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Sample records for black shales

  1. Phanerozoic black shales and the Wilson Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Trabucho-Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal distribution of black shales is related to the development of the environments in which they accumulate and to a propitious combination of environmental variables. Whereas much has been done in recent years to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the temporal distribution of black shales in the Phanerozoic, the interpretation of the palaeogeographical distribution of black shales is still dominated by an oversimplistic set of three uniformitarian depositional models that do not capture the complexity and dynamics of environments of black shale accumulation. These three models, the restricted circulation, the (open ocean oxygen minimum and the continental shelf models, are in fact a uniformitarian simplification of the variety of depositional environments that arise and coexist throughout the course of a basin's Wilson Cycle, i.e. the dynamic sequence of events and stages that characterise the evolution of an ocean basin, from the opening continental rift to the closing orogeny. We examine the spatial distribution of black shales in the context of the Wilson Cycle using examples from the Phanerozoic. It is shown that the geographical distribution of black shales, their position in the basin infill sequence and their nature (e.g. type of organic matter, lithology depend on basin evolution because the latter controls the development of sedimentary environments where black shales may be deposited.

  2. Phanerozoic black shales and the Wilson Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Hay, W.W.; Boer, P.L. de

    2011-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of black shales is related to the development of the environments in which they accumulate and to a propitious combination of environmental variables. Whereas much has been done in recent years to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the temporal d

  3. Phanerozoic environments of black shale deposition and the Wilson Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Trabucho-Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal distribution of black shales is related to the development of environments in which they accumulate and to a propitious combination of environmental variables. In recent years, much has been done to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the temporal distribution of black shales in the Phanerozoic and of the environmental variables that result in their deposition. However, the interpretation of ancient black shale depositional environments is dominated by an oversimplistic set of three depositional models that do not capture their complexity and dynamics. These three models, the restricted circulation, the (open ocean oxygen minimum and the continental shelf models, are an oversimplification of the variety of black shale depositional environments that arise and coexist throughout the course of a basin's Wilson Cycle, i.e. the dynamic sequence of events and stages that characterise the evolution of an ocean basin, from the opening continental rift to the closing orogeny. We examine the spatial distribution of black shales in the context of the Wilson Cycle using examples from the Phanerozoic. It is shown that the geographical distribution of environments of black shale deposition and the position of black shales in the basin infill sequence strongly depend on basin evolution, which controls the development of sedimentary environments where black shales may be deposited. The nature of the black shales that are deposited, i.e. lithology and type of organic matter, also depends on basin evolution and palaeogeography. We propose that in studies of black shales more attention should be given to the sedimentary processes that have led to their formation and to the interpretation of their sedimentary environments.

  4. Characterization and beneficiation of the Egyptian black shale for possible extraction of organic matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Rahiem F.H.; Hassan M.S.; Selim K.A.; Abdel-Khalek N.A

    2014-01-01

    The present paper focuses on obtaining concentrate enriched with organic matter that could be suitable for a retorting process from black shale; this is black shale from the Safaga area on the Red Sea Coast. X-ray diffraction and optical polarising microscope are used in evaluating black shale minerals. Attrition scrubbing and flotation were conducted for enrichment of organic matter in the black shale sample. Mineralogical studies revealed that black shale samples contain bituminous calcareous clay stone, quartz, apatite and pyrite. Rabah mine black shale contains 28% organic matter. The results of the different separation techniques indicate that attrition and flotation techniques successively enriched the organic matter in the black shale. The organic matter could be enriched in the black shale and obtained a concen-trate with 59%assaying and 85%recovery.

  5. The origin of Cretaceous black shales: a change in the surface ocean ecosystem and its triggers

    OpenAIRE

    Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Kuroda, Junichiro; TAIRA, Asahiko

    2015-01-01

    Black shale is dark-colored, organic-rich sediment, and there have been many episodes of black shale deposition over the history of the Earth. Black shales are source rocks for petroleum and natural gas, and thus are both geologically and economically important. Here, we review our recent progress in understanding of the surface ocean ecosystem during periods of carbonaceous sediment deposition, and the factors triggering black shale deposition. The stable nitrogen isotopic composition of geo...

  6. Mo isotopes in OAE 2 black shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Stephane; Vance, Derek; Cameron, Vyllinniskii; Archer, Corey; Robinson, Stuart A.

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary rocks, especially organic-rich deposits, have the potential to track change in the oxygenation state of the ocean over geological time. Oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) correspond to periods of profound and rapid environmental change, which have led to both the widespread deposition of black shales and the development of widespread anoxia in the ocean. Understanding the variations in redox conditions during these events is of primary importance, since recent observations and modelling have shown that processes invoked to explain the origin of OAEs are being observed today as a consequence of anthropogenic change. Here, we compare redox-sensitive trace metal (RSTM) distributions and molybdenum (Mo) isotope variations during a major Cretaceous OAE (OAE 2, Bonarelli event). Whereas RSTM have the potential to provide insights regarding local depositional conditions and processes in palaeoceanographic systems, Mo-isotope data can, under certain circumstances, provide quantitative estimates of how the global extent of seawater anoxia may have fluctuated in the past. We selected for study a series sections within the western Tethys (La Contessa and Furlo, Italy) and in the northern Atlantic (DSDP site 367, Cape Verde Basin and ODP site 1276, Newfoundland Basin. RSTM contents show similar trends through all the studied sections, characterized by low concentration below and above the OAE interval and higher concentrations within the Bonarelli interval. This suggests rapid variations in the redox conditions, from suboxic to euxinic conditions during OAE 2. The RSTM enrichment factors (EFs) indicate different depositional conditions and palaeoceanographic processes between the Tethys and the North Atlantic. Whereas the North Atlantic sites show evidence of weak watermass restriction associated with the action of a particulate shuttle within the water column, the EFs of the Tethyan sections are characteristic of unrestricted marine systems. Despite local differences in

  7. Arctic black shale formation during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenniger, Marc; Nøhr-Hansen, Henrik; Hills, Len V.;

    2014-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) represents a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle caused by the widespread deposition of organic-rich black shales. Although the paleoceanographic response and the spatial extent of bottom-water anoxia in low and mid-paleolatitudes are re......The Late Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) represents a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle caused by the widespread deposition of organic-rich black shales. Although the paleoceanographic response and the spatial extent of bottom-water anoxia in low and mid...... caused massive organic-carbon burial on the Arctic shelf in general, with important implications for hydrocarbon source-rock distribution in the Arctic region....

  8. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and bulk organic geochemistry of black shales from the Proterozoic Vindhyan Supergroup (central India)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Banerjee; S Dutta; S Paikaray; U Mann

    2006-02-01

    Four organic-rich shale units of the Proterozoic Vindhyan sedimentary succession have been scanned to reveal their origin and hydrocarbon potential.The wavy-crinkly nature of the carbonaceous laminae is suggestive of a microbial mat origin of the shales.These shales are thus different from Phanerozoic black shales which typically exhibit planar laminae.The hydrocarbon potential of the black shale units has been evaluated by Rock-Eval pyrolysis.Total organic carbon content of many of the shales exceeds 1%.The mean _max for the black shales translate to a vitrinite re flectance range of 2.05 –2.40%Rm based on standard conversion techniques.These shales have reached the catagenetic stage near the beginning of anthracite formation.

  9. Factors controlling the compositional variations among the marine and non-marine black shales from Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baioumy, Hassan M. [Central Metallurgical R and D Institute, PO Box 87 Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Ismael, Ismael S. [Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2010-07-01

    Non-marine (Jurassic) and marine (Cretaceous) black shales from Egypt were subjected to mineralogical and geochemical analyses to examine the controlling factors of their compositional variations. Non-marine black shales are composed of kaolinite and quartz with traces of gypsum, illite, calcite, feldspars, and dolomite, while marine black shales from the Red Sea area are composed of smectite, kaolinite, quartz, calcite, and dolomite with traces of feldspars. Abu Tartur marine black shales are composed of smectite and quartz with traces of feldspars and gypsum. Non-marine black shales show considerably higher Nb, Ta, Hf, and Zr contents and Th/Yb ratios compared to the marine black shales. On the other hand, marine black shales show considerably higher Cr, V, and Zn contents with positive correlations between these elements and organic carbon (C{sub org.}){sub .} Red Sea black shales have higher Ni/Co, V/Cr, and U/Al ratios. Chondrite normalized values of the medium and heavy rare earth elements (MREEs and HREEs, respectively) are higher in the non-marine black shales compared to the marine black shales. Pyrite from non-marine black shales is characterized by high positive {delta}{sup 34}S isotope values (average of + 9.3 permille). Pyrite from Red Sea black shales has low negative {delta}{sup 34}S values (average of -16.7 permille), pyrite from black shales of the lower member of the Duwi Formation has positive {delta}{sup 34}S values (average of 5.8 permille), while pyrite from marine black shales of the middle member has negative {delta}{sup 34}S values (average of -0.83 permille). Source area composition, weathering conditions, depositional environments, and type of organic matter are considered to be the probable controlling factors of these variations. The more felsic constituents in the source area of non-marine black shales is responsible for the relatively high Nb, Ta, Hf, and Zr contents and Th/Yb ratio. Relatively high kaolinite contents and Chemical

  10. Mesozoic black shales, source mixing and carbon isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suan, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, considerable attention has been devoted to the paleoenvironmental and biogeochemical significance of Mesozoic black shales. Black shale-bearing successions indeed often display marked changes in the organic carbon isotope composition (δ13Corg), which have been commonly interpreted as evidence for dramatic perturbations of global carbon budgets and CO2 levels. Arguably the majority of these studies have discarded some more "local" explanations when interpreting δ13Corg profiles, most often because comparable profiles occur on geographically large and distant areas. Based on newly acquired data and selected examples from the literature, I will show that the changing contribution of organic components with distinct δ13C signatures exerts a major but overlooked influence of Mesozoic δ13Corg profiles. Such a bias occurs across a wide spectrum of sedimentological settings and ages, as shown by the good correlation between δ13Corg values and proxies of kerogen proportions (such as rock-eval, biomarker, palynofacies and palynological data) recorded in Mesozoic marginal to deep marine successions of Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous age. In most of these successions, labile, 12C-enriched amorphous organic matter of marine origin dominates strata deposited under anoxic conditions, while oxidation-resistant, 13C-rich terrestrial particles dominate strata deposited under well-oxygenated conditions. This influence is further illustrated by weathering profiles of Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) black shales from France, where weathered areas dominated by refractory organic matter show dramatic 13C-enrichment (and decreased total organic carbon and pyrite contents) compared to non-weathered portions of the same horizon. The implications of these results for chemostratigraphic correlations and pCO2 reconstructions of Mesozoic will be discussed, as well as strategies to overcome this major bias.

  11. Characterization and separation of pyrite from Abu Tartur black shale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim S.S.; El Kammar A.M.; Guda A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed for pyrite separation from Abu Tartur black shale as a source of sulfur to be an added economic value of Abu Tartur area. The considered samples in the present work were collected from a core drilled in Abu Tartur plateau representing the pyrite-rich black shale of the U. Cretaceous age. Sample characterization was carried out using petrographic microscope, XRD, DTA/DTG, C/S and XRF techniques. Clay minerals, silt-sized quartz, calcite, and hematite were the main minerals associating pyr-ite (5.34%). Liberation behavior of the sample was about 80%below 5 lm. Sample processing was achieved through one-day soaking followed by classification using 1 inch Mozley hydro-cyclone where about 35.5% by weight went to underflow and 64.5% went to overflow. The underflow product was subjected to an advanced gravity separation process using SB-40 Falcon Concentrator through a CCD statistical design prepared by Design-Expert 6.0 software proposed to opti-mize the separation process through a study for the effects of frequency (Hz) and water pressure (Psi) on both assay and recovery of the sulfur-rich heavy fraction. A heavy concentrate weighed 10.90%with inorganic sulfur content reached 11.37%(21.24%pyrite) with overall recovery (50.01%) was obtained after two cleaning at the optimum conditions.

  12. Borehole petrophysical chemostratigraphy of Pennsylvanian black shales in the Kansas subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doveton, J.H.; Merriam, D.F.

    2004-01-01

    Pennsylvanian black shales in Kansas have been studied on outcrop for decades as the core unit of the classic Midcontinent cyclothem. These shales appear to be highstand condensed sections in the sequence stratigraphic paradigm. Nuclear log suites provide several petrophysical measurements of rock chemistry that are a useful data source for chemostratigraphic studies of Pennsylvanian black shales in the subsurface. Spectral gamma-ray logs partition natural radioactivity between contributions by U, Th, and K sources. Elevated U contents in black shales can be related to reducing depositional environments, whereas the K and Th contents are indicators of clay-mineral abundance and composition. The photoelectric factor log measurement is a direct function of aggregate atomic number and so is affected by clay-mineral volume, clay-mineral iron content, and other black shale compositional elements. Neutron porosity curves are primarily a response to hydrogen content. Although good quality logs are available for many black shales, borehole washout features invalidate readings from the nuclear contact devices, whereas black shales thinner than tool resolution will be averaged with adjacent beds. Statistical analysis of nuclear log data between black shales in successive cyclothems allows systematic patterns of their chemical and petrophysical properties to be discriminated in both space and time. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulfide-driven arsenic mobilization from arsenopyrite and black shale pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Young, L.Y.; Yee, N.; Serfes, M.; Rhine, E.D.; Reinfelder, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that sulfide drives arsenic mobilization from pyritic black shale by a sulfide-arsenide exchange and oxidation reaction in which sulfide replaces arsenic in arsenopyrite forming pyrite, and arsenide (As-1) is concurrently oxidized to soluble arsenite (As+3). This hypothesis was tested in a series of sulfide-arsenide exchange experiments with arsenopyrite (FeAsS), homogenized black shale from the Newark Basin (Lockatong formation), and pyrite isolated from Newark Basin black shale incubated under oxic (21% O2), hypoxic (2% O2, 98% N2), and anoxic (5% H2, 95% N2) conditions. The oxidation state of arsenic in Newark Basin black shale pyrite was determined using X-ray absorption-near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). Incubation results show that sulfide (1 mM initial concentration) increases arsenic mobilization to the dissolved phase from all three solids under oxic and hypoxic, but not anoxic conditions. Indeed under oxic and hypoxic conditions, the presence of sulfide resulted in the mobilization in 48 h of 13-16 times more arsenic from arsenopyrite and 6-11 times more arsenic from isolated black shale pyrite than in sulfide-free controls. XANES results show that arsenic in Newark Basin black shale pyrite has the same oxidation state as that in FeAsS (-1) and thus extend the sulfide-arsenide exchange mechanism of arsenic mobilization to sedimentary rock, black shale pyrite. Biologically active incubations of whole black shale and its resident microorganisms under sulfate reducing conditions resulted in sevenfold higher mobilization of soluble arsenic than sterile controls. Taken together, our results indicate that sulfide-driven arsenic mobilization would be most important under conditions of redox disequilibrium, such as when sulfate-reducing bacteria release sulfide into oxic groundwater, and that microbial sulfide production is expected to enhance arsenic mobilization in sedimentary rock aquifers with major pyrite-bearing, black

  14. Weathering characteristics of the Lower Paleozoic black shale in northwestern Guizhou Province, south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jinchuan; Tang, Xuan; Yang, Chao; Tang, Shuai

    2016-07-01

    The northwestern Guizhou in the Yangtze Craton of south China has a tremendous potential of shale gas resource. In this paper, we present results from major and trace elements, total organic carbon, mineralogical composition analysis and petrophysical parameters to characterise shale weathering features. Further, the differences of black shale between underground and outcrops have also been presented to examine the changes of black shale after weathering. Our results show that the trace elements of shale have varying degrees of loss in the weathering leaching process, both in Niutitang shale and Longmaxi shale, the loss of B, V, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba is obvious, but the element migration quantity in the former is greater than in the latter. Decomposition of minerals such as pyrite, feldspar and calcite result in the leaching of Na, Ca, Mg and Fe. The loss rate of total organic carbon (TOC) in black shales ranges from 18% to 70% with an average of 43%; moreover, the loss of organic carbon in samples with high TOC content is larger than in those samples with low TOC content. Results following the testing of porosity and permeability show that porosity increases significantly after weathering but permeability changes little. Furthermore, the increment of porosity is greater in the Niutitang shale (with more sulphide minerals) than in the Longmaxi shale, suggesting that the oxidation of sulphide minerals may have led to the formation of an acidic environment, causing the other minerals in the black shale to weather more quickly, thus resulting in increased porosity. The content of clay minerals in the core samples is slightly lesser than the outcrop samples, but the TOC content in the core samples is greater and has a larger specific surface area. This suggest that the TOC content played a decisive role on the specific surface area of shale. In addition, changes in the black shale caused by the weathering process mainly depend on the mineral composition and the TOC content

  15. Weathering characteristics of the Lower Paleozoic black shale in northwestern Guizhou Province, south China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yang Liu; Jinchuan Zhang; Xuan Tang; Chao Yang; Shuai Tang

    2016-07-01

    The northwestern Guizhou in the Yangtze Craton of south China has a tremendous potential of shale gas resource. In this paper, we present results from major and trace elements, total organic carbon, mineralogical composition analysis and petrophysical parameters to characterise shale weathering features. Further, the differences of black shale between underground and outcrops have also been presented to examine the changes of black shale after weathering. Our results show that the trace elements of shale have varying degrees of loss in the weathering leaching process, both in Niutitang shale and Longmaxi shale, the loss of B, V, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba is obvious, but the element migration quantity in the formeris greater than in the latter. Decomposition of minerals such as pyrite, feldspar and calcite result in the leaching of Na, Ca, Mg and Fe. The loss rate of total organic carbon (TOC) in black shales ranges from 18% to 70% with an average of 43%; moreover, the loss of organic carbon in samples with high TOC contentis larger than in those samples with low TOC content. Results following the testing of porosity and permeability show that porosity increases significantly after weathering but permeability changes little. Furthermore, the increment of porosity is greater in the Niutitang shale (with more sulphide minerals) than in the Longmaxi shale, suggesting that the oxidation of sulphide minerals may have led to the formationof an acidic environment, causing the other minerals in the black shale to weather more quickly, thus resulting in increased porosity. The content of clay minerals in the core samples is slightly lesser than the outcrop samples, but the TOC content in the core samples is greater and has a larger specific surface area. This suggest that the TOC content played a decisive role on the specific surface area of shale. In addition, changes in the black shale caused by the weathering process mainly depend on the mineral composition and the TOC content in

  16. Uraniferous Black Shale and Related Uranium Mineralization Features in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Black shales are marine sediments with argillaceous, silty and siliceous compositions and high contents of organic materials, disseminated pyrite and uranium. Uraniferous black shale has uranium content of more than 20 ppm. Black shales are widely distributed in 17 provinces or autonomous regions in northwestern and southern-central China. Their sedimentary ages are from the Sinian to the Tertiary and uraniferous black shales are mainly exposed in Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang provinces and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and the economically significant uranium deposits associated with black shale occur in Hunan and Jiangxi provinces and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.Uranium mineralization associated with black shale has the following main features: (1) forming stratabound deposits; (2) controlled by structures such as interlayer and intersected faults and fractures; (3) associated with different ore-forming processes such as leaching and hydrothermal reworking; (4) occurring in five periods, namely 120- 110 Ma, 84- 74 Ma, 75- 65 Ma, 48- 39 Ma and 30- 24 Ma.

  17. Research on the Eco-Geochemical Effects of Black Shales in Pingli County, Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方维萱; 兀鹏武; 黄转莹

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of eco-geochemical research on black rock series en riched in metallic elements in Pingli County, Shaanxi Province, which lies at the northern mar gin of the Yangtze Platform. There is a suite of bone coal-bearing black carbonaceous rocks in the Cambrian Donghe Formation throughout the region. Soils in Pingli contain high metallic el ements derived from the bone coal and carbonaceous rocks. Edible plants growing in the soils contain high Se, Cu and Mo. Two case studies are documented. One is a black shale area with bone coal and Se enrichment, and the other is a black shale area with bone coal mine and cop per mineralization. Eco-geochemical effects of metallic element-rich black shales on plants are reported in this paper.

  18. Experimental investigation of gas storage properties of black shales

    OpenAIRE

    Gašparík, Matúš

    2013-01-01

    In exploration for shale gas, reliable estimations of Gas-In-Place (GIP) and portion of technically recoverable resource pose a challenging task. Improvement of our understanding of gas stogare capacity of carbonaceous shales and its evolution during geological history requires carefully designed experiments to obtain reliable experimental data. Moreover, the experimental conditions have to cover a range representative of the in-situ reservoir conditions. This thesis, which was conducted duri...

  19. Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky with an atlas of some common fossils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, L.S.; Ettensohn, F.R.

    1981-04-01

    The Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence of eastern North America is a distinctive stratigraphic interval generally characterized by low clastic influx, high organic production in the water column, anaerobic bottom conditions, and the relative absence of fossil evidence for biologic activity. The laminated black shales which constitute most of the black-shale sequence are broken by two major sequences of interbedded greenish-gray, clayey shales which contain bioturbation and pyritized micromorph invertebrates. The black shales contain abundant evidence of life from upper parts of the water column such as fish fossils, conodonts, algae and other phytoplankton; however, there is a lack of evidence of benthic life. The rare brachiopods, crinoids, and molluscs that occur in the black shales were probably epiplanktic. A significant physical distinction between the environment in which the black sediments were deposited and that in which the greenish-gray sediments were deposited was the level of dissolved oxygen. The laminated black shales point to anaerobic conditions and the bioturbated greenish-gray shales suggest dysaerobic to marginally aerobic-dysaerobic conditions. A paleoenvironmental model in which quasi-estuarine circulation compliments and enhances the effect of a stratified water column can account for both depletion of dissolved oxygen in the bottom environments and the absence of oxygen replenishment during black-shale deposition. Periods of abundant clastic influx from fluvial environments to the east probably account for the abundance of clays in the greenish-gray shale as well as the small amounts of oxygen necessary to support the depauparate, opportunistic, benthic faunas found there. These pulses of greenish-gray clastics were short-lived and eventually were replaced by anaerobic conditions and low rates of clastic sedimentation which characterized most of black-shale deposition.

  20. Organic carbon isotopes of the Sinian and Early Cambrian black shales on Yangtze Platform, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李任伟; 卢家烂; 张淑坤; 雷加锦

    1999-01-01

    Organic matter of the Sinian and early Cambrian black shales on the Yangtze Platform belongs to the light carbon group of isotopes with the δ13C values from - 27 % to -35 % , which are lower than those of the contemporaneously deposited carbonates and phosphorites. A carbon isotope-stratified paleooceanographic model caused by upwelling is proposed, which can be used not only to interpret the characteristics of organic carbon isotopic compositions of the black shales, but also to interpret the paleogeographic difference in the organic carbon isotope compositions of various types of sedimentary rocks.

  1. Mobility of rhenium, platinum group elements and organic carbon during black shale weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Lillie A.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Petsch, Steven T.

    2002-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of black shale weathering on the Re-Os isotope system, platinum group element concentrations and the degradation of organic matter. Samples from a weathering profile in Late Devonian (˜365 Myr) Ohio Shale show a pronounced decrease (˜77%) in organic carbon (C org) near the present soil surface, relative to the interior portion of the outcrop. A similar trend is observed for total N (˜67% loss). Conversely, organic phosphorus (P org) concentrations increase by ˜59% near the soil surface. The decrease in C org is accompanied by a pronounced decrease in Re (˜99%) and, to a lesser extent, Os (˜39%). Palladium and Pt do not appear to be significantly mobile. The effects of Re and Os mobility on the Re-Os isotope system are significant: none of the samples plots on a 365 Myr isochron. Rather, the samples define a trend with a slope corresponding to an age of ˜18 Myr with an initial 187Os/ 188Os of ˜6.1. This indicates recent disturbance of the Re-Os system. Isotope mass balance calculations imply that the labile fraction of Os is significantly more radiogenic ( 187Os/ 188Os of ˜7.8) than the average of the unweathered samples ( 187Os/ 188Os of ˜6.4). Based on data from this study, the molar ratio of labile Re to C org in Ohio Shale is estimated at 7×10 -8. We estimate the present-day riverine, black shale-derived Re flux to seawater using literature data on Re burial in anoxic marine sediments, and assuming steady-state between Re release during black shale weathering and Re burial in anoxic marine sediments. Then, the labile Re/C org observed in this study implies that ˜0.5 Tmol of C org is released annually from weathering of black shales, a trace lithology in the continental crust. This flux corresponds to ˜12% of the estimated annual CO 2 flux from oxidative weathering of sedimentary rocks. The labile molar Re/Os of ˜270 indicates that black shale weathering releases ˜130 mol Os per year, which accounts for ˜7% of

  2. Plankton from Early Cambrian black shale series on the Yangtze Platform, and its influences on lithologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas BRAUN; CHEN Junyuan

    2003-01-01

    Black shales, cherts, and associated lithologies in the Early Cambrian of the Yangtze Platform yielded abundant phytoplankton, the earliest well preserved skeletons of zooplankton (radiolarians) and abundant phosphatic ovoid bodies, probably representing fecal pellets, produced by Mesozooplankton grazing on phytoplankton. The oceanic food chain in surface waters is therefore considered to be more complete than known up to now with respect to primary and secondary consumers in the Early Cambrian plankton ecosystem. On the basis of primary sedimentary compositions preserved in phosphorite concretions and chert layers it is shown that biosiliceous sedimentation mixed with organic substance played a significant role within the black shale sequence of the Hetang and Niutitang formations. The resulting lithology corresponds closely in character to the bituminous Alum-shale and Lydite-sequences of Lower Silurian (Llandoverian) age along northern Gondwana (e.g. Thuringia, Bohemia).

  3. Paleoceangraphic significance of redox-sensitive metals of black shales in the basal Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in Guizhou Province,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jinghong; JIANG Shaoyong; LING Hongfei; FENG Hongzhen; CHEN Yongquan; CHEN Jianhua

    2004-01-01

    Black shales of the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation occur widely on the Yangtze Platform. In this study, we analyzed black shales from two sections (Zhongnan and Zhijin) in Guizhou Province. The redox-sensitive metal concentration and distribution of black shales from the two sections provide good evidence for the anoxic conditions of the basal Cambrian ocean on the Yangtze Platform. Our geochemical data suggest that the black shales from the Zhongnan section may have deposited in a more strongly anoxic environment than the black shales in the Zhijin section.

  4. Subsurface geology of the upper Devonian-lower Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippi black-shale sequence is an important source of natural gas in eastern Kentucky and with technological advances may be an important source of synthetic oil and uranium on the flanks of the Cincinnati arch. To enhance the understanding and development of these resources in the black-shale sequence, eight isopach maps, eight structure-contour maps and nine isopach maps of highly radioactive black shale were constructed. Structural features including the Rome trough, Rockcastle River uplift, Pine Mountain thrust fault, Kentucky River and Paint Creek fault zones and unnamed basinal areas in Greenup, Pike, and Knott counties were identified on the maps. Faults bounding the Rome trough and other structures were active intermittently throughout Late Devonian time. Other structures show only post-Devonian activity, whereas some show both Devonian and post-Devonian activity. Comparison of structure-contour and isopach maps allow the differentiation of syn- and post-sedimentray structural activity relative to the black-shale sequence. A north-south trending hinge line separates a broad platform area from an area of rapid eastward thickening into the Appalachian basin. Units 7 through 1 progressively onlap the Cincinnati arch; units 4 through 1 cover the arch

  5. Black shale studies in Kentucky. Annual report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, W.H. (comp.)

    1978-01-01

    Black shale studies have focussed on their geochemistry, stratigraphy, and subsurface characterization, and on the compilation of an archive of cored material. Technical progress made in these areas are reported. In addition, two Master's theses prepared under the stratigraphic study project and one under the geochemical study project are included and are abstracted and indexed separately. (JSR)

  6. Pb-Pb isotope dating of black shales from the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation, Guizhou Province, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yongquan; JIANG Shaoyong; LING Hongfei; FENG Hongzhen; YANG Jinghong; CHEN Jianhua

    2003-01-01

    The Lower Cambrian black shales of the Niutitang Formation and their lateral equivalents occur widely on the Yangtze Platform, South China. In this study, we examine two sections of the Niutitang Formation in Guizhou Province. We employ a stepwise acid-leaching technique to obtain Pb-isotope compositions of the black shales. At the Zhongnan section, the black shales display large Pb isotope variations, with 206Pb/204Pb of 20.5396~33.5709, and 207Pb/204Pb of 15.8407~16.5782. In contrast, Pb isotope data show a relatively limited range in 206Pb/204Pb (18.2797~18.5972) and 207Pb/204Pb (15.6813~15.7159) at the Zhijin section. Data for all acid-leached black shale samples from the two sections yield a Pb-Pb isochron age of 531±24 Ma. This age may represent the sedimentary age of the black shales. The initial Pb-isotope composition of the black shales falls near the upper-crust evolution curve in a Zartman Pb-Pb evolution diagram. Hence, it is likely that the Pb in the black shales may have been derived from an upper continental crustal source.

  7. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  8. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  9. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  10. Scattered organic matter of ancient black shale masses and technique for studying it. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, I.B.; Bogdanova, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of carbon petrographic and carbon chemical investigation of the insoluble part of scattered organic matter with the use of isotope, thermal, x-ray structural analyses and scanning electron microscopy are employed to show the biogenic primary-sedimentary origin of the carboniferous substance. Its degree of transformation is studied. For the first time descriptions are made of the residue of algae in the polished lump section in the schungite-bearing rocks of Kareliya and shales of the Kola Peninsula. The degree of metamorphic transformattion of organic matter of black shales is defined according to the scale developed for humus coal.

  11. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-04-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf

  12. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-10-29

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of

  13. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-01-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of

  14. Black shale deposition during Toarcian super-greenhouse driven by sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hermoso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most elusive aspects of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE is the paradox between carbon isotopes that indicate intense global primary productivity and organic carbon burial at a global scale, and the delayed expression of anoxia in Europe. During the earliest Toarcian, no black shales were deposited in the European epicontinental seaways, and most organic carbon enrichment of the sediments postdated the T-OAE (defined by the overarching positive trend in the carbon isotopes. In the present studied, we have attempted to establish a sequence stratigraphy framework for Early Toarcian deposits recovered from a core drilled in the Paris Basin using a combination of mineralogical (quartz and clay relative abundance and geochemical (Si, Zr, Ti and Al measurements. Combined with the evolution in redox sensitive elements (Fe, V and Mo, the data suggest that expression of anoxia was hampered in European epicontinental seas during most of the T-OAE due to insufficient water depth that prevented stratification of the water column. Only the first stratigraphic occurrence of black shales in Europe corresponds to the "global" event. This interval is characterised by > 10% Total Organic Carbon (TOC content that contains relatively low concentration of molybdenum compared to subsequent black shale horizons. Additionally, this first black shale occurrence is coeval with the record of the major negative Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE, likely corresponding to a period of transient greenhouse intensification likely due to massive injection of carbon into the Atmosphere–Ocean system. As a response to enhanced weathering and riverine run-off, increased fresh water supply to the basin may have promoted the development of full anoxic conditions through haline stratification of the water column. In contrast, post T-OAE black shales were restricted to epicontinental seas (higher Mo to TOC ratios during a period of relative high sea level, and carbon

  15. Traveltime tomography as part of an integrated geophysical investigation of black shales on Bornholm, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Wilke, M.; Bauer, K.; Stiller, M.

    2011-12-01

    In October 2010 measurements using different geophysical methods were carried out on the Danish island Bornholm. They are part of a mainly seismic investigation and characterization of black shales. Black shales are sedimentary rocks with a high content of organic carbon, which leads to a dark grayish to black color. Because of their potential to contain oil or gas, black shales are of great interest for the support of the worldwide energy supply. Our general objective is to determine basic seismic properties (P-wave velocity, P/S-wave velocity ratio, attenuation) in an exposed quasi in-situ situation and to relate the results to core and downhole logging data describing reservoir properties. The results will later be used to study the relationship between reservoir properties and seismic reflection attributes. The experiments were carried out at two locations around new drill sites. Three different methods were used: geoelectrical measurements, ambient noise recordings and seismic measurements. In this context we will only concentrate on the presentation of the latter one for one location. At this location, two about 700 m long seismic profiles were measured. It is known from a drilling campaign that the top of the black shale is in about 8 m depth. First, a 1D P-wave velocity model was determined by ray tracing. This model was used as an input for a tomographic inversion to obtain a 2D velocity model. We will show first results of the traveltime tomography for both profiles. A vertical velocity profile through the final model is compared to borehole information.

  16. Metal concentrations and carbonaceous matter in the black shale type rocks of the Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilova, T. G.; Shevchuk, S. S.; Isayenko, S. I.

    2016-07-01

    Here, the results of examination of black shale type rocks from the Urals for noble metal mineralization are presented for the first time: they have been obtained using atomic-absorption spectrometry along with data of a complex analysis of a carbon mineralization applying a complex of high-resolution techniques. The data acquired demonstrate anomalously high Au concentrations in all the rocks examined. The carbon matter occurs in a wide range of phase states, including nanocrystalline graphite, carbon nanofiber, nanoglobules, diamond-like carbon, and bitumens. The black shale type rocks were found to be promising for further studies in order to seek industrially valuable objects including in areas of the northern part of the Urals.

  17. The nature of carbon material in the black shale rock mass of Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon material is closely tied to ores of various origin lying in the carbon (black shale) rock masses of Kazakhastan. The nature of the carbon material in several gold fields is closely examined. Shungite, its paragenesis with ore materials and its role in the carbon and ore material processes, is described. The accumulation of shungite in zones determined to consist of ores, is looked at in terms of prospecting criteria.

  18. Burial Records of Reactive Iron in Cretaceous Black Shales and Oceanic Red Beds from Southern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yongjian; WANG Chengshan; HU Xiumian; CHEN Xi

    2007-01-01

    One of the new directions in the field of Cretaceous research is to elucidate the mechanism of the sedimentary transition from the Cretaceous black shales to oceanic red beds. A chemical sequential extraction method was applied to these two types of rocks from southern Tibet to investigate the burial records of reactive iron. Results indicate that carbonate-associated iron and pyrite are relatively enriched in the black shales, but depleted or absent in red beds. The main feature of the reactive iron in the red beds is relative enrichment of iron oxides (largely hematite), which occurred during syn-depostion or early diagenesis. The ratio between iron oxides and the total iron indicates an oxygen-enriched environment for red bed deposition. A comparison between the reactive iron burial records and proxies of paleo-productivity suggests that paleo-productivity decreases when the ratio between iron oxides and the total iron increases in the red beds. This phenomenon could imply that the relationship between marine redox and productivity might be one of the reasons for the sedimentary transition from Cretaceous black shale to oceanic red bed deposition.

  19. Biohydrometallurgy applied to exploitation of black shale resources: Overview of Bioshale FP6 European project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.D'HUGUES; P.SPOLAORE; Bioshale Consortium

    2008-01-01

    Bioshale project,co-funded by the European Commission (FP6 programme),started in October 2004 and finished in October 2007.The main objective of this project was to define innovative biotechnological processes for "eco-efficient" exploitation of black shale ores.The black shale ores contain base,precious and high-tech metals but also high contents of organic matter that handicap metal recovery by conventional techniques.Three world class black shale deposits were chosen as targets of the R&D actions.These include one deposit that existed under natural conditions (Talvivaara,Finland),one currently in process (Lubin,Poland) and one after mining (Mansfeld,Germany).The main technical aspects of the work plan can be summarized as follows:evaluation of the geological resources and selection of metal-bearing components; selection of biological consortia to be tested for metal recovery; assessment of bioprocessing routes,including hydrometallurgical processing for metals recovery; techno-economic evaluation of new processes including social and environmental impacts.An overview of the main results obtained by the 13 European partners (from 8 countries) involved in this completed research programme is given in this work.

  20. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian black shales at the northern margin of the Variscan mountain belt (Germany and Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rippen, D.; Uffmann, A.K.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR)

    2013-08-01

    Ongoing exploration on unconventional gas resources in Central Europe led to a focus of interest on Paleozoic black shale formations. The work presented here comprises diverse assessment-critical data of potentially economic black shale formations of the Carboniferous, including mineralogy, geochemical data, petrophysical data and geological parameters such as burial and thermal history. The sampled and investigated Paleozoic black shales are highly mature to overmature in terms of oil generation, although some gas generation potential remains. Especially the shales of the uppermost Mississippian (Upper Alum Shale/Chokier Formation) have high contents of organic carbon, are tens of meters thick and reached the gas window. Adjacent carbonates are often stained black and rich in solid bitumen, indicating a former oil impregnation of these reservoirs. Furthermore, the geochemical and petrophysical properties of the Upper Alum Shale and Chokier Formation black shales are similar to those of already producing shale gas plays like the Barnett shale in the USA. These shale sequences are enriched in silica, needed for enhanced fraccability performance at production stage. Although all hydrocarbon potential for the Mississippian shales is exhausted, a high retention potential of thermally generated gas is favored by thick overlying sequences of greywackes and shales in most of the investigated areas. Based on these observations, the Upper Alum Shale and the Chokier formation can be regarded as potential gas shale targets. Any exploration will have to take place north of the outcrop areas, because present-day Mississippian strata are completely eroded south of the studied outcrops. Most other Mississippian and Pennsylvanian black shales are relatively thin and are therefore not considered as primary targets for shale gas plays. (orig.)

  1. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-07-28

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the

  2. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th) in Timahdit's black shale (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attention has been recently focused on the use of Moroccan's black shale as the raw material for production of a new type of adsorbents. The purpose of the present work was to characterize a black shale specimen, collected in the region of Timahdit, in terms of the total uranium and thorium contents, measurements of some geochemically important elements (Al, Fe, Si, K, Mn, P, Ca), and XRD/SEM analysis. Selective leaching procedure, followed by radiochemical purification and alpha-counting, was also performed to assess the distribution of 238U, 234U, 235U, 232Th, 228Th, 230Th in the main structures. It was found that calcite, dolomite, quartz, clays constitute the main bulk composition of inorganic matrix. Organic matter counts for at least 15 wt. % of the sample. As in most other organic rich rocks, uranium is highly enriched in the black shale. It was interpreted to have been concentrated over a long period of time under anaerobic environment. This actinide is associated predominantly with humic acids, the precursor of kerogen. An integrated isotopic approach points out its mobilization from these humic acids to carbonates and apatite phases. The radionuclide that is the less mobile in this environment is 232Th, as was expected from its chemical properties, and in agreement with the most common view in the literature. It is partitioned between silicate minerals (49%), pyrite and kerogen (51%). Speciation, chemical behaviour of uranium and thorium and alpha decay related processes are widely responsible for disequilibria in the uranium decay series. (author)

  3. Evolution of Early Paleoproterozoic Ocean Chemistry as Recorded by Black Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.; Bekker, A.; Lyons, T. W.; Planavsky, N. J.; Wing, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, Precambrian biogeochemists have focused largely on the abundance, speciation and isotopic composition of major and trace elements preserved in organic carbon-rich black shales in order to track the co-evolution of ocean chemistry and life on Earth. Despite the fact that the period from 2.5 to 2.0 Ga hosted major events in Earth’s history, such as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), an era of global glaciations, a massive and long-lived carbon isotope excursion and the end to banded iron formation (BIF) deposition, each with the potential to directly alter global biogeochemical cycles, it is perhaps best known for its unknowns. In order to help close this gap in our understanding of the evolution of Precambrian ocean chemistry we present a detailed biogeochemical study of Paleoproterozoic black shales deposited between 2.5 and 2.0 Ga. Our study integrates Fe speciation, trace metal chemistry and C, S and N isotope analyses to provide a thorough characterization of marine biogeochemical cycles as they responded to the GOE and set the stage for the demise of BIFs at ca. 1.8 Ga. Our data reveal an ocean that was both surprising similar to, and demonstrably different from, Archean and later Proterozoic oceans. Of particular interest, we find that ferruginous and euxinic conditions co-existed during this period and that sea water trace metal inventories fluctuated dramatically in conjunction with major carbon isotope excursions. By comparing our Paleoproterozoic contribution with recent biogeochemical studies of other Precambrian black shales we can begin to track first order changes in ocean chemistry without the major time gaps that have plagued previous attempts.

  4. Multi-Site Evidence for Marine Nitrogen Fixation in Mid-Cretaceous Black Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, J.; Meyers, P. A.; Bernasconi, S.

    2004-12-01

    High concentrations of organic carbon in Cretaceous black shales imply levels of sustained export production of organic matter that are unknown in the modern ocean where marine productivity is usually limited by availability of dissolved nitrate. However, if a mid-water anoxic zone expands upward into the photic zone, then nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria can flourish. These organisms produce organic matter having an isotopic composition close to atmospheric nitrogen (0 per mil). We have compared the carbon and nitrogen isotopic and total organic carbon compositions of Albian to Santonian black shale sequences from the Demerara Rise in the equatorial Atlantic, the Kerguelan Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean, the Hatteras Rise in the western North Atlantic Ocean, the Angola Basin in the eastern South Atlantic Ocean, and the Cape Verde Rise in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean . Nitrogen isotope compositions that become lighter as organic carbon concentrations increase indicate that organic matter production was enhanced by a consortium of primary producers that included nitrogen-fixers. Expansion of an intensified oxygen minimum zone into the photic zone probably permitted coexistence of algae and of cyanobacteria, the latter functioning best under low-oxygen conditions and not being limited by nitrate availability. Improved preservation of the exported organic matter in an intensified near-surface oxygen minimum zone is implied by C/N ratios that increase to 40 as organic carbon concentrations increase. Periods of wetter climate evidently created periods of increased surface stratification of Cretaceous oceans that led to enhanced cyanobacterial primary productivity, magnified organic matter export, and deposition of the organic-carbon-rich black shales. Our multi-site comparison suggests that climate-related gradients in the degree of surface stratification led to associated gradients in export production of organic matter.

  5. Effect of thermal maturity on remobilization of molybdenum in black shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardakani, Omid H.; Chappaz, Anthony; Sanei, Hamed; Mayer, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in sedimentary records have been widely used as a method to assess paleo-redox conditions prevailing in the ancient oceans. However, the potential effects of post-depositional processes, such as thermal maturity and burial diagenesis, on Mo concentrations in organic-rich shales have not been addressed, compromising its use as a redox proxy. This study investigates the distribution and speciation of Mo at various thermal maturities in the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale from southern Quebec, Canada. Samples display maturities ranging from the peak oil window (VRo ∼ 1%) to the dry gas zone (VRo ∼ 2%). While our data show a significant correlation between total organic carbon (TOC) and Mo (R2 = 0.40, n = 28, P samples from intervals with elevated Mo contents (>30 ppm). Our results show the presence of two Mo species: molybdenite Mo(IV)S2 (39 ± 5%) and Mo(VI)-Organic Matter (61 ± 5%). This new evidence suggests that at higher thermal maturities, TSR causes sulfate reduction coupled with oxidation of organic matter (OM). This process is associated with H2S generation and pyrite formation and recrystallization. This in turn leads to the remobilization of Mo and co-precipitation of molybdenite with TSR-derived carbonates in the porous intervals. This could lead to alteration of the initial sedimentary signature of Mo in the affected intervals, hence challenging its use as a paleo-redox proxy in overmature black shales.

  6. Freshwater discharge controlled deposition of Cenomanian-Turonian black shales on the NW European epicontinental shelf (Wunstorf, northern Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helmond, N. A. G. M.; Sluijs, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Reichart, G.-J.; Voigt, S.; Erbacher, J.; Pross, J.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2015-03-01

    Global warming, changes in the hydrological cycle and enhanced marine primary productivity all have been invoked as having contributed to the occurrence of widespread ocean anoxia during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event (OAE2; ~94 Ma), but disentangling these factors on a regional scale has remained problematic. In an attempt to separate these forcing factors, we generated palynological and organic geochemical records using a core spanning the OAE2 from Wunstorf, Lower Saxony Basin (LSB; northern Germany), which exhibits cyclic black shale-marl alternations related to the orbital precession cycle. Despite the widely varying depositional conditions complicating the interpretation of the obtained records, TEX86H indicates that sea-surface temperature (SST) evolution in the LSB during OAE2 resembles that of previously studied sites throughout the proto-North Atlantic. Cooling during the so-called Plenus Cold Event interrupted black shale deposition during the early stages of OAE2. However, TEX86 does not vary significantly across black shale-marl alternations, suggesting that temperature variations did not force the formation of the cyclic black shale horizons. Relative (i.e., with respect to marine palynomorphs) and absolute abundances of pollen and spores are elevated during phases of black shale deposition, indicative of enhanced precipitation and run-off. High abundances of cysts from inferred heterotrophic and euryhaline dinoflagellates supports high run-off, which likely introduced additional nutrients to the epicontinental shelf resulting in elevated marine primary productivity. We conclude that orbitally forced enhanced precipitation and run-off, in tandem with elevated marine primary productivity, were critical in cyclic black shale formation on the northern European epicontinental shelf and potentially for other OAE2 sections in the proto-Atlantic and Western Interior Seaway at similar latitudes as well.

  7. Freshwater discharge controlled deposition of Cenomanian-Turonian black shales on the NW European epicontinental shelf (Wunstorf, North Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helmond, N. A. G. M.; Sluijs, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Reichart, G.-J.; Voigt, S.; Erbacher, J.; Pross, J.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2014-09-01

    Global warming, changes in the hydrological cycle and enhanced marine primary productivity all have been invoked to have contributed to the occurrence of widespread ocean anoxia during the Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE2; ~ 94 Ma), but disentangling these factors on a regional scale has remained problematic. We generated palynological and organic geochemical records that allow the separation of these forcing factors in a core spanning the OAE2 from Wunstorf, Lower Saxony Basin (LSB; North Gemany), which exhibits cyclic black shale-marl alternations related to the orbital precession cycle. Despite the widely varying depositional conditions complicating the interpretation of the obtained records, TEX86H indicates that sea-surface temperature (SST) evolution in the LSB during OAE2 resembles that of previously studied sites throughout the proto-North Atlantic. Cooling during the so-called Plenus Cold Event interrupted black shale deposition during the early stages of OAE2. However, TEX86 does not vary significantly across marl-black shale alternations, suggesting that temperature variations did not force the formation of the cyclic black shale horizons. Relative (i.e., with respect to marine palynomorphs) and absolute abundances of pollen and spores are elevated during phases of black shale deposition, indicative of enhanced precipitation and run-off. High abundances of cysts from inferred heterotrophic and euryhaline dinoflagellates supports high run-off, which likely introduced additional nutrients to the epicontinental shelf resulting in elevated marine primary productivity. We conclude that orbitally-forced enhanced precipitation and run-off, in tandem with elevated marine primary productivity, were critical in cyclic black shale formation on the northwest European epicontinental shelf and potentially for other OAE2 sections in the proto-Atlantic and Western Interior Seaway at similar latitudes as well.

  8. Migration and Enrichment of Arsenic in the Rock-Soil-Crop Plant System in Areas Covered with Black Shale, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Min Yi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Okchon black shale, which is part of the Guryongsan Formation or the Changri Formation of Cambro-Ordovician age in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched with potentially toxic elements such as U, V, Mo, As, Se, Cd, and Zn. In this study, the Dukpyung and the Chubu areas were selected to investigate the migration and enrichment of As and other toxic elements in soils and crop plants in areas covered with black shale. Rock and soil samples digested in 4-acid solution (HCl+HNO3+HF+HClO4 were analyzed for As and other heavy metals by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, and plant samples by INAA. Mean concentration of As in Okchon black shale is higher than those of both world average values of shale and black shale. Especially high concentration of 23.2 mg As kg-1 is found in black shale from the Dukpyung area. Mean concentration of As is highly elevated in agricultural soils from the Dukpyung (28.2 mg kg-1 and the Chubu areas (32.6 mg kg-1. As is highly elevated in rice leaves from the Dukpyung (1.14 mg kg-1 and the Chubu areas (1.35 mg kg-1. The biological absorption coefficient (BAC of As in plant species decreases in the order of rice leaves > corn leaves > red pepper = soybean leaves = sesame leaves > corn stalks > corn grains. This indicates that leafy plants tend to accumulate As from soil to a greater degree than cereal products such as grains.

  9. Characteristics of sulfur species and their implications in Lower Cambrian black shales from southern margin of Yangtze Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There are different sulfur forms in the black shales from theEarly Cambrian of the Yangtze platform. With its emphasis on pyrite and organosulfur, this paper discusses their distribution and formation. The research shows that sulfur phases take regular variations laterally as well as vertically in the research areas. In western researched profile with high terrigenous supply at the time it formed, there exists a larger amount of pyrite and less organosulfur, and pyrite amount declines while organosulfur content increases upwards along the profile. This black shale profile is characterized by relatively light sulfur isotope composition with evolution trend of becoming heavier both for pyrite and organosulfur from bottom to top along the profile. Opposite situation occurs in eastern profiles which were located farther away from terrigenous land. Here pyrite amount obviously decreases and organic matter has combined more sulfur, although these two kinds of sulfur species take similar trend in content variation along profiles to that for western profile. At the same time more 34S is accumulated in sulfur species of black shale samples from eastern profile, and sulfur isotope composition gradually turns lighter from bottom to top. In combination with other information of iron, organic carbon contents and petrographic features, it can be established that sea-level change, supply of terrigenous matters, tectonic background and natures of paleoceanic chemistry have exerted great influence on the distribution of sulfur species in these black shales.

  10. Remagnetization of lower Silurian black shale and insights into shale gas in the Sichuan Basin, south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dong; Yin, Hongwei; Liu, Mancang; Xie, Wuren; Wei, Guoqi; Li, Yongxiang

    2016-02-01

    The organic-rich lower Silurian shale of the Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin is the most important target for shale-gas exploration in China. Most Paleozoic rocks of the Sichuan Basin have experienced extraordinarily pervasive remagnetizations. To test a hypothesized connection between hydrocarbon generation and remagnetization and contribute to shale-gas exploration in the region, we undertook an integrated magnetic, geochemical, and petrographic study of 160 specimens from the shale. The results suggest that the shale contains a reliable remanent magnetization (Dec = 41.4°, Inc = 40.8°, and α95 = 6.8°). The magnetization predates tilting, and the paleopole plots close to the Late Triassic segment of the south China apparent polar wander path. The rock magnetic data and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations confirm that framboidal magnetites carry the bulk of the magnetization, which suggest a Late Triassic chemical remanent magnetization in the shale. 87Sr/86Sr and magnetic analyses indicate that the amount of magnetite was unaffected by fluid alterations around the veins but is strongly covariant with the amount of total organic matter. Moreover, SEM observations reveal possible evidence of the replacement of pyrite framboids by magnetite, probably in the presence of organic acids. These analyses, therefore, suggest that the remagnetization was caused by organic maturation rather than orogenic fluids and that the maturation occurred in the Late Triassic. This timing of organic maturation has been validated by independent modeling studies and provides important constraints on the complex thermal history of the Longmaxi Shale as well as contributing to shale-gas exploration efforts.

  11. Effect of thermal maturity on remobilization of molybdenum in black shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardakani, Omid H.; Chappaz, Anthony; Sanei, Hamed; Mayer, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in sedimentary records have been widely used as a method to assess paleo-redox conditions prevailing in the ancient oceans. However, the potential effects of post-depositional processes, such as thermal maturity and burial diagenesis, on Mo concentrations in organic-rich shales have not been addressed, compromising its use as a redox proxy. This study investigates the distribution and speciation of Mo at various thermal maturities in the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale from southern Quebec, Canada. Samples display maturities ranging from the peak oil window (VRo ∼ 1%) to the dry gas zone (VRo ∼ 2%). While our data show a significant correlation between total organic carbon (TOC) and Mo (R2 = 0.40, n = 28, P X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (XAFS) was used to determine Mo speciation in samples from intervals with elevated Mo contents (>30 ppm). Our results show the presence of two Mo species: molybdenite Mo(IV)S2 (39 ± 5%) and Mo(VI)-Organic Matter (61 ± 5%). This new evidence suggests that at higher thermal maturities, TSR causes sulfate reduction coupled with oxidation of organic matter (OM). This process is associated with H2S generation and pyrite formation and recrystallization. This in turn leads to the remobilization of Mo and co-precipitation of molybdenite with TSR-derived carbonates in the porous intervals. This could lead to alteration of the initial sedimentary signature of Mo in the affected intervals, hence challenging its use as a paleo-redox proxy in overmature black shales.

  12. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-04-26

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  13. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-08-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  14. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-07-29

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  15. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-28

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  16. Centimetre-scale variability of redox-sensitive elements in Tremadocian black shales from the eastern Baltic Palaeobasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutt Hints

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The high-resolution study of vertical geochemical variability of shallow-water Tremadocian black shales of the Türisalu Formation targeted two drill core sections from Suur-Pakri Island, NW Estonia. Altogether 374 samples from 4.6 m thick shale were analysed by XRF. The metalliferous and organic-rich black shales revealed significant centimetre-scale variation in the concentration of redox-sensitive trace metals – U, Mo and V. The V profiles show cyclic variations in half a metre- to metre-scale and the strongest correlation with loss on ignition (LOI 500 °C (interpreted to reflect organic matter abundance. The abundance of Mo presents high values near the lower and upper contacts of black shale and otherwise moderate covariance with LOI. The distribution of U is not coupled with LOI, being characterized by irregular local enrichment anomalies in the profiles of both sections. This suggests that sequestration of U may have been time-dependent and possibly favoured by dissimilatory U-reduction at the sediment–water interface under iron-reducing conditions. Significant depositional variability of the studied organic-rich muds apparently supported dynamic physicochemical and biological microenvironments at the sediment–water interface and thus temporally and spatially diversified the paths and efficiency of synsedimentary redox-sensitive trace element enrichment.

  17. Trace-element and multi-isotope geochemistry of Late-Archean black shales in the Carajas iron-ore district, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabral, A. R.; Creaser, R. A.; Naegler, T.;

    2013-01-01

    The 250-300-m-thick Carajas Formation in the Carajas mineral province, northern Brazil, consists of banded iron formation (including giant high-grade iron-ore deposits) and minor black shale, overlying a thick pile (2-3 km) of about 2.75-Ga-old metabasalt. Carbonaceous shale with pyrite-and locally...

  18. Thermal maturity and petroleum kitchen areas of Liassic Black Shales (Lower Jurassic) in the central Upper Rhine Graben, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Johannes; Littke, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    In the central Upper Rhine Graben (URG), several major oil fields have been sourced by Liassic Black Shales. In particular, the Posidonia Shale (Lias ɛ, Lower Toarcian) acts as excellent and most prominent source rock in the central URG. This study is the first comprehensive synthesis of Liassic maturity data in the URG area and SW Germany. The thermal maturity of the Liassic Black Shales has been analysed by vitrinite reflectance (VRr) measurements, which have been verified with T max and spore coloration index (SCI) data. In outcrops and shallow wells (<600 m), the Liassic Black Shales reached maturities equivalent to the very early or early oil window (ca. 0.50-0.60 % VRr). This maturity is found in Liassic outcrops and shallow wells in the entire URG area and surrounding Swabian Jura Mountains. Maximum temperatures of the Posidonia Shale before graben formation are in the order of 80-90 °C. These values were likely reached during Late Cretaceous times due to significant Upper Jurassic and minor Cretaceous deposition and influenced by higher heat flows of the beginning rift event at about 70 Ma. In this regard, the consistent regional maturity data (VRr, T max, SCI) of 0.5-0.6 % VRr for the Posidonia Shale close to surface suggest a major burial-controlled maturation before graben formation. These consistent maturity data for Liassic outcrops and shallow wells imply no significant oil generation and expulsion from the Posidonia Shale before formation of the URG. A detailed VRr map has been created using VRr values of 31 wells and outcrops with a structure map of the Posidonia Shale as reference map for a depth-dependent gridding operation. Highest maturity levels occur in the area of the Rastatt Trough (ca. 1.5 % VRr) and along the graben axis with partly very high VRr gradients (e.g. well Scheibenhardt 2). In these deep graben areas, the maximum temperatures which were reached during upper Oligocene to Miocene times greatly exceed those during the Cretaceous.

  19. Re-Os age and depositional environment for black shales from the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary, Green Point, western Newfoundland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Gyana Ranjan; Hannah, Judith L.; Stein, Holly J.; Yang, Gang

    2014-04-01

    and isotopic signatures for black shales serve as potential proxies for reconstruction of paleoenvironmental conditions. Here we bring Rock-Eval, major and trace element and Re-Os isotopic data together to examine the environmental record at the Cambrian-Ordovician Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) at Green Point in western Newfoundland, Canada. The Green Point shales are oil mature and contain Type II organic material of marine origin. A Re-Os isochron for the shales provides the first radiometric age for shale deposition at the GSSP at 484 ± 16 Ma, with an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.74 ± 0.05 (Model 3 age; MSWD = 21; n = 13; 2σ uncertainties). Factor analysis of the geochemical data set shows association of most trace elements with total organic carbon (TOC) and S contents, ensuring an authigenic origin for most elements and hence, their validity for evaluating the paleo-redox state. Relatively high-enrichment factors for redox-sensitive elements (e.g., Re, U, and Mo) compared to average shale, but comparatively low enrichment compared to modern Black Sea sediments, suggest deposition in anoxic, but not euxinic waters. Comparison of Lower Ordovician shale geochemistry data sets at a global scale leads us to suggest that anoxic conditions and warm oceanic regimes were restricted to the margins of Laurentia and Baltica, whereas depositional basins with colder waters (e.g., Avalonia and Gondwana) were less reducing. These outcomes underscore the important role of paleogeography in regulating oceanic conditions and marine life.

  20. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  1. Productivity of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) plantations on reclaimed oil-shale mining detritus and mineral soils in relation to rhizosphere conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present research was carried out in three black alder plantations in Estonia in 1998-2002. The above-ground productivity and the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus use in a plantation in reclaimed opencast oil-shale mining area at Sirgala were analyzed and compared with two plantations growing on fertile mineral soils. The results indicate that black alder is a very promising tree species for the recultivation of exhausted oil-shale opencast mines

  2. Black shale deposition, atmospheric CO2 drawdown, and cooling during the Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Ian; Lignum, John S.; GröCke, Darren R.; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Pearce, Martin A.

    2011-09-01

    Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2), spanning the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (CTB), represents one of the largest perturbations in the global carbon cycle in the last 100 Myr. The δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg, and δ18O chemostratigraphy of a black shale-bearing CTB succession in the Vocontian Basin of France is described and correlated at high resolution to the European CTB reference section at Eastbourne, England, and to successions in Germany, the equatorial and midlatitude proto-North Atlantic, and the U.S. Western Interior Seaway (WIS). Δ13C (offset between δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg) is shown to be a good pCO2 proxy that is consistent with pCO2 records obtained using biomarker δ13C data from Atlantic black shales and leaf stomata data from WIS sections. Boreal chalk δ18O records show sea surface temperature (SST) changes that closely follow the Δ13C pCO2 proxy and confirm TEX86 results from deep ocean sites. Rising pCO2 and SST during the Late Cenomanian is attributed to volcanic degassing; pCO2 and SST maxima occurred at the onset of black shale deposition, followed by falling pCO2 and cooling due to carbon sequestration by marine organic productivity and preservation, and increased silicate weathering. A marked pCO2 minimum (˜25% fall) occurred with a SST minimum (Plenus Cold Event) showing >4°C of cooling in ˜40 kyr. Renewed increases in pCO2, SST, and δ13C during latest Cenomanian black shale deposition suggest that a continuing volcanogenic CO2 flux overrode further drawdown effects. Maximum pCO2 and SST followed the end of OAE2, associated with a falling nutrient supply during the Early Turonian eustatic highstand.

  3. The geobiology of the extremely enriched polymetallic sulfides in the black shale of the lower Cambrian Niutitang formation, Southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jun; 徐俊

    2014-01-01

    The Precambrian-Cambrian transition is a period with enormous geological and biological changes. There is a wide distribution of black shale sequence in the Late Sinian and Early Cambrian strata along the passive southern margin of the Yangtze Platform in South China. The remarkable polymetallic sulfide extremely enriched ore layer is embedded at the bottom of the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation, but its genesis remains highly disputable. Known mechanisms can hardly explain the extreme enr...

  4. Re-Os dating of Mo-bearing black shale of the Laoyaling deposit, Tongling, Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Gang; CHEN Jiangfeng; DU Andao; QU Wenjun; YU Gang

    2004-01-01

    Laoyaling is a typical stratiform deposit in the Tongling district and the molybdenum orebody is hosted by black shale of the Dalong Formation of the Upper Permian system. Eight black shale samples from the Laoyaling Mo orebody were dated by Re-Os technique using ICP-MS,which give an isochron age of 234.2±7.3 Ma with an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 1.37±0.39. The apparent Re-Os age is a few million years younger than the depositional age of the Late Permian. The young isochron age may be caused by the later hydrothermal disturbance or mass fractionation during ICP-MS measurement. However, the obtained isochron age is close to the depositional age and far earlier than those of the Late Yanshanian intrusions. It suggests that the Mo ore of the Laoyaling deposit is sedimentary in origin and not related to the Late Yanshanian magmatism. Black shales of the Upper Permian are distributed widely in the Mid-Lower Yangtze region, our result is important for understanding the ore-forming processes in the region and broadens the exploration target.

  5. Geochemistry of black shale at the bottom of the Lower Cambrian in Tarim Basin and its significance for lithosphere evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于炳松; 陈建强; 李兴武; 林畅松

    2003-01-01

    The systematic analyses of trace elements, REEs and PGEs of black shale at the bottom of the Lower Cambrian in Tarim Basin have been made for the first time in this work. The basic geochemical features are that some trace elementshaving something to do with the deep-level fluids are highly enriched, including V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, As, Sr, Y, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb and U, and the Th/U and Th/Sc ratios decreased compared with those in the same kind of rocks in the crust, that the enriched degrees of LREEs are reduced, Eu and Ce depleted distinctly in the chondrite-normalized REE patterns, and that the contents of PGEs and Au are increased. These characteristics indicate that there were more mafic interior sources in the basin when the black shale was deposited. Generally, the interior sources show an extensional tectonic setting of lithosphere. It can be seen from the change of the characteristics of trace elements, REEs and PGEs along the black shale section that the quantity of interior source from inner earth isgradually increased upwards in the lower part of the section, reaches the peakvalue as shown by sample No. 4 (XCM7-1), and then decreased, which might indicate the episodic extension of lithosphere in the beginning of the Lower Cambrian.

  6. Intergrated study of the Devonian-age black shales in eastern Ohio. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.D.; Struble, R.A.; Carlton, R.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Honeycutt, F.M.; Kingsbury, R.H.; Knapp, N.F.; Majchszak, F.L.; Stith, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    This integrated study of the Devonian-age shales in eastern Ohio by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey is part of the Eastern Gas Shales Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The six areas of research included in the study are: (1) detailed stratigraphic mapping, (2) detailed structure mapping, (3) mineralogic and petrographic characterization, (4) geochemical characterization, (5) fracture trace and lineament analysis, and (6) a gas-show monitoring program. The data generated by the study provide a basis for assessing the most promising stratigraphic horizons for occurrences of natural gas within the Devonian shale sequence and the most favorable geographic areas of the state for natural gas exploration and should be useful in the planning and design of production-stimulation techniques. Four major radioactive units in the Devonian shale sequence are believed to be important source rocks and reservoir beds for natural gas. In order of potential for development as an unconventional gas resource, they are (1) lower and upper radioactive facies of the Huron Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, (2) upper Olentangy Shale (Rhinestreet facies equivalent), (3) Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, and (4) lower Olentangy Shale (Marcellus facies equivalent). These primary exploration targets are recommended on the basis of areal distribution, net thickness of radioactive shale, shows of natural gas, and drilling depth to the radioactive unit. Fracture trends indicate prospective areas for Devonian shale reservoirs. Good geological prospects in the Devonian shales should be located where the fracture trends coincide with thick sequences of organic-rich highly radioactive shale.

  7. Tracking Zn bioavailabilty through time: New insights from sulfidic black shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, N.; Scott, C.; Gill, B. C.; Bekker, A.; Lyons, T. W.

    2010-12-01

    Time-varying abundances of trace elements in the oceans have been argued to play a major role in shaping the path of eukaryotic evolution. The dissolved marine concentrations of many bio-essential trace metals are controlled by the redox-state of the ocean-atmosphere system. For example, chalcophillic elements may become bio-limiting on geological timescales under widespread sulfidic conditions. Zn-binding proteins are fundamental to a wide range of eukaryotic cellular processes, and their diversification was undoubtedly an essential part of eukaryotic evolution. Given the importance of Zn in eukaryotic cellular processes and the strong susceptibility of Zn, even among chalcophile elements, to concentration drawdown under sulfidic (euxinic) conditions, it has been suggested that Zn bioavailabilty may have been a key factor leading to the protracted diversification of eukaryotes. We will present Zn abundance data from modern through Archean sulfidic black shales and will demonstrate that these data can be used to track Zn availability in the oceans. In contrast to previous models, we suggest that Zn was more likely to be biolimiting during anoxic periods of the Phanerozoic than in the Precambrian. These results fit with the emerging view of widespread Fe-rich conditions throughout the Precambrian, which contrast with extensive euxinia that developed during Phanerozoic anoxic events. Our results challenge first-order assumptions of Zn limitation in the Proterozoic ocean inferred from assumed ocean redox conditions.

  8. Predicted bulk composition of petroleum generated by Lower Cretaceous Wealden black shales, Lower Saxony Basin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegs, Volker; Mahlstedt, Nicolaj; Bruns, Benjamin; Horsfield, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The Berriasian Wealden Shale provides the favourable situation of possessing immature to overmature source rock intervals due to differential subsidence within the Lower Saxony Basin. Hydrocarbon generation kinetics and petroleum physical properties have been investigated on four immature Wealden Shale samples situated in different depth intervals and following the PhaseKinetics approach of di Primio and Horsfield (AAPG Bull 90(7):1031-1058, 2006). Kinetic parameters and phase prediction were applied to a thermally calibrated 1D model of the geodynamic evolution at the location of an overmature well. The immature source rocks of all depth intervals comprise kerogen type I being derived from the lacustrine algae Botryococcus braunii. Bulk kinetics of the lower three depth intervals (sample 2-4) can be described by one single activation energy E a, typical for homogeneous, lacustrine organic matter (OM), whereas sample 1 from the uppermost interval shows a slightly broader E a distribution which hints to a more heterogeneous, less stable OM, but still of lacustrine origin. Predicted physical properties of the generated petroleum fluids are characteristic of variably waxy, black oil possessing GOR's below 100 Sm3/Sm3 and saturations pressures below 150 bar. Petroleum fluids from the more heterogeneous OM-containing sample 1 can always be described by slightly higher values. Based on the occurrence of paraffinic, free hydrocarbons in the uppermost horizon of the overmature well and gas/condensate in the lower 3 depth intervals, two scenarios have been discussed. From the first and least realistic scenario assuming no expulsion from the source rock, it can be deduced that phase separation in the course of uplift can only have occurred in the uppermost interval containing the slightly less stable OM but not in the lower intervals being composed of a more stable OM. Therefore and taking secondary cracking into account, all depth intervals should contain gas

  9. Bibliography of the paleontology and paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, L.S.; Ettensohn, F.R.

    1980-06-01

    The Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence is one of the most prominent and well-known stratigraphic horizons in the Paleozoic of the United States, yet the paleontology and its paleoecologic and paleoenvironmental implications are poorly known. This is in larger part related to the scarcity of fossils preserved in the shale - in terms of both diversity and abundance. Nonetheless, that biota which is preserved is well-known and much described, but there is little synthesis of this data. The first step in such a synthesis is the compilation of an inclusive bibliography such as this one. This bibliography contains 1193 entries covering all the major works dealing with Devonian-Mississippian black-shale paleontology and paleoecology in North America. Articles dealing with areas of peripheral interest, such as paleogeography, paleoclimatology, ocean circulation and chemistry, and modern analogues, are also cited. In the index, the various genera, taxonomic groups, and other general topics are cross-referenced to the cited articles. It is hoped that this compilation will aid in the synthesis of paleontologic and paleoecologic data toward a better understanding of these unique rocks and their role as a source of energy.

  10. A Detailed Record of Archean Biogochemical Cycles and Seawater Chemistry Preserved in Black Shales of the Abitibi Greenstone Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.; Planavsky, N. J.; Bates, S. M.; Wing, B. A.; Lyons, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    Geological and biological evolution are intimately linked within the Earth System through the medium of seawater. Thus, in order to track the co-evolution of Life and Earth during the Archean Eon we must determine how biogeochemical cycles responded to and initiated changes in the composition of Archean seawater. Among our best records of biogeochemical cycles and seawater chemistry are organic carbon-rich black shales. Here we present a detailed multi-proxy study of 2.7 Ga black shales from the Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada. Abitibi shales demonstrate extreme enrichments in total organic carbon (up to 15 wt. %) and total sulfur (up to 6 wt. %) reflecting vigorous biogeochemical cycling in the basin, likely driven by cyanobacteria. The speciation of reactive Fe minerals indicates that pyrite formed in a sulfidic water column (euxinia) and that dissolved Fe was the limiting reactant. The deposition of more than 50 m of euxinic black shales suggests that the Fe-rich conditions reflected by Archean BIF deposition were not necessarily ubiquitous. Biologically significant trace metals fall into two categories. Metals that can be delivered to seawater in large quantities from hydrothermal sources (e.g., Cu and Zn) are enriched in the shales, reflecting their relative abundance in seawater. Conversely, metals that are primarily delivered to the ocean during oxidative weathering of the continents (e. g., Mo and V) are largely absent from the shales, reflecting depleted seawater inventories. Thus, trace metal supply at 2.7 Ga was still dominated by geological processes. Biological forcing of trace metal inventories, through oxidative weathering of the continents, was not initiated until 2.5 Ga, when Mo enrichments are first observed in the Mt. McRae Shale, Hamersley Basin. Multiple sulfur isotope analysis (32S, 33S, 34S) of disseminated pyrite displays large mass independent fractionations (Δ33S up to 6 %) reflecting a sulfur cycle dominated by atmospheric processes

  11. Geochemical analysis of Lower Toarcian black shale from Mecsek Mountain, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobni, András; Rübsam, Wolfgang; Schwark, Lorenz; Kovács, János; Fekete, József

    2016-04-01

    section investigated. Variable, but mainly high HI values (100-700 mgHC/gTOC) allow attributing the OM to a type II kerogen. Results are in agreement with previous studies showing that the OM is mainly composed of liptinites, which point to algal and land plant-derived OM [2]. Moreover, variable contributions from marine and terrigenous sources are also attested by the ratio of isoprenoids (pristane and phytane) and the corresponding n-alkanes. Accumulation of OM occurred under mildly reducing, most likely anoxic, conditions as indicated by Pr/Phy ratios of about 1.5 and mainly low HHI values <0.1 [3]. It can be thus anticipated that OM preservation was favoured by low oxygen levels in bottom waters and high sediment accumulation rates, resulting in an efficient OM burial. Therefore, OM accumulation at the western margin of the Tethyan Ocean was controlled by processes differing from those in the epicontinental basin of the Western Tetyhan shelf. A high surface productivity at the slope of the shelf might have been stimulated by the upwelling of nutrient-rich bottom waters and might further promoted the formation of an expanded oxygen minimum zone. [1] McArthur, J. M., Algeo, T.J., van de Schootbrugge, B., Li, Q., Howarth, R.J., 2008. Basinal restriction, black shales, Re-Os dating, and the Early Toarcian (Jurassic) oceanic anoxic event. Paleoceanography 23, PA4217, doi: 10.1029/2008PA001607. [2] Varga, A., Raucsik, B., Hámorné Vidó, M., Rostási, Á., 2007. Isotope geochemistry and characterization of hydrocarbon potential of black shale from Óbánya Siltstone Formation. Földtani Közlöny 137, 449-472. [3] Peters, K.E., Walters, C.C., Moldowan, J.M., 2005. The Biomarker Guide: Volume 2, Biomarkers and Isotopes in Petroleum Systems and Earth History. Cambridge University Press, 1132 pp.

  12. REE geochemical characteristics and depositional environment of the black shale-hosted Baiguoyuan Ag-V deposit in Xingshan, Hubei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Boyong; HU Bin; BAO Zhengyu; ZHANG Zhaogan

    2011-01-01

    By means of techniques such as inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), REE geochemical characteristics and depositional environment of the black shales in Baiguoyuan Ag-V deposit, Xingshan, Hubei Province, were studied in this work. The black shales in a typical TC5 profile of Doushantuo Formation of upper Sinian period were obviously enriched in REE, especially in LREE. The REE patterns of the investigated samples normalized by Post Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) showed a flat or slight rightward inclination. The characteristic elements, their ratio and correlation diagrams showed that it should be hot-water deposit and the black shale in the study area was of a sedimentary origin. Redox sensitive metal elements pattern, trace elements index measurement in anoxic environment, Ce anomaly and δEu negative anomaly showed that the deposit environment of the black shales was a reducing and anoxic one and a slight change of the sea level could be identified. The samples relatively focused on the superimposed area of sedimentary rock and basalt in the diagram of La/Yb-ΣREE and La/Yb-Ce/La. So there might be accession of hot-water sedimentation during the period of the formation of the black rock series, mostly in normal terrigenous sedimentation with the participation of deep hot-water deposit.

  13. Occurrence of Highly Mature Organic Matter in Marine Black Shale Petroleum Source Rocks of Basal Cambrian from Northern Tarim Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Bingsong (于炳松); Hailiang DONG; CHEN Jianqiang (陈建强); CHEN Xiaolin (陈晓林); LIANG Shiyou (梁世友)

    2004-01-01

    More and more evidence indicates that organic matter (OM) in immature organic-rich sediments and sedimentary rocks is chemically adsorbed onto the outer surfaces of minerals and into interlayer (inner) surfaces of smectitic clay minerals in the form of amorphous molecular-scale carbon. But there have been few reports about the occurrence of highly mature OM in marine black shales (petroleum source rocks). The occurrence of highly mature OM in the black shales of basal Cambrian from northern Tarim Basin is studied in this paper. Based on the comprehensive analyses of total organic carbon contents (TOC), maximum thermolysis temperatures (T max ) of OM, mineral surface areas (MSA), and scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) and transmission electronic microscopic (TEM) observations of the black shales, it is concluded that the highly mature OM in the marine black shales of the basal Cambrian from northern Tarim Basin occurs in particulates ranging in size from 1 to 5 μm in diameter. Through the contrast of the occurrence of the highly mature OM in the black shales with that of the immature ones in modern marine continental margin sediments, some scientific problems are proposed, which are worth to study further in detail.

  14. Depositional setting and geochemistry of phosphorites and metalliferous black shales in the Carboniferous-Permian Lisburne Group, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Slack, John F.; Whalen, Michael T.; Harris, Anita G.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatic rocks are distributed widely in the Lisburne Group, a mainly Carboniferous carbonate succession that occurs throughout northern Alaska. New sedimentologic, paleontologic, and geochemical data presented here constrain the geographic and stratigraphic extent of these strata and their depositional and paleogeographic settings. Our findings support models that propose very high oxygen contents of the Permo-Carboniferous atmosphere and oceans, and those that suggest enhanced phosphogenesis in iron-limited sediments; our data also have implications for Carboniferous paleogeography of the Arctic. Lisburne Group phosphorites range from granular to nodular, are interbedded with black shale and lime mudstone rich in radiolarians and sponge spicules, and accumulated primarily in suboxic outer- to middle-ramp environments. Age constraints from conodonts, foraminifers, and goniatite cephalopods indicate that most are middle Late Mississippian (early Chesterian; early late Visean). Phosphorites form 2- to 40-cm-thick beds of sand- to pebble-sized phosphatic peloids, coated grains, and (or) bioclasts cemented by carbonate, silica, or phosphate that occur through an interval =12 m thick. High gamma-ray response through this interval suggests strongly condensed facies related to sediment starvation and development of phosphatic hardgrounds. Phosphorite textures, such as unconformity-bounded coated grains, record multiple episodes of phosphogenesis and sedimentary reworking. Sharp bed bases and local grading indicate considerable redeposition of phosphatic material into deeper water by storms and (or) gravity flows. Lisburne Group phosphorites contain up to 37 weight percent P2O5, 7.6 weight percent F, 1,030 ppm Y, 517 ppm La, and 166 ppm U. Shale-normalized rare earth element (REE) plots show uniformly large negative Ce anomalies Ce/Ce*=0.11 + or - 0.03) that are interpreted to reflect phosphate deposition in seawater that was greatly depleted in Ce due to increased

  15. Effect of weathering on abundance and release of potentially toxic elements in soils developed on Lower Cambrian black shales, P. R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changxun; Peng, Bo; Peltola, Pasi; Tang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Shurong

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the geochemical features of 8 soil profiles developed on metalliferous black shales distributed in the central parts of the South China black shale horizon. The concentrations of 21 trace elements and 8 major elements were determined using ICP-MS and XRF, respectively, and weathering intensity (W) was calculated according to a new technique recently proposed in the literature. The data showed that the black shale soils inherited a heterogeneous geochemical character from their parent materials. A partial least square regression model and EF(bedrock) (enrichment factor normalized to underlying bedrock) indicated that W was not a major control in the redistribution of trace metals. Barium, Sn, Cu, V, and U tended to be leached in the upper soil horizons and trapped by Al and Fe oxides, whereas Sb, Cd, and Mo with negative EF values across the whole profiles may have been leached out during the first stage of pedogenesis (mainly weathering of black shale). Compared with the Chinese average soils, the soils were strongly enriched in the potentially toxic metals Mo, Cd, Sb, Sn, U, V, Cu, and Ba, among which the 5 first listed were enriched to the highest degrees. Elevated concentrations of these toxic metals can have a long-term negative effect on human health, in particular, the soils in mining areas dominated by strongly acidic conditions. As a whole, the black shale soils have much in common with acid sulfate soils. Therefore, black shale soils together with acid sulfate soils deserve more attention in the context of metal exposure and human health. PMID:21674160

  16. Effect of weathering on abundance and release of potentially toxic elements in soils developed on Lower Cambrian black shales, P. R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changxun; Peng, Bo; Peltola, Pasi; Tang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Shurong

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the geochemical features of 8 soil profiles developed on metalliferous black shales distributed in the central parts of the South China black shale horizon. The concentrations of 21 trace elements and 8 major elements were determined using ICP-MS and XRF, respectively, and weathering intensity (W) was calculated according to a new technique recently proposed in the literature. The data showed that the black shale soils inherited a heterogeneous geochemical character from their parent materials. A partial least square regression model and EF(bedrock) (enrichment factor normalized to underlying bedrock) indicated that W was not a major control in the redistribution of trace metals. Barium, Sn, Cu, V, and U tended to be leached in the upper soil horizons and trapped by Al and Fe oxides, whereas Sb, Cd, and Mo with negative EF values across the whole profiles may have been leached out during the first stage of pedogenesis (mainly weathering of black shale). Compared with the Chinese average soils, the soils were strongly enriched in the potentially toxic metals Mo, Cd, Sb, Sn, U, V, Cu, and Ba, among which the 5 first listed were enriched to the highest degrees. Elevated concentrations of these toxic metals can have a long-term negative effect on human health, in particular, the soils in mining areas dominated by strongly acidic conditions. As a whole, the black shale soils have much in common with acid sulfate soils. Therefore, black shale soils together with acid sulfate soils deserve more attention in the context of metal exposure and human health.

  17. Geochemical and γ ray characterization of Pennsylvanian black shales: Implications for elevated home radon levels in Vanderburgh County, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Kent W; Elliott, William S

    2015-10-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) is a radioactive gas that results from the decay of uranium ((238)U) in the Earth's crust. This study characterizes the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in the Pennsylvanian black shales of southwest Indiana. Cores were drilled on the campus of the University of Southern Indiana to a depth of 237.7 m (780 ft) during exploration for coal-bed methane. Gamma ray logs were taken to measure radioactive activity as a function of depth in the bore hole. Activity readings of 270, 467, 555, and 388 GAPI (American Petroleum Institute γ ray units) were measured at depths of 124.3 m (408 ft), 154.0 m (505 ft), 187.1 m (614 ft) and 214.0 m (702 ft) in four separate shale layers of the Pennsylvanian stratigraphic column. GAPI units are used in the petroleum industry when drilling to represent the relative intensities of γ radiation from (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U in bore holes (Belknap et al., 1959). For purposes of this study, the high activity readings on the gamma ray logs were used only to identify at which depths further gamma ray spectroscopy of the cores would be completed in the laboratory. Gamma ray spectroscopic studies of these cores were conducted with a large volume NaI crystal detector to observe γ rays of specific energies. Characteristic γ rays from various isotopes were identified confirming the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in core samples. Geochemical analysis of cores was also conducted to measure presence and quantity of trace metals and radon precursors. Of 744 homes tested in Vanderburgh County from 2007 to 2013, 169 homes (22.7 percent) had elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L(-1) (4.0 pCi L(-1)). Additionally, 246 homes (33.1 percent) had measured radon levels of 74-145 mBq L(-1) (2.0-3.9 pCi L(-1)). About 80 percent of elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L(-1) (4.0 pCi L(-1)) are located in proximity to depositional contacts between the Dugger and Shelburn formations, or the

  18. Recovery of Vanadium from H2SO4-HF Acidic Leaching Solution of Black Shale by Solvent Extraction and Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingbin Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of vanadium from sulfuric and hydrofluoric mixed acid solutions generated by the direct leaching of black shale was investigated using solvent extraction and precipitation methods. The process consisted of reduction, solvent extraction, and stripping, followed by precipitation and calcination to yield vanadium pentoxide. The influence of various operating parameters on the extraction and recovery of vanadium was studied. Vanadium (IV was selectively extracted using a mixture of 10% (v/v di(2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid and 5% (v/v tri-n-butylphosphate in sulfonated kerosene. Using six extraction and five stripping stages, the extraction efficiency for vanadium was 96.7% and the stripping efficiency was 99.7%. V2O5 with a purity of 99.52% was obtained by oxidation of the loaded strip solution and precipitation of ammonium polyvanadate at pH 1.8 to 2.2, followed by calcination of the dried precipitate at 550 °C for 2 h. It was concluded that the combination of solvent extraction and precipitation is an efficient method for the recovery of vanadium from a multi-element leach solution generated from black shale.

  19. A regional ocean circulation model for the mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic Basin: implications for black shale formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. M. Topper

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High concentrations of organic matter accumulated in marine sediments during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs in the Cretaceous. Model studies examining these events invariably make use of global ocean circulation models. In this study, a regional model for the North Atlantic Basin during OAE2 at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary has been developed. A first order check of the results has been performed by comparison with the results of a recent global Cenomanian CCSM3 run, from which boundary and initial conditions were obtained. The regional model is able to maintain tracer patterns and to produce velocity patterns similar to the global model. The sensitivity of the basin tracer and circulation patterns to changes in the geometry of the connections with the global ocean is examined with three experiments with different bathymetries near the sponges. Different geometries turn out to have little effect on tracer distribution, but do affect circulation and upwelling patterns. The regional model is also used to test the hypothesis that ocean circulation may have been behind the deposition of black shales during OAEs. Three scenarios are tested which are thought to represent pre-OAE, OAE and post-OAE situations. Model results confirm that Pacific intermediate inflow together with coastal upwelling could have enhanced primary production during OAE2. A low sea level in the pre-OAE scenario could have inhibited large scale black shale formation, as could have the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Seaway in the post-OAE scenario.

  20. Determination of factors responsible for the bioweathering of copper minerals from organic-rich copper-bearing Kupferschiefer black shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Agnieszka; Szymańska, Agata; Skłodowska, Aleksandra; Matlakowska, Renata

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bioweathering of copper minerals present in the alkaline, copper-bearing and organic-rich Kupferschiefer black shale through the action of a consortium of indigenous lithobiontic, heterotrophic, neutrophilic bacteria isolated from this sedimentary rock. The involvement of microorganisms in the direct/enzymatic bioweathering of fossil organic matter of the rock was confirmed. As a result of bacterial activity, a spectrum of various organic compounds such as urea and phosphoric acid tributyl ester were released from the rock. These compounds indirectly act on the copper minerals occurring in the rock and cause them to weather. This process was reflected in the mobilization of copper, iron and sulfur and in changes in the appearance of copper minerals observed under reflected light. The potential role of identified enzymes in biodegradation of fossil organic matter and role of organic compounds released from black shale as a result of this process in copper minerals weathering was discussed. The presented results provide a new insight into the role of chemical compounds released by bacteria during fossil organic matter bioweathering potentially important in the cycling of copper and iron deposited in the sedimentary rock. The originality of the described phenomenon lies in the fact that the bioweathering of fossil organic matter and, consequently, of copper minerals occur simultaneously in the same environment, without any additional sources of energy, electrons and carbon. PMID:26835647

  1. Tectonic and eustatic control on the distribution of black-shale source beds in the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations (Ordovician-Silurian),South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Wenbo; ZHAO Huijing; LI Zhiming; Ettensohn F.R.; Johnson M.E.; Huff W.D.; WANG Wei; MA Chao; LI Lu; ZHANG Lei

    2007-01-01

    It is known that high-quality,black-shale source rocks occur in the uppermost Ordovician Wufeng Formation and in the lowermost Silurian Longmaxi Formation in South China.Hence,it is important to understand their lithostratigraphy and the controls on their deposition.A review of lithostratigraphic criteria for subdividing the two adjacent formations provides new regional correlations between the formations and related stratigraphic successions and facies.Both the black shales and the related,overlying flysch deposits at the Ordovician-Silurian transition in South China appear to have migrated northwestward in time and space,reflecting probable flexural control in a foreland basin that developed in response to subduction-type orogeny southeast of the Yangtze block.The black shales also contain K-bentonites from explosive,felsic-intermediate volcanism,the distribution of which also supports orogeny to the southeast.Finally,the analysis of sequence stratigraphy,which shows that the initiation of transgressive system tracts (TST) and condensed section (CS) in the related third-order sequences coincided with the two black-shale horizons respectively,indicates that the main controlling factors for the deposition of the Ordovician-Silurian black shales in South China are (1)northwestwardly migrating,foreland-basin subsidence caused by deformational loading related to episodic accretion of the Cathaysia block to the Yangtze block during this period,and (2) the anoxic,sediment-starved water column caused by rapid rise of the sea-level during the two successive phases of third-order global sea-level rise near the Ordovician-Silurian transition in South China.In future exploration for hydrocarbon source rocks in the area,it is important to consider likely flexural and eustatic causes for subsiding,deep,anoxic seas in recognizing other source rock intervals,and our understanding of the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations may serve as models for future source rock exploration.

  2. Geochemical and γ ray characterization of Pennsylvanian black shales: Implications for elevated home radon levels in Vanderburgh County, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon (222Rn) is a radioactive gas that results from the decay of uranium (238U) in the Earth's crust. This study characterizes the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in the Pennsylvanian black shales of southwest Indiana. Cores were drilled on the campus of the University of Southern Indiana to a depth of 237.7 m (780 ft) during exploration for coal-bed methane. Gamma ray logs were taken to measure radioactive activity as a function of depth in the bore hole. Activity readings of 270, 467, 555, and 388 GAPI (American Petroleum Institute γ ray units) were measured at depths of 124.3 m (408 ft), 154.0 m (505 ft), 187.1 m (614 ft) and 214.0 m (702 ft) in four separate shale layers of the Pennsylvanian stratigraphic column. GAPI units are used in the petroleum industry when drilling to represent the relative intensities of γ radiation from 40K, 232Th, and 238U in bore holes (Belknap et al., 1959). For purposes of this study, the high activity readings on the gamma ray logs were used only to identify at which depths further gamma ray spectroscopy of the cores would be completed in the laboratory. Gamma ray spectroscopic studies of these cores were conducted with a large volume NaI crystal detector to observe γ rays of specific energies. Characteristic γ rays from various isotopes were identified confirming the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in core samples. Geochemical analysis of cores was also conducted to measure presence and quantity of trace metals and radon precursors. Of 744 homes tested in Vanderburgh County from 2007 to 2013, 169 homes (22.7 percent) had elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L−1 (4.0 pCi L−1). Additionally, 246 homes (33.1 percent) had measured radon levels of 74–145 mBq L−1 (2.0–3.9 pCi L−1). About 80 percent of elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L−1 (4.0 pCi L−1) are located in proximity to depositional contacts between the Dugger and Shelburn

  3. Analysis of mass dependent and mass independent selenium isotope variability in black shales

    OpenAIRE

    Pogge von Strandmann, PAE; Coath, CD; Catling, DC; Poulton, SW; Elliott, T

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of selenium isotope ratios is of increasing interest for understanding redox conditions in present and past surface environments. Se has six stable isotopes, and is therefore well suited for isotope analysis by double spiking. However due to relatively large interferences on every isotope, and complex chemical purification methods that frequently do not generate 100% yields, rigorously determining the accuracy of measurements is critical. Here we present analyses of USGS shale...

  4. Adaptation to deep-sea methane seeps from Cretaceous shallow-water black shale environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Wiese, Frank; Titus, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Sulfide-enriched environments in shallow water were considered as sites where animals acquire pre-adaptations enabling them to colonize deep-sea hydrothermal vents and seeps or where they survived extinction events in their deep-sea habitats. Here we present upper Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous) shallow-water seep communities from the Tropic Shale in the Western Interior Seaway, USA, that lived during a time of extremely warm deep-water temperatures, which supposedly facilitates adaptations to the deep sea, and time-equivalent with a period of widespread oceanic and photic zone anoxia (OAE 2) that supposedly extinguished deep-water vent and seep faunas. Contrary to the expectation, the taxa inhabiting the Tropic Shale seeps were not found at any coeval or younger deep-water seep or vent deposit. This suggests that (i) pre-adaptations for living at deep-sea vents and seeps do not evolve at shallow-water methane seeps, and probably also not in sulfide-rich shallow-water environments in general; (ii) a low temperature gradient from shallow to deep water does not facilitate onshore-offshore adaptations to deep-sea vents and seeps; and (iii) shallow-water seeps did not act as refuges for deep-sea vent and seep animals. We hypothesize that the vast majority of adaptations to successfully colonize deep-sea vents and seeps are acquired below the photic zone.

  5. Towards to Extraction of Nanodispersed Noble Metals From Natural Black Graphite Shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Mikhailenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical approach based on the density functional theory and the pseudopotential method was applied to consider diffusion and accumulation of Au, Pt, and Pd in graphite. It is shown that Pt atoms migrate easily inside graphite. They can stop at structure defects and accumulate there, attracting each other and forming plate clusters. Atoms of gold do not penetrate into graphite but link with edge atoms of broken graphite crystallites, forming three-dimensional metallic particles. Palladium behavior is intermediate between platinum and gold. Addition of silicon into graphite can promote the extraction of noble metals because Si atoms force out Pt, Pd, and Au atoms from their bonded states. Last effect can be used as a mechanism of striking off metals from graphite and their extraction from shales

  6. A Column Experiment To Determine Black Shale Degradation And Colonization By Means of δ13C and 14C Analysis Of Phospholipid Fatty Acids And DNA Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, A.; Gleixner, G.

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the degradation of black shale organic matter by microbial communities. We inoculated two columns respectively, with the fungi Schizophyllum commune, the gram-positive bacterium Pseudomonas putida and the gram-negative bacteria Streptomyces griseus and Streptomyces chartreusis. These microorganisms are known to degrade a wide variety of organic macromolecules. Additionally, we had two sets of control columns. To one set the same nutrient solution was added as to the inoculated columns and to the other set only sterile deionised water was supplied. All columns contained 1.5 kg of freshly crushed not autoclaved black shale material with a particle size of 0.63-2 mm. The columns were incubated at 28° C and 60% humidity in the dark. The aim was to investigate, which microorganisms live on black shales and if these microorganisms are able to degrade ancient organic matter. We used compound specific stable isotope measurement techniques and compound specific 14C-dating methods. After 183 days PLFAs were extracted from the columns to investigate the microbial community, furthermore we extracted on one hand total-DNA of column material and on the other hand DNA from pure cultures isolates which grew on Kinks-agar B, Starch-casein-nitrate-agar (SCN) and on complete-yeast-medium-agar (CYM). According to the PLFA analysis bacteria dominated in the columns, whereas in pure cultures more fungi were isolated. A principal component analysis revealed differences between the columns in accordance with the inoculation, but it seems that the inoculated microorganisms were replaced by the natural population. For AMS measurements palmitic acid (C 16:0) was re-isolated from total-PLFA-extract with a preparative fraction collector (PFC). Preliminary results of the study revealed that microorganisms are able to degrade black shale material and that PLFA analysis are useful methods to be combined with analysis of stable isotope and 14C measurements to study microbial

  7. Mode de genèse et valorisation des minerais de type black shales : cas du Kupferschiefer (Pologne) et des schistes noirs de Talvivaara (Finlande)

    OpenAIRE

    Gouin, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    This thesis was carried out in the frame of an EU-FP6 project (Bioshale) and has, as main objective a better understanding of metal concentration processes in black shale ores and their beneficiation by hydro-and biotechnologies. The low mature organic matter (OM) of the Lubin ore (Kupferschiefer) played a role during syn-, dia- and epigenetic metal enrichment processes. The ore contains 7% of Cu as well as Ag, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn, as sulphides (chalcocite, covellite, bornite, chalcopyrite...). Th...

  8. Cu isotopes in marine black shales record the Great Oxidation Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi Fru, Ernest; Rodríguez, Nathalie P; Partin, Camille A; Lalonde, Stefan V; Andersson, Per; Weiss, Dominik J; El Albani, Abderrazak; Rodushkin, Ilia; Konhauser, Kurt O

    2016-05-01

    The oxygenation of the atmosphere ∼2.45-2.32 billion years ago (Ga) is one of the most significant geological events to have affected Earth's redox history. Our understanding of the timing and processes surrounding this key transition is largely dependent on the development of redox-sensitive proxies, many of which remain unexplored. Here we report a shift from negative to positive copper isotopic compositions (δ(65)CuERM-AE633) in organic carbon-rich shales spanning the period 2.66-2.08 Ga. We suggest that, before 2.3 Ga, a muted oxidative supply of weathering-derived copper enriched in (65)Cu, along with the preferential removal of (65)Cu by iron oxides, left seawater and marine biomass depleted in (65)Cu but enriched in (63)Cu. As banded iron formation deposition waned and continentally sourced Cu became more important, biomass sampled a dissolved Cu reservoir that was progressively less fractionated relative to the continental pool. This evolution toward heavy δ(65)Cu values coincides with a shift to negative sedimentary δ(56)Fe values and increased marine sulfate after the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), and is traceable through Phanerozoic shales to modern marine settings, where marine dissolved and sedimentary δ(65)Cu values are universally positive. Our finding of an important shift in sedimentary Cu isotope compositions across the GOE provides new insights into the Precambrian marine cycling of this critical micronutrient, and demonstrates the proxy potential for sedimentary Cu isotope compositions in the study of biogeochemical cycles and oceanic redox balance in the past.

  9. Cu isotopes in marine black shales record the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fru, Ernest Chi; Rodríguez, Nathalie P.; Partin, Camille A.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Andersson, Per; Weiss, Dominik J.; El Albani, Abderrazak; Rodushkin, Ilia

    2016-05-01

    The oxygenation of the atmosphere ˜2.45-2.32 billion years ago (Ga) is one of the most significant geological events to have affected Earth's redox history. Our understanding of the timing and processes surrounding this key transition is largely dependent on the development of redox-sensitive proxies, many of which remain unexplored. Here we report a shift from negative to positive copper isotopic compositions (δ65CuERM-AE633) in organic carbon-rich shales spanning the period 2.66-2.08 Ga. We suggest that, before 2.3 Ga, a muted oxidative supply of weathering-derived copper enriched in 65Cu, along with the preferential removal of 65Cu by iron oxides, left seawater and marine biomass depleted in 65Cu but enriched in 63Cu. As banded iron formation deposition waned and continentally sourced Cu became more important, biomass sampled a dissolved Cu reservoir that was progressively less fractionated relative to the continental pool. This evolution toward heavy δ65Cu values coincides with a shift to negative sedimentary δ56Fe values and increased marine sulfate after the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), and is traceable through Phanerozoic shales to modern marine settings, where marine dissolved and sedimentary δ65Cu values are universally positive. Our finding of an important shift in sedimentary Cu isotope compositions across the GOE provides new insights into the Precambrian marine cycling of this critical micronutrient, and demonstrates the proxy potential for sedimentary Cu isotope compositions in the study of biogeochemical cycles and oceanic redox balance in the past.

  10. Cretaceous black shale and the oceanic red beds:Process and mechanisms of oceanic anoxic events and oxic environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenguo ZHANG; Nianqiao FANG; Lianfeng GAO; Baoling GUI; Muhua CUI

    2008-01-01

    The Cretaceous is an important period in which many geological events occurred,especially the OAEs (oceanic anoxic events) which are characterized by black shale,and the oxic process characterized by CORBs (Cretaceous oceanic red beds).In this paper,the causative mechanism behind the formation of black shale and the oceanic red beds are described in detail.This may explain how the oceanic environment changed from anoxic to oxic in the Cretaceous period.It is suggested that these two different events happened because of the same cause.On the one hand,the large-scale magma activities in Cretaceous caused the concentration of CO2,the release of the inner energy of the earth,superficial change in the ocean-land,and finally,the increase of atmospheric temperature.These changes implied the same tendency as the oceanic water temperature show,and caused the decrease in O2 concentration in the Cretaceous ocean,and finally resulted in the occurrence of the OAEs.On the other hand,violent and frequent volcanic eruptions in the Cretaceous produced plenty of Fe-enriched lava on the seafloor.When the seawater reacted with the lava,the element Fe became dissolved in seawater.Iron,which could help phytoplankton grow rapidly,is a micronutrient essential to the synthesis of enzymes required for photosynthesis in the oceanic environment.Phytoplankton,which grows in much of the oceans around the world,can consume carbon dioxide in the air and the ocean.Meanwhile,an equal quantity of oxygen can be produced by the phytoplankton during its growth.Finally,the oxic environment characterized by red sediment rich in Fe3+appeared.The anoxic and oxic conditions in the Cretaceous ocean were caused by volcanic activities,but they stemmed from different causative mechanisms.The former was based on physical and chemical processes,while the latter involved more complicated bio-oceanic-geochemical processes.

  11. Early colonization of metazoans in the deep-water: Evidences from the lowermost Cambrian black shales of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M.-Y.; Yang, A.-H.; Zhang, J.-M.; Li, G.-X.; Yang, X.-L.

    2003-04-01

    Diversity of metazoans is high in the deep-water of the present ocean. But it is unknown that when the metazoans began to colonize in the deep-water and what kinds of metazoans first colonized in the deep-water since origin and radiation of metazoans during the Precambrian-Cambrian transition interval. Up to the present, colonization of the deep-sea began in the Ordovician. Although it is suggested that animals were penetrated into the intermediate water depth during the Precambrian, evidences support such suggestion are based on the problematic Ediacaran-grade fossils. However, almost fossil materials that support the Cambrian Explosion hypothesis were discovered from the lowermost Cambrian shallow-water deposits. The abundant earliest Cambrian mineralized small shelly fossils (SSF) are globally from the shallow-water deposits, and the well-known Chengjiang fauna that may records most complete features of metazoans in the ocean after the Cambrian Explosion, occurs as well in the shallow basin near an old land on the Yangtze Platform. In order to understand ecology of the Cambrian Explosion time interval and how happened of the onshore-offshore trends of metazoans, we focused our attention on collecting fossils in the lowermost Cambrian deposits under the varied facies on the Yangtze Platformm during recent years. Investigations of the shallow-water carbonate facies and the oxygen-depleted deep-water black shale facies revealed additional biological and ecological information that are not recorded in the Chengjiang fauna in the siliclastic shallow-water facies. Here we report our discovery of a particular fossil association from more than 10 sections in the deep-water black shales (Qiongzhusian) in the out shelf and slope area of the Yangtze Platform. The fossil association is composed of pelagic and sessile organisms, including abundant sponges, 3 types of bivalved arthropods, 3 types of tubular animals and few problematic organisms. The fossils have either

  12. Distribution and speciation of selenium in the black shale of the Dogger aquifer in the Poitiers Experimental Hydrogeological Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassil, Joseph; Naveau, Aude; Di Tullo, Pamela; Grasset, Laurent; Bodin, Jacques; Razack, Moumtaz; Kazpard, Véronique

    2014-05-01

    majorly associated with the soluble humic-like organic matter. 40% of extracted selenium identified as Se (IV), which was rarely observed in the literature and suggests that the Se in the black clays may be easily solubilized. Keywords: selenium, speciation, distribution, black shale, chemical extractions, groundwater.

  13. Geochemical mass balance and elemental transport during the weathering of the black shale of Shuijingtuo formation in Northeast Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sixiang; Wu, Xiyong; Zhao, Siyuan; Liao, Xin; Ren, Yong; Zhu, Baolong

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the processes that control the behavior of major elements with respect to weathering profile is essential to calculate the mobility, redistribution, and mass fluxes of elements. Hence, this study aims to determine the geochemical mass balance, strain, elemental correlation, and transport in weathering profiles. We constructed three weathering profiles for the black shale of Shujingtuo formation. As per the principal component analysis of major elements, density, and pH values, the first component represents the "elemental factor" and the second denotes the "external factor." The "depletion" pattern is a mass transportation pattern, and Na, K, and Mg are depleted along transect relative to the composition of fresh rock. Fe is redeposited at the bottom half of the saprock zone, whereas Al is accumulated at the regolith zone. The Fe and Al patterns are attributed to the "depletion-addition" and "addition" patterns, respectively. The strain in profiles A and B demonstrates the expansion at the regolith zone and part of the saprock zone. In profile C, however, these zones collapsed at all depths. In chemical weathering, Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Si are depleted in the following order: valley (C) > near mountaintop (B) > ridge (A).

  14. Geochemical Mass Balance and Elemental Transport during the Weathering of the Black Shale of Shuijingtuo Formation in Northeast Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixiang Ling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the processes that control the behavior of major elements with respect to weathering profile is essential to calculate the mobility, redistribution, and mass fluxes of elements. Hence, this study aims to determine the geochemical mass balance, strain, elemental correlation, and transport in weathering profiles. We constructed three weathering profiles for the black shale of Shujingtuo formation. As per the principal component analysis of major elements, density, and pH values, the first component represents the “elemental factor” and the second denotes the “external factor.” The “depletion” pattern is a mass transportation pattern, and Na, K, and Mg are depleted along transect relative to the composition of fresh rock. Fe is redeposited at the bottom half of the saprock zone, whereas Al is accumulated at the regolith zone. The Fe and Al patterns are attributed to the “depletion–addition” and “addition” patterns, respectively. The strain in profiles A and B demonstrates the expansion at the regolith zone and part of the saprock zone. In profile C, however, these zones collapsed at all depths. In chemical weathering, Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Si are depleted in the following order: valley (C > near mountaintop (B > ridge (A.

  15. Imbalanced nutrients as triggers for black shale formation in a shallow shelf setting during the OAE 2 (Wunstorf, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blumenberg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During the oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE 2 in the mid-Cretaceous widespread black shale (BS formation occurred, reflecting perturbations in major biogeochemical cycles. Here we present geochemical and biomarker data of the OAE 2 from a shelf setting situated at about 100 to 150 water depth (Wunstorf, Germany. Our data support that processes inducing BS deposition were related to orbital cyclicity in Wunstorf and that they were not restricted to the time of the OAE 2 carbon isotope excursion. Correlations of total organic carbon (TOC and δ15N and high relative abundances of functionalized hopanoids (incl. 2-methylated structures suggest that BS were formed during times of imbalanced nutrients with high phosphorus inputs and increased (cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation. Periods of BS formation were also characterized by enhanced growth of dinoflagellates and bacteriovorous ciliates, the latter supporting the presence of a stratified water body. The lack of biomarkers specific for green-sulfur bacteria excludes photic zone euxinia during OAE 2 in Wunstorf. Conflicting maturities and biomarker distributions in kerogen and extractable organic matter and, interestingly, a negative correlation of the diagenetically resistant 2-methyl hopane hydrocarbons with TOC indicate a complex depositional setting at Wunstorf. In Wunstorf this might have been induced by high continental run-off during BS formation and the accompanying mobilisation of refractory OM from the shelfs and near shore areas.

  16. Imbalanced nutrients as triggers for black shale formation in a shallow shelf setting during the OAE 2 (Wunstorf, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blumenberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE 2 in the Mid-Cretaceous Period, widespread black shale (BS formation occurred, reflecting perturbations in major biogeochemical cycles. Here we present geochemical and biomarker data of the OAE 2 from a shelf setting situated at about 100–150 m water depth (Wunstorf, Germany. Our data support that processes inducing BS deposition were related to orbital cyclicity in Wunstorf and that they were not restricted to the time of the OAE 2 carbon isotope excursion. Correlations of total organic carbon (TOC and δ15N and high relative abundances of functionalized hopanoids (including 2-methylated structures suggest that BS were formed during times of imbalanced nutrients with high phosphorus inputs and increased cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation. Periods of BS formation were also characterized by enhanced growth of dinoflagellates and bacteriovorous ciliates, the latter supporting the presence of a stratified water body. The lack of biomarkers specific for green sulfur bacteria excludes photic zone euxinia during OAE 2 in Wunstorf. Conflicting maturities and biomarker distributions in kerogen and extractable organic matter and, interestingly, a negative correlation of the diagenetically resistant 2-methyl hopane hydrocarbons with TOC indicate a complex depositional setting at Wunstorf. This might have been induced by high continental runoff during BS formation and the accompanying mobilisation of refractory OM from the shelves and near shore areas.

  17. Dictyonema black shale and Triassic sandstones as potential sources of uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiegiel Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was an assessment of the possibility of uranium recovery from domestic resources in Poland. In the first stage uranium was leached from the ground uranium ore by using acidic (sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid or alkaline (carbonate solutions. The leaching efficiencies of uranium were dependent on the type of ore and it reached 81% for Dictyonemic shales and almost 100% for sandstones. The novel leaching routes, with the application of the helical membrane contactor equipped with rotating part were tested. The obtained postleaching solutions were concentrated and purified using solvent extraction or ion exchange chromatography. New methods of solvent extraction, as well as hybrid processes for separation and purification of the product, were studied. Extraction with the use of membrane capillary contactors that has many advantages above conventional methods was also proposed as an alternative purification method. The final product U3O8 could be obtained by the precipitation of ‘yellow cake’, followed by calcination step. The results of precipitation of ammonium diuranate and uranium peroxide from diluted uranium solution were presented

  18. Re-Os isotope systematics in black shales from the Lesser Himalaya: their chronology and role in the 187Os/ 188Os evolution of seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil K.; Trivedi, J. R.; Krishnaswami, S.

    1999-08-01

    Re and Os abundances and Os isotope systematics have been measured in a number of black shales sampled from outcrops and two underground phosphorite mines, Maldeota and Durmala, in the Lesser Himalaya. The Re and Os concentrations in these samples exhibit wide range, 0.2 to 264 ng/g and 0.02 to 13.5 ng/g, respectively, with a mean Re/Os of ˜25. The 187Os/ 188Os of these samples also show a broad range 1.02 to 11.6, with many of them far more radiogenic than the currently eroding continental crust. The black shales from the Maldeota and Durmala mines, collected a few meters above the Krol-Tal (Pc-C) boundary and occurring in the same stratigraphic horizon, yield 187Re- 187Os isochron ages of 554 ± 16 and 552 ± 22 Ma, respectively, consistent with fossil evidences and those assigned for the Pc-C boundary at various other locations. These results indicate closed system behaviour of Re and Os in these mine samples and reaffirm the validity of 187Re- 187Os pair to date organic-rich sediments. The age of these mine samples from the outer belt seems to be a few hundred millions of years younger than the preliminary Re-Os age of 839 ± 138 Ma for black shales from Theog, collected from the inner belt. These initial results lean toward the hypothesis that the inner belt sediments were deposited earlier than the outer belt; however, more analyses of black shales are needed to confirm this. The role of weathering black shales from the Himalaya in contributing to the Os isotope evolution of seawater over the past ˜25 Ma was assessed using a simple budget model for seawater Os and assuming values for Os fluxes and 187Os/ 188Os based on the available limited data on Os concentration and its 187Os/ 188Os in rivers and oceans. These calculations indicate that the required contributions from black shale weathering to account for the entire increase in oceanic 187Os/ 188Os over the past ˜16 Ma is difficult to satisfy by varying only the Os flux from HTP rivers ( 187Os/ 188Os

  19. Stratigraphic and geochemical study of the organic-rich black shales in the Tarcău Nappe of the Moldavidian Domain (Carpathian Chain, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayouni, Habib; di Staso, Angelida; Guerrera, Francesco; Martín Martín, Manuel; Miclǎuş, Crina; Serrano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario

    2009-02-01

    An integrated stratigraphic analysis has been made of the Tarcău Nappe (Moldavidian Domain, Eastern Romanian Carpathians), coupled with a geochemical study of organic-rich beds. Two Main Sequence Boundaries (Early Oligocene and near to the Oligocene-Aquitanian boundary, respectively) divide the sedimentary record into three depositional sequences. The sedimentation occurred in the central area of a basin supplied by different and opposite sources. The high amount of siliciclastics at the beginning of the Miocene marks the activation of the “foredeep stage”. The successions studied are younger than previously thought and they more accurately date the deformation of the different Miocene phases affecting the Moldavidian Basin. The intervals with black shales identified are related to two main separate anoxic episodes with an age not older than Late Rupelian and not before Late Chattian. The most important organic-rich beds correspond to the Lower Menilites, Bituminous Marls and Lower Dysodilic Shales Members (Interval 2). These constitute a good potential source rock for petroleum, with homogeneous Type II oil-prone organic matter, highly lipidic and thermally immature. The deposition of black shales has been interpreted as occurring within a deep, periodically isolated and tectonically controlled basin.

  20. Making a black shale shine: the interaction of hydrothermal fluids and diagenetic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Sarah; Magnall, Joe; Reynolds, Merilie

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal fluids are important agents of mass and thermal transfer in the upper crust. This is exemplified by shale-hosted massive sulphide deposits (SHMS), which are anomalous accumulations of Zn and Pb sulphides (± barite) in sedimentary basins created by hydrothermal fluids. These deposits occur in passive margin settings and, typically, there is no direct evidence of magmatic input. Recent studies of Paleozoic deposits in the North American Cordillera (MacMillan Pass and Red Dog Districts) have shown that the deposits are formed in a sub-seafloor setting, where the potential for thermal and chemical gradients is high. Mineralization is characterized by the replacement and displacement of unconsolidated, partially lithified and lithified biosiliceous mudstones (± carbonates), and commonly the sulphide mineralization post-dates, and replaces, bedded barite units in the sediments. The Red Dog District (Alaska, USA) contain some of the largest Zn-Pb deposits ever discovered. The host-rocks are dominantly carbonaceous mudstones, with carbonate units and some radiolarites. The ore forms massive sulphide bodies that replace pyritized mudstones, barite and carbonate units. Lithological and textural relationships provide evidence that much of the ore formed in bioturbated, biosiliceous zones that may have had high primary porosity and/or permeability. Sediment permeability may have been further modified by aging of the silica rich sediments and the dissolution/replacement of carbonate and barite beds. At the Tom and Jason deposits (MacMillan Pass, Yukon) the fault-controlled hydrothermal upflow zone is uniquely preserved as an unequivocal vent complex. Here, the metal bearing fluids are hot (300°C), low salinity (6 wt% NaCl equiv.) and acidic (pH Red Dog deposits, reduced sulphur was generated during open system diagenesis and euxinic conditions were not present at the time of mineralization. Furthermore, the formation of diagenetic barite provided an important

  1. Sand veins and MISS from the Mesoproterozoic black shale (ca. 1.7 Ga) in North China:Implication for methane degassing from microbial mats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Chuanlinggou Formation (ca. 1.7 Ga) consists mainly of dark-gray to black shales that are widespread in the North China Platform. Abundant centimeter-scale sand veins are present within the shale layers of this unit, particularly in the middle part. Sand veins display ptygmatic shapes, perpendicular or with a high angle to bedding planes. They penetrate the black shale layers but are often terminated by thin, lenticular sandstone beds, forming small-scale ‘tepee-like’ structures. On bedding planes, sand veins are expressed as small ridges with 1–3 mm positive relief. Lack of polygonal shapes and their occurrence in thinly laminated, relatively deep-water shales preclude an origin from sand-filled desiccation cracks. Instead, their close association with microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) such as micro-wrinkles and gas blisters, putative bacterial fossils (possibly coccoidal cyanobacteria) and framboidal pyrites, suggests that they were formed by degassing of methane from microbial mat decay. Methane gas disrupted overlying sedimentary layers, creating fractures open to seawater. Fine-grained quartz sands, which were transported into the depositional environment by strong winds, filled the fractures. Sand-filled fractures were shortened and folded during burial compaction, forming ptygmatic shapes. The presence of dispersed dolomite and siderite in these sand veins suggests authigenic carbonate precipitation from anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Sand veins are intensely distributed within the Chuanlinggou Formation and are spatially widespread in the North China Platform. If their methane origin is confirmed, they may have important implications for the Mesoproterozoic paleoclimate. With anoxic oceans and low seawater sulfate concentration during the Mesoproterozoic, methane release from microbial mat decay and/or microbial methanogenesis during shallow burial may have been proportionally higher than that of the modern

  2. Molybdenum (Mo) and Iron (Fe) Isotope Evidence of Tepla-Barrandian Black Shales Against Widespread Deep Ocean Oxygenation in the Late Neoproterozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzweil, F.; Pasava, J.; Drost, K.; Wille, M.; Schoenberg, R.

    2014-12-01

    The late Neoproterozoic was a period of major environmental perturbations including tectonic reorganizations, biologic evolution and environmental oxygenation (Neoproterozoic oxygenation event). Authigenic enrichments in redox-sensitive elements such as Mo, V and U in late Neoproterozoic black shales prior to the appearance of the first metazoan fossils indicate that increasing oxygen levels in the atmosphere-hydrosphere system have facilitated the evolution and diversification of multi-cellular life. The isotopic composition of these elements is another tool to trace (possibly global) changes in the oceanic redox state. For example, significantly higher δ98Mo of seawater and black shales are expected, when the sink of isotopically light Mo in oxic deep marine settings increased. Accordingly, modern anoxic sediments in the Black Sea as well as the well oxygenated seawater show high δ98Mo of 2.3 ‰. However, Mesoproterozoic black shales show relatively low δ98Mo values up to 1.4 ‰. To test if the enrichment of redox-sensitive elements and metazoan evolution temporally correlate with an increase in seawater δ98Mo, we present Mo and Fe isotope data of slightly younger late Neoproterozoic black shales of the Tepla-Barrandian, Czech Republic. We observe a perfect correlation of Fe/Al ratios with δ56Fe that is best explained by mixing of detrital derived Fe with δ56Fe of ~0.1 ‰ and hydrothermal sourced Fe with δ56Fe of ~-0.7 ‰. Hydrothermally dominated samples with low δ56Fe are also enriched in heavy metals such as Ni, Cu and Zn as well as hydrothermally derived Mo (with δ98Mo of ~0.6 ‰). Samples with minor hydrothermal influence show authigenic Mo enrichment from seawater with a maximum δ98Mo of 1.2 ‰. This estimate indicates no significant increase in the seawater δ98Mo during the Neoproterozoic and after the evolution of metazoan life. Thus, our Mo isotope dataset provides no evidence for deep ocean oxygenation during the Neoproterozoic

  3. Re-Os isotopes and PGE geochemistry of black shales and intercalated Ni-Mo polymetallic sulfide bed from the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shaoyong; YANG Jinghong; LING Hongfei; FENG Hongzhen; CHEN Yongquan; CHEN Jianhua

    2003-01-01

    The Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation consists of a thick black shale sequence with a regionally distributed conformable Ni-Mo polymetallic sulfide horizon and a chert bed at its basal strata on theYangtze Platform, South China. In this paper, we discuss all available data on Re-Os isotopes and Platinum Group Element (PGE) distribution pattern of the Ni-Mo polymetallic sulfide ore and its host rocks (black shales, cherts, and phosphorites) from Guizhou and Hunan provinces. Our results show that the black shales and the Ni-Mo sulfide ore have a high initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.78~0.86, indicating that the Early Cambrian ocean across the Yangtze Platform had a highly radiogenic Os value. This ratio is slightly lower than but still similar to present-day seawater, possibly as a result of high continental weathering at that time. The Ni-Mo sulfide ore yields a Re-Os isochron of 537±10 Ma (MSWD=11.9), possibly representing the depositional age of the Niutitang Formation. The chondrite-normalized PGE pattern, Pt anomaly (Pt/Pt*), Pt/Pd, Ir/Pd, Au/Ir and Re/Mo ratios of the Ni-Mo sulfide ore and its host rocks from South China indicate a varying source contribution of the PGE and other metals for different rocks. It is suggested that the cherts and Ni-Mo sulfide ore may have a significant proportion of PGE and probably other metals deriving from submarine-hydrothermal fluids with a mantle signature.

  4. Distribution and variation of the inorganic fraction of Devonian to Bashkirian black shales in the north-western part of the Dniepr-Donets Basin, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegerer, Eva; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard; Misch, David; Aust, Nicolai

    2016-04-01

    Mineralogical data of 112 core samples from 12 wells are used to investigate lateral and vertical variations in the lithofacies of Devonian to Bashkirian black shales in the north-western part of the Dniepr-Donets-Basin. Sulphur and carbonate contents as well as organic geochemical parameters, including TOC and Hydrogen Index have been determined on the same sample set within the frame of an earlier study (Sachsenhofer et al. 2010). This allows the correlation of inorganic and organic composition of the black shales. Aims of the study are to distinguish between detrital and authigenic minerals, to relate the lithofacies of the black shales with the tectono-stratigraphic sequences of the Dniepr-Donets Basin, to contribute to the reconstruction of the depositional environment and to relate diagenetic processes with the thermal history of the basin. Mineral compositions were determined primarily using XRD-measurements applying several measurement procedures, e.g. chemical and temperature treatment, and specific standards. Major differences exist in the mineralogical composition of the black shales. For example, clay mineral contents range from less than 20 to more than 80 Vol%. Kaolinite contents are significantly higher in rocks with a Tournaisian or Early Visean age than in any other stratigraphic unit. This is also true for two Lower Visean coal samples from the shallow north-westernmost part of the basin. Chlorite contents reach maxima in uppermost Visean and overlying rocks. Quartz contents are often high in Upper Visean rocks and reach maxima in Bashkirian units. Feldspar-rich rocks are observed in Devonian sediments from the north-western part of the study area and may reflect the proximity to a sediment source. Carbonate contents are typically low, but reach very high values in some Tournaisian, Lower Visean and Serpukhovian samples. Pyrite contents reach maxima along the basin axis in Tournaisian and Visean rocks reflecting anoxic conditions. Mixed layer

  5. Geochemical correlation of oil from the Ayoluengo field to Liassic black shale units in the southwestern Basque-Cantabrian Basin (northern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada, Santiago; Robles, Sergio [University of the Basque Country, Stratigraphy and Paleontology Dept., Bilbao (Spain); Dorronsoro, Carmen [University of the Basque Country, Geology Dept., Bilbao (Spain); Chaler, Roser; Grimalt, Joan O. [C.I.D.-C.S.I.C., Environmental Chemistry Dept., Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    A study of the Liassic sequence in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin has shown the presence of organic-rich (TOC, HI and S{sub 2} up to 8.7%, 760 and 56.5 mg/g, respectively) Pliensbachian-early Toarcian black shales that constitute the only feasible source rock for Ayoluengo oil. The stratigraphical and sedimentological data show that these black shales developed into a major transgressive sequence of hemipelagic Lotharingian-Toarcian facies, which suggests the presence of anoxic or near anoxic bottom water conditions in troughs during their deposition. The {delta}{sup 13}C composition, and a detailed study of the linear, branched, isoprenoid, steroid and hopanoid aliphatic hydrocarbons in these shales, marls and the Ayoluengo oil confirms this hypothesis. Specifically, the {delta}{sup 13}C values of the total solvent extract of the thicker shale (No. 2) and the oil are -29.93 and -29.88``per mille``, respectively; also a close similarity in the relative compositions of steranes and hopanes is observed between these samples. The distributions of these compounds exhibit several distinct features. The steranes in this shale and crude oil are characterized by a depletion of C{sub 28} vs C{sub 27} and C{sub 29} homologues (24 vs 32 and 44%, respectively), which is consistent with the carbon number sterane distributions generally observed among Upper Paleozoic to Liassic rock-sourced oils. Furthermore, hopanes and steranes are characterized by their high relative content of rearranged molecules. Diasteranes (13{beta}(H),17{alpha}(H)- and 13{alpha}(H),17{beta}(H)- series) are the dominant compounds among the steranes and significant amounts of 18{alpha}(H)-17{alpha}methyl-28-norhopanes (C{sub 27}, C{sub 29} and C{sub 30} homologues) and 17{alpha}(H)-15{alpha}-methyl- 27 norhopanes (C{sub 30} homologue) are found in the hopanoid hydrocarbons. Conversely, the proportion of these rearranged molecules in other sediment samples from the same formation decrease with increasing

  6. Geochemistry of major and trace elements and Pb–Sr isotopes of a weathering profile developed on the Lower Cambrian black shales in central Hunan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The chemical changes during black shale weathering are geochemically estimated. • Chemical changes and Pb–Sr data suggest four types of chemical reactions. • There were two stages of geochemical processes during black shale weathering. • Early stage of chemical differentiation led elements leaching and redistribution. • Soil was formed by later chemical homogenisation after the early differentiation. - Abstract: This paper reports a geochemical study on the major and trace elements and Pb–Sr isotopes of a weathering profile developed in the Lower Cambrian black shales in central Hunan (China). Six weathering horizons were identified and sampled vertically throughout the profile. The chemical composition of the profile consists of variable concentrations of the major elements Fe2O3, FeO, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, and P2O5 and of less variable concentrations of SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, and K2O. The chemical change caused by weathering is estimated by mass-balance calculations, and the results show that the element mobility is characterised by substantial loss of SiO2, FeO, CaO, K2O, Na2O, LOI, Cr, V, Ba, Cs, Rb, Sr, U, and Th, and moderate loss of Al2O3, MgO, Fe2O3, Ni, Cu, Pb, Tl, Sn, Sc, Ge and REE (Y). The high field strength elements TiO2, Sn, Sc, U, Ga, Ge, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta were immobile during weathering. The chemical changes and the Pb–Sr isotopic data suggest that four types of chemical reactions occurred: the oxidation of sulphide minerals (e.g., pyrite) and organic carbon (OS), the dissolution of less resistant clinochlore-Ia, calcite, and P-bearing minerals (DL), the dissolution of detrital albite and microcline (DA), and the transformation of clay (TC) minerals (e.g., muscovite and illite–smectite). These chemical reactions then led to two stages of geochemical processes, an early stage of chemical differentiation and a later stage of chemical homogenisation. The chemical differentiation dominated by the OS, DL, and DA reactions

  7. 238U series isotopes and 232Th in carbonates and black shales from the Lesser Himalaya: implications to dissolved uranium abundances in Ganga-Indus source waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Dalai, Tarun K; Krishnaswami, S

    2003-01-01

    238U and (232)Th concentrations and the extent of (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th radioactive equilibrium have been measured in a suite of Precambrian carbonates and black shales from the Lesser Himalaya. These measurements were made to determine their abundances in these deposits, their contributions to dissolved uranium budget of the headwaters of the Ganga and the Indus in the Himalaya and to assess the impact of weathering on (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th radioactive equilibrium in them. (238)U concentrations in Precambrian carbonates range from 0.06 to 2.07 microg g(-1). The 'mean' U/Ca in these carbonates is 2.9 ng U mg(-1) Ca. This ratio, coupled with the assumption that all Ca in the Ganga-Indus headwaters is of carbonate origin and that U and Ca behave conservatively in rivers after their release from carbonates, provides an upper limit on the U contribution from these carbonates, to be a few percent of dissolved uranium in rivers. There are, however, a few streams with low uranium concentrations, for which the carbonate contribution could be much higher. These results suggest that Precambrian carbonates make only minor contributions to the uranium budget of the Ganga-Indus headwaters in the Himalaya on a basin wide scale, however, they could be important for particular streams. Similar estimates of silicate contribution to uranium budget of these rivers using U/Na in silicates and Na* (Na corrected for cyclic and halite contributions) in river waters show that silicates can contribute significantly (approximately 40% on average) to their U balance. If, however, much of the uranium in these silicates is associated with weathering resistant minerals, then the estimated silicate uranium component would be upper limits. Uranium concentration in black shales averages about 37 microg g(-1). Based on this concentration, supply of U from at least approximately 50 mg of black shales per liter of river water is needed to balance the average river water U concentration, 1.7 microg L

  8. Coupled sulfur, iron and molybdenum isotope data from black shales of the Teplá-Barrandian unit argue against deep ocean oxygenation during the Ediacaran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzweil, Florian; Drost, Kerstin; Pašava, Jan; Wille, Martin; Taubald, Heinrich; Schoeckle, Daniel; Schoenberg, Ronny

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's atmosphere and hydrosphere changed from an Archean anoxic to a modern oxygenated world in two major steps, the Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event (2.4-2.3 billion years ago) and the Neoproterozoic Oxidation Event (0.8-0.5 billion years ago). Both events had a strong influence on the availability of redox sensitive and bio-essential metals within the ocean and are, thus, strongly linked to fundamental biological innovations and diversification. Biological diversification during the Precambrian-Cambrian transition between 555 and 540 million years ago may have been driven by ocean-atmosphere oxygenation. The exact timing and the extent of (deep) ocean oxygenation within this time period remains unresolved though. Here we present major and trace element compositions as well as Mo, S and Fe isotopic data of organic-rich black shales from the Teplá-Barrandian unit, Czech Republic. New in situ zircon U-Pb ages provide a maximum depositional age of 559.8 ± 3.8 million years. Black shales with strong metal enrichment show low δ56Fe values due to the dominance of authigenic pyrite-Fe with δ56Fe values around -0.6‰ over detrital Fe with δ56Fe values around 0.1‰. Samples with lower authigenic metal enrichment show relatively low Mo/TOC ratios and increasing δ34S values, which is interpreted to reflect basinal restriction and longer seawater renewal times. In analogy to the modern Black Sea, the accompanied depletion of basinal Moaq due to near quantitative Mo removal might have led to the preservation of the seawater δ98Mo in the respective black shales. Our best estimate for this seawater Mo isotopic composition heavy ocean. By contrast, the deep ocean might have remained ferruginous with the hydrothermal Fe still outbalancing surficial oxygen production. Our results therefore contribute to a growing data set, which suggests limited deep water oxygenation during major biological innovations in the late Ediacaran period.

  9. Geologic and geochemical studies of the New Albany Group in Illinois (Devonian black shale) to evaluate its characteristics as a source of hydrocarbons. Annual report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Shimp, N.F.

    1977-01-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey is conducting geological and geochemical investigations to evaluate the potential of New Albany Group shales as sources of hydrocarbons. Geological studies include stratigraphy and structure; mineralogic and petrographic characterization; analyses of physical properties; and development of a computer-based resources evaluation system. Studies include quantitative determination of 49 major, minor, and trace elements; trace element distribution between inorganic and organic phases; hydrocaron characterization; and adsorption/desorption studies of gas through shales. Six cores (five from Illinois and one from western Kentucky) provide the principal data base for these investigations.Using subsurface stratigraphic techniques, twenty-two cross-sections and a preliminary New Albany Group thickness map have been prepared. Isopach maps are in preparation for each of the formations within the New Albany. Black shales predominate in the center of the Illinois Basin, whereas gray shales predominate around the margins of the Basin. A computer data base of over 5000 wells penetrating the New Albany Group has been compiled. Tectonic origins are not postulated for any of the linears, and caution is advised when interpreting linear features in glaciated terrains. Mineralogic and petrographic studies have concentrated on two cores. A preliminary classification of four shales lithofacies based on primary depositional characteristics has been established and related to oxygenation of the bottom environment. Preliminary results of physical index properties; major, minor, and trace elements; and gas compositions have been obtained for three cores. Internal surface area measurements reveal that gray shales have higher ultramicroporosity than do black shales. The gray shales also have high gas diffusion rates and are better reservoir rocks.

  10. Development and controls of the final Cretaceous black-shale event, Coniacian to lower Campanian (OAE 3):A reference section from the tropical Atlantic at Milankovitch time-scales

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Britta

    2005-01-01

    The study focuses on high-resolution investigation of marine sediments accumulated during the Coniacian-Campanian oceanic anoxic event 3 (OAE 3) to obtain a model of black shale formation in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean at ODP Site 959 off Ivory Coast. Selected geochemical parameters display cyclic fluctuations that are attributed to orbital forcing of Milankovitch frequency. Marine and continental geochemical proxy-data indicate two depositional modes defining boundary conditions for black ...

  11. From Basin Black Shales to Platform Carbonate Rocks: A Study on Sequence Stratigraphy for the Lower Cambrian of the Upper-Yangtze Region in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the Upper-Yangtze region, especially in Guizhou Province and its adjacent areas, the Lower Cambrian is well developed and is marked by a succession from black shales of the basin facies to carbonate rocks of the platform facies. The drowning event of the platform occurring at the turn from Sinian to Cambrian resulted in a set of black shales, i.e. the Niutitang Formation, which makes up the bottom part of the Lower Cambrian. With the shoaling of the sedimentary environment, a set of carbonate rocks, i.e. the Qingxudong Formation, was formed in the top part of the Lower Cambrian. Thus, the Lower Cambrian in the study area makes up one second-order sequence that can be further subdivided into five third-order sequences, and forms a regularly cyclic succession of transgression-regression. There is a regularly vertical stacking pattern for the third-order sequences in the second-order sequence. From bottom to top, the succession of the "CS (condensed section)+HST (high-stand system tract)" of the third-order sequences is changed into the succession of the "TST (transgressive system tract)+CS+HST". Correspondingly, the drowning-type sequence boundary is changed into the exposure-type one. Therefore, both the second-order and the third-order sequences have similar sedimentary-facies architectures. A concomitant with these temporal changes,the Lower Cambrian with a thickness of 1000 m that contains five third-order sequences is changed into a condensed succession that cannot identify third-order sequences toward the southeast with the deepening of the sedimentary environment. According to the elementary features of the third-order sequences, i.e. the regularity o sedimentary-facies successions in space and the synchronism of sedimentary-environment changes in time, the detailed division of the third-order sequences at main logged sections in different paleogeographical background becomes the basis to establish the sequence-stratigraphic framework that can demonstrate

  12. Contribution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis to Palaeo-Oceanic Organic Carbon Sink Fluxes in Early Cambrian Upper Yangtze Shallow Sea:Evidence from Black Shale Record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunyu Wu; Tingshan Zhang; Yang Yang; Yuchuan Sun; Daoxian Yuan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:The extensive transgression that occurred on the Yangtze Plate in Early Cambrian led to a massive organic carbon pool in the Niutitang Formation. A black shale core section from 3 251.08 to 3 436.08 m beneath the Earth’s surface was studied to estimate the contribution of oxygenic photosyn-thesis to organic carbon sink fluxes in Early Cambrian Upper Yangtze shallow sea. Results indicate that the oxygenic photosynthesis played the most important role in carbon fixation in Early Cambrian. Or-ganic carbon sink was mainly contributed by photosynthetic microorganisms, e.g., cyanobacteria, algae and archaea. The Niutitang Formation was formed in a deep anoxic marine shelf sedimentary envi-ronment at a sedimentation rate of ~0.09±0.03 mm/yr. The initial TOC abundance in Niutitang shale ranged from 0.18%to 7.09%, with an average of 2.15%. In accordance with the sedimentation rate and initial TOC abundance, organic carbon sink fluxes were calculated and found to range from 0.21 to 8.10×103 kg/km2·yr-1, especially the organic carbon sink fluxes in depth between 3 385 and 3 470 m range from 3.80 to 8.10×103 kg/km2·yr-1, with an average of~6.03×103 kg/km2·yr-1, which is much high-er than that of contemporary marine sediments. The organic carbon sink fluxes of Niutitang shale are equal to 0.56 to 21.61×103 kg/km2·yr-1 net oxygen emitted into the Early Cambrian ocean and atmos-phere, this emitted oxygen may have significantly promoted the oxygen level of the Earth’s surface and diversification of metazoans.

  13. Pyrite framboid diameter distribution in the Lower Oligocene black shales of the Vrancea Nappe as an indicator of changes in redox conditions, Eastern Outer Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendorff, Małgorzata; Marynowski, Leszek; Rospondek, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    Studies of recent and ancient sediments revealed that the diameter distribution of pyrite framboids may be reliably used to characterise oxygen-restricted environments and distinguish ancient euxinic conditions (water column hydrogen sulphide bearing thus oxygen-free) from anoxic, non-sulfidic or dysoxic (oxygen-poor) conditions. Such diagnoses are of great importance when reconstructing palaeoenvironments in ancient basins and the processes of source rocks formation. During Oligocene to early Miocene time an extensive accumulation of organic matter (OM)-rich sediments occurred in the entire Paratethys including the Carpathian Foredeep, which was closed forming fold-thrust belt of the Outer Carpathians. These OM-rich black shales are represented by so-called Menilite shales, widely considered as hydrocarbon source rocks, which constitute as well a detailed archive for palaeoenvironmental changes. The purpose of this preliminary study is to characterise the depositional environment of the Lower Oligocene black shales basing on the pyrite framboid diameter distribution. Five samples of finely laminated black shales were selected from the Nechit section outcropping in the Bistrica half-window of the Vrancea Nappe in the Eastern Outer Carpathians, E Romania. At least 100 framboid diameters were measured on polished blocks using scanning electron microscope in a back-scattered electron mode. Framboids from four samples starting from the lowermost part of the section exhibit a narrow range of diameters from 1.0 to 11.5 μm; mean value ranges from 3.65 to 4.85 μm. Small-sized framboids (10 μm) are absent or rare (max. 2%). Within the sample from the uppermost part of the section framboids reveal more variable sizes, 2 - 25 μm, with mean value of 6.63 μm. Small framboids are still numerous (54%), however the amount of framboids >10 μm increases to 15%. The domination of small framboids with narrow size range in analysed samples, as well as lamination of rocks, suggest

  14. Integrated stratigraphy of an organic matter enriched pelagic series (''black shales''). The Aptian-Albian of the Marches - Umbria basin (central Italy); Stratigraphie integree d'une serie pelagique a horizons enrichis en matiere organique (''black shales''). L'Aptien-Albien du bassin de Marches - Ombrie (Italie centrale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiet, N.

    1998-10-23

    The Aptian-Albian series of the Marches-Umbria basin is considered as a field analogue of most basin deposits of the same age located in the Atlantic domain. It corresponds to a pelagic sedimentation with alternations of marls, black shales, and limestones. The study of the black shales series has been carried out using a combination of petrological, geochemical and palynological data. The integration of these data allows to propose a detailed typology of these beds, to define a deposition mode with respect to the organic matter content and to precise the location of sources and transfer ways. A close relationship between the deposition of the black shales and the development of delta zones in the North-Gondwana margin is shown. A comparison with sub-actual analogues allows to explain their rhythmical organization within the sedimentation. A cyclo-stratigraphical approach of the overall series has been performed using the analysis of the sedimentary rhythms. A detailed time calibration (< 100 ka) of the Aptian and Albian epochs is proposed according to the planktonic foraminifera, the calcareous nano-fossils and the dyno-cysts populations. The M-0 magnetic chron has ben dated to 116.7 {+-} 0.7 Ma. The combination of all stratigraphical approaches has permitted to elaborate a subdivision of the series into deposition sequences. The forcing phenomena that led to the genesis of these sedimentary bodies are probably of astronomical-climatical origin. Then a relative sea-level curve has been constructed and compared with the existing reference curves published for the worldwide ocean and the Russian platform. The strong similarities between these curves and the amplitude of the relative variations (up to 80 m) suggest a control of the sedimentation of glacial-eustatic origin. Thus, several glaciation phases are proposed according to the low sea level deposits identified in the series (upper Gargasian, Clansayesian, upper Albian, middle Vraconian). (J.S.)

  15. A review of the organic geochemistry of shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shale formations have been suggested as a potential site for a high level nuclear waste repository. As a first step in the study of the possible interaction of nuclides with the organic components of the shales, literature on the identification of organic compounds from various shales of the continent of the United States has been reviewed. The Green River shale of the Cenozoic era is the most studied shale followed by the Pierre shale of the Mesozoic era and the Devonian black shale of the Paleozoic era. Organic compounds that have been identified from these shales are hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, steranes, terpanes, carotenes, carbohydrates, amino acids, and porphyrins. However, these organic compounds constitute only a small fraction of the organics in shales and the majority of the organic compounds in shales are still unidentified

  16. Late-stage sulfides and sulfarsenides in Lower Cambrian black shale (stone coal) from the Huangjiawan mine, Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, H.E.; Luo, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Ni-Mo Huangjiawan mine, Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China, occurs in Lower Cambrian black shale (stone coal) in an area where other mines have recently extracted ore from the same horizon. Detailed electron microprobe (EMPA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of representative thin sections have revealed a complex assemblage of sulfides and sulfarsenides. Early sulfidic and phosphatic nodules and host matrix have been lithified, somewhat fractured, and then mineralized with later-stage sulfides and sulfarsenides. Gersdorffite, millerite, polydymite, pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, and clausthalite have been recognized. EMPA data are given for the major phases. Pyrite trace-element distributions and coeval Ni-, As-sulfides indicate that in the main ore layer, the last sulfide deposition was Ni-As-Co-rich. Mo and V deposition were early in the petrogenesis of these rocks. The assemblages gersdorffite-millerite-polydymite (pyrite) and millerite-gersdorffite (pyrite) and the composition of gersdorffite indicate a formation temperature of between 200?? and 300??C suggesting that the last solutions to infiltrate and mineralize the samples were related to hydrothermal processes. Environmentally sensitive elements such as As, Cd, and Se are hosted by sulfides and sulfarsenides and are the main source of these elements to residual soil. Crops grown on them are enriched in these elements, and they may be hazardous for animal and human consumption. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  17. Thermal evolution and shale gas potential estimation of the Wealden and Posidonia Shale in NW-Germany and the Netherlands : a 3D basin modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, B.; Littke, R.; Gasparik, M.; van Wees, J.-D.; Nelskamp, S.

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentary basins in NW-Germany and the Netherlands represent potential targets for shale gas exploration in Europe due to the presence of Cretaceous (Wealden) and Jurassic (Posidonia) marlstones/shales as well as various Carboniferous black shales. In order to assess the regional shale gas prospec

  18. Microbial Methane Formation from Coal and Wood in Abandoned Coal Mines - Analogues for biogenic methane formation in Black Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, M.; Beckmann, S.; Engelen, B.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-04-01

    About seven percent of the global annual methane emissions originate from coal mining. Also, mine gas has come into focus of the power industry and is being used increasingly for heat and power production. In many coal deposits worldwide, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane indicate a mixed thermogenic and biogenic origin. In this study, we have measured in an abandoned coal mine methane fluxes and isotopic signatures of methane and carbon dioxide, and collected samples for microbiological and phylogenetic investigations. Mine timber and hard coal showed an in-situ production of methane with isotopic signatures similar to those of the methane in the mine atmosphere. Enrichment cultures amended with mine timber or hard coal as sole carbon sources formed methane over a period of nine months. Predominantly, acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated in enrichments containing acetate or hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Molecular techniques revealed that the archaeal community in enrichment cultures and unamended samples was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinales. The combined geochemical and microbiological investigations identify microbial methanogenesis as a recent source of methane in abandoned coal mines. Overall, our new results support the assumption that abandoned coal reservoirs have a potential to supply methane gas for energy production over extended time scales. The worldwide increased mining activity will go along with an increased coal weathering and the formation of biogenic methane. Currently, our research is focussing on the question to which extent and for how long recent biogenic methane production is contributing to shale gas formation as another important future energy resource.

  19. 重庆东北城口地区黑色岩系地球化学异常模式%A Geochemical Anomaly Model for Black Shales in Chengkou Region of Northeast Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷恩; 王丹; 杨洪永; 秦林

    2012-01-01

    Good prospecting effect is gained by stream sediment survey in black shales area in Chengkou region of Northeast Chongqing, which consists of Upper Sinian to Lower Cambrian rocks such as black carbonaceous aleurolite, carbonaceous silty slate, and carbonaceous siliceous rocks. Focusing on the study of black shales and based on comprehensive analysis, this paper has pointed out that manganese, vanadium, silver, and barium are the main ore-forming elements, while manganese mainly enriches in Dengying and Doushantuo formations, vanadium and silver in Lujiaping Formation, and barium in Bashan Formation. The paper has also established a geochemical anomaly model for black shales and shown a clear direction for prospecting.%重庆东北城口地区黑色岩系广泛发育,主要岩性有上震旦统到下武寒统的黑色碳质粉砂岩、含碳粉砂质板岩、含碳硅质岩等,在区内进行水系沉积物测量工作取得了良好的找矿效果.以区内的黑色岩系为重点研究对象,通过对样品分析数据的综合研究,指出了区内的主要成矿元素有Mn、V、Ag、Ba等,其中Mn主要富集在灯影组和陡山沱组中,V、Ag主要富集在鲁家坪组中,Ba则富集在巴山组中,初步确定了黑色岩系的地球化学异常模式,指明了区内黑色岩系的找矿方向.

  20. The Shale Gas in Europe project (GASH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; Gash-Team

    2010-05-01

    At the present time no shale gas play has been brought to the production level in Europe. While the opportunities appear abundant, there are still many challenges to be overcome in Europe such as land access and environmental issues. Costs per well are still higher than in the US, and mining regulations are tighter. As yet it remains unclear whether European shales can support commercial shale gas production. First, it will be essential to test the sub-surface and the potential deliverability of wells, supported by basic research. GASH is the first major scientific initiative in Europe that is focussed on shale gas; it is ambitious in that it is broad ranging in scientific scope and that it unites leading European research groups and geological surveys with industry. US know-how is also integrated into the programme to avoid reinventing the wheel, or, still worse, the flat tyre. GASH is currently funded by eight companies, and comprises two main elements: compilation of a European Black Shale Database (EBSD) and focussed research projects that are based on geochemical, geophysical and geomechanical investigations. The EBSD is being built by a team of more than 20 geological surveys, extending from Sweden in the north, through western Europe and the Baltic states down to southern Europe, and over to Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic in the east. The research projects apply numerical modelling, process simulations and laboratory analyses to selected regional study areas or "natural laboratories" from both Europe and the USA - the goal: to predict gas-in-place and fracability based on process understanding. The European black shales selected as natural shale gas laboratories are the Cambrian Alum Shale from Sweden and Denmark, the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale from Central Germany, and Carboniferous black shales from the UK in the west via the Netherlands to Germany in the east. Fresh core material for detailed investigations will be recovered during the mid

  1. {sup 238}U series isotopes and {sup 232}Th in carbonates and black shales from the Lesser Himalaya: implications to dissolved uranium abundances in Ganga-Indus source waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.K.; Dalai, Tarun K.; Krishnaswami, S. E-mail: swami@prl.ernet.in

    2003-07-01

    {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th concentrations and the extent of {sup 238}U-{sup 234}U-{sup 230}Th radioactive equilibrium have been measured in a suite of Precambrian carbonates and black shales from the Lesser Himalaya. These measurements were made to determine their abundances in these deposits, their contributions to dissolved uranium budget of the headwaters of the Ganga and the Indus in the Himalaya and to assess the impact of weathering on {sup 238}U-{sup 234}U-{sup 230}Th radioactive equilibrium in them. {sup 238}U concentrations in Precambrian carbonates range from 0.06 to 2.07 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The 'mean' U/Ca in these carbonates is 2.9 ng U mg{sup -1} Ca. This ratio, coupled with the assumption that all Ca in the Ganga-Indus headwaters is of carbonate origin and that U and Ca behave conservatively in rivers after their release from carbonates, provides an upper limit on the U contribution from these carbonates, to be a few percent of dissolved uranium in rivers. There are, however, a few streams with low uranium concentrations, for which the carbonate contribution could be much higher. These results suggest that Precambrian carbonates make only minor contributions to the uranium budget of the Ganga-Indus headwaters in the Himalaya on a basin wide scale, however, they could be important for particular streams. Similar estimates of silicate contribution to uranium budget of these rivers using U/Na in silicates and Na* (Na corrected for cyclic and halite contributions) in river waters show that silicates can contribute significantly ({approx}40% on average) to their U balance. If, however, much of the uranium in these silicates is associated with weathering resistant minerals, then the estimated silicate uranium component would be upper limits. Uranium concentration in black shales averages about 37 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Based on this concentration, supply of U from at least {approx}50 mg of black shales per liter of river water is needed to balance the

  2. Shales and swelling soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, J. A.; Dimillio, A. F.; Strohm, W. E., Jr.; Vandre, B. C.; Anderson, L. R.

    The thirteen (13) papers in this report deal with the following areas: a shale rating system and tentative applications to shale performance; technical guidelines for the design and construction of shale embankments; stability of waste shale embankments; dynamic response of raw and stabilized Oklahoma shales; laboratory studies of the stabilization of nondurable shales; swelling shale and collapsing soil; development of a laboratory compaction degradation test for shales; soil section approach for evaluation of swelling potential soil moisture properties of subgrade soils; volume changes in compacted clays and shales on saturation; characterization of expansive soils; pavement roughness on expansive clays; and deep vertical fabric moisture barriers in swelling soils.

  3. Alternatives of reforesting oil shale opencasts in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Estonia, reforesting has been considered to be the most sustainable way of restoring the productivity of land damaged by oil shale mining. As distinct reforestation alternatives give different results, three alternative ways of reforesting oil shale opencasts are compared: natural succession, and planting seedlings of either Scots pine or black alder. The present research shows that the use of unassisted natural succession is the most sustainable way of reforesting oil shale opencasts

  4. Chemistry of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.

    1974-01-01

    A review with several references covers the formation, distribution, and mining of oil shales of Fu-Shun colliery; retorting furnaces for oil shale; refining of crude shale oils; and components of oil from Fu-Shun oil shales including pyrolle, matrine, fatty acid anilides, 2,4,5-trimethylpyrrole, and middle-layer bases.

  5. Geology, geochemistry and petrophysics of the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.B.; Hemmesch, N.T.; Mnich, C.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Aoudia, K.; Miskimins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Sequence stratigraphic analysis can be done on black shales, however it requires an integrated multidisciplinary approach. Sea-level cycles are expressed even in the middle of a shale basin and are expressed in lithofacies, mineralogy, geochemistry and well logs. The cycles are important for shale gas, impacting gas generation, storage and fracture development. Geology, geochemistry and petrophysics of the Woodford Shale, located in the Permian Basin of west Texas were discussed in this presentation. Specifically, the presentation discussed the stratigraphy in a black shale, motivation for rock properties research, and factor analysis results. It was concluded that cycles affect gas generation capacity and rock properties. tabs., figs.

  6. Oil shales, evaporites and ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1985-03-01

    The relationships between oil shales, evaporites and sedimentary ore deposits can be classified in terms of stratigraphic and geochemical coherence. Oil shale and black shale deposition commonly follows continental red beds and is in turn followed by evaporite deposition. This transgressive-regressive sequence represents an orderly succession of depositional environments in space and time and results in stratigraphic coherence. The amount of organic carbon of a sediment depends on productivity and preservation, both of which are enhanced by saline environments. Work on Great Salt Lake. Utah, allows us to estimate that only 5% of TOC originally deposited is preserved. Inorganic carbonate production is similar to TOC production, but preservation is much higher. Oil shales and black shales commonly are enriched in heavy metals through scavenging by biogenic particles and complexation by organic matter. Ore deposits are formed from such rocks through secondary enrichment processes, establishing a geochemical coherence between oil shales and ore deposits. The Permian Kupferschiefer of N. Europe is used as an example to define a Kupferschiefer type (KST) deposit. Here oxygenated brines in contact with red beds become acidified through mineral precipitation and acquire metals by dissolving oxide coatings. Oxidation of the black shale leads to further acid production and metal acquisition and eventually to sulfide deposition along a reducing front. In order to form ore bodies, the stratigraphic coherence of the red bed-black shale-evaporite succession must be joined by the geochemical coherence of the ore body-evaporite-black shale association. The Cretaceous Cu-Zn deposits of Angola, the Zambian Copperbelt as well as the Creta, Oklahoma, deposits are other KST examples. In the Zambian Copperbelt, evaporites are indicated by the carbonate lenticles thought to be pseudomorphs after gypsum-anhydrite nodules. MVT deposits are also deposited by acid brines, but at more

  7. FTIR absorption indices for thermal maturity in comparison with vitrinite reflectance R0 in type-II kerogens from Devonian black shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, G.P.; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.; Lewan, M.D.; Stankiewicz, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    FTIR absorbance signals in kerogens and macerals were evaluated as indices for thermal maturity. Two sets of naturally matured type-II kerogens from the New Albany Shale (Illinois Basin) and the Exshaw Formation (Western Canada Sedimentary Basin) and kerogens from hydrous pyrolysis artificial maturation of the New Albany Shale were characterized by FTIR. Good correlation was observed between the aromatic/aliphatic absorption ratio and vitrinite reflectance R 0. FTIR parameters are especially valuable for determining the degree of maturity of marine source rocks lacking vitrinite. With increasing maturity, FTIR spectra express four trends: (i) an increase in the absorption of aromatic bands, (ii) a decrease in the absorption of aliphatic bands, (iii) a loss of oxygenated groups (carbonyl and carboxyl), and (iv) an initial decrease in the CH2/CH3 ratio that is not apparent at higher maturity in naturally matured samples, but is observed throughout increasing R0 in artificially matured samples. The difference in the CH2/CH 3 ratio in samples from natural and artificial maturation at higher maturity indicates that short-term artificial maturation at high temperatures is not fully equivalent to slow geologic maturation at lower temperatures. With increasing R0, the (carboxyl + carbonyl)/aromatic carbon ratio generally decreases, except that kerogens from the Exshaw Formation and from hydrous pyrolysis experiments express an intermittent slight increase at medium maturity. FTIR-derived aromaticities correlate well with R0, although some uncertainty is due to the dependence of FTIR parameters on the maceral composition of kerogen whereas R0 is solely dependent on vitrinite. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Geologic characteristics of hydrocarbon-bearing marine, transitional and lacustrine shales in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu; Xu, Zhengyu; Feng, Youliang; Zhang, Jinchuan; Cai, Dongsheng; Chen, Lei; Wu, Yue; Zhou, Dongsheng; Bao, Shujing; Long, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Organic-rich shales spanning in age from Pre-Cambrian to Quaternary were widely deposited in China. This paper elaborates the geology and unique characteristics of emerging and potential hydrocarbon-bearing shales in China. The Pre-Cambrian Sinian Doushantuo to Silurian black marine shales in the intra-shelf low to slope environments were accumulated in South China and Tarim Platform in Northwest China. These marine shales with maturity (Ro) of 1.3-5% are in dry gas window. During Carboniferous to Permian, the shales associated with coal and sandstones were mainly deposited in coastal swamp transitional setting in north China, NE China, NW China and Yangtze platform in South China. These transitional shales are generally clay rich and are potential gas-bearing reservoirs. Since Middle Permian, the lacustrine shales with total carbon content (TOC) up to 30% and Ro mainly in oil window are widely distributed in all the producing basins in China. The lacustrine shales usually have more clay mineral content than marine shales and are characterized by rapid facies change and are interbedded with carbonates and sandstone. The high quality shale reservoir with high TOC, hydrocarbon content and brittle minerals content is usually located at transgressive systems tract (TST) to early highstand systems tract (EHST) interval deposited in anoxic depositional setting. Recent commercial shale gas production from the Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in the southeastern Sichuan Basin, preliminary tight oil production associated with lacustrine hydrocarbon-bearing shale intervals and hydrocarbon shows from many other shales have proven the hydrocarbon-bearing shales in China are emerging and potential shale gas and tight (shale) oil plays. Tectonic movements could have breached the early hydrocarbon accumulation in shales and tectonically stable areas are suggested to be favorable prospects for China shale plays exploration and production.

  9. 渝东北黑色页岩元素迁移特征及化学风化程度%Elemental Migration Characteristics and Chemical Weathering Degree of Black Shale in Northeast Chongqing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫锡勇; 凌斯祥; 任勇; 廖昕; 赵思远; 李晓宁

    2016-01-01

    黑色页岩是富含有机质和硫化矿物的特殊沉积岩,但人们对其风化过程的元素活动性及矿物风化机制关注较少.为探讨不同地形位置的黑色页岩化学风化过程,采集了渝东北城口某山脊(A)、近山顶(B)和沟谷(C)的下寒武统水井沱组黑色页岩风化剖面岩样,利用 XRD、XRF和化学分析手段对采集样品的矿物成分、主量元素进行测定分析.元素和矿物的质量迁移系数(τ)和质量迁移通量(Mj,flux )的计算结果表明,黑色页岩风化过程中Ca、Mg和 Na元素具有明显的贫化现象,近地表处存在Al元素的富集现象;矿物成分方面,黄铁矿和有机质氧化后形成的酸性水环境,造成方解石、白云石、斜长石等不稳定矿物溶解,并生成含水石膏、铁质氧化物、黏土矿物等次生矿物.不同赋存位置的黑色页岩风化程度有所差异,Na∕K-CIA、K∕Ca﹡-Al∕Na、A-CN-K和 A-CNK-FM图解显示:A剖面处于脱Ca过程的初级风化阶段,B剖面处于脱 Ca、Na 初期的初等-中等风化阶段,C剖面已发生脱Ca、Na过程,并伴随脱 Si作用的中等-强烈风化阶段,结合不同风化指数 (如:CIA、CIW、PIA、MW-PI 等),得出各剖面的化学风化强弱程度依次为C>B>A.%Black shales are special sedimentary rocks that contain significant amounts of organic matter and sulfide minerals;whereas, less is known about the elemental mobility and weathering mechanism in black shales during chemical weathering.For understanding the chemical weathering processes of black shale in different geographic locations,a number of Shuij ingtuo Formation black shale sam-ples were collected from three weathering profiles,namely,profile A (mid-ridge),profile B (near mountaintop),and profile C (val-ley)at Chengkou County,northeastern Chongqing Province in this study.The major element concentration,mineral composition,and bulk density of each sample were analyzed by XRF,XRD and chemical analysis methods

  10. Anomalous enrichment of molybdenum and associated metals in Lower Jurassic (Lias Group) black shales of central England, as revealed by systematic geochemical surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Breward, N.; Kemp, S.J.; Ambrose, K.; Powell, J. H.; Morigi, A.; Wagner, D.

    2015-01-01

    Systematic multi-media geochemical surveying by the British Geological Survey's Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE) project has revealed significant anomalous patterns of enrichment for a suite of elements – copper (Cu) and uranium (U) – with exceptionally high levels of molybdenum (Mo), in soils and stream sediments in central England. Enrichment of these elements is most often associated with organic-rich, sulphidic ‘black shale’ lithofacies, typical of oxygen-deficient,...

  11. 中上扬子地区晚奥陶世-早志留世岩相古地理演化与黑色页岩的关系%Late Ordovician-Early Silurian sedimentary facies and palaeogeographic evolution and its bearings on the black shales in the Middle-Upper Yangtze area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海全; 许效松; 刘伟; 门玉澎

    2013-01-01

    During the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian,the Middle-Upper Yangtze area appeared as a shallow shelf surrounded by foreland uplifts,where the sedimentary environment was controlled by the Wuling-Xuefeng and central Guizhou foreland upwarped zones.The stagnant and reducing conditions in the inter-foreland back-uplift basins once provided vast accommodation spaces for the deposition of the black shales.The Katian black shales of the Late Ordovician in the Wufeng Formation are thin in thickness,and contain graptolite biostromes and abundant Radiolarias,suggesting a shallow-marine deep-water basin environment.The Rhuddanian black shales as the black graptolite shales in the lower part of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation are considered as the inherited deposits of the Wufeng Formation.The overlying Aeronian Longmaxi Formation displays the shallowing-upward depositional sequences composed of the thin interbeds of black silty shales and grey siltstones,and records the transition from subtidal to intertidal and finally to tidal-flat environments.The space-time evolution of the depositional sequences was constrained by the surrounding palaeouplifts.The space-time range of the foreland uplifts was relatively small and gentle during the Late Ordovician.Till the Rhuddanian (Early Silurian),the steady expansion of the foreland uplifts led to the structural separation,development of the depressions nearly parallel to the foreland uplifts,and considerable variations in the thickness of the black shales in the Longmaxi Formation.Finally during the late Aeronian,the relative falling of sea levels and shallowing of sea water marked the termination of the deposition of the black shales in the Middle-Upper Yangtze area.%晚奥陶世-早志留世时的中上扬子地区,是一个周边被前陆隆起围限的浅海陆棚,沉积环境受武陵-雪峰及黔中前陆隆起带的控制.前隆间的隆后盆地为滞留、还原环境的海域,为黑色页岩沉积提供了空间.上

  12. Research on Preparation of White Carbon Black from Oil Shale Residue by Chemical Way%化学法处理油页岩渣制备白炭黑的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛彦辉; 郭婷婷; 薛真

    2012-01-01

    White carbon black was prepared by acid leaching and alkali dissolving using oil shale residue as materials. When acid leaching was conducted,the iron aluminides were dissolved first,then the residue was treated by sodium hydroxide to get white carbon black. On the contrary, when alkali dissolving was conducted, alkali heating went first,dissolving the compounds of silicon dioxide and aluminum,then iron was recovered by acid. The experi-mental result showed that the technology of alkali dissolving is better than that of acid leaching,the leaching rate of acid leaching is 22.1% ,alkali 30.6%. Thus,the optimum technological condition by alkali dissolving was determined; the reaction temperature is 100t ,the reaction time is 4h,the ratio of NaOH to SiO2 is 4. Under this condition, the leaching rate of white carbon black can reach 48.5%. The oil shale residue can be utilized rationally .realizing waste recovery.%以油页岩渣为原料,分别用酸浸法和碱溶法制备了白炭黑.酸浸法主要是先用浓盐酸溶解其中的铁和铝的化合物,然后再用氢氧化钠处理剩下的残渣,得到白炭黑.而碱法与其相反,先用碱煮,将其中主要的二氧化硅和铝的化合物溶解,再用酸回收剩余的铁.试验结果表明酸法处理油页岩渣工艺的白炭黑提取率为22.1%,碱法处理油页岩渣工艺的白炭黑提取率为30.6%,碱法工艺比酸法工艺优越.进一步探讨了碱法处理油页岩渣制备白炭黑工艺的反应温度、反应时间以及碱浓度等对白炭黑提取率的影响,较佳工艺条件为:反应温度100℃、反应时间4.0h、NaOH/SiO2=4,该条件下白炭黑提取率可达48.5%.化学法处理油页岩渣制备白炭黑可使油页岩渣得到充分合理的利用,实现废物资源化.

  13. Géochimie minérale de sédiments à faciès black-shales, Crétacé moyen de l'Atlantique Nord, sites DSDP 386 et 391 Mineral Geochemistry of Black Shales from the Mid-Cretaceous of the North Atlantic, Dsdp Sites 386 and 391

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosse E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'analyse chimique de 154 échantillons d'âge Aptien à Turonien, pour l'essentiel des argilites, en provenance des sites DSDP-IPOD 386 (situé sur la ride des Bermudes et 391 (localisé au pied de la marge américaine, met en évidence, d'une manière indépendante des lithofaciès et des compositions minéralogiques, un certain nombre d'influences enregistrées par les sédiments : - influences du potentiel d'oxydo-réduction : enrichissements en Fe et Mn des dépôts oxydés ; en V, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu des sédiments réduits, et notamment des argilites pyriteuses et très carbonées déposées pendant l'événement E2à la limite Cénomanien-Turonien ; - influences du détritisme terrigène, avec trois indices particulièrement intéressants : les comportements comparés des alcalins (Na et K, la teneur en Ga des smectites, et le rapport D = AI/(AI + Fe + Mn ; - influences du volcanisme, soit sous forme de pyroclastes (enrichissement en Ti et Cr, soit sous forme ionique par l'intermédiaire de solutions interstitielles circulantes (enrichissement en Fe, Mn, Ba, Ni, Co, Cu, Pb ; - influence du taux de sédimentation, mise en évidence grâce à Cr. Les résultats obtenus apportent des précisions intéressantes sur l'évolution dans l'espace et dans le temps des milieux de dépôt et de diagenèse. Etant donné, par ailleurs, que les sédiments étudiés se sont déposés dans des conditions de milieux déjà connues grâce aux approches de la sédimentologie, de la minéralogie et de la géochimie organique, la reconnaissance des caractéristiques géochimiques de tels milieux pourra probablement aider à la reconstitution des conditions de dépôt pour des séries d'âges et de faciès comparables, mais transformées par un métamorphisme isochimique, telles les schistes lustrés alpins. One hundred fifty-four samples of Aptian to Turonian black-shales from various lithofacies have been selected for chemical analysis from DSDP sites 386

  14. A Preliminary Investigation of the Development and Hydrocarbon Potential of the the Black Shales in the Upper Permian Dalong Formation, Southern Anhui Province in the Lower Yangze Region, China%下扬子皖南大隆组黑色岩系发育特征及油气资源潜力初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖志伟; 胡文瑄; 曹剑; 姚素平; 许志敏; 张月霞; 万野; 丁海

    2016-01-01

    The upper Permian Dalong Formation in the Lower Yangtze Region with black shales is potential for hydrocarbon source rock. Little attention has been paid to this issue. In order to improve the understanding about it, we conducted a comprehensively combined study of petrology and organic geochemistry based on three recently-discovered Dalong black shales outcrops in the southern Anhui province, with the aim to characterize the development and hydrocarbon potential of the Dalong black shales. The results show that the black shales developed widely in all the three outcrops, including the Niushan (Xuancheng City), Caicun (Jingxian County) and Changqiao (Jingxian County). Lithology of the shales is variable from chert to calcareous shale, as well as siliceous mudstone. Stratigraphic correlation and sedimentology of the shales imply that the study area has been subjected to a complete sequence of marine transgression and regression and the black shales generally developed in the environment of deep seawater under reducing, restricted and undercompensated conditions. The results from the study of petrology and organic geochemistry show that the Dalong black shales are rich in organic with the average total organic carbon content being around 2.0%. In terms of kerogen types, the organic matter is primarily Ⅱ2 and Ⅲ. Combined with the high to over maturation of organic matter, we propose that the regional exploration should be focused on natural gas reservoir. Based on the comparison of the distribution of Mesozoic-Cenozoic igneous rocks and black shales in the study area, we infer that the over maturation of organic matter may be primarily influenced by large-scale magmatism in South China during the Mesozoic to Cenozoic period. Thus, petroleum exploration potential can also be considered in the areas where there was no/little significant influence of magmatism (e.g., the Jingxian-Guangde area). These results and understanding can also provide highlights for the

  15. Western Greece unconventional hydrocarbon potential from oil shale and shale gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakitsios, Vasileios; Agiadi, Konstantina

    2013-04-01

    It is clear that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins to explore for conventional oil and gas and that the reserves of conventional oil, which can be produced cheaply, are limited. This is the reason why several major oil companies invest in what are often called unconventional hydrocarbons: mainly oil shales, heavy oil, tar sand and shale gas. In western Greece exist important oil and gas shale reservoirs which must be added to its hydrocarbon potential1,2. Regarding oil shales, Western Greece presents significant underground immature, or close to the early maturation stage, source rocks with black shale composition. These source rock oils may be produced by applying an in-situ conversion process (ICP). A modern technology, yet unproven at a commercial scale, is the thermally conductive in-situ conversion technology, developed by Shell3. Since most of western Greece source rocks are black shales with high organic content, those, which are immature or close to the maturity limit have sufficient thickness and are located below 1500 meters depth, may be converted artificially by in situ pyrolysis. In western Greece, there are several extensive areas with these characteristics, which may be subject of exploitation in the future2. Shale gas reservoirs in Western Greece are quite possibly present in all areas where shales occur below the ground-water level, with significant extent and organic matter content greater than 1%, and during their geological history, were found under conditions corresponding to the gas window (generally at depths over 5,000 to 6,000m). Western Greece contains argillaceous source rocks, found within the gas window, from which shale gas may be produced and consequently these rocks represent exploitable shale gas reservoirs. Considering the inevitable increase in crude oil prices, it is expected that at some point soon Western Greece shales will most probably be targeted. Exploration for conventional petroleum reservoirs

  16. Chattanooga Shale conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Seven papers are included, relating to the exploitation of the uranium contained in shales. One of these papers discusses the IGT Hytort process, and was previously abstracted. Separate abstracts were prepared for the remaining six papers. (DLC)

  17. Power from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerushalmi, J.; Wohlfarth, A.; Schwartz, M.; Luria, S.

    1988-02-01

    The possibilities for burning oil shale directly to generate a substantial fraction of Israel's electric power are to be investigated by means of a demonstration plant. The plant incorporates a fluidized bed reactor in which combustion tests have shown Israeli oil-shale will burn with high carbon utilization and without the need for supplementary fuel. Sulphur dioxide emissions are nearly all absorbed by the limestone that makes up about 50% of the shale. The design is for co-generation, supplying low pressure process steam for a chemical plant and electricity to the grid. Economic evaluation suggests that oil shale power generation in Israel could in the future be at least competitive with coal and under some circumstances have a cost advantage.

  18. Irradiation of organic matter by uranium decay in the Alum Shale, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, M. D.; Buchardt, B.

    1989-06-01

    The Alum Shale of Sweden contains black shales with anomalously high uranium concentrations in excess of 100 ppm. Syngenetic or early diagenetic origin of this uranium indicates that organic matter within these shales has been irradiated by decaying uranium for approximately 500 Ma. Radiation-induced polymerization of alkanes through a free-radical cross-linking mechanism appears to be responsible for major alterations within the irradiated organic matter. Specific radiation-induced alterations include generation of condensate-like oils at reduced yields from hydrous pyrolysis experiments, decrease in atomic H/C ratios of kerogens, decrease in bitumen/organic-carbon ratios, and a relative increase in low-molecular weight triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons. Conversely, stable carbon isotopes of kerogens, reflectance of vitrinite-like macerais, oil-generation kinetics, and isomerization of 20R to 20S αα C 29-steranes were not affected by radiation. The radiation dosage needed to cause the alterations observed in the Alum Shale has been estimated to be in excess of 10 5 Mrads with respect to organic carbon. This value is used to estimate the potential for radiation damage to thermally immature organic matter in black shales through the geological rock record. High potential for radiation damage is not likely in Cenozoic and Mesozoic black shales but becomes more likely in lower Paleozoic and Precambrian black shales.

  19. Shale: Measurement of thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal conductivity and heat capacity measurements were made on samples of Devonian shale, Pierre shale, and oil shale from the Green River Formation. Thermal expansion measurements were made on selected samples of Devonian shale. Measurements were obtained over the temperature range of ambient to 473 K. Average values for thermal conductivity and heat capacity for the samples studied were within two standard deviations of all data over this temperature range. 15 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Shale oil combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 'coutant' carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs

  1. Assessment on shale gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article comments the recent development of shale gas exploration and exploitation in Poland, the associated political decisions, the locations and the involved companies, and the project of creation of a national operator of energy resources. It also evokes the reactions of the European Union in front of these Polish developments, notably the adoption of a proposal for introducing a mandatory environmental impact study before exploring a site. It comments a visit made by French officials (a parliamentary body) in Poland, outlines some problems faced to precisely assess the cost of shale gas exploitation, and comments technological developments in Poland which therefore represents a reference and a test

  2. Trace metal chemistry in the Marcellus shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bank, Tracy [University at Buffalo (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, due to the depletion of traditional fossil fuel resources and the rising price of energy, the production of unconventional gas has increased. Several black shales contain uranium both in insoluble species, U4+, and in soluble U6+ phase. Those two forms of uranium are weakly radioactive, however they are toxic and can lead to kidney and liver damage. The aim of this paper is to assess the oxidation state of uranium in the Marcellus shale formation. Samples were analyzed using several methods such as XRD, X-ray absorption near edge structure, and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to determine the rock geochemistry and examine the interaction between the uranium and the hydrocarbons. It was found that uranium exists in both UO2 and U-C forms with a dominance of U6+. This study demonstrated that uranium is present in the Marcellus shale in both U4+ and U6+ states and that more research must therefore be undertaken to determine how to dispose of waste from drilling and fracking activities.

  3. Market assessment for shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This study identified several key issues on the cost, timeliness, and ease with which shale oil can be introduced into the United States' refining system. The capacity of the existing refining industry to process raw shale oil is limited by the availability of surplus hydrogen for severe hydrotreating. The existing crude oil pipeline system will encounter difficulties in handling raw shale oil's high viscosity, pour point, and contaminant levels. The cost of processing raw shale oil as an alternate to petroleum crude oil is extremely variable and primarily dependent upon the percentage of shale oil run in the refinery, as well as the availability of excess hydrogen. A large fraction of any shale oil which is produced will be refined by the major oil companies who participate in the shale oil projects and who do not anticipate problems in processing the shale oil in their refineries. Shale oil produced for sale to independent refiners will initially be sold as boiler fuel. A federal shale oil storage program might be feasible to supplement the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Based on refinery configurations, hydrogen supply, transportation systems, and crude availability, eleven refineries in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 2A and 2B have been identified as potential processors of shale oil. Based on refining technology and projected product demands to the year 2000, shale oil will be best suited to the production of diesel fuel and jet fuel. Tests of raw shale oil in boilers are needed to demonstrate nitrogen oxide emissions control.

  4. Radioactivity and uranium content of some Cretaceous shales, central Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtelot, Harry A.

    1955-01-01

    The Sharon Springs member of the Pierre shale of Cretaceous age, a hard black organic-rich shale similar to the Chattanooga shale, is radioactive throughout central and western South Dakota, most of Nebraska, northern Kansas, and northeastern Colorado. In the Missouri River valley, thin beds of the shale contain as much as 0.01 percent uranium. Beds as much as 20 feet thick or more have a radioactivity of about 0.01 percent equivalent uranium in southwestern Nebraska according to interpretation of gamma-ray well logs. The radioactivity and uranium content is highest in the Missouri River valley in South Dakota and in southwestern Nebraska where the shale rests disconformably on the underlying Niobrara formation of Cretaceous age. Near the Black Hills, and in the area to the north, the shale of the Sharon Springs member rests on a wedge of the Gammon ferruginous member of the Pierre, which is represented by a disonformity to the east and south, and the radioactivity of the shale is low although greater than that of over-lying strata. The shale also contains a suite of trace elements in which arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and vanadium are conspicuous. Molybdenum and tin are less abundant in the Sharon Springs than in similar shales of Palezoic age and silver and selenium are more abundant. In the Great Plains region, the upper 30-50 feet of Cretaceous shales overlain unconformably by the White River group of Oligocene age has been altered to bright-colored material. This altered zone is chiefly the result of pre-Oligocene weathering although post-Oligocene ground water conditions also have affected the zone. The greatest radioactivity occurs in masses of unaltered shale measuring about 1 x 4 feet in cross section included in the lower part of the altered zone. Where the zone is developed on shale and marl of the Niobrara formation, parts of the included unaltered shale contains as much as 0.1 percent equivalent uranium and 0

  5. Upper Devonian radiolarians separated from chert of the Ford Lake Shale, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Brian K.; Jones, D.L.; Allison, C.

    1978-01-01

    Leaching of black bedded chert from the Ford Lake Shale, Kandik Basin, Alaska, with dilute hydrofluoric acid resulted in the complete separation of moderately well preserved radiolarians. Preliminary study of an assemblage obtained from the lower half of the formation revealed six to eight forms apparently identical to specimens previously known from the Tournaisian of southern France and northwestern Turkey, including four genera not previously described from North America. Sparse, poorly preserved conodonts in the same sample are of Late Devonian age. We conclude that certain radiolarian species, hitherto known only from the early Carboniferous, span the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. The radiolarian assemblage of the Ford Lake Shale sample contrasts markedly with Late Devonian assemblages known from the Canol Shale of northern Canada and the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale; the Ford Lake Shale fauna may reflect greater oceanic influences than these other localities, which lie farther inland from the Devonian continental margin.

  6. 上扬子地区震旦系-早古生界黑色页岩的沉积和埋藏环境%Sedimentary and burial environment of black shales of Sinian to Early Palaeozoic in Upper Yangtze region.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程立雪; 王元君; 陈洪德; 王约; 钟怡江

    2013-01-01

    Black shales within the Sinian (Ediacaran) to Early Paleozoic strata from Upper Yangtze region are the three high quality source rocks of Sinian to Early Paleozoic marine Lower Assemblage in South China,which are generally thought to be the result of deposition under stagnant and suboxic conditions.According to the information of sedimentary structure and biological,ecological patterns,the sedimentary environment and burial condition of these black shales are discussed.The benthonic organisms and abundant natant organisms indicate that there were,in the sedimentary environment of black shales,an oxic upper-water in where abundant organisms lived and repropagated to provide organic-rich matters for deposits,and a suboxic or dysoxic bottom-water in where the decomposition of organic-matters were weakened and /or baffled for the preservation of organic-rich matters.In addition,the sedimentary structures formed by water-energy (e.g.the ranking orientation of fossils and their fragments,the oblique bedding in nonblack-shale rocks intercalated in black shales) show that there were measure of water-energy or an periodic and intermittent hydroenergy in the bottom-water.The water-energy was able to promote the oxygenic diffusion in bottom-water for the benthonic organisms.With the increase of the water-rich muddy deposits,the oxygen-exchanging efficiency between the deposited water and sea-water was weakening to intensify the stagnation and reduction of the deposited water inner deposits.Simultaneously,the organic-rich matter (e.g.organismic corpses and excreta) buried by deposits were decaying and decomposing to advance the reduction around them,so that the organic-rich matter were preserved to form the black shales.%上扬子地区震旦(伊迪卡拉)系-早古生界黑色页岩是我国南方震旦纪-早古生代“下组合”海相地层中的“三大优质烃源岩”,并普遍认为系缺氧、滞流环境下的沉积.本文从“下组合”黑色页岩的沉积

  7. Pneumoconiosis of shale miners.

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, A; Lamb, D; Brown, W. R.; Sclare, G.; Middleton, W G

    1981-01-01

    Four patients are described in whom pneumoconiosis was diagnosed towards the end of a lifetime's work in shale mines. All developed complicated pneumoconiosis, diagnosed in two cases at necropsy, in one by lobectomy, and in one radiologically. Two of the patients were found at necropsy also to have peripheral squamous lung cancer.The clinical and histological features of the disease resembled the pneumoconioses of coalminers and kaolin workers and the lungs of three of the patients were shown...

  8. Shale Gas - its challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although still only produced in North America, shale gas has had a strong influence on the world energy scene over the last five years. Its present and future impact on the gas market cannot be ignored, in a context where all observers are forecasting significant demand growth for gas over the coming decades. Although classified as unconventional gas, the origin and nature of shale gas are the same as for natural gas. It is the consequence of the characteristics of the rock that contains it and its production resorts to the systematic use of techniques that have long been known and developed by the gas industry in other applications. Exploration aimed at evaluating its potential outside the USA and Canada is ongoing notably in South America, Europe and Asia. This will serve first to reduce uncertainty linked to the very existence of shale gas as a resource and to the characteristics of the geological formations containing it. The potential plays must then integrate the constraints relating to water management, the protection of the water table and management of surface operations, taking account of their interaction with other assorted stakeholders. (author)

  9. Distillation of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G.A.

    1926-03-22

    To distill oil shales, cannel coals, and other carbonaceous materials for the extraction therefrom of hydrocarbons and volatile nitrogenous compounds, hard non-condensable gases from the condensers and scrubbers are withdrawn by blowers and admixed with burnt gases, obtained through conduits from the flues of heaters, and forced downwardly through horizontal chambers, connected by vertical conduits, of the heaters and delivered into the retort beneath the grate. Passing upwardly through the charge they vaporize the volatile substances in the shale, and a suction pump removes the vapors from the top of the retort. Immediately they are produced and at substantially the same temperature as that at which they emanate, thus preventing cracking of the oil vapors and condensation of the oil at the top of the retort. The amount of burnt flue gas admixed with the hard gases is regulated by two valves until a required uniform temperature is obtained. A generator supplies producer gas to a heater at the commencement of the retorting operation for circulation through the shale charge to initially produce oil vapors. The generator is connected by a pipe to the gas conduit leading to blowers.

  10. Estonian oil shale - resources and usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives an overview about the oil shale deposits and industry in Estonia, the quality of commercial oil shale and the mining activities are also discussed. The development of power and heat production from oil shale is described

  11. Mineral barrier systems for the treatment of metal-polluted water from an alum shale deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Gärtner, Isabell

    2014-01-01

    Oil and gas were recovered from alum shale (black shale) at Kvarntorp, Närke,during a period of 24 years. One of the remnants of this industry is a 100 m highdeposit with high contents of uranium, arsenic, molybdenum, vanadium and otherelements. Presently the leakage of metals from the deposit into nearby streams israther modest but will most likely accelerate in the near future. One way to preventan uncontrolled leakage of these elements from the deposit into the environmentwould be to insta...

  12. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...

  13. Oil shale (in memoriam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans for the continued use of oil shale may lead the development of this country into an impasse. To this day no plans have been made for transition from the use of energy based on fossil fuels to that based on renewable resources. Without having any clear strategic plan politicians have been comforting both themselves and the population with promises to tackle the problem when the right time comes. Today the only enterprise whose cash flows and capital would really make it possible to reform the power industry is the firm Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy). However, its sole present shareholder - the state - prefers the sale of the firm's shares to carrying out a radical reform. At the same time, local consumers are likely to rather be willing to pay for the expensive electric energy produced from renewable resources than for that produced from fossil fuels, the price of which will also remain high due to the pollution tax. Practically it is impossible to buy a globally balanced environment for money - pollution taxes are but punitive mechanisms. The investments made into the oil-shale industry will also reinforce the cultural distance of North-East Estonia from the rest of Estonia - the uniform and prevalently Russian-speaking industrial area will be preserved as long as capital will continue to flow into the oil shale industry concentrated there. The way out would be for industries to make wider use of ecological and ecosystemic technologies and for the state to enforce ecologically balanced economic and social policies. (author)

  14. Petrophysical Properties of Cody, Mowry, Shell Creek, and Thermopolis Shales, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    The petrophysical properties of four shale formations are documented from well-log responses in 23 wells in the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming. Depths of the examined shales range from 4,771 to 20,594 ft. The four formations are the Thermopolis Shale (T), the Shell Creek Shale (SC), the Mowry Shale (M), and the lower part of the Cody Shale (C), all of Cretaceous age. These four shales lie within a 4,000-ft, moderately overpressured, gas-rich vertical interval in which the sonic velocity of most rocks is less than that of an interpolated trendline representing a normal increase of velocity with depth. Sonic velocity, resistivity, neutron, caliper, and gamma-ray values were determined from well logs at discrete intervals in each of the four shales in 23 wells. Sonic velocity in all four shales increases with depth to a present-day depth of about 10,000 ft; below this depth, sonic velocity remains relatively unchanged. Velocity (V), resistivity (R), neutron porosity (N), and hole diameter (D) in the four shales vary such that: VM > VC > VSC > VT, RM > RC > RSC > RT, NT > NSC ≈ NC > NM, and DT > DC ≈ DSC > DM. These orderings can be partially understood on the basis of rock compositions. The Mowry Shale is highly siliceous and by inference comparatively low in clay content, resulting in high sonic velocity, high resistivity, low neutron porosity, and minimal borehole enlargement. The Thermopolis Shale, by contrast, is a black fissile shale with very little silt--its high clay content causes low velocity, low resistivity, high neutron response, and results in the greatest borehole enlargement. The properties of the Shell Creek and lower Cody Shales are intermediate to the Mowry and Thermopolis Shales. The sonic velocities of all four shales are less than that of an interpolated trendline that is tied to velocities in shales above and below the interval of moderate overpressure. The reduction in velocity varies among the four shales, such that the amount of offset (O) from

  15. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Self-cementing properties of oil shale solid heat carrier retorting residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talviste, Peeter; Sedman, Annette; Mõtlep, Riho; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2013-06-01

    Oil shale-type organic-rich sedimentary rocks can be pyrolysed to produce shale oil. The pyrolysis of oil shale using solid heat carrier (SHC) technology is accompanied by large amount of environmentally hazardous solid residue-black ash-which needs to be properly landfilled. Usage of oil shale is growing worldwide, and the employment of large SHC retorts increases the amount of black ash type of waste, but little is known about its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this research were to study the composition and self-cementing properties of black ash by simulating different disposal strategies in order to find the most appropriate landfilling method. Three disposal methods were simulated in laboratory experiment: hydraulic disposal with and without grain size separation, and dry dumping of moist residue. Black ash exhibited good self-cementing properties with maximum compressive strength values of >6 MPa after 90 days. About 80% of strength was gained in 30 days. However, the coarse fraction (>125 µm) did not exhibit any cementation, thus the hydraulic disposal with grain size separation should be avoided. The study showed that self-cementing properties of black ash are governed by the hydration of secondary calcium silicates (e.g. belite), calcite and hydrocalumite.

  17. Biogenic gas in the Cambrian-Ordovcian Alum Shale (Denmark and Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.M.; Wirth, R.; Biermann, S.; Arning, E.T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Krueger, M.; Straaten, N. [BGR Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A. [Montanuniv. Leoben (Austria); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany); Schovsbo, N.H. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland - GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Crabtree, Stephen [Gripen Gas (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Shale gas is mainly produced from thermally mature black shales. However, biogenic methane also represents a resource which is often underestimated. Today biogenic methane is being produced from the Upper Devonian Antrim Shale in the Michigan Basin which was the most successfully exploited shale gas system during the 1990-2000 decade in the U.S.A. before significant gas production from the Barnett Shale started (Curtis et al., 2008). The Cambro-Ordovician Alum Shale in northern Europe has thermal maturities ranging from overmature in southern areas (Denmark and southern Sweden) to immature conditions (central Sweden). Biogenic methane is recorded during drilling in central Sweden. The immature Alum Shale in central Sweden has total organic carbon (TOC) contents up to 20 wt%. The hydrogen index HI ranges from 380 to 560 mgHC/gTOC at very low oxygen index (OI) values of around 4 mg CO{sub 2}/gTOC, Tmax ranges between 420 - 430 C. The organic matter is highly porous. In general, the Alum Shale is a dense shale with intercalated sandy beds which may be dense due to carbonate cementation. Secondary porosity is created in some sandy beds due to feldspar dissolution and these beds serve as gas conduits. Methane production rates with shale as substrate in the laboratory are dependent on the kind of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial enrichment cultures used in the incubation experiments, ranging from 10-620 nmol/(g*d). In these experiments, the CO{sub 2} production rate was always higher than for methane. Like the northern part of North America, also Northern European has been covered by glaciers during the Pleistocene and similar geological processes may have developed leading to biogenic shale gas formation. For the Antrim Shale one hypothesis suggests that fresh waters, recharged from Pleistocene glaciation and modern precipitation, suppressed basinal brine salinity along the northern margins of the Michigan Basin to greater depths and thereby enhancing methanogenesis

  18. The Architecture and Frictional Properties of Faults in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paola, N.; Imber, J.; Murray, R.; Holdsworth, R.

    2015-12-01

    The geometry of brittle fault zones in shale rocks, as well as their frictional properties at reservoir conditions, are still poorly understood. Nevertheless, these factors may control the very low recovery factors (25% for gas and 5% for oil) obtained during fracking operations. Extensional brittle fault zones (maximum displacement < 3 m) cut exhumed oil mature black shales in the Cleveland Basin (UK). Fault cores up to 50 cm wide accommodated most of the displacement, and are defined by a stair-step geometry. Their internal architecture is characterised by four distinct fault rock domains: foliated gouges; breccias; hydraulic breccias; and a slip zone up to 20 mm thick, composed of a fine-grained black gouge. Hydraulic breccias are located within dilational jogs with aperture of up to 20 cm. Brittle fracturing and cataclastic flow are the dominant deformation mechanisms in the fault core of shale faults. Velocity-step and slide-hold-slide experiments at sub-seismic slip rates (microns/s) were performed in a rotary shear apparatus under dry, water and brine-saturated conditions, for displacements of up to 46 cm. Both the protolith shale and the slip zone black gouge display shear localization, velocity strengthening behaviour and negative healing rates, suggesting that slow, stable sliding faulting should occur within the protolith rocks and slip zone gouges. Experiments at seismic speed (1.3 m/s), performed on the same materials under dry conditions, show that after initial friction values of 0.5-0.55, friction decreases to steady-state values of 0.1-0.15 within the first 10 mm of slip. Contrastingly, water/brine saturated gouge mixtures, exhibit almost instantaneous attainment of very low steady-state sliding friction (0.1), suggesting that seismic ruptures may efficiently propagate in the slip zone of fluid-saturated shale faults. Stable sliding in faults in shale can cause slow fault/fracture propagation, affecting the rate at which new fracture areas are

  19. New insights on the Karoo shale gas potential from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Götz, Annette E.; Montenari, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2013 concluded that there could be as much as 390 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin. This would make it the 8th-largest shale gas resource in the world. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. Within the framework of the Karoo Research Initiative (KARIN), two deep boreholes were drilled in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Here we report on new core material from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape) which intersected the Permian black shales of the Ecca Group, the Whitehill Formation being the main target formation for future shale gas production. To determine the original source potential for shale gas we investigated the sedimentary environments in which the potential source rocks formed, addressing the research question of how much sedimentary organic matter the shales contained when they originally formed. Palynofacies indicates marginal marine conditions of a stratified basin setting with low marine phytoplankton percentages (acritarchs, prasinophytes), good AOM preservation, high terrestrial input, and a high spores:bisaccates ratio (kerogen type III). Stratigraphically, a deepening-upward trend is observed. Laterally, the basin configuration seems to be much more complex than previously assumed. Furthermore, palynological data confirms the correlation of marine black shales of the Prince Albert and Whitehill formations in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin with the terrestrial coals of the Vryheid Formation in the north-eastern part of the basin. TOC values (1-6%) classify the Karoo black shales as promising shale gas resources, especially with regard to the high thermal maturity (Ro >3). The recently drilled deep boreholes in the southern and south-western Karoo Basin, the first since the

  20. Significance of Shale Gas Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Shelton; Mike D. Bumaman; Wenwu Xia; Nathaniel Harding

    2009-01-01

    Natural gas production from shale formations is growing exponentially in the United States. This paper introduces the five major shale formations in the United States and the technologies used to produce them. The Barnett, Haynesville,Fayetteville, Woodford, and Marcellus combined hold an estimated 978 trillion cubic feet of total gas reserves. These findings along with recent technological advances in horizontal drilling and completion methods have transformed the natural gas exploration and production industry in the U.S. and have fundamentally changed the U.S. energy picture. Specifically this paper states that the United States through the utilization of natural gas from shale can reduce its carbon emissions and can become more energy self-sufficient. Finally, the Harding & Shelton Group states in this paper that the opportunity to locate and produce shale gas in China is very similar to that which has taken place in the United States.

  1. Shale gas opportunities in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, London, ON (Canada). Petroleum Resources Centre

    2008-07-01

    Shale gas resources in southern Ontario were reviewed. Canadian oil and gas developers are now considering the exploitation of unconventional shale gas resources in southern Ontario. Petroleum well records maintained by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and surveys conducted by the Geological Survey of Canada have recorded gas deposits in the Upper Devonian Kettle Point formation; the Middle Devonian Marcellus formation; the Upper Ordovician Blue Mountain formation; and the Collingwood member of the Lindsay formation. Water well records have identified shale gas deposits where the formations sub-crop beneath glacial drifts. Shallow gas wells drilled in the mid-twentieth century in central southern Ontario have recovered significant gas flows from the Georgian Bay and Queenston formations. However, there are currently no commercial shale gas projects in any of the identified regions. 30 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Coal-shale interface detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, P. H.; Burch, J. L.; Drost, E. J.; Stein, R. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A penetrometer for coal-shale interface detection is presented. It is used with coal cutting equipment consisting of a reciprocating hammer, having an accelerometer mounted thereon to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  3. Coal-shale interface detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detector for use with coal cutting equipment is described. The detector consists of a reciprocating hammer with an accelerometer to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  4. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of devonian black-shale samples from Martin County, Kentucky; Carroll and Washington counties, Ohio; Wise County, Virginia; and Overton County, Tennessee, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, J.S.; Hosterman, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Core samples of Devonian shales from five localities in the Appalachian basin have been analyzed chemically and mineralogically. The amounts of major elements are similar; however, the minor constituents, organic C, S, phosphate and carbonate show ten-fold variations in amounts. Trace elements Mo, Ni, Cu, V, Co, U, Zn, Hg, As and Mn show variations in amounts that can be related to the minor constituents. All samples contain major amounts of quartz, illite, two types of mixed-layer clays, and chlorite in differing quantities. Pyrite, calcite, feldspar and kaolinite are also present in many samples in minor amounts. Dolomite, apatite, gypsum, barite, biotite and marcasite are present in a few samples in trace amounts. Trace elements listed above are strongly controlled by organic C with the exception of Mn which is associated with carbonate minerals. Amounts of organic C generally range from 3 to 6%, and S is in the range of 2-5%. Amounts of trace elements show the following general ranges in ppm (parts per million): Co, 20-40; Cu, 40-70; U, 10-40; As, 20-40; V, 150-300; Ni, 80-150; high values are as much as twice these values. The organic C was probably the concentrating agent, and the organic C and sulfide S together created an environment that immobilized and preserved these trace elements. Closely spaced samples showing an abrupt transition in color also show changes in organic C, S and trace-element contents. Several associations exist between mineral and chemical content. Pyrite and marcasite are the only minerals found to contain sulfide-S. In general, the illite-chlorite mixed-layer clay mineral shows covariation with organic C if calcite is not present. The enriched trace elements are not related to the clay types, although the clay and organic matter are intimately associated as the bulk fabric of the rock. ?? 1982.

  5. Shale gas reservoir characteristics of Ordovician-Silurian formations in the central Yangtze area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chang'an; Zhang, Tingshan; Wei, Yong; Zhang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a shale gas reservoir and the potential of a shale gas resource of Ordovician-Silurian age in the north of the central Yangtze area were determined. Core samples from three wells in the study area were subjected to thin-section examination, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance testing, X-ray diffraction mineral analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) testing, maturity testing, gas-bearing analysis, and gas component and isothermal adsorption experiments. A favorable segment of the gas shale reservoir was found in both the Wufeng Formation and the lower part of the Longmaxi Formation; these formations were formed from the late Katian to early Rhuddanian. The high-quality shale layers in wells J1, J2, and J3 featured thicknesses of 54.88 m, 48.49 m, and 52.00 m, respectively, and mainly comprised carbonaceous and siliceous shales. Clay and brittle minerals showed average contents of 37.5% and 62.5% (48.9% quartz), respectively. The shale exhibited type II1 kerogens with a vitrinite reflectance ranging from 1.94% to 3.51%. TOC contents of 0.22%-6.05% (average, 2.39%) were also observed. The reservoir spaces mainly included micropores and microfractures and were characterized by low porosity and permeability. Well J3 showed generally high gas contents, i.e., 1.12-3.16 m3/t (average 2.15 m3/t), and its gas was primarily methane. The relatively thick black shale reservoir featured high TOC content, high organic material maturity, high brittle mineral content, high gas content, low porosity, and low permeability. Shale gas adsorption was positively correlated with TOC content and organic maturity, weakly positive correlated with quartz content, and weakly negatively correlated with clay content. Therefore, the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations in the north of the central Yangtze area have a good potential for shale gas exploration.

  6. Paraho oil shale project. [Coloardo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pforzheimer, H.

    1976-01-01

    The Paraho Oil Shale Project is a privately financed program to prove the Paraho retorting process and hardware on oil shale at Anvil Points, Colo., near Rifle. The project was launched in late 1973 under the sponsorship of 17 participants many of whom were active in earlier oil shale research. Two new Paraho retorts, a pilot and a semiworks size unit, were installed at Anvil Points. The oil-shale mine on the adjacent Naval Oil Shale Reserve was reactivated. The mine and new retorts were put into operation during 1974. The pilot plant is used to explore operating parameters in order to define conditions for testing in the larger semiworks size retort. The experimental operations in 1974 set the stage for the successful runs in 1975 and early 1976. The results of the Paraho operations to date have been encouraging. They demonstrate that the process works, that the equipment is durable, and that both are environmentally acceptable on a pilot and a semiworks plant scale.

  7. Oil shale for energy chemistry ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Ковальський, В.С.; Кіровоградський національний технічний університет; Зубченко, О.М.; НАУ, кафедра технологічного обладнання; Богуслав, М.В.; Комітет молодіжних та дитячих громадських організацій м. Києва

    2006-01-01

     It’s been considered the role of сombustible shales for energetics and chemistry of Ukraine, pointed its layers and done detailed analize of extraction and converting technologies of Combustible shales.

  8. Microfossils and molecular records in oil shales of the Songliao Basin and implications for paleo-depositional environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Several oil shale beds, over 10 m thick, occur at the base of the first member of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1) in the Songliao Basin. They act both as excellent source rocks for conventional oil and as potential oil deposit for shale oil production. Here we combine micropaleon-tology with organic geochemistry to investigate the paleo-depositional environment and organic source characteristics of the oil shales and black shales. Our results indicate that algal remains are dominant microfossils in K2qn1 oil shales, and their relatively high abundance suggests a major algal thriving event during the oil shale deposition. The presence of fresh water and brackish water species, Sentusidinium, Vesperopsis and Nyktericysta, and marine or brackish water deltaic and lagoonal species such as Kiokansium and Dinogymniopsis demonstrate that this paleo-continental lake was influenced by marine transgressions at the time of K2qn1 oil shale formation. The extremely low pristine/phytane ratios, relatively high abundance of gammacerane and 4-methyl steranes, and low δ 13C values of C14-C37 n-alkanes in the oil shale organic extracts indicate the deposition of oil shales in anoxic and highly stratified water columns and the significant contribution of lacustrine algae to sedimentary organic matter. High molecular-weight paraffinic hydrocarbons with unusually high abundance of nC43, nC45, and nC47 may be related to special algal species associated with marine transgression events. The giant water body of Songliao paleo-lake and the change in the organic and chemical environment (such as nutrition source and water column salinity) associated with seawater transgression into the lake are among the most important reasons for oil shales in the Songliao Basin being different from mudstone and oil shale in other rifted basins.

  9. Microfossils and molecular records in oil shales of the Songliao Basin and implications for paleo-depositional environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG ZiHui; FANG Wei; WANG Xue; HUANG ChunYan; HUO QiuLi; ZHANG JuHe; HUANG QingHua; ZHANG Lei

    2009-01-01

    Several oil shale beds, over 10 m thick, occur at the base of the first member of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation (K_2qn~1) in the Songliao Basin. They act both as excellent source rocks for conventional oil and as potential oil deposit for shale oil production. Here we combine micropaleon-tology with organic geochemistry to investigate the paleo-depositional environment and organic source characteristics of the oil shales and black shales. Our results indicate that algal remains are dominant microfossils in K_2qn~1 oil shales, and their relatively high abundance suggests a major algal thriving event during the oil shale deposition. The presence of fresh water and brackish water species, Sentusidinium, Vesperopsis and Nyktericysta, and marine or brackish water deltaic and lagoonal spe-cies such as Kiokansium and Dinogymniopsis demonstrate that this paleo-continental lake was influ-enced by marine transgressions at the time of K_2qn~1 oil shale formation. The extremely low pris-tine/phytane ratios, relatively high abundance of gammacerane and 4-methyl steranes, and low δ~(13)C values of C_(14)-C_(37) n-alkanes in the oil shale organic extracts indicate the deposition of oil shales in an-oxic and highly stratified water columns and the significant contribution of lacustrine algae to sedi-mentary organic matter. High molecular-weight paraffinic hydrocarbons with unusually high abundance of nC_(43), nC_(45), and nC_(47) may be related to special algal species associated with marine transgression events. The giant water body of Songliao paleo-lake and the change in the organic and chemical envi-ronment (such as nutrition source and water column salinity) associated with seawater transgression into the lake are among the most important reasons for oil shales in the Songliao Basin being different from mudstone and oil shale in other rifted basins.

  10. Atmospheric Impacts of Marcellus Shale Gas Activities in Southwestern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presto, A. A.; Lipsky, E. M.; Saleh, R.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Pittsburgh and the surrounding regions of southwestern Pennsylvania are subject to intensive natural gas exploration, drilling, and extraction associated with the Marcellus Shale formation. Gas extraction from the shale formation uses techniques of horizontal drilling followed by hydraulic fracturing. There are significant concerns about air pollutant emissions from the development and production of shale gas, especially methane emissions. We have deployed a mobile monitoring unit to investigate the atmospheric impacts of Marcellus Shale gas activities. The mobile sampling platform is a van with an on-board generator, a high-resolution GPS unit, cameras, and instrumentation for measuring methane, criteria gases (SO2, NOx, CO, O3), PM size distributions (scanning mobility particle sizer), black carbon mass (multi-angle absorption photometer), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (gas chromatograph with flame ionization detection), and meteorological data. A major advantage of the mobile sampling unit over traditional, stationary monitors is that it allows us to rapidly visit a variety of sites. Sampling at multiple sites allows us to characterize the spatial variability of pollutant concentrations related to Marcellus activity, particularly methane. Data collected from the mobile sampling unit are combined with GIS techniques and dispersion models to map pollutants related to Marcellus Shale operations. The Marcellus Shale gas activities are a major and variable source of methane. The background methane concentration in Pittsburgh is 2.1 +/- 0.2 ppm. However, two southwestern Pennsylvania counties with the highest density of Marcellus Shale wells, Washington and Greene Counties, have many areas of elevated methane concentration. Approximately 11% of the sampled sites in Washington County and nearly 50% of the sampled sites in Greene County have elevated (>2.3 ppm) methane concentrations, compared to 1.5% of sites with elevated

  11. On the Fluid Retention Properties of Shales

    OpenAIRE

    Favero, Valentina; Ferrari, Alessio; Laloui, Lyesse

    2014-01-01

    The development of engineering activities involving shales such as the extraction of shale gas and shale oil, the nuclear waste geological storage and the sequestration of CO2, has led to an increasing interest toward the geomechanical behaviour of this geomaterial. In the context of such engineering applications, a deep understanding of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of shales is of primary significance. The water retention mechanisms play a major role in either fluid trapping due to the cap...

  12. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume III. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: production, unsponsored research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

    1980-10-01

    This document consists of the following papers: inorganic geochemistry studies of the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; lithology studies of upper Devonian well cuttings in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; possible effects of plate tectonics on the Appalachian Devonian black shale production in eastern Kentucky; preliminary depositional model for upper Devonian Huron age organic black shale in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; the anatomy of a large Devonian black shale gas field; the Cottageville (Mount Alto) Gas Field, Jackson County, West Virginia: a case study of Devonian shale gas production; the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field: a geological study of the relationships of Ohio Shale gas occurrences to structure, stratigraphy, lithology, and inorganic geochemical parameters; and a statistical analysis of geochemical data for the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field.

  13. Characteristic fly-ash particles from oil-shale combustion found in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fly-ash particles accumulate in sediments and can be used to assess spatial distribution and temporal trends of atmospheric deposition of pollutants derived from high temperature combustion of fossil fuels. Previous work has concerned fly-ash derived from oil and coal. Oil-shale is the main fossil fuel used in Estonia and a major source of atmospheric pollution in the Baltic states. To assess if oil-shale power plants produce specific fly-ash particles scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to compare fly-ash particles from oil-shale combustion with particles from oil and coal combustion. Two types were analysed, large black (10-30μm) and small glassy (< 5 μm) spheroidal particles. Although article morphology to some extent is indicative of the fuel burnt, morphological characters are not sufficient to differentiate between particles of different origin. However, the results indicate that with EDX analysis the fly-ash from oil-shale can be distinguished form oil and coal derived particles in environmental samples. Concentrations of large black and small glassy spheroidal fly-ash particles in a sediment core from an Estonian lake showed similar trends to oil-shale combustion statistics from Estonian power plants. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Depositional Model of the Marcellus Shale in West Virginia Based on Facies Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner, Kathy

    2011-11-14

    A lithologic analysis of well exposed Marcellus outcrops has identified six different facies in West Virginia and neighboring states: (1) light gray calcareous shale, (2) fossiliferous limestone, (3) black calcareous shale, (4) black noncalcareous shale, (5) dark gray noncalcareous shale, and (6) K-bentonite. Close interbedding of these rock types attests to a complex, ever-changing environment on the eastern foreland ramp of the Appalachian Basin. The environmental setting was clearly not a deep trough, permanently anoxic, salinity stratified, sediment starved, and populated exclusively by phytoplankton—the traditional depositional model. To the contrary, our sedimentary data suggest a rather shallow water depth, intermittent anoxia, normal-marine salinity, a fluctuating input of siliciclastic mud, and faunal communities of low and moderate diversity. Interbedding of the shale and limestone lithofacies as well as the vertical stacking of facies associations is explained most simply by fluctuations in water depth coupled with fluctuations in sediment supply. The sea floor was, at times, immediately below wave base (Facies 1 and 2), around the depth of the thermocline (Facies 2 and 3), or below the thermocline (Facies 4 and 5), relative sea level changing through two sequences of lowstand, transgression, and highstand. Simultaneously the supply of siliciclastic mud was greater at times of lowstand (increased erosion) and highstand (prograding shoreline), and the supply smaller during transgression (sediment stored in distant coastal plain).

  15. 湘西北张家界地区早寒武世牛蹄塘组黑色岩系镍钼矿层生物标志物的特征%Characteristics of biomarkers of Ni-Mo ore bed of black shale of Early Cambrian Niutitang Formation in the Zhangjiajie area,northwestern Hunan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕; 林丽; 杨永军; 马莉燕; 李德亮; 庞艳春

    2011-01-01

    The black shales are enriched with organic matter in Palaeozoic distributed widely in South China, with multi-metal elements of enrichment in them.In this paper, in terms of molecular paleontology, we studied the characteristics of biomarkers of Early Cambrian Niutitang Formation Ni-Mo ore bed of black shale in the Tianmenshan area, Zhangjiajie, Hunan.And abundant biomarkers, including n-alkanes, isoprenoid, terpanes and steranes, have been detected from the ore bed.They have the following characteristics: ① OEP values of the n-alkanes close to 1.0, showing no odd-even carbon dominance.The ratio of (nC21+nC22)/(nC28+nC29) is 0.7-10.4, with an average of 6.16, indicating a dominant role of light hydrocarbon components.Pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph) are enriched in samples.The average ratio of Pr/Ph is 0.26, showing phytane dominance.②According to the relatively abundance, tricyclic terpane > pentacyclic triterpane > quartcyclic terpane.The tricyclic terpane contents of C21,C23 and C24 show the distribution of Ⅴ shape.The ratio of C24 of the quartcyclic terpane and C26 of the tricyclic terpane is 0.50.The ratio of Ts/ (Tm+Ts) is between 0.40 and 0.43, with the average is 0.42.The value of garnmacerane is between 0.10 and 0.17, with the average is 0.13.③ The sterane characteristics of C27>C29>C28 show the distribution of asymmetrical Ⅴ shape.The average ratio of C27 and C29 of the sterane is 1.46(>1).Any 4-methyl sterane is detected in the samples.All of the biomarkers indicate the reducing and neritic sedimentary environments of black shales which bacteria, algae (blue-green algae, dinoflagellate, etc.) and low plankton are prosperous.%以湖南张家界天门山地区下寒武统牛蹄塘组底部的黑色页岩镍钼矿层为研究对象,对其进行了生物标志化合物特征的分析.发现该矿层的正构烷烃、类异戊二烯烃、萜类化合物和甾类化合物具有以下特征:①正构烷烃OEP(奇偶优势)接近1.0,

  16. Gamma 60Co-irradiation of organic matter in the Phosphoria Retort Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, M. D.; Ulmishek, G. F.; Harrison, W.; Schreiner, F.

    1991-04-01

    Irradiation experiments were conducted on a thermally immature rock sample of the Phosphoria Retort Shale and its isolated kerogen. A 60Co-source for gamma radiation was employed at dosages ranging from 81 to 885 Mrads, which are attainable by Paleozoic and Precambrian black shales with syngenetic uranium enrichments. Kerogen elemental, isotopic, and pyrolysate compositions are not affected at these dosages, but the bitumens extracted from the irradiated rock are affected. The major effects are reductions in the amounts of bitumen, acyclic isoprenoids, and high-molecular weight acyclic carboxylic acids. Natural differences in the amounts of bitumen and acyclic isoprenoid due to regional and stratigraphie variations in organic source input and depositional conditions make the radiation-induced reductions in these parameters difficult to use as indicators of natural radiation damage in black shales. However, the preferential reduction in the high-molecular weight acyclic carboxylic acids, which are ubiquitous in the living precursory organic matter, is diagnostic of experimental γ-irradiation but may not be diagnostic of natural irradiation. The overall process associated with radiation damage is polymerization by cross-linking through a free radical mechanism. As a result, irradiation of organic matter in black shales is more likely to retard rather than enhance petroleum generation.

  17. NMR Mechanisms and Fluid Typing Based on Numerical Simulation in Gas-Bearing Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M.; Xu, J.; Wang, X.

    2013-12-01

    In Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) survey of oil- or gas-bearing shales, the relaxation is so fast and the diffusion is so low, and oil or gas typing is difficult to distinguish from each other using the previous analysis method. To study the NMR responses in gas-bearing shale, we supposed an ideal shale model including incredible water, free and adsorbed gas, and kerogen. Firstly, we supposed a series of ideal shale models with incredible water, free and adsorbed gas, and kerogen. Then, some simulations are performed for two-dimensional T2-D plots, and NMR characteristics are summarized successfully. Then, a series of simulations of different models with different adsorbed gas fractions are made, and the NMR responses are analyzed, from which we can identify the adsorbed gas and free gas. In inversion, a hybrid method with LSQR and TSVD is proved suitable for D-T2 NMR of gas shale with slow and fast diffusion, and short and long relaxation. It is noticed that the activation sequence of NMR is also important for accurate fluid typing in gas-bearing shale. We design a series of activation sequences, and simulate the corresponding NMR echo decays, and invert the fluid properties to search for an optimal activation sequence for fluid typing purpose. Figure 1 SEM picture and petrophysical model of organic shale. (a) 2D SEM shows pore and kerogen within shale. Black deposits pore, and dark gray is kerogen, light grey is matrix including clay and silica; (b) Petrophysical model Figure 2 Comparison of 2D-NMR simulations with different adsorbed gas fractions, (a) ɛ =0.0, (b) ɛ =0.2, (c) ɛ=0.4, t (d) ɛ =0.6, (e) ɛ =0.8, and (f) ɛ=1.0. From D-T2 plots, the position and amplitude of signals in T2-D plots indicate the fluid typing and fraction of the gas or adsorbed gas.

  18. Supergene mobility of noble metal elements in black rock series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to discuss the supergene mobility of noble metal elements in black rock series, measurements have been conducted with ICP-MS method for the contents of Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt, Au and Ag in the primary jordisite-rich black shale ore, in the supergene leached jordisite-rich black shale ore, in the pyrite-rich black shale ore and in the water of pit, well and stream of the mining area near Zhongnan Village, Zunyi District of Guizhou Province. The temperature, pH, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen of the water were also measured. The pit water is acidic with high electrical conductivity and low dissolved oxygen. The total content of platinum group elements in the primary pyrite-rich black shale ore is only 1/13 of that in the primary jordisite-rich black shale ore. The Ag content in the former is only a half of that in the latter while the Au contents in the two kinds of ores are almost the same. Being leached under supergene condition, the contents of most of the noble metal elements except Au in the jordisite-rich black shale ore greatly decrease; the leaching rates of Rh, Pd, Pt, the total platinum group elements and Ag reach as high as 66.72%~74.79%, revealing that under supergene condition, platinum group elements and Ag can migrate along with water; the ratios of Ag/Au, Pd/Ru, Pt/Ir and(Pt+Pd)/(Ru+Rh+Ir) are remarkably decreased, displaying that Pt and Pd relative to Ru, Rh and Ir, Ag relative to Au bear more active mobility. The noble metal elements in the black rock series near Zhongnan Village might be mobilized and migrate under the procession of "cold water" rich in [SO4]2- with pH value being about 2.4 at a temperature below 50 ℃.

  19. The Influence of Shales on Slope Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Shales play a major role in the stability of slopes, both natural and engineered. This paper attempts to provide a review of the state-of-the-art in shale slope stability. The complexities of shale terminology and classification are first reviewed followed by a brief discussion of the important physical and mechanical properties of relevance to shale slope stability. The varied mechanisms of shale slope stability are outlined and their importance highlighted by reference to international shale slope failures. Stability analysis and modelling of anisotropic rock slope masses are briefly discussed and the potential role of brittle rock fracture and damage highlighted. A short review of shale slopes in open pits is presented.

  20. Geomechanical Characterization of Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor Lora, Rafael; Ghazanfari, Ehsan; Asanza Izquierdo, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the reservoir conditions and material properties that govern the geomechanical behavior of shale formations under in situ conditions is of vital importance for many geomechanical applications. The development of new numerical codes and advanced multi-physical (thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical) constitutive models has led to an increasing demand for fundamental material property data. Previous studies have shown that deformational rock properties are not single-value, well-defined, linear parameters. This paper reports on an experimental program that explores geomechanical properties of Marcellus Shale through a series of isotropic compression (i.e. σ 1 = σ 2 = σ 3) and triaxial (i.e. σ 1 > σ 2 = σ 3) experiments. Deformational and failure response of these rocks, as well as anisotropy evolution, were studied under different stress and temperature conditions using single- and multi-stage triaxial tests. Laboratory results revealed significant nonlinear and pressure-dependent mechanical response as a consequence of the rock fabric and the occurrence of microcracks in these shales. Moreover, multi-stage triaxial tests proved to be useful tools for obtaining failure envelopes using a single specimen. Furthermore, the anisotropic nature of Marcellus Shale was successfully characterized using a three-parameter coupled model.

  1. Mechanical Characterization of Mancos Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, S.; Ingraham, M. D.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    A series of tests on Mancos shale have been undertaken to determine the failure surface and to characterize anisotropy. This work supports additional studies which are being performed on the same block of shale; fracture toughness, permeability, and chemical analysis. Mechanical tests are being conducted after specimens were conditioned for at least two weeks at 70% constant relative humidity conditions. Specimens are tested under drained conditions, with the constant relative humidity condition maintained on the downstream side of the specimen. The upstream is sealed. Anisotropy is determined through testing specimens that have been cored parallel and perpendicular to the bedding plane. Preliminary results show that when loaded parallel to bedding the shale is roughly 50% weaker. Test are run under constant mean stress conditions when possible (excepting indirect tension, unconfined compression, and hydrostatic). Tests are run in hydrostatic compaction to the desired mean stress, then differential stress is applied axially in displacement control to failure. The constant mean stress condition is maintained by decreasing the confining pressure by half of the increase in the axial stress. Results will be compared to typical failure criteria to investigate the effectiveness of capturing the behavior of the shale with traditional failure theory. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6107 A.

  2. Desulfurization of Jordanian oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxy desulfurization process and caustic treatment were applied in this work to remove sulfur from Jordanian oil shale. The oxy desulfurization process has been studied in a batch process using a high pressure autoclave, with constant stirring speed, and oxygen and water were used as desulfurizing reagents. Temperature, oxygen pressure, batch time, and particle size were found to be important process variables, while solid/liquid ratio was found to have no significant effect on the desulfurization process. The response of different types of oil shale to this process varied, and the effect of the process variables on the removal of total sulfur, pyritic sulfur, organic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon were studied. An optimum condition for oxy desulfurization of El-Lajjun oil shale, which gave maximum sulfur removal with low loss of carbon, was determined from the results of this work. The continuous reaction model was found to be valid, and the rate of oxidation for El-Lajjun oil shale was of the first order with respect to total sulfur, organic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon. For pyritic sulfur oxidation, the shrinking core model was found to hold and the rate of reaction controlled by diffusion through product ash layer. An activation energy of total sulfur, organic sulfur, pyritic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon oxidation was calculated for the temperature range of 130 -190 degrees celsius. In caustic treatment process, aqueous sodium hydroxide at 160 degrees celsius was used to remove the sulfur from El-Lajjun oil shale. The variables tested (sodium hydroxide concentration and treatment time) were found to have a significant effect. The carbon losses in this process were less than in the oxy desulfurization process. 51 refs., 64 figs., 121 tabs. (A.M.H.)

  3. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years there has been a world "revolution" in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of "shale gas", gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also "oil shales" (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil), extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  4. Shale oil value enhancement research: Separation characterization of shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunger, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    The overall objective is to develop a new technology for manufacturing valuable marketable products form shale oil. Phase-I objectives are to identify desirable components in shale oil, develop separations techniques for those components, identify market needs and to identify plausible products manufacturable from raw shale oil to meet those needs. Another objective is to conduct preliminary process modeling and economic analysis of selected process sequences and product slates, including an estimation of process, costs and profitability. The end objective of Phase-I is to propose technically and economically attractive separations and conversion processes for small-scale piloting in the optional Phase-II. Optional Phase-II activities include the pilot-scale test of the Shale Oil Native Products Extraction (SO-NPX) technology and to produce specification products. Specific objectives are to develop the engineering data on separations processing, particularly those in which mixtures behave non-ideally, and to develop the conversion processes for finishing the separations concentrates into specification products.The desired process scenarios will be developed and economic analysis will be performed on the process scenarios. As a result of the process simulation and economic analysis tasks, a product manufacture and test marketing program shall be recommended for the optional Phase-III. Optional Phase-III activities are to manufacture specification products and to test market those products in order to ensure market acceptability. The activities involve the assembling of the technical, market and economic data needed for venture evaluation. The end objective is to develop the private sector interest to carry this technology forward toward commercialization.

  5. Systematic Investigation of REE Mobility and Fractionation During Continental Shale Weathering Along a Climate Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Ma, L.; Dere, A. L. D.; White, T.; Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have been identified as strategic natural resources and their demand in the United States is increasing rapidly. REE are relatively abundant in the Earth's crust, but REE deposits with minable concentrations are uncommon. One recent study has pointed to the deep-sea REE-rich muds in the Pacific Ocean as a new potential resource, related to adsorption and concentration of REE from seawater by hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite (Kato et al., 2010). Finding new REE deposits will be facilitated by understanding global REE cycles: during the transformation of bedrock into soils, REEs are leached into natural waters and transported to oceans. At present, the mechanisms and factors controlling release, transport, and deposition of REE - the sources and sinks - at Earth's surface remain unclear. Here, we systematically studied soil profiles and bedrock in seven watersheds developed on shale bedrock along a climate transect in the eastern USA, Puerto Rico and Wales to constrain the mobility and fractionation of REE during chemical weathering processes. In addition, one site on black shale (Marcellus) bedrock was included to compare behaviors of REEs in organic-rich vs. organic-poor shale end members under the same environmental conditions. Our investigation focused on: 1) the concentration of REEs in gray and black shales and the release rates of REE during shale weathering, 2) the biogeochemical and hydrological conditions (such as redox, dissolved organic carbon, and pH) that dictate the mobility and fractionation of REEs in surface and subsurface environments, and 3) the retention of dissolved REEs on soils, especially onto secondary Fe/Al oxyhydroxides and phosphate mineral phases. This systematic study sheds light on the geochemical behaviors and environmental pathways of REEs during shale weathering along a climosequence.

  6. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  7. An NMR study on shale wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odusina, Elijah; Sondergeld, Carl; Rai, Chandra [University of Oklahoma (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, the importance of shales as unconventional gas resources has grown significantly. It is therefore important to reach a better understanding of their petrophysical properties. One of the important rock properties that is directly linked to successful hydrocarbon recovery is wettability. This paper presents a study on shale wettability using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to monitor sequential imbibition of brine and oil. Due to the presence of mineralogical variations, low permeability and viscosity, and complex pore structure, the interpretation of wettability using conventional approaches becomes complex. Samples that included 21 core plugs from the Eagle Ford shale, 12 from the Barnett, 11 from the Floyd, and 10 from the Woodford shale were analyzed. The NMR study confirmed the water-wet behavior of Berea sandstone. From the study, it was seen that the Woodford shale showed more affinity for dodecane than did the other shales.

  8. About the mineralogical composition of Estonian oil shale ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of previous research about the mineralogical composition of Estonian oil shale ash focused on using X-ray diffractometry, problems related to oil shale combustion, and utilization of oil shale ashes were analysed. (author)

  9. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  10. ICP-MS Determination of Platinum Metals in Black Shale Enriched by Tin Fire Assay%锡试金富集-电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定黑色页岩中的铂族元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君玉; 孙自军; 袁润蕾; 王盈; 李杰; 王敏捷

    2013-01-01

    黑色页岩中的铂族元素经锡试金富集后,所得贵金属沉淀物用盐酸-硝酸(3+1)混合酸溶解,用电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定样品中的铂族元素.以镥为内标元素,用轻质氧化镁-高纯碳化硅(2+1)作覆盖剂,以防止锇和钌的挥发损失.铂族元素在一定的质量浓度范围内与其光谱强度呈线性关系,检出限(3σ)在0.018~0.20 ng· g-1之间.方法的加标回收率在80.0%~110%之间,相对标准偏差(n=11)在5.9%~14%之间.%Platinum metals in black shale were enriched by the method of tin fire assay.The precious metal precipitate obtained was dissolved in mixed acid of HCl-HNC3 (3 + 1),and contents of platinum metals in the solution were determined by ICP-MS.Lutetium was used as internal standard; and a mixture of light MgO and high purity SiC (2 + 1) was used as covering reagent to avoid the volatilization of Os and Ru.Linear relationships between values of spectral intensity and mass concentration of the platinum metals were kept in definite ranges.Detection limits (3σ) found were in the range of 0.018-0.20 ng · g-1.Tests for recovery were made by standard addition method,giving values of recovery in the range of 80.0%-110% with RSD's (n=11) in the range of 5.9%-14%.

  11. Scales over Shale: How Pennsylvania Got Fracked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Carlo E.

    Shale gas has become one of Pennsylvania's major resources in recent years and the gas boom has proceeded in spite of uncertainty over the environmental risks of its production process. This thesis argues that location alone cannot explain why shale gas boomed in Pennsylvania. Using interviews with corporate and state executives, I argue that the scalar dimensions of the neoliberal environmental governance of shale gas were critical to understanding why shale gas boomed in Pennsylvania. These actors supported the preemption of local scales of governance by the state as a scalar fix for capital accumulation from shale gas development. They also legitimated the scalar fix by assembling a neat stack of scale frames that made shale gas seem to benefit everyone. These scale frames made shale gas appear as if it would provide local employment, regional supplies of cheap gas, national energy security, abundant gas for tight global markets, and a mitigating strategy for global climate change. In arguing this point, I present a history of how shale gas became a resource that outlines the critical role of the state in that process.

  12. Thermomechanical properties of selected shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental work discussed in this report is part of an ongoing program concerning evaluation of sedimentary and other rock types as potential hosts for a geologic repository. The objectives are the development of tools and techniques for repository characterization and performance assessment in a diversity of geohydrologic settings. This phase of the program is a laboratory study that investigates fundamental thermomechanical properties of several different shales. Laboratory experiments are intrinsically related to numerical modeling and in situ field experiments, which together will be used for performance assessment

  13. Thermophysical properties of Conasauga shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.D.

    1978-12-04

    Thermophysical-property characterizations of five Conasauga shale cores were determined at temperatures between 298 and 673 K. Methods of specimen fabrication for different tests were evaluated. Thermal-conductivity and thermal-expansion data were found to be dependent on the structure and orientation of the individual specimens. Thermal conductivities ranged between 2.8 and 1.0 W/m-K with a small negative temperature dependence. Thermal expansions were between 2 and 5 x 10/sup -3/ over the temperature range for the group. Heat capacity varied with the composition. 17 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Intelligent fracture creation for shale gas development

    KAUST Repository

    Douglas, Craig C.

    2011-05-14

    Shale gas represents a major fraction of the proven reserves of natural gas in the United States and a collection of other countries. Higher gas prices and the need for cleaner fuels provides motivation for commercializing shale gas deposits even though the cost is substantially higher than traditional gas deposits. Recent advances in horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing, which dramatically lower costs of developing shale gas fields, are key to renewed interest in shale gas deposits. Hydraulically induced fractures are quite complex in shale gas reservoirs. Massive, multistage, multiple cluster treatments lead to fractures that interact with existing fractures (whether natural or induced earlier). A dynamic approach to the fracturing process so that the resulting network of reservoirs is known during the drilling and fracturing process is economically enticing. The process needs to be automatic and done in faster than real-time in order to be useful to the drilling crews.

  15. Shale Gas Play Screening and Evaluation Criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael D. Burnaman; Wenwu Xia; John Shelton

    2009-01-01

    The uniqueness of shale gas plays is contrasted with conventional oil and gas exploration. Based on our ten year history in shale gas exploration, a practical 17 point list of criteria to use for screening shale gas projects and ranking that encompasses geoscience, geochemistry, reservoir engineering, drilling, completions and production operations is developed and explained. Other considerations that will impact shale gas development are identified and discussed. Some key methodologies to incorporate in the evaluation process are also proposed. The outcome of this proposed screening process, if rigorously applied,should quickly identify the projects that have the most likely chance for success for recommendation to management. Examples from active shale gas plays in the United States are used to support these criteria and references to relevant recent publications and presentations are provided.

  16. The architecture and frictional properties of faults in shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paola, Nicola; Murray, Rosanne; Stillings, Mark; Imber, Jonathan; Holdsworth, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The geometry of brittle fault zones and associated fracture patterns in shale rocks, as well as their frictional properties at reservoir conditions, are still poorly understood. Nevertheless, these factors may control the very low recovery factors (25% for gas and 5% for oil) obtained during fracking operations. Extensional brittle fault zones (maximum displacement ≤ 3 m) cut exhumed oil mature black shales in the Cleveland Basin (UK). Fault cores up to 50 cm wide accommodated most of the displacement, and are defined by a stair-step geometry, controlled by the reactivation of en-echelon, pre-existing joints in the protolith. Cores typically show a poorly developed damage zone, up to 25 cm wide, and sharp contact with the protolith rocks. Their internal architecture is characterised by four distinct fault rock domains: foliated gouges; breccias; hydraulic breccias; and a slip zone up to 20 mm thick, composed of a fine-grained black gouge. Hydraulic breccias are located within dilational jogs with aperture of up to 20 cm, composed of angular clasts of reworked fault and protolith rock, dispersed within a sparry calcite cement. Velocity-step and slide-hold-slide experiments at sub-seismic slip rates (microns/s) were performed in a rotary shear apparatus under dry, water and brine-saturated conditions, for displacements of up to 46 cm. Both the protolith shale and the slip zone black gouge display shear localization, velocity strengthening behaviour and negative healing rates. Experiments at seismic slip rates (1.3 m/s), performed on the same materials under dry conditions, show that after initial friction values of 0.5-0.55, friction decreases to steady-state values of 0.1-0.15 within the first 10 mm of slip. Contrastingly, water/brine saturated gouge mixtures, exhibit almost instantaneous attainment of very low steady-state sliding friction (0.1). Our field observations show that brittle fracturing and cataclastic flow are the dominant deformation mechanisms in

  17. A 6,000-year sedimentary molecular record of chemocline excursions in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Wakeham, S.G.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Hayes, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic basin; it is also a contemporary analogue of the environment in which carbonaceous shales and petroleum source beds formed. Recently, Repeta et al. reported that anoxygenic photosynthesis may be an important component of carbon cycling in the present Black

  18. Lutitas negras lacustres cercanas al límite Paleógeno-Neógeno en la región noroccidental de la provincia del Neuquén: Evidencias palinológicas Lacustrine black shales near to the Paleogene - Neogene boundary in north-western Neuquén Province: palynological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Leanza

    2002-09-01

    palynological study. On the basis of the microfloristic analysis, the palynomorph-bearing beds can be ascribed a Late Oligocene to Early Miocene age. The sampled rocks are black, grey-green, dark grey and light brown shales alternating with thin,locally oolithic, light grey limestones, with yellowish white weathering. Among these rocks are interbedded andesites, tuffs, and volcanic agglomerates of mesosilicic composition. In the outcrops of the Guañacos river area, some irregular beds of fibrous carbonate have been observed as well as fibroradial nodular barite, together with some indeterminate fresh-water. The microfloristic assemblages have a relatively low diversity. In most of them the genus Nothofagidites dominates the association. The components present in the microflora are pollen grains corresponding to several angiosperm taxa, such as Baumannipollis sp. cf. B. variaperturatus, Corsinipollenites atlantica, Milfordia sp., Nothofagidites saraensis, Smilacipites sp. cf. S. echinatus and Tricolpites asperamarginis together with gymnosperm pollen grains of Araucariacites australis, Equisetosporites notensis and Podocarpidites spp. The Pteridophyta/Bryophyta elements are represented by Cyatheacidites annulatus, Cicatricosisporites sp., Deltoidospora sp., Lycopodiumsporites austroclavatidites, Ricciaesporites sp. and Laevigatosporites ovatus, whereas among the lacustrine taxa Azolla sp. and Botryococcus sp. (Chlorophyta were recognized.

  19. 贵州天柱早寒武世黑色岩系重晶石矿床有机地球化学研究%Organic geochemistry of barite deposits hosted in the Early Cambrian black shales from the Tianzhu County, Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩善楚; 胡凯; 曹剑

    2014-01-01

    贵州天柱大河边早寒武世黑色岩系重晶石矿床在全球同类矿床中储量最大,是研究的热点,含矿岩系富有机质,但对其研究薄弱。本文对这些有机质新进行了系统的有机地球化学研究,并进一步结合其有机岩石学特征,研究讨论了尚存有争议的矿床成因。结果发现,成矿岩系中有机质含量丰富,有机碳含量最高可达8.3%,有机质母质主要来源于低等菌藻类,它们在成矿过程中发挥了重要作用;矿床形成于缺氧还原的海水环境,典型证据包括强烈的植烷优势,姥植比小于0.4,普遍检出四环萜烷与伽马蜡烷等;还受到热水作用影响,典型证据包括成矿岩系具有较高的沥青反射率,矿层比与围岩的有机质含量低,以及矿层干酪根同位素组成高于围岩等。据此,提出矿床经历了热水喷流与生物有机质的共同作用,建立了成矿新模式。这些认识还可望对其他沉积岩型矿床研究提供一定启示。%The Tianzhu Dahebian barite deposits are hosted in the Early Cambrian black shales of Guizhou Province, South China. They have the largest reserve within the same type of deposits all over the world, and thus become one of the research highlights in this field. Such deposits are rich in organic matter. However, less attention has been paid to organic matter in the deposits. Therefore, we carry out an organic geochemical study in this paper, and further address the debated ore genesis combined with organic petrological characteristics. The results show that the barite ore-bearing strata are rich in organic matter as total organic carbon content reaches up to 8.3%. The bio-precursor comes mainly from bacteria and algae, which have played an important role on the mineralization. The deposit was formed in an anoxic and reducing marine environment. Typical evidences include strong phytane advantage with Pr/Ph < 0.4 and wide detection of tetracyclic terpanes and gammacerane. On the

  20. Quantifying porosity, compressibility and permeability in Shale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Frykman, Peter;

    (XRD) of shale samples show about 50% silt and high content of kaolinite in the clay fraction when compared with offshore samples from the Central Graben. Porosity measurements from helium porosimetry-mercury immersion (HPMI), mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) and nuclear magnetic resonance...... strain data. We found that Kozeny's modelled permeability fall in the same order of magnitude with measured permeability for shale rich in kaolinite but overestimates permeability by two to three orders of magnitudes for shale with high content of smectite. The empirical Yang and Aplin model gives good...

  1. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  2. The Xiamaling oil shale generated through Rhodophyta over 800 Ma ago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ShuiChang; ZHANG BaoMin; BIAN LiZeng; JIN ZhiJun; WANG DaRui; CHEN JianFa

    2007-01-01

    A suit of oil shales, predominated by black argillaceous silicalite and finely laminated black-brown shale, has been discovered in a set of carbonaceous-siliceous mudstone formations(350 m in thickness)in the third member of Xiamaling Formation of the Upper Proterozoic Qingbaikou Series(900-873 MaBP), Xiahuayuan, Hebei Province, China. The oil shale, combustible with strong bitumen odour, has super-high TOC contents ranging from 21.4%to 22.9%,bitumen"A"contents from 0.58%to 0.88%and oil length from 5.29%to 10.57%.The ultrathin section observation of the shale and the identification of its kerogen demonstrate that its hydrocarbon-generative parent material is mainly benthonic Rhodophyta whose specific tetrasporangia are legible and abundant. It is rarely reported in the literature that such a hydrocarbon-generative parent material, composed mainly of Rhodophyta and with extraordinarily high contents of TOC and bitumen "A", developed into a set of high-quality source rocks. The extracts of the oil shale are characteristic of richness in 17α(H)-diahopanes and n-alkyl tricyclic terpenoids but low in steranes. Such a biomarker feature is obviously different from that of the extracts from other Proterozoic marine carbonate source rocks of the studied area. Since the biological constitution of this oil shale is rather simple, it is clear that these biomarkers most likely represent to certain extent the specific molecular constitutions of the benthonic Rhodophyta identified in the ultrathin sections of the samples. Studies on its lithologic association and depositional sequences suggest that this suit of the carbonsceous-siliceous mudstone formation, which contains oil shales, was probably developed in an undercompensation deep-bay environment when a maximum transgression occurred during the formation of the third member of Xiamaling Formation. The high concentration of SiO2 in this organic-rich rock and the positive correlation between TOC and some trace elements such as

  3. The Xiamaling oil shale generated through Rhodophyta over 800 Ma ago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A suit of oil shales, predominated by black argillaceous silicalite and finely laminated black-brown shale, has been discovered in a set of carbonaceous-siliceous mudstone formations (350 m in thickness) in the third member of Xiamaling Formation of the Upper Proterozoic Qingbaikou Series (900―873 MaBP), Xiahuayuan, Hebei Province, China. The oil shale, combustible with strong bitumen odour, has su- per-high TOC contents ranging from 21.4% to 22.9%, bitumen “A” contents from 0.58% to 0.88% and oil length from 5.29% to 10.57%. The ultrathin section observation of the shale and the identification of its kerogen demonstrate that its hydrocarbon-generative parent material is mainly benthonic Rhodophyta whose specific tetrasporangia are legible and abundant. It is rarely reported in the literature that such a hydrocarbon-generative parent material, composed mainly of Rhodophyta and with extraordinarily high contents of TOC and bitumen “A”, developed into a set of high-quality source rocks. The extracts of the oil shale are characteristic of richness in 17α(H)-diahopanes and n-alkyl tricyclic terpenoids but low in steranes. Such a biomarker feature is obviously different from that of the extracts from other Proterozoic marine carbonate source rocks of the studied area. Since the biological constitution of this oil shale is rather simple, it is clear that these biomarkers most likely represent to certain extent the specific mo- lecular constitutions of the benthonic Rhodophyta identified in the ultrathin sections of the samples. Studies on its lithologic association and depositional sequences suggest that this suit of the carbona- ceous-siliceous mudstone formation, which contains oil shales, was probably developed in an under- compensation deep-bay environment when a maximum transgression occurred during the formation of the third member of Xiamaling Formation. The high concentration of SiO2 in this organic-rich rock and the positive correlation between TOC

  4. Military jet fuel from shale oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations leading to a specification for aviation turbine fuel produced from whole crude shale oil are described. Refining methods involving hydrocracking, hydrotreating, and extraction processes are briefly examined and their production capabilities are assessed.

  5. NMR and ESR characterization of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrell, J.W. Jr.; Kohno, T.; Banu, F.; Hanna, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    It has been shown that relaxation measurements can be useful in characterizing motions in oil shales. High-temperature T/sub 1 rho/ measurements have been shown to be especially useful in showing molecular motions that may be related to the oil producing aliphatic part of the shale. However, in order to more fully exploit relaxation measurements, a more fundamental understanding of the relaxation mechanisms must be obtained. Because the ESR spectra of the Eastern oil shales have been found to be so rich in detail, it may be possible to learn more about the nature of the free radicals in shale than is now known for coal, which has been studied much more extensively. Clearly, additional work on this subject should prove fruitful.

  6. Helium release during shale deformation: Experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-01

    This work describes initial experimental results of helium tracer release monitoring during deformation of shale. Naturally occurring radiogenic 4He is present in high concentration in most shales. During rock deformation, accumulated helium could be released as fractures are created and new transport pathways are created. We present the results of an experimental study in which confined reservoir shale samples, cored parallel and perpendicular to bedding, which were initially saturated with helium to simulate reservoir conditions, are subjected to triaxial compressive deformation. During the deformation experiment, differential stress, axial, and radial strains are systematically tracked. Release of helium is dynamically measured using a helium mass spectrometer leak detector. Helium released during deformation is observable at the laboratory scale and the release is tightly coupled to the shale deformation. These first measurements of dynamic helium release from rocks undergoing deformation show that helium provides information on the evolution of microstructure as a function of changes in stress and strain.

  7. Different Methods of Predicting Permeability in Shale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Krogsbøll, Anette

    Permeability is often very difficult to measure or predict in shale lithology. In this work we are determining shale permeability from consolidation tests data using Wissa et al., (1971) approach and comparing the results with predicted permeability from Kozeny’s model. Core and cuttings materials...... were obtained from Fjerritslev shale Formation in Juassic interval of Stenlille and Vedsted on-shore wells of Danish basin. The calculated permeability from specific surface and porosity vary from 0.09 to 48.53 μD while that calculated from consolidation tests data vary from 1000 μD at a low vertical...... effective stress to 9 μD at high vertical effective stress of 100 MPa. The indirect permeability calculated from consolidation tests falls in the same magnitude at higher vertical effective stress, above 40 MPa, as that of the Kozeny model for shale samples with high non-clay content ≥ 70% but are higher by...

  8. Highlights of the Messel Oil Shale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephan Schaal

    2008-01-01

    The Messel oil shale, Germany, was deposited in a maar crater that formed 47 million years ago. Since 1975 the Senckenberg Research Institute in Frankfurt am Main, has conducted systematic scientific excavations of this oil shale with much success. Besides plants and insects, more than 130 species of well-preserved fossil vertebrates like reptiles, fishes, birds and mammals have been found and have made Messel world-famous. Some examples of these vertebrates are presented.

  9. The influence of shale gas on steamcracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupieper, A. [Linde Engineering Dresden GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    US shale gas reserves with more than 860 TCF (Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration study World Shale Gas Resources) account for 2 of the global largest reserves after China. In 7 areas of the US, these reserves are systematically explored, providing a significant amount of cheap natural gas source for decades. The ethane share, carried by such shale gas, can reach up to 16%. Ethane has been already in the past 2 most important feedstock for Steamcrackers, being the backbone of the Petrochemical Industry. Due to availability of vast shale gas, the US steamcracker industry is facing a shift from naphtha to shale gas ethane, as the margin of Ethylene produced from shale gas ethane is significantly larger than that of naphtha based Ethylene (app. + 630 USD/t Ethylene). As a consequence shale gas is ''the magic bullet'' incinerating investments into Steamcrackers and downstream plants for U.S petrochemical industry. Steamcracker Projects with an additional ethylene production capacity of more than 17 million tons/a by 2020 are announced or already under construction. Investments into downstream plants refining the C2 derivatives will follow or are already in planning/engineering phase. But the US market cannot absorb all related products, causing a significant export exposure, which will influence global trade flows for C2 derivatives and affect prices. This article presents the impact of shale gas ethane cracking on: - Trade flow of C2 derivatives; - By-product deficits; - Alternate C3+ derivative production routes; - Challenges related to engineering requirements and project execution for Steamcracker projects. (orig.)

  10. Legal Regime of Shale Gas Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2013-01-01

    Some countries with large reserves intend to promote shale gas production, in order to reduce their dependency on imported gas. Shale gas will be an important new aspect in the world energy scene, with many effects. European Union wants secure and affordable sources of energy. Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel and a vital component of European Union's energy strategy. One of the most important aspects is that gas produces significantly cleaner energy than other fossil fuels. From a lega...

  11. Coal-shale interface detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. A.; Hudgins, J. L.; Morris, P. W.; Reid, H., Jr.; Zimmerman, J. E. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detection system for use with coal cutting equipment consists of a reciprocating hammer on which an accelerometer is mounted to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. A pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface. The outputs of the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  12. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott’s initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemic...

  13. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  14. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2012-04-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion." PMID:22392974

  15. Assessment of undiscovered shale gas and shale oil resources in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province, North-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-12-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 53 trillion cubic feet of shale gas, 172 million barrels of shale oil, and 176 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Barnett Shale of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of Texas.

  16. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  17. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  18. Progress and Challengesof Shale Gas Exploration and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qingfan; Lu Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    China is abandant in shale gas resources. Encouraged by the successful development of shale gas resources in the U. S., China began its shale gas research and exploration activity about 10 years ago. This paper briefed the history, state quo and future of shale gas development in the country. Factors that constrain the shale gas industry there include technology limitations, attitude of the government, environmental concerns and etc. The future of the shale gas industry in China depends heavily on how well these issues are dealt.

  19. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  20. Piceance Basin Oil Shale Data: Assays, Boreholes and Formation Tops

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This database contains Oil Shale Assays, Borehole Locations and Formation Tops that were used in support of the 2009 Oil Shale Assessment (Survey Fact Sheet...

  1. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  2. New method for prediction of shale gas content in continental shale formation using well logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Zhe; Jiang, Zhen-Xue; Shao, Yu; Liao, Wei; Li, Li

    2016-06-01

    Shale needs to contain a sufficient amount of gas to make it viable for exploitation. The continental heterogeneous shale formation in the Yan-chang (YC) area is investigated by firstly measuring the shale gas content in a laboratory and then investigating use of a theoretical prediction model. Key factors controlling the shale gas content are determined, and a prediction model for free gas content is established according to the equation of gas state and a new petrophysical volume model. Application of the Langmuir volume constant and pressure constant obtained from results of adsorption isotherms is found to be limited because these constants are greatly affected by experimental temperature and pressures. Therefore, using measurements of adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic theory, the influence of temperature, total organic carbon (TOC), and mineralogy on Langmuir volume constants and pressure constants are investigated in detail. A prediction model for the Langmuir pressure constant with a correction of temperatures is then established, and a prediction model for the Langmuir volume constant with correction of temperature, TOC, and quartz contents is also proposed. Using these corrected Langmuir constants, application of the Langmuir model determined using experimental adsorption isotherms is extrapolated to reservoir temperature, pressure, and lithological conditions, and a method for the prediction of shale gas content using well logs is established. Finally, this method is successfully applied to predict the shale gas content of the continental shale formation in the YC area, and practical application is shown to deliver good results with high precision.

  3. Thermocatalytical processing of coal and shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the questions of thermocatalytical conversion of organic mass of coal (OMC, it is shown that in the absence of a catalyst process is carried out by a radical process. Accumulated data on the properties for radicals of different structure and therefore different reaction capacity enables us to understand and interpret the conversion of OMC. Thermal conversion of OMC regarded as a kind of depolymerization, accompanied by decomposition of the functional groups with the formation of radicals, competing for hydrogen atom. Catalyst can change the direction and conditions of the process. Modern catalysts can reduce the process pressure up to 50 atm., with a high degree of coal conversion. We consider examples of simultaneous conversion of coal and shale, shale and masut, shale and tar.

  4. Multiphysical Testing of Soils and Shales

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Significant advancements in the experimental analysis of soils and shales have been achieved during the last few decades. Outstanding progress in the field has led to the theoretical development of geomechanical theories and important engineering applications. This book provides the reader with an overview of recent advances in a variety of advanced experimental techniques and results for the analysis of the behaviour of geomaterials under multiphysical testing conditions. Modern trends in experimental geomechanics for soils and shales are discussed, including testing materials in variably saturated conditions, non-isothermal experiments, micro-scale investigations and image analysis techniques. Six theme papers from leading researchers in experimental geomechanics are also included. This book is intended for postgraduate students, researchers and practitioners in fields where multiphysical testing of soils and shales plays a fundamental role, such as unsaturated soil and rock mechanics, petroleum engineering...

  5. Thermal Maturation of Gas Shale Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Sylvain; Horsfield, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Shale gas systems serve as sources, reservoirs, and seals for unconventional natural gas accumulations. These reservoirs bring numerous challenges to geologists and petroleum engineers in reservoir characterization, most notably because of their heterogeneous character due to depositional and diagenetic processes but also because of their constituent rocks' fine-grained nature and small pore size -- much smaller than in conventional sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Significant advances have recently been achieved in unraveling the gaseous hydrocarbon generation and retention processes that occur within these complex systems. In addition, cutting-edge characterization technologies have allowed precise documentation of the spatial variability in chemistry and structure of thermally mature organic-rich shales at the submicrometer scale, revealing the presence of geochemical heterogeneities within overmature gas shale samples and, notably, the presence of nanoporous pyrobitumen. Such research advances will undoubtedly lead to improved performance, producibility, and modeling of such strategic resources at the reservoir scale.

  6. Reducing the greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shale gas is viewed by many as a global energy game-changer. However, serious concerns exist that shale gas generates more greenhouse gas emissions than does coal. In this work the related published data are reviewed and a reassessment is made. It is shown that the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas is less than that of coal over long term if the higher power generation efficiency of shale gas is taken into account. In short term, the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas can be lowered to the level of that of coal if methane emissions are kept low using existing technologies. Further reducing the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas by storing CO2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs is also discussed, with the conclusion that more CO2 than the equivalent CO2 emitted by the extracted shale gas could be stored in the reservoirs at significantly reduced cost. - Highlights: ► The long-term greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas is smaller than that of coal. ► Carbon capture and storage should be considered for fossil fuels including shale gas. ► Depleted shale gas fields could store more CO2 than the equivalent emissions. ► Linking shale gas development with CO2 storage could largely reduce the total cost.

  7. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  8. Geochemistry and Geologic Analysis in Shale Gas Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenwu Xia; Mike D. Burnaman; John Shelton

    2009-01-01

    The understanding from the conventional geochemistry and geology analysis is very different when trying to apply them to shale gas plays. This paper is a summary for U.S. shale gas plays on geochemistry and geologic analysis application, and real field data from active U.S. shale gas plays is used in the discussion of different concepts.

  9. Oil shale in Estonian power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to create a simple mathematical model to describe as well as possible the structure of a mining enterprise. The model differs from previous ones in some methodical complements and describes better the current situation in the oil shale industry. In the model expenses are divided into variable and fixed costs for each mining enterprise. Several calculations have been made to optimize sale of oil shale for both power industry, and oil producers. This paper is a summary of M.Sc theses defended at department of Mining of Tallinn Technical University in January 2002

  10. Organic Geochemistry of the Early Jurassic Oil Shale from the Shuanghu Area in Northern Tibet and the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lan; YI Haisheng; HU Ruizhong; ZHONG Hong; ZOU Yanrong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents new geological and geochemical data from the Shuanghu area in northern Tibet, which recorded the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. The stratigraphic succession in the Shuanghu area consists mostly of grey to dark-colored alternating oil shales, marls and mudstones. Ammonite beds are found at the top of the Shuanghu oil shale section, which are principally of early Toarcian age, roughly within the Harplocearasfalciferrum Zone. Therefore,the oil shale strata at Shuanghu can be correlated with early Toarcian black shales distributing extensively in the European epicontinental seas that contain the records of an Oceanic Anoxic Event. Sedimentary organic matter of laminated shale anomalously rich in organic carbon across the Shuanghu area is characterized by high organic carbon contents, ranging from 1.8 % to 26.1%. The carbon isotope curve displays the δ13C values of the kerogen (δ 13Ckerogen) fluctuating from -26.22to -23.53‰ PDB with a positive excursion close to 2.17‰, which, albeit significantly smaller, may also have been associated with other Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) in Europe. The organic atomic C/N ratios range between 6 and 43, and the curve of C/N ratios is consistent with that of the δ13Ckerogen values. The biological assemblage,characterized by scarcity of benthic organisms and bloom of calcareous nannofossils (coccoliths), reveals high biological productivity in the surface water and an unfavorable environment for the benthic fauna in the bottom water during the Oceanic Anoxic Event. On the basis of organic geochemistry and characteristics of the biological assemblage, this study suggests that the carbon-isotope excursion is caused by the changes of sea level and productivity, and that the black shale deposition, especially oil shales, is related to the bloom and high productivity of coccoliths.

  11. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  12. Shale gas exploitation with supercritical CO2 technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haizhu; Shen Zhonghou; Li Gensheng; Tian Shouceng; Cheng Yuxiong

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the physicochemical properties of supercritical C02, the characteristic of shale gas and shale gas reservoirs. The technologies of drilling, production, fracturing using the supercritical CO2 in shale gas explo- ration are proposed, to increase the penetration rate, decrease the damage to formation while fracturing, and enhance the recovery of shale gas. It is believed that the huge economic benefits of shale gas exploration with the supercritical CO2 fluid will be obtained, and it also can initiate a new technology field of CO2 in the petroleum engineering.

  13. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  14. China organic-rich shale geologic features and special shale gas production issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiwen Ju; Guochang Wang; Hongling Bu; Qingguang Li; Zhifeng Yan

    2014-01-01

    The depositional environment of organic-rich shale and the related tectonic evolution in China are rather different from those in North America. In China, organic-rich shale is not only deposited in marine environment, but also in non-marine environment: marine-continental transitional environment and lacustrine environment. Through analyzing large amount of outcrops and well cores, the geologic fea-tures of organic-rich shale, including mineral composition, organic matter richness and type, and li-thology stratigraphy, were analyzed, indicating very special characteristics. Meanwhile, the more complex and active tectonic movements in China lead to strong deformation and erosion of organic-rich shale, well-development of fractures and faults, and higher thermal maturity and serious heterogeneity. Co-existence of shale gas, tight sand gas, and coal bed methane (CBM) proposes a new topic:whether it is possible to co-produce these gases to reduce cost. Based on the geologic features, the primary pro-duction issues of shale gas in China were discussed with suggestions.

  15. Shale gases, a windfall for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled the definition and origin of shale gases, the different non conventional gases and their exploitation techniques (hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) this report examines whether these gases are an opportunity for France. Some characteristics and data of the fossil and gas markets are presented and commented: world primary energy consumption, proved reserves of non conventional gases and their locations, European regions which may possess reserves of shale gases and coal-bed methane, origins of gas imports in France. The second part addresses shale gas deposits and their exploitation: discussion of the influence of the various rock parameters, evolution of production. The third part discusses the exploitation techniques and specific drilling tools. The issue of exploitation safety and security is addressed as well as the associated controversies: about the pollution of underground waters, about the fact that deep drillings result in pollution, about the risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and injections of chemical products, about the hold on ground and site degradation, about water consumption, about pollution due to gas pipeline leakage, about seismic risk, about noise drawbacks, about risks for health, about exploration and production authorization and license, and about air pollution and climate. The last part addresses the French situation and its future: status of the energy bill, recommendations made by a previous government, cancellation of authorizations, etc. Other information are provided in appendix about non conventional hydrocarbons, about shale gas exploitation in the USA, and about the Lacq gas

  16. Epistemic values in the Burgess Shale debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Focusing primarily on papers and books discussing the evolutionary and systematic interpretation of the Cambrian animal fossils from the Burgess Shale fauna, this paper explores the role of epistemic values in the context of a discipline (paleontology) striving to establish scientific authority...

  17. Electromagnetic De-Shaling of Coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.; Mesina, M.B.; Kuilman, W.

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency with which an electromagnetic sensor array is able to distinguish density and ash content of coal and shale mixtures was determined experimentally. The investigated sensor was originally designed for automatic metal detection and sorting in industrial glass recycle processing, where i

  18. Recovering the volatile constituents of shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G.A.

    1920-11-15

    Apparatus for distilling materials such as shale comprising a heater of tubular elements and means for circulating a heating medium over one surface of the tubes, the gases from the material under treatment being circulated over the other surface of the tubes and then returned from the heater to the chamber to assist in heating the material under treatment.

  19. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang;

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted...... aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion."...

  20. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  1. Petrographical properties of shales from Campos Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, Claudio; Araujo, Ewerton M.P.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B. da [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo (GTEP)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a petrographical characterization of shales from Albacora, Marlim and Marlim Sul fields (offshore Campos Basin, Brazil). The characterization program included petrography analysis of thin section of undisturbed shale samples, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis. The tests were realized with the purpose of obtaining information to observe the nature of the rock microstructure. From the results presented herein, the shales can be described as silty and calciferous. The description of the thin sections indicated that all the shale samples are very similar from the compositional and textural point of view. The samples are rich in clay minerals, that show small size grains and seem homogeneous, and carbonatic cement. The samples are constituted by calcite, quartz, kaolinite, smecite, illite, illite/smectite, kaolinite/illite/smectite, feldspar, plagioclase, dolomite, chlorite and pyrite. The samples showed a great amount of calcium, resultant from the microfossils, that covers partially the clay minerals. Pyrite is also observed as small grains disperse throughout the sample with form of agglomerated pyrite framboids, cubo-octahedral and octahedral crystals. The EDS show the presence of picks of Si, Al, Mg, K and Na particles, indicating the presence of clay minerals, calcite, pyrite and chlorite. (author)

  2. Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pakulska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. Med Pr 2015;66(1:99–117

  3. A new Burgess Shale-type deposit from the Ediacaran of western Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbos, Stephen Q.; Oji, Tatsuo; Kanayama, Akihiro; Gonchigdorj, Sersmaa

    2016-03-01

    Preservation of soft-bodied organisms is exceedingly rare in the fossil record. One way that such fossils are preserved is as carbonaceous compressions in fined-grained marine sedimentary rocks. These deposits of exceptional preservation are known as Burgess Shale-type (BST) deposits. During the Cambrian Period, BST deposits are more common and provide a crucial view of early animal evolution. The earliest definitive fossil evidence for macroscopic animal-grade organisms is found in the preceding Ediacaran Period. BST deposits from the Ediacaran are rarer and lack conclusive evidence for animals. Here we report the discovery of a new Ediacaran BST deposit with exceptional preservation of non-mineralizing macro-organisms in thinly bedded black shale from Zavkhan Province, western Mongolia. This fossil assemblage, here named the Zuun-Arts biota, currently consists of two new species of probable macroscopic multicellular benthic algae. One species, Chinggiskhaania bifurcata n. gen., n. sp., dominates the biota. The other species, Zuunartsphyton delicatum n. gen., n. sp., is known from three specimens. SEM-EDS analysis shows that the fossils are composed of aluminosilicate clay minerals and some carbon, a composition comparable to fossils from the Cambrian Burgess Shale biota. This discovery opens a new window through which to view late Precambrian life.

  4. Dielectric properties of Jordanian oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Alnawafleh, Hani [Department of Mining Engineering, College of Mining and Environmental Engineering, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma' an 20 (Jordan); Kingman, Sam; Saeid, Abdurrahman; Robinson, John; Dimitrakis, Georgios [Process and Environmental Research Division Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    Microwave heating has been suggested by various authors as a suitable technology for extraction of organic material from oil shales. However, one of the limiting factors in the development of this technology is a lack of accurate dielectric property data for design purposes. In this study the dielectric behaviour of El-lajun oil shale is quantified. The dielectric constant and loss factor of El-lajun oil shale were measured at 2470 and 912 MHz using the cavity perturbation technique. The effects of organic content, temperature, and moisture content on the microwave heating efficiency were quantified. Coaxial probe technique was also employed to study the effect of frequency on dielectric properties of oil shale. Generally, it was found that all samples were of low dielectric loss at room temperature with the imaginary part of permittivity falling significantly after the moisture was removed. This suggests that the major contribution in the dielectric loss is due to the presence of free and/or interlayer water. It was found that both the real and imaginary part of complex permittivity increased with a rise in temperature from 20 up to 80 C, then dropped significantly at about 100 C before staying approximately constant up to a temperature of about 480 C. From this temperature both the real and imaginary parts of complex permittivity increased sharply with further increase in temperature. An attempt was also made to correlate the dielectric properties of the bulk shale sample with the organic content. However, no correlation between dielectric properties and organic matter content was found. (author)

  5. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky: II. Redistribution of minor and trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Breit, G.N.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    During weathering, elements enriched in black shale are dispersed in the environment by aqueous and mechanical transport. Here a unique evaluation of the differential release, transport, and fate of Fe and 15 trace elements during progressive weathering of the Devonian New Albany Shale in Kentucky is presented. Results of chemical analyses along a weathering profile (unweathered through progressively weathered shale to soil) describe the chemically distinct pathways of the trace elements and the rate that elements are transferred into the broader, local environment. Trace elements enriched in the unweathered shale are in massive or framboidal pyrite, minor sphalerite, CuS and NiS phases, organic matter and clay minerals. These phases are subject to varying degrees and rates of alteration along the profile. Cadmium, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn are removed from weathered shale during sulfide-mineral oxidation and transported primarily in aqueous solution. The aqueous fluxes for these trace elements range from 0.1 g/ha/a (Cd) to 44 g/ha/a (Mn). When hydrologic and climatic conditions are favorable, solutions seep to surface exposures, evaporate, and form Fe-sulfate efflorescent salts rich in these elements. Elements that remain dissolved in the low pH (reactions that increase pH. Neutralization of the weathering solution in local streams results in elements being adsorbed and precipitated onto sediment surfaces, resulting in trace element anomalies. Other elements are strongly adsorbed or structurally bound to solid phases during weathering. Copper and U initially are concentrated in weathering solutions, but become fixed to modern plant litter in soil formed on New Albany Shale. Molybdenum, Pb, Sb, and Se are released from sulfide minerals and organic matter by oxidation and accumulate in Fe-oxyhydroxide clay coatings that concentrate in surface soil during illuviation. Chromium, Ti, and V are strongly correlated with clay abundance and considered to be in the structure of

  6. Relations globales entre sédimentation de black shales océaniques et dépôts subséquents de phosphates. L'exemple du Crétacé moyen-supérieur de l'Atlantique centre et nord et du Crétacé supérieur-Eocène de la bordure ouest et nord du bouclier Africano-arabe Global Relations Between the Sedimentation of Oceanic Black Shales and Subsequent Phosphate Deposits. Example of the Middle-Upper Cretaceous in the Central and Northern Atlantic and of the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene on the Western and Northern Edges of the African-Arabian Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busson G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A l'échelle mondiale, les grandes accumulations de phosphates sédimentaires apparaissent irrégulièrement réparties dans le temps. Celles du Crétacé supérieur-Eocène de la bordure ouest et nord du bouclier africano-arabe sont quantitativement exceptionnelles et intéressantes par les réflexions qu'elles suggèrent sur un mécanisme global. On insiste d'abord sur certaines données océanographiques actuelles : flux des matières phosphatées vers l'océan et dans l'océan; répartition des phosphates dans les masses d'eaux océaniques et en particulier dans les eaux euxiniques. Puis quelques théories proposées pour rendre compte du caractère épisodique de la sédimentation phosphatée sont rappelées et critiquées (Strakhov, Fischer, Arthur, Sheldon, etc. . Puis la répartition par pays des quantités de phosphates déposées dans une partie des domaines mésogéen et atlantique est précisée. Elle justifie de focaliser notre attention sur les phosphates marocains, de loin les plus abondants et localisés en position clé. On rappelle néanmoins que la double évolution latitudinale au Crétacé et au Paléogène du Nord vers le Sud dans l'actuel hémisphère nord et du Sud vers le Nord dans l'actuel hémisphère sud rend peu crédibles les interprétations purement latitudino-climatiques de ces dépôts phosphatés. Sur le cas du Maroc, les conditions préalables à cette sédimentation phosphatée sont précisées et discutées : existence de transgressions marines pelliculaires, de séries condensées; rémission des apports détritiques ( le silence de la terre ; confinement (origine et modalité d'action. Ces conditions à elles seules ne peuvent pas expliquer l'extraordinaire flux phosphaté de cette époque. On rappelle alors que les accumulations de matière organique des black shales du Crétacé moyen-supérieur de l'Atlantique -parmi les plus importantes de l'histoire de la terre- ne présentent nulle part leur

  7. Fracturing and brittleness index analyses of shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Primarini, Mutia; Houben, Maartje

    2016-04-01

    The formation of a fracture network in rocks has a crucial control on the flow behaviour of fluids. In addition, an existing network of fractures , influences the propagation of new fractures during e.g. hydraulic fracturing or during a seismic event. Understanding of the type and characteristics of the fracture network that will be formed during e.g. hydraulic fracturing is thus crucial to better predict the outcome of a hydraulic fracturing job. For this, knowledge of the rock properties is crucial. The brittleness index is often used as a rock property that can be used to predict the fracturing behaviour of a rock for e.g. hydraulic fracturing of shales. Various terminologies of the brittleness index (BI1, BI2 and BI3) exist based on mineralogy, elastic constants and stress-strain behaviour (Jin et al., 2014, Jarvie et al., 2007 and Holt et al., 2011). A maximum brittleness index of 1 predicts very good and efficient fracturing behaviour while a minimum brittleness index of 0 predicts a much more ductile shale behaviour. Here, we have performed systematic petrophysical, acoustic and geomechanical analyses on a set of shale samples from Whitby (UK) and we have determined the three different brittleness indices on each sample by performing all the analyses on each of the samples. We show that each of the three brittleness indices are very different for the same sample and as such it can be concluded that the brittleness index is not a good predictor of the fracturing behaviour of shales. The brittleness index based on the acoustic data (BI1) all lie around values of 0.5, while the brittleness index based on the stress strain data (BI2) give an average brittleness index around 0.75, whereas the mineralogy brittleness index (BI3) predict values below 0.2. This shows that by using different estimates of the brittleness index different decisions can be made for hydraulic fracturing. If we would rely on the mineralogy (BI3), the Whitby mudstone is not a suitable

  8. Can the US shale revolution be duplicated in Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, the rapid increase in shale gas and shale oil production in the United States has profoundly changed energy markets in North America, and has led to a significant decrease in American natural gas prices. The possible existence of large shale deposits in Europe, mainly in France, Poland and the United Kingdom, has fostered speculation on whether the 'shale revolution', and its accompanying macro-economic impacts, could be duplicated in Europe. However, a number of uncertainties, notably geological, technological and regulatory, make this possibility unclear. We present a techno-economic model, SHERPA (Shale Exploitation and Recovery Projection and Analysis), to analyze the main determinants of the profitability of shale wells and plays. We calibrate our model using production data from the leading American shale plays. We use SHERPA to estimate three shale gas production scenarios exploring different sets of geological and technical hypotheses for the largest potential holder of shale gas deposits in Europe, France. Even considering that the geology of the potential French shale deposits is favorable to commercial extraction, we find that under assumptions calibrated on U.S. production data, natural gas could be produced at a high breakeven price of $8.6 per MMBtu, and over a 45 year time-frame have a net present value of $19.6 billion - less than 1% of 2012 French GDP. However, the specificities of the European context, notably high deposit depth and stricter environmental regulations, could increase drilling costs and further decrease this low profitability. We find that a 40% premium over American drilling costs would make shale gas extraction uneconomical. Absent extreme well productivity, it appears very difficult for shale gas extraction to have an impact on European energy markets comparable to the American shale revolution. (author)

  9. Environmental contamination due to shale gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annevelink, M P J A; Meesters, J A J; Hendriks, A J

    2016-04-15

    Shale gas development potentially contaminates both air and water compartments. To assist in governmental decision-making on future explorations, we reviewed scattered information on activities, emissions and concentrations related to shale gas development. We compared concentrations from monitoring programmes to quality standards as a first indication of environmental risks. Emissions could not be estimated accurately because of incomparable and insufficient data. Air and water concentrations range widely. Poor wastewater treatment posed the highest risk with concentrations exceeding both Natural Background Values (NBVs) by a factor 1000-10,000 and Lowest Quality Standards (LQSs) by a factor 10-100. Concentrations of salts, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hydrocarbons exceeded aquatic ecotoxicological water standards. Future research must focus on measuring aerial and aquatic emissions of toxic chemicals, generalisation of experimental setups and measurement technics and further human and ecological risk assessment.

  10. Shale gas. Opportunities and challenges for European energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Joode, J.; Plomp, A.J.; Ozdemir, O. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The outline of the presentation shows the following elements: Introduction (Shale gas revolution in US and the situation in the EU); What could be the impact of potential shale gas developments on the European gas market?; How may shale gas developments affect the role of gas in the transition of the power sector?; and Key messages. The key messages are (1) Prospects for European shale gas widely differ from US case (different reserve potential, different competition, different market dynamics); (2) Shale gas is unlikely to be a game changer in Europe; and (3) Impact of shale gas on energy transition in the medium and long term crucially depends on gas vs. coal prices and the 'penalty' on CO2 emissions.

  11. Estonian oil shale resources calculated by GIS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A digital map of Estonian oil shale mining was created for joining the data about technological, environmental, and social limitations in the deposit. For evaluating potential resource of oil shale, based on borehole database, its amount, tonnage and energy were calculated. Thereafter the quantity of economical oil shale for power plants and shale oil resource were calculated. Energy rating is the most important factor for determining oil shale reserves in the case of using it for electricity generation. In the case of oil production, data on oil yield and potential resources in oil shale are the most important figures to determine the value of the deposit. Basing on the models, oil resource has been calculated. Resource data can be used for composing master plans for the deposit considering both power generation and oil production. The data can be also used for composing development plans of mines and for logistics calculations. (author)

  12. Sustainability of oil shale-based electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of oil shale-based electricity covers Estonian electricity consumption and enables also to export electricity. Oil shale-based electricity production is by now competitive on the electricity market of the Baltic States and of the neighboring EU Member States. However, production of oil shale-based electricity has low energy efficiency, demands large investments for renovation and has high environmental risks. Taxation of environmental damage will be more severe in the future, lowering the competitiveness of oil shale-based electricity. Therefore, the key issue of sustainable development of Estonian energy sector is reduction of the environmental damage of the oil shale-based electricity production, or reduction of the share of oil shale in the energy balance at the expense of other energy resources, especially renewable energy. (author)

  13. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. Geotechnical processes in closed oil shale mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1998-2001 geotechnical processes in closed underground oil shale mines and open casts were investigated. In addition to kukersite oil shale deposit, the closed Sillamaee uranium (Dictyonema shale) mine was prospected. The main tools and methods included mine plans, aerial photographs and Geographical Information System data. 290 km2 of underground and 130 km2of strip-mined areas were studied. The mining maps of Estonian underground and surface mines were created. The stability of underground mined area, where room-and-pillar method was used, was the main objective of the study. It was studied with the help of aerial photographs, mine drawings, maps of quaternary sediments and mathematical modeling of rock failure. The main results are: 20 % of subsidences remain undiscovered and 42 % of subsidence occurrences have no remarkable influence to the land cover; the probability of subsidence remains and may increase in the case of mine drowning. As several mines will be closed during the next few years, the problems of drowned waste (which were not subjects of this study) are going to be more actual than before: increasing underground water level, pollution of underground water, formation of technogenic water sources, overflooding of reclaimed areas, etc. (author)

  15. Geomechanical Properties of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad O. Eshkalak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production from unconventional reservoirs has gained an increased attention among operators in North America during past years and is believed to secure the energy demand for next decades. Economic production from unconventional reservoirs is mainly attributed to realizing the complexities and key fundamentals of reservoir formation properties. Geomechanical well logs (including well logs such as total minimum horizontal stress, Poisson’s ratio, and Young, shear, and bulk modulus are secured source to obtain these substantial shale rock properties. However, running these geomechanical well logs for the entire asset is not a common practice that is associated with the cost of obtaining these well logs. In this study, synthetic geomechanical well logs for a Marcellus shale asset located in southern Pennsylvania are generated using data-driven modeling. Full-field geomechanical distributions (map and volumes of this asset for five geomechanical properties are also created using general geostatistical methods coupled with data-driven modeling. The results showed that synthetic geomechanical well logs and real field logs fall into each other when the input dataset has not seen the real field well logs. Geomechanical distributions of the Marcellus shale improved significantly when full-field data is incorporated in the geostatistical calculations.

  16. Adsorption of xenon and krypton on shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parameters for the adsorption of Xe and Kr on shales and related samples have been measured by a method that uses a mass spectrometer as a manometer. The gas partial pressures used were 10-11 atm or less; the corresponding adsorption coverages are only small fractions of a monolayer, and Henry's Law behavior is expected and observed. Heats of adsorption in the range 2 to 7 kcal/mol were observed. Henry constants of the order of magnitude 1 cm3 STP g-1 atm-1 at 0 to 250C are obtained by extrapolation. Adsorption properties are variable by sample, but the general range suggests that shales might be sufficiently good adsorbents that equilibrium adsorption with modern air may account for a nontrivial fraction of the atmospheric inventory of Xe (perhaps even Kr). It seems doubtful, however, that this effect can account for the deficiency of atmospheric Xe in comparison with the planetary gas patterns observed in meteorites. If gas is adsorbed on interior surfaces in shale clays and can communicate with sample exteriors only through very narrow channels, and thus only very slowly, equilibrium adsorption may make substantial contributions to experimentally observed 'trapped' gases without the need for any further trapping mechanism. (author)

  17. The 'Shale Gas Revolution'. Hype and Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'shale gas revolution' - responsible for a huge increase in unconventional gas production in the US over the last couple of years - is creating huge investor uncertainties for international gas markets and renewables and could result in serious gas shortages in 10 years time. This report casts serious doubt over industry confidence in the 'revolution', questioning whether it can spread beyond the US, or indeed be maintained within it, as environmental concerns, high depletion rates and the fear that US circumstances may be impossible to replicate elsewhere, come to the fore. Investor uncertainty will reduce investment in future gas supplies to lower levels than would have happened had the 'shale gas revolution' not hit the headlines. While the markets will eventually solve this problem, rising gas demand and the long lead-in-times on most gas projects are likely to inflict high prices on consumers in the medium term. The uncertainties created by the 'shale gas revolution' are also likely to compound existing investor uncertainty in renewables for power generation in the aftermath of Copenhagen. The serious possibility of cheap, relatively clean gas may threaten investment in more expensive lower carbon technologies.

  18. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    OpenAIRE

    Renjin Sun; Zhenjie Wang

    2015-01-01

    The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environm...

  19. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... block your throat or esophagus and may cause choking. Do not take this product if you have ... take enough water. Otherwise, black psyllium might cause choking. Take at least 150 mL water for each ...

  20. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  1. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heartburn, dizziness, ringing in the ears, convulsions, and confusion. Also, people who drink black tea or other ... glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide ( ...

  2. Fugitive Emissions from the Bakken Shale Illustrate Role of Shale Production in Global Ethane Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Murray, L. T.; Gvakharia, A.; Brandt, A. R.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sweeney, C.; Travis, K.

    2016-01-01

    Ethane is the second most abundant atmospheric hydrocarbon, exerts a strong influence on tropospheric ozone, and reduces the atmosphere's oxidative capacity. Global observations showed declining ethane abundances from 1984 to 2010, while a regional measurement indicated increasing levels since 2009, with the reason for this subject to speculation. The Bakken shale is an oil and gas-producing formation centered in North Dakota that experienced a rapid increase in production beginning in 2010. We use airborne data collected over the North Dakota portion of the Bakken shale in 2014 to calculate ethane emissions of 0.23 +/- 0.07 (2 sigma) Tg/yr, equivalent to 1-3% of total global sources. Emissions of this magnitude impact air quality via concurrent increases in tropospheric ozone. This recently developed large ethane source from one location illustrates the key role of shale oil and gas production in rising global ethane levels.

  3. Shale gas characteristics of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in Germany: from basin to nanometre scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Bernard, Sylvain; Horsfield, Brian; Krüger, Martin; Littke, Ralf; di primio, Rolando

    2013-04-01

    The Early Toarcian Posidonia Shale is a proven hydrocarbon source rock which was deposited in a shallow epicontinental basin. In southern Germany, Tethyan warm-water influences from the south led to carbonate sedimentation, whereas cold-water influxes from the north controlled siliciclastic sedimentation in the northwestern parts of Germany and the Netherlands. Restricted sea-floor circulation and organic matter preservation are considered to be the consequence of an oceanic anoxic event. In contrast, non-marine conditions led to sedimentation of coarser grained sediments under progressively terrestrial conditions in northeastern Germany The present-day distribution of Posidonia Shale in northern Germany is restricted to the centres of rift basins that formed in the Late Jurassic (e.g., Lower Saxony Basin and Dogger Troughs like the West and East Holstein Troughs) as a result of erosion on the basin margins and bounding highs. The source rock characteristics are in part dependent on grain size as the Posidonia Shale in eastern Germany is referred to as a mixed to non-source rock facies. In the study area, the TOC content and the organic matter quality vary vertically and laterally, likely as a consequence of a rising sea level during the Toarcian. Here we present and compare data of whole Posidonia Shale sections, investigating these variations and highlighting the variability of Posidonia Shale depositional system. During all phases of burial, gas was generated in the Posidonia Shale. Low sedimentation rates led to diffusion of early diagenetically formed biogenic methane. Isochronously formed diagenetic carbonates tightened the matrix and increased brittleness. Thermogenic gas generation occurred in wide areas of Lower Saxony as well as in Schleswig Holstein. Biogenic methane gas can still be formed today in Posidonia Shale at shallow depth in areas which were covered by Pleistocene glaciers. Submicrometric interparticle pores predominate in immature samples. At

  4. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study

  5. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study.

  6. Geothermal alteration of clay minerals and shales: diagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a critical review of the data on the mineral and chemical alterations that occur during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of shale and other clay-rich rocks - conditions similar to those expected from emplacement of heat-producing radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The conclusions drawn in this document are that the following type of alterations could occur: smectite alteration, ion mobilization, illitic shales, kaolinite reactions, chlorite reactions, organic reactions, paleotemperatures, low temperature shales, high temperature shales, and phase equilibrium changes.

  7. Geology and resources of some world oil-shale deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the geology and resources of some selected deposits of oil shale in varied geologic settings from different pars of the world. Total resources of a selected group of oil shale on origining 33 countries is estimated at 411 billion tons in-place shale oil which is equivalent to 2.9 trillion U.S. barrels of shale oil. To what extent an oil shale resource can be commercially developed depends upon many factors. The most important factor that will determine the large-scale development of an oil shale industry is the price of petroleum. Some countries having good-quality oil shale but lacking petroleum and/or coal resources will continue to mine oil shale for transportation fuels, petrochemicals, fuel for electric power plants, building materials, and other byproducts. However, their oil shale industries face imposing challenges from cheaper resources of petroleum and coal as well as being a significant source of air and water pollution

  8. Shale gas for Europe – main environmental and social considerations

    OpenAIRE

    KAVALOV Boyan; PELLETIER NATHANIEL

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of shale gas development in the USA and to assess the implications of findings with regard to the prospects for shale gas development in the EU by 2020-2030. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental and social aspects of market-scale extraction of shale gas. Any purely technological, techno-economic and regulatory aspects of shale gas exploitation are beyond the scope of this study. Other European Commission services, such as DG fo...

  9. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiumin Zhang; Demin He; Jun Guan [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale was investigated by using Yilan oil shale, Longkou oil shale, Huolinhe lignite, Taiji gas coal and Ruqigou anthracite as raw materia1s. A fixed-bed pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of these coal and oil shale were investigated. The results indicated that synergetic effect existed with the oil yield increased, water yield decreased, and the synergetic effect varied with the mass percentage of coal differed. The co-pyrolysis oil yield of Yilan oil shale and Ruqigou anthracite is a little higher than the linear sum of their oil yield in the pyrolysis process. But for the co-pyrolysis of Taiji gas coal and Yilan oil shale, no significant change of the oil yield was found. Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale were chosen as the material for the solid heat carrier experiment. Synergetic effect analyses of both the fixed-bed pyrolysis and the retorting process with solid heat carrier were given. Huolinhe lignite is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high volatile and low ash, its oil content is 8.55%. Longkou oil shale is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high oil content of 14.38%. The optimum co-pyrolysis temperature for Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale is 510{sup o}C. Synergetic effect was found with the oil increased 9% and water decreased 36%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Developments in production of synthetic fuels out of Estonian shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarna, Indrek

    2010-09-15

    Estonia is still the world leader in utilization of oil shale. Enefit has cooperated with Outotec to develop a new generation of solid heat carrier technology - Enefit280, which is more efficient, environmentally friendlier and has higher unit capacity. Breakeven price of oil produced in Enefit280 process is competitive with conventional oils. The new technology has advantages that allow easy adaptation to other oil shales around the world. Hydrotreated shale oil liquids have similar properties to crude oil cuts. Design for a shale oil hydrotreater unit can use process concepts, hardware components, and catalysts commercially proven in petroleum refining services.

  11. Geothermal alteration of clay minerals and shales: diagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to perform a critical review of the data on the mineral and chemical alterations that occur during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of shale and other clay-rich rocks - conditions similar to those expected from emplacement of heat-producing radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The conclusions drawn in this document are that the following type of alterations could occur: smectite alteration, ion mobilization, illitic shales, kaolinite reactions, chlorite reactions, organic reactions, paleotemperatures, low temperature shales, high temperature shales, and phase equilibrium changes

  12. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  13. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  14. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  15. Shale oil potential and thermal maturity of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in NW Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, J.; Littke, R.; Weniger, P.; Ostertag-Henning, C.; Nelskamp, S.

    2015-01-01

    A suite of drilling cores and outcrop samples of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale (PS) were collected from multiple locations including the Swabian Alb and Franconian Alb of Southwest-Germany, Runswick Bay of UK and Loon op Zand well (LOZ-1) of the West Netherlands Basin. In order to assess the th

  16. A fly ash and shale fired brick production line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYali

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the fly ash and shale fired brick production line with annual output of 1250 million bricks, designed by Xi'an Research and Design Institute of Wall and Roof Material, commissioned by QinDian Building Material Subcompany, and set an example for using fly ash and shale in China.

  17. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  18. The Geopolitical Impact of Shale Gas: The Modelling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auping, W.L.; De Jong, S.; Pruyt, E.; Kwakkel, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The US’ shale gas revolution, a spectacular increase in natural gas extraction from previously unconventional sources, has led to considerable lower gas prices in North America. This study focusses on consequences of the shale gas revolution on state stability of traditional oil and gas exporting co

  19. Updated methodology for nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional petroleum resources, particularly in shales, are expected to play an increasingly important role in the world’s energy portfolio in the coming years. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), particularly at low-field, provides important information in the evaluation of shale resources. Most of the low-field NMR analyses performed on shale samples rely heavily on standard T1 and T2 measurements. We present a new approach using solid echoes in the measurement of T1 and T1–T2 correlations that addresses some of the challenges encountered when making NMR measurements on shale samples compared to conventional reservoir rocks. Combining these techniques with standard T1 and T2 measurements provides a more complete assessment of the hydrogen-bearing constituents (e.g., bitumen, kerogen, clay-bound water) in shale samples. These methods are applied to immature and pyrolyzed oil shale samples to examine the solid and highly viscous organic phases present during the petroleum generation process. The solid echo measurements produce additional signal in the oil shale samples compared to the standard methodologies, indicating the presence of components undergoing homonuclear dipolar coupling. The results presented here include the first low-field NMR measurements performed on kerogen as well as detailed NMR analysis of highly viscous thermally generated bitumen present in pyrolyzed oil shale.

  20. Nuclear Waste Disposal: A Cautionary Tale for Shale Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M.; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.; Ryan, M. Cathryn

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear energy and shale gas development each began with the promise of cheap, abundant energy and prospects for national energy independence. Nuclear energy was touted as "too cheap to meter," and shale gas promised jobs and other economic benefits during a recession.

  1. Implementation of an anisotropic mechanical model for shale in Geodyn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, A; Vorobiev, O; Walsh, S

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to present the implementation of a shale model in the Geodyn code, based on published rock material models and properties that can help a petroleum engineer in his design of various strategies for oil/gas recovery from shale rock formation.

  2. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Alexander Y; Duncan, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optimization framework for evaluating different wastewater treatment/disposal options for water management during hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. This framework takes into account both cost-effectiveness and system uncertainty. HF has enabled rapid development of shale gas resources. However, wastewater management has been one of the most contentious and widely publicized issues in shale gas production. The flowback and produced water (known as FP water) generated by HF may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because this wastewater usually contains many toxic chemicals and high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). Various treatment/disposal options are available for FP water management, such as underground injection, hazardous wastewater treatment plants, and/or reuse. In order to cost-effectively plan FP water management practices, including allocating FP water to different options and planning treatment facility capacity expansion, an optimization model named UO-FPW is developed in this study. The UO-FPW model can handle the uncertain information expressed in the form of fuzzy membership functions and probability density functions in the modeling parameters. The UO-FPW model is applied to a representative hypothetical case study to demonstrate its applicability in practice. The modeling results reflect the tradeoffs between economic objective (i.e., minimizing total-system cost) and system reliability (i.e., risk of violating fuzzy and/or random constraints, and meeting FP water treatment/disposal requirements). Using the developed optimization model, decision makers can make and adjust appropriate FP water management strategies through refining the values of feasibility degrees for fuzzy constraints and the probability levels for random constraints if the solutions are not satisfactory. The optimization model can be easily integrated into decision support systems for shale oil/gas lifecycle

  3. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  4. Developing Fayetteville shale gas plays : focus on geology and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, B. [Hallwood Petroleum, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation provided details of the underlying geology of the Fayetteville shale gas plays and discussed engineering strategies used to improve productivity. Like the Barnett shale gas play, the Fayetteville play is comprised of Mississippian shale, and contains both free and adsorbed gas. Operators in Fayetteville use seismic data in order to avoid faults in the play, which has large variations in structure and depth over short distances. A typical well is drilled in 40 days. Microseismic aids will be used to plan future horizontal development and for 3-dimensional fracture analysis. Multiple short wings are used to create more concentrated frac patterns. However, once broken, the laminated shales will not re-align when frac pressure is released. The high clay content of the shale reduces frac efficiency. It was concluded that modified slick water fracs are now being used at the play along with air drilling to reduce costs, and straighten holes. tabs., figs.

  5. Geomechaical Behavior of Shale Rocks Under High Pressure and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor Lora, R.; Ghazanfari, E.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanical properties of shale are demanding parameters for a number of engineering and geomechanical purposes. Borehole stability modeling, geophysics, shale oil and shale gas reservoirs, and underground storage of CO2 in shale formations are some of these potential applications to name a few. The growing interest in these reservoirs, as a source for hydrocarbons production, has resulted in an increasing demand for fundamental rock property data. These rocks are known to be non-linear materials. There are many factors, including induced cracks and their orientation, partial saturation, material heterogeneity and anisotropy, plasticity, strain rate, and temperature that may have an impact on the geomechanical behaviour of these shales.Experimental results and theoretical considerations have shown that the elastic moduli are not single-value, well-defined parameters for a given rock. Finding suitable values for these parameters is of vital importance in many geomechanical applications. In this study, shale heterogeneity and its geomechanical properties are explored through an extensive laboratory experimental program. A series of hydrostatic and triaxial tests were performed in order to evaluate the elasticity, viscoplasticity, yielding and failure response of Marcellus shale samples as a function of pressure and temperature. Additional characterization includes mineralogy, porosity, and permeability measurements. The shale samples were taken from a Marcellus outcrop at State Game Lands 252, located in Lycoming and Union counties, Allenwood, Pennsylvania. Laboratory experiments have shown that creep behaviour is highly sensitive to temperature. Furthermore, the non-linear nature of these rocks reveals interesting behaviour of the elastic moduli highly dependent on stress history of the rock. Results from cyclic triaxial tests point out the different behaviour between 1st-loading and unloading-reloading cycles. Experimental results of these Marcellus shales are

  6. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Fischer Black

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes

    2013-01-01

    ReprintThis article was originally published by Wiley for the American Finance Association (Merton RC, Scholes MS. 1995. Fischer Black. J. Finance 50(5):1359–70). It is reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons © 1995. Reference formatting was updated to facilitate linking.

  8. Texture and anisotropy analysis of Qusaiba shales

    KAUST Repository

    Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn

    2011-02-17

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, microtomography and ultrasonic velocity measurements were used to characterize microstructures and anisotropy of three deeply buried Qusaiba shales from the Rub\\'al-Khali basin, Saudi Arabia. Kaolinite, illite-smectite, illite-mica and chlorite show strong preferred orientation with (001) pole figure maxima perpendicular to the bedding plane ranging from 2.4-6.8 multiples of a random distribution (m.r.d.). Quartz, feldspars and pyrite crystals have a random orientation distribution. Elastic properties of the polyphase aggregate are calculated by averaging the single crystal elastic properties over the orientation distribution, assuming a nonporous material. The average calculated bulk P-wave velocities are 6.2 km/s (maximum) and 5.5 km/s (minimum), resulting in a P-wave anisotropy of 12%. The calculated velocities are compared with those determined from ultrasonic velocity measurements on a similar sample. In the ultrasonic experiment, which measures the effects of the shale matrix as well as the effects of porosity, velocities are smaller (P-wave maximum 5.3 km/s and minimum 4.1 km/s). The difference between calculated and measured velocities is attributed to the effects of anisotropic pore structure and to microfractures present in the sample, which have not been taken into account in the matrix averaging. © 2011 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  9. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  10. Main features and mineralization of black shale series of Mesoproterozoic erathem Laoling group Zhenzhumen formation of Jilin Province%吉林省中元古界老岭群珍珠门组黑色岩系主要特征及其成矿作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏帅

    2014-01-01

    The minerals in the black rock series have attracted the attention of people. Organic carbon mass fraction are 35%~1.17%, with an average of 10.14%, in carbonaceous slate of Mesoproterozoic erathem Laoling group Zhenzhumen low subformation of Jilin Province. The background value of gold, copper, cobalt is high, average value is 0.148×10-6,52.94× 10-6,8.46× 10-6 respectively, and is 123, 43, 78 times in the mountains of the eastern China average values respectively. The black rock series is the obvious ore source bed of these elements. A copper cobalt deposits of small size is found in the black rock series of Zhenzhumen low subformation of Tonghua Dadingzi. The copper cobalt deposits contain the gold lens, the gold of average grade is 52.8 × 10-6, and it is quite a potential auriferous copper cobalt deposit.%黑色岩系中的矿产,早已为人们所瞩目,我省中元古宙老岭群珍珠门下亚组碳质板岩中有机碳质量分数达35.00%~1.17%,平均10.14%。其中金、铜、钴背景高,平均值分别为:0.148×10-6,52.94×10-6,8.46×10-6,是中国东部山区平均值123、43、78、倍。是这些元素的明显矿源层。在通化大顶子珍珠门下亚组黑色岩系形成一处铜钴小型矿床,其中含有金矿扁豆体,平均品位52.8×10-6,是一处颇有远景的含金铜钴矿床。

  11. Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-15

    Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

  12. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  13. Alteration of Mancos Shale by synthetic hydrofracturing fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruichak, J. N.; Ilgen, A.; Wang, Y.; Griego, J.; Rodriguez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Shale gas produced through hydrofracturing has changed the energy perspective in the United States. Shale gas extraction is complicated by the fast decline in wellbore production, to mitigate which re-stimulation and drilling new wells are required. Our goal is to conduct laboratory experiments that examine methane transport from low-permeability matrices to fracture networks induced by hydraulic fracturing. In particular, we address whether mineralogical alteration of shale by hydrofracturing fluids has an effect on matrix-to-fracture methane transport. We performed a set of laboratory experiments addressing the alteration of Mancos shale by synthetic hydrofracturing fluid at hydrothermal conditions (90 °C). Both powdered shale and shale chips were investigated. Solid characterization was done using bulk and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD, μXRD), and micro-X-ray Fluorescence mapping (µXRF). Analysis of the aqueous samples was done using ion chromatography (IC) for major anions and cations and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) - for trace metals. Our results indicate that calcium, barium, strontium , magnesium, manganese, silica, sodium, chloride and sulfate were released from Mancos shale after reaction with hydrofracturing fluid. Altered zones on shale surface after 2 months of reaction are thin - likely, within a few microns. The XRD patterns normalized to the 100% peak for quartz indicate that the dolomite, calcite, biotite, and kaolinite peaks decrease in intensity relative to the quartz peaks with increased alteration time, indicative of the partial dissolution of these minerals. Understanding mineralogical composition of an altered layer of Mancos shale will provide insight whether methane transport through these zones will be affected compared to the unaltered material. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the

  14. Analysis of the environmental control technology for oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Eckhoff, D.; Swanson, S.; Glenne, B.; Wagner, F.

    1978-02-01

    The environmental control technology proposed in the various oil shale projects which are under development are examined. The technologies for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the processed shale were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. There are no published national standards against which to judge the stabilization and vegetation of the processed shale. However, based on the goal of producing an environmentally and aesthetically acceptable finished processed shale pile, it seems probable that this can be accomplished. It is concluded that the environmental control technology is available to meet all current legal requirements. This was not the case before Colorado changed their applicable Air Pollution regulations in August of 1977; the previous ones for the oil shale region were sufficiently stringent to have caused a problem for the current stage of oil shale development. Similarly, the federal air-quality, non-deterioration regulations could be interpreted in the future in ways which would be difficult for the oil shale industry to comply with. The Utah water-quality, non-deterioration regulations could also be a problem. Thus, the only specific regulations which may be a problem are the non-deterioration parts of air and water quality regulations. The unresolved areas of environmental concern with oil shale processing are mostly for the problems not covered by existing environmental law, e.g., trace metals, polynuclear organics, ground water-quality changes, etc. These may be problems, but no evidence is yet available that these problems will prevent the successful commercialization of oil shale production.

  15. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  16. After the US shale gas revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 20 years at different positions in the gas sector, from the policy side to trading floors, the author gives an overview of the major gas issues and elaborate on the consequences of the US shale gas revolution. The first part of the book provides basic knowledge and gives needed tools to better understand this industry, that often stands, in sandwich, between upstream oil and utilities. After extensive research, publication and teaching, the author shares his insights on fundamental issues all along the gas chain and explains the price mechanisms ranging from oil-indexing to spot. The second part looks into the future of worldwide gas balance. To supply growing markets, the major resource holder, Russia, is now in direct competition with the major gas producer, the US. China has the potential not only to select the winner but also to decide the pricing principle for all Asian buyers in 2020. As China is a new and growing gas importer and has a lower price tolerance than historical Asian buyers (Japan and South Korea), it is highly possible that, against basic geography, China selects waterborne US LNG vs. close Russian pipe gas, to achieve lower import price. Europe, so risk adverse that it won't be able to take any decision regarding shale gas production on this side of 2020, should see its power fading on the energy scene and would rely more on Russia. Gas geopolitics could tighten Russia stronghold on Europe, on one side, and create a flourishing North America-Asian trade... This book is accessible to all and will particularly interest readers seeking a global gas perspective where economics and geopolitics mix. It can be read as an economic novel where billions of $ are invested to shape tomorrow energy world or as a geopolitical thriller where Russia and the US compete to impose their respective agenda, leaving China to select the winner. Contents: 1. Basics. 2. Technicals. 3. Markets, prices and costs. 4. Policies. 5. Where is the future supply growth? 6

  17. After the us shale gas revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 20 years at different positions in the gas sector, from the policy side to trading floors, the author gives an overview of the major gas issues and elaborate on the consequences of the US shale gas revolution. The first part of the book provides basic knowledge and gives needed tools to better understand this industry, that often stands, in sandwich, between upstream oil and utilities. After extensive research, publication and teaching, the author shares his insights on fundamental issues all along the gas chain and explains the price mechanisms ranging from oil-indexing to spot. The second part looks into the future of worldwide gas balance. To supply growing markets, the major resource holder, Russia, is now in direct competition with the major gas producer, the US. China has the potential not only to select the winner but also to decide the pricing principle for all Asian buyers in 2020. As China is a new and growing gas importer and has a lower price tolerance than historical Asian buyers (Japan and South Korea), it is highly possible that, against basic geography, China selects waterborne US LNG vs. close Russian pipe gas, to achieve lower import price. Europe, so risk adverse that it won't be able to take any decision regarding shale gas production on this side of 2020, should see its power fading on the energy scene and would rely more on Russia. Gas geopolitics could tighten Russia stronghold on Europe, on one side, and create a flourishing North America-Asian trade... This book is accessible to all and will particularly interest readers seeking a global gas perspective where economics and geopolitics mix. It can be read as an economic novel where billions of $ are invested to shape tomorrow energy world or as a geopolitical thriller where Russia and the US compete to impose their respective agenda, leaving China to select the winner. Contents: 1. Basics. 2. Technical aspects. 3. Markets, prices and costs. 4. Policies. 5. Where is the future supply

  18. Characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, S.A.; Latham, D.R.

    1980-10-01

    Results from the separation and characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil samples were obtained. Two samples of Paraho shale oil were hydrotreated by Chevron Research Company such that one sample contained about 0.05 wt. percent nitrogen and the other sample contained about 0.10 wt. percent nitrogen. A separation method concentrate specific nitrogen compound types was developed. Characterization of the nitrogen types was accomplished by infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, potentiometric titration, and elemental analysis. The distribution of nitrogen compound types in both samples and in the Paraho crude shale oil is compared.

  19. What controls the strength and brittleness of shale rocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybacki, Erik; Reinicke, Andreas; Meier, Tobias; Makasi, Masline; Dresen, Georg

    2014-05-01

    With respect to the productivity of gas shales, in petroleum science the mechanical behavior of shales is often classified into rock types of high and low 'brittleness', sometimes also referred to as 'fraccability'. The term brittleness is not well defined and different definitions exist, associated with elastic properties (Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus), with strength parameters (compressive and tensile strength), frictional properties (cohesion, friction coefficient), hardness (indentation), or with the strain or energy budget (ratio of reversible to the total strain or energy, respectively). Shales containing a high amount of clay and organic matter are usually considered as less brittle. Similarly, the strength of shales is usually assumed to be low if they contain a high fraction of weak phases. We performed mechanical tests on a series of shales with different mineralogical compositions, varying porosity, and low to high maturity. Using cylindrical samples, we determined the uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength, static Young's modulus, the tensile strength, and Mode I fracture toughness. The results show that in general the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) linearly increases with increasing Young's modulus (E) and both parameters increase with decreasing porosity. However, the strength and elastic modulus is not uniquely correlated with the mineral content. For shales with a relatively low quartz and high carbonate content, UCS and E increase with increasing quartz content, whereas for shales with a relatively low amount for carbonates, but high quartz content, both parameters increase with decreasing fraction of the weak phases (clays, kerogen). In contrast, the average tensile strength of all shale-types appears to increase with increasing quartz fraction. The internal friction coefficient of all investigated shales decreases with increasing pressure and may approach rather high values (up to ≡ 1). Therefore, the mechanical strength and

  20. Mineralogy-swelling potential relationships for expansive shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, H.W.; Krosley, L.; Nelson, K.; Chabrillat, S.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Noe, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The extent to which mineralogy and swelling potential is correlated in the expansive clays and shales is studied. Sites are selected in Cretaceous shales, including Pierre Shale, that are uplifted into steeply dipping strata near the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Swelling potentials are obtained on limited suites of samples with conventional and labor-intensive schemes including Seed and Chen's schemes, and with swell-consolidation measurements in response to saturation, consolidation, and rebound in an oedometer. The results showing the percent total smectite provide a useful index of swelling potential concept defined by Seed and correlates well with the swelling potential indices developed by Seed, Chen, and McKeen.

  1. Shale: an overlooked option for US nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Toss a dart at a map of the United States and, more often than not, it will land where shale can be found underground. A drab, relatively featureless sedimentary rock that historically attracted little interest, shale (as used here, the term includes clay and a range of clay-rich rocks) is entering Americans’ consciousness as a new source of gas and oil. But shale may also offer something entirely different—the ability to safely and permanently house high-level nuclear waste.

  2. Shale gas - los yacimientos de hidrocarburos no convencionales: origen del Shale gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Longoria Treviño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El shale gas tiene su origen en la acumulación de materia orgánica en cuencas marinas. En Norteamérica el gas de lutita (shale gas es una fuente emergente de gas natural de bajo costo. El gas natural es una fuente de energía abundante y relativamente limpia al quemarse. Se ha convertido en un combustible popular tanto para aplicaciones residenciales como industriales. De acuerdo con los datos recientes se estima que el suministro de gas natural derivado de yacimientos no convencionales (gas de lutita – shale gas durará más de 100 años. El gas natural ofrece un remplazo potencial para sustituir a los combustibles fósiles que producen gases de efecto invernadero y que en la actualidad se usan en la generación de energía, calefacción y transporte. Las emisiones de gas de efecto invernadero de la combustión de gas natural son aproximadamente 30% más limpias que aquellas que se derivan del aceite y 45% más limpias de las del carbón.

  3. Age of the Bedford Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Sunbury Shale in the Appalachian and Michigan basins, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, Wallace

    1970-01-01

    The suggestion by Sanford (1967, p. 994) that the Bedford Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Sunbury Shale of the Michigan basin are of Late Devonian age because these strata contain Hymenozonotriletes lepidophytus Kedo is invalid for these formations in the Appalachian basin, the area of their type localities. Endosporites lacunosus Winslow, a synonym of Hymenozonotriletes lepidophytus Kedo, occurs in upper Chautauqua (Upper Devonian) rocks through much of the Kinderhook (Lower Mississippian) strata in Ohio. The Sunbury Shale, the Sunbury Member of the Orangeville Shale in part of northern Ohio, contains a Siplionodella fauna which clearly demonstrates the Kinderhook age of the unit. The basal strata of the Bedford Shale contain Spathoffnathodus anteposlcornis which suggests a very Late Devonian or very Early Mississippian age for this part of the Bedford. Except for the basal fossil zone, most of the Bedford Shale and the younger Berea Sandstone overlie the Murrysville sand, which along the Allegheny Front in central Pennsylvania contains an Adiantites flora of Early Mississippian (Kinderhook) age. The presence of Adiantites in the Murrysville sand indicates that most of the Bedford Shale and all the Berea Sandstone are of Early Mississippian age. Lithostratigraphic evidence suggests that the Berea Sandstone of Ohio may be a temporal equivalent of the basal Beckville Member of the Pocono Formation of the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania. The clearly demonstrable Kinderhook age of the Sunbury, Berea, and most of the Bedford in the Appalachian basin strongly indicates a similar age for the same units in the Michigan basin.

  4. Shale gas exploration in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposed by the economic department of the French embassy in London, this report addresses the emergence of shale gas exploration/exploitation in the UK. It first evokes gas needs in the UK, briefly addresses the example of the USA, outlines that the development noticed in the USA is difficult to reproduce in Europe, and proposes an assessment of resources at the world level and at the British level. It discusses scientific challenges and recommendations as they are outlined in a public report made by the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering, and notably addresses issues related to water and fracking, to gas emissions and to seismic risks. The last part gives an overview of the British legal framework: creation of the Office for Unconventional Oil and Gas, existing regulations concerning water, air, seismic risks, and public commitment. It indicates the road-map given to involved companies

  5. Assessing the adsorption properties of shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Ronny

    2015-04-01

    Physical adsorption refers to the trapping of fluid molecules at near liquid-like densities in the pores of a given adsorbent material. Fine-grained rocks, such as shales, contain a significant amount of nanopores that can significantly contribute to their storage capacity. As a matter of fact, the current ability to extract natural gas that is adsorbed in the rock's matrix is limited, and current technology focuses primarily on the free gas in the fractures (either natural or stimulated), thus leading to recovery efficiencies that are very low. Shales constitute also a great portion of so-called cap-rocks above potential CO2 sequestration sites; hereby, the adsorption process may limit the CO2 mobility within the cap-rock, thus minimizing the impact of leakage on the whole operation. Whether it is an unconventional reservoir or a cap-rock, understanding and quantifying the mechanisms of adsorption in these natural materials is key to improve the engineering design of subsurface operations. Results will be presented from a laboratory study that combines conventional techniques for the measurement of adsorption isotherms with novel methods that allows for the imaging of adsorption using x-rays. Various nanoporous materials are considered, thus including rocks, such as shales and coals, pure clay minerals (a major component in mudrocks) and engineered adsorbents with well-defined nanopore structures, such as zeolites. Supercritical CO2 adsorption isotherms have been measured with a Rubotherm Magnetic Suspension balance by covering the pressure range 0.1-20~MPa. A medical x-ray CT scanner has been used to identify three-dimensional patterns of the adsorption properties of a packed-bed of adsorbent, thus enabling to assess the spatial variability of the adsorption isotherm in heterogeneous materials. The data are analyzed by using thermodynamically rigorous measures of adsorption, such as the net- and excess adsorbed amounts and a recently developed methodology is

  6. Sweet spot identification and smart development -An integrated reservoir characterization study of a posidonia shale of a posidonia shale outcrop analogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.; Zijp, M.H.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological variabilit

  7. Application of binomial-edited CPMG to shale characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional shale resources may contain a significant amount of hydrogen in organic solids such as kerogen, but it is not possible to directly detect these solids with many NMR systems. Binomial-edited pulse sequences capitalize on magnetization transfer between solids, semi-solids, and liquids to provide an indirect method of detecting solid organic materials in shales. When the organic solids can be directly measured, binomial-editing helps distinguish between different phases. We applied a binomial-edited CPMG pulse sequence to a range of natural and experimentally-altered shale samples. The most substantial signal loss is seen in shales rich in organic solids while fluids associated with inorganic pores seem essentially unaffected. This suggests that binomial-editing is a potential method for determining fluid locations, solid organic content, and kerogen–bitumen discrimination.

  8. Jordan's experience in oil shale studies employing different technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan's long experience in dealing with oil shale as a source of energy is introduced and discussed. Since the 1960s, Jordan has been investigating economical and environmental methods for utilizing this indigenous natural resource, which, due to its high organic content, is considered a suitable source of energy either by direct burning to generate electricity or by retorting to produce oil and gas. More than three decades of comprehensive engineering and economical studies, and test experiments for both retorting and direct burning carried out in co-operation with several international oil shale companies provide a solid foundation for a future oil shale industry in the country. Oil shale utilization in Jordan should be pursued because it will result in significant savings in foreign exchange, improve Jordan's energy supply security and create new jobs. (author)

  9. Environmental risks of shale gas development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shale gas development in China can generate great potential economic benefits, but also poses serious environmental risks. In this paper, we offer a macro assessment of the environmental risks of shale gas development in China. We use the US experience to identify the nature of shale gas development activities and the types of potential burdens these activities may create. We then review the baseline environmental conditions and the effectiveness of environmental regulations in China and discuss the implications of these China-specific factors for risk assessment. We recommend China to conduct a strategic environmental assessment and to consider sector-specific environmental regulations. - Highlights: • We assess the environmental risks of shale gas development in China. • We use the US experience to identify the potential environmental burdens. • The effectiveness of environmental regulations in China is generally weak. • China lacks environmental regulations specific to the oil and gas sector. • We recommend China to adopt policies to reduce environmental risks

  10. Combustion of Jordanian oil shale using circulating fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    this study re[resents design and manufacturing of a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed (C.F.B) to burn low grade fuel such as Jordanian oil shale. Hydrodynamic properties of C.F.B. were studied like minimum fluidization velocity, circulation flux and carryover rate. a hot run was firstly conducted by the combustion of L.P.G. to start up the combustion process. It proceeds until reaching the minimum burning temperature of oil shale particles, at which time the LPG supply was gradually reduced and oil shale feeding started. soon after reaching a self sustainable condition of oil shale particles, the LPG supply was cut off. The main combustion variables were investigated such as air to fuel ratios, temperature profiles across the bed, exhaust gas analysis and combustion efficiency. a combustion intensity of 859 kg/hr.m2 and combustion efficiency of 96% were achieved. (authors). 19 refs., 9 tab., 18 fig

  11. Oil Giants Formulate Ambitious Plans for Shale Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Haifeng

    2012-01-01

    China will intensify its efforts to explore for shale gas to help restructure the country's energy supplies and fuel its economic growth, according to the Ministry of Land and Resources. The ministry's latest survey shows that the country has 25.08 trillion cubic meters of explorable shale gas reserves (excluding Qinghai and Tibet). More than 420 researchers from oil companies, colleges and geological exploration agencies and research institutions participated in the survey.

  12. A Transversely Isotropic Thermo-mechanical Framework for Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semnani, S. J.; White, J. A.; Borja, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    The present study provides a thermo-mechanical framework for modeling the temperature dependent behavior of oil shale. As a result of heating, oil shale undergoes phase transformations, during which organic matter is converted to petroleum products, e.g. light oil, heavy oil, bitumen, and coke. The change in the constituents and microstructure of shale at high temperatures dramatically alters its mechanical behavior e.g. plastic deformations and strength, as demonstrated by triaxial tests conducted at multiple temperatures [1,2]. Accordingly, the present model formulates the effects of changes in the chemical constituents due to thermal loading. It is well known that due to the layered structure of shale its mechanical properties in the direction parallel to the bedding planes is significantly different from its properties in the perpendicular direction. Although isotropic models simplify the modeling process, they fail to accurately describe the mechanical behavior of these rocks. Therefore, many researchers have studied the anisotropic behavior of rocks, including shale [3]. The current study presents a framework to incorporate the effects of transverse isotropy within a thermo-mechanical formulation. The proposed constitutive model can be readily applied to existing finite element codes to predict the behavior of oil shale in applications such as in-situ retorting process and stability assessment in petroleum reservoirs. [1] Masri, M. et al."Experimental Study of the Thermomechanical Behavior of the Petroleum Reservoir." SPE Eastern Regional/AAPG Eastern Section Joint Meeting. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2008. [2] Xu, B. et al. "Thermal impact on shale deformation/failure behaviors---laboratory studies." 45th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium. American Rock Mechanics Association, 2011. [3] Crook, AJL et al. "Development of an orthotropic 3D elastoplastic material model for shale." SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers

  13. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  14. Linking preferred orientations to elastic anisotropy in muderong shale, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    W. Kanitpanyacharoen; Vasin, R; Wenk, HR; Dewhurst, DN

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. The significance of shales for unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs, nuclear waste repositories, and geologic carbon stor- age has opened new research frontiers in geophysics. Among many of its unique physical properties, elastic anisotropy had long been investigated by experimental and computational ap- proaches. Here, we calculated elastic properties of Cretaceous Muderong Shale from Australia with a self-consistent averaging method based on mic...

  15. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

  16. Scoping of fusion-driven retorting of oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the time frame beyond 2005, fusion reactors are likely to make their first appearance when the oil shale industry will probably be operating with 20% of the production derived from surface retorts operating on deep mined shale from in situ retorts and 80% from shale retorted within these in situ retorts using relatively fine shale uniformly rubblized by expensive mining methods. A process was developed where fusion reactors supply a 6000C mixture of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor to both surface and in situ retorts. The in situ production is accomplished by inert gas retorting, without oxygen, avoiding the burning of oil released from the larger shale particles produced in a simpler mining method. These fusion reactor-heated gases retort the oil from four 50x50x200m in-situ rubble beds at high rate of 40m/d and high yield (i.e., 95% F.A.), which provided high return on investment around 20% for the syncrude selling at $20/bbl, or 30% if sold as $30/bbl for heating oil. The bed of 6000C retorted shale, or char, left behind was then burned by the admission of ambient air in order to recover all of the possible energy from the shale resource. The hot combustion gases, mostly nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapor are then heat-exchanged with fusion reactor blanket coolant flow to be sequentially introduced into the next rubble bed ready for retorting. The advantages of this fusion-driven retorting process concept are a cheaper mining method, high yield and higher production rate system, processing with shale grades down to 50 l/mg (12 gpt), improved resource recovery by complete char utilization and low energy losses by leaving behind a cold, spent bed

  17. Shale gas: how to progress. Report July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes a multidisciplinary contribution to the debate on shale gas. It first shows that shale gas is already a reality at the international level, that the American economy has improved its competitiveness with direct consequences for the European economy, and notices that some countries which have been reluctant until now, are now evolving. The second part describes the potential of shale gas in France as important but with still uncertain resources. The authors outline that a status-quo would be a threat for the French industry on the short term. Then, the report proposes answers to some questions raised by the exploitation of shale gas in France in terms of risks related to hydraulic fracturing, to water resources, to methane emissions, to organic volatile compounds present in drilling waters, or in terms of noise and visual pollutions. In its last part, the report discusses how to progress in the assessment of the role of shale gas in the French and European energy mix, in the knowledge of the French underground, in the development of shale gas at the service of competitiveness, and with an ensured progressive and controlled evolution

  18. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  19. The status of shale gas in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discussed the exploration and development of shale gas plays in the Appalachian Basin in New York, with particular reference to the Utica shale gas play and the Marcellus Formation in the Middle Devonian Hamilton shale. Gas production mechanisms were reviewed along with the types of shale gas systems, including biogenic and thermogenic gas systems. The rocks of the Appalachian Basin have been impacted by at least 1 of 3 major Paleozoic tectonic events. Maps and illustrations depicting the depositional facies, stratigraphy and total organic carbon content of the oil and gas fields were provided along with the names of key formations. Preliminary studies have shown that the Marcellus Formation has a wide range of total organic carbon content, thermal maturity and kerogen quality. The variability is by unit, depth and geographical location. The maturity of the Utica shale closely follows the proximity to the orogen. The total organic carbon content of the Utica shale is bedding dependent as well as geographically dependent. tabs., figs.

  20. Experimental investigations of the wettability of clays and shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borysenko, Artem; Clennell, Ben; Sedev, Rossen; Burgar, Iko; Ralston, John; Raven, Mark; Dewhurst, David; Liu, Keyu

    2009-07-01

    Wettability in argillaceous materials is poorly understood, yet it is critical to hydrocarbon recovery in clay-rich reservoirs and capillary seal capacity in both caprocks and fault gouges. The hydrophobic or hydrophilic nature of clay-bearing soils and sediments also controls to a large degree the movement of spilled nonaqueous phase liquids in the subsurface and the options available for remediation of these pollutants. In this paper the wettability of hydrocarbons contacting shales in their natural state and the tendencies for wettability alteration were examined. Water-wet, oil-wet, and mixed-wet shales from wells in Australia were investigated and were compared with simplified model shales (single and mixed minerals) artificially treated in crude oil. The intact natural shale samples (preserved with their original water content) were characterized petrophysically by dielectric spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance, plus scanning electron, optical and fluorescence microscopy. Wettability alteration was studied using spontaneous imbibition, pigment extraction, and the sessile drop method for contact angle measurement. The mineralogy and chemical compositions of the shales were determined by standard methods. By studying pure minerals and natural shales in parallel, a correlation between the petrophysical properties, and wetting behavior was observed. These correlations may potentially be used to assess wettability in downhole measurements.

  1. Water Availability for Shale Gas Development in Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengjun; Weinthal, Erika; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Deshusses, Marc A; Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-03-15

    Unconventional shale gas development holds promise for reducing the predominant consumption of coal and increasing the utilization of natural gas in China. While China possesses some of the most abundant technically recoverable shale gas resources in the world, water availability could still be a limiting factor for hydraulic fracturing operations, in addition to geological, infrastructural, and technological barriers. Here, we project the baseline water availability for the next 15 years in Sichuan Basin, one of the most promising shale gas basins in China. Our projection shows that continued water demand for the domestic sector in Sichuan Basin could result in high to extremely high water stress in certain areas. By simulating shale gas development and using information from current water use for hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin (20,000-30,000 m(3) per well), we project that during the next decade water use for shale gas development could reach 20-30 million m(3)/year, when shale gas well development is projected to be most active. While this volume is negligible relative to the projected overall domestic water use of ∼36 billion m(3)/year, we posit that intensification of hydraulic fracturing and water use might compete with other water utilization in local water-stress areas in Sichuan Basin. PMID:26881457

  2. Standardized surface engineering design of shale gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchuan Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the special physical properties of shale gas reservoirs, it is necessary to adopt unconventional and standardized technologies for its surface engineering construction. In addition, the surface engineering design of shale gas reservoirs in China faces many difficulties, such as high uncertainty of the gathering and transportation scale, poor adaptability of pipe network and station layout, difficult matching of the process equipments, and boosting production at the late stage. In view of these problems, the surface engineering construction of shale gas reservoirs should follow the principles of “standardized design, modularized construction and skid mounted equipment”. In this paper, standardized surface engineering design technologies for shale gas reservoirs were developed with the “standardized well station layout, universal process, modular function zoning, skid mounted equipment selection, intensive site design, digitized production management” as the core, after literature analysis and technology exploration were carried out. Then its application background and surface technology route were discussed with a typical shale gas field in Sichuan–Chongqing area as an example. Its surface gathering system was designed in a standardized way, including standardized process, the modularized gathering and transportation station, serialized dehydration unit and intensive layout, and remarkable effects were achieved. A flexible, practical and reliable ground production system was built, and a series of standardized technology and modularized design were completed, including cluster well platform, set station, supporting projects. In this way, a system applicable to domestic shale gas surface engineering construction is developed.

  3. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  4. Climate impact of potential shale gas production in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, D.; Perks, J. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Existing estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas production and available abatement options were used to obtain improved estimates of emissions from possible shale gas exploitation in the EU. GHG emissions per unit of electricity generated from shale gas were estimated to be around 4 to 8% higher than for electricity generated by conventional pipeline gas from within Europe. These additional emissions arise in the pre-combustion stage, predominantly in the well completion phase when the fracturing fluid is brought back to the surface together with released methane. If emissions from well completion are mitigated, through flaring or capture, and utilised, then this difference is reduced to 1 to 5%. The analysis suggests that the emissions from shale gas-based power generation (base case) are 2 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from sources of conventional pipeline gas located outside of Europe (in Russia and Algeria), and 7 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from LNG imported into Europe. However, under our 'worst case' shale gas scenario, where all flow back gases at well completion are vented, emissions from electricity generated from shale gas would be similar to the upper emissions level for electricity generated from imported LNG and for gas imported from Russia.

  5. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  6. Slow Radio-Frequency Processing of Large Oil Shale Volumes to Produce Petroleum-Like Shale Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A K

    2003-08-20

    A process is proposed to convert oil shale by radio frequency heating over a period of months to years to create a product similar to natural petroleum. Electrodes would be placed in drill holes, either vertical or horizontal, and a radio frequency chosen so that the penetration depth of the radio waves is of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. A combination of excess volume production and overburden compaction drives the oil and gas from the shale into the drill holes, where it is pumped to the surface. Electrical energy for the process could be provided initially by excess regional capacity, especially off-peak power, which would generate {approx}3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day of synthetic crude oil, depending on shale grade. The electricity cost, using conservative efficiency assumptions, is $4.70 to $6.30/bbl, depending on grade and heating rate. At steady state, co-produced gas can generate more than half the electric power needed for the process, with the fraction depending on oil shale grade. This would increase production to 7.3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day for 104 l/Mg shale and 1.6 x 10{sup 6} bbl/day for 146 l/Mg shale using a combination of off-peak power and power from co-produced gas.

  7. Life cycle environmental impacts of UK shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First full life cycle assessment of shale gas used for electricity generation. • Comparison with coal, conventional and liquefied gas, nuclear, wind and solar PV. • Shale gas worse than coal for three impacts and better than renewables for four. • It has higher photochemical smog and terrestrial toxicity than the other options. • Shale gas a sound environmental option only if accompanied by stringent regulation. - Abstract: Exploitation of shale gas in the UK is at a very early stage, but with the latest estimates suggesting potential resources of 3.8 × 1013 cubic metres – enough to supply the UK for next 470 years – it is viewed by many as an exciting economic prospect. However, its environmental impacts are currently unknown. This is the focus of this paper which estimates for the first time the life cycle impacts of UK shale gas, assuming its use for electricity generation. Shale gas is compared to fossil-fuel alternatives (conventional gas and coal) and low-carbon options (nuclear, offshore wind and solar photovoltaics). The results suggest that the impacts range widely, depending on the assumptions. For example, the global warming potential (GWP100) of electricity from shale gas ranges from 412 to 1102 g CO2-eq./kWh with a central estimate of 462 g. The central estimates suggest that shale gas is comparable or superior to conventional gas and low-carbon technologies for depletion of abiotic resources, eutrophication, and freshwater, marine and human toxicities. Conversely, it has a higher potential for creation of photochemical oxidants (smog) and terrestrial toxicity than any other option considered. For acidification, shale gas is a better option than coal power but an order of magnitude worse than the other options. The impact on ozone layer depletion is within the range found for conventional gas, but nuclear and wind power are better options still. The results of this research highlight the need for tight regulation and

  8. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 8. Health effects of oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G.J.

    1982-02-01

    Information on the potential health effects of a developing oil shale industry can be derived from two major sources: (1) the historical experience in foreign countries that have had major industries; and (2) the health effects research that has been conducted in the US in recent years. The information presented here is divided into two major sections: one dealing with the experience in foreign countries and the second dealing with the more recent work associated with current oil shale development in the US. As a result of the study, several observations can be made: (1) most of the current and historical data from foreign countries relate to occupational hazards rather than to impacts on regional populations; (2) neither the historical evidence from other countries nor the results of current research have shown pulmonary neoplasia to be a major concern, however, certain types of exposure, particularly such mixed source exposures as dust/diesel or dust/organic-vapor have not been adequately studied and the lung cancer question is not closed; (3) the industry should be alert to the incidence of skin disease in the industrial setting, however, automated techniques, modern industrial hygiene practices and realistic personal hygiene should greatly reduce the hazards associated with skin contact; and (4) the entire question of regional water contamination and any resultant health hazard has not been adequately addressed. The industrial practice of hydrotreating the crude shale oil will diminish the carcinogenic hazard of the product, however, the quantitative reduction of biological activity is dependent on the degree of hydrotreatment. Both Soviet and American experimentalists have demonstrated a correlation betweed carcinogenicity/toxicity and retorting temperature; the higher temperatures producing the more carcinogenic or toxic products.

  9. Shale depositional processes: Example from the Paleozoic Barnett Shale, Fort Worth Basin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelresh, Mohamed; Slatt, Roger

    2011-12-01

    A long held geologic paradigm is that mudrocks and shales are basically the product of `hemipelagic rain' of silt- and/or clay-sized, detrital, biogenic and particulate organic particles onto the ocean floor over long intervals of time. However, recently published experimental and field-based studies have revealed a plethora of micro-sedimentary features that indicate these common fine-grained rocks also could have been transported and/or reworked by unidirectional currents. In this paper, we add to this growing body of knowledge by describing such features from the Paleozoic Barnett Shale in the Fort Worth Basin, Texas, U.S.A. which suggests transport and deposition was from hyperpycnal, turbidity, storm and/or contour currents, in addition to hemipelagic rain. On the basis of a variety of sedimentary textures and structures, six main sedimentary facies have been defined from four 0.3 meter intervals in a 68m (223 ft) long Barnett Shale core: massive mudstone, rhythmic mudstone, ripple and low-angle laminated mudstone, graded mudstone, clay-rich facies, and spicule-rich facies. Current-induced features of these facies include mm- to cmscale cross- and parallel-laminations, scour surfaces, clastic/biogenic particle alignment, and normal- and inverse-size grading. A spectrum of vertical facies transitions and bed types indicate deposition from waxing-waning flows rather than from steady `rain' of particles to the sea floor. Detrital sponge spicule-rich facies suggests transport to the marine environment as hypopycnal or hyperpycnal flows and reversal in buoyancy by transformation from concentrated to dilute flows; alternatively the spicules could have originated by submarine slumping in front of contemporaneous shallow marine sponge reefs, and then transported basinward as turbidity current flows. The occurrence of dispersed biogenic/organic remains and inversely size graded mudstones also support a hyperpycnal and/or turbidity flow origin for a significant part of

  10. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  11. Potential contaminant pathways from hydraulically fractured shale to aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of deep shale beds to develop natural gas has caused concern regarding the potential for various forms of water pollution. Two potential pathways-advective transport through bulk media and preferential flow through fractures-could allow the transport of contaminants from the fractured shale to aquifers. There is substantial geologic evidence that natural vertical flow drives contaminants, mostly brine, to near the surface from deep evaporite sources. Interpretative modeling shows that advective transport could require up to tens of thousands of years to move contaminants to the surface, but also that fracking the shale could reduce that transport time to tens or hundreds of years. Conductive faults or fracture zones, as found throughout the Marcellus shale region, could reduce the travel time further. Injection of up to 15,000,000 L of fluid into the shale generates high pressure at the well, which decreases with distance from the well and with time after injection as the fluid advects through the shale. The advection displaces native fluids, mostly brine, and fractures the bulk media widening existing fractures. Simulated pressure returns to pre-injection levels in about 300 d. The overall system requires from 3 to 6 years to reach a new equilibrium reflecting the significant changes caused by fracking the shale, which could allow advective transport to aquifers in less than 10 years. The rapid expansion of hydraulic fracturing requires that monitoring systems be employed to track the movement of contaminants and that gas wells have a reasonable offset from faults. PMID:22509908

  12. Nondestructive analysis of oil shales with PGNAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of nondestructive analysis of oil shales using the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique was studied. The PGNAA technique, developed originally for continuous analysis of coal on the belt, was applied to the analysis of eight oil-shale samples, containing between 9 and 60 gallons of oil per ton and 0.8% to 3.4% hydrogen. The PGNAA technique was modified using four neutron moderation conditions: non-moderated neutrons; non-moderated and partially moderated neutrons reflected from a water box behind the source; neutrons moderated in a water box behind and in front of the source; and neutrons strongly moderated in a polyethylene block placed in front of the source and with reflected neutrons from a water box behind the source. The studied oil shales were measured in their aluminum or wooden (masonite) boxes. The obtained Ge-Li spectra were processed by LSI-11/23 computer, using the modified programs previously developed by SAI for continuous coal analysis. The results of such processing (the peak areas for several gamma lines) were corrected and plotted against the weight percent of each analyzed element (from the chemical analysis). Response curves developed for H, C, N, S, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Ca, Fe and K show generally good linear proportions of peak area to the weight percent of the element. For hydrogen determination, NMD conditions had to be used where the response curve was not linear, but followed a curve whose slope rose with hydrogen concentration. This effect is caused by improving neutron self-moderation in sample boxes of rich oil shales, as compared to poor self-moderation of neutrons in very lean oil shales. The moisture in oil shales was measured by microwave absorption technique in small masonite boxes. This method was calibrated four times using oil-shale samples mixed gradually with larger and larger amounts of water

  13. Nondestructive analysis of oil shales with PGNAA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maly, J.; Bozorgmanesh, H.

    1984-02-01

    The feasibility of nondestructive analysis of oil shales using the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique was studied. The PGNAA technique, developed originally for continuous analysis of coal on the belt, was applied to the analysis of eight oil-shale samples, containing between 9 and 60 gallons of oil per ton and 0.8% to 3.4% hydrogen. The PGNAA technique was modified using four neutron moderation conditions: non-moderated neutrons; non-moderated and partially moderated neutrons reflected from a water box behind the source; neutrons moderated in a water box behind and in front of the source; and neutrons strongly moderated in a polyethylene block placed in front of the source and with reflected neutrons from a water box behind the source. The studied oil shales were measured in their aluminum or wooden (masonite) boxes. The obtained Ge-Li spectra were processed by LSI-11/23 computer, using the modified programs previously developed by SAI for continuous coal analysis. The results of such processing (the peak areas for several gamma lines) were corrected and plotted against the weight percent of each analyzed element (from the chemical analysis). Response curves developed for H, C, N, S, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Ca, Fe and K show generally good linear proportions of peak area to the weight percent of the element. For hydrogen determination, NMD conditions had to be used where the response curve was not linear, but followed a curve whose slope rose with hydrogen concentration. This effect is caused by improving neutron self-moderation in sample boxes of rich oil shales, as compared to poor self-moderation of neutrons in very lean oil shales. The moisture in oil shales was measured by microwave absorption technique in small masonite boxes. This method was calibrated four times using oil-shale samples mixed gradually with larger and larger amounts of water.

  14. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Parekh, B.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)); Bonner, W.P. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

  15. Shale gas opportunities. Dehydrogenation of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patcas, F.C.; Dieterle, M.; Rezai, A.; Asprion, N. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The discovery and use of shale gas in North America has become a game changer for the chemical industry by access to a cheaper feedstock compared to conventional oil. Increased number of ethane crackers spurred increasing interest in light alkanes dehydrogenation. Several companies have announced their interest in new propane dehydrogenation units in North America. BASF is developing light alkanes dehydrogenation technologies for two decades now. BASF developed jointly with Linde the isothermal C3 dehydrogenation process. The latest dehydrogenation catalyst development at BASF focused on a supported and steam resistant Pt-Sn catalyst which yielded excellent selectivity and activity. Intense research work both internally as well as in cooperation with universities contributed to the understanding of the relationship between the surface structure and catalyst performances like activity, selectivity and coking resistance. Using such type of catalysts BASF developed an autothermal propane dehydrogenation as well as a butane dehydrogenation process. The most recent catalyst development was a dehydrogenation catalyst coated on a honeycomb monolith to improve catalyst usage and pressure drop. This will probably be the first industrial usage of catalytic monoliths in a chemical synthesis process. (orig.) (Published in summary form only)

  16. Western states enhanced oil shale recovery program: Shale oil production facilities conceptual design studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This report analyzes the economics of producing syncrude from oil shale combining underground and surface processing using Occidental's Modified-In-Situ (MIS) technology and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hot Recycled Solids (HRS) retort. These retorts form the basic technology employed for oil extraction from oil shale in this study. Results are presented for both Commercial and Pre-commercial programs. Also analyzed are Pre-commercialization cost of Demonstration and Pilot programs which will confirm the HRS and MIS concepts and their mechanical designs. These programs will provide experience with the circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), the MIS retort, the HRS retort and establish environmental control parameters. Four cases are considered: commercial size plant, demonstration size plant, demonstration size plant minimum CFBC, and a pilot size plant. Budget cost estimates and schedules are determined. Process flow schemes and basic heat and material balances are determined for the HRS system. Results consist of summaries of major equipment sizes, capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates and economic analyses. 35 figs., 35 tabs.

  17. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  18. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  19. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  20. Stress dependence of permeability of intact and fractured shale cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Reinier; Yarushina, Viktoriya

    2016-04-01

    Whether a shale acts as a caprock, source rock, or reservoir, understanding fluid flow through shale is of major importance for understanding fluid flow in geological systems. Because of the low permeability of shale, flow is thought to be largely confined to fractures and similar features. In fracking operations, fractures are induced specifically to allow for hydrocarbon exploration. We have constructed an experimental setup to measure core permeabilities, using constant flow or a transient pulse. In this setup, we have measured the permeability of intact and fractured shale core samples, using either water or supercritical CO2 as the transporting fluid. Our measurements show decreasing permeability with increasing confining pressure, mainly due to time-dependent creep. Furthermore, our measurements show that for a simple splitting fracture, time-dependent creep will also eliminate any significant effect of this fracture on permeability. This effect of confinement on fracture permeability can have important implications regarding the effects of fracturing on shale permeability, and hence for operations depending on that.

  1. Ozone impacts of natural gas development in the Haynesville Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Bar-Ilan, Amnon; Grant, John; Parker, Lynsey; Jung, Jaegun; Santamaria, Wilson; Mathews, Jim; Yarwood, Greg

    2010-12-15

    The Haynesville Shale is a subsurface rock formation located beneath the Northeast Texas/Northwest Louisiana border near Shreveport. This formation is estimated to contain very large recoverable reserves of natural gas, and during the two years since the drilling of the first highly productive wells in 2008, has been the focus of intensive leasing and exploration activity. The development of natural gas resources within the Haynesville Shale is likely to be economically important but may also generate significant emissions of ozone precursors. Using well production data from state regulatory agencies and a review of the available literature, projections of future year Haynesville Shale natural gas production were derived for 2009-2020 for three scenarios corresponding to limited, moderate, and aggressive development. These production estimates were then used to develop an emission inventory for each of the three scenarios. Photochemical modeling of the year 2012 showed increases in 2012 8-h ozone design values of up to 5 ppb within Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana resulting from development in the Haynesville Shale. Ozone increases due to Haynesville Shale emissions can affect regions outside Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana due to ozone transport. This study evaluates only near-term ozone impacts, but the emission inventory projections indicate that Haynesville emissions may be expected to increase through 2020.

  2. Ozone impacts of natural gas development in the Haynesville Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Bar-Ilan, Amnon; Grant, John; Parker, Lynsey; Jung, Jaegun; Santamaria, Wilson; Mathews, Jim; Yarwood, Greg

    2010-12-15

    The Haynesville Shale is a subsurface rock formation located beneath the Northeast Texas/Northwest Louisiana border near Shreveport. This formation is estimated to contain very large recoverable reserves of natural gas, and during the two years since the drilling of the first highly productive wells in 2008, has been the focus of intensive leasing and exploration activity. The development of natural gas resources within the Haynesville Shale is likely to be economically important but may also generate significant emissions of ozone precursors. Using well production data from state regulatory agencies and a review of the available literature, projections of future year Haynesville Shale natural gas production were derived for 2009-2020 for three scenarios corresponding to limited, moderate, and aggressive development. These production estimates were then used to develop an emission inventory for each of the three scenarios. Photochemical modeling of the year 2012 showed increases in 2012 8-h ozone design values of up to 5 ppb within Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana resulting from development in the Haynesville Shale. Ozone increases due to Haynesville Shale emissions can affect regions outside Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana due to ozone transport. This study evaluates only near-term ozone impacts, but the emission inventory projections indicate that Haynesville emissions may be expected to increase through 2020. PMID:21086985

  3. Experimental Study of Shale Rock Self-Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Francesco; Ptak, Nicolas; Rein, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Self-heating phenomena due to spontaneous exothermic reactions in oxidative environments are common for many porous materials, even at low temperatures. Combustion of shale outcrop formations has been reported in recent years, with self-heating a potential initiating cause. This work studies experimentally and for the first time the self-heating behavior of shale rock, a porous sedimentary rock. Using field samples collected from shale outcrop at Kimmeridge Bay (UK) and the Frank-Kamenetskii theory of criticality, we determine effective kinetic parameters and thermal properties for different shale particle size distributions and upscale the results to field formations of different thicknesses. We show that for fine particle sizes, with diameter below 2mm, spontaneous ignition is possible for rock formations of thickness between 25m and 5.4m at ambient temperatures between 16°C and 44°C. For the same temperature range, the required thickness is between 375km and 15km for coarse particles of diameter below 17mm. This shows that shale rock is reactive, with reactivity highly dependent on particle diameter, and self-ignition is possible for small particles in outcrops or formations accidentally exposed to oxygen.

  4. Coupled Fracture and Flow in Shale in Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J. W.; Mori, H.; Viswanathan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Production of hydrocarbon from shale requires creation and maintenance of fracture permeability in an otherwise impermeable shale matrix. In this study, we use a combination of triaxial coreflood experiments and x-ray tomography characterization to investigate the fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale at in situ reservoir conditions (25-50 oC and 35-120 bars). Initially impermeable shale core was placed between flat anvils (compression) or between split anvils (pure shear) and loaded until failure in the triaxial device. Permeability was monitored continuously during this process. Significant deformation (>1%) was required to generate a transmissive fracture system. Permeability generally peaked at the point of a distinct failure event and then dropped by a factor of 2-6 when the system returned to hydrostatic failure. Permeability was very small in compression experiments (conformed to Forscheimer's law. The coupled deformation and flow behavior of Utica shale, particularly the large deformation required to initiate flow, indicates the probable importance of activation of existing fractures in hydraulic fracturing and that these fractures can have adequate permeability for the production of hydrocarbon.

  5. Analysis of the Energy Balance of Shale Gas Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Yaritani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest has rapidly grown in the use of unconventional resources to compensate for depletion of conventional hydrocarbon resources (“easy hydrocarbon” that are produced at relatively low cost from oil and gas fields with large proven reserves. When one wants to ensure the prospects for development of unconventional resources that are potentially vast in terms of their energy potential, it is essential to determine the quality of that energy. Here we consider the development of shale gas, an unconventional energy resource of particularly strong interest of late, through analysis of its energy return on investment (EROI, a key indicator for qualitative assessment of energy resources. We used a Monte Carlo approach for the carbon footprint of U.S. operations in shale gas development to estimate expected ranges of EROI values by incorporating parameter variability. We obtained an EROI of between 13 and 23, with a mean of approximately 17 at the start of the pipeline. When we incorporated all the costs required to bring shale gas to the consumer, the mean value of EROI drops from about 17 at the start of the pipeline to 12 when delivered to the consumer. The shale gas EROI values estimated in the present study are in the initial stage of shale gas exploitation where the quality of that resource may be considerably higher than the mean and thus the careful and continuous investigation of change in EROI is needed, especially as production moves off the initial “sweet spots”.

  6. Integrated reservoir characterization of a Posidonia Shale outcrop analogue: From serendipity to understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological variabilit

  7. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  8. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  9. Pore space characterization of organic-rich shales using BIB-SEM

    OpenAIRE

    Klaver, Jop

    2016-01-01

    Shales are the most abundant sedimentary rocks and as such they are important constituents of sedimentary basins. The characterization of the pore space and mi-crostructure of shales is crucial for many applications in geosciences. For example in the reservoir characterization of gas shales, in basin modeling studies, in understanding of sealing behavior and in hydrocarbon generation in organic-rich shales. Because these fine-grained rocks have relatively low porosity and permeability, under-...

  10. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the

  11. Can shale safely host US nuclear waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    "Even as cleanup efforts after Japan’s Fukushima disaster offer a stark reminder of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored at nuclear plants worldwide, the decision in 2009 to scrap Yucca Mountain as a permanent disposal site has dimmed hope for a repository for SNF and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in the United States anytime soon. About 70,000 metric tons of SNF are now in pool or dry cask storage at 75 sites across the United States [Government Accountability Office, 2012], and uncertainty about its fate is hobbling future development of nuclear power, increasing costs for utilities, and creating a liability for American taxpayers [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012].However, abandoning Yucca Mountain could also result in broadening geologic options for hosting America’s nuclear waste. Shales and other argillaceous formations (mudrocks, clays, and similar clay-rich media) have been absent from the U.S. repository program. In contrast, France, Switzerland, and Belgium are now planning repositories in argillaceous formations after extensive research in underground laboratories on the safety and feasibility of such an approach [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012; Nationale Genossenschaft für die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfälle (NAGRA), 2010; Organisme national des déchets radioactifs et des matières fissiles enrichies, 2011]. Other nations, notably Japan, Canada, and the United Kingdom, are studying argillaceous formations or may consider them in their siting programs [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2012; Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), (2011a); Powell et al., 2010]."

  12. What to do with the European shale gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly recalled the European objectives in terms of reduction of greenhouse emissions, this article discusses the trends and perspectives for energy supply with the emergence of the possibility of exploitation of shale gases. It notices and comments the different answers given by European countries regarding the compatibility of shale gas with energy transition, and the possible counterbalancing of imports from South Mediterranean countries, from the Middle East and from Russia. It evokes studies performed in the USA on the impact of the exploitation and production of shale gas and oil on prices, on job creation, and on the oil and chemical industry. It notices that, despite the here-above mentioned objectives, coal is still a leading energy source in Europe, notably in Germany. The article comments the possible impact of non conventional hydrocarbons on supply security for Europe, on the attitude of the USA, and on the competition with Asia for the access to energy sources

  13. Measurement of water activity from shales through thermo hygrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, Claudio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo (GTEP)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a campaign of lab tests to obtain the water activity from shales and its pore fluid originated from offshore and onshore basin. The results of water activity from shales indicate that the values rang from 0.754 to 0.923 and for the pore fluid are between 0.987 and 0.940. The results show that the water activity of interstitial water can be obtained in 6 days and the rock in 10 days using the thermo hygrometer used. The degree of saturation, water content, kind and tenor of expansible and hydratable clay mineral, total and interconnected porosity, salinity of interstitial fluid and the capillary pressure of shale samples affected the results of water activity. (author)

  14. E. S. R. spectra of eastern oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohnu, T.; Alexander, C.; Harrell, J.W.; Miyagawa, I.

    1985-09-01

    E.S.R. spectra of several oil shales from eastern and western USA have been measured at 9 and 25 GHz. The spectra of the western shales were similar to previously reported spectra and consist of a Mn/sup 2 +/ signal and a featureless organic signal. The eastern spectra consist of a V/sup 4 +/ signal and a complex and unusual organic signal consisting of at least four component signals. The organic signal has been characterized in terms of g factor, line-width and saturation characteristics. The effect of oxygen on the signal has also bee examined. Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) signals have been obtained from the organic signals of the eastern oil shales.

  15. Preliminary creep and pillar closure data for shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of fourteen laboratory creep tests on model pillars of four different shales are reported. Initial pillar stresses range from 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) to 69 MPa (10,000 psi) and temperatures range from ambient to 1000C. Laboratory response data are used to evaluate the parameters in the transient power-law pillar closure equation similar to that previously used for model pillars of rock salt. The response of the model pillars of shale shows many of the same characteristics as for rock salt. Deformation is enhanced by higher stresses and temperatures, although the shale pillars are not as sensitive to either stress or temperature as are pillars of rock salt. These test results must be considered very preliminary since they represent the initial, or scoping, phase of a comprehensive model pillar test program that will lead to the development and validation of creep laws for clay-rich rocks. 11 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Effect of water on the mechanical behaviour of shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakim, J.; Hadj-Hassen, F.; Tijani, M. [Ecole des Mines de Paris - CGES, 77 - Fontainebleau (France); Noirel, J.F. [Charbonnage de France - DTN, 57 - Freyming Merlebach (France)

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to presenting the results of a research conducted in order to study the effect of water on the mechanical behaviour of the Lorraine Basin Colliery shale. The work performed can be divided into four main parts. The first part is dedicated to classical tests and it includes geological and mineralogical analysis as well as mechanical laboratory tests. The second part is devoted to the phenomenon of shale swelling under water effect. New procedures and equipment of testing were set up in order to characterise this swelling behaviour and to determine its model parameters. The tests performed in this second part are allowed to develop a phenomenological model which describes the elasto-visco-plastic behaviour of shales before and after saturation. The last phase of the work is dedicated to implement the new model in the finite element code VIPLEF in order to apply in tunnel excavated in swelling anisotropic rocks. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of Devonian-shale potential in Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komar, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to inform interested oil and gas operators about EGSP results as they pertain to the Devonian gas shales of the Appalachian basin in eastern Ohio. Geologic data and interpretations are summarized, and areas where the accumulation of gas may be large enough to justify commercial production are outlined. Because the data presented in this report are generalized and not suitable for evaluation of specific sites for exploration, the reader should consult the various reports cited for more detail and discussion of the data, concepts, and interpretations presented. A complete list of EGSP sponsored work pertinent to the Devonian shales in Ohio is contained as an appendix to this report. Radioactive shale zones are also mapped.

  18. Let us talk about shale gas in 30 questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author addresses and gives an overview of the issue of shale gas extraction and production by answering 30 questions. These questions concern the origins of hydrocarbons, the definition of shale gas and oil, how gases and oils are produced from source rocks, the principle of hydraulic fracturing, where and how to perform this fracturing, the issue of water wastage, the risks of water pollution, seismic risks, nuisances for the neighbourhood, alternatives to hydraulic fracturing, production technical and economic characteristics, the issue of production profitability, economic benefits in the USA, impacts on the world refining industry, the possibility of creation of a new bubble, the role played by US authorities, the US shale oil and gas production, the technical potential outside the USA, the French resources, the stakes for the French economy, the macro-economic and geo-strategic impacts, the consequences for climate change, impacts on the world energy production

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Are They a Problem in Processed Oil Shales?

    OpenAIRE

    Maase, David L.; Adams, V. Dean

    1983-01-01

    Organic residues from processed oil shales were characterisized with specific attention to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Oil shale development in the White River Basin (Utah and Colorado) was projected and hydrological and geological parameters pertinent to estimations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) flux were focused. Oil shale samples from the Union B, Paraho, and Tosco II processes were extr...

  20. Revegetation research on oil shale lands in the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Satisfactory stands of vegetation failed to establish on unleached retorted shale during two successive years of seeding. All seedings with soil over retorted shale were judged to be successful at the end of three growing seasons, but deep-rooted shrubs that depend upon subsoil moisture may have their growth hampered by the retorted shale substrate. Natural revegetation on areas with various degrees of disturbance shows that natural invasion and succession was slow at best. Invasion of species on disturbed topsoil plots showed that after three years introduced seed mixtures were more effective than native mixtures in occupying space and closing the community to invading species. Fertilizer appears to encourage the invasion of annual plants even after the third year following application. Long-term storage of topsoil without vegetation significantly decreases the mycorrhizal infection potential and, therefore, decreases the relative success of aboveground vegetation and subsequent succession. Ecotypic differentation related to growth and competitive ability, moisture stress tolerance, and reproductive potential have been found in five native shrub species. Germplasm sources of two grasses and two legumes, that have shown promise as revegetation species, have been collected and evaluated for the production of test seed. Fertilizer (nitrogen) when added to the soil at the time of planting may encourage competition from annual weeds to the detriment of seeded species.

  1. Deformation and Fracture of Shale at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. C.; Borja, R. I.

    2013-12-01

    The deformation and fracture properties of shales depend on the mechanical properties of their basic constituents, including the solid clay particles, inclusions such as silt and organics, and the multi-scale porosity comprised of existing micro-fractures and the nano-scale porosity of the porous clay matrix. A great deal of understanding of the overall macroscopic (field scale) mechanical properties of shales can be gained by studying the deformation and fracture properties of these constituents along with their composite behavior, i.e., the mechanisms of deformation and fracture of shale. This project builds upon our recently acquired ability to image with fixed ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) the 3D geometry of a porous shale sample to nanometer resolution, as well as to test this sample on a nanoindenter at both the particle and composite scales, in order to develop a 3D mechanistic model to interpret the results of nanoindentation tests. The pore-scale study considers the intrinsic deformation and fracture properties of clay particles, and the effect of silt inclusions and particle packing into an anisotropic composite matrix. The analysis accounts for anisotropic and heterogeneous shale elasticity, plasticity, damage, and fissility. A finite element (FE) model is being developed which uses a recently developed finite deformation crystal plasticity algorithm and an enhanced FE method for capturing strong discontinuity. The model aims to capture the effects of the particle elasticity, plastic yielding, and the damage induced by the indenter, including the fracturing and chipping within the mineral grains and around the perimeter of the indent. Anisotropy of fracture properties is examined with respect to delamination of the clay matrix in the bed-parallel direction and to breaking of plate-like clay particles. The ultimate goal of this research is to establish a framework for investigating the poromechanical properties of shale at the nano

  2. Proceedings of the first thermomechanical workshop for shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter 2 provides a description of the three federal regulations that pertain to the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository regardless of the rock type. Chapter 3 summarizes the reference shale repository conditions selected for this workshop. A room-and-pillar configuration was considered at an extraction ratio of about 0.25. The depth was assumed to be 700 m. Chapter 4 gives a summary of several case histories that were considered to be valuable in gaining an understanding of some of the design and construction features that might be unique in creating underground openings in shale. Chapter 5 assesses the data and information needs, availability, technology for acquisition, and the research and development necessary for analytical/numerical modeling in heat transfer, fluid flow, and thermomechanics. Chapter 6 assesses data and information needs in the laboratory and considerations associated with shale rock characterization. Chapter 7 assesses the data and information needs, availability, technology for acquisition, and the research and development necessary for field/in situ testing. Chapter 8 presents the consensus of the workshop participants that there is a definite need to advance the state of knowledge concerning the thermomechanical behavior of shales and to gain experience in applying this knowledge to the design of room-and-pillar excavations. Finally, Chapter 9 provides a summary of the research and development needs in the various interacting activities of repository development, including analytical/numerical modeling, laboratory testing, and field/in situ testing. The main conclusion of the workshop was that a need exists for an aggressive program in laboratory, field, numerical modeling, and design studies to provide a thermomechanical, technological base for comparison of shale types and shale regions/areas/sites

  3. Shale-Gas Experience as an Analog for Potential Wellbore Integrity Issues in CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, James W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Simpson, Wendy S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ziock, Hans-Joachim [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Shale-gas development in Pennsylvania since 2003 has resulted in about 19 documented cases of methane migration from the deep subsurface (7,0000) to drinking water aquifers, soils, domestic water wells, and buildings, including one explosion. In all documented cases, the methane leakage was due to inadequate wellbore integrity, possibly aggravated by hydrofracking. The leakage of methane is instructive on the potential for CO{sub 2} leakage from sequestration operations. Although there are important differences between the two systems, both involve migrating, buoyant gas with wells being a primary leakage pathway. The shale-gas experience demonstrates that gas migration from faulty wells can be rapid and can have significant impacts on water quality and human health and safety. Approximately 1.4% of the 2,200 wells drilled into Pennsylvania's Marcellus Formation for shale gas have been implicated in methane leakage. These have resulted in damage to over 30 domestic water supplies and have required significant remediation via well repair and homeowner compensation. The majority of the wellbore integrity problems are a result of over-pressurization of the wells, meaning that high-pressure gas has migrated into an improperly protected wellbore annulus. The pressurized gas leaks from the wellbore into the shallow subsurface, contaminating drinking water or entering structures. The effects are localized to a few thousands of feet to perhaps two-three miles. The degree of mixing between the drinking water and methane is sufficient that significant chemical impacts are created in terms of elevated Fe and Mn and the formation of black precipitates (metal sulfides) as well as effervescing in tap water. Thus it appears likely that leaking CO{sub 2} could also result in deteriorated water quality by a similar mixing process. The problems in Pennsylvania highlight the critical importance of obtaining background data on water quality as well as on problems associated with

  4. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  5. The perspectives of shale gas in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report defines what non conventional gases are and which are their characteristics, indicates technological advances which enabled their development, the environmental challenges, and discusses the peculiarities of the business model of shale gas development. The author reports the shale gas experience of the United States (history, main areas, development characteristics, perspectives for 2020-2030), discusses the development perspectives outside the United States. He describes the roles played by international actors: United States, emerging consumer countries (China and India), Europe, and current exporters

  6. Oil shale research and coordination. Progress report, 1980-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W R

    1981-01-01

    Purpose is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by an oil shale industry. Emphasis is on the five elements As, Mo, F, Se, and B. Results of four years' research are summarized and the research results over the past year are reported in this document. Reports by the task force are included as appendices, together with individual papers on various aspects of the subject topic. Separate abstracts were prepared for the eleven individual papers. A progress report on the IWG oil shale risk analysis is included at the end of this document. (DLC)

  7. TENORM radiological survey of Utica and Marcellus Shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive on-site radiological survey of processed sludge drilled materials extracted from the oil and gas production activities in the Utica and Marcellus Shale in Ohio has been conducted with a shielded isotopic identifier incorporating an advanced patented algorithmic processor to measure low-activity levels in compliance with environmental standards. - highlights: • First on-site radiological survey of processed shale sludge from oil and gas fields. • Mobile spectroscopic radiation inspection system with shielding for low-activity measurements. • Quantification of Ra-226 and Ra-228 radionuclides contamination in soil samples

  8. Dating the Cambrian Purley Shale Formation, Midland Microcraton, England

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Mark; Rushton, Adrian W.A.; Cook, Alan F.; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Martin, Adam P.; Condon, Daniel J.; Winrow, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Zircons from a bentonite near the base of the Purley Shale Formation in the Nuneaton area, Warwickshire, yield a 206Pb/238U age of 517.22±0.31 Ma. Based on the fauna of small shelly fossils and the brachiopod Micromitra phillipsii in the underlying Home Farm Member of the Hartshill Sandstone Formation, trilobite fragments that are questionably referred to Callavia from the basal Purley Shale Formation, and the presence of trilobites diagnostic of the sabulosa Biozone 66 m above ...

  9. Carbon Shale Combustion in the Fluidized Bed Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Olek Małgorzata; Kandefer Stanisław; Kaniowski Wiesław; Żukowski Witold; Baron Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the possibilities of coal shale combustion in furnaces with bubbling fluidized bed. Coal shale can be autothermally combusted in the fluidized bed, despite the low calorie value and high ash content of fuel. Established concentrations of CO (500 ppm) and VOC (30 mg/m3) have indicated a high conversion degree of combustible material during combustion process. Average concentrations of SO2 and NOx in the flue gas were higher than this received from the ...

  10. Assessing Radium Activity in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The high volumes and salinity associated with shale gas produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale gas reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra activity with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale gas plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a

  11. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  12. Using Neutrons to Study Fluid-Rock Interactions in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, V. H.; McFarlane, J.; Anovitz, L. M.; Gordon, A.; Hale, R. E.; Hunt, R. D.; Lewis, S. A., Sr.; Littrell, K. C.; Stack, A. G.; Chipera, S.; Perfect, E.; Bilheux, H.; Kolbus, L. M.; Bingham, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Recovery of hydrocarbons by hydraulic fracturing depends on complex fluid-rock interactions that we are beginning to understand using neutron imaging and scattering techniques. Organic matter is often thought to comprise the majority of porosity in a shale. In this study, correlations between the type of organic matter embedded in a shale and porosity were investigated experimentally. Selected shale cores from the Eagle Ford and Marcellus formations were subjected to pyrolysis-gas chromatography, Differential Thermal Analysis/Thermogravimetric analysis, and organic solvent extraction with the resulting affluent analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The pore size distribution of the microporosity (~1 nm to 2 µm) in the Eagle Ford shales was measured before and after solvent extraction using small angle neutron scattering. Organics representing mass fractions of between 0.1 to 1 wt.% were removed from the shales and porosity generally increased across the examined microporosity range, particularly at larger pore sizes, approximately 50 nm to 2 μm. This range reflects extraction of accessible organic material, including remaining gas molecules, bitumen, and kerogen derivatives, indicating where the larger amount of organic matter in shale is stored. An increase in porosity at smaller pore sizes, ~1-3 nm, was also present and could be indicative of extraction of organic material stored in the inter-particle spaces of clays. Additionally, a decrease in porosity after extraction for a sample was attributed to swelling of pores with solvent uptake. This occurred in a shale with high clay content and low thermal maturity. The extracted hydrocarbons were primarily paraffinic, although some breakdown of larger aromatic compounds was observed in toluene extractions. The amount of hydrocarbon extracted and an overall increase in porosity appeared to be primarily correlated with the clay percentage in the shale. This study complements fluid transport neutron

  13. Burgess shale-type biotas were not entirely burrowed away

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Droser, Mary L.; Orr, Patrick J.;

    2012-01-01

    Burgess Shale-type biotas occur globally in the Cambrian record and offer unparalleled insight into the Cambrian explosion, the initial Phanerozoic radiation of the Metazoa. Deposits bearing exceptionally preserved soft-bodied fossils are unusually common in Cambrian strata; more than 40 are now......, however, suggest a more complex scenario. Ichnologic and microstratigraphic data from Burgess Shale-type deposits indicate that (1) bioturbation exerts a limiting effect on soft-bodied preservation; (2) the observed increase in the depth and extent or bioturbation following the Middle Cambrian would have...

  14. Executive summary. Western oil shale developmet: a technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    The objectives are to review shale oil technologies as a means of supplying domestically produced fuels within environmental, social, economic, and legal/institutional constraints; using available data, analyses, and experienced judgment, to examine the major points of uncertainty regarding potential impacts of oil shale development; to resolve issues where data and analyses are compelling or where conclusions can be reached on judgmental grounds; to specify issues which cannot be resolved on the bases of the data, analyses, and experienced judgment currently available; and when appropriate and feasible, to suggest ways for the removal of existing uncertainties that stand in the way of resolving outstanding issues.

  15. Eastern gas shales bibliography selected annotations: gas, oil, uranium, etc. Citations in bituminous shales worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, V.S. (comp.)

    1980-06-01

    This bibliography contains 2702 citations, most of which are annotated. They are arranged by author in numerical order with a geographical index following the listing. The work is international in scope and covers the early geological literature, continuing through 1979 with a few 1980 citations in Addendum II. Addendum I contains a listing of the reports, well logs and symposiums of the Unconventional Gas Recovery Program (UGR) through August 1979. There is an author-subject index for these publications following the listing. The second part of Addendum I is a listing of the UGR maps which also has a subject-author index following the map listing. Addendum II includes several important new titles on the Devonian shale as well as a few older citations which were not found until after the bibliography had been numbered and essentially completed. A geographic index for these citations follows this listing.

  16. Veining Failure and Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighani, S.; Sondergeld, C. H.; Rai, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    During the hydraulic fracturing, the pressurized fluid creates new fractures and reactivates existing natural fractures forming a highly conductive Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) around the borehole. We extend the previous work on Lyons sandstone and pyrophyllite to anisotropic shale from the Wolfcamp formation. We divide the rock anisotropy into two groups: a) conventional and b) unconventional (shaly) anisotropy. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), compressional velocity anisotropy, and SEM analysis are used to identify three causes of anisotropy: bedding planes, clay lamination, and calcite veins. Calcite vein is a subsequently filled with calcite bonded weakly to the matrix. Velocity anisotropy and visual observations demonstrate the calcite filled veins to be mostly subparallel to the fabric direction. Brazilian tests are carried out to observe the fracture initiation and propagation under tension. High speed photography (frame rate 300,000 frame/sec) was used to capture the failure. Strain gauges and Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors recorded the deformation leading up to and during failure. SEM imaging and surface profilometry were employed to study the post-failure fracture system and failed surface topology. Fracture permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Brazilian tests on small disks containing a centered single vein revealed the shear strength of the veins. We interpret the strain data and number, frequency, and amplitude of AE events which are correlated well with the observed fracture process zone, surface roughness, and permeability. The unpropped fracture has enhanced permeability by two orders of magnitude. The observed anisotropic tensile failure seems to have a universal trend with a minimum strength occurring at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis. The veins at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis were easily activated at 30% of the original failure load. The measured strength of the vein is as low as 6

  17. 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: shale oil recovery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US has large shale oil energy resources, and many companies have undertaken considerable effort to develop economical means to extract this oil within environmental constraints. The recoverable shale oil reserves in the US amount to 160 x 109 m3 (1000 x 109 bbl) and are second in quantity only to coal. This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to a shale oil recovery process. Since the highest potential shale oil reserves lie in th Piceance Basin of Western Colorado, the study centers on exploiting shale oil in this region

  18. Polyacrylamide/potassium-chloride mud for drilling water-sensitive shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.K.; Scheuerman, R.F.; Rath, H.; Van Laar, H.G.

    1976-06-01

    A shale-protective, water-base drilling fluid containing a high molecular-weight, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide and potassium chloride has been used in many wells around the world. A laboratory test for evaluating the ability of water-base muds to protect stressed shales under dynamic conditions was used in the initial development of the system. Field application of the polyacrylamide/potassium-chloride mud has been successful in stabilizing hard, sloughing shales in Canada and in reducing shale-related hole problems in several offshore areas. Recent use in the Canadian Arctic has extended the application to weighted muds for drilling soft, mud-producing shales.

  19. Comprehensive evaluation technology for shale gas sweet spots in the complex marine mountains, South China: A case study from Zhaotong national shale gas demonstration zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and development of marine shale gas reservoirs in South China is challenged by complex geological and geographical conditions, such as strong transformation, post maturity, complex mountains and humanity. In this paper, the evaluations on shale gas sweet spots conducted in Zhaotong demonstration zone in the past six years and the construction of 500 million m3 shale gas productivity in Huangjinba region were discussed, and the results of shale gas reservoir evaluations in China and abroad were investigated. Accordingly, it is proposed that another two key indicators be taken into consideration in the evaluation on shale gas sweet spots in marine mountains in South China, i.e. shale gas preservation conditions and pore pressure, and the research on ground stress and natural microfracture systems should be strengthened. Then, systematic analysis was conducted by integrating shale gas multidisciplinary data and geological and engineering integration study was carried out. Finally, a 3D model, which was composed of “geophysics, reservoir geology, fracture system and rock geomechanics”, was established for shale gas reservoirs. Application practice shows that the geological engineering integration and the 3D reservoir modeling are effective methods for evaluating the shale gas sweet spots in complex marine mountains in South China. Besides, based on shale gas sweet spot evaluation, 3D spatial congruency and superposition effects of multiple attributes and multiple evaluation parameters are presented. Moreover, the short-plate principle is the factor controlling the distribution patterns and evaluation results of shale gas sweet spots. It is concluded that this comprehensive evaluation method is innovative and effective in avoiding complex geological and engineering risks, so it is of guiding significance in exploration and development of marine shale gas in South China.

  20. Future strategies for oil shale development as a new indigenous energy resource in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenous oil shale deposits could satisfy Jordan's demand for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity for many centuries. Markets also exist for raw and retorted oil shale, spent shale, and for sulfur recovered during the upgrading and refining of crude shale oil. Although the potential benefits of oil shale development are substantial, complex and expensive facilities would be required, and these have serious economic, environmental, and social implications for the Kingdom and its people. In January 2006, the United States Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) awarded a grant to the Jordanian Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation to support the analysis of current oil shale processing technologies and the application of international expertise to the development of a oil shale industry in Jordan. The goal of the technical assistance project was to help the Government of Jordan (GoJ) establish short and long-term strategies for oil shale development and to facilitate the commercial production of shale oil in the country. This paper discusses the results of the project. The Kingdom's current energy situation and its previous work on oil shale are summarized, and the incentives and restraints on oil shale commercialization are described. Impediments to development are identified, and possible governmental responses are assessed. (author)

  1. Major and trace elements in Mahogany zone oil shale in two cores from the Green River Formation, piceance basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.; Dean, W.E.; Parduhn, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Parachute Creek Member of the lacustrine Green River Formation contains thick sequences of rich oil-shale. The richest sequence and the richest oil-shale bed occurring in the member are called the Mahogany zone and the Mahogany bed, respectively, and were deposited in ancient Lake Uinta. The name "Mahogany" is derived from the red-brown color imparted to the rock by its rich-kerogen content. Geochemical abundance and distribution of eight major and 18 trace elements were determined in the Mahogany zone sampled from two cores, U. S. Geological Survey core hole CR-2 and U. S. Bureau of Mines core hole O1-A (Figure 1). The oil shale from core hole CR-2 was deposited nearer the margin of Lake Uinta than oil shale from core hole O1-A. The major- and trace-element chemistry of the Mahogany zone from each of these two cores is compared using elemental abundances and Q-mode factor modeling. The results of chemical analyses of 44 CR-2 Mahogany samples and 76 O1-A Mahogany samples are summarized in Figure 2. The average geochemical abundances for shale (1) and black shale (2) are also plotted on Figure 2 for comparison. The elemental abundances in the samples from the two cores are similar for the majority of elements. Differences at the 95% probability level are higher concentrations of Ca, Cu, La, Ni, Sc and Zr in the samples from core hole CR-2 compared to samples from core hole O1-A and higher concentrations of As and Sr in samples from core hole O1-A compared to samples from core hole CR-2. These differences presumably reflect slight differences in depositional conditions or source material at the two sites. The Mahogany oil shale from the two cores has lower concentrations of most trace metals and higher concentrations of carbonate-related elements (Ca, Mg, Sr and Na) compared to the average shale and black shale. During deposition of the Mahogany oil shale, large quantities of carbonates were precipitated resulting in the enrichment of carbonate-related elements

  2. Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Changes in Texture and Retorting Yield in Oil Shale During Its Bioleaching by Bacillus Mucilaginosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-qing; REN He-jun; LIU Na; ZHANG Lan-ying; ZHOU Rui

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching of oil shale by Bacillus mucilaginosus was carried out in a reaction column for 13 d.The pH value of the leaching liquor decreased steadily from 7.5 to 5.5 and the free silicon dioxide concentration reached approximately 200 mg/L in it.Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) observations revealed that a mass of small particles separated from the matrix of oil shale.Energy dispersive spectrometry(EDS) analysis implied that the total content of Si,O,A1 was decreased in the particle area of the matrix.These facts indicate that the silicate was removed,leading to the structural transformation of oil shale.Comparison of the shale oil yields before and after bioleaching illustrated that approximately 10% extra shale oil was obtained.This finding suggests that the demineralisation of the oil shale by silicate bacteria improves shale oil yield.

  4. Eagle Fort Shale Play Methane Source and Fate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    hampton, C. L.; Coffin, R. B.; Rose, P. S.; Boyd, T. J.; Murgulet, D.

    2013-12-01

    Shale gas is a new and important energy source in the United States. Methane in elevated concentrations has been observed in aquifers overlying active horizontal drilling sites in the Marcellus Shale operation area. In South Texas, horizontal fracturing is being applied to petroleum exploration in the Eagle Ford Shale play. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing can enhance methane transport to deep aquifers, soil, and the vadose zone. There is little information available regarding the presence and origin of methane in Texas groundwaters and the influence of horizontal fracking. The objective of this study is to assess the extent, severity, and sources of methane contamination in South Texas groundwaters. The ultimate goal of this research is to understand potential environmental impacts of hydraulic fracking on groundwater supplies. For this purpose, 35 groundwater samples were collected from active and non-active drilling areas at depths ranging between 50 and 1,300 meters. Stable carbon isotopes in methane (δ13CCH4) and carbon stable isotope ratios in dissolved incorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) analysis were measured to determine the range of signatures for shale petroleum-sourced methane and to differentiate between methane sources (i.e. microbial versus thermogenic). The preliminary δ13CCH4 data set suggests the presence of multiple sources of methane in the aquifers sampled. Stable isotope signatures of CH4 and DIC will help differentiate between sources.

  5. Epochs of shale accumulation in the history of the earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelymskiy, G.A.; Bal' shin, I.G.; Okinshevich, A.Ye.

    1980-01-01

    The epochs of accumulation of fuel shales (FS) are characterized in the history of the earth. Accumulation of organic matter which served as the material for the formation of FS occurred in the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. FS fields of the Proterozoic age practically were not preserved because of metamorphic transformations of organic matter into graphite or schungite. In the Phanerozoic, 6 epochs of shale accumulation are isolated (early-middle Cambrian, early-middle Ordovician, late Devonian--early Carboniferous, late Permian, late Jurassic and Paleogene) in which the most important basins and fields of FS in the world were formed. Brief characteristics of the basins and their dispersal on the earth are given according to the epochs of shale accumulation. Certain laws governing the FS accumulation are established. Analysis of the arrangement of the FS reserves on the earth and conditions for their formation indicates that their accumulation is mainly associated with transgressions accompanied or following the epochs of folding and mountain formation in the geosynclinal zones associated with platforms. In the majority of cases, the shale basins are located in the extreme parts of the platforms near the elevated folded structures or sheets.

  6. CONTROL OF SULFUR EMISSIONS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the best available control technology (BACT) for control of sulfur emissions from oil shale processing facilities and then to develop a design for a mobile slipstream pilot plant that could be used to test and demonstrate that techno...

  7. Shale-oil-recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation. Final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.; Peterson, C.R.; Ring, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is concentration of the kerogen before the oil-recovery step). The objective was to identify systems which could be more attractive than conventional surface retorting of ore. No experimental work was carried out. The systems analyzed consisted of beneficiation methods which could increase kerogen concentrations by at least four-fold. Potentially attractive low-enrichment methods such as density separation were not examined. The technical alternatives considered were bounded by the secondary crusher as input and raw shale oil as output. A sequence of ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting concentrate is not attractive for Western shales compared to conventional ore retorting; transporting the concentrate to another location for retorting reduces air emissions in the ore region but cost reduction is questionable. The high capital and energy cost s results largely from the ball milling step which is very inefficient. Major improvements in comminution seem achievable through research and such improvements, plus confirmation of other assumptions, could make high-enrichment beneficiation competitive with conventional processing. 27 figures, 23 tables.

  8. Low-Temperature Extraction of Oil From Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    Technique increases recovery and energy efficiency. Advantages of method greater product yield and, because of the relatively low temperatures, minimal gas formation, smaller amounts of char byproduct, and less carbonate-rock decomposition. Up to 94 percent by weight of organic material in shale extracted.

  9. Confinement Correction to Mercury Intrusion Capillary Pressure of Shale Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Javadpour, Farzam; Feng, Qihong

    2016-01-01

    We optimized potential parameters in a molecular dynamics model to reproduce the experimental contact angle of a macroscopic mercury droplet on graphite. With the tuned potential, we studied the effects of pore size, geometry, and temperature on the wetting of mercury droplets confined in organic-rich shale nanopores. The contact angle of mercury in a circular pore increases exponentially as pore size decreases. In conjunction with the curvature-dependent surface tension of liquid droplets predicted from a theoretical model, we proposed a technique to correct the common interpretation procedure of mercury intrusion capillary pressure (MICP) measurement for nanoporous material such as shale. Considering the variation of contact angle and surface tension with pore size improves the agreement between MICP and adsorption-derived pore size distribution, especially for pores having a radius smaller than 5 nm. The relative error produced in ignoring these effects could be as high as 44%--samples that contain smaller pores deviate more. We also explored the impacts of pore size and temperature on the surface tension and contact angle of water/vapor and oil/gas systems, by which the capillary pressure of water/oil/gas in shale can be obtained from MICP. This information is fundamental to understanding multiphase flow behavior in shale systems. PMID:26832445

  10. Evaluation of the eastern gas shales in Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of the Devonian shale as a source of natural gas, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken the Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP). The EGSP is designed not only to identify the resource, but also to test improved methods of inducing permeability to facilitate gas drainage, collection, and production. The ultimate goal of this project is to increase the production of gas from the eastern shales through advanced exploration and exploitation techniques. The purpose of this report is to inform the general public and interested oil and gas operators about EGSP results as they pertain to the Devonian gas shales of the Appalachian basin in Pennsylvania. Geologic data and interpretations are summarized and areas where the accumulation of gas may be large enough to justify commercial production are outlined. Because the data presented in this report are generalized and not suitable for evaluation of specific sites for exploration, the reader should consult the various reports cited for more detail and discussion of the data, concepts, and interpretations presented.

  11. 3D numerical modeling of shale gas stimulation and seisimicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, A.S.; Wassing, B.B.T.; Verga, F.; Fokker, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The economic production from shale gas reservoir depends on the success of hydraulic stimulation, which is aimed at the creation of a permeable complex fracture network. This is achieved by the reactivation of a natural fracture network; however, the reactivation may be accompanied by unwanted seism

  12. Comparison of the Acceptability of Various Oil Shale Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A K; McConaghy, J R

    2006-03-11

    While oil shale has the potential to provide a substantial fraction of our nation's liquid fuels for many decades, cost and environmental acceptability are significant issues to be addressed. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined a variety of oil shale processes between the mid 1960s and the mid 1990s, starting with retorting of rubble chimneys created from nuclear explosions [1] and ending with in-situ retorting of deep, large volumes of oil shale [2]. In between, it examined modified-in-situ combustion retorting of rubble blocks created by conventional mining and blasting [3,4], in-situ retorting by radio-frequency energy [5], aboveground combustion retorting [6], and aboveground processing by hot-solids recycle (HRS) [7,8]. This paper reviews various types of processes in both generic and specific forms and outlines some of the tradeoffs for large-scale development activities. Particular attention is given to hot-recycled-solids processes that maximize yield and minimize oil shale residence time during processing and true in-situ processes that generate oil over several years that is more similar to natural petroleum.

  13. Review of risks to communities from shale energy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Jeffrey B

    2014-01-01

    Although shale energy development can bring infusions of money and jobs to local communities, an array of risks to community-level assets and institutions is also possible. Sociological research dating back to the 1970s links rapid oil and gas development with overburdened municipal services, upended social and cultural patterns, and volatile economic growth. Research on technological risk has demonstrated communities can come to be associated with pollution and contamination, resulting in out-migration, declining amenity-led development, and decreased financial investment. Emerging shale energy case studies in Wyoming, Pennsylvania, North Dakota, and Texas show a similar, although nuanced, picture of these concerns. Yet, little data exists on the prevalence or magnitude of these risks in the current context of shale gas development. The existing research has largely remained case-based in nature, has not been synthesized across various disciplines, and has not been updated to account for various social and technological trends that have occurred since its publication. This paper offers a critical review of major research endeavors that inform our knowledge of risk to communities from shale energy development, while identifying gaps in our understanding of these risks and areas of research need. PMID:24624971

  14. CFBC to burn oil shale in the northern Negev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaal, M.; Podshivalov, V. (Israel Electric Corp., Haifa (Israel)); Wohlfarth, A.; Schwartz, M. (PAMA, Mishov Rotem (Israel))

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes a 525 MWe power station designed to run on a high sulphur, high moisture content oil shale. Fluidized bed combustion is expected to be used by all three of the main 150 MWe units as well as by the initial demonstration unit which is rated at some 75 MWe. (UK)

  15. Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chen-Luh; Miller, Jan

    2011-03-01

    There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (Οm) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

  16. Microstructures of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) shales of Northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.E.; Barnhoorn, A.; Wasch, L.; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Peach, C.J.; Drury, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    The Toarcian (Early Jurassic) Posidonia Shale Formation is a possible unconventional gas source in Northern Europe and occurs within the Cleveland Basin (United Kingdom), the Anglo-Paris Basin (France), the Lower Saxony Basin and the Southwest Germany Basin (Germany), and the Roer Valley Graben, the

  17. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  18. Oil shale pyrolysis kinetics and variable activation energy principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ayed, Omar S. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 15008, Marka 11134 (Jordan); Matouq, M.; Anbar, Z.; Khaleel, Adnan M. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 15008, Marka 11134 (Jordan); Department of Basic Sciences, Prince Abdullah Bin-Ghazi of Science and Information, Al-Balqa Applied University (Jordan); Abu-Nameh, Eyad [Department of Basic Sciences, Prince Abdullah Bin-Ghazi of Science and Information, Al-Balqa Applied University (Jordan)

    2010-04-15

    A modified first order kinetic equation with variable activation energy is employed to model the total weight loss of Ellajjun oil shale samples. Fixed bed retort with 400 g of oil shale sample size is used in this study in 350-550 C temperature range. Variable heating rate, h, in the range 2.6-5 C min{sup -1} are tested. Activation energy was allowed to vary as a function of oil shale conversion. The value of the activation energy increased from 98 to 120 kJ mol{sup -1} while the corresponding frequency factor changed from 9.51 x 10{sup 5} to 1.16 x 10{sup 6}. Fischer Assay analysis of the studied samples indicated 12.2 wt.% oil content. The oil shale decomposition ranged from 3.2% to 28.0%. The obtained kinetic data are modeled using variable heating rate, pyrolysis temperature and variable activation energy principle in a nitrogen sweeping medium. Good fit to the obtained experimental data is achieved. (author)

  19. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  20. Numerical Simulation of Natural Gas Flow in Anisotropic Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2015-11-09

    Shale gas resources have received great attention in the last decade due to the decline of the conventional gas resources. Unlike conventional gas reservoirs, the gas flow in shale formations involves complex processes with many mechanisms such as Knudsen diffusion, slip flow (Klinkenberg effect), gas adsorption and desorption, strong rock-fluid interaction, etc. Shale formations are characterized by the tiny porosity and extremely low-permeability such that the Darcy equation may no longer be valid. Therefore, the Darcy equation needs to be revised through the permeability factor by introducing the apparent permeability. With respect to the rock formations, several studies have shown the existence of anisotropy in shale reservoirs, which is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geological processes over long period of time. Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of subsurface rock formations plays a significant role in dictating the direction of fluid flow. The direction of fluid flow is not only dependent on the direction of pressure gradient, but it also depends on the principal directions of anisotropy. Therefore, it is very important to take into consideration anisotropy when modeling gas flow in shale reservoirs. In this work, the gas flow mechanisms as mentioned earlier together with anisotropy are incorporated into the dual-porosity dual-permeability model through the full-tensor apparent permeability. We employ the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) method to handle the full-tensor apparent permeability. We combine MPFA method with the experimenting pressure field approach, i.e., a newly developed technique that enables us to solve the global problem by breaking it into a multitude of local problems. This approach generates a set of predefined pressure fields in the solution domain in such a way that the undetermined coefficients are calculated from these pressure fields. In other words, the matrix of coefficients

  1. Numerical Simulation of Shale Gas Production with Thermodynamic Calculations Incorporated

    KAUST Repository

    Urozayev, Dias

    2015-06-01

    In today’s energy sector, it has been observed a revolutionary increase in shale gas recovery induced by reservoir fracking. So-called unconventional reservoirs became profitable after introducing a well stimulation technique. Some of the analysts expect that shale gas is going to expand worldwide energy supply. However, there is still a lack of an efficient as well as accurate modeling techniques, which can provide a good recovery and production estimates. Gas transports in shale reservoir is a complex process, consisting of slippage effect, gas diffusion along the wall, viscous flow due to the pressure gradient. Conventional industrial simulators are unable to model the flow as the flow doesn’t follow Darcy’s formulation. It is significant to build a unified model considering all given mechanisms for shale reservoir production study and analyze the importance of each mechanism in varied conditions. In this work, a unified mathematical model is proposed for shale gas reservoirs. The proposed model was build based on the dual porosity continuum media model; mass conservation equations for both matrix and fracture systems were build using the dusty gas model. In the matrix, gas desorption, Knudsen diffusion and viscous flow were taken into account. The model was also developed by implementing thermodynamic calculations to correct for the gas compressibility, or to obtain accurate treatment of the multicomponent gas. Previously, the model was built on the idealization of the gas, considering every molecule identical without any interaction. Moreover, the compositional variety of shale gas requires to consider impurities in the gas due to very high variety. Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to com- pute and correct for the gas density to pressure relation by solving the cubic equation to improve the model. The results show that considering the compressibility of the gas will noticeably increase gas production under given reservoir conditions and slow down

  2. Multiscale study for stochastic characterization of shale samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Pejman; Javadpour, Farzam; Sahimi, Muhammad; Piri, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of shale reservoirs, which are typically of low permeability, is very difficult because of the presence of multiscale structures. While three-dimensional (3D) imaging can be an ultimate solution for revealing important complexities of such reservoirs, acquiring such images is costly and time consuming. On the other hand, high-quality 2D images, which are widely available, also reveal useful information about shales' pore connectivity and size. Most of the current modeling methods that are based on 2D images use limited and insufficient extracted information. One remedy to the shortcoming is direct use of qualitative images, a concept that we introduce in this paper. We demonstrate that higher-order statistics (as opposed to the traditional two-point statistics, such as variograms) are necessary for developing an accurate model of shales, and describe an efficient method for using 2D images that is capable of utilizing qualitative and physical information within an image and generating stochastic realizations of shales. We then further refine the model by describing and utilizing several techniques, including an iterative framework, for removing some possible artifacts and better pattern reproduction. Next, we introduce a new histogram-matching algorithm that accounts for concealed nanostructures in shale samples. We also present two new multiresolution and multiscale approaches for dealing with distinct pore structures that are common in shale reservoirs. In the multiresolution method, the original high-quality image is upscaled in a pyramid-like manner in order to achieve more accurate global and long-range structures. The multiscale approach integrates two images, each containing diverse pore networks - the nano- and microscale pores - using a high-resolution image representing small-scale pores and, at the same time, reconstructing large pores using a low-quality image. Eventually, the results are integrated to generate a 3D model. The methods

  3. Discussion on the exploration & development prospect of shale gas in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sichuan Basin, a hotspot and one of the most successful areas for shale gas exploration and development, can largely reflect and have a big say in the future prospect of shale gas in China. Through an overall review on the progress in shale gas exploration and development in the Sichuan Basin, we obtained the following findings: (1 the Sichuan Basin has experienced the marine and terrestrial depositional evolution, resulting in the deposition of three types of organic-matter-rich shales (i.e. marine, transitional, and terrestrial, and the occurrence of six sets of favorable shale gas enrichment strata (i.e. the Sinian Doushantuo Fm, the Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm, the Ordovician Wufeng–Silurian Longmaxi Fm, the Permian Longtan Fm, the Triassic Xujiahe Fm, and the Jurassic Zhiliujing Fm; (2 the five key elements for shale gas accumulation in the Wufeng-Longmaxi Fm are deep-water shelf facies, greater thickness of organic-rich shales, moderate thermal evolution, abundant structural fractures, reservoir overpressure; and (3 the exploration and development of shale gas in this basin still confronts two major challenges, namely, uncertain sweet spots and potential prospect of shale gas, and the immature technologies in the development of shale gas resources at a depth of more than 3500 m. In conclusion, shale gas has been discovered in the Jurassic, Triassic and Cambrian, and preliminary industrial-scale gas has been produced in the Ordovician-Silurian Fm in the Sichuan Basin, indicating a promising prospect there; commercial shale gas can be produced there with an estimated annual gas output of 30–60 billion m3; and shale gas exploration and production experiences in this basin will provide valuable theoretical and technical support for commercial shale gas development in China.

  4. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  5. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  6. Black holes without firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  7. Organic matter and trace element-rich sapropels and black shales: A geochemical comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Nijenhuis, I.A.; Bosch, Hendrik-Johannes (paleontoloog); Brumsack, H.-J.; Lange, G.J. de

    1999-01-01

    A distinct Pliocene eastern Mediterranean sapropel (i-282), recovered from three Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 160 Sites, has been investigated for its organic and inorganic composition. This sapropel is characterized by high organic carbon (Corg) and trace element contents, and the presence of i

  8. Black Nuns as Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Theresa A.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the contributions of Black Roman Catholic nuns to Black education in the United States since the early 1800s. Also shows that, despite declining membership, the three existing religious orders continue to be active in Black education and social change. (GC)

  9. Marketing for Black Alums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  10. Micro and nano-size pores of clay minerals in shale reservoirs: Implication for the accumulation of shale gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangbin; Han, Yufu; Fu, Changqin; Zhang, han; Zhu, Yanming; Zuo, Zhaoxi

    2016-08-01

    A pore is an essential component of shale gas reservoirs. Clay minerals are the adsorption carrier second only to organic matter. This paper uses the organic maturity test, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to study the structure and effect of clay minerals on storing gas in shales. Results show the depositional environment and organic maturity influence the content and types of clay minerals as well as their structure in the three types of sedimentary facies in China. Clay minerals develop multi-size pores which shrink to micro- and nano-size by close compaction during diagenesis. Micro- and nano-pores can be divided into six types: 1) interlayer, 2) intergranular, 3) pore and fracture in contact with organic matter, 4) pore and fracture in contact with other types of minerals, 5) dissolved and, 6) micro-cracks. The contribution of clay minerals to the presence of pores in shale is evident and the clay plane porosity can even reach 16%, close to the contribution of organic matter. The amount of clay minerals and pores displays a positive correlation. Clay minerals possess a strong adsorption which is affected by moisture and reservoir maturity. Different pore levels of clay minerals are mutually arranged, thus essentially producing distinct reservoir adsorption effects. Understanding the structural characteristics of micro- and nano-pores in clay minerals can provide a tool for the exploration and development of shale gas reservoirs.

  11. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    The development of an oil shale industry in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah has been forecast at various times since early this century, but the comparatively easy accessibility of other oil sources has forestalled development. Decreasing fuel supplies, increasing energy costs, and the threat of a crippling oil embargo finally may launch a commercial oil shale industry in this region. Concern for the possible impacts on the human environment has been fostered by experiences of rapid population growth in other western towns that have hosted energy resource development. A large number of studies have attempted to evaluate social and economic impacts of energy development and to determine important factors that affect the severity of these impacts. These studies have suggested that successful management of rapid population growth depends on adequate front-end capital for public facilities, availability of housing, attention to human service needs, long-range land use and fiscal planning. This study examines variables that affect the socioeconomic impacts of oil shale development. The study region is composed of four Colorado counties: Mesa, Moffat, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Most of the estimated population of 111 000 resides in a handful of urban areas that are separated by large distances and rugged terrain. We have projected the six largest cities and towns and one planned company town (Battlement Mesa) to be the probable centers for potential population impacts caused by development of an oil shale industry. Local planners expect Battlement Mesa to lessen impacts on small existing communities and indeed may be necessary to prevent severe regional socioeconomic impacts. Section II describes the study region and focuses on the economic trends and present conditions in the area. The population impacts analyzed in this study are contingent on a scenario of oil shale development from 1980-90 provided by the Department of Energy and discussed in Sec. III. We

  12. Organic geochemical characterization of Aleksinac oil shale deposit (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Stojanović, Ksenija; Kostić, Aleksandar; Jovančićević, Branimir

    2016-04-01

    Oil shales represent a good source of energy and industrial raw material. The Aleksinac oil shale deposit is the biggest and most important oil shale deposit in Serbia. It covers an area of over 20 km2, and it has three fields: "Dubrava", "Morava" and "Logorište". The potential reserves of oil shale in the Aleksinac deposit are estimated at about 2.1 billion tons. The genesis of oil shales is associated with the lacustrine depositional environments, which existed from Upper to Lower Miocene. In order to determine the generative potential, type of organic matter (OM) and thermal maturity, Rock-Eval pyrolysis was used. In analyzed oil shale samples the content of total organic carbon (TOC), as a general indicator of petroleum generation potential, range from 1.48 to 29.57%. The content of naturally generated hydrocarbons, expressed as S1 peak from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in most analyzed samples have extremely low values 0.002-0.28, which indicate low maturity level [1]. The pyrolysable hydrocarbons expressed as S2 peak from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis, represent the potential to generate hydrocarbons and with that the potential of oil generation through thermal decomposition of kerogen. S2 ranging 3.93-141.36 mg HC/g rock is higher than 20 mg HC/g rock and indicates excellent source rock potential [1]. In order to accept a formation as a source rock, it should exhibit TOC more than 0.5 % and sufficient maturity, but also OM types should be suitable for the oil and gas generation. The kerogen type is determined by Hydrogen Index (HI) and diagram HI vs. Tmax (temperature, corresponding to S2 peak maximum). HI in range 265-728 mg HC/g TOC, indicates Type I and Type II kerogen or their mixture i.e. oil prone kerogen [1], whereas only one sample appears to be oil/gas prone (Type II/III). Similar results are obtained by plotting the Tmax against HI. Maturation degree depends on the overall thermal history of the evaluated rocks; it is very important parameter for evaluation

  13. Petrology of the Devonian gas-bearing shale along Lake Erie helps explain gas shows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadhead, R.F.; Potter, P.E.

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive petrologic study of 136 thin sections of the Ohio Shale along Lake Erie, when combined with detailed stratigraphic study, helps explain the occurrence of its gas shows, most of which occur in the silty, greenish-gray, organic poor Chagrin Shale and Three Lick Bed. Both have thicker siltstone laminae and more siltstone beds than other members of the Ohio Shale and both units also contain more clayshales. The source of the gas in the Chagrin Shale and Three Lick Bed of the Ohio Shale is believed to be the bituminous-rich shales of the middle and lower parts of the underlying Huron Member of the Ohio Shale. Eleven petrographic types were recognized and extended descriptions are provided of the major ones - claystones, clayshales, mudshales, and bituminous shales plus laminated and unlaminated siltstones and very minor marlstones and sandstones. In addition three major types of lamination were identified and studied. Thirty-two shale samples were analyzed for organic carbon, whole rock hydrogen and whole rock nitrogen with a Perkin-Elmer 240 Elemental Analyzer and provided the data base for source rock evaluation of the Ohio Shale.

  14. The Wettability of Shale by CO2 and Its Impact on Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiltinan, E. J.; Cardenas, M. B.; Espinoza, D. N.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    The geologic sequestration of CO2 is widely considered as a potential solution for decreasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 emissions. Wettability of fluids within reservoir materials is a critical factor in determining the efficiency of structural and residual trapping, two major mechanisms of geologic sequestration. Individual reservoir minerals are often targeted for wettability studies. Current practice applies these results, recorded under laboratory conditions, to in-situ reservoir rock; however the wide variety of measured contact angles reported in the literature calls this practice into question. To address these issues and to study the wettability of shale caprock, resedimentation techniques are employed. These techniques allow for the creation of synthetic shales with controlled, homogeneous mineralogies. In addition, the systematic variation of the mineralogy allows for the characterization of shale wettability as a function of mineralogical composition. A novel design has been developed and used to conduct wettability experiments at reservoir conditions using high resolution X-ray computer tomography. Using this technique the wettability of resedimented shales and natural shales are compared at different reservoir conditions. Next, Lattice Boltzmann modelling methods are used to simulate capillary entry pressure into a shale capillary. Adhesion parameters along the wall are tuned to the results of the synthetic shales and heterogeneity is incorporated to estimate the capillary entry pressure into a natural shale. Understanding the mineralogical components of shale wetting allows for the prediction of capillary entry pressure based on shale mineralogy which can be used to help select secure CO2 storage sites.

  15. Marcellus shale gas potential in the southern tier of New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraj, B. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Duggan, J. [Hunt Oil Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Marcellus shale is a significant, underexplored, shale gas target in the Appalachian Basin. Gas-in-place estimates in the Marcellus shale range from 200 to 100 billion cubic feet (bcf). The Devonian shales have favorable attributes such as high total organic content (TOC), high gas content, favorable mineralogy and over-pressured. Land owned by Fortuna Energy in the northern Appalachian Basin may contain significant shale gas with unrisked gas-in-place in excess of 10 trillion cubic feet. Unlocking the true shale gas potential requires innovative drilling and completion techniques. This presentation discussed Marcellus shale gas potential in the southern tier and a test program being conducted by Fortuna to test the potential. Several photographs were shown, including Taughannock Falls, Finger Lakes and the Ithaca Shale, Sherburne Sandstone, and Geneseo Shale; two orthogonal fracture sets in the Upper Devonian Geneseo Shale; and two orthogonal fracture sets in the Upper Devonian Rocks, near Corning, New York. Figures that were presented included the supercontinent Pangaea in the early Triassic; undiscovered gas resources in the Appalachian Basin; stratigraphy; and total gas production in New York since 1998. Fortuna's work is ongoing in the northern Appalachian Basin. tabs., figs.

  16. Mineralogical characterization of selected shales in support of nuclear waste repository studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One objective of the Sedimentary Rock Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been to examine end-member shales to develop a data base that will aid in evaluations if shales are ever considered as a repository host rock. Five end-member shales were selected for comprehensive characterization: the Chattanooga Shale from Fentress County, Tennessee; the Pierre Shale from Gregory County, South Dakota; the Green River Formation from Garfield County, Colorado; and the Nolichucky Shale and Pumpkin Valley Shale from Roane County, Tennessee. Detailed micromorphological and mineralogical characterizations of the shales were completed by Lee et al. (1987) in ORNL/TM-10567. This report is a supplemental characterization study that was necessary because second batches of the shale samples were needed for additional studies. Selected physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties were determined for the second batches; and their properties were compared with the results from the first batches. Physical characterization indicated that the second-batch and first-batch samples had a noticeable difference in apparent-size distributions but had similar primary-particle-size distributions. There were some differences in chemical composition between the batches, but these differences were not considered important in comparison with the differences among the end-member shales. The results of x-ray diffraction analyses showed that the second batches had mineralogical compositions very similar to the first batches. 9 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Issues and answers on the Department of Energy Oil Shale RD and D Program Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This document consists of Department of Energy replies to public comments made on the Department's Oil Shale RD and D Program and the RD and D Program Management Plan during an oil shale workshop held in December 1979 in Denver, Colorado, and incorporates responses from a number of Department offices and divisions currently associated with the Oil Shale Program. Workshop participants expressed concern in a number of areas associated with oil shale development impacts. Comments addressed effects on water quality and availability; air quality and solid waste impacts; impacts on terrestrial ecosystems; the pace of oil shale development; health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns; coordination among Federal, State, and local agencies during development of the shale resource; legislative and regulatory issues; financing of oil shale development; continued public education and involvement; and technology considerations (e.g., comments relating to shale oil upgrading, refining, product composition, and stability). Replies made by RD and D Program staff to the comments of workshop participants provide an overview of Department of Energy oil shale activities, both planned and ongoing, in the areas of concern addressed by the workshop. Although the responses focus on Department efforts to resolve these concerns, the research activities and responsibilities of other Federal agencies are also outlined. To supplement the RD and D Program response, recently published sources of information on oil shale development are identified that offer the public a more thorough description of Departmental research programs.

  18. Stuffed Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Arbona, A; Carot, J; Mas, L; Massó, J; Stela, J

    1998-01-01

    Initial data corresponding to spacetimes containing black holes are considered in the time symmetric case. The solutions are obtained by matching across the apparent horizon different, conformally flat, spatial metrics. The exterior metric is the vacuum solution obtained by the well known conformal imaging method. The interior metric for every black hole is regular everywhere and corresponds to a positive energy density. The resulting matched solutions cover then the whole initial (Cauchy) hypersurface, without any singularity, and can be useful for numerical applications. The simpler cases of one black hole (Schwarzschild data) or two identical black holes (Misner data) are explicitly solved. A procedure for extending this construction to the multiple black hole case is also given, and it is shown to work for all time symmetric vacuum solutions obtained by the conformal imaging method. The numerical evolution of one such 'stuffed' black hole is compared with that of a pure vacuum or 'plain' black hole in the...

  19. Oil shale through the ages : American resource history a tale of steamships and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article outlined the history of oil shale development in the United States. Over 90 per cent of America's oil shale deposits are located in the Green River formation, a series of dry lake beds situated in the upper Rocky Mountain range. The United States Naval Oil Shale Reserve, which was created in Wyoming to meet the needs of the United States Navy, was mapped in 1915. Reports from the United States Geological Survey stated that the region contained an estimated 418 billion barrels of shale oil. Oil shale production ceased after conventional oil production increased during the 1930s. An oil shale recovery program was instituted as a result of the second world war. However, the war ended before the oil shale reserves could be exploited. Petroleum industry leaders lobbied against oil shale production, and issued reports which suggested that oil shale production was not economically viable. Nonetheless, well-financed speculators began to purchase leases. Domestic oil production in the United States peaked in the 1960s, and the first international oil crisis of 1973 focused the attention of Americans on energy security. The United States Synthetic Fuel Corporation funded research into oil shale production in 1980 after oil prices reached $80 per barrel. The Colony Oil Shale project in Colorado was then closed due to sustained low prices for conventional crude oil after 1982. In 2005, Congress held hearings on oil shale, and experimental leases have been let out to several major oil and gas companies. Numerous start-ups are attempting to lease or purchase land outside of the federal reserves. It was concluded that the size of the oil shale resource will ensure that further government and political actions will take place. 3 figs

  20. Application of high-precision 3D seismic technology to shale gas exploration: A case study of the large Jiaoshiba shale gas field in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuqing Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation pattern of the marine shale gas in South China is different from that in North America. The former has generally thin reservoirs and complex preservation conditions, so it is difficult to make a fine description of the structural features of shale formations and to reflect accurately the distribution pattern of high-quality shale by using the conventional 2D and 3D seismic exploration technology, which has an adverse effect on the successful deployment of horizontal wells. In view of this, high-precision 3D seismic prospecting focusing on lithological survey was implemented to make an accurate description of the distribution of shale gas sweet spots so that commercial shale gas production can be obtained. Therefore, due to the complex seismic geological condition of Jiaoshiba area in Fuling, SE Sichuan Basin, the observation system of high-precision 3D seismic acquisition should have such features as wide-azimuth angles, small trace intervals, high folds, uniform vertical and horizontal coverage and long spread to meet the needs of the shale gas exploration in terms of structural interpretation, lithological interpretation and fracture prediction. Based on this idea, the first implemented high-precision 3D seismic exploration project in Jiaoshiba area played an important role in the discovery of the large Jiaoshiba shale gas field. Considering that the high-quality marine shale in the Sichuan Basin shows the characteristics of multi-layer development from the Silurian system to the Cambrian system, the strategy of shale gas stereoscopic exploration should be implemented to fully obtain the oil and gas information of the shallow, medium and deep strata from the high-precision 3D seismic data, and ultimately to expand the prospecting achievements in an all-round way to balance the high upstream exploration cost, and to continue to push the efficient shale gas exploration and development process in China.

  1. On gas and shale, we do not argue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addressing the debate on the exploitation of shale gas in France, and the impatience of industrials in front of the moratorium which has been decided, this article states that most of the environmental impacts of shale gas exploitation on water, air, soils, energy and biodiversity can be controlled. It evokes technical choices and possibilities to avoid water pollution, to reduce water consumption, to prevent air pollution, and to prevent access of animals to by-products. These risks thus depend on industrial practices. Other risks are evoked which do not depend on them: a social risk of presumption of water pollution due to an increased turbidity, a risk of fragmentation of the territory due to the presence of several drilling platforms, and a risk of a significant increase of lorry traffic

  2. Transformations in oil shale ash at wet deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estonian oil shale ash contains chemically active compounds which would undergo different spontaneous transformations in the atmosphere of air. For explaining these processes the system ash-water-air was studied storing moisture samples of ash in laboratory in open-air as well as hermetic conditions. The samples of dry ash formed at pulverized combustion of oil shale at the Baltic Power Plant, and samples obtained from ash storing plateau from different depth of different boreholes were under investigation. Storing conditions as well as the properties of initial samples have a great influence upon the processes taking place at storing of ashes. The results obtained could be used to explain and control the processes taking place at storing of ashes under atmospheric (wet) conditions

  3. Two-step processing of oil shale to linear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Ryzhov, A.N.; Latypova, D.Zh.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Avakyan, T.A. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Thermal and catalytic steam reforming of oil shale mined from Leningrad and Kashpir deposits was studied. Experiments were performed in fixed bed reactor by varying temperature and steam flow rate. Data obtained were approximated by empirical formulas containing some parameters calculated by least-squares method. Thus predicting amount of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane in producer gas is possible for given particular kind of oil shale, temperature and steam flow rate. Adding Ni catalyst enriches hydrogen and depletes CO content in effluent gas at low gasification temperatures. Modeling gas simulating steam reforming gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} mixture) was tested in hydrocarbon synthesis over Co-containing supported catalyst. Selectivity of CO conversion into C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons reaches 84% while selectivity to methane is 7%. Molecular weight distribution of synthesized alkanes obeys Anderson-Schulz-Flory equation and chain growth probability 0.84. (orig.)

  4. Modelling the drying of a parallelepipedic oil shale particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, P.S.S.; Lisboa, A.C.L. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering], Emails: porto@feq.unicamp.br, lisboa@feq.unicamp.br

    2005-04-15

    A numerical model is proposed to describe the process of drying a parallelepipedic oil shale particle. Assuming Fick's law, the diffusion equation for the shape of the particle was used. The objective of the study was to develop a computer program in Fortran to estimate the moisture content of an oil shale particle undergoing drying as a function of time and position. The average moisture content was also obtained. The model takes into account the migration of water by diffusion within the solid and its loss at the interface. The model results were compared to experimental data from an apparatus which measured the mass loss of a particle. The apparatus comprised an electronic balance attached by a thin wire to the particle placed inside an incubator. (author)

  5. Carbon Shale Combustion in the Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olek Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the possibilities of coal shale combustion in furnaces with bubbling fluidized bed. Coal shale can be autothermally combusted in the fluidized bed, despite the low calorie value and high ash content of fuel. Established concentrations of CO (500 ppm and VOC (30 mg/m3 have indicated a high conversion degree of combustible material during combustion process. Average concentrations of SO2 and NOx in the flue gas were higher than this received from the combustion of high quality hard coal, 600 ppm and 500 ppm, respectively. Optional reduction of SO2 and NOx emission may require the installation of flue gas desulphurization and de-NOx systems.

  6. Alternative routes for the chemical industry regarding US shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneissel, B. [Stratley AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Cracking ethane from wet shale gas in North America sets a bench mark to global ethylene production costs. Regarding very attractive ethane prices from extraction of low cost wet shale gas we suggest in North America ethylene production costs will roughly vary between 400 and 600 $/ t. As in other parts of the world, except Middle East, the availability of ethane seems to be more limited other sources for ethylene, such as methane, coal and biomass are investigated. Oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) has its limits and may only lead to competitive production costs for large scale operations. Coal converted to ethylene via calcium carbide and subsequent hydrogenation may hardly be a viable answer. Ethylene derived by dehydration of ethanol from fermentation of corn sugar may be an answer for very low crop prices. Further research on the conversion of methane with emphasis on its industrial implementation as a major carbon resource is recommended. (orig.)

  7. Typical geological characteristics of the new energy resource of oil shale and some problems concerning its development and utilization%中国西北新能源——油页岩典型特征及开发利用中的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤桦; 白云来; 吴武军

    2011-01-01

    With the gradual decrease of oil resources in China, non-conventional resources such as oil shale, oil sands and heavy oil have aroused much attention among geologists.There are abundant oil shale resources in northwest China, which have been preliminary studied in this paper.Field geological section survey, standard mining investigation, and laboratory analysis of important samples indicate that the oil shale in northwest China has the following features: 1) Oil shale strata 1- 36m thick exist in this region.2) The color of the oil shale is mostly brown-black, black, whereas the color of some oil shale outcrops is maroon.Oil shale is characterized by slightly greasy luster, flaky layered structure, irregular conchoidal fracture, small hardness and light brown streak.3)In hand specimen, oil shale is mainly composed of clay minerals and silt-sized detrital minerals (feldspar and quartz).4) The main chemical components of oil shale are SiO2 and Al2O3, which possess 65.44% of the rock,indicating that the shale is of the medium ash type.The organic carbon possess 14% of the oil shale, total carbon poesses16.28%, and oil yield is generally 1.5%-13.7%, for an overall caloric value of 1.66-20.98 MJ/kg.The density of the shale is 1.55-2.46 g/cc.Younger oil shale strata have progressively higher REE abundances.5) Oil shale deposits can be mainly divided into 3 types: littoral-neritic facies sedimentary deposits in middle and late Carboniferous-early Permian strata, remnant lake bay-lacustrine facies sedimentary deposits in late Permian strata,and inland lacustrine - delta facies sedimentary deposits in Mesozoic strata.Oil shale formed in Mesozoic inland deep water-half deep water lacustrine facies is the major industrial type and its origin is similar to "the Black Sea Model." Oil shale layers are also the main oil source rocks in Ordos basin.Oil shale formed in the deltaic environment in middle and late Carboniferous and Jurassic strata are mostly related to coal

  8. Relationship of shale dewatering and smectite dehydration to undercompaction occurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leftwich, J.T. Jr.

    1996-12-01

    The cause(s) of abnormal fluid pressures in sedimentary basins are not clearly understood. One step in determining the mechanism(s) of abnormal pressure generation in sedimentary basins is to develop an understanding of the relationship among undercompacted shale, abnormal pressure, and temperature. Our research focused on understanding undercompaction and how it related to smectite-illite conversion. A series of carefully designed experiments were used to help clarify and evaluate the relationship of smectite-illite transformation to undercompaction.

  9. Policy Brief: Shale Gas in India: Look Before You Leap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    Natural gas forms 9 per cent of the total commercial energy mix in India, but demand far exceeds supply, as shown in Figure 1. Part of the demand in 2012–13 was made up by the import of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to the extent of 18 bcm. Several power plants, which were in operation, or ready for commissioning, or in an advanced state of construction, representing about 10,000 MW of generation capacity, were, however, idle for want of gas. The exploration and production of shale gas in the United States (US) has been a game changer, making the country self-sufficient in natural gas over the last few years. This has created considerable excitement globally, particularly in Europe. India is also looking at exploring shale gas domestically to fill in the supply–demand gap. But will what works for the US also work for Europe and India? This policy brief explores this question in the context of India. It explains the nature of shale gas, the technology for its extraction from underground sources, and its potential for India. It also highlights overseas acquisitions of this resource by Indian companies even before it is sourced domestically, and then examines the viability of the technology in India. One of the key determinants of the viability of this technology is the availability of large quantities of clean water. This policy brief raises a red flag on this complementary input for exploiting shale gas resources in India, given that India is a water stressed country, and is fast approaching water scarcity conditions.

  10. Removal of reactive dyes from wastewater by shale

    OpenAIRE

    Jareeya Yimrattanabovorn; Somchai Dararat; Sairoong Nopkhuntod

    2012-01-01

    Colored textile effluents represent severe environmental problems as they contain mixture of chemicals, auxiliariesand dyestuffs of different classes and chemical constitutions. Elimination of dyes in the textile wastewater by conventionalwastewater treatment methods is very difficult. At present, there is a growing interest in using inexpensive and potentialmaterials for the adsorption of reactive dyes. Shale has been reported to be a potential media to remove color from wastewaterbecause of...

  11. The production technology of shale fly ash fired brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaoYuhua

    2005-01-01

    When we construct the shale fly-ash fired brick production line, the first of all is that we must explored mineral raw material in detailed, and prove up the exploitable storage,so that the storage of raw material can supply the production line adequately when the factory has been set up.The second is that we must analyze the raw material completely. According to the raw material basic properties,we can decide process of the brick making.

  12. Shale Gas Well Completions and Maximizing Gas Recoveries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael D. Burnaman; Stephen Smith; Wenwu Xia

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that stress fields within the earth are the principle control for hydraulic fracture direction in horizontal shale gas wells. Hydraulic fracturing is a process of increasing permeability within gas shales and involves a sophisticated organization of technology, good planning and proper management of equipment over a very short time period to be successful.The direction and extent of the induced fractures can be determined in near real-time at the well site via application of earthquake seismology theory in a now common process known as frac mapping. Next to the horizontal lateral azimuth, the total volume of slurry pumped into the well is a major factor in determining well EURs. Vertical fracture growth can be controlled and is important in concentration of the slurry within the main zone target zone that has the high TOC and porosity. Cemented casing with perforations is currently the most used method for zone isolation. New open-hole sleeve packers may eventually provide more flexibility in fracture design while also providing a means for refracturing multi-stage fractured horizontal wells, a technique not now commonly available. Multi-Stage fracture design requires incorporating rock properties with fracturing effect simulations and then verifying results using 3D reservoir simulations. Maximizing the gas recovery factors and EURs can be accomplished through use of closely spaced laterals with inter-fingered fracture stages and exploiting the stress shadow fracturing phenomenon.Even greater EURs may be possible if the wells can be refractured thereby opening up additional permeability channels. Shale gas development has progressed in an environmentally sensitive manner within the U.S. and will continue in this manner.During the past ten years, all of these technologies have been either newly developed or were the advancement of existingtechnology with modifications. The opportunity exists to take these proven technologies to other areas of the world

  13. Shale gas: challenges and questions for the development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the development of shale gas exploitation appears to be successful in the USA, and as, despite environmental consequences, many emerging or developing countries are wandering about the opportunity to implement exploration and exploitation programmes, this study, in its first part, precisely defines shale gas and its conditions of exploitation (drilling, hydraulic fracturing), highlights the ephemeral nature of this production (few years) compared to conventional gas (several tens of years), and outlines that this exploitation results in economic characteristics which are very unusual for the energy sector. Some other issues are then addressed: needs in water, sand, additive chemical products, road transport and gas transport infrastructures. Environmental issues are also addressed in detail, notably methane leakages which put the so-said harmlessness of shale gas for climate into question again. The USA experience is then analysed with respect to resource, from an industrial and economic point of view, and regarding environmental consequences. The second part proposes an analysis of the different determining parameters for the elaboration of a policy: resource (absolute value, years of consumption or production), level of gas dependency, population density, water resources, industrial experience, and regulation capacity of administrative authorities. The third part proposes an analysis grid for public authorities which comprises a set of issues to be addressed by ministries and institutional actors

  14. Impact of ductility on hydraulic fracturing in shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMinn, Chris; Auton, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a method for extracting natural gas and oil from low-permeability rocks such as shale via the high-pressure injection of fluid into the bulk of the rock. The goal is to initiate and propagate fractures that will provide hydraulic access deeper into the reservoir, enabling gas or oil to be collected from a larger region of the rock. Fracture is the tensile failure of a brittle material upon reaching a threshold tensile stress, but some shales have a high clay content and may yield plastically before fracturing. Plastic deformation is the shear failure of a ductile material, during which stress relaxes through irreversible rearrangements of the particles of the material. Here, we investigate the impact of the ductility of shales on hydraulic fracturing. We first consider a simple, axisymmetric model for radially outward fluid injection from a wellbore into a ductile porous rock. We use this model to show that plastic deformation greatly reduces the maximum tensile stress, and that this maximum stress does not always occur at the wellbore. We then complement these results with laboratory experiments in an analogue system, and with numerical simulations based on the discrete element method (DEM), both of which suggest that ductile failure can indeed dramatically change the resulting deformation pattern. These results imply that hydraulic fracturing may fail in ductile rocks, or that the required injection rate for fracking may be much larger than the rate predicted from models that assume purely elastic mechanical behavior.

  15. The chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lake's lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which

  16. Chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which precipitated dawsonite and crystallized nahcolite in the sediment as a result of CO/sub 2/ production from organic matter. (JMT)

  17. Taphonomic and sedimentologic characterization of roof-shale floras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldo, R.A.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.; DiMichele, W.A. [Auburn University, Auburn, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1995-12-31

    Roof-shale floras have been a major source of data for the understanding of Carboniferous vegetation. Early debate on their origin centered around the question of whether these megafloral assemblages are autochthonous or allochthonous. In these discussions, the sedimentological context in which the preserved fossil assemblage (taphoflora) occurred was largely ignored. W.C. Darrah saw the complexity of these issues, presented helpful starting points for further investigations, and influenced the thinking of the next generation. This chapter characterizes the sedimentological and taphonomic features of a spectrum of roof-shale floras. There are three levels at which the preservation of plant parts can be viewed: (1) early taphonomic processes and earliest diagenesis can destroy or preserve plant parts in a given clastic depositional setting; (2) those plant parts that are preserved can be autochthonous, parautochthonour, or allochthonous in relationship to their original place of growth; (3) with respect to a peat layer (coal bed), the overlying clastic material can be deposited in a continuous transition, after a short temporal break (discontinuity), or after a significant hiatus of time. Characterization of roof-shale floras must take into consideration the sedimentological interpretation of the associated lithologies, the stratigraphic sequence, and the taphonomic processes involved in their formation. Characterization is essential before such floras can be used in higher-level interpretations, such as paleoecological reconstructions. 72 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The role of ethics in shale gas policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada; Hays, Jake; Finkel, Madelon L

    2014-02-01

    The United States has experienced a boom in natural gas production due to recent technological innovations that have enabled natural gas to be produced from unconventional sources, such as shale. There has been much discussion about the costs and benefits of developing shale gas among scientists, policy makers, and the general public. The debate has typically revolved around potential gains in economics, employment, energy independence, and national security as well as potential harms to the environment, the climate, and public health. In the face of scientific uncertainty, national and international governments must make decisions on how to proceed. So far, the results have been varied, with some governments banning the process, others enacting moratoria until it is better understood, and others explicitly sanctioning shale gas development. These policies reflect legislature's preferences to avoid false negative errors or false positive ones. Here we argue that policy makers have a prima facie duty to minimize false negatives based on three considerations: (1) protection from serious harm generally takes precedence over the enhancement of welfare; (2) minimizing false negatives in this case is more respectful to people's autonomy; and (3) alternative solutions exist that may provide many of the same benefits while minimizing many of the harms.

  19. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.

  20. There Will Be Blood: Crime Rates in Shale-Rich US Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander James; Brock Smith

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the production of shale oil and gas significantly increased in the United States. This paper uniquely examines how this energy boom has affected regional crime rates throughout the United States. There is evidence that, as a result of the ongoing shale-energy boom, shale-rich counties experienced faster growth in rates of both property and violent crimes including rape, assault, murder, robbery, burglary, larceny and grand-theft auto. These results are particularly robus...

  1. Senate Forum on Shale Gas Development Explores Environmental and Industry Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources brought together industry and environmental leaders for a 23 May forum that focused on industry best practices and environmental concerns related to the current shale gas boom. The boom in shale gas development has been brought about in large part through advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") to increase shale oil and gas production.

  2. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  3. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the engineering, feasibility, economics, and environmental aspects of exploitation of Chattanooga Shale to recover U, synthetic crude oil, and byproduct Th, NH3, S, Mo, V, Ni, and Co. It is concluded that the shale is a potential source of U, energy, and byproduct metals. This volume of the report covers the engineering description, feasibility, and economics of exploitation of the shale

  4. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This report describes the engineering, feasibility, economics, and environmental aspects of exploitation of Chattanooga Shale to recover U, synthetic crude oil, and byproduct Th, NH/sub 3/, S, Mo, V, Ni, and Co. It is concluded that the shale is a potential source of U, energy, and byproduct metals. This volume of the report covers the engineering description, feasibility, and economics of exploitation of the shale. (DLC)

  5. Gas production in the Barnett Shale obeys a simple scaling theory

    OpenAIRE

    Patzek, Tad W.; Male, Frank; Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ten years ago, US natural gas cost 50% more than that from Russia. Now, it is threefold less. US gas prices plummeted because of the shale gas revolution. However, a key question remains: At what rate will the new hydrofractured horizontal wells in shales continue to produce gas? We analyze the simplest model of gas production consistent with basic physics of the extraction process. Its exact solution produces a nearly universal scaling law for gas wells in each shale play, where production f...

  6. Methane emissions and climatic warming risk from hydraulic fracturing and shale gas development: implications for policy

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Robert W Howarth Department of Ecology and Environmental Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Abstract: Over the past decade, shale gas production has increased from negligible to providing >40% of national gas and 14% of all fossil fuel energy in the USA in 2013. This shale gas is often promoted as a bridge fuel that allows society to continue to use fossil fuels while reducing carbon emissions since less carbon dioxide is emitted from natural gas (including shale gas) than f...

  7. Hydraulic Fracture Extending into Network in Shale: Reviewing Influence Factors and Their Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Ren; Jinzhou Zhao; Yongquan Hu

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracture in shale reservoir presents complex network propagation, which has essential difference with traditional plane biwing fracture at forming mechanism. Based on the research results of experiments, field fracturing practice, theory analysis, and numerical simulation, the influence factors and their mechanism of hydraulic fracture extending into network in shale have been systematically analyzed and discussed. Research results show that the fracture propagation in shale reservo...

  8. STAKEHOLDER MAPPING: DEMOCRACY AND PARTICIPATION GOVERNANCE ON THE ROMANIAN SHALE GAS DEBATE

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina IVAN

    2014-01-01

    Growing energy demands, rising environmental awareness, increasing fossil fuel prices and new energy technologies have placed unconventional resources high on governments’ agenda. The impact of natural gas production from shale has lead to a heavy debate and controversy around the hydraulic fracturing technology. Decisions that are likely to have an environmental impact, such as decisions on the shale gas development entail grater public participation. The shale gas debate begs for an inclusi...

  9. The Description of Shale Reservoir Pore Structure Based on Method of Moments Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjie; Wang, Changcheng; Shi, Zejin; Wei, Yi; Zhou, Huailai; Deng, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Shale has been considered as good gas reservoir due to its abundant interior nanoscale pores. Thus, the study of the pore structure of shale is of great significance for the evaluation and development of shale oil and gas. To date, the most widely used approaches for studying the shale pore structure include image analysis, radiation and fluid invasion methods. The detailed pore structures can be studied intuitively by image analysis and radiation methods, but the results obtained are quite sensitive to sample preparation, equipment performance and experimental operation. In contrast, the fluid invasion method can be used to obtain information on pore size distribution and pore structure, but the relative simple parameters derived cannot be used to evaluate the pore structure of shale comprehensively and quantitatively. To characterize the nanoscale pore structure of shale reservoir more effectively and expand the current research techniques, we proposed a new method based on gas adsorption experimental data and the method of moments to describe the pore structure parameters of shale reservoir. Combined with the geological mixture empirical distribution and the method of moments estimation principle, the new method calculates the characteristic parameters of shale, including the mean pore size (x¯), standard deviation (σ), skewness (Sk) and variation coefficient (c). These values are found by reconstructing the grouping intervals of observation values and optimizing algorithms for eigenvalues. This approach assures a more effective description of the characteristics of nanoscale pore structures. Finally, the new method has been applied to analyze the Yanchang shale in the Ordos Basin (China) and Longmaxi shale from the Sichuan Basin (China). The results obtained well reveal the pore characteristics of shale, indicating the feasibility of this new method in the study of the pore structure of shale reservoir. PMID:26992168

  10. Microbial diversity and methanogenic activity of Antrim Shale formation waters from recently fractured wells

    OpenAIRE

    Wuchter, Cornelia; Banning, Erin; Mincer, Tracy J.; Drenzek, Nicholas J; Coolen, Marco J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The Antrim Shale in the Michigan Basin is one of the most productive shale gas formations in the U.S., but optimal resource recovery strategies must rely on a thorough understanding of the complex biogeochemical, microbial, and physical interdependencies in this and similar systems. We used Illumina MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing to analyze the diversity and relative abundance of prokaryotic communities present in Antrim shale formation water of three closely spaced recently fractured gas-producin...

  11. Microbial diversity and methanogenic activity of Antrim Shale formation waters from recently fractured wells.

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia eWuchter; Erin eBanning; Tracy eMincer; Drenzek, Nicholas J; Marco JL Coolen

    2013-01-01

    The Antrim Shale in the Michigan Basin is one of the most productive shale gas formations in the U.S, but optimal resource recovery strategies must rely on a thorough understanding of the complex biogeochemical, microbial, and physical interdependencies in this and similar systems. We used Illumina Miseq 16S rDNA sequencing to analyze the diversity and relative abundance of prokaryotic communities present in Antrim shale formation water of three closely spaced recently fractured gas-producing...

  12. Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Spaans, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.

  13. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  14. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  15. Cosmic Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Eun-Joo; Cavaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Production of high-energy gravitational objects is a common feature of gravitational theories. The primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other nonperturbative gravitational entities. Cosmic black holes can be used to probe physical properties of the very early universe which would usually require the knowledge of the theory of quantum gravity. They may be the only tool to explore thermalisation of the early universe. Whereas the creation of cosmic black ...

  16. The New Black

    OpenAIRE

    Lettman-Hicks, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The New Black is a documentary that tells the story of how the African American community is grappling with the gay rights issue in light of the recent gay marriage movement and the fight over Civil Rights. The film documents activities, families and clergy on both sides of the campaign to legalize gay marriage and examines homophobia in the Black community's institutional pillar, the Black church, and reveals the Christian right wing's strategy of exploiting this phenomenon in order to pursu...

  17. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  18. Black Branes as Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A

    2012-01-01

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  19. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298

  20. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, June 1, 1976--May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    A substantial number of samples of water, stream sediment, soils, plants, oil shale, spent shale, shale oil and other materials were collected for analyses. A considerable amount of effort was also involved in the development and validation of methods for preparing and analyzing these samples for trace element content. Among the results are: Cu, Li, and Zn exhibit well-defined trends in soils over the Piceance Basin, with values increasing from north to south; As, Mo, B, and Se are all elevated in the soils of the Piceance Basin; Mo and B are more soluble in TOSCO spent shale than in unprocessed shale and are also elevated in plants growing on spent shale; F is less soluble in spent (TOSCO) shale than in unprocessed oil shale, but although the levels in leachates are quite significant (25 mg/l). F is not readily leached out; and As and Se are not very soluble in spent shale (TOSCO) and are not taken up to a significant extent by plants.

  1. Patent analysis to identify shale gas development in China and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shale gas has become an increasingly important form of hydrocarbon energy, and related technologies reflect the geographical characteristics of the countries where the gas is extracted and stored. The United States (U.S.) produces most of the world’s shale gas, while China has the world’s largest shale gas reserves. In this research, we focused on identifying the trends in shale-gas related technologies registered to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and to the State Intellectual Property Office of the People’s Republic of China (SIPO) respectively. To cluster shale-gas related technologies, we text-mined the abstracts of patent specifications. It was found that in the U.S., the key advanced technologies were related to hydraulic fracturing, horizontal drilling, and slick water areas, whereas China had a focus on proppants. The results of our study are expected to assist energy experts in designing energy policies related to technology importation. - Highlights: • We analyzed shale gas-related patent applications in the USPTO and SIPO. • We clustered shale gas patents by text mining patent abstract. • Differences were observed in shale gas technologies developed in the U.S. and China. • We proposed the policies of shale gas exploration and development based on patent analysis

  2. Water use for Shale-gas production in Texas, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Scanlon, Bridget R

    2012-03-20

    Shale-gas production using hydraulic fracturing of mostly horizontal wells has led to considerable controversy over water-resource and environmental impacts. The study objective was to quantify net water use for shale-gas production using data from Texas, which is the dominant producer of shale gas in the U.S. with a focus on three major plays: the Barnett Shale (~15,000 wells, mid-2011), Texas-Haynesville Shale (390 wells), and Eagle Ford Shale (1040 wells). Past water use was estimated from well-completion data, and future water use was extrapolated from past water use constrained by shale-gas resources. Cumulative water use in the Barnett totaled 145 Mm(3) (2000-mid-2011). Annual water use represents ~9% of water use in Dallas (population 1.3 million). Water use in younger (2008-mid-2011) plays, although less (6.5 Mm(3) Texas-Haynesville, 18 Mm(3) Eagle Ford), is increasing rapidly. Water use for shale gas is water withdrawals; however, local impacts vary with water availability and competing demands. Projections of cumulative net water use during the next 50 years in all shale plays total ~4350 Mm(3), peaking at 145 Mm(3) in the mid-2020s and decreasing to 23 Mm(3) in 2060. Current freshwater use may shift to brackish water to reduce competition with other users.

  3. Oil shale in the Piceance Basin: an analysis of land use issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenson, D.; Pei, R.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to a framework for establishing policies to promote efficient use of the nation's oil shale resources. A methodology was developed to explain the effects of federal leasing policies on resource recovery, extraction costs, and development times associated with oil shale surface mines. This report investigates the effects of lease size, industrial development patterns, waste disposal policies, and lease boundaries on the potential of Piceance Basin oil shale resource. This approach should aid in understanding the relationship between federal leasing policies and requirements for developing Piceance Basin oil shale. 16 refs., 46 figs. (DMC)

  4. Shale hydrocarbon reservoirs: some influences of tectonics and paleogeography during deposition: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D

    2014-01-01

    Continuous hydrocarbon accumulations in shale reservoirs appear to be characterized by common paleotectonic and paleogeographic histories and are limited to specific intervals of geologic time. In addition, most North American self-sourced shale correlates with geologic time periods of calcitic seas and greenhouse conditions and with evolutionary turnover of marine metazoans. More knowledge about the relations among these controls on deposition is needed, but conceptual modeling suggests that integrating tectonic histories, paleogeographic reconstructions, and eustatic curves may be a useful means by which to better understand shale plays already in development stages and potentially identify new organic-carbon-rich shale targets suitable for continuous resource development.

  5. Overpressure generation by load transfer following shale framework weakening due to smectite diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahann, R.W.; Swarbrick, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Basin model studies which have addressed the importance of smectite conversion to illite as a source of overpressure in the Gulf of Mexico have principally relied on a single-shale compaction model and treated the smectite reaction as only a fluid-source term. Recent fluid pressure interpretation and shale petrology studies indicate that conversion of bound water to mobile water, dissolution of load-bearing grains, and increased preferred orientation change the compaction properties of the shale. This results in substantial changes in effective stress and fluid pressure. The resulting fluid pressure can be 1500-3000psi higher than pressures interpreted from models based on shallow compaction trends. Shale diagenesis changes the mineralogy, volume, and orientation of the load-bearing grains in the shale as well as the volume of bound water. This process creates a weaker (more compactable) grain framework. When these changes occur without fluid export from the shale, some of the stress is transferred from the grains onto the fluid. Observed relationships between shale density and calculated effective stress in Gulf of Mexico shelf wells confirm these changes in shale properties with depth. Further, the density-effective stress changes cannot be explained by fluid-expansion or fluid-source processes or by prediagenesis compaction, but are consistent with a dynamic diagenetic modification of the shale mineralogy, texture, and compaction properties during burial. These findings support the incorporation of diagenetic modification of compaction properties as part of the fluid pressure interpretation process. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Water and mineral relations of Atriplex canescens and A. cuneata on saline processed oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    Growth, mineral uptake and water relations of Atriplex canescens and A. cuneata, both native to the arid oil shale region of northeastern Utah, were studied in the greenhouse and laboratory as affected by various salinity levels and specific ions in processed oil shale. Salinity of the shale was manipulated by moistening leached processed oil shale to near field capacity (20% H/sub 2/O by weight) with solutions of shale leachate, sodium sulfate, magnesium sulfate or sodium chloride at equiosmotic concentrations ranging from 0 to -30 bars. Although shale salinity did not affect osmotic adjustment, zero turgor points of A. canescens became more negative with reductions in shale moisture percentage. Differences in plant growth due to differet ions in the soil solution could not be explained by effects on osmotic adjustment. However, greater growth of A. canescens in Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ treated than MgSO/sub 4/ treated leached shale was associated with greater leaf succulence, greater lamina lengths and lamina widths and lower diffusive leaf resistances. Potassium added to leached and unleached processed oil shale increased shoot and root biomass production, shoot/root ratio, leaf K content, and water use efficiency of a sodium-excluding Atriplex canescens biotype but did not increase growth of a sodium-accumulating biotype.

  7. Ten shades of black

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    The holographic principle has taught us that, as far as their entropy content is concerned, black holes in $(3+1)$-dimensional curved spacetimes behave as ordinary thermodynamic systems in flat $(2+1)$-dimensional spacetimes. In this essay we point out that the opposite behavior can also be observed in black-hole physics. To show this we study the quantum Hawking evaporation of near-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. We first point out that the black-hole radiation spectrum departs from the familiar radiation spectrum of genuine $(3+1)$-dimensional perfect black-body emitters. In particular, the would be black-body thermal spectrum is distorted by the curvature potential which surrounds the black hole and effectively blocks the emission of low-energy quanta. Taking into account the energy-dependent gray-body factors which quantify the imprint of passage of the emitted radiation quanta through the black-hole curvature potential, we reveal that the $(3+1)$-dimensional black holes effectively behave as p...

  8. Evidence for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2003-06-20

    Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity. PMID:12817138

  9. Asymptotic Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  10. Black stain - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarise the fundamentals about black stain, its diagnosis and possible differential diagnoses as well as its microbiology and therapy. In addition, various studies investigating the relationship between black stain and dental caries are examined. Many studies report lower caries prevalence in children with black stain, but this finding could not be confirmed by all authors. Also, a negative relation between degree of staining and caries severity has been described. Reasons for these results are not yet clear but it was speculated that they are related to the specific oral microflora described in black stain-affected individuals. PMID:21594205

  11. A Black Hole Levitron

    CERN Document Server

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D

    2009-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilising four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes kept in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al's multi-center solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped in a given volume. This is realised by levitating a black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction resembles a mechanical Levitron.

  12. Deforming regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, J C S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have deformed regular black holes which possess a general mass term described by a function which generalizes the Bardeen and Hayward mass terms. Using linear constraints in the energy-momentum tensor, the solutions are either regular or singular. That is, with this approach, it is possible to generate singular black holes from regular black holes and vice versa. Moreover, contrary to the Bardeen and Hayward regular solutions, the regular deformed metrics may violate the weak energy condition despite the presence of the spherical symmetry. Some comments on accretion of deformed black holes in cosmological scenarios are made.

  13. Removal of reactive dyes from wastewater by shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jareeya Yimrattanabovorn

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Colored textile effluents represent severe environmental problems as they contain mixture of chemicals, auxiliariesand dyestuffs of different classes and chemical constitutions. Elimination of dyes in the textile wastewater by conventionalwastewater treatment methods is very difficult. At present, there is a growing interest in using inexpensive and potentialmaterials for the adsorption of reactive dyes. Shale has been reported to be a potential media to remove color from wastewaterbecause of its chemical characteristics. In this study, shale was used as an adsorbent. The chosen shale had particlesizes of : A (1.00 < A < 2.00 mm, B (0.50 < B < 1.00 mm, C (0.25 < C < 0.50 mm, D (0.18 < D < 0.25 mm and E (0.15 < E < 0.18mm. Remazol Deep Red RGB (Red, Remazol Brilliant Blue RN gran (Blue and Remazol Yellow 3RS 133% gran (Yellow wereused as adsorbates. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the effect of contact time, pH, temperatureand initial dye concentration. It was found that the equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model,with the maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of 0.0110-0.0322 mg/g for Red, 0.4479-1.1409 mg/g for Blue and 0.0133-0.0255 mg/g for Yellow, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of reactive dye by shale occurred at an initial pH of 2,initial concentration of 700 Pt-Co and temperature 45°C. Reactive dye adsorption capacities increased with an increase of theinitial dye concentration and temperature whereas with a decrease of pH. The fixed bed column experiments were appliedwith actual textile wastewater for estimation of life span. The results showed that COD and color removal efficiencies of shalefix bed column were 97% and 90%, respectively. Also the shale fixed bed columns were suitable for using with textile effluentfrom activated sludge system because of their COD and color removal efficiencies and life expectancy comparison using withdyebath wastewater and raw

  14. A new laboratory approach to shale analysis using NMR relaxometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry is a non-invasive technique commonly used to assess hydrogen-bearing fluids in petroleum reservoir rocks. Measurements made using LF-NMR provide information on rock porosity, pore-size distributions, and in some cases, fluid types and saturations (Timur, 1967; Kenyon et al., 1986; Straley et al., 1994; Brown, 2001; Jackson, 2001; Kleinberg, 2001; Hurlimann et al., 2002). Recent improvements in LF-NMR instrument electronics have made it possible to apply methods used to measure pore fluids to assess highly viscous and even solid organic phases within reservoir rocks. T1 and T2 relaxation responses behave very differently in solids and liquids; therefore the relationship between these two modes of relaxation can be used to differentiate organic phases in rock samples or to characterize extracted organic materials. Using T1-T2 correlation data, organic components present in shales, such as kerogen and bitumen, can be examined in laboratory relaxometry measurements. In addition, implementation of a solid-echo pulse sequence to refocus T2 relaxation caused by homonuclear dipolar coupling during correlation measurements allows for improved resolution of solid-phase protons. LF-NMR measurements of T1 and T2 relaxation time distributions were carried out on raw oil shale samples from the Eocene Green River Formation and pyrolyzed samples of these shales processed by hydrous pyrolysis and techniques meant to mimic surface and in-situ retorting. Samples processed using the In Situ Simulator approach ranged from bitumen and early oil generation through to depletion of petroleum generating potential. The standard T1-T2 correlation plots revealed distinct peaks representative of solid- and liquid-like organic phases; results on the pyrolyzed shales reflect changes that occurred during thermal processing. The solid-echo T1 and T2 measurements were used to improve assessment of the solid organic phases, specifically

  15. Lower Cambrian Black Rock Series and Associated Stratiform Deposits in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈南生; 范德廉; 等

    1990-01-01

    Widespread in more than ten provinces of southern China are the Lower Cambrian black argillaceous-arenaceous rock series consisting of black carbonaceous shales,black carbonaceousargillo-siliceous rocks,black carbonaceous silicolite and black silicolite and black carbonaceous argillaceous siltstone.The Ni,Mo,V,Cu,U,Ba,Ag,P contents of these series are usually several to tens of times higher than their average values in shales.As viewed from lithological sequence,element association and evolution,these black series can be diveided into two types.There occur a variety of deposits in the black rock series,such as phosphorite deposits,Ni-Mo-V polymetal deposits and "Stone coal" seams.According to ore composition,texture and structure,the phosphorite deposits fall into three types,i.e.,thick-bedded,lenticular and nodular,The Ni-Mo-V polymetal deposits,V deposits and reworked sedimentary CU-U-Cd polymetal deposits in terms of their element assiciation and ore genesis.As for the stratiform deposits in the black rock series,three mineralization stages have been recognized,i.e.,the formation of phosphorite deposits,of Ni-Mo polymetal deposits and of V-Cu-U-Cd polymetal deposits as well as of ":stone coal" seams.Evidence strongly suggests that lower organisms have played an important role in mineralization. Our studies indicate that the Lower Cambrian black argillaceous-arenaceous rock series in southern China and their associated stratiform deposits occur generally in the basal parts of a big sedimentary cycle,i.e.,the initial period of a transgression,or in the fine detrital-siliceous formation between two carbonate formatons,formed in a humid climatic zone between two arid ones.As for the environment of deposition,it is suggested that the Lower Cambrian black argillaceous-arenaceous rock series and associated stratiform deposits(excluding thick-bedded phosphorite deposits)were formed mainly in a restricted and poorly-fed sea basin of stagnant shallow water containing

  16. Black holes and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for instance, the UK

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in oil shale and fly ash from oil shale-fired power plant in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estonian thermal power plants are the world largest thermal power plants burning low-grade local oil shale. During the European Dioxin project the concentration of dioxins was determined at Baltic Power Plant in oil shale and fly ash taken from electrostatic precipitators. The study of PCB and dioxin was carried out by Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfahlen, Germany. Based on the analyses of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in oil shale and fly ash it was concluded that the power plants are probably not the major sources of dioxins

  18. Role of spent shale in oil shale processing and the management of environmental residues. Final technical report, January 1979-May 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, A.L.

    1980-08-15

    The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on retorted oil shale was studied at 10, 25, and 60/sup 0/C using a packed bed method. Equilibrium isotherms were calculated from the adsorption data and were modeled by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi equations. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated at three adsorbent loadings and was found to increase with increased loading. A calculated heat of adsorption less than the heat of condensation indicated that the adsorption was primarily due to Van der Waals' forces. Adsorption capacities were also found as a function of oil shale retorting temperature with the maximum uptake occurring on shale that was retorted at 750/sup 0/C.

  19. New technologies for utilization low-grade oil shale and coal in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 30 million tons of shale is processed every year in the Soviet Union; 84% of it is processed in Estonia, 15% in the Leningrad region and 1-1.5% in the Samara region. Most of the shale, 83.5%, is used for the power production and only 16.5% for thermal chemicals processing. The main methods of shale utilization are: direct shale combustion, shale processing and two-stage method based on combustion of shale in an aerofountain combustion chamber following initial thermal preparation (pyrolysis). Over the last 10 years great success has been achieved in processing large sized (25-125 mm) select shales. Modern automatic shale feeders with a capacity of 1000 tons per day have been built and are currently in operation. Construction of 3000 tons per day is underway. The largest thermal power stations, which uses ordinary shale with heating values of 7-8 MJ/Kg are located in the Baltic shale basin region. They are the Baltic thermal power stations (1400 MW) and the Estonian power station (1600 MW). There are also large shale processing facilities for chemical production in the USSR: the plant at Kohtla-Yarve, the chemical plant in Kivieli (Estonia), the plant in the Leningrad region, and a small shale processing plant in the Samara region. More than 60 different products are produced from shale with heat value of more than 12 MJ/Kg, among them petrochemical and specific shale products. Two-stage thermo-chemical process, which is available in its power and chemicals production versions, was developed and implemented by ENIN. This method is well suited for installation with solid ash heat carrier. In the chemicals production version, the yield of the reactor is condensed to produce chemicals and fuel products, such as high-calorific value gas containing up to 35% unsaturated hydrocarbons. In power plant version, a steam-gas mixture can be combusted in a boiler without condensation. The ash residue may be used for construction materials and in agriculture. The thermo

  20. Selling 'Fracking': Legitimation of High Speed Oil and Gas Extraction in the Marcellus Shale Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Jacob R.

    The advent of horizontal hydraulic fracture drilling, or 'fracking,' a technology used to access oil and natural gas deposits, has allowed for the extraction of deep, unconventional shale gas and oil deposits in various shale seams throughout the United States and world. One such shale seam, the Marcellus shale, extends from New York State, across Pennsylvania, and throughout West Virginia, where shale gas development has significantly increased within the last decade. This boom has created a massive amount of economic activity surrounding the energy industry, creating jobs for workers, income from leases and royalties for landowners, and profits for energy conglomerates. However, this bounty comes with risks to environmental and public health, and has led to divisive community polarization over the issue in the Marcellus shale region. In the face of potential environmental and social disruption, and a great deal of controversy surrounding 'fracking,' the oil and gas industry has had to undertake a myriad of public relations campaigns and initiatives to legitimize their extraction efforts in the Marcellus shale region, and to project the oil and gas industry in a positive light to residents, policy makers, and landowners. This thesis describes one such public relations initiative, the Energy in Depth Northeast Marcellus Initiative. Through qualitative content analysis of Energy in Depth's online web material, this thesis examines the ways in which the oil and gas industry narrates the shale gas boom in the Marcellus shale region, and the ways in which the industry frames the discourse surrounding natural gas development. Through the use of environmental imagery, appeals to scientific reason, and appeals to patriotism, the oil and gas industry uses Energy in Depth to frame the shale gas extraction process in a positive way, all the while framing those who question or oppose the processes of shale gas extraction as irrational obstructionists.

  1. Potential restrictions for CO2 sequestration sites due to shale and tight gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, T R; Celia, M A

    2012-04-01

    Carbon capture and geological sequestration is the only available technology that both allows continued use of fossil fuels in the power sector and reduces significantly the associated CO(2) emissions. Geological sequestration requires a deep permeable geological formation into which captured CO(2)can be injected, and an overlying impermeable formation, called a caprock, that keeps the buoyant CO(2) within the injection formation. Shale formations typically have very low permeability and are considered to be good caprock formations. Production of natural gas from shale and other tight formations involves fracturing the shale with the explicit objective to greatly increase the permeability of the shale. As such, shale gas production is in direct conflict with the use of shale formations as a caprock barrier to CO(2) migration. We have examined the locations in the United States where deep saline aquifers, suitable for CO(2) sequestration, exist, as well as the locations of gas production from shale and other tight formations. While estimated sequestration capacity for CO(2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers is large, up to 80% of that capacity has areal overlap with potential shale-gas production regions and, therefore, could be adversely affected by shale and tight gas production. Analysis of stationary sources of CO(2) shows a similar effect: about two-thirds of the total emissions from these sources are located within 20 miles of a deep saline aquifer, but shale and tight gas production could affect up to 85% of these sources. These analyses indicate that colocation of deep saline aquifers with shale and tight gas production could significantly affect the sequestration capacity for CCS operations. This suggests that a more comprehensive management strategy for subsurface resource utilization should be developed. PMID:22352312

  2. Evolution of massive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Volonteri, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I'll discuss black hole formation processes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and how massive black hole evolve in a hierarchical Universe...

  3. Carbon black recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process and apparatus for recovering carbon black from hot smoke which comprises passing the smoke through a cyclone separation zone following cooling, then through aggregate filter beds and regeneration of filter beds with clean off-gas which is recycled to the carbon black reaction zone as quench

  4. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  5. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  6. Arbitrators, Blacks and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Kenneth

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of the handling of disciplinary problems of black employees concludes that management should be concerned because of the effect that grievance resolution may have on the company's overall employee discipline program and the additional appeal alternatives available to the black employee. (Author/EA)

  7. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t - r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  8. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Mehdipour, S.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t — r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  9. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  10. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  11. Fluctuating Black Hole Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.

  12. Lifshitz Topological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, R B

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  13. Experience and prospects of oil shale utilization for power production in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, O. P.

    2016-09-01

    Due to termination of work at the Leningrad Shale Deposit, the Russian shale industry has been liquidated, including not only shale mining and processing but also research and engineering (including design) activities, because this deposit was the only commercially operated complex in Russia. UTT-3000 plants with solid heat carrier, created mainly by the Russian specialists under scientific guidance of members of Krzhizhanovsky Power Engineering Institute, passed under the control of Estonian engineers, who, alongside with their operation in Narva, construct similar plants in Kohtla-Jarve, having renamed the Galoter Process into the Enifit or Petroter. The main idea of this article is to substantiate the expediency of revival of the oil shale industry in Russia. Data on the UTT-3000 plants' advantages, shale oils, and gas properties is provided. Information on investments in an UTT-3000 plant and estimated cost of Leningrad oil shale mining at the Mezhdurechensk Strip Mine is given. For more detailed technical and economic assessment of construction of a complex for oil shale extraction and processing, it is necessary to develop a feasibility study, which should be the first stage of this work. Creation of such a complex will make it possible to produce liquid and gaseous power fuel from oil shale of Leningrad Deposit and provide the opportunity to direct for export the released volumes of oil and gas for the purposes of Russian budget currency replenishment.

  14. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)

  15. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  16. 78 FR 64905 - Carriage of Conditionally Permitted Shale Gas Extraction Waste Water in Bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Waste Water in Bulk AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for comments... shale gas extraction waste water in bulk via barge, and invites public comment. The policy letter... endorsement or letter allowing the barge to transport shale gas extraction waste water in bulk. The...

  17. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume characterizes the major baseline environmental features of the Chattanooga Shale study and projects the effects which may accrue from implementation of a large scale development to recover uranium from the shale. Environmental, socioeconomic, and regulatory impacts are covered. The prototype project is located in Dekalb County in Tennessee

  18. Combined Rock-physical Modelling and Seismic Inversion Techniques for Characterisation of the Posidonia Shale Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Justiniano, A.; Jaya, M.; Diephuis, G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to characterise the Jurassic Posidonia Shale Formation at Block Q16 located in the West Netherlands Basin. The characterisation was carried out through combining rock-physics modelling and seismic inversion techniques. The results show that the Posidonia Shale Formatio

  19. Preliminary inventory of pre-Cenozoic clay shales and argillites of the conterminous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretaceous shales of the Western Interior of the United States occur in vast quantities and in thickness greater than 150 m (500 ft). Some older Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Precambrian shale and argillites also appear to approach these thicknesses in deposits of considerable lateral extent. These older rocks commonly have a lower proportion of expandable clays and lower water contents

  20. New insights from jurassic shale characterization: Strengthen subsurface data with outcrop analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, M.; Veen, J. ten; Ventra, D.; Verreussel, R.; Laerhoven, L. van; Boxem, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study shows the first results of an ongoing project on the characterization of variations in lithological- and geomechanical properties of targetted gas shale formations. The aim of this study is to get an increased insight into both the fraccability and productivity of a shale formations. Ulti