 12 genes that influence antiretroviral drug disposition, in 176 South African individuals belonging to two distinct population groups residing in the Western Cape: the Xhosa (n = 109 and Cape Mixed Ancestry (CMA (n = 67 groups. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs of eight tagSNPs in six genes (those encoding the ATP binding cassette sub-family B, member 1 [ABCB1], four members of the cytochrome P450 family [CYP2A7P1, CYP2C18, CYP3A4, CYP3A5] and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 [UGT1A1] were significantly different between the Xhosa and CMA populations (Bonferroni p CYP2C18, CYP3A4, the gene encoding solute carrier family 22 member 6 [SLC22A6] and UGT1A1 between the two South African populations. Characterising the Xhosa and CMA population frequencies of variant alleles important for drug transport and metabolism can help to establish the clinical relevance of pharmacogenetic testing in these populations.

  9. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Wilcox

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Around twenty thousand Australians fought in the great war between the British empire and the republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. Those Australians constituted five in every thousand of their people, or three in every two hundred of their male workers. In South Africa they made up just one in every twenty-five soldiers in a British army of almost half a million.2 As these bald figures immediately suggest, Australia's contribution to the war was too small to be decisive, and its experience of the war involved too few of its people to make a powerful impact on its society, let alone wrench its history onto some different course. Still, that contribution and that experience were unprecedented for a people who had never before gone to war as a people, and deserve more attention - and more balanced, dispassionate, critical attention - than they've yet received from historians of the war, of Australia, and of the British empire.3 In this lecture I'll strive for such balance by outlining why and how Australians went to war in South Africa, what their soldiers did there, and the war's legacy for their country and their descendants today.

  10. The first joint congress of the South African Biochemical Society, South African Genetics Society and the South African Society for Microbiology at the University of the Witwatersrand, 29 June-4 July 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South African Biochemical Society, South African Genetics Society and the South African Society for Microbiology held a joint congress at the University of the Witwatersrand from 29 June - 4 July 1986. The papers delivered cover subjects such as Molecular biology, Genetics, Biochemistry, Medical biochemistry, Physiology, Zoology and Isotope and radiation sciences. Different isotopes are used in labelling studies of enzymes, nutrition, metabolism, viruses, bacteria and other biological assays done in the fields of Biochenmistry, Genetics and Microbiology. This work contains only the abstracts of these papers

  11. HIV/AIDS messages as a spur for conversation among young South Africans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinga, Elizabeth; Schulze, Margrit; Jansen, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2010-06-01

    HIV/AIDS messages are often deliberately puzzling so as to increase the chance for them to be used as food for conversation. The South African health organisation 'loveLife,' for instance, uses messages that include complicated rhetorical expressions in their media campaigns, reasoning that those who find the messages puzzling and wonder about their meaning will be inclined to discuss the messages with their peers. In order to test the assumption that puzzlement about health messages is related to keenness to talk about these messages, structured interviews were held with 30 black learners, ages 15 to 19, from Limpopo Province, South Africa, about the messages of six HIV/ AIDS posters and six HIV/AIDS radio advertisements from 'loveLife' or another South African health organisation. No support was found for the assumption that presenting a puzzling health message will contribute to engaging the recipients in discussion. The participants indicated that they were willing to discuss the themes addressed in either a poster or radio advertisement because they appreciated the message and felt that its content was relevant to them, rather than because the message was puzzling or difficult to understand. The participants' overall actual comprehension of the messages, however, proved to be strikingly low. PMID:25860526

  12. Understanding teenage pregnancy in a post-apartheid South African township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi

    2010-05-01

    Although South Africa's total fertility rate is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of early childbearing remain a concern. Most teenage pregnancies occur among poor black and coloured South Africans. The majority of these pregnancies are said to be unwanted and unplanned and the teenager's relationships, unstable. Becoming a mother during one's teenage years is perceived to be socially, economically and physically deleterious for the teenager and her baby. This paper presents ethnographic data collected over a five-year period in the South African township of Nyanga East in the Western Cape. It draws attention to the circumstances that surround teenage pregnancy and discusses reactions to teenage pregnancies in this community. Findings highlight that despite the negative perception of teenage pregnancy within the township, particular social and cultural circumstances provided fertile ground for its occurrence. Furthermore, the paper argues that in this particular community the management of a teenage pregnancy played a functional and critical role in maintaining and reproducing social norms and ideals regarding intergenerational relationships, which ultimately ensured that the rates of early childbearing remained high.

  13. Understanding teenage pregnancy in a post-apartheid South African township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhwanazi, Nolwazi

    2010-05-01

    Although South Africa's total fertility rate is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, high rates of early childbearing remain a concern. Most teenage pregnancies occur among poor black and coloured South Africans. The majority of these pregnancies are said to be unwanted and unplanned and the teenager's relationships, unstable. Becoming a mother during one's teenage years is perceived to be socially, economically and physically deleterious for the teenager and her baby. This paper presents ethnographic data collected over a five-year period in the South African township of Nyanga East in the Western Cape. It draws attention to the circumstances that surround teenage pregnancy and discusses reactions to teenage pregnancies in this community. Findings highlight that despite the negative perception of teenage pregnancy within the township, particular social and cultural circumstances provided fertile ground for its occurrence. Furthermore, the paper argues that in this particular community the management of a teenage pregnancy played a functional and critical role in maintaining and reproducing social norms and ideals regarding intergenerational relationships, which ultimately ensured that the rates of early childbearing remained high. PMID:20162476

  14. South African indigenous healing: how it works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumes, David

    2013-01-01

    Sangomas or inyangas are shamans, healers, priests, and prophets that have been the backbone of Bantu communities, especially in the rural areas of Southern Africa for eons. However, with rapid Westernization and the increasing allure of the commodity market, the old ways are rapidly eroding. Indigenous knowledge has always been transmitted orally, and there is little written down about the secret traditions of initiation. Hence, the bibliography listed at the end of this article is scant. This information is a result of personal experience gleaned during my own initiation into the world of sangoma and my subsequent experiences with these healing realms. The knowledge has been gained experientially and not by the scientific method. Some of it is secret and cannot be revealed. The information may differ somewhat from healer to healer but the general principles are the same. Most sub-Saharan African peoples believe in the importance of the ancestors being able to guide events, and they revere them because they have this power. I mostly will be describing the traditions that I encountered during my initiation and subsequent practice. There are others. Since sangoma wisdom is an oral tradition the individual's initiation will depend on the mentor and the spirit guides involved. That particular sangoma's healing repertoire will be somewhat different to another though the principles remain the same. The ancestors find the most efficient way to impart the information so that the healer can do the work. The way in which they transmit the knowledge will be unique to that person's receptivity and talents. Objective proof is not part of the experiential training. In fact, any attempt at systematic inquiry gets in the way of the process. One has to put cognitive, left-brained intellect aside. Obsession with data obliterates the intuitive. The sangoma or inyanga has a lot to teach the West about the spirit world and our ancestral roots. Science has put us in touch with a

  15. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  16. Anti-apartheid sentiment might hurt South African coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-10-01

    The author discusses the effect of anti-apartheid actions on South Africa's position as the world's leading supplier of steam coal. Anti-apartheid economic sanctions by members of the EEC will not produce an immediate drop in tonnage because Western Europe will take coal already under contract. But Denmark and the Netherlands have already said they will phase out all contracts by 1990. Indications are that a number of other European countries will follow suit. However, it would be premature to write off South Africa as a coal trader. Ironically, economic sanctions and calls for disinvestment are likely to keep the rank weak and South African coal cheap for a long time. Cheap coal usually finds its way to market, despite political obstacles.

  17. Procurement challenges in the South African public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intaher M. Ambe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an exploration of challenges experienced in the field of procurement within the South African public sector. To institute procurement best practices, a supply chain management system was adopted in South Africa in 2003. The procurement process was granted constitutional status and has been used to address past inequitable policies and practices. It promotes aims which are, arguably, secondary to the primary aim of procurement. For the exploration, a conceptual analytical approach was employed and some of the key guiding pillars of public procurement in South Africa divulged. The challenges restraining effective and efficient implementation of public procurement are also revealed. The article concludes by recommending the development of competency through customised (separate training materials and programmes, the involvement of stakeholders in the bidding process and the employment of good strategic sourcing practices.

  18. A FEW SOUTH AFRICAN CENTS' WORTH ON BITCOIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamart Nieman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at augmenting current awareness of virtual currencies ("VCs" in the South African legal community. To this end, it introduces the reader to VCs in general and decentralised convertible VCs ("DCVCs" in particular. Due to their design and interaction with the real economy and currency, DCVCs are on the radar of many financial regulators worldwide. As Bitcoin is considered the leading type of DCVC in terms of value and volume, its early beginnings in South Africa are probed. Although regulation should follow innovation, awareness of the VC ecosystem will not only warrant appropriate regulatory intervention when the time comes, but will also enable the growth and development opportunities associated with VCs. South Africa has not promulgated any legislation pertaining to VCs. The potential applicability of all current legislation and regulations relevant to VCs calls for in-depth research. This article aspires to serve as an appetiser to do so.

  19. Intrinsic rewards and work engagement in the South African retail industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Jacobs; Michelle Renard; Robin J. Snelgar

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: There is a lack of South African research relating to the provision of intrinsic rewards to retail employees.Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine whether there is a relationship between intrinsic rewards and work engagement in the South African retail industry. Furthermore, it sought to validate an instrument to measure intrinsic rewards within the South African context.Motivation for the study: There is currently a paucity of research exploring intrins...

  20. British colonial invasion and features of the development of South African tribes.

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Deryagina

    2013-01-01

    The specific development of South African society was largely predetermined by the level of socio-historical development of the southern African region to colonial invasion, and transformation features introduced by the South African continent by the British colonialists. The colonial past of South Africa continues to be stored in memory and the psychology of the new generations of the native population. And for a better understanding of the socio-political difficulties faced by the peoples o...

  1. Colonial Encroachment Of Englishmen And Features Of Development Of South African Tribes

    OpenAIRE

    Deryagina, Irina

    2013-01-01

    The specific of development of South African society was in a great deal predefined by the level of socially-historical development of the South African region to colonial encroachment, and by the features of the transformations introduced southward the African continent by the English colonialists. The colonial past of South Africa continues to be saved in memory and psychology of new generations of native population. And for the best comprehension of socio-political difficulties into that t...

  2. Burnout and engagement: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rothmann

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Work wellness, and more specifically burnout and engagement are important focus areas of research and intervention in South Africa. However, few studies have been conducted regarding the factorial validity, construct equivalence and item bias of measuring instruments of burnout and work engagement. Furthermore, few studies have been conducted regarding causal models of burnout as well as interventions to prevent and/or manage burnout in a multicultural context. Little is known about the causes of work engagement and interventions to increase it. Research should be conducted to validate measuring instruments of burnout, work engagement and predictors thereof in multicultural contexts. Research is also needed regarding the effectiveness of interventions to manage work engagement and to prevent and/or manage burnout. Opsomming Werkwelstand, en meer spesifiek psigiese uitbranding en begeestering is belangrike fokusareas vir navorsing en intervensie in Suid-Afrika. Tog is min studies onderneem rakende die faktorgeldigheid, konstrukekwivalensie en itemsydigheid van meetinstrumente van psigiese uitbranding en werksbegeestering. Verder is min studies onderneem ten opsigte van oorsaaklike modelle van psigiese uitbranding sowel as intervensies om uitbranding in ‘n multikulturele konteks te voorkom en/of te bestuur. Min is bekend oor die oorsake van werksbegeestering en intervensies om dit te verhoog. Navorsing moet onderneem word ten einde meetinstrumente van psigiese uitbranding, werksbegeestering en voorspellers daarvan in ‘n multikulturele konteks te valideer. Navorsing rakende die effektiwiteit van intervensies om werksbegeestering te bestuur en psigiese uitbranding te voorkom en/of te hanteer, is ook noodsaaklik.

  3. Taxonomic status of the endemic South African bamboo, Thamnocalamus tessellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Soderstrom

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Thamnocalamus tessellatus (Nees Soderstrom & Ellis, comb. nov. [= Arundinaria tessellata (Nees Munro] is the only endemic South African bamboo and occurs from the eastern districts of the Cape, through Lesotho and Natal, to the eastern Orange Free State at elevations of about 1 500-2 500 m. The Mountain Bamboo, or‘Bergbamboes’ was first described by Nees in 1841 as a member of the genus Nastus because of the similarity, tohim, of the spikelets between it and N. borbonicus, but was later transferred to the all-encompassing genus of the time, Arundinaria, the type species of which is endemic to the south-eastern United States of America. Based onour present knowledge of bamboo genera, this South African species may be excluded from Nastus because the inflorescence is not a panicle but bracteate racemiform, the vegetative branches do not arise in a verticillate manner but are a series of subequal branches that are borne in a row above the nodal line and T. tessellatus has anandroecium of three stamens and not six as in Nastus. The Bergbamboes, with sympodial rhizomes and branchcomplement of several subequal branches, can also not be maintained in Arundinaria, for monopodial rhizomesand a single branch at the node are typical of this genus. The simple, ebracteate, and exserted inflorescence ofArundinaria is also quite distinct from that of the Bergbamboes. In order to place the South African bamboo more precisely we have made comparative studies of its leaf anatomy and epidermis, gross morphology, and analyses of its inflorescence and spikelets. The results of all thesestudies reveal a striking resemblance to members of the Sino-Himalayan genus, Thamnocalamus, to which we haveaccordingly transferred the species. The results are presented, together with an interpretation of the phylogeneticposition of the Bergbamboes and possible events that led to the disjunction of species in the genus.

  4. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  5. Computer Cache. African American Websites for Black History Month and All Year Long

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    February is Black History Month and time to celebrate the contributions of African Americans throughout history. This paper provides a selection of websites that can serve as starting points for learning and can be used all year long.

  6. FastStats: Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2014, Table P-1c [ ...

  7. Overview of the South African mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong-xue; LI Jia-jie; LI Cui-ping; LIU Shuang-yue

    2008-01-01

    Outlined the South African mine health and safety regulatory framework, including the roles of government, tripartite council, service agencies, mine enterprises,rescue stations and workers unions, analyzed the institutional structures of South African mine health and safety standardization, including the South African standard and specification systems and standard development processes, and characterized the South African mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems. Intended to provide some suggestions for the transformation and improvement of mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems in China or in similar situations.

  8. Africans and the myth of rural retirement in South Africa, ca 1900-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Aran S

    2008-06-01

    The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid. PMID:17939024

  9. Africans and the myth of rural retirement in South Africa, ca 1900-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Aran S

    2008-06-01

    The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid.

  10. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  11. Universal Principles of Media Ethics: South African and German Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Sophie Borgmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly globalised nature of media and journalism has led to a review of ethical standards, mainly to find universal ethical values which are applicable in a world with countless different cultures. This article attempts to address this field of research in comparing South African and German approaches to the topic of media ethics. Firstly, it outlines theories of universal and specific cultural ethical principles in journalism. Secondly, it shows how the conception of universal ethical principles, so called protonorms, is interpreted differently in the two cultures and how specific cultural values of media ethics are rated among the two cultural frameworks of Germany and South Africa. An online survey conducted among German and South African journalism students found significant differences in the ranking of media ethics principles as well as similarities and differences in the interpretations of protonorms. The results support existing normative theories of universal media ethics, such as the theory of protonorms, in contributing explorative empirical data to this field of mainly theoretical research.

  12. Nuclear regulation of South African mines: An industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South African mines have become subject to a rigid and prescriptive system of nuclear regulation that has its roots in the past when South Africa embarked upon a period of nuclear development spanning the full nuclear fuel cycle, and in which the South African gold mining industry once played a major part in the supply of uranium as a low grade by-product. Radiation hazards in the mines are generally very moderate, even in the few gold mines associated with uranium by-product, and to not warrant the type of regulatory attention normally applied to nuclear installations, or even to uranium mines. The continued imposition of strict nuclear regulatory requirements has caused severe financial hardship and threatens the survival of certain mining operations, while seemingly having little or no health benefits to workers or the public. With the development of modern, comprehensive mine health and safety legislation, a more appropriate, effective, and far less costly vehicle for controlling radiation hazards in mines now exists, utilizing the resources of the Mine Health and Safety Inspectorate. This approach is now being proposed, in the drafting of new legislation, as constituting a better alternative to the nuclear regulation of mines. (author)

  13. A survey of zoonotic diseases contracted by South African veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gummow

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 88 veterinarians employed at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa, was carried out to investigate the occurrence of zoonotic diseases among South African veterinarians. The survey found that 63.6 % of veterinarians interviewed had suffered from a zoonotic disease. Veterinarians predominantly involved in farm animal practice were 3 times more likely to have contracted a zoonotic disease than those working in other veterinary fields. Fifty-six percent of disease incidents were initially diagnosed by the veterinarians themselves. Fifty-three percent of incidents required treatment by a medical practitioner, but the majority (61 % of incidents did not require absence from work. The incidence density rate for contracting a zoonotic disease was 0.06 per person year of exposure. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis estimated that the probability of having contracted a zoonotic disease was 50 % after 11 years in practice. The risk of contracting a zoonotic disease appeared to be higher early in practice. The mostcommonmodeof transmission was by direct contact. Approximately 46 % of South Africans still live in rural areas and regularly come into close contact with farmanimals. The implications of this in the light of this survey’s results are discussed.

  14. Nonlinear hedonic pricing: a confirmatory study of South African wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priilaid DA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available David A Priilaid1, Paul van Rensburg21School of Management Studies, 2Department of Finance and Tax, University of Cape Town, Republic of South AfricaAbstract: With a sample of South African red and white wines, this paper investigates the relationship between price, value, and value for money. The analysis is derived from a suite of regression models using some 1358 wines drawn from the 2007 period, which, along with red and white blends, includes eight cultivars. Using the five-star rating, each wine was rated both sighted and blind by respected South African publications. These two ratings were deployed in a stripped-down customer-facing hedonic price analysis that confirms (1 the unequal pricing of consecutive increments in star-styled wine quality assessments and (2 that the relationship between value and price can be better estimated by treating successive wine quality increments as dichotomous “dummy” variables. Through the deployment of nonlinear hedonic pricing, fertile areas for bargain hunting can thus be found at the top end of the price continuum as much as at the bottom, thereby assisting retailers and consumers in better identifying wines that offer value for money.Keywords: price, value, wine

  15. Determinants of health insurance ownership among South African women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwabu Germano M

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies conducted in developed countries using economic models show that individual- and household- level variables are important determinants of health insurance ownership. There is however a dearth of such studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between health insurance ownership and the demographic, economic and educational characteristics of South African women. Methods The analysis was based on data from a cross-sectional national household sample derived from the South African Health Inequalities Survey (SANHIS. The study subjects consisted of 3,489 women, aged between 16 and 64 years. It was a non-interventional, qualitative response econometric study. The outcome measure was the probability of a respondent's ownership of a health insurance policy. Results The χ2 test for goodness of fit indicated satisfactory prediction of the estimated logit model. The coefficients of the covariates for area of residence, income, education, environment rating, age, smoking and marital status were positive, and all statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05. Women who had standard 10 education and above (secondary, high incomes and lived in affluent provinces and permanent accommodations, had a higher likelihood of being insured. Conclusion Poverty reduction programmes aimed at increasing women's incomes in poor provinces; improving living environment (e.g. potable water supplies, sanitation, electricity and housing for women in urban informal settlements; enhancing women's access to education; reducing unemployment among women; and increasing effective coverage of family planning services, will empower South African women to reach a higher standard of living and in doing so increase their economic access to health insurance policies and the associated health services.

  16. Shattered stories: Healing and reconciliation in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cori Wielenga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sharing our stories has been described, by those in the field as well as by popular opinion, as a way to foster healing and reconciliation following violent conflict. This article argues that sharing stories is in itself not necessarily helpful. It is when our stories are shattered by the story of another that meaningful change can begin to take place and new stories can emerge. This idea will be explored in the South African context, with reference to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission as well as current events. It will consider storytelling and reconciliation using John Lederach�s four-part model of justice, truth, mercy and peace.

  17. The South African Constitution requires men to be feminist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lótter

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Can a man be a feminist? If so, what would it mean? I want to participate in a dialogue between women and men on how to accommodate women's moral concerns. I propose that the fundamental values of justice embodied in the South African constitutional democracy require men to be feminist. These values provide the best safeguard of the important interests and values of both women and men. Men who accept these values can support the main concerns of feminism. The implications of the argument in this article range from public issues to the most private aspects of marriage.

  18. THE POTENTIAL OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SOUTH AFRICAN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Greef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an introduction to the most commonly used Knowledge Based Systems (KBS's called Rule Based Systems, presents some benefits of using these systems if the application warrants their attention and provides an over-view of current R&D as well as industrial systems already implemented. Areas of manUfacturing that could use KES's within the South African context are suggested. A research programme investigating the use of KBS's in robotics in progress at the University of Stellenbosch demonstrating a number of useful properties associated with programming Artificial Intelligence (AI techniques using logic programming, is discussed.

  19. Forecasting the South African Economy : A DSGE-VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, G.; Gupta, R.; Schaling, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops an estimable hybrid model that combines the micro-founded DSGE model with the flexibility of the theoretical VAR model. The model is estimated via the maximum likelihood technique based on quarterly data on real Gross National Product (GNP), consumption, investment and hours worked, for the South African economy, over the period of 1970:1 to 2000:4. Based on a recursive estimation using the Kalman filter algorithm, the out-of-sample forecasts from the hybrid model are then...

  20. Exploring South Africa’s ‘black diamonds’ at live music performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinette Kruger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Problem under investigation: This exploratory study fills a gap in the literature by profiling ‘black diamonds’, the South African up-and-coming middle-class market, at live music concerts. Design, methodology and approach: A destination-based survey at five concerts in South Africa in 2012 extracted a sample of 164 black diamond attendees from the rest of the audience. The attendance motives of this sample were used to identify different market segments within the sample.Findings and implications: Factor analysis identified five key motives and five key management factors for a memorable experience, and a cluster analysis found three types of black diamond concertgoers: Enthusiasts, Sentimentalists and Novices. The three clusters differed significantly in terms of their socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and especially in terms of what they regarded as important for a memorable experience at a live concert. These results will enable managers to package live concerts accordingly in order to develop this market in South Africa. The research emphasises that attendees at live concerts cannot be regarded as homogeneous in terms of their profiles, needs and preferences.

  1. Noma (cancrum oris) in the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Altini, M; Chandran, R; Khammissa, R A G; Masipa, J N; Mohamed, A; Lemmer, J

    2014-01-01

    Noma (cancrum oris) is a destructive necrotising disease affecting orofacial tissues predominantly of malnourished young children. It is characterised by a rapid acute onset which usually starts in the mouth, spreads intra-orally destroying soft tissue and bone and progresses to perforate the facial skin, causing disfigurement. Polybacterial anaerobic infection is critical too, but is not alone sufficient for the initiation of noma. Cofactors, first and foremost malnutrition, but also systemic viral and bacterial infections are crucial to the development of noma. A patient with necrotising stomatitis or noma must be admitted to hospital for antibiotic treatment, fluid and electrolytes as well as nutritional supplementation and general supportive treatment. The epidemiology of noma in the South African population is unknown, and the clinicopathological features are poorly characterised. Although worldwide there is no evidence that HIV infection is a strong risk factor for noma, HIV infection may play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of noma in South Africa.

  2. Deconstructing Black History Month: Three African American Boys' Exploration of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Melissa Hare

    2012-01-01

    Every February, schools celebrate Black History Month and teachers teach the grand narrative of famous African Americans such as Martin Luther King, Jr. While the stories communicate bravery, they are also about racism and violence. Here, through narrative inquiry, a teacher deconstructs Black History Month, inviting student responses to stories…

  3. African American Homeschool Parents' Motivations for Homeschooling and Their Black Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the motivations of African American parents for choosing homeschooling for their children and the academic achievement of their Black homeschool students. Their reasons for homeschooling are similar to those of homeschool parents in general, although some use homeschooling to help their children understand Black culture and…

  4. "Combing" through Representations of Black Girls' Hair in African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda M.; McNair, Jonda C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we share findings from a content analysis of six picturebooks about hair. The picturebooks selected feature Black female protagonists and are written by African American females. Our content analysis examines the ways in which Black hair is theorized and represented to children (from diverse backgrounds) very early on in their…

  5. U.S.{/}South African Undergraduate Education and Research Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, K. M.; Nolan, J. R.; Davis, K. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Kieft, T. L.; van Heerden, E.; Litthauer, D.; Pfiffner, S. M.

    2002-12-01

    Deep South African mines (2 to 3.5 km below land surface) have provided unique opportunities for research investigating geochemical and microbial processes in deep subsurface environments. The environments encountered in these mines range from prolific biofilms to hot saline water emanating from gas-rich boreholes. This venture is an outgrowth of ongoing research funded by the NSF Life in Extreme Environments Program as the Witswatersrand Deep Microbiology Project. A workshop for U.S. and South African underrepresented undergraduates was held in December 2001 and is being repeated in December 2002. The main purpose of the workshops were to provide a field and laboratory research experience for underrepresented undergraduate students from the United States (U.S.) and South Africa (S.A.) in the fields of earth, biological, and environmental sciences and engineering. Additional purposes included continuing the exchange of scientific, educational, and biotechnological efforts, and to discuss and explore opportunities for expanding the educational, research and biotechnological efforts. The workshop goals were to recruit and engage undergraduate students in unique and exciting research not normally available to them. The workshops offered state-of-the-art experimental opportunities on specific scientific topics, including subsurface biogeochemstry and microbial ecology. The workshops strengthened scientific and technological collaborations between the South African and U.S. academic communities and South African mining companies. The mines welcome opportunities to host under represented student education initiatives and are forthcoming with refreshments, mining gear, underground transport and geologists. We successfully demonstrated that a workshop with underground activities involving students from both nations was safe, feasible, and career enhancing. Student activities included chemical analyses of groundwater, enrichment for iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria and

  6. Beyond survival: Challenges facing South African automotive component exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Naude

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Objective: The South African automotive component industry faces huge challenges in a very competitive global market. The primary focus of this research article is to determine the challenges facing exporters within this industry with special reference to selected sub-sectors. The challenges are approached from a supply chain perspective only. Problem Investigated: The research problem of this study was to identify these unique challenges and ascertain whether the implementation of a 'philosophy of continuous improvement' could be used as a strategic tool to address the challenges they face in the market. Methodology: This study included a combination of literature review, interviews with managers in the selected sub-groups and questionnaires sent out to determine the challenges facing automotive component exporters. In order to test the content validity and the reliability of the questionnaire, a pilot study was conducted at two organisations that are the main suppliers of automotive filters for passenger vehicles. The non-probability convenience sample technique was used to select the sample and consisted of selected sub-sectors that contribute 64,1% of the total value of automotive component exports in South Africa. Out of twenty-seven questionnaires sent out, twenty (74% response rate were duly completed by the respondents and returned to the researcher. Findings: South Africa faces unique challenges and these are listed and ranked according to priority from most to least important as follows: 1. The reduction of production costs; 2. R/US$ exchange rate effect on the respondent's export sales and profit margin; 3. Exchange rate fluctuations; 4. Threats to the local automotive component market; and 5. Increased competition by way of manufactured imports being sold in the South African market. Value of Research: The study provides recommendations that can be used within the automotive component industry.

  7. Equity in Science at South African Schools: A pious platitude or an achievable goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewnarain Ramnarain, Umesh

    2011-07-01

    The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying curriculum reform. This paper reports on equity in terms of equality of outputs and equality of inputs in South African school science, with a particular focus on the implementation of practical science investigations. This was a qualitative case study of two teachers on their implementation of science investigations at two schools, one a township school, previously designated for black children, and the other a former Model C school, previously reserved for white children. My study was guided by the curriculum implementation framework by Rogan and Grayson in trying to understand the practice of these teachers at schools located in contextually diverse communities. The framework helped profile the implementation of science investigations and also enabled me to explore the factors which are able to support or hinder this implementation.

  8. South African trade hegemony: is the South African–EU Trade, Development and Cooperation Agreement heading for a BRICS wall?

    OpenAIRE

    Bezuidenhout, Henri; Claassen, Carike

    2013-01-01

    South African dominance of trade in Africa as well as its position as a regional hegemon was entrenched by the Trade, Development and Cooperation Agreement (TDCA) with the European Union in 1999. South Africa’s full-blown integration into the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) formation since 2011 has brought new dynamics, however, as South Africa now has a marked BRICS orientation. Although the European Union (EU) as a bloc is still South Africa’s largest tr...

  9. 76 FR 22670 - Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, South Dakota, Vestal Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, South Dakota, Vestal Project..., District Ranger, Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, 330 Mount Rushmore Road, Custer, South Dakota 57730. Telephone Number: (605) 673- 4853. E-mail:...

  10. The South African English Language Scene within a (Global) Holographic Triadic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is on the triangulated work of the 1996 South African Constitution, the Pan South African Language Board (PanSALB), and one of the latter's eleven language subsidiaries: the English National Language Body (ENLB), with special reference to the ENLB's likewise triadic projects on literature; on variation and…

  11. Student Teachers' Attitudes towards and Willingness to Teach Evolution in a Changing South African Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrie, A. L.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes of South African student teachers towards the theory of evolution and their willingness to teach it. The teaching of evolution has been excluded from the South African school curriculum for most of the 20th century. In 2008, Grade 12 learners were for the first time exposed to the concept of evolution in the…

  12. Impact of Mathematics and Physics on the Success of South African Engineering Technology Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wyk, Ben; Hofman, W.A.H.; Louw, I.

    2015-01-01

    The general conclusion arrived at in the literature is that the South African National Senior Certificate (NSC) is not a reliable predictor of academic success at traditional universities. By sharing research undertaken at a South African University of Technology (UoT) on the impact of individual co

  13. Use of Morphine Sulphate by South African Paramedics for Prehospital Pain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Vincent-Lambert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence in the literature highlights the fact that acute pain in the prehospital setting remains poorly managed. Morphine remains the most commonly used analgesic agent in the South African prehospital emergency care setting. Although guidelines and protocols relating to the dosage and administration of morphine exist, little data are available describing its use by South African paramedics.

  14. Ideological Alchemy: The Transmutation of South African Didactics (and Fundamental Pedagogics) into "Apartheid Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonge, George D.

    2008-01-01

    In his response to Kruger, Le Grange claims that: (1) the South African discourse of fundamental pedagogics was closely allied with Christian National Education and functioned as a powerful educational doctrine in the service of the South African policy of apartheid education; (2) fundamental pedagogics bracketed political discourse; (3) the…

  15. Book review: Organisational behaviour: A contemporary South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Thatcher

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Authors: Helen Schultz (Ed., Jeffrey Bagraim, Tracy Potgieter, Conrad Viedge, Amanda Werner Publisher: Van Schaik Publishers According to the authors the aim of this book is to present an interdisciplinary approach to the understanding of organisational behaviour within the contemporary South African environment. Within this framework, the book targets (senior undergraduate and postgraduate students in Industrial/Organisational Psychology and Human Resources Management. The text is written in a simple, conversational style (as was the intention of the authors that should be suitable for most undergraduate students at English-speaking tertiary institutions. The book is organised into three sections based on a model of four components of organizational behaviour: the individual, the group and the organisation. The fourth component of the model, the environment, refers specifically in the context of this book, to a contemporary South African approach to understanding behaviour in organisations. In the ‘individual’ section, the authors cover topics such as individual differences (e.g. personality, attitudes, perceptions, emotional intelligence, etc., ethics, work motivation, and performance management. In the ‘group’ section, the authors look at issues of group and team dynamics, power and empowerment, communication, decision-making and leadership. Finally, in the ‘organisation’ section, the authors address issues of contemporary organisational design, organisational change and employee well-being (e.g. stress management, job satisfaction, etc..

  16. A reanalysis of the South African australopithecine natural endocasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, D

    1980-11-01

    Sulcal patterns of six previously available South African australopithecine natural endocasts are reexamined and compared to sulcal patterns of 17 human, 12 gorilla and six chimpanzee brains. In addition, a seventh natural endocast, from STS 58, is described for the first time and compared to an artificial endocast from the same specimen. Using the Taung endocast as a focal point, it is shown that sulcal patterns reproduced on natural endocasts of australopithecines appear to be pongid-like rather than human-like. Contrary to earlier descriptions, the lunate sulcus occupies a rostral position similar to that found in pongids. Since South African australopithecine brains do not appear to be reorganized along human lines at a gross external neuroanatomical level, the concept of neurological reorganization is best applied at finer neurological levels, perhaps at the level of the neuron or at a neurochemical level. Thus, future studies by comparative neuroscientists are more likely to elucidate the fine details of neurological reorganization that occurred during early human evolution than are studies by paleontologists who directly observe the australopithecine fossil record of natural endocasts. PMID:7468789

  17. The use of English in South African science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Edmund Cobbing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific reports, articles, strategies and plans in South Africa (and elsewhere are often written in unnecessarily confusing, complex and obscure language. While this is often unintended, it can be used by some to assert authority and discourage inquiry or dissent. Specialist styles of writing and jargon used by business, management or socio-economic development professionals are often copied or echoed in other contexts where their meaning is less clear. Although there is some very clear scientific writing in South Africa, confusing and obscure writing is common and may even be a growing problem. This style of writing may act as a barrier to entry for speakers of English as a second language (the majority of South Africans, who must devote extra time to mastering the medium rather than the content of science writing. The problem is even found in some school textbooks aimed specifically at speakers of English as a second language. The various uses of poor language in science in South Africa have unwanted and potentially serious implications, including supporting unwanted power and institutional hierarchies, alienating the general public, confusing decision-makers, hampering efforts towards transformation, discouraging debate, and diverting time and energy away from scientific work and cooperation.

  18. Non-Standard Workers: The South African Context, International Law and Regulation by The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES Fourie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The current labour market has many forms of employment relations that differ from full-time employment. "Atypical," "non-standard," or even "marginal" are terms used to describe these new workers and include, amongst others, part-time work, contract work, self-employment, temporary, fixed-term, seasonal, casual, piece-rate work, employees supplied by employment agencies, home workers and those employed in the informal economy. These workers are often paid for results rather than time. Their vulnerability is linked in many instances to the absence of an employment relationship or the existence of a flimsy one. Most of these workers are unskilled or work in sectors with limited trade union organisation and limited coverage by collective bargaining, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation. They should, in theory, have the protection of current South African labour legislation, but in practice the unusual circumstances of their employment render the enforcement of their rights problematic. The majority of non-standard workers in South Africa are those previously disadvantaged by the apartheid regime, compromising women and unskilled black workers. The exclusion of these workers from labour legislation can be seen as discrimination, which is prohibited by almost all labour legislation in South Africa. This contribution illustrates how the concept of indirect discrimination can be an important tool used to provide labour protection to these workers. The purpose of this article is to explore the scope of the extension of labour rights to non-standard workers in the context of South African labour laws and the international framework.

  19. Proposed conservation plan for the black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis in South Africa, the TBVC* states and Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Brooks

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The conservation plan for the black rhinoceros presents specific aims and management guidelines for the conservation of the African black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis in the Republic of South Africa, the TBVC states and Namibia. The adoption of this plan, and the application of the strategies described therein (managing existing populations, establishing new populations and aspects of captive breeding by the relevant conservation authorities should enhance the survival prospects of this species, both in the region and globally.

  20. The state of international management research in South African management journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf J. Vögel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: It is considered important to take stock periodically of the present channels available for communication of scholarly discourse and research, something that has not been done in international management in South Africa.Research purpose: This study aimed to not only identify the gaps in South African international management research, but also to serve as a source of international management research with a South African focus in order to aid future South African international management research.Motivation for the study: As South African business become more global and international management plays a more central role in business practice, the importance and relevance of international management increases, thus necessitating a greater research focus on international management.Research design, approach and method: A content analysis was conducted on the 1313 articles published in the seven South African management journals between 2004 and 2013.Main findings: Not only is a mere 2.7% of all articles published in the seven South African management journals between 2004 and 2013 focused on international management, but there was also a decline in the number of international management articles published.Contributions/value-add: This study will not only help to identify the gaps in international management research in South Africa, but will also serve as a source of South African international management research for future researchers and academics.

  1. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  2. Prevalence of workplace bullying of South African employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanri Cunniff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Workplace bullying has negative physical and psychological effects on employees and several negative effects on organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to determine the prevalence of workplace bullying in South Africa and whether there are differences in employees’ experiences of bullying with regard to socio-demographic characteristics, sense of coherence (SOC and diversity experiences.Motivation for the study: This study intended to draw attention to the implications and negative effects of workplace bullying and to determine whether employees with certain socio-demographic characteristics, SOC levels and diversity experiences experience higher levels of bullying than others do.Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a cross-sectional field survey approach. They used an availability sample (N = 13 911. They computed frequencies to determine the prevalence of workplace bullying and used a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and analyses of variance (ANOVAs to determine the differences between the groups.Main findings: The results showed that 31.1% of the sample had experienced workplace bullying. The researchers found significant differences between all the socio-demographic groups. Participants with higher levels of SOC, and who experienced diversity positively, reported lower levels of workplace bullying.Practical/managerial implications: Employers need to realise that workplace bullying is a common problem amongst South African employees and should ensure that they have the necessary prevention methods.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the limited research on the prevalence of workplace bullying and its relationship with SOC and diversity experiences in the South African workplace.

  3. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  4. Understandings of gender and HIV in the South African media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    It is widely agreed empowering women to take control of their lives and sexual health is a key strategy for tackling gender inequalities and HIV/AIDS, but to date this has been exceedingly difficult to achieve. This paper explores how a sample of South African media represent the relationship between gender and HIV/AIDS in the interests of understanding the symbolic context in which HIV/AIDS programmers conduct their work. The starting assumption is that representations of gender and HIV in the symbolic sphere provide the context within which people charged with designing and implementing women's empowerment interventions--government officials and NGO programme managers--construct understandings of this relationship and how best to tackle it. Content analysis was conducted on four South African newspapers between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2008. Newspapers selected are widely read by "opinion leaders"; government officials and NGO programme managers. It is accepted that women's empowerment needs to involve top-down and bottom-up approaches. Dominant media representations portray women's empowerment as almost entirely a top-down process in which powerful actors are responsible for identifying and implementing women-focused interventions. Newspapers pay little attention to the need for the mobilisation of women via bottom-up programmes. Furthermore, while the media focuses on structural- and individual-level interventions, there is limited discussion of the importance of community-development interventions. Community-development interventions emphasise the need to build and support community-led responses to HIV. For women's empowerment to be successful interventions need to be at all levels. Currently, much emphasis is placed on the need for "socially responsible" media reporting in South Africa that supports positive social development and social justice. Against this background, we conclude media representations of appropriate ways to tackle gender and HIV

  5. The religious lives of students at a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Nell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Whilst significant research has been conducted on religious affiliation and on general levels of religiosity in the South African context, few studies specifically investigated the religious lives of South African university students in a comprehensive way. This is unfortunate as such research could significantly inform and support the effectiveness of youth and student ministries. As such, this article explored the religious lives of students at a university in the Gauteng province of South Africa, focusing specifically on students’ self-assessed religiosity, the maturity of their religious attitudes, their spiritual well-being, the religious practices in which they engage and the relationship between such practices and their spiritual well-being. Gender, racial and religious differences concerning these variables were also investigated. Data were collected from 356 undergraduate students by means of a structured survey consisting of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire, the Religious Fundamentalism Scale and two other scales aimed at assessing religiosity and religious practices. Results indicated that 98.9% of participants were religious with the majority (86.9% being Christian. Generally, students espoused highly fundamentalist religious attitudes but had high levels of spiritual well-being. Prayer and virtual or in-person attendance of religious gatherings such as church services were the most prevalent religious practices whereas fasting and meditation were practiced least. All practices were positively correlated with students’ spiritual well-being. Based on these findings, the article concludes with several specific, practical recommendations relevant to student ministries and those working with university students in religious contexts.

  6. Socially Responsible Leadership Capacity Development: Predictors among African American/Black Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, Michael Redmond

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the capacity and predictors of socially responsible leadership among African American/Black college students at HBCUs and PWIs using data from the Multi-institutional Study of Leadership. An independent sample t-test was used to test the hypothesis that African American/Black students at HBCUs would have higher leadership…

  7. 'But where are our moral heroes?' An analysis of South African press reporting on children affected by HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintjes, Helen; Bray, Rachel

    2005-12-01

    Messages conveyed both explicitly and implicitly in the media play an important role in shaping the public's understanding of issues, as well as in shaping associated policy, programmes and popular responses to these issues. This paper applies discourse analysis to a series of articles about children affected by HIV/AIDS published in 2002/2003 in the English-language South African press. The analysis reveals layers of moral messaging present in the reporting, the cumulative effect of which is the communication of a series of moral judgements about who is and who is not performing appropriate roles in relation to children. Discourses of moral transgression, specifically on the part of African parents and 'families' for failing in their moral responsibilities towards their children, coalesce with discourses on anticipated moral decay among (previously innocent) children who lack their due care. A need for moral regeneration among South Africans (but implicitly black South Africans) contrasts with accolades for (usually white), middle-class individuals, who, it is implied, have gone beyond their moral duty to respond. The article argues that in each instance the particular moralism is questionable in light of both empirical evidence and the principles of human dignity that underlie the South African constitution. Children - and particularly 'AIDS orphans' - are often presented in the press as either quintessential, innocent victims of the epidemic or as potential delinquents. While journalists' intentions are likely to be positive when representing children in these ways, the paper argues that this approach is employed at a cost, both to the public's knowledge and attitudes around the impact of HIV/AIDS, and, more importantly, to the lives of children affected by the epidemic. PMID:25865783

  8. Androgen Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms, Associations with Prostate Cancer Risk and Pathological Characteristics: A Comparative Analysis between South African and Senegalese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries and the leading cause of mortality in males in less developed countries. African ethnicity is one of the major risk factors for developing prostate cancer. Pathways involved in androgen metabolism have been implicated in the etiology of the disease. Analyses of clinical data and CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and SRD5A2 genotypes were performed in South African White (120 cases; 134 controls, Mixed Ancestry (207 cases; 167 controls, and Black (25 cases; 20 controls men, as well as in Senegalese men (86 cases; 300 controls. Senegalese men were diagnosed earlier with prostate cancer and had higher median PSA levels compared to South African men. Metastasis occurred more frequently in Senegalese men. Gene polymorphism frequencies differed significantly between South African and Senegalese men. The CYP3A4 rs2740574 polymorphism was associated with prostate cancer risk and tumor aggressiveness in South African men, after correction for population stratification, and the SRD5A2 rs523349 CG genotype was inversely associated with high-stage disease in Senegalese men. These data suggest that variants previously associated with prostate cancer in other populations may also affect prostate cancer risk in African men.

  9. Practical radiology education in South African Dental Schools, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current position of practical preclinical and clinical training in dento-maxillo-facial radiography for dental students and oral hygiene students in South Africa is reviewed. Special attention is given to factors in methodology which have an influence on radiation protection. Results indicate that there is a fairly high degree of standardization in dento-maxillo-facial radiography instruction in South Africa. The preference for the lead-lined or shielded open-ended cones is in keeping with the tenets of radiation protection. The use of pointed cones for intraoral radiography is not a good choice, as this causes scatter radiation. The wide use of the Rinn XCP(R) filmholding device in South African dental schools for the parallelling technique lessens the chance of cone cutting, and hence reduces the likelihood of needing to reexpose the patient due to that technical error. Additionally, the parallelling technique allows a more accurate assessment of alveolar bone loss from periodontal disease, and allows a better judgement of the relationship between the roots of maxillary teeth and the floor of the maxillary sinus, than does the bisecting angle technique. During the past decade, fiarly consistent parameters have been developed in dento-maxillo-facial radiography concerning preclinical and clinical training of dental and oral hygiene students

  10. Strategic repositioning of Safripol in the South African polymer industry / W.A. du Plessis

    OpenAIRE

    Du Plessis, Willem Adriaan

    2010-01-01

    Safripol is a South African polymer company producing mainly high density polyethylene and polypropylene for the South African market. Safripol used to be part of a global chemical company Dow Chemicals. Dow Chemical's divested in South Africa in 2006 and Safripol lost all the advantages of being part of a global corporate enterprise. The company is faced with a unique situation in that it is receiving monomer from Sasol, which is also its main competitor in the polymer market. The price o...

  11. Ethical codes for training staff in South African collieries : a case study / F.W. Kemp

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Frederick Willem

    2009-01-01

    The title of the research is "Ethical codes for training staff in South African Collieries -a case study". The research was conducted in coal mining training centres in the Free State, Gauteng and the Mpumulanga provinces of South Africa. The objective of the research was to examine ethical codes currently in place internationally and locally. Based on this research the research was then focused on its contribution to the human resource development arena. South African coal mining train...

  12. Developing and testing items for the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI)

    OpenAIRE

    Carin Hill; Jan Alewyn Nel; Fons J.R. van de Vijver; Deon Meiring; Velichko H. Valchev; Byron G. Adams; Gideon P De Bruin

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: A multicultural country like South Africa needs fair cross-cultural psychometric instruments.Research purpose: This article reports on the process of identifying items for, and provides a quantitative evaluation of, the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI) items.Motivation for the study: The study intended to develop an indigenous and psychometrically sound personality instrument that adheres to the requirements of South African legislation and excludes cultural bias.Resear...

  13. Managing a South African organisation within a dual manufacturing and services economy

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, R; S. Benade

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the nature of the South African dual manufacturing and services economy and the impact thereof on organisations from a management perspective. Problem investigated: Services account for over 65% of South Africa's gross domestic product (GDP) and reflects an escalating trend. The manufacturing sector of the economy is just over 26% of GDP. This by implication implies that the South African economy is dualistic in nature. The economy funct...

  14. ANGLO-SOUTH AFRICAN RELATIONS AND THE EREBUS SCHEME, 1936-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deon Visser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the Commonwealth, South Africa aligned its defence policy closely with that of Great Britain in the years between the two World Wars. Apart from taking responsibility for its own defence, the Union of South Africa was also expected, at its discretion, to support Britain in the case of a European war. By the mid-1930s South Africa faced a possible external threat as the aggressive, imperialist policies of Germany, Italy and Japan began to take shape. South African Defence Minister, Oswald Pirow, endeavoured to obtain 15-inch guns from Britain to bolster Cape Town’s defences against sea-raiders. Despite her strategic interest in safeguarding the Cape sea route, Britain’s own efforts at rearmament, however, made her unwilling to part with guns of that calibre. Instead, in June 1936, the British government agreed to lend the monitor HMS Erebus, carrying two 15-inch guns, to the Union of South Africa. Redesignated Erebus Heavy Battery, South African Garrison Artillery, it was to serve as a floating artillery battery in Cape Town harbour. Two detachments of South Africans were trained in Britain to man the Erebus, but war broke out before the Erebus could sail for the Cape. Some of the South African crew on the Erebus allegedly ‘refused duty’ and were put ashore. The Erebus scheme was subsequently cancelled and the South Africans sent home. The aim of this article is to determine the origins of the Erebus scheme and the reasons for its demise against the background of Anglo-South African relations immediately before and after the commencement of the Second World War. This entails an investigation of Anglo-South African relations both at interstate and popular level. The article outlines the birth of the scheme amidst the diverging views of the British Admiralty and the South African Minister for Defence, Oswald Pirow, on Cape Town’s defence needs. It highlights the political division in South African society over participation

  15. The black Dutchmen: African soldiers in the Netherlands East Indies

    OpenAIRE

    Kessel, van, CGM

    2002-01-01

    Between 1831 and 1872 some 3000 African recruits sailed from Elmina (Gold Coast, now Ghana) to Batavia, the capital of the Netherlands East Indies. They had been recruited to serve in the Dutch colonial army, which throughout most of the 19th century experienced a chronic shortage of European manpower. The Africans counted as part of the European contingent of the army. After expiry of their contracts, some Africans returned to the Gold Coast, while others opted to settle in the East Indies. ...

  16. Intention to switch to smokeless tobacco use among South African smokers: results from the 2007 South African Social Attitudes Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan A Ayo-Yusuf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some smokeless tobacco products (SLT have been shown to be associated with only a fraction of the risks of cigarettes. This study assessed South African smokers' interest in switching to a hypothetical reduced harm SLT product. METHODS: The 2007 South African Social Attitudes Survey was analysed for 678 exclusive cigarette smokers. Respondents were asked about their perceptions about relative harm of snuff compared to cigarettes, and their interest in switching to snuff if informed it was 99% less harmful than cigarettes. RESULTS: About 49.7% of exclusive cigarette smokers believed that snuff was equally as harmful as cigarettes; 12.9% thought snuff was more harmful; 5.7% thought snuff was less harmful; while 31.8% did not know if there was a difference in harm between snuff and cigarettes. Approximately 24.2% of exclusive cigarette smokers indicated interest in switching to snuff, with significantly greater interest observed among those exposed to 100% smoke-free work environment. Interest in switching was highest (34.7% among smokers who believed a priori that using snuff was more harmful than cigarettes, and lowest (14.5% among those who did not know if there was a difference in harm. In a multi-variable adjusted logistic regression model, this latter group remained less likely to be interested in harm reduction switching (adjusted odds ratio = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.91. CONCLUSION: About a quarter of smokers indicated interest in harm reduction switching to snuff. SLT products have a potential role in reducing the harm from smoking in South Africa, but only if they are not used to circumvent smoke-free laws that have been associated with reduced smoking.

  17. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n = 15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1 vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p < 0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention.

  18. The history and achievements of the South African Veterinary Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin M. Cameron

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article, which was originally designed as a power point presentation, focuses on the role and achievements of the South African Veterinary Association (SAVA. It is an organisation that has fostered functional cohesion not only within the profession, but also with the broader society in providing a socially and economically supportive animal care system. Some major factors that have enabled this achievement include: rational organisational structure of the SAVA; support of the promulgation and implementation of appropriate legislation; pursuance of initial and continued high quality education by various means; effective communication with the public and government bodies; international involvement; continued development of a visionary future to endorse the principle of ‘One World One Health’.

  19. Investigation of worldview theory in a south african context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Frances; Gray, Brian

    This article reports on an exploratory investigation carried out to identify conceptions of some components of worldview, based on logicostructural worldview theory, held by science student teachers in a South African context. It explores relationships among worldviews, student characteristics, and scientific concepts. The sample included 48 final-year science student teachers. Data were gathered by a questionnaire with follow-up interviews. Questions were based on Kearney's model of worldview with stimulus items related to each of seven worldview categories. Responses were categorized and examined for possible relationships. Results of the investigation indicated that students' conceptions of time and distance were nonmechanistic and psychologically bound and that authoritarian scientific explanation was considered as sufficient for proof. Some significant relationships were found between items as well as between field of study and scientific conceptions.Received: 30 March 1994; Revised: 1 December 1994;

  20. Stable isotope content of South African river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations of the isotopic ratios 18O/16O and D/H in natural waters reflect the variety of processes to which the water was subjected within the hydrological cycle. Time series of the 18O content of the major South African rivers over a few years have been obtained in order to characterise the main features of these variations in both time and space. Regionally the average '18O content of river water reflects that of the prevailing rains within the catchment. 18O variations with time are mainly correlated with river flow rates. Impoundments upstream and management of river flows reduce this correlation. Isotope variations along the course of a river show the effects of inflow from smaller streams and evaporation in the river or its impoundments. These observations indicate the use of isotopic methods to study the evaporation and mixing of river water and its interaction with the surrounding environment

  1. South African gold and uranium ore mining in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976 was a difficult year for the South African gold and uranium ore mining industry, the region of Witwatersrand (Transvaal province) producing some 75% of all the gold mined in the western world besides being an important producer of uranium oxide. Despite the gold production, declining since 1971, not showing a downward tendency anymore as far as the quantity was concerned, the economic result, however, deteriorated as a consequence of continuously falling gold prices, but also on account of the inflationary rise in wages and the prices for energy and materials. Much higher prices for uranium oxide, which some mines produce as interim products from the 'degolded' slurries of their gold ore leaching plants, improved the economic overall result only to a small degree. (orig.)

  2. Sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of South African chromite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Zhao; Cheng-jun Liu; Pei-yang Shi; Bo Zhang; Mao-fa Jiang; Qing-song Zhang; Ron Zevenhoven; Henrik Saxn

    2015-01-01

    The sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of South African chromite was investigated. The negative influence of a solid product layer constituted of a silicon-rich phase and chromium-rich sulfate was eliminated by crushing the chromite and by selecting proper leaching con-ditions. The dimensionless change in specific surface area and the conversion rate of the chromite were observed to exhibit a proportional re-lationship. A modified shrinking particle model was developed to account for the change in reactive surface area, and the model was fitted to experimental data. The resulting model was observed to describe experimental findings very well. Kinetics analysis revealed that the leach-ing process is controlled by a chemical reaction under the employed experimental conditions and the activation energy of the reaction is 48 kJ·mol–1.

  3. Sulphur dioxide removal using South African limestone/siliceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.O. Ogenga; M.M. Mbarawa; K.T. Lee; A.R. Mohamed; I. Dahlan [Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-09-15

    This study presents an investigation into the desulfurization effect of sorbent derived from South African calcined limestone conditioned with fly ash. The main aim was to examine the effect of chemical composition and structural properties of the sorbent with regard to SO{sub 2} removal in dry-type flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. South African fly ash and CaO obtained from calcination of limestone in a laboratory kiln at a temperature of 900{sup o}C were used to synthesize CaO/ash sorbent by atmospheric hydration process. The sorbent was prepared under different hydration conditions: CaO/fly ash weight ratio, hydration temperature (55-75{sup o}C) and hydration period (4-10 h). Desulfurization experiments were done in the fixed bed reactor at 87{sup o}C and relative humidity of 50%. The chemical composition of both the fly ash and calcined limestone had relatively high Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and oxides of other transitional elements which provided catalytic ability during the sorbent sorption process. Generally the sorbents had higher SO{sub 2} absorption capacity in terms of mol of SO{sub 2} per mol of sorbent (0.1403-0.3336) compared to hydrated lime alone (maximum 0.1823). The sorbents were also found to consist of mesoporous structure with larger pore volume and BET specific surface area than both CaO and fly ash. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the presence of complex compounds containing calcium silicate hydrate in the sorbents. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Convergence in fertility of South Africans and Mozambicans in rural South Africa, 1993–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Garenne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are significant numbers of people displaced by war in Africa, very little is known about long-term changes in the fertility of refugees. Refugees of the Mozambican civil war (1977–1992 settled in many neighbouring countries, including South Africa. A large number of Mozambican refugees settled within the Agincourt sub-district, underpinned by a Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (AHDSS, established in 1992, and have remained there. The AHDSS data provide a unique opportunity to study changes in fertility over time and the role that the fertility of self-settled refugee populations plays in the overall fertility level of the host community, a highly relevant factor in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: To examine the change in fertility of former Mozambican self-settled refugees over a period of 16 years and to compare the overall fertility and fertility patterns of Mozambicans to host South Africans. Design: Prospective data from the AHDSS on births from 1993 to 2009 were used to compare fertility trends and patterns and to examine socio-economic factors that may be associated with fertility change. Results: There has been a sharp decline in fertility in the Mozambican population and convergence in fertility patterns of Mozambican and local South African women. The convergence of fertility patterns coincides with a convergence in other socio-economic factors. Conclusion: The fertility of Mozambicans has decreased significantly and Mozambicans are adopting the childbearing patterns of South African women. The decline in Mozambican fertility has occurred alongside socio-economic gains. There remains, however, high unemployment and endemic poverty in the area and fertility is not likely to decrease further without increased delivery of family planning to adolescents and increased education and job opportunities for women.

  5. Heritage, blackness and Afro-cool: styling Africanness in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Witte

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the recent emergence of an "Afro-Dutch" category of self-identification among young people in Amsterdam. Dutch-born youth of different Afro-Caribbean and African backgrounds show a new sense of (and search for) a shared African heritage, and a growing desire for public exposu

  6. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Loutfy; Wangari Tharao; Carmen Logie; Muna A Aden; Chambers, Lori A.; Wei Wu; Marym Abdelmaseh; Liviana Calzavara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora). However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effe...

  7. Problems and Prospects in the Cultural History of South African Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedegar, K.

    2007-07-01

    The inauguration of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) is an auspicious moment for reflection on South African astronomical history, the manner in which this heritage has been represented in the past, and how it might best be represented in the future. It is now appropriate to reassess the history of Euro pean astronomy in South Africa, confronting rather than ignoring issues of national identity, scientific politics, and racism. There are also wide opportunities for scholarship on South African archaeoastronomy and indigenous knowledge systems, with potential applications to culturally relevant basic science education. In the case of astronomy, reconciliation to a rich if troubled history will only come to pass when the science is not only pursued in South Africa, but when its heritage pertains to all South Africans.

  8. Rules of engagement: predictors of Black Caribbean immigrants' engagement with African American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nancy; Watson, Natalie N; Wang, Zhenni; Case, Andrew D; Hunter, Carla D

    2013-10-01

    The cultural context in the United States is racialized and influences Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation processes, but what role it plays in Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation into specific facets of American society (e.g., African American culture) has been understudied in the field of psychology. The present study extends research on Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturative process by assessing how this group's experience of the racial context (racial public regard, ethnic public regard, and cultural race-related stress) influences its engagement in African American culture (i.e., adoption of values and behavioral involvement). Data were collected from 93 Black participants of Caribbean descent, ranging in age from 13 to 45 and analyzed using a stepwise hierarchical regression. The findings highlighted that when Black Caribbean-descended participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their racial group they were more likely to engage in African American culture. In contrast, when participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their ethnic group (e.g., Haitian) they were less likely to engage in African American culture. Furthermore, among participants experiencing low levels of cultural race-related stress, the associations between racial public regard and engagement with African American culture were amplified. However, for participants experiencing high cultural race-related stress, their engagement in African American culture did not change as a function of racial public regard. These findings may suggest that, for Black Caribbean immigrants, the experience of the racial context influences strategies that serve to preserve or bolster their overall social status and psychological well-being in the United States.

  9. Measuring the inward FDI potential of South African regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Krugell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. Problem statement: Following South Africa's reintegration into the world economy in 1994, foreign direct investment has been seen as a potential driver of growth and development. Concerns about the low investment rate in South Africa raise the possibility of augmenting domestic with foreign investment expenditure. The potential of technology spillovers and skills transfer from foreign direct investment have also been emphasised. As a result, Trade and Investment South Africa is involved in identifying, packaging and promoting investment opportunities. However, investments tend to be place-specific and this has lead to the decentralisation of foreign direct investment promotion. Currently the nine provincial development agencies are competing to attract investors and the larger local governments are also getting involved in the fray. This paper argues that some places have better potential to attract foreign investment than others. A first step to use scarce investment promotion resources more efficiently would be to measure the inward FDI potential of South African regions. Approach: This paper uses principal components analysis to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. This approach draws on UNCTAD's Inward FDI Potential Index and applies it to 354 magisterial districts in South Africa for the periods 1996, 2001 and 2006. The index creates a summary measure of FDI potential.Findings: The results show that different places present differential potential in urbanization and localization economies and market size. The high-potential locations are typically found in or around the major agglomerations, but there are a few smaller places on the periphery that offer FDI potential. Contribution: The index should aid

  10. Migration from Developing Countries: The Case of South African Teachers to the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, Rian

    2007-01-01

    The United Kingdom (particularly England) is the main developed country that recruits teachers from South Africa. This article provides an overview of teacher migration from South Africa to the United Kingdom over the past decade. The research focuses on the following aspects of migration: the recruitment of South African teachers; motivation for…

  11. From Policy to Practice: A South-African Perspective on Implementing Inclusive Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Sigamoney

    2007-01-01

    The advent of a democracy in South Africa ushered in refreshing changes within the South African context. Given South Africa's dark apartheid history, every policy intervention had to ensure a human rights ethos prevails. Inclusive Education, through the publication of the policy document Education White Paper 6 on Special Needs Education:…

  12. Quantitation of ochratoxin A in South African wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Gordon S; Fabiani, Alessandra; Stockenström, Sonja; Mshicileli, Ndumiso; Sewram, Vikash

    2003-02-12

    The natural occurrence of the carcinogenic mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) in wines sold in local retail outlets in South Africa and Italy was investigated by HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection following cleanup by immunoaffinity column. All 24 local South African wines tested (15 white and 9 red) were found to contain detectable levels (>0.01 microg/L) of OTA, with a mean of 0.16 microg/L in the white wines and a mean of 0.24 microg/L in the red wines. Results were subsequently confirmed by LC-MS analysis using positive ion electrospray ionization with collision-induced dissociation of the protonated molecular ion [M + H](+) at m/z 404 and selected reaction monitoring of the resultant product ions [M + H - H(2)O - CO](+) at m/z 358 and [M + H - H(2)O](+) at m/z 386. Comparison with the fluorescence method gave a significant correlation (r = 0.87; p wine was 0.39 microg/L in a blend of local and imported Spanish red wine. Of the eight Italian wines analyzed, only two red wines were contaminated above the suggested maximum level.

  13. A synopsis of South African psychology from apartheid to democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Saths

    2014-11-01

    In this concatenated overview, the development of psychology in South Africa is traced from its origins in the late 19th century to the present. The seminal influences on the science and practice of psychology of the racialized polity and the responses to the prevailing regimen are also explored. The significant events in the patinated layers of psychological discourse and consequent policies in these constrained circumstances are traversed. Despite the nonracial era occasioned by the formation of the Psychological Society of South Africa three months before the advent of democracy under Nelson Mandela in 1994, the profession of psychology remains demographically skewed. Nevertheless, psychology in the current democratic dispensation enjoys a high profile and is actively engaged in ongoing and reflexive self-examination to ensure that it is more accessible and truly serves humanity. If Africa is psychology's last frontier, the critical denouement of the various issues confronting psychology in the southern tip of the African continent will provide a positive growth path that is likely to merit attention beyond its borders.

  14. A synopsis of South African psychology from apartheid to democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Saths

    2014-11-01

    In this concatenated overview, the development of psychology in South Africa is traced from its origins in the late 19th century to the present. The seminal influences on the science and practice of psychology of the racialized polity and the responses to the prevailing regimen are also explored. The significant events in the patinated layers of psychological discourse and consequent policies in these constrained circumstances are traversed. Despite the nonracial era occasioned by the formation of the Psychological Society of South Africa three months before the advent of democracy under Nelson Mandela in 1994, the profession of psychology remains demographically skewed. Nevertheless, psychology in the current democratic dispensation enjoys a high profile and is actively engaged in ongoing and reflexive self-examination to ensure that it is more accessible and truly serves humanity. If Africa is psychology's last frontier, the critical denouement of the various issues confronting psychology in the southern tip of the African continent will provide a positive growth path that is likely to merit attention beyond its borders. PMID:25486173

  15. South African public sector procurement and corruption: Inseparable twins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandelani Harry Munzhedzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to explore the relationship between procurement in the public sector and corruption. Corruption in the procurement process is one of the biggest challenges facing the South Africa government. Procurement in the South African public sector through the tendering process has been used with a particular aim of addressing the past discriminatory practices and policies by empowering the previously disadvantaged majority. It ought to operate within a certain legislative and regulatory framework. However, the article argues that in the process of implementing the good intentions of the government, corruption illegitimises the process. There are also challenges that are associated with public sector procurement, with corruption being the main protagonist. The article also seeks to suggest possible solutions that could be used to address the anomalies. The article further concludes that the main reason for the rife corruption in the public sector is that there is nonadherence to policy prescripts including the Public Finance Management Act, 1999 (Act 1 of 1999 and the Municipal Finance Management Act, 2003 (Act 56 of 2003. This enormous predicament may only be addressed if the government were to show will and commitment by punishing offenders who do not comply with the said legislative framework.

  16. Transformative remedies towards managing diversity in South African theological education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Naidoo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a complex society filled with diversity of many kinds. Because of the enormous and profound changes of the last 20 years of democracy, this can be perceived as a society in social identity crisis which is increasingly spilling over into many areas of life. Churches have also gone through a process of reformulating their identity and have restructured theological education for all its members resulting in growing multicultural student bodies. These new student constituencies reflect a wide spectrum of cultural backgrounds, personal histories and theological commitments, and represent diversity in race, ethnicity, culture, class, gender, age, language and sexual orientation. These issues of diversity are theologically complicated and contested as they are attached to religious dogma. Diversity exists as a threat and promise, problem and possibility. Using current conceptualisations of diversity in South African Higher Education this article will seek to understand the notion of diversity and difference and the possibility of developing transformative remedies within the theological education curriculum.

  17. The Legislative Framework Regarding Bullying In South African Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Laas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying in schools is a global phenomenon that has the potential to impact on children not only physically but also psychologically. In South Africa countless children fall victim to bullying, harassment and abuse at schools. A myriad of constitutional rights are infringed upon when bullying occurs, and the problem is escalating. The Protection from Harassment Act 71 of 2011 was signed and accepted into law on the 27th of April 2013. This new Act may grant relief to victims of bullying inter alia by providing for protection orders, and therefore adds to the legislative framework available to victims. However, in terms of bullying in schools, the parties to these incidents are minors and therefore a critical analysis is necessary with regard to the rights of the victim and the offender. In this context the relationship and interaction between the Protection from Harassment Act 71 of 2011, the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 call for critical analysis.

  18. Attrition of undergraduate nursing students at selected South African universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Roos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nursing profession forms the backbone of many healthcare systems. It therefore needs a consistent supply of registered nurses to deliver continuous and safe quality healthcare, and to replace the nurses leaving or retiring from the profession. Attrition actively occurs among nursing students in South Africa and threatens the future supply of registered nurses. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the attrition rate at selected South African universities and the factors influencing undergraduate nursing students to discontinue their nursing studies at these universities. Method: A quantitative descriptive design was followed. Heads of the nursing departments at the selected universities captured data with a specifically designed questionnaire. Thereafter their former nursing students provided information via a structured telephonic interview on the reasons why they discontinued the nursing programme. Results: The study revealed that attrition of undergraduate nursing students for three intake years (2007, 2008 and 2009 at the participating universities was between 39.3% and 58.7%. Academic and financial reasons as well as poor wellness and health were the main causes for attrition. Another factor was failure to cope with the demands of the clinical environment. Conclusion: Attrition might not occur immediately when a nursing student is challenged, as the student might exploit the various types of support offered. Although some nursing students do benefit from the offered support, a large number of nursing students still discontinue the undergraduate nursing programme.

  19. Coaltrans South Africa 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: overview of the South African coal industry; South African economy and coal reserves; black economic empowerment and new mining legislation; and transport logistics. Most of the papers only consist of the viewgraphs/overheads. Three papers which are not overheads have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in black infants in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, A. D.; Alexander, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infections in black infants in Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa, was investigated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Between 1983 and 1986, 14 different RNA electrophoretic patterns were observed for children with acute gastroenteritis. These electrophoretypes showed a sequential pattern of appearance, with a limited number being present at any one time. In contrast, for neonates only one RNA electrophoretype was detected, which persisted for at least 3 years.

  1. The Conservation Status of Eagles in South African Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Knobel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is an introductory survey and preliminary evaluation of the conservation status of eagles in South African law. The methodology is primarily an interdisciplinary literature study of legal texts and texts from the natural sciences. Eagles are some of the largest and most powerful avian predators, and the human response to their presence is dualistic and polarised. At the one extreme, many people admire eagles, while at the other extreme they are perceived as a threat to economic and other interests, and may even be actively persecuted in a conviction that they are vermin. This duality in the human perception of eagles is also prevalent in South Africa and complicates their conservation. The mobility of eagles and other birds of prey means that they cannot be restrained by fencing national parks and other protected areas, and this heightens the likelihood of their entering into conflict with human interests. The conservation problems faced by eagles in South Africa can broadly be divided into direct and indirect threats. Direct threats include the intentional killing of eagles, and trade in eagles and their eggs. Indirect threats include non-targeted poisoning (where poisoned bait is used to control other predators, but eagles find the bait, feed on it, and succumb; habitat loss; mortality induced by dangerous structures; and disturbance. The legal status of eagles is influenced by a large body of legislative provisions, ranging from international and regional legal instruments, through national legislation, to provincial legislative measures. An overview of these provisions is given, with concise explanations of how they apply to the legal status of eagles and other birds of prey in South Africa. The conservation status of eagles in South African law is subsequently evaluated by considering the contribution of the applicable laws to three main types of conservation interventions. In respect of the first, habitat preservation

  2. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents’ Attributions Regarding Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13 to 17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination attributions, depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Approximately half the youth attributed discrimination to race/ethni...

  3. The dilemma of ethical political communication in South African elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Fourie

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In view of South Africa’s diversity, its unresolved issues of race and complex social legacy, election campaigns are highly sensitive. From a Reformed Christian perspective, a critical question is: To what extent is the political culture infused by the Biblical imperatives of brotherly love, respect and compassion? Given the growing use of adversarial political advertising the following two questions arise and are specifically addressed: • Could it realistically be expected of Christian political communicators in a secular country such as South Africa to communicate with full respect to people at all times, or should they be excused if they try to win at all costs? and • How do political theorists view the issue? In answering these questions, social responsibility and the need for social harmony as precondition for free and fair political activities, as well as a Biblical perspective on communication are addressed. In view of these theoretical points of departure the role of emotional messages is discussed and evaluated. It is argued that all advertising, but specifically political advertising in an emotionally charged atmosphere such as an election campaign, could have a direct negative impact on social harmony and is therefore Biblically unacceptable. Examples from previous South African general elections are discussed and evaluated from a Biblical viewpoint. It is argued that parties should not merely campaign with the aim of winning an election, but rather with the intention of respecting voters while campaigning. Simultaneously they could promote democracy within a fragile social context. Any victory outside of these parameters will not stand the test of a Biblical critique. However, it would seem extremely difficult, if not impossible, to prescribe in any detail which types of negative advertisements are acceptable and which are not.

  4. A new energy future for South Africa: The political ecology of South African renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy remains a contested topic in South Africa. This paper argues that South Africa can build on the momentum surrounding its introduction of a feed-in tariff by enacting policies that may, if given adequate funding and political effort, allow the country to be a world leader in renewable energy. Given a variety of renewable energy policy options for moving forward, a majority of stakeholders consulted in this study strongly prefer the development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster, in which government develops coordinated policy mechanisms that attract renewable energy manufacturers, over three other policies suggested by the authors. Interviews with key informants that play critical roles in this decision-making process suggest that there are reasons to remain cautiously optimistic about the country's renewable energy future while cognizant of the challenges that must still be overcome. Opportunities for a low carbon renewable energy transition in South Africa include the prevalence of broad stakeholder consultation, facilitated by civil society, and an innovative policy development context. Significant impediments also exist, however, and include pervasive social issues such as poverty and political inertia, along with the ongoing difficulties facing renewable energy technologies in reaching grid parity with inexpensive and abundant South African coal. - Highlights: → Numerous opportunities exist for a low carbon energy transition in South Africa. → Stakeholders in study prefer development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster. → Significant impediments still exist, including grid parity, poverty, and inequality.

  5. Multilingual translation vs. English-fits-all in South African news media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    After the demise of apartheid, the ANC government in South Africa elevated nine African languages to the status of official languages, on a par with the two official languages during the apartheid regime (1948–1991), Afrikaans and English. With eleven official languages in this vast country......, the home of some 50 million people, one may expect a high level of translational activities, as is seen in, for instance, the EU, with 23 official languages - one of which happens to be English. However, although English plays an important role in the European media, it has an all but dominant role...... in South African media. To the extent that translation is found in South African media, it tends to be either between English and Afrikaans or from an African language into English, not from English into an African language. This paper establishes a theoretical framework distinguishing between varying...

  6. The relationship between body image and the Muslim religious dress code of South African Indian Muslim female adolescents / Yasmin Seedat

    OpenAIRE

    Seedat, Yasmin

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between body image and the Muslim religious dress code of South African Indian Muslim female adolescents. During the literature search conducted by the researcher no research specifically on body image of female adolescents when wearing the Muslim dress code in South Africa could be found. South African Indian Muslim adolescents are faced with challenges in a changing environment. In the aftermath of 9/11 South African Indian Muslim adolescent females ar...

  7. Black client, white therapist: working with race in psychoanalytic psychotherapy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Zelda Gillian

    2013-02-01

    In post-apartheid South Africa we speak about race extensively. It permeates our workplace, weaves a thread through the fabric of our professional and personal lives, as well as our private conversations and public interactions with others. From within psychoanalytic theory, the thread weaves through the unknown content of our racialized unconscious. When there is a focus on race in the South African psychoanalytic context it largely takes the form of the struggle to articulate the complexities of working with difference, as Swartz notes, or the struggle to map out issues of race. Such struggles are not localized in South Africa, but strongly reflect a much broader struggle within the global psychoanalytic community, as mirrored in the expanding focus on race. Although the consulting rooms seem far removed from the ongoing political tensions that have recently emerged in South Africa, psychoanalytic psychotherapy remains a space of meaningful engagement with the other, and where the therapeutic dyad is one of racial difference it permits an encounter with our racialized unconscious. This article seeks to document the experience of my black client and my white response to her racial pain and struggle; in doing so, I describe the racial 'contact' between us and within us that triggers a racialized transference and countertransference dynamic, which contains the space for racial healing for both of us.

  8. ASSESSING THE INTEGRATION OF GAYS AND LESBIANS INTO THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL DEFENCE FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Canaday

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During the apartheid era, the South African military maintained a dual policy onhomosexuality – prohibited among members of the permanent force, homosexualitywas officially tolerated among conscripts. When the regime fell, the newgovernment committed itself to human rights considerations, and after the SouthAfrican Constitution adopted a provision of non-discrimination on the basis ofsexual orientation in 1996, the South African military followed suit. In 1998, theSouth African National Defence Force (SANDF implemented the Policy on EqualOpportunity and Affirmative Action that declared that there would no longer bediscrimination against gays and lesbians. This article draws together military andgovernment documents, secondary research, press coverage and interviews withindividuals with knowledge on this topic to assess the effects of this policy change.The evidence suggests that the integration of gay and lesbian personnel has not had anegative impact on recruitment and retention, morale, unit cohesion or operationaleffectiveness in the SANDF.

  9. KNOWLEDGE BASE OF PROJECT MANAGERS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN ICT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T. Hans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this research study is two-fold: Firstly, to establish the knowledge base of project managers in the South African ICT Sector. Secondly, to establish whether project management as a discipline is regarded as an important profession in the South African ICT Sector. The paper based on a questionnaire analyses and discusses the knowledge base of project managers of ICT organisations listed on the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE as well as the perceived importance of project management in the South African ICT Sector. The project managers lack some project management knowledge base in some of the nine categories of competencies. This confirms some of the findings by Rwelamila (2007 that project management training programmes offered by institutions of higher learning in South Africa are skewed. This paper also established that the organisations in the South African ICT Sector recognise project management as an important profession. The lack of some project management fundamental knowledge base by project managers necessitate that the organisations concerned should implement some of the following: review project management training programmes and implement mentoring and coaching programmes. This article reveals the knowledge base gaps of project managers in the South African ICT Sector. It also reveals whether project management is regarded as an important profession by organisations in the South African ICT Sector. It complements another research study done by Rwelamila (2007 in South Africa. It is directed to the South African organisations in the ICT Sector as well as institutions of higher learning in South Africa that offer project management training programmes.

  10. Teaching Aids: Struggling with/through Student Resistances in Psychology Curricula in South African Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbraham, Lindy

    2016-01-01

    African universities have been called to respond to the social issues of trauma, adversity, injustice and inequality that trouble their embedding communities, their staff and their students. The need for South African universities to respond to HIV/Aids (in particular) includes the opening up of new knowledge about and ways of managing the impacts…

  11. Colonialism, Biko and AIDS: reflections on the principle of beneficence in South African medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Hillel David

    2009-06-01

    This paper examines the principle of beneficence in the light of moral and epistemological concerns that have crystallized in the South African context around clinical care. Three examples from the South African experience affecting the development of bioethics are examined: medical colonialism, the death in detention of Steve Biko, and the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Michael Gelfand's book [(1948). The sick African: a clinical study. Cape Town: Stewart Printing Company.] on African medical conditions captures the ambiguous nature of colonial medicine that linked genuine medical treatment with the civilizing mission. Biko's death was a key historical event that deeply implicated the medical profession under apartheid. The present HIV/AIDS epidemic presents the gravest social and political crisis for South African society. All three experiences influence the meaning and relevance of beneficence as a bioethics principle in the South African context. This paper argues for a South African bioethics informed by a critical humanism that takes account of the colonial past, and that does not model itself on an "original wound" or negation, but on positive care-giving practices.

  12. Quantification of optimal electricity cost risk reduction for a South African gold mining company

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Zee, L.F.; Pelzer, R.; Bolt, G.

    2014-01-01

    Electricity cost risks such as carbon tax, ECS and unavoidable tariff increases threaten the financial wellbeing of South African gold mines. Some of these proposed cost risks are however not enforced as yet. However, once approved, they could result in thousands of jobs being lost. The Eskom Integrated Demand Management (IDM) funding program for industrial projects has also been put on hold. With more than 97 large (367 MW total) projects already implemented on South African gold mines, thes...

  13. Attitudes and use of corporal punishment : A qualitative study in South African Women

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The presenting problem in this thesis is the attitudes South African women have towards corporal punishment, how they use corporal punishment, and how attitude and behaviour correlate. The thesis is based on an independent study, where semi-structured qualitative interviews were utilized to gain more insight into the presented problem. The analysis was rooted in previous research on corporal punishment, the South African context, and in theory regarding attitudes. The study consiste...

  14. Assessing the Value of Glyphosate in the South African Agricultural Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gouse, Marnus

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the value of glyphosate in the South African agricultural sector with focus on the 2012/13 agricultural season. Glyphosate is the most used herbicide in South African and in 2012 more than 23 million litres of glyphosate was sold at an estimated value of R641 million. Glyphosate is a highly effective broad spectrum herbicide and the only herbicide on the market with a systemic mode of action. Glyphosate is considered to be, based on numerous scientific studies environmenta...

  15. Patterns of injury in children and adolescents presenting to a South African township health centre.

    OpenAIRE

    Zwi, K. J.; Zwi, A. B.; Smettanikov, E.; Söderlund, N; Logan, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the patterns and causes of childhood injury presenting to a South African township health centre in 1991. DESIGN: Retrospective review of clinic held case notes. SETTING: Typical South-African urban township within Greater Johannesburg. SUBJECTS: 695 subjects aged 0-19 years presenting as a direct result of injury. RESULTS: Overall rates of presentation for injury were 6297/100,000/year (95% confidence interval 5463 to 7131); 35% of injuries were caused by violence, 14...

  16. Setting a research agenda for job insecurity in South African organisations / Marié van Wyk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wyk, Marié

    2007-01-01

    In the current South African context, job insecurity has become a phenomenon to be reckoned with. Although research on this phenomenon is still scarce, a growing interest in the perceived experience of job insecurity and its different underlying constructs is obvious from the increase of job insecurity research. A comprehensive summary of previous research studies and relevant outcomes is therefore relevant. Up to now, South African studies on job insecurity have accepted the a...

  17. A proposed centralised distribution model for the South African automotive component industry

    OpenAIRE

    Micheline J. Naude

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the possibility of developing a distribution model, similar to the model developed and implemented by the South African pharmaceutical industry, which could be implemented by automotive component manufacturers for supply to independent retailers. Problem Investigated: The South African automotive components distribution chain is extensive with a number of players of varying sizes, from the larger spares distribution groups to a number of independent retai...

  18. A qualitative exploration of the influence of heavy metal music on South African

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, Bianca Simone

    2015-01-01

    This mini-dissertation presents a discussion of the qualitative study exploring how South African youth, between the ages of 18 and 35, who are active listeners of Heavy Metal music experience this genre of music. The sample in the present study consists of 26 South African youths, living in various parts of the country, who listen to Heavy Metal music. Participants were recruited from attendees of the Heavy Metal music festival, Witchfest, which took place in Newtown, Johannesburg during 3-5...

  19. KNOWLEDGE BASE OF PROJECT MANAGERS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN ICT SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Robert T. Hans; Pantaleo M.D. Rwelamila

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research study is two-fold: Firstly, to establish the knowledge base of project managers in the South African ICT Sector. Secondly, to establish whether project management as a discipline is regarded as an important profession in the South African ICT Sector. The paper based on a questionnaire analyses and discusses the knowledge base of project managers of ICT organisations listed on the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE) as well as the perceive...

  20. Counselling on rails: social accountability learning among South African psychology students

    OpenAIRE

    Bonthuys, Annelize; Itumeleng P. Khumalo; Flusk, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of train transportation health care service in a North Eastern South African region. Participants were seven psychology graduate students at a South African university. They completed reflective journals on their subjective experience and objective reporting of their activities. While on the train, they provided psychological services to the local community members. Data were thematically analysed. Aspects such as problem-solving driven by commu...

  1. Experience and views of academic psychiatrists on the role of spirituality in South African specialist psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Janse Van Rensburg ABR; M Poggenpoel; CPH Myburgh; CP Szabo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of having to consider the role of spirituality in health, mental health and psychiatry in South Africa has in particular been emphasized by recent legislation on African traditional health practice. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the views and experience of local psychiatrists regarding the role of spirituality in South African specialist psychiatric practice and training. METHOD: This study is an explorative, descriptive, contextual, phenomenol...

  2. A Participatory Water Management? : The South African Policy of Local Water Management

    OpenAIRE

    Orne-Gliemann, Maud

    2013-01-01

    The 1998 South African water reform is a good example of an attempt to democratize water resource management. It created new decentralised water management bodies and openly called for the participation of all individual water users. Yet, if the reform and discourses of the time unequivocally declared the intentions of the South African water law, the conditions surrounding the implementation of the reform left many grey areas in the materialisation of active user participation objectives, al...

  3. Environmental management practices and firm performance in a South African mining firm

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson Nyirenda; Ngwakwe, Collins C.; Cosmas M. Ambe

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of environmental management practices on the financial performance of a South African mining firm. The major aim of this paper is to investigate whether such practices have a close relationship with the mining firm’s financial performance (represented by return on equity [ROE]). The approach is a case study of a South African mining firm listed under the socially responsible index (SRI) of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE). It uses Green-Steel sa (pseudonym ...

  4. The relationship between burnout and cognition in a South African metal manufacturing company / Carla Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador, Carla marisa Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Employees in South African organisations are faced with increasing work pressures as economic and business factors (such as globalisation) lead to extensive restructuring, cost cutting and initiatives to continuously improve organisational processes. These conditions are conducive to the occurrence of burnout in the South African private sector. Burnout has been extensively researched in areas such as health services and law enforcement, however, the subject has received less f...

  5. WP/09/01- An open economy New Keynesian DSGE model of the South African economy

    OpenAIRE

    Rudi Steinbach; Patience Mathuloe; Ben Smit

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this paper an open economy New Keynesian model of the South African economy is presented. The model is constructed to provide for incomplete pass-through of exchange rate changes, external habit formation, partial indexation of domestic prices and wages to past inflation, and staggered price and wage setting. Furthermore, the model is estimated using Bayesian techniques on South African domestic and trade partner data for the period 1990Q1 to 2007Q4. The estimated model is analyse...

  6. Exchange Rate Undervaluation and Sectoral Performance of the South African Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Njindan Iyke, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The paper uncovers the channels through which real exchange rate undervaluation influences the performance of the South African economy. We decompose the South African economy into three sectors, namely: agriculture, industry, and service. Using the OLS (with Newey-West and robust standard errors), and GMM estimation techniques; an annual time series data covering the period 1962-2014; and a standard regression model for each sector, we find: (i) real exchange rate undervaluation to exert pos...

  7. General Equilibrium Effects in the South African Maize Market: International Trade Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    van Schoor, Melt

    2005-01-01

    Following deregulation in the 1990's the South African maize producing industry has been suffering a gradual decline. Current low prices suggest that this trend may continue or worsen. This paper discusses the results from a static general equilibrium model for the South African economy to evaluate the effects on the economy. The analysis covers summer cereals producing agricultural regions, production in other sectors in the economy, commodity markets and the economy at large. Additionally, ...

  8. Forecasting Output Growth using a DSGE-Based Decomposition of the South African Yield Curve

    OpenAIRE

    Rangan Gupta; Hylton Hollander; Rudi Steinbach

    2015-01-01

    Evidence in favor of the ability of the term spread to forecast economic growth of the South African economy is non-existent. Presuming that this could be due to the term spread aggregating, and hence loosing out on important, information contained in the expected spread and the term premium, we: (i) Develop an estimable Small Open Economy New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (SOENKDSGE) model of the in ation targeting South African economy; (ii) Use the SOENKDSGE model, estim...

  9. Creating a Single South African Keyboard Layout to Promote Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne Bailey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this case study, a description is given of a keyboard layout designed to address the input needs of South African languages, specifically Venda, a language which would otherwise be impossible to type on a computer. In creating this keyboard, the designer, Translate.org.za, uses a practical intervention that transforms technology from a means harming a language into one ensuring the creation and preservation of good language resources for minority languages. The study first looks at the implications and consequences of this missing keyboard, and then follows the process from conception, strategy, research and design to the final user response. Not only are problems such as researching the orthographies, key placement and keyboard input options examined, but strategic objectives such as ensuring its wide adoption and creating a multilingual keyboard for all South African languages are also discussed. The result is a keyboard that furthers multilingualism and ensures the capturing of good data for future research. Finally it is a tool helping to boost and bolster the vitality of a language.

    Keywords: KEYBOARD, MULTILINGUALISM, VENDA, AFRIKAANS, TSWANA, NORTH-ERN SOTHO, ZULU, SOURCE, FREE SOFTWARE, LAYOUT

    Opsomming: Die skep van 'n enkelvoudige Suid-Afrikaanse toetsborduit-leg om taal te bevorder. In hierdie gevallestudie word 'n beskrywing gegee van die ontwerp van 'n sleutelborduitleg vir die hantering van die insetbehoeftes van Suid-Afrikaanse tale, veral Venda, 'n taal wat andersins onmoontlik op 'n rekenaar getik sou kon word. Deur die skep van hierdie sleutelbord gebruik die ontwerper, Translate.org.za, 'n praktiese ingryp wat tegnologie verander van 'n middel wat 'n taal benadeel tot een wat die skep en bewaring van nuttige taal-hulpbronne vir minderheidstale verseker. Die studie kyk eers na die implikasies en gevolge van hierdie ontbrekende sleutelbord, en volg dan die proses van konsepsie, strategie, navorsing en

  10. The establishment of implicit perspectives of personality in Tshivenda-speaking South Africans / Rejoyce Talifhani Ntsieni

    OpenAIRE

    Ntsieni, Rejoyce Talifhani

    2006-01-01

    Personality tests are widely used in South Africa. The application of personality assessment techniques for clinical and personnel decisions has been a major activity for psychologists. All main personality models have ken developed in a Western context: the question therefore arises whether these models are adequate and sufficient for South Africa. There is a need to develop personality tests that are based on South African cultures. In South Africa the continuous use of Western-based per...

  11. Plasma Clot Lysis Time and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Black Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. de Lange (Zelda); M. Pieters (Marlien); J.C. Jerling (Johann); A. Kruger (Annamarie); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStudies in populations of European descent show longer plasma clot lysis times (CLT) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) than in controls. No data are available on the association between CVD risk factors and fibrinolytic potential in black Africans, a group undergoing rapid ur

  12. Black Tribal African Religion with Some Emphasis on Christianity and Islam in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Marian

    This 6th grade social studies unit delves into the belief systems and external religious, cultural practices of Black Africans. It is part of a series of guides developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. Study is focused upon the Ashanti tribe of Ghana knowing that although the multiplicity of tribes have…

  13. The Universal Jurisdiction of South African Criminal Courts and Immunities of Foreign State Officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evode

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the "complementarity" regime of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC, the jurisdiction of the ICC is secondary to the jurisdiction of domestic courts. States Parties, not the ICC, have the primary responsibility of investigating and prosecuting international crimes. The ICC acts only when States are "unable" or "unwilling" to prosecute. As a State Party, in order to give effect to the complementarity principle, South Africa enacted the Implementation of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Act 27 of 2002, which determines the modalities of prosecuting perpetrators of the crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in South African courts. The Implementation Act also provides that South African courts will have jurisdiction over these crimes not only when they are committed on the territory of South Africa but also when they are committed outside the Republic. By granting South African courts jurisdiction over a person who commits a crime outside the Republic when that person is later found on South African territory, without regard to that person's nationality or the nationality of the victims, the Implementation Act empowers South African courts with universal jurisdiction over international crimes. This paper seeks to determine whether and to what extent foreign State officials, such as foreign heads of State, heads of government and ministers of foreign affairs, can plead immunity when they are accused of international crimes before South African courts when exercising their universal jurisdiction in terms of the Implementation Act and in accordance with the complementarity regime of the Rome Statute. In other words, the article endeavours to determine whether international law rules regarding immunities of State officials may or may not limit the ability of South African courts to exercise universal jurisdiction over international crimes committed in foreign States.

  14. Using English only in the South African English classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P. Barkhuizen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Decisions made about language choice in educational settings are not easy to make: teaching contexts throughout the country are very different, and massive changes in the national language and language-in-education policies have taken place. The inherent power of English and attitudes to all South African languages are also determining factors. This article examines the place of home languages other than English in the English classroom in South Africa. Contextual factors for considering the English only/home language issue are presented The attitudes of student English teachers with regard to the use of the home language in their foture English classes are then examined This exploratory study reveals a difforence in attitude towards the acceptability of home language use between teachers who are themselves English speakers and those who are not. Besluite oor taalkeuse in die onderwys is 'n moeilike saak weens die konteksverskille in die land Groat beleidsveranderinge op nasionale vlak en t. o. v. taal in die onderwys het plaasgevind. Die inherente mag van Engels en houdings teenoor a/le Suid-Afrikaanse tale is verdere bepalende faktore. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die plek van 'n ander huistaal as Engels in die Engels-klaskamer in Suid-Afrika. Kontekstuele faktore vir die oorweging van Engels as enigste taal!huistaal word gebied Die houdings van studente-Engelsonderwysers t.o.v. die gebruik van huistaal in hul toekomstige Engels-klasse word ondersoek. Hierdie verkennende studie toon 'n houdingsverskil teenoor die aanneemlikheid van huistaalgebruik tussen onderwysers wat self Engelssprekend is en die wat nie is nie.

  15. Coping and work engagement in selected South African organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The coping strategies of their employees are amongst the activities that organisations should address to improve their employees’ work engagement.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coping strategies and work engagement in three occupational groups in South Africa.Motivation for the study: There is little understanding of the relationship between effective forms of coping and positive outcomes (like work engagement.Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a survey design. They drew random and stratified samples (N = 3178 from three occupational groups. These were technical employees in an electricity provider, professional and enrolled nurses and police officers. They administered the Coping Orientations to the Problems Experienced (COPE and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES.Main findings: The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between work engagement, problem-focused coping, positive reinterpretation and growth. In the nursing sample, high problem-focused coping, low avoidance and low ventilation of emotions predicted work engagement best. In the police sample, four coping strategies (problem-focused coping, seeking social support, turning to religion and low ventilation of emotions predicted work engagement best. In the technician sample, problem-focused coping and low ventilation of emotions predicted work engagement best.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should consider employees’ coping strategies when they introduce interventions to improve work engagement.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the knowledge about the relationship between coping strategies and work engagement in South African organisations.

  16. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Keet, D.F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P.C.; Jolles, Anna E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I.J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis in a South African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibwa Cole

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB remains a problem of epidemic proportions. Despite evidence demonstrating persistent lung impairment after PTB cure, few population-based South African studies have investigated this finding. Pulmonary rehabilitation post-cure is not routinely received.Objectives: To determine the effects of PTB on lung function in adults with current or past PTB. To determine any association between PTB and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods: This study was observational and cross-sectional in design. Participants (n = 55 were included if they were HIV positive on treatment, had current PTB and were on treatment, and/or had previous PTB and completed treatment or if they were healthy adult subjects with no history of PTB. A sample of convenience was used with participants coming from a similar socio-economic background and undergoing spirometry testing. Multiple regression analyses were conducted on each lung function variable.Results: Compared to normal percentage-predicted values, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 , forced vital capacity (FVC and FEV1 :FVC were significantly reduced in those with current PTB by 23.39%, 15.99% and 6.4%, respectively. Both FEV1 and FVC were significantly reduced in those with past PTB by 11.76% and 10.79%, respectively. There was no association between PTB and COPD – those with previous PTB having a reduced FEV1 :FVC (4.88% less than the norm, which was just short of significance (p = 0.059.Conclusions: Lung function is reduced both during and after treatment for PTB and these deficits may persist. This has implications regarding the need for pulmonary rehabilitation even after medical cure.Keywords: Lung function, pulmonary, tuberculosis

  18. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: implications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, A L; Bengis, R G; Keet, D F; Hofmeyr, M; Klerk, L M de; Cross, P C; Jolles, A E; Cooper, D; Whyte, I J; Buss, P; Godfroid, J

    2006-02-25

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion.

  19. Construct equivalence of the OPQ32n for Black and White people in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deléne Visser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The construct equivalence of the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32n for black and white groups was investigated.Research purpose: The objective was to investigate the structural invariance of the OPQ32n for two South African population groups.Motivation for the study: The OPQ32n is often used for making a variety of personnel decisions in South Africa. Evidence regarding the suitability of personality questionnaires for use across South Africa’s various population groups is required by practitioners for selecting appropriate psychometric instruments.Research design, approach and method: Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and the results were analysed using quantitative statistical methods. The sample consisted of 248 Black and 476 White people from the SHL (South Africa database. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the structural equivalence of the OPQ32n scale scores for these two groups.Main findings: A good fit regarding factor correlations and covariances on the 32 scales was obtained, partially supporting the structural equivalence of the questionnaire for the two groups. The analyses furthermore indicated that there was structural invariance, with the effect of the Social Desirability scale partialled out.Practical/managerial implications: The present study focused on aspects of structural equivalence only. The OPQ32n therefore passed the first hurdle in this particular context, but further investigation is necessary to provide evidence that the questionnaire is suitable for use in personnel decisions comparing the population groups.Contribution: Despite the positive findings with regard to structural equivalence and social desirability response style, it should be borne in mind that no assumptions regarding full scale equivalence can be made on the basis of the present findings.

  20. Establishment of a South African nuclear science exhibition centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an initial survey undertaken by the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa), one of the findings was that nuclear knowledge is virtually non-existent amongst the general public, including school children, throughout the country. The Department of Education (DoE) is currently in the process of introducing Nuclear as part of the school curriculum, which would require a collective effort between the schools and all the Nuclear Institutions in the country. Necsa as well as other nuclear industries have the responsibility to promote public awareness, appreciation and understanding of science and nuclear science in particular. Necsa is leading the national initiative to establish the nuclear science centre which would amongst others guide a person from the very basics of nuclear science to present and future applications thereof. The nuclear science centre will include information on the SAFARI-1 reactor, the Koeberg power reactor, the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), particle accelerators, food preservation, medical applications, etc. This paper will give the overview of the centre as well as its objectives thereof. (authors)

  1. The Role of Media in South African Health and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Smallwood

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A large number of fatalities and injuries occur in the South African construction industry.Traditionally, the print media have dedicated editorial, published news, articles andletters, and have exposed abusive or non-conforming conditions and practices in termsof H&S. Literature also indicates that the print media can influence and has an impacton H&S.Given the level of fatalities and injuries and the potential role of the print media, a postalsurvey was conducted among editors of construction and related magazines. Findingsindicate that: the print media do contribute to and play a role in construction H&S;industry has the capacity and needs to promote H&S on a wider basis; there is a needto improve construction H&S; to a degree, editors are aware of what constitutes unsafeacts and unsafe conditions, and the print media can play an increased role through thereview of articles, advertisements, advertorial, editorial and photographs to prevent thedepiction of unhealthy and unsafe practices and conditions

  2. Use of online knowledge resources by prominent South African researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Treptow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth in online knowledge resources has transformed information securing practices and effects have been especially pronounced for scientific journals. It has therefore become increasingly necessary to understand researchers’ information search and securing preferences. Leading South African researchers were indentified and invited to participate in a web- based survey to this end. Results indicate that electronic resources are favoured for journal articles, but not for books, and researchers commonly employ chaining and browsing behaviour to locate relevant journal articles. Full-text journals are favoured by researchers to undertake searches. These are favoured over other bibliographic databases and other federated searches (Google, Google Scholar and MetaLib. Analyses of the coverage of top rated journals by the two top rated full- text databases EBSCOhost and ScienceDirect reveals significantly lower coverage when compared with the coverage of top journals by the citation databases Scopus and Web of Science. Researchers should therefore make greater use of these resources to effectively locate relevant material.

  3. Development and progress of the South African uranium enrichment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earlier development of the project is briefly reviewed, and some of the salient features of the South African process are touched upon. Development of the separation element in the last 18 months is discussed, as well as further work on the helikon cascade process. A brief description of the helikon cascade operation is given by means of diagrams. Because of time limitations, the complete helikon theory is not presented, but only some examples shown. Experimental work done to verify the helikon concept, as well as theoretical treatment, is presented. A brief report of the progress made on the experimental module of 6 t/a separative work capacity is given. This module, known as Mini-Z, is well advanced and details of its features and construction are shown. A short discussion of progress on the full-scale prototype module, known as Proto-Z, is next presented. The flexibility of such a design to fit a wide range of cascade sizes is considered, as well as cost implications of various approaches to design. Apart from progress on the development of the commercial plant, a brief review is given of the present state of the pilot plant at Valindaba. Some of the information obtained is mentioned. In conclusion, some information is given in regard to further planning and other work on the commercial plant at present being undertaken. Projected operation of the plant and some nuclear fuel service aspects are touched on

  4. Establishment of a South African nuclear science exhibition centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekwe, K.G.; Stander, G.; Faanhof, A. [South African Nuclear Energy Cooperation, P O Box 582, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    After an initial survey undertaken by the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa), one of the findings was that nuclear knowledge is virtually non-existent amongst the general public, including school children, throughout the country. The Department of Education (DoE) is currently in the process of introducing Nuclear as part of the school curriculum, which would require a collective effort between the schools and all the Nuclear Institutions in the country. Necsa as well as other nuclear industries have the responsibility to promote public awareness, appreciation and understanding of science and nuclear science in particular. Necsa is leading the national initiative to establish the nuclear science centre which would amongst others guide a person from the very basics of nuclear science to present and future applications thereof. The nuclear science centre will include information on the SAFARI-1 reactor, the Koeberg power reactor, the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), particle accelerators, food preservation, medical applications, etc. This paper will give the overview of the centre as well as its objectives thereof. (authors)

  5. The impact of spinal cord injury on South African youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Njoki

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 500 South Africans, mainly young people,sustain a spinal cord injury every year leading to severe lifetime physical disabilities. With advances in medicine and assistive technology, these young people are able to reach adulthood. The physical, social and  emotional adjustments, which determine the eventual successful outcome following injury, vary considerably from person to person. Some make satisfactory adjustments whereas others remain chronically distressed.This study aimed to determine the impact of SCI on youth in community settings after discharge from rehabilitation.  A qualitative approach, that utilised face-to-face interviews and focus group methods of data collection, was used. Data were drawn from ten participants selected at Conradie Spinal Rehabilitation Unit, using purposive sampling. Audiotape recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. Strong themes that ran through the data were identified. The results of the study revealed that spinal cord injury impacts on more than just the physical capabilities of an individual. Participants identified issues such as social identity, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, social support and employment opportunities as having a major impact on their lives once back in the community.  It is  recommended that rehabilitation professionals include issues such as identity and psychosocial adjustment into their health promotion interventions.

  6. Good Governance in Public Procurement: A South African Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Roos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article good governance in public procurement, with particular reference to accountability is discussed. The principle of providing adequate remedies in public procurement is put under the spotlight. This is done with reference to the decision in Steenkamp NO v Provincial Tender Board, Eastern Cape. In this case the Constitutional Court had to consider whether an initially successful tenderer could lodge a delictual claim for damages to compensate for expenses incurred after conclusion of a contract, which was subsequently rendered void on an application for review of the tender award. The applicable principles of good governance and the applicable provisions of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Public Procurement and the WTO plurilateral Government Procurement Agreement are analysed. This is done to enable an evaluation of the decision by the Constitutional Court in the above case. It is concluded that the South African public procurement system does in this instance comply with the basic principles of good governance with regard to accountability.

  7. An input-output analysis of the impact of mining on the South African economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stilwell, L.C.; Minnitt, R.C.A.; Monson, T.D.; Kuhn, G. [Allmine Projects, Farrarmere (South Africa)

    2000-03-01

    Input-output techniques are used to analyse the impacts of gold, coal and other mining activities upon South African economy between 1971 and 1993. Results suggest that the premise upon which the South African government's proposed minerals policy is based i.e. that 'the mining industries have the capacity to generate wealth and employment on a large scale' (Republic of South Africa, Department of Minerals and Energy, 1998. A minerals and mining policy. White Paper, Department of Minerals and Energy, Republic of South Africa), may require further thought. Estimated production and employment multipliers indicate that the impacts of marginal changes in mining production and employment were not significantly different from production and employment impacts of most other South African economic activities and that there were few linkages between mining and the rest of the economy. These results suggest that South African mining activities will increase income and employment only if exports increase or if policies are established to increase linkages between mining and the rest of the South African economy. 8 tabs., 6 apps.

  8. Reframing the Tower of Babel narrative for economic justice within the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rathbone

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Tower of Babel narrative is profoundly connected to the history of South Africa and its interpretation in the Dutch Reformed Church document entitled Human Relations and the South African Scene in the Light of Scripture (1976, which was used to justify apartheid. In this article, it is argued that this understanding of the narrative is due to racist framing that morally justified the larger apartheid narrative. The Tower of Babel narrative was later reframed for liberation and reconciliation by Desmond Tutu. However, apartheid had an impact not only on the sociopolitical dynamics of South Africa. Submissions to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission by business and labour highlight the impact of apartheid on the economy and specifically black labour. These revelations are responsible for new questions regarding the economics of the narrative that arise and may enrich the understanding of the Tower of Babel narrative. This focus on the economic aspect of the narrative is also supported by historical research on the Tower of Babel narrative that reveals that the dispersion of the people on the plain of Shinar may refer to the demise of the Sumerian empire, which was among other influences brought about by a labour revolt. In this regard, the narrative is a theological reflection on the demise of an unjust economic system that exploited workers. The purpose of this article is to critically explore this economic justice aspect embedded in the narrative in order to determine whether this reframing of the narrative is plausible. This is particularly important within the post-apartheid context and the increase of economic problems such as unemployment, poverty and economic inequality.

  9. Beyond Passivity: Constructions of Femininities in a Single-Sex South African School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia; Pillay, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the calamitous effects of gender violence on the experience of schooling for South African girls, single-sex schools have been advanced as a strategy to protect girls from violence. In this paper, the experiences of a selected group of girls in a single-sex school in Durban, South Africa are illustrated to provide a counter…

  10. Mobile communication tools for a South African deaf patient in a pharmacy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chininthorn, P.; Glaser, M.; Freudenthal, A.; Tucker, W.D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case of iterative community-based co-design to facilitate the emergence of an innovative mobile system to address a potentially life-threatening scenario for Deaf people in South Africa. For Deaf people who communicate in South African Sign Language, miscommunication due to lan

  11. Political Studies: An Entry into "Social Science Thought" in the South African Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselapedi, Thapelo

    2016-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the epistemic orientation of the Politics discipline in South Africa, and specifically in "formerly white universities". The focus is to expose the disparity between this epistemic orientation and the South African locale that it finds itself in; that is, a locale whose history is different from its…

  12. A Critical Evaluation of Training within the South African National Public Works Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccord, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the ability of the training and work experience offered under public works programmes to promote employment in South Africa. Public works are a key component of South African labour market policy and are ascribed considerable potential in terms of addressing the core challenge of unemployment. However, despite this policy…

  13. Corporal Punishment in Schools and Fundamental Human Rights: A South African Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Justus

    In many western countries, corporal punishment has been abolished as a form of punishment in criminal trials and in schools. Under South African common law, persons entitled to enforce discipline may inflict corporal punishment within certain guidelines established by the Supreme Court. For the first time in the Republic of South Africa (RSA), the…

  14. The Impact of Race, Gender, and Culture in South African Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Mawila, Kaluke Felicity Ntwanano

    2004-01-01

    South Africa's government initiatives, such as the Commission on Gender Equality, the National Gender Forum, and the Office on the Status of Women, support efforts by its institutions of higher education to become more inclusive and equitable. Nevertheless, there remain fundamental obstacles to the lull participation of South African women in the…

  15. 'A newspaper war'? Dutch information networks during the South African War (1899-1902)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Kuitenbrouwer

    2013-01-01

    The South African War (1899-1902) caused a stir in the Netherlands. The Dutch public overwhelmingly supported the Boers in their struggle against the British. To support the ‘kinsmen’ in South Africa several organisations in the Netherlands embarked on an international propaganda campaign. This arti

  16. Education Quality in Post-Apartheid South African Policy: Balancing Equity, Diversity, Rights and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Yusuf; Ahmed, Rashid

    2011-01-01

    In spite of numerous definitions of quality, consensus on what constitutes quality is less clear and contested. Using South Africa as a case study, this paper explores the current conceptual thinking and debates about education quality. Specifically the paper reviews selected South African policy texts to identify how some of the global dimensions…

  17. Gay and Lesbian Youth Experiences of Homophobia in South African Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. H.; Alpaslan, A. H.; Strumpher, J.; Astbury, G.

    2003-01-01

    In post-apartheid South Africa, the tenets of inclusivity, nondiscrimination, and tolerance are actively encouraged and legislated across all sectors of society, including education. However, in examining the coming out experiences of 18 South African gay and lesbian youth (1997-2000), it became apparent that they had all experienced…

  18. Barriers to Conducting a Community Mobilization Intervention among Youth in a Rural South African Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…

  19. South African Female Presidential Leadership and the inevitability of a donga as final destination? Reading the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ndikhokele N. Mtshiselwa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 104 years of the existence of the African National Congress, many a black person in Sout Africa has been exclusively led by men. Also, 24 years into a democracy, patriarchy continues to raise its ugly head in our parliament, among other institutions. Disturbingly, against the call for a female presidential leadership Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, the National Union of Mineworkers, together with the ANC leadership in the Gauteng province, are lobbying for a male presidential candidate namely, Cyril Ramaphosa. In order to engage the issue of patriarchy in the South African politics, the Sepedi/Northern Sotho proverb tsa etwa ke ye tshadi pele, di wela ka leope [once they are led by a female one, that is, a cow, they will fall into a donga] will be employed as a hermeneutical tool to re-read the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way. the interest of the preceding way lies at seeking justice for the transformation of many an African women's life in present day South Africa. Inthe end, this article will investigate whether the tenor of the Northern Sotho/Sepedi proverb that once they (cattle [read: South Africans] are led by a female one, they are sure to fall into a donga.Intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications: Drawing from the insight in the fields of the Old Testament, gender and social sciences studies as well as Indigenous Knowledge Systems (with particular focus on an African proverb, this article addresses the topic of the South African Female Presidential Leadership and the Deuteronomistic Athaliah the bosadi way.Keywords: Deuteronomistic Athaliah; Patriarchy; Woman president; South Africa; Sepedi proverb; bosadi

  20. The construct validation of the Relationship Harmony and Soft–Heartedness Scales of the South African Personality Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Carin; French, Luan; Morton, Nadia; Fons J.R. van de Vijver; Velichko H. Valchev; Byron G. Adams; Gideon P De Bruin

    2013-01-01

    This study forms part of the South African Personality Inventory project that aims to develop: (a) an indigenous theoretical model of personality; and (b) a unique personality measure that is in line with South African legislation and that can be used fairly to assess personality across different South African language and cultural groups. In line with this mandate, the objectives in this study were twofold: first, to validate the Relationship Harmony and Soft-Heartedness Scales o...

  1. Barriers to Clinical Trial Participation: Comparing Perceptions and Knowledge of African American and White South Carolinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sei-Hill; Tanner, Andrea; Friedman, Daniela B; Foster, Caroline; Bergeron, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing data from a survey of African American and White residents in South Carolina, this study attempts to understand how to better promote clinical trial participation specifically within the African American population. To explore why participation is lower in the African American population, the authors examined two sets of potential barriers: structural/procedural (limited accessibility, lack of awareness, doctors not discussing clinical trial options, lack of health insurance) and cognitive/psychological (lack of subjective and factual knowledge, misperceptions, distrust, fear, perceived risk). Findings revealed that African Americans were significantly less willing than Whites to participate in a clinical trial. African Americans also had lower subjective and factual knowledge about clinical trials and perceived greater risk involved in participating in a clinical trial. The authors found that lack of subjective knowledge and perceived risk were significant predictors of African Americans' willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Implications of the findings are discussed in detail. PMID:26042496

  2. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Loutfy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora. However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs, non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma experienced by this population. Methods: The Cochrane methodology was used to develop a search strategy in consultation with a librarian scientist. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Ovid EMBASE, PsycInfo, and 10 others. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for potential relevance and conducted the Cochrane grading of RCTs to assess risk of bias and the Newcastle–Ottawa scale to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Eligible papers were selected if they employed an intervention design with African/Black diasporic women living with HIV as the target population and had a primary outcome of stigma reduction. Results: Of the five studies that met all of the eligibility criteria, four demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing HIV-related stigma. Only two of the five studies were designed specifically for HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. Limitations included the absence of interventions addressing other forms of stigma and discrimination (e.g. gender discrimination, racism, heterosexism. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women.

  3. Towards Producing Black Nobel Laureates Affiliated with ``African Universities''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth, Jude

    While Africa has produced a handful Nobel laureate in literature and peace, it has continued to shy away from producing any in the other categories. The reason is not farfetched; our university system is not up to standard. It is saddening that in this century, African countries place emphasis on certificates and not on knowledge. This has made the continent produce students that lack the intellectual capability, experimental ability, fundamental training, creativity, and motivation to excel except they get a foreign training. It is this backdrop that precipitated the research into the methods of teaching and research in universities across Africa. The study is designed to identify the problems and proffer solution to them. Two important questions immediately come to mind. (1) What factors account for the difficulty in producing Nobel laureates affiliated with African universities? (2) What strategies could be adopted to improve teaching and research in African universities? Several factors were investigated which revolve around funding, the competence of the lecturers, quality of students admitted, attitude of the students, parents and government. Nigerian universities were investigated and important deductions were made. During the study an inquiry was made on the method of instruction at various universities, from result obtained, the study therefore concluded that adequate funding, the presence of erudite scholars and brilliant minds will produce future Nobel laureate affiliated with the continent. The study therefore recommended admission and employment of only students and lecturers who have got a thing for academics into the universities and adequate funding of universities and research centres.

  4. Lifestyle risk factors in an urban South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCD Wright

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The research question addressed in the study was to determine the prevalence of the following lifestyle risk factors: obesity, waist-hip ratio, physical inactivity, high blood glucose, and hypertension in an urban community. The research objective for the study was to determine the prevalence of specific risk factors in an urban community. Based on the results, a health intervention could be planned and implemented to reduce the prevalence of the risk factors and the possibility of chronic noncommunicable diseases in later life. The design was a quantitative survey using physical measurement and a structured questionnaire. The target population of the study was black urban adults (n=218. The sampling method was convenient and purposive. The results of the study indicated that the prevalence of hypertension and obesity were higher than the national prevalence for South Africa. The waist-hip ratio revealed that 20% of the men and 49.7% of the women were at risk for cardiovascular disease. High blood glucose levels were demonstrated for 21.6% of the group. Physical activity was also shown to be inadequate. In conclusion, the potential for cardiovascular and metabolic health problems in future is high. It is recommended that an intervention, based on the results of the study, should and must be developed and implemented. The more challenging question is to know what to do and how to do it. A framework is suggested to guide the development of an intervention.

  5. Re-imagining South Africa: Black Consciousness, radical Christianity and the New Left, 1967 – 1977

    OpenAIRE

    Macqueen, Ian Martin

    2011-01-01

    This thesis places Black Consciousness in comparative perspective with progressive politics in South Africa in the late 1960s and the 1970s. It argues that the dominant scholarly focus on Black Consciousness, which is passed over as a ‘stage’ in the Black struggle against white supremacy, insufficiently historicises the deeper roots, and the wider resonances and ideological contestations of the Black Consciousness movement. As they refined their political discourse, Black Consciousness activi...

  6. A new labour era for South African Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rust

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the light of the South African Airways (SAA (and Heathrow airport strike in July 2005, an opportunity exists to evaluate the situation in order to address related problems in the future. The role of labour and specifically labour relations in the air travel industry highlights some important factors related to the industry. This paper aims to highlight the specific factors that will address possible reasons for poor workplace relations in SAA. Furthermore, a workable labour relations model for the organisation and other air travel organisations is proposed. In allowing a strike of the magnitude of the SAA strike of 2005 (e.g. a loss of income of R25 million per day, serious labour relations problems in the organisation are obvious. In order to prevent this action, an in-depth study of workplace relations is necessary to focus on the real problems and to adapt and make changes. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper is an exploratory exercise based on literature that provides an overview of scholarship in the air travel industry through an analysis of trends and debates, telephonic interviews with role players in the industry and discussions with academics in the tourism industry and in labour relations. Findings: Taking into account that the air travel industry is technologically advanced, highly labour intensive, very sensitive towards external influences and very competitive, it is therefore important for every employer (including SAA to design a labour relations system that is fit for the organisation. A suggested labour relations model for SAA is about the ability to build and sustain relationships characterised by shared goals, shared knowledge and mutual respect. Implications: The effects of strikes and other labour actions in the air travel industry have far reaching impacts on the air travel industry, the tourism industry, as well as the national economy. Originality/Value: This study highlights the importance of sound

  7. The Legal Nature Of A Lien In South African Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzi Wiese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The South African law acknowledges two types of liens or rights of retention, namely enrichment liens and contractual liens (also known as debtor and creditor liens. Enrichment liens are regarded as limited real rights which are enforceable against the owner of the thing. Contractual liens are not regarded as limited real rights: sometimes they are referred to as personal rights which are enforceable only inter partes. Thus, a lien is classified as a right (subjektiewe reg (ie a real right or a personal right. This article reflects on the correctness of this classification of liens. The term "right" can have various meanings and the aim of this article is to determine the exact meaning of the term "right" in the context of "right of retention". In my opinion a lien is not a right. I therefore reject the classification of liens into contractual liens and enrichment liens with its concomitant consequences. A lien is a defence against an ownerʹs rei vindicatio in that it allows a creditor (a lienholder to retain control of the ownerʹs thing until the debt has been paid. Because the law grants a defence to a creditor in control of a thing, the owner cannot succeed with her rei vindicatio. A distinction should be drawn between an entitlement that flows from a right (it describes the content of the right and a competency or capacity which emanates directly from the law. A lien is not an entitlement flowing from a lienholderʹs personal right - based on a contract or an enrichment claim - against the debtor. It is rather a capacity to withhold because the law grants this defence. The term "capacity" is not used in a technical sense but rather in the context of the ability to withhold, which is granted by the law.

  8. Psychological dimensions of unemployment: a gender comparison between Belgian and South African unemployed.

    OpenAIRE

    Yannick Griep; Sebastiaan Rothmann; Wouter Vleugels; Hans De Witte

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to compare South African and Belgian unemployed in their subjective experience of unemployment, committed towards employment and job search behaviour. We also considered gender differences regarding the psychological dimensions of unemployment between Belgium and South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Unemployed people were sampled from the Potchefstroom area in South Africa (N = 381) and the Brussels area in Belgium (N = 305). The Experiences of Unemploymen...

  9. Maritime defence and the South African Navy to the cancellation of the Simon's Town agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Potgieter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the maritime defence of South Africa was a colonial responsibility. First performed by the Dutch, the British took over the task after they wrestled the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch. The Cape was of supreme strategic value to Britain as the link with India and a great part of her empire. Therefore for more than a century and a half (from 1806 to the abrogation of the Simon's Town Agreement the Royal Navy had a constant presence in South African territorial waters. Furthermore when the first flickers of an indigenous maritime defence organisation appeared in South Africa it was British in character. The South African Division of the part-time Royal Naval Voluntary Reserve (RNVR came into being long before the country had a navy. The origin of the South African Navy dates back to 1922, when, the South African Naval Service was created with the arrival of three small ships from Britain. Unfortunately, the budget cuts during the Depression meant that these ships and their crews were paid off (in 1933-4 and only a skeleton staff remained. This was still the position at the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. The Union of South Africa's declaration of war against Germany on 6 September 1939, meant that the country's utterly neglected Navy had to suddenly prepare for war. Ships had to be found, and as purpose-build warships were out of the question, ships from the country's fishing fleet and trade had to suffice. A small ocean-going navy was created for the defence of the Union's ports and coastline. Following an urgent request from the British Admiralty in November 1940, South Africa sent four anti-submarine vessels to join the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean. As the war progressed, more ships of the South African Naval Forces arrived in the Mediterranean. They were used for a variety of tasks, ranging from minesweeping to salvage work. South African ships and crews earned themselves quite a reputation, participating in most

  10. Common roots: a contextual review of HIV epidemics in black men who have sex with men across the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Gregorio A; Jeffries, William L; Peterson, John L; Malebranche, David J; Lane, Tim; Flores, Stephen A; Fenton, Kevin A; Wilson, Patrick A; Steiner, Riley; Heilig, Charles M

    2012-07-28

    Pooled estimates from across the African diaspora show that black men who have sex with men (MSM) are 15 times more likely to be HIV positive compared with general populations and 8·5 times more likely compared with black populations. Disparities in the prevalence of HIV infection are greater in African and Caribbean countries that criminalise homosexual activity than in those that do not criminalise such behaviour. With the exception of US and African epidemiological studies, most studies of black MSM mainly focus on outcomes associated with HIV behavioural risk rather than on prevalence, incidence, or undiagnosed infection. Nevertheless, black MSM across the African diaspora share common experiences such as discrimination, cultural norms valuing masculinity, concerns about confidentiality during HIV testing or treatment, low access to HIV drugs, threats of violence or incarceration, and few targeted HIV prevention resources. PMID:22819654

  11. Restorative Justice and the South African Truth and Reconciliation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.

    2013-01-01

    It has frequently been argued that the post-apartheid Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was committed to restorative justice (RJ), and that RJ has deep historical roots in African indigenous cultures by virtue of its congruence both with ubuntu and with African indigenous justice systems...

  12. The development and investigation of the psychometric properties of a burnout scale within a South African agricultural research institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris N. Asiwe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Burnout of employees is well documented within South Africa, but researchers have adapted imported instruments with a number of limitations. Therefore there is a need to develop a new instrument suitable for use in South Africa.Research purpose: To give an overview of current burnout measures, identify gaps within the literature and develop a new burnout scale for use within South Africa. The research examined the construct validity, reliability, construct equivalence and item bias of this new scale and investigated any differences that exist in relation to demographic variables.Motivation for the study: This study aimed to address various limitations regarding existing measures by developing a reliable and valid instrument for measuring burnout in South African employees that includes cognitive, physical and emotional (affective components.Research approach, design and method: This empirical, quantitative research study delivered a cross-sectional survey, including the burnout scale and a biographical data questionnaire, to 443 employees of an agricultural research institution. Items for the burnout scale were written based on a literature review.Main findings: Exploratory factor analysis with target rotations resulted in a three-factor burnout model. Reliability analysis showed that all three scales (1 were sufficiently internally consistent and (2 showed construct equivalence for Black and White employees and speakers of Afrikaans and African languages. A practically significant difference in burnout levels was found in relation to age.Practical/managerial implications: The scale can be used to assess burnout for different cultural groups within research-based institutions.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to knowledge regarding the burnout levels of employees in an agricultural research institution in South Africa and provides a new burnout scale that can be utilised in similar institutions.

  13. Implied and Local Volatility Surfaces for South African Index and Foreign Exchange Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonie Kotzé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain exotic options cannot be valued using closed-form solutions or even by numerical methods assuming constant volatility. Many exotics are priced in a local volatility framework. Pricing under local volatility has become a field of extensive research in finance, and various models are proposed in order to overcome the shortcomings of the Black-Scholes model that assumes a constant volatility. The Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE lists exotic options on its Can-Do platform. Most exotic options listed on the JSE’s derivative exchanges are valued by local volatility models. These models needs a local volatility surface. Dupire derived a mapping from implied volatilities to local volatilities. The JSE uses this mapping in generating the relevant local volatility surfaces and further uses Monte Carlo and Finite Difference methods when pricing exotic options. In this document we discuss various practical issues that influence the successful construction of implied and local volatility surfaces such that pricing engines can be implemented successfully. We focus on arbitrage-free conditions and the choice of calibrating functionals. We illustrate our methodologies by studying the implied and local volatility surfaces of South African equity index and foreign exchange options.

  14. HIV-Associated Oral Mucosal Melanin Hyperpigmentation: A Clinical Study in a South African Population Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated oral mucosal melanin hyperpigmentation (HIV-OMH in a specific population of HIV-seropositive South Africans and to analyse the associations between HIV-OMH clinical features and the demographic and immunological characteristics of the study cohort. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 200 HIV-seropositive Black subjects. The collected data comprised age, gender, CD4+ T cell count, viral load, systemic disease, medications, oral site affected by HIV-OMH, extent (localized or generalized, intensity of the pigmentation (dark or light, and smoking and snuff use. Results. Overall, 18.5% of the study cohort had HIV-OMH. Twenty-two and a half percent had OMH that could not with confidence be attributed to HIV infection, and 59% did not have any OMH. There was a significant but weak association between smoking and the presence of HIV-OMH. Conclusions. The prevalence of HIV-OMH in the study population was 18.5%, the gingiva being the most commonly affected site. It appears that the CD4+ T cell count does not play any role in the biopathology of HIV-OMH.

  15. Hemoglobin levels and blood pressure are associated in rural black Africans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Bjarke Jarløv; Mwaniki, David L; Kaduka, Lydia U;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between blood levels of hemoglobin (B-hgb) and blood pressure (BP) has been widely investigated in Caucasians and Asians but there is a paucity of data in rural black Africans. The objective was to investigate the association between B-hgb and BP in a rural black African...... test were obtained in each participant. RESULTS: Background characteristics among 1,167 participants showed that anemic and non-anemic participants differed significantly from each other as there were more women, lower body mass index and waist circumference (WC), lower degree of hepatic insulin...... resistance and plasma cholesterols among the anemic participants. Furthermore, anemic participants had significantly lower systolic and diastolic BP (P 

  16. Intrinsic rewards and work engagement in the South African retail industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jacobs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: There is a lack of South African research relating to the provision of intrinsic rewards to retail employees.Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine whether there is a relationship between intrinsic rewards and work engagement in the South African retail industry. Furthermore, it sought to validate an instrument to measure intrinsic rewards within the South African context.Motivation for the study: There is currently a paucity of research exploring intrinsic rewards, specifically their importance for work engagement. Furthermore, there is a lack of instruments validated in South Africa that can be used to measure intrinsic rewards.Research approach, design and method: This quantitative study was conducted using a cross-sectional design and non-probability sampling of 181 employees from a South African retail organisation. The questionnaire included a demographic section, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Work Engagement Profile.Main findings: Statistically significant, positive relationships were found between all subscales of the two instruments. There were significant differences in the means for intrinsic rewards and work engagement for gender and age. Notably, the exploratory factor analysis for both instruments did not support the factor structure indicated in the literature.Practical/managerial implications: South African retail organisations should create work environments that provide intrinsic rewards as part of their reward package, to encourage work engagement.Contribution/value-add: These findings add to the current body of literature regarding intrinsic rewards and work engagement and provide insight into variables that promote work engagement within the South African retail context.

  17. Does ‘African mathematics’ facilitate access to mathematics? Towards an ongoing critical analysis of ethnomathematics in a South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Horsthemke

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosibudi Mangena, the Minister of Science and Technology, said in an address to the Annual Congress of the South African Mathematical Society at the University of the Potchefstroom, November 2, 2004: “There is one thing we need to address before anything else. We need to increase the number of young people, particularly blacks and women, who are able to successfully complete the first course in Mathematics at our universities.” How is this to  be achieved? A popular trend involves a call for the introduction and incorporation of so-called ethnomathematics, and more particularly ‘African mathematics’, into secondary and tertiary curricula. Although acknowledging the obvious benefits of so-called ethnomathematics, this paper critically analyses three aspects of ethnomathematics that have been neglected in past critiques. Our focus is not on the relationship as such between ethnomathematics and mathematics education. Our critique involves (1 epistemological and logical misgivings, (2 a new look at practices and skills, (3 concerns about embracing ‘African mathematics’ as valid and valuable – just because it is African. The first concern is about problems relating to the relativism and appeals to cultural specificity that characterise ethnomathematics, regarding mathematical knowledge and truth. The second set of considerations concern the idea  that not all mathematical practices and skills are necessarily culturally or socially embedded. With regard to the validity and viability of ‘African mathematics’, our misgivings not only concern the superficial sense of ‘belonging’ embodied in the idea of a uniquely and distinctly African mathematics, and the threat of further or continuing marginalisation and derogation, but the implicitly (self-demeaning nature of this approach. This paper serves as a reminder that a critical position in the deliberations of ethnomathematics needs to be sustained. It warns against the bandwagon

  18. The State of Black Education: The Politics of Educating African American Students at Colleges and Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Earnest N. Bracey, Ph.D.

    2014-01-01

    In terms of higher education for African American students, the “school-to-prison pipeline” or Prison Industrial Complex must be totally dismantled in order to focus entirely on academic performance at colleges and universities and HBCUs. Additionally, mentors should be identified to tutor and guide and help black youngsters overcome their fear of learning and going to school, so that our whole society can benefit and improve academically. Finally, in this respect, we-the-people can move our ...

  19. Supplier–customer relationships: Weaknesses in south african automotive supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Naude

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African automotive industry, which is an important sector in the South African economy, needs to function efficiently if it is to compete internationally. However, South African automotive components manufacturers (ACMs are not internationally competitive and automotive assemblers, also known as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs, often import cheaper components from abroad. All parties in the South African automotive supply chains need each other to ensure optimal efficiency and competitiveness. Furthermore, it is vital that good relationships exist between customers and suppliers in the automotive supply chains in South Africa. ACMs are central to automotive supply chains. A survey was conducted among ACMs to determine the nature of relationships that exist between buyers and suppliers in South Africa’s automotive supply chains. The results showed that collaborative relationships do indeed exist between members of the supply chain but that communication, understanding of the parties’ situations and cooperation can improve this relationship and so create total alliance between OEMs and ACMs.

  20. Teaching German as a foreign language in a multilingual South African context

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Baker

    2011-01-01

    Arguments for the promotion of indigenous languages should not be used as reasons against teaching German in a multilingual South African context. Elevating the status of the indigenous languages can go hand in hand with continuing to teach German as a foreign language. This article argues that teachers of German as a foreign language could valuably affirm African languages in their classrooms. The article demonstrates the importance of taking cognizance of the learners’ first language in lea...

  1. The role of public schools in HIV prevention: perspectives from African Americans in the rural south

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-01-01

    Though African American youth in the south are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates of HIV infection with marked racial disparities. Focus group discussions explored participant views on contributors to the elevated rates of HIV and ...

  2. The effect of China's globalisation on the South African coal mining equipment (OEM) industry / Ramona Naidoo

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, Ramona

    2007-01-01

    The study looks at the mining equipment industry as coal mining equipment is a subsector within this industry. This study seeks to create an understanding of how the coal mining equipment industry in South Africa is affected by the emergence of China as a mining equipment supplier. China's globalisation is set to continue and will impact all industries. China's African Policy will also impact the African continent, as China will continue to invest and use Africa's mineral resources. Sourcing ...

  3. Validation of two prediction models of undiagnosed chronic kidney disease in mixed-ancestry South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Mogueo, Amelie; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Matsha, Tandi E.; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Kengne, Andre P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global challenge. Risk models to predict prevalent undiagnosed CKD have been published. However, none was developed or validated in an African population. We validated the Korean and Thai CKD prediction model in mixed-ancestry South Africans. Methods Discrimination and calibration were assessed overall and by major subgroups. CKD was defined as ‘estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)

  4. African Women and Apartheid: Migration and Settlement in Urban South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    Set within the changing political geography of Cape Town, South Africa, this study constructs a social history of African women through an examination of the complex process and consequences of settlement during the apartheid (1948-1994) and post-apartheid years. Africans began flowing into the city in increasing numbers at mid-twentieth century. However, they encountered coercive and effective resistance to their settlement endeavors, in part due to Cape Town’s historical association as th...

  5. A South African Municipality Mapping the Way Forward for Social Inclusion Through Universal Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Since becoming a democracy, South African legislation has changed. The South African Constitution and legislation governing the structures and mandate of the different spheres of government aim towards municipalities needing to become more developmental in the way it serves the community with a specific focus on the poor and vulnerable. It sets ideals to overcome the inheritance of the past. However, how to do this is sometimes still unclear. This paper is a case study illustrating how Stellenbosch Municipality overcame obstacles of perceived legislative restrictions, silo operations and antiquated thinking, working towards social inclusion for all its citizens. In moving away from disability accessibility and embracing universal access as a way in which to deliver basic services, Stellenbosch discovered the beginning of the process of overcoming the negative legacy of the past. Understanding the Universal Design principles and approach illustrated how South African municipalities can promote the concept of our rainbow nation as envisioned in the Constitution.

  6. A South African Municipality Mapping the Way Forward for Social Inclusion Through Universal Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Since becoming a democracy, South African legislation has changed. The South African Constitution and legislation governing the structures and mandate of the different spheres of government aim towards municipalities needing to become more developmental in the way it serves the community with a specific focus on the poor and vulnerable. It sets ideals to overcome the inheritance of the past. However, how to do this is sometimes still unclear. This paper is a case study illustrating how Stellenbosch Municipality overcame obstacles of perceived legislative restrictions, silo operations and antiquated thinking, working towards social inclusion for all its citizens. In moving away from disability accessibility and embracing universal access as a way in which to deliver basic services, Stellenbosch discovered the beginning of the process of overcoming the negative legacy of the past. Understanding the Universal Design principles and approach illustrated how South African municipalities can promote the concept of our rainbow nation as envisioned in the Constitution. PMID:27534286

  7. Metabolic Syndrome in South African Patients with Severe Mental Illness: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Saloojee

    Full Text Available There is a surge of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Africa. CVD is the leading cause of mortality among patients with severe mental illness (SMI in developed countries, with little evidence from the African context.To determine the prevalence and risk factors for MetS among South African patients with SMI.In a cross sectional study, individuals with SMI treated with antipsychotics and a control group without a mental illness, matched for age, gender and ethnicity were evaluated for MetS using the 2009 Joint Interim statement (JIS criteria.Of the 276 study group subjects, 65.9% were male, 84.1% black African, 9.1% white, 5.4% of Indian descent and 1.5% coloured (mixed race with a mean age of 34.7 years (±12.5. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (73.2% and 40% were taking first generation antipsychotics. The prevalence of MetS was 23.2% (M: 15.4%, F: 38.3% in the study group and 19.9% (M: 11.9%, F: 36.3% in the control group (p = 0.4. MetS prevalence was significantly higher in study subjects over 55 years compared to controls (p = 0.03. Increased waist circumference (p< 0.001 and low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (p = 0.003 were significantly more prevalent in study subjects compared to controls. In study subjects, risk factors associated with MetS included age (OR: 1.09, 95% CI 1.06-1.12, p < 0.001, female gender (OR: 2.19, 95% CI 1.06-4.55, p = 0.035 and Indian descent (OR: 5.84, 95% CI 1.66-20.52, p = 0.006 but not class of antipsychotic (p = 0.26.The overall MetS prevalence was not increased in patients with SMI compared to controls; however, the higher prevalence of the individual components (HDL cholesterol and waist circumference suggests an increased risk for CVD, especially in patients over 55 years.

  8. Metabolic Syndrome in South African Patients with Severe Mental Illness: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloojee, Shamima; Burns, Jonathan K; Motala, Ayesha A

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a surge of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Africa. CVD is the leading cause of mortality among patients with severe mental illness (SMI) in developed countries, with little evidence from the African context. Objective To determine the prevalence and risk factors for MetS among South African patients with SMI. Method In a cross sectional study, individuals with SMI treated with antipsychotics and a control group without a mental illness, matched for age, gender and ethnicity were evaluated for MetS using the 2009 Joint Interim statement (JIS) criteria. Results Of the 276 study group subjects, 65.9% were male, 84.1% black African, 9.1% white, 5.4% of Indian descent and 1.5% coloured (mixed race) with a mean age of 34.7 years (±12.5). Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis (73.2%) and 40% were taking first generation antipsychotics. The prevalence of MetS was 23.2% (M: 15.4%, F: 38.3%) in the study group and 19.9% (M: 11.9%, F: 36.3%) in the control group (p = 0.4). MetS prevalence was significantly higher in study subjects over 55 years compared to controls (p = 0.03). Increased waist circumference (p< 0.001) and low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (p = 0.003) were significantly more prevalent in study subjects compared to controls. In study subjects, risk factors associated with MetS included age (OR: 1.09, 95% CI 1.06–1.12, p < 0.001), female gender (OR: 2.19, 95% CI 1.06–4.55, p = 0.035) and Indian descent (OR: 5.84, 95% CI 1.66–20.52, p = 0.006) but not class of antipsychotic (p = 0.26). Conclusion The overall MetS prevalence was not increased in patients with SMI compared to controls; however, the higher prevalence of the individual components (HDL cholesterol and waist circumference) suggests an increased risk for CVD, especially in patients over 55 years. PMID:26882230

  9. Nutrient Patterns and Their Association with Socio-Demographic, Lifestyle Factors and Obesity Risk in Rural South African Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro T. Pisa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ in 388 rural South African adolescents between the ages of 11–15 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (AHDSS. Principle Component Analysis (PCA was applied to 25 nutrients derived from QFFQs. Multiple linear regression and partial R2 models were fitted and computed respectively for each of the retained principal component (PC scores on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics including body mass index (BMI for age Z scores. Four nutrient patterns explaining 79% of the total variance were identified: PCI (26% was characterized by animal derived nutrients; PC2 (21% by vitamins, fibre and vegetable oil nutrients; PC3 (19% by both animal and plant derived nutrients (mixed diet driven nutrients; and PC4 (13% by starch and folate. A positive and significant association was observed with BMI for age Z scores per 1 standard deviation (SD increase in PC1 (0.13 (0.02; 0.24; p = 0.02 and PC4 (0.10 (−0.01; 0.21; p = 0.05 scores only. We confirmed variability in nutrient patterns that were significantly associated with various lifestyle factors including obesity.

  10. Relationship between sustainable development initiatives and improved company financial performance: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darelle Groenewald

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Companies are under ever-increasing pressure from both internal and external stakeholders to consider the environmental and social impacts of their operations and to mitigate these impacts. This necessitates an investigation into the effect of sustainability initiatives on the financial performance (FP of a company.Research purpose: The study analysed the relationship between sustainability performance and FP in South African listed companies.Motivation for the study: Some South African listed companies acknowledge in their sustainability reports that there is a link between sustainability development and long-term shareholder value. This implies that FP is linked to sustainable development performance. This relationship has not been researched for South African listed companies and therefore needs to be investigated.Research design, approach and method: A similar research method was used as for an international study. Forty-five listed South African companies were selected as the sample. Their sustainable development reports were used for analysis. Data were analysed with the use of content and a canonical correlation analysis.Main findings: The results of the study revealed that an overall positive relationship exists between sustainability performance and FP. Practical implications: South African companies that have a high involvement and focus on specific sustainable development initiatives that are integrated into overall sustainable development strategy can deliver improved FP for the organisation and deliver long-term value to its shareholders.Contribution: Six sustainable development aspects were found to be significantly correlated with improved FP and if incorporated into a company’s sustainable development strategy can lead to increased successes.Keywords: Canonical correlation analysis, Sustainability reporting, Sustainability development, Financial performance, South African listed companies 

  11. Trade in Educational Services: Reflections on the African and South African Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the emergence of globalisation and its impact on developments within the African continent. Africa's response at a regional level through the New Partnership for Africa's Development and at a subregional level through the Southern African Development Community's "Protocol on Education" come under scrutiny. These…

  12. Resistance and Assent: How Racial Socialization Shapes Black Students' Experience Learning African American History in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Theodore E.

    2016-01-01

    African American history is often taught poorly in high school U.S. history courses. However, we know little about how Black students perceive and experience this situation. I use a refined racial socialization framework and interview data with 32 Black college students in the Northeast to investigate how familial racial socialization shapes their…

  13. Black-tailed Godwits in West African winter staging areas : habitat use and hunting-related mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Kamp, van der J.; Monteiro, H.; Ndiaye, I.; Wymenga, E.; Zwarts, L.

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of the Dutch Black-tailed Godwit population depends largely on high adult survival. Adult survival may be influenced by hunting pressure and land use change in the wintering area, the West African coastal zone. Here we examine hunting pressure on and habitat use of Black-tailed Godwi

  14. Managing Teacher Leave and Absence in South African Rural Schools: Implications for Supporting Schools in Contexts of Multiple-Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletsane, Relebohile; Juan, Andrea; Prinsloo, Cas; Reddy, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly points to the negative impacts of teacher absence from school on access to schooling and success in learning in schools, in particular in schools in areas of multiple-deprivation (including rural schools). South African schools are no exception. In this regard, like any other employer, the South African Department of Basic…

  15. A study of South African environmental law and the environmental standards prescribed by lending institutions / by R. Mohabir (Rakshita).

    OpenAIRE

    Mohabir, Rakshita

    2012-01-01

    The research investigates whether the environmental performance standards prescribed by international financial lending institutions have the potential to regulate within the South African legislative framework. In assessing this, the environmental performance standards of three specific financial lending institutions, namely, the International Finance Corporation, the African Development Bank and the Development Bank of Southern Africa are analysed. In addition, the extent to which South Afr...

  16. South African Teachers' Attitudes toward the Inclusion of Learners with Different Abilities in Mainstream Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Dana K.; Bornman, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This research sought to examine South African teachers' attitudes toward the inclusion of learners with different abilities in their hypothetical mainstream classrooms. Participants were 93 South African teachers who responded to the Teachers' Attitudes and Expectations Scale, a measure developed for this study, regarding four vignettes…

  17. Some unresolved complexities in matters involving paternity: a South African Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Albertus, Latiefa

    2014-01-01

    A controversial aspect regarding paternity in South African law is whether or not South African Courts are empowered to compel an adult or a minor to submit to DNA/blood tests. The High Courts were not unanimous in this regard, and thus the issue required clarification by the Supreme Court of Appeal (SCA). An opportunity presented itself for the SCA to not only address the issue of the use of DNA/blood tests in paternity matters, but several other issues surrounding paternity. ...

  18. Employee perceptions regarding whistle-blowing in the workplace: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Perks

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of whistle-blowing is to eradicate unethical behaviour in the work place. This article investigates the perceptions of South African employees (n=387 employed in medium and large organisations regarding whistle-blowing. Respondents regard personal viewpoints and the supportive organisational environment as determining factors for whistle-blowing. South African employees have faced minimal negative consequences and will again engage in whistle-blowing, regardless of union support. Organisations can create a whistle-blowing culture by having a personal code of ethics, using hotlines, having an ethical committee, engaging in periodic ethics training and doing an annual ethical audit.

  19. The contribution of coal preparation to the South African economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsfall, D.

    1991-01-01

    Coal preparation is particularly significant in South Africa, as the coal reserves are, by world standards, of low quality. Without coal preparation, South Africa could not compete on world export markets. The technology used to achieve this competitiveness is briefly described; its introduction and development in South Africa are chronicled and certain major uses stressed. Finally, the future considerable applications of preparation are outlined.

  20. Interpreting the term enterprise for South African value-added tax purposes / Hendrika Magdalena Botha

    OpenAIRE

    Botha, Hendrika Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Value-added tax (VAT) was introduced in South Africa in 1991 by the Value-Added Tax Act (89 of 1991) (the VAT Act). The South African VAT system is a destination-based, consumption-type VAT and is levied on goods or services consumed in South Africa. The definition of enterprise is an important definition in the VAT Act and it sets out the persons, activities and supplies that are to be included in the VAT base. It is compulsory for a person that conducts an enterprise in South Africa to regi...

  1. Changes in eating attitudes, body esteem and weight control behaviours during adolescence in a South African cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabither M Gitau

    Full Text Available Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26, body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001 and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the 'best', 'getting respect' and being the 'happiest', while the obese silhouette was associated with the 'worst' and the 'unhappiest', and the underweight silhouette with the "weakest". Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa.

  2. Changes in eating attitudes, body esteem and weight control behaviours during adolescence in a South African cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (pesteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the 'best', 'getting respect' and being the 'happiest', while the obese silhouette was associated with the 'worst' and the 'unhappiest', and the underweight silhouette with the "weakest". Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343

  3. Lifestyles and routine activities of South African teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutya, Thozama Mandisa

    2010-12-01

    The United Nations estimates that 79% of teenage girls trafficked globally every year are forced into involuntary prostitution. About 247 000 South African children work in exploitative conditions; about 40 000 South African female teenagers work as prostitutes. This paper investigates lifestyles and routine activities of teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution. The key concepts involuntary prostitution, intergenerational sex and exploitative conditions are defined in relation to the lifestyles and routine activities of South African female teenagers. Human trafficking for involuntary prostitution is described, based on a literature review. Lifestyle exposure and routine activities theories help to explain the potential victimisation of these teenagers in human trafficking for involuntary prostitution. Actual lifestyle and routine activities of South African teenagers and risky behaviours (substance abuse, intergenerational sex and child prostitution) are discussed as factors that make teens vulnerable to such trafficking. This paper recommends that human trafficking prevention efforts (awareness programmes and information campaigns) be directed at places frequented by human traffickers and teenagers in the absence of a capable guardian to reduce victimisation, as traffickers analyse the lifestyles and routine activities of their targets. South Africa should also interrogate entrenched practices such as intergenerational sex. PMID:25859767

  4. Measuring the volatility spill-over effects between Chicago Board of Trade and the South African maize market /Gert J. van Wyk.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wyk, Gert Johannes

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed among South African agricultural market participants that the United States' corn price, as represented by the Chicago Board of Trade-listed corn contract, is causal to the price of white and yellow maize traded on the South African Futures Exchange. Although a strong correlation exists between these markets, the corn contract is far from causal to the South African maize price, as indicated by Auret and Schmitt (2008). Similarly, South African market participants believ...

  5. The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI): a culture-informed instrument for the country's main ethnocultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetvadjiev, Velichko H; Meiring, Deon; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Nel, J Alewyn; Hill, Carin

    2015-09-01

    We present the development and the underlying structure of a personality inventory for the main ethnocultural groups of South Africa, using an emic-etic approach. The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI) was developed based on an extensive qualitative study of the implicit personality conceptions in the country's 11 official languages (Nel et al., 2012). Items were generated and selected (to a final set of 146) with a continuous focus on cultural adequacy and translatability. Students and community adults (671 Blacks, 198 Coloreds, 104 Indians, and 391 Whites) completed the inventory. A 6-dimensional structure (comprising a positive and a negative Social-Relational factor, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness) was equivalent across groups and replicated in an independent sample of 139 Black and 270 White students. The SAPI correlated highly overall with impression-management aspects, but lower with lying aspects of social desirability. The SAPI social-relational factors were distinguishable from the Big Five in a joint factor analysis; the multiple correlations with the Big Five were .64 (positive) and .51 (negative social-relational). Implications and suggestions for emic-etic instrument and model development are discussed. PMID:25602691

  6. Building South African women’s leadership: A cohort model for the PhD in student affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Person

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the presence of a historically male-dominated culture in leadership, gendermediated obstacles and challenges, black women in South Africa have the passion to develop professionally and move to higher levels as educational leaders. The current study assessed female students’ perceptions regarding a joint pilot doctoral programme betweenthe University of the Western Cape (UWC and California State University, Fullerton’s (CSUF Higher Education programme, and their experiences while in the programme. Five participants described programme expectations, challenges, strengths, weaknesses, and programme completion. Moreover, the research focused on the participants’ future hopes, aspirations, and their observations regarding any changes in their professional and academic growth. Students expressed that coming to CSUF after their experiences at UWC enabled them to learn from faculty members with expertise in student affairs, which has further developed their knowledge concerning student development strategies, philosophy and history. Recommendations for the programme centred on increased cohort meetings, expanded programme resources such as research, student support outside the classroom settings, and the improvement of programme funding in order to provide more financial support to students. The importance of professional development and formalised training programmes, expanding research dynamics, and teaching components with international collaborations are promising practices to address the challenges and obstacles black women face in preparing to become leaders in South African higher education.

  7. South Africa's New African Language Dictionaries and their Use for the African Speech Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Klein

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: During the last 15 years, the lexicographic scene in South Africa changed drastically as many new dictionaries for the African languages were compiled. The different dictionary types and publication modes discussed in this article are: general dictionaries, restricted dictionaries, printed dictionaries, electronic dictionaries, online and cell phone dictionaries. Although there are different dictionary types, they all have three major uses for the speech communities. Dictionaries are useful tools for language documentation and standardization, as they try to cover and document the general vocabulary (general dictionaries or the spe-cialized vocabulary (technical dictionaries. They empower the language users because they help to improve communication by providing users with the necessary vocabulary they need. In addition, dictionaries have a high symbolic value for a language. Having dictionaries, and especially technical, online or cell phone dic-tionaries, is the visible proof that a language is standardized and modern, and can be used in all domains of life.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, GENERAL DICTIONARIES, RESTRICTED DICTIONARIES, ONLINE DICTIONARIES, CELL PHONE DICTIONARIES, LANGUAGE DOCUMENTATION, LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION, EMPOWERMENT, COMMUNICATION, PSYCHOLOGI-CAL FACTOR, SOCIOLINGUISTICS, LANGUAGE PLANNING

    Opsomming: Suid-Afrika se nuwe Afrikataalwoordeboeke en hul gebruik vir die Afrikataalgemeenskappe. Gedurende die afgelope 15 jaar het die leksikografiese toneel in Suid-Afrika ingrypend verander deurdat baie nuwe woordeboeke vir die Afrikatale saamgestel is. Die verskillende woordeboeksoorte en publikasievorme wat in hierdie artikel bespreek word, is: algemene woordeboeke, beperkte woordeboeke, gedrukte woordeboeke, aan-lyn- en selfoonwoordeboeke. Alhoewel daar verskillende woordeboeksoorte is, het hulle almal drie hoofgebruike vir die taalgemeenskappe. Woordeboeke is nuttige werktuie vir taaldokumentasie en

  8. Trends in udder health and emerging mastitogenic pathogens in South African dairy herds

    OpenAIRE

    I.M. Petzer; J. Karzis; J.C. Watermeyer; T.J. Van der Schans; R. Van Reenen

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the results of milk samples obtained from South African dairy herds during the period 1996 to April 2007 in order to identify possible trends in isolates of microorganisms and their pathogenicity under field conditions. Milk samples were obtained from 7 of the 9 provinces in South Africa where there are low numbers of dairy cows. Although there is scientific limitation to a country wide survey, such as the variation in herd size, management...

  9. Policy Implementation in South African Higher Education: Governance and Quality Assurance post-1994

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Kristín Tumadóttir 1984

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at a national policy of quality assurance in higher education in South Africa and aims to find out how institutions respond to and affect the higher education policy process. It sets out to explore the ‘gap’ between policy formulation and implementation. South African higher education is considered in the context of the transformation it has undergone since the early 1990s. A review of theory funnels down from broad concepts of new public management and governance towards...

  10. Metallic mercury use by South African traditional health practitioners: perceptions and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Street, Renée A.; Kabera, Gaëtan M.; Connolly, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Mercury is a toxic metal however its use in traditional healthcare systems remains widespread. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mercury use by South African Traditional Health Practitioners (THP) and to document reasons for use and administration methods. Methods A cross-sectional study design was employed. A total of 201 THPs were enrolled from two main metropolitan areas of KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), and 198 were included in the final analysis. Informat...

  11. THE SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY COURT SYSTEM – INDEPENDENT, IMPARTIAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL?

    OpenAIRE

    Marita Carnelley

    2011-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa makes provision for adefence force that is structured and managed as a disciplined military force. Evenprior to the Constitution, to ensure discipline in the military, the South AfricanMilitary Law had been developed and the military court system has been recognised by the Constitutional Court. This military criminal justice system has been createdwith a separate system of courts hearing matters pertaining to the usual, as well asother special ...

  12. Caregivers' experiences of the South African judicial system after the reporting of child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, Nicole; Wilson, Lizane

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is found to occur in alarming proportions worldwide. In South Africa, children represent almost half of the victims of known sexual abuse, and this is becoming a great concern even being described as silent epidemic. This research study serves as a qualitative exploration of caregivers' experiences of the South African judicial system after CSA has been reported. For the purpose of this study, the researcher used a descriptive qualitative research design so as to thor...

  13. Tax incentives for South African wine producers investing in environmental conservation / Anna Jacoba de Bruyn

    OpenAIRE

    De Bruyn, Anna Jacoba

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on environmental conservation worldwide, evidenced by such events as the signing of the Kyoto Protocol by developing countries, and by consumers becoming more environmentally conscious. The purpose of this study was to investigate how government could, through tax law, incentivise businesses to invest in environmental conservation. One of the major South African industries contributing to the GDP is the wine industry. South Africa, new in world wine...

  14. The validation of a workplace incivility scale within the South African banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia Smidt; Leon T. de Beer; Lizelle Brink; Leiter, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Orientation: Workplace incivility holds consequences for both individuals and organisations. Managers are becoming increasingly aware of this phenomenon. Currently, there is no workplace incivility scale validated for use within the South African context. Research purpose: To investigate the reliability and validity of the adapted workplace incivility scale by Leiter and colleagues for use within South Africa. Motivation for the study: As it is currently difficult to measure workplace inciv...

  15. Factors influencing editorial work within the sectors of the South African editing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Ann Law

    2014-01-01

    South African editors currently work in a highly diversified industry that comprises a number of different sectors. As a result of this, the role of the editor remains contentious, with varied definitions and demarcations of editorial tasks and skills. This article sets out the argument that editorial work in South Africa is characterised by specific factors which determine the importance (or otherwise) of certain editorial tasks and skills in each sector. To demonstrate this, this article re...

  16. The validation of a workplace boredom scale within the South African context / Susanna Maria van Wyk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wyk, Susanna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Boredom at work is a concern, as both employees and organisations are affected by the negative effects that this phenomenon holds. Workplace boredom is becoming an increasingly common occurrence within organisations and most employees are susceptible to it. To date, no reliable and valid scale for workplace boredom is available in South Africa. This study aimed to validate the Dutch Boredom Scale (DUBS) within the South African context in an attempt to provide a scale suitable ...

  17. Redistribution and Transformation in the South African Fishing Industry: The Case of the Squid Fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, W.; Britz, P.; Mather, D

    2000-01-01

    Political normalisation in South Africa during 1994, and the drafting of the Marine Living Resources Act 1998, led to the imperative to transform the fishing sector to more equitably reflect the racial demographics of the country. The squid fishery, like most other South African fisheries, has historically been dominated by white ownership of access rights and vessels. The squid fishery is an effort limited hand-jig fishery with each operator possessing permits for a certain numbe...

  18. Sustainable agriculture: a review of challenges facing the South African agricultural sector

    OpenAIRE

    Middelberg, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    This review paper considers the various challenges facing the South African agricultural sector against the background that agricultural sectors globally are pressurised to provide food security for the estimated nine billion people in 2050, while simultaneously addressing climate change. The use of agricultural land to produce crops for the production of biofuels and the impact of land redistribution in South Africa on food security are contemplated. It is recommended that the So...

  19. Relationship between sustainable development initiatives and improved company financial performance: A South African perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Darelle Groenewald; Jonathan Powell

    2016-01-01

    Orientation: Companies are under ever-increasing pressure from both internal and external stakeholders to consider the environmental and social impacts of their operations and to mitigate these impacts. This necessitates an investigation into the effect of sustainability initiatives on the financial performance (FP) of a company.Research purpose: The study analysed the relationship between sustainability performance and FP in South African listed companies.Motivation for the study: Some South...

  20. Work-home interference: Examining socio-demographic predictors in the South African context

    OpenAIRE

    Marissa de Klerk; Karina Mostert

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: The focus of this study was to investigate the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and the work–home interaction in different occupational groups in South Africa.Research purpose: The main research aim of the study was to investigate the socio-demographic predictors of negative and positive work–home interaction of South African employees.Motivation for the study: Little information is known about the prevalence of work–home interaction within groups. This stu...

  1. A spending behaviour model for selected South African arts festivals / Veronique Labuschagne

    OpenAIRE

    Labuschagne, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Arts festivals form a large part of the South African culture originally as many local communities began to share their culture with visitors by means of arts festivals. This has grown into a large industry that has tremendous financial gain for the hosting communities. With over 500 arts festivals each year in South Africa alone, visitors are certain to find a festival to satisfy their specific needs and wants. Therefore, with so many genres available, each festival has created its own niche...

  2. Nationalising South African mines: Back to a prosperous future, or down a rabbit hole?

    OpenAIRE

    Stan du Plessis

    2011-01-01

    Nationalisation is high on the policy agenda in South Africa. This paper considers the case for nationalising the local mining sector from an evidence-based perspective. The relevant evidence is derived from theoretical considerations and related to the known features of the South African mining sector and economy. A strong case against nationalisation emerges, which can be summarised as follows: The mining sector is competitive and therefore a poor candidate for public ownership. Further, th...

  3. Counselling South African nationals in a situation of xenophobia : a biblical approach / Dienga M.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Dienga, Mukanya Ada

    2011-01-01

    This study attempts to develop Biblical guidelines to minister South African nationals in a situation of xenophobia. The guidelines were developed from an interaction between normative indicators from Scripture and literature describing the sociological and psychological interpretative perspectives regarding the phenomenon of xenophobia with the indicators of a descriptive empirical study as focus point. Xenophobia in South Africa has been a result of people believing that they...

  4. Institutional ethnography of race and gender equity matters in three South African universties

    OpenAIRE

    Matsau, Liapeng

    2013-01-01

    Almost two decades after the end of apartheid, the higher education system in South Africa remains marked by inequity at both staff and student levels. Current research in this area focuses on measuring inequity but does little to explain why and how it persists. This research explores gender and race equity in South African universities using three critical case studies of the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, the University of Pretoria, and the University of Cape Town. Using Doro...

  5. Researching South African Youth, Gender and Sexuality Within the Context of HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Deevia Bhana; Rob Pattman

    2009-01-01

    In the context of HIV/AIDS, youth have become central to contemporary South African social thought and educational policy concerns regarding changing behaviour, addressing gender inequalities, safe sex and preventing the spread of the disease. Yet we know very little about how youth in specific social contexts give meaning to gender and sexuality. Greater understanding of these processes would appear vital to successful educational strategies in the protection against HIV/AIDS in South Africa...

  6. The Perception of South African Adolescents Regarding Primary Health Care Services

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena S. Richter; Vivian Mfolo

    2006-01-01

    Most of the South African public health facilities fail to provide adolescent-friendly health services. A quantitative, descriptive research study was conducted at Stinkwater, a rural area in Hammanskraal, South Africa. The objective of the study was to describe the adolescent's preferences regarding primary health care services. A survey was conducted among 119 adolescents. It was found that adolescents wished to be involved in the planning of the activities of the adolescent health service,...

  7. The work-home interaction of South African working females / L. Coetzer

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzer, Lianie

    2006-01-01

    The general objectives of this study were to determine the work-home interaction of South African working females, to investigate the prevalence of work-home interaction and to determine if differences concerning work-home interaction exist between different demographical groups. An availability sample (n = 500) was taken from working females within six provinces of South Africa. The SWING and a demographical questionnaire were administered. Structural equation modelling (SEM) ...

  8. Socio-demographic differences of work-life interaction among South African employees / Marissa de Klerk

    OpenAIRE

    De Klerk, Marissa

    2007-01-01

    South Africa, being a multicultural society, is faced with unique and unusual circumstances that can influence the interaction between their work and personal lives. However, countries can vary noticeably in cultural norms, values and gender-role beliefs, which can lead to the different experience of work-life interaction. Because of these differences, South African workers could experience the interaction between work and home in different ways, and this interaction may manife...

  9. The determinants of foreign direct investment on the South African economic growth / Rev. Ben Mabule

    OpenAIRE

    Mabule, Rev. Ben

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the economic sense in policies that promote or aim to attract more Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) by specifically focusing on the determinant of FDI and how they impact the economic growth of South Africa. The study empirically identifies and investigates the determinants of FDI on South African economic growth as well as FDI attraction and its correlation with economic growth over the period 1994 to 2010 through the utilization of Cointegration and Error-C...

  10. Working Paper - WP/13/02- The Impact of International Spillovers on the South African Economy

    OpenAIRE

    F Ruch

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates a multi-country vector autoregressive model (VAR) using South African, the euro area, the United States, Japan and China industrial production in order to determine the impact of business cycle spillovers on South Africa and the synchronisation of business cycles. The spillover index methodology of Diebold and Yilmaz is applied, using forecast error variance decompositions implemented over seven-year rolling windows in order to get a time evolution of the variables of int...

  11. The evolution and consolidation of the timeshare industry in a developing economy: The South African experience

    OpenAIRE

    Wayde R. Pandy; Christian M. Rogerson

    2014-01-01

    The timeshare industry is one of most under-researched aspects of tourism accommodation. Within existing scholarship most writings pertain to industry development and challenges in the USA and Europe. This paper provides an examination of the evolution and consolidation of the timeshare industry in South Africa from the 1980s to the present-day. The South African timeshare industry is revealed as one of the most mature in the international timeshare economy. Historically, the ...

  12. Transformation or Stagnation? The South African Defence Industry in the early 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Dunne; Richard Haines

    2005-01-01

    In post-Apartheid South Africa, the ANC Government faced the challenge of restructuring an unsustainably large defence sector. This was in the context of economic and social problems and a declining international arms market. This paper considers the restructuring of the South African industry over that period and more recently, providing a valuable case study of defence industrial restructuring in a small industrialised economy. It considers how the public sector (DENEL) and private sector r...

  13. The development of South African agriculture with an emphasis on the wool industry

    OpenAIRE

    Páchová, Šárka

    2016-01-01

    The diploma thesis focuses on the development of South African agriculture with a greater emphasis on the wool industry. This work is divided into two parts; the first part defines the general trends in the development of agribusiness, the current role, the specifics and the position of agriculture in the world with the influences of globalization. It also describes the historical development of the agricultural sector in South Africa and the general characteristics of the wool commodity. The...

  14. The South African wildlife ranching sector: a social accounting matrix Leontief multiplier analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philippus C. Cloete; Riaan Rosouw

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: There is startlingly little economic research on the South African wildlife sector which contributes toward disputes regarding the economic contribution of the sector.Research purpose: The purpose of this article is to put into context the relative economic contribution of the wildlife ranching sector, as opposed to other land-use options in South Africa.Motivation for the study: Growth in the wildlife ranching sector at the cost of other traditional farming practices resulted i...

  15. 'A sentimental attachment to the neighbourhood': African Christians and land claims in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    James, Deborah; Nkadimeng, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    As part of its attempt to understand ‘an apartheid of souls’, this volume is concerned to show how mission activity, particularly that of European-based churches with close links to the expansion of Dutch/Calvinist influence, may have nurtured the local construction of race or ethnic difference in Indonesian and South African society. One well-known account of Christianity in South Africa shows how the interaction between mission and missionised produced a sharply dichotomised sense - experie...

  16. The efficiency and quality dilemma: What drives South African call centre management performance indicators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Banks

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Call centres have become principal channels of communication with customers. Therefore, companies attempt to reduce costs and improve the quality of their interactions with customers simultaneously. These objectives are often conflicting and call centre managers struggle to balance the efficiency and quality priorities of the business.Research purpose: This study explored the key performance indicators that drive management practices in the South African call centre industry in the context of the dilemma between efficiency and quality.Motivation for the study: The South African government has identified call centres as a method of creating jobs and foreign investment. Management practices affect centres’ performance. Understanding these practices will help to achieve these aims.Research design: The researchers used a web-based questionnaire in a survey with South African call centre managers in more than 44 different organisations that represented nine industry sectors.Main findings: This study indicated that the dilemma between efficiency and quality is prevalent in South African call centres and that efficiency key performance indicators drive management practices.Practical/managerial implications: The inconsistencies the study reported mean that South African organisations should assess the alignment between their organisational visions, the strategic intentions of their call centres and the performance measures they use to assess their call centre managers.Contribution/value-add: This study adds to the relatively small amount of empirical research available on the call centre industry in South Africa. It contributes to the industry’s attempt to position itself favourably for local and international outsourcing opportunities.

  17. Challenging the ‘Four Corner Press’ as framework for invitational leadership in South African schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Niemann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Invitational leadership (IL is consistent with current leadership trends and, because South African schools are in need of sound leadership, it is necessary to have a framework that can guide principals to act in accordance with the expectations of their educators.Research purpose: This study challenges the internationally accepted ‘Four Corner Press’ of Purkey and Novak (1984 as a framework for IL in the South African school context.Motivation for the study: IL appears to be a comprehensive model for successful school leadership. This necessitated an investigation to determine whether the ‘Four Corner Press’ reflects the expectations of teachers and, if so, whether it could serve as a valuable leadership tool.Research design, approach and method: A questionnaire containing 31 Likert-scale items, underpinned by the principles of IL, was disseminated to 600 educators conveniently drawn from the population of 88 828 teachers in Free State and Eastern Cape schools.Main findings: The data obtained from the survey enabled the researchers to perform a factor analysis, which revealed that South African educators’ expectations of leadership aligned with the ‘Four Corner Press’.Managerial implications: The ‘Four Corner Press’ can be used as a plausible framework for IL in South African schools, which has implications for the development and training of principals.Contribution/value-add: The ‘Four Corner Press’ can be regarded as a reliable prototype of IL expectations within the South African context, which contributes to extending the body of knowledge of education leadership in South Africa.

  18. Disaster management and humanitarian logistics – A South African perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wilna L. Bean; Nadia M. Viljoen; Ittmann, Hans W.; Elza Kekana

    2011-01-01

    Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This pa...

  19. South Africa in African an in the International System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in terms of values and norms. This paper focuses on South Africa as member of the BRICS. It is the newest member of the BRICS, accepted December 2010, and is dwarfed by the other BRICS countries both in terms of size of its population and its economy to an extent that it can be questioned why it has been...... accepted into the BRICS. This paper will argue that the explanation has to be found at the political level, where South Africa claims to be representing Africa in BRICS. The paper examines South Africa’s role in Africa and scrutinises to what extent South Africa has got the backing of the Sub...

  20. Race and Assessment Practice in South Africa: Understanding Black Academic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawitz, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Despite efforts to transform the racialised system of higher education in South Africa inherited from apartheid, there has been little research published that interrogates the relationship between race and the experience of academic staff within the South African higher education environment. Drawing on critical discourse analysis and critical…

  1. Ninth national conference of the South African Section of the PRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the papers of the ninth national conference of the South African Section of the Plastics and Rubber Institute held at Johannesburg on the 22nd and 23rd October 1987. The papers cover the different applications of polymers and two seminars particularly discuss the chemical radiation effects on polymers

  2. Limitation of Rights : A Study of the European Convention and the South African Bill of Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schyff, G.

    2005-01-01

    The dissertation compares the limitation of rights in the European Convention and the South African Bill of Rights. It explores the stages to be followed in the limitation of rights and explains the interpretative approach to be adopted at each stage.

  3. Chemometric investigation of the volatile content of young South African wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Villiers, de A.; Crouch, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The content of major volatiles of 334 wines of six different cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinotage, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and vintage 2005 was used to investigate the aroma content of young South African wines. Wines were sourced from six different regions and various pro

  4. Popular Literacy and the Resources of Print Culture: The South African Committee for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimbur, John

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how the South African Committee for Higher Education used the resources of print culture to design forms of writing and delivery systems that provided students and post-literate adults in the anti-apartheid struggle of the 1980s with the means to recognize and represent themselves as rhetorical agents, for whom reading and…

  5. Educational Change in Post-Conflict Contexts: Reflections on the South African Experience 20 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on South African experience, this paper develops an analytical framework using the work of Henri Lefebvre and Nancy Fraser to understand why socially just arrangements may be so difficult to achieve in post-conflict reconstruction. The paper uses Lefebvre's analytic to trace three sets of entangled practices…

  6. Substance Abuse, Suicidality, and Self-Esteem in South African Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Associations among six different domains of self-esteem (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image, and global self-worth) and risk behaviors related to substance use and suicidality were investigated in a sample of South African adolescents. Students enrolled in Grades 8 and 11 at independent secondary schools in Cape Town (N = 116)…

  7. Comparing Three South African Student Cohorts on Their Attitudes to the Rights of Working Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Cynthia Joan

    2016-01-01

    This study compares three cohorts (1998-1999, 2005-2006 and 2010) of undergraduate psychology students at a South African university on the level of support for working women (women in paid employment) on various issues considered to be feminist. Cohort 1 (n?=?244), cohort 2 (n?=?311) and cohort 3 (n?=?266) completed an adapted version of a…

  8. Using a Film to Challenge Heteronormativity: South African Teachers "Get Real" in Working with LGB Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    The author explains how the film "Get Real" enabled him to explore, with a group of South African student teachers, the complex ways in which queer adolescents negotiate their daily lives, the struggles they have with "coming out" to their friends and families, the problems with representation, and the connections between hegemonic masculinity,…

  9. Using Collaborative Learning Exercises to Transfer Pervasive Skills: Some South African Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss-Keevy, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The Competency Framework, introduced by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA) details technical competencies, but also places emphasis on the pervasive skills that need to be attained by candidates for them to qualify as chartered accountants (CAs). Thus, an additional onus has been placed on academics to ensure that they…

  10. South African Educators' Mutually Inclusive Mandates to Promote Human Rights and Positive Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Susan; Mienie, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    South African educators are mandated by international and national law to observe and promote human rights. However, given the realities of the limited teaching time available, educators cannot fulfill this obligation solely by teaching the curriculum. Another avenue needs to be found for educators to fulfill this obligation. Educators are also…

  11. Education, Language, and Identity amongst Students at a South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Jean; Crouch, Alison

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of language and cultural identity of mother-tongue Zulu students at an English-medium South African university. The data consist of focus group interviews, questionnaires, and student opinions in essays. Findings include a strong identification of the participants with the Zulu language and Zulu culture, and a view…

  12. FET College Lecturers: The "Devolving" Link in the South African Skills Development Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoojee, Salim

    2008-01-01

    National attention on the role of skills development has focused on the role of Further Education and Training (FET) colleges in providing intermediate-level education and training necessary to meet the South African national development challenge. In particular, attention has been focused on reorganisation and rationalisation of college…

  13. Judgments of Widely Held Beliefs about Psychological Phenomena among South African Postgraduate Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, A.; Harper, M.; Spies, G.

    2008-01-01

    Lay understandings of human cognition, affect, and behaviour often diverge from the findings of scientific investigations. The present study examined South African fourth year psychology students' judgments about the factual correctness of statements of psychological phenomena that have been demonstrated to be incorrect by empirical research.…

  14. Detection of east/central/south African genotype of chikungunya virus in Myanmar, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Mya Myat Ngwe; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Inoue, Shingo; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Kyaw, Aung Kyaw; Myint, Tin; Tar, Thi; Maung, Kay Thwe Thwe; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.

  15. Generating Social Capital at the Workplace: A South African Case of Inside-Out Social Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Ken; Onyx, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    A case study of a South African workplace illustrated how workplace learning and experience of team culture influenced changes in workers' family life and community participation. Results showed how social capital is generated from within for the benefit of civil society. (Contains 35 references.) (SK)

  16. South African Association of Physicists in Medicine and Biology: 26. annual congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twenty-sixth annual congress of the South African Association of Physicists in Medicine and Biology was held from 18-21 March 1986 in Pretoria. Papers delivered on the conference covered subjects like medical physics, radiotherapy, radiation protection, calibration of radiation monitors, radiation detectors, radiation doses and dosimetry

  17. Reproductive system of the giant squid Architeuthis in South African waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, HJT; Roeleveld, MAC; Lipinski, MR; Melo, Y

    2004-01-01

    The reproductive system is described from 15 giant squid Architeuthis sp., collected between 1972 and 2002 in South African waters. Distinctive features of the mate reproductive system are the long muscular terminal organ, with elaboration of the anterior end, and modification of the tips of the ven

  18. The preparation of a reference material of South African zirconium concentrate from Richards Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the preparation of a South African zirconium concentrate as an inernational reference material. The procedure for the selection of preferred values is outlined. Eleven laboratories contributed to the analytical programme, and 7 elements have been asssigned preferred values

  19. When ideals face reality: shaping the future of the South African Defence Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    In 2015 the South African Parliament finalised the long awaited new defence review. This document had been a long time in the making and was the result of more than four years of intensive work by the members of the Defence Review Committee. The recommendations envisage an extensive transformatio...

  20. Grasping the Nettle? South African Higher Education and Its Transformative Imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudien, C.

    2010-01-01

    The rationale for this article is that the actors in the South African higher education system, and particularly those with the responsibility for leading it, need to be clear about the arguments in the transformation debate and in particular about how these get at what is actually happening within it, and to be-consciously and self-critically…