WorldWideScience

Sample records for black range tin

  1. Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilli, Robert J.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Carlin, James F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Tin (Sn) is one of the first metals to be used by humans. Almost without exception, tin is used as an alloy. Because of its hardening effect on copper, tin was used in bronze implements as early as 3500 B.C. The major uses of tin today are for cans and containers, construction materials, transportation materials, and solder. The predominant ore mineral of tin, by far, is cassiterite (SnO2).In 2015, the world’s total estimated mine production of tin was 289,000 metric tons of contained tin. Total world reserves at the end of 2016 were estimated to be 4,700,000 metric tons. China held about 24 percent of the world’s tin reserves and accounted for 38 percent of the world’s 2015 production of tin.The proportion of scrap used in tin production is between 10 and 25 percent. Unlike many metals, tin recycling is relatively efficient, and the fraction of tin in discarded products that get recycled is greater than 50 percent.Only about 20 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as primary hydrothermal hard-rock veins, or lodes. These lodes contain predominantly high-temperature minerals and almost invariably occur in close association with silicic, peraluminous granites. About 80 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as unconsolidated secondary or placer deposits in riverbeds and valleys or on the sea floor. The largest concentration of both onshore and offshore placers is in the extensive tin belt of Southeast Asia, which stretches from China in the north, through Thailand, Burma (also referred to as Myanmar), and Malaysia, to the islands of Indonesia in the south. Furthermore, tin placers are almost always found closely allied to the granites from which they originate. Other countries with significant tin resources are Australia, Bolivia, and Brazil.Most hydrothermal tin deposits belong to what can be thought of as a superclass of porphyry-greisen deposits. The hydrothermal tin deposits are all characterized by a close spatial

  2. Black chrome on commercially electroplated tin as a solar selecting coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    The reflectance properties of black chrome electroplated on commercially electroplated tin were measured for various black chrome plating times for both the solar and infrared spectrum. The values of absorptance and emittance were calculated from the measured reflectance values. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar region and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the black chrome plated on commercially electroplated tin is obtained for a black chrome plating time of between one and two minutes.

  3. Black Swift Range - CWHR [ds605

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  4. Black Rail Range - CWHR [ds595

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  5. A preferred mass range for primordial black hole formation and black holes as dark matter revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, Julian; Watson, Scott

    2017-09-01

    Bird et al. [1] and Sasaki et al. [2] have recently proposed the intriguing possibility that the black holes detected by LIGO could be all or part of the cosmological dark matter. This offers an alternative to WIMPs and axions, where dark matter could be comprised solely of Standard Model particles. The mass range lies within an observationally viable window and the predicted merger rate can be tested by future LIGO observations. In this paper, we argue that non-thermal histories favor production of black holes near this mass range — with heavier ones unlikely to form in the early universe and lighter black holes being diluted through late-time entropy production. We discuss how this prediction depends on the primordial power spectrum, the likelihood of black hole formation, and the underlying model parameters. We find the prediction for the preferred mass range to be rather robust assuming a blue spectral index less than two. We consider the resulting relic density in black holes, and using recent observational constraints, establish whether they could account for all of the dark matter today.

  6. Late Triassic granites from Bangka, Indonesia: A continuation of the Main Range granite province of the South-East Asian Tin Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Samuel Wai-Pan; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Roselee, Muhammad H.; Teschner, Claudia; Murtadha, Sayed; Oliver, Grahame J. H.; Ghani, Azman A.; Chang, Su-Chin

    2017-05-01

    The South-East Asian Tin Belt is one of the most tin-productive regions in the world. It comprises three north-south oriented granite provinces, of which the arc-related Eastern granite province and the collision-related Main Range granite province run across Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. These tin-producing granite provinces with different mineral assemblages are separated by Paleo-Tethyan sutures exposed in Thailand and Malaysia. The Eastern Province is usually characterised by granites with biotite ± hornblende. Main Range granites are sometimes characterised by the presence of biotite ± muscovite. However, the physical boundary between the two types of granite is not well-defined on the Indonesian Tin Islands, because the Paleo-Tethyan suture is not exposed on land there. Both hornblende-bearing (previously interpreted as I-type) and hornblende-barren (previously interpreted as S-type) granites are apparently randomly distributed on the Indonesian Tin Islands. Granites exposed on Bangka, the largest and southernmost Tin Island, no matter whether they are hornblende-bearing or hornblende-barren, are geochemically similar to Malaysian Main Range granites. The average ɛNd(t) value obtained from the granites from Bangka (average ɛNd(t) = -8.2) falls within the range of the Main Range Province (-9.6 to -5.4). These granites have SIMS zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 225 Ma and ca. 220 Ma, respectively that are both within the period of Main Range magmatism (∼226-201 Ma) in the Peninsular Malaysia. We suggest that the granites exposed on Bangka represent the continuation of the Main Range Province, and that the Paleo-Tethyan suture lies to the east of the island.

  7. Cornish Tin Mining and Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how Cornwall was once the world's leading producer of tin. Cornwall's industrial past is now a World Heritage Site alongside the Grand Canyon or the Great Wall of China. A hint is in the Cornish flag, a simple white cross against a black background, also known as Saint Piran's flag. At Geevor Tin Mine, one of…

  8. Borreliosis in free-ranging black bears from Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, J J; Amundson, T E; Burgess, E C

    1988-04-01

    Blood, kidney and tick samples were obtained from 18 hunter-killed black bears (Ursus americanus) from three sites in northern Wisconsin. A Borrelia sp., morphologically and antigenically similar to Borrelia burgdorferi, was isolated from the blood of two of the animals, and from the kidney of a third. Ixodes dammini and Dermacentor variabilis were found on the bears. This is the first report of borreliosis in the Ursidae, and of the primary vector of Lyme disease, I. dammini, from this host.

  9. Toxicology of inorganic tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) or stannous ion as a reducing agent is important in nuclear medicine because it is an essential component and common denominator for many in vivo radiodiagnostic agents, commonly called kits for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. This report is intended to alert nuclear medicine community regarding the wide range of biological effects that the stannous ion is capable of producing, and is a review of a large number of selected publications on the toxicological potential of tin(II)

  10. Habitat use and home range of black-backed jackals ( Canis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat use and home range of black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) on farmlands in the Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Bruce D Humphries, Tharmalingam Ramesh, Trevor R Hill, Colleen T Downs ...

  11. Three of a Kind: Genetically Similar Tsukamurella Phages TIN2, TIN3, and TIN4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Zoe A; Tucci, Joseph; Seviour, Robert J; Petrovski, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Three Tsukamurella phages, TIN2, TIN3, and TIN4, were isolated from activated sludge treatment plants located in Victoria, Australia, using conventional enrichment techniques. Illumina and 454 whole-genome sequencing of these Siphoviridae viruses revealed that they had similar genome sequences, ranging in size between 76,268 bp and 76,964 bp. All three phages shared 74% nucleotide sequence identity to the previously described Gordonia phage GTE7. Genome sequencing suggested that phage TIN3 had suffered a mutation in one of its lysis genes compared to the sequence of phage TIN4, to which it is genetically very similar. Mass spectroscopy data showed the unusual presence of a virion structural gene in the DNA replication module of phage TIN4, disrupting the characteristic modular genome architecture of Siphoviridae phages. All three phages appeared highly virulent on strains of Tsukamurella inchonensis and Tsukamurella paurometabola. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. On the energy emission by a Kerr black hole in the superradiant range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curir, A.

    1985-01-01

    A new redefined ''Unruh vacuum'' has been used in order to obtain the thermal Hawkin emission in a Kerr geometry in the superradiant range. It is also shown that a new type of vacuum is needed to obtain the global emission from a rotating black hole in the superradiant range. The formula describing such global emission is given. (orig.)

  13. Black Jacobin hummingbirds vocalize above the known hearing range of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christopher R; Fernández-Vargas, Marcela; Portfors, Christine V; Mello, Claudio V

    2018-03-05

    Hummingbirds are a fascinating group of birds, but some aspects of their biology are poorly understood, such as their highly diverse vocal behaviors. We show here that the predominant vocalization of black jacobins (Florisuga fusca), a hummingbird prevalent in the mountains of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, consists of a triplet of syllables with high fundamental frequency (mean F0 ∼11.8 kHz), rapid frequency oscillations and strong ultrasonic harmonics and no detectable elements below ∼10 kHz. These are the most common vocalizations of these birds, and their frequency range is above the known hearing range of any bird species recorded to date, including hearing specialists such as owls. These observations suggest that black jacobins either have an atypically high frequency hearing range, or alternatively their primary vocalization has a yet unknown function unrelated to vocal communication. Black jacobin vocalizations challenge current notions about vocal communication in birds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Standardising Home Range Studies for Improved Management of the Critically Endangered Black Rhinoceros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roan D Plotz

    Full Text Available Comparisons of recent estimations of home range sizes for the critically endangered black rhinoceros in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP, South Africa, with historical estimates led reports of a substantial (54% increase, attributed to over-stocking and habitat deterioration that has far-reaching implications for rhino conservation. Other reports, however, suggest the increase is more likely an artefact caused by applying various home range estimators to non-standardised datasets. We collected 1939 locations of 25 black rhino over six years (2004-2009 to estimate annual home ranges and evaluate the hypothesis that they have increased in size. A minimum of 30 and 25 locations were required for accurate 95% MCP estimation of home range of adult rhinos, during the dry and wet seasons respectively. Forty and 55 locations were required for adult female and male annual MCP home ranges, respectively, and 30 locations were necessary for estimating 90% bivariate kernel home ranges accurately. Average annual 95% bivariate kernel home ranges were 20.4 ± 1.2 km(2, 53 ± 1.9% larger than 95% MCP ranges (9.8 km(2 ± 0.9. When home range techniques used during the late-1960s in HiP were applied to our dataset, estimates were similar, indicating that ranges have not changed substantially in 50 years. Inaccurate, non-standardised, home range estimates and their comparison have the potential to mislead black rhino population management. We recommend that more care be taken to collect adequate numbers of rhino locations within standardized time periods (i.e., season or year and that the comparison of home ranges estimated using dissimilar procedures be avoided. Home range studies of black rhino have been data deficient and procedurally inconsistent. Standardisation of methods is required.

  15. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in free-ranging American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Maryland, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Ellen; Spiker, Harry; Driscoll, Cindy P

    2014-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Maryland, USA, live in forested areas in close proximity to humans and their domestic pets. From 1999 to 2011, we collected 84 serum samples from 63 black bears (18 males; 45 females) in five Maryland counties and tested them for exposure to infectious, including zoonotic, pathogens. A large portion of the bears had antibody to canine distemper virus and Toxoplasma gondii, many at high titers. Prevalences of antibodies to zoonotic agents such as rabies virus and to infectious agents of carnivores including canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus were lower. Bears also had antibodies to vector-borne pathogens common to bears and humans such as West Nile virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Antibodies were detected to Leptospira interrogans serovars Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, and Bratislava. We did not detect antibodies to Brucella canis or Ehrlichia canis. Although this population of Maryland black bears demonstrated exposure to multiple pathogens of concern for humans and domesticated animals, the low levels of clinical disease in this and other free-ranging black bear populations indicate the black bear is likely a spillover host for the majority of pathogens studied. Nevertheless, bear populations living at the human-domestic-wildlife interface with increasing human and domestic animal exposure should continue to be monitored because this population likely serves as a useful sentinel of ecosystem health.

  16. Seasonal movements, winter range use, and migratory connectivity of the Black Oystercatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Clarkson, Peter; Goldstein, Michael I.; Haig, Susan M.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Tessler, David F.; Zwiefelhofer, Denny

    2010-01-01

    The Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) is an intertidal obligate along North America's Pacific coast and a species of high conservation concern (population size 8900–11 000 individuals). Understanding birds' movements and space use throughout the annual cycle has become paramount in the face of changing environmental conditions, and intertidal species may be particularly vulnerable to habitat change due to anticipated sea-level rise associated with climate change and increasing coastal development. Conservation of the Black Oystercatcher is hindered by a lack of information on the species' nonbreeding distribution, seasonal movements, and habitat connectivity. Using satellite (n = 19) and VHF (n = 19) radio transmitters, we tracked Black Oystercatchers from five breeding sites (Vancouver Island, British Columbia; Kodiak Island, Prince William Sound, Middleton Island, and Juneau, Alaska) through one and one half annual cycles (May 2007–Dec 2008). We documented medium- to long-distance migration (range of migration distance 130–1667 km) in three populations (Prince William Sound, Middleton Island, and Juneau) and year-round residency in two others (Kodiak and Vancouver Island). We observed variation in the timing and length of migration by study site, and individual birds demonstrated fidelity to breeding and nonbreeding sites. We did not observe strong migratory connectivity. Migratory oystercatchers distributed themselves widely along the coasts of British Columbia and southeast Alaska during winter. Results provide baseline information on the Black Oystercatcher's movements and space use throughout the annual cycle.

  17. Serum iron and selected biochemical values in free-ranging black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Joubert, Jennifer; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Zimmerman, David; Hausler, Guy; Dreyer, Cathy; Hofmeyr, Markus; Buss, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Serum samples collected from 20 black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) were analyzed for iron values from six different areas in South Africa. In addition, biochemical profiles were performed on individual samples. Comparisons of iron values from free-ranging black rhinoceros and from 28 free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were conducted by location and age. Among the free-ranging black rhinoceros, samples were compared from different regions to a set of samples from black rhinoceros that had been captured and held in bomas. Serum iron levels were not significantly different (P = 0.55) among the three locations with more than one animal (medians 5.57, 5.70, 6.47 ppm), but the median value from the boma group was significantly lower (2.91 ppm; P = 0.042), contrary to previous studies. Similar to reports in captive black rhinos, serum iron levels appeared to show a trend toward increasing values between subadult and adult animals, although differences were not statistically significant among black rhinoceros. Comparison of serum iron levels between free-ranging black and white rhinoceros showed significantly higher median value in black rhinoceros (5.73 ppm) versus white rhinoceros (3.38 ppm, P= 0.001). Other significant differences (P rhinoceros. Further investigations should be conducted to examine the role of age, location, and time in boma confinement on iron values in South African rhinoceros to understand iron metabolism in these species.

  18. Optimal use of resources structures home ranges and spatial distribution of black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that territories of animals are economical. Home ranges should be similarly efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources and this should structure their distribution on a landscape, although neither has been demonstrated empirically. To test these hypotheses, we used home range models that optimize resource use according to resource-maximizing and area-minimizing strategies to evaluate the home ranges of female black bears, Ursus americanus, living in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We tested general predictions of our models using 104 home ranges of adult female bears studied in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, North Carolina, U.S.A., from 1981 to 2001. We also used our models to estimate home ranges for each real home range under a variety of strategies and constraints and compared similarity of simulated to real home ranges. We found that home ranges of female bears were efficient with respect to the spatial distribution of resources and were best explained by an area-minimizing strategy with moderate resource thresholds and low levels of resource depression. Although resource depression probably influenced the spatial distribution of home ranges on the landscape, levels of resource depression were too low to quantify accurately. Home ranges of lactating females had higher resource thresholds and were more susceptible to resource depression than those of breeding females. We conclude that home ranges of animals, like territories, are economical with respect to resources, and that resource depression may be the mechanism behind ideal free or ideal preemptive distributions on complex, heterogeneous landscapes. ?? 2007 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  19. Superconducting tin core fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-11-13

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  20. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii from free-ranging black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D L; Ulrey, W A; Guthrie, J M; Kwok, O C H; Cox, J J; Maehr, D S; Dubey, J P

    2012-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a significant worldwide parasitic protozoan. In the present study, prevalence of antibodies of T. gondii was examined from 29 free-ranging black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from south-central Florida where the host species was listed as state threatened during this project. Overall T. gondii prevalence was found to be 44.8%, specifically 46.2% in male and 43.8% in female U. americanus , using a modified agglutination test (1:25 titer). Seroprevalence differences between sexes were not significant (P > 0.05). Results of the present study add supportive data to the growing body of evidence suggesting that U. americanus has one of the highest T. gondii seroprevalences among all known intermediate hosts. In addition, our data emphasize the importance of understanding parasitic disease dynamics from a conservation perspective.

  2. Copulation in free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christina J

    2006-05-01

    I report ad libitum data on 18 copulations involving free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. All copulations were performed in a dorsoventral position, as is typically reported for this genus. Intromission often appeared difficult to achieve, possibly as a result of the large size of the glans penis in these animals. The average length from intromission to termination of thrusting exceeded 17 min, followed by an average period of almost 2 min before separation occurred, which suggests the possibility of a copulatory lock. Offspring of the female participant were almost always in close proximity to or in contact with the pair, and harassment by the offspring was observed only during the final stages of the copulation. All but one copulatory event occurred in complete seclusion from other adult males, and sexual behavior was not limited to any one adult male in the group. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Analysis\tof Risk\tFactors\tfor\tAppendicitis\tin\tChildren:\tA\tMulticenter Epidemiological\tStudy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan\tArslan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In\tour\tstudy,\tthe\tassessment\tof\tage,\tgender,\tincidence\tand\tseasonal\tdifferences\tin\tthe\tregions\trelated\tto\tappendicitis were\tinvestigated. Methods: 676\tpatients\tthat\treceived\tan\toperation\tfollowing\ta\tdiagnosis\tof\tappendicitis\tin\t3\thospitals\tfrom\t3\tdifferent\tregions\tof Turkey occurring at different dates were examined retrospectively after being categorized by region. The differences among groups\twere\tcompared\tto\teach. Results: The\tmean\tage\tof\tmale\t(63%\t(n\t=\t426\tand\tfemale\t(37%\t(n\t=\t250\tpatients\t(total\t=\t676\twas\t10.8\tyears\t(range,\t1–18 years.\tThe\tpercentage\tof\tfemale\tpatients\tin\tthe\tThe\tBlack\tSea\tRegion\t(BR\tgroup\twas\tsignificantly\thigher\t(48%\tthan\tthat\tin\tthe other two groups (%33 for SR, 30% for\tMR (P = 0.001. The frequency of appendicitis was higher (36%\tin the spring and winter\t(25% than that\tduring\tsummer\tor fall.\tThe\tnumber\tof\tcases\tincreased the\tmost\tin the\tBR\tgroup\tin\tspring\t(47%\t(P\t< 0.001.\tWhen\tthe\ttypes\tof\tappendicitis\tin\tthe\tdifferent\tage\tgroups\twere\tcompared\twith\tseason,\tacute\tappendicitis\t(P\t<\t0.02\twas more\tfrequently\t(93%\tseen\tin\tthe\tchild-adolesan\t(CA\tgroup\tin\tthe\tspring;\thowever,\tperfore\tapandicitis\t(45%\twas\tgreater\tin the\tInfant-Preschool\t(IPS\tgroup\t(P\t<\t0.02.\tAcute\tappendicitis\tcomprised\t55%\tand\tperforated\tappendicitis\tcomprised\t45%\tof cases\tin\tthe\tIPS\tgroup,\twhereas\tacute\tappendicitis\tcomprised\t78%\tand\tperforated\tappendicitis\tcomprised\t22%\tin\tthe\tCA\tgroup. Conclusion: According\tto\tthe\tresults\tof\tour\tstudy,\tappendicitis\twas\tmost\tfrequently\tseen\tin\tthe\tspring\tand\twinter\tseasons\tand more frequent\tin\tboys\tbetween the\tages\tof\t10-13 years.\tAs\tage\tdecreases, the frequency\tof\tperforated\tappendicitis\tincreases. Appendicitis is affected by environmental factors. Reducing the incidence of appendicitis may be possible by

  4. Extreme plasticity in thermoregulatory behaviors of free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, E.M.; Savage, L.T.; Antolin, M.F.; Biggins, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    In the natural environment, hibernating sciurids generally remain dormant during winter and enter numerous deep torpor bouts from the time of first immergence in fall until emergence in spring. In contrast, black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) remain active throughout winter but periodically enter short and shallow bouts of torpor. While investigating body temperature (Tb) patterns of black-tailed prairie dogs from six separate colonies in northern Colorado, we observed one population that displayed torpor patterns resembling those commonly seen in hibernators. Five individuals in this population experienced multiple torpor bouts in immediate succession that increased in length and depth as winter progressed, whereas 16 prairie dogs in five neighboring colonies remained euthermic for the majority of winter and entered shallow bouts of torpor infrequently. Our results suggest that these differences in torpor patterns did not result from differences in the physiological indicators that we measured because the prairie dogs monitored had similar body masses and concentrations of stored lipids across seasons. Likewise, our results did not support the idea that differences in overwinter Tb patterns between prairie dogs in colonies with differing torpor patterns resulted from genetic differences between populations; genetic analyses of prairie dog colonies revealed high genetic similarity between the populations and implied that individuals regularly disperse between colonies. Local environmental conditions probably played a role in the unusual T b patterns experienced by prairie dogs in the colony where hibernation-like patterns were observed; this population received significantly less rainfall than neighboring colonies during the summer growing seasons before, during, and after the year of the winter in which they hibernated. Our study provides a rare example of extreme plasticity in thermoregulatory behaviors of free-ranging prairie dogs and provides

  5. A flexible piezoresistive carbon black network in silicone rubber for wide range deformation and strain sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianxiong; Wang, Hai; Zhu, Yali

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and measurement of a piezoresistive device with a carbon black (CB) particle network in a highly flexible silicone rubber for large deformation and wide range strain sensing. The piezoresistive composite film was fabricated with a mixture of silicone rubber and CB filler particles. The test results showed that the CB particle network in the silicone rubber strongly affected the resistance of the device during the process of drawing and its recovery. We found that the 50% volume ratio of CB filler particles showed a lower relative resistance than the 33.3% volume ratio of CB filler particles, but with an advantage of good resistance recovery stability and a smaller perturbation error (smaller changed resistance) during the periodic back and forth linear motor test. With both having a 50% volume ratio of CB filler particles and a 33.3% volume ratio of CB filler particles, one can reach up to 200% strain with resistances 18 kΩ and 110 kΩ, respectively. We also found that the relative resistance increased in an approximately linear relationship corresponding to the value of step-increased instantaneous length for the reported device. Moreover, an application test through hand drawing was used to demonstrate the piezoresistive performance of the device, which showed that the reported device was capable of measuring the instantaneous length with large deformation.

  6. Evaluation of factors controlling long-range transport of black carbon to the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junfeng; Fan, Songmiao; Horowitz, Larry W.; Levy, Hiram, II

    2011-02-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of long-range transport of black carbon (BC) from midlatitude and high-latitude source regions to the Arctic to aging, dry deposition, and wet removal processes using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) coupled chemistry and climate model (AM3). We derive a simple parameterization for BC aging (i.e., coating with soluble materials) which allows the rate of aging to vary diurnally and seasonally. Slow aging during winter permits BC to remain largely hydrophobic throughout transport from midlatitude source regions to the Arctic. In addition, we apply surface-dependent dry deposition velocities and reduce the wet removal efficiency of BC in ice clouds. The inclusion of the above parameterizations significantly improves simulated magnitude, seasonal cycle, and vertical profile of BC over the Arctic compared with those in the base model configuration. In particular, wintertime concentrations of BC in the Arctic are increased by a factor of 100 throughout the tropospheric column. On the basis of sensitivity tests involving each process, we find that the transport of BC to the Arctic is a synergistic process. A comprehensive understanding of microphysics and chemistry related to aging, dry and wet removal processes is thus essential to the simulation of BC concentrations over the Arctic.

  7. Nutritional condition of Pacific Black Brant wintering at the extremes of their range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Endogenous stores of energy allow birds to survive periods of severe weather and food shortage during winter. We documented changes in lipid, protein, moisture, and ash in body tissues of adult female Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and modeled the energetic costs of wintering. Birds were collected at the extremes of their winter range, in Alaska and Baja California, Mexico. Body lipids decreased over winter for birds in Alaska but increased for those in Baja California. Conversely, body protein increased over winter for Brant in Alaska and remained stable for birds in Baja California. Lipid stores likely fuel migration for Brant wintering in Baja California and ensure winter survival for those in Alaska. Increases in body protein may support earlier reproduction for Brant in Alaska. Predicted energy demands were similar between sites during late winter but avenues of expenditure were different. Birds in Baja California spent more energy on lipid synthesis while those in Alaska incurred higher thermoregulatory costs. Estimated daily intake rates of eelgrass were similar between sites in early winter; however, feeding time was more constrained in Alaska because of high tides and short photoperiods. Despite differences in energetic costs and foraging time, Brant wintering at both sites appeared to be in good condition. We suggest that wintering in Alaska may be more advantageous than long-distance migration if winter survival is similar between sites and constraints on foraging time do not impair body condition. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  8. Inorganic tin compounds do not induce micronuclei in human lymphocytes in the absence of metabolic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damati, Artemis; Vlastos, Dimitris; Philippopoulos, Athanassios I; Matthopoulos, Demetrios P

    2014-04-01

    The genotoxic evaluation (in vitro analysis) of a series of eight inorganic tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds [tin(II) acetate, tin(II) chloride, tin(II) ethylhexanoate, tin(II) oxalate, tin(II) oxide, tin(IV) acetate, tin(IV) chloride and tin(IV) oxide], for the detection of micronuclei in human blood lymphocytes, was performed in the absence of metabolic activation by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Human lymphocytes were treated for over one cell cycle (31 hours), with concentrations ranging from 1 to 75 μM (1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 75 μM), of tin(II) and tin(IV) salts dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. The above-listed concentrations cover the values that have been detected in humans with no occupational exposure to tin compounds. The experimental results show the absence of genotoxicity for all inorganic compounds tested in the specific concentrations and experimental conditions. Cytotoxic effects of tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds were evaluated by the determination of cytokinesis block proliferation index and cytotoxicity percentage. Our observations on the cytotoxicity pattern of the tested tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds indicate that they are cytotoxic in several tested concentrations to human lymphocytes treated in vitro. The observed differences in cytotoxicity of each tested compound might reflect differences in their chemical structure.

  9. Coexistence of black holes and a long-range scalar field in cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zloshchastiev, Konstantin G

    2005-04-01

    The exactly solvable scalar hairy black hole model (originated from the modern high-energy theory) is proposed. It turns out that the existence of black holes is strongly correlated to global scalar field, in a sense that they mutually impose bounds upon their physical parameters like the black hole mass (lower bound) or the cosmological constant (upper bound). We consider the same model also as a cosmological one and show that it agrees with recent experimental data; additionally, it provides a unified quintessence-like description of dark energy and dark matter.

  10. The Moessbauer effect in binary tin chalcogenides of tin 119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortalli, I.; Fano, V.

    1975-01-01

    The values of the isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, Moessbauer coefficient, Debye temperature for the tin chalcogenides SnS. SnSe, SnTe are tabulated for the temperatures 80 and 300 K. Temperature dependences of the Moessbauer coefficient and of the effective Debye temperature for SnS, SnSe and SnTe in a temperature range of 78 to 300 K are presented. (Z.S.)

  11. Black locust - successful invader of a wide range of soil conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítková, Michaela; Tonika, J.; Müllerová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 505, FEB 1 (2015), s. 315-328 ISSN 0048-9697 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasion * black-locust * physical-chemical sdoil characteristic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.976, year: 2015

  12. Horn growth rates of free-ranging white and black rhinoceros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Pienaar

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic and observed anterior hom growth of white and black rhinoceroses is discussed. The effect of age and hom rubbing on hom growth is explained. Species and sex related differences in hom size and mass are investigated.

  13. Mitigating tin whisker risks theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Handwerker, Carol A; Bath, Jasbir

    2016-01-01

    Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks. This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described.

  14. Determination of tin in cassiterite ores by colorimetry of iodometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, B.

    1972-01-01

    The analytical methods are described far the determination of tin in cassiterite ores. The gallein-colorimetric method is described for determining small amounts of tin, covering the 0,01-0,5 per cent range. The sample is decomposed by heating with ammonium iodide, and tin is analyzed colorimetrically by means of it s complex with gallein. The final measure may be brought about either visually or spectrophotometrically at 525 nm. (Author)

  15. IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCRYSTALLINE TIN DIOXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Adamchuck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the analysis of the influence of annealing in an inert atmosphere on the electrical properties and structure of non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films by means of impedance spectroscopy method. Non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films were fabricated by two-step oxidation of metallic tin deposited on the polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. In order to modify the structure and stoichiometric composition, the films were subjected to the high temperature annealing in argon atmosphere in temperature range 300–800 °С. AC-conductivity measurements of the films in the frequency range 20 Hz – 2 MHz were carried out. Variation in the frequency dependencies of the real and imaginary parts of the impedance of tin dioxide films was found to occur as a result of high-temperature annealing. Equivalent circuits for describing the properties of films with various structure and stoichiometric composition were proposed. Possibility of conductivity variation of the polycrystalline tin dioxide films as a result of аnnealing in an inert atmosphere was demonstrated by utilizing impedance spectroscopy. Annealing induces the recrystallization of the films, changing in their stoichiometry as well as increase of the sizes of SnO2 crystallites. Variation of electrical conductivity and structure of tin dioxide films as a result of annealing in inert atmosphere was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Analysis of the impedance diagrams of tin dioxide films was found to be a powerful tool to study their electrical properties. 

  16. Fur rubbing behavior in free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C J

    2000-07-01

    Members of the population of black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, use the leaves of three Rutaceae species in a behavior that resembles fur rubbing in the white faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus). This behavior has not been reported from other sites where Ateles has been studied. During more than 1,200 hours of observation, 30 episodes of this behavior were recorded ad libitum. Adult males engage in this behavior more than adult females. Season did not impact the frequency of the behavior. The behavior described here differs in many respects from that reported for Cebus capucinus, and does not fit the hypotheses that the behavior functions in repelling insects or other antiseptic purposes. It is proposed that fur rubbing in this group of spider monkeys is a modification of a behavior previously recorded in Ateles and may function in scent marking.

  17. Inheritance of a new albino mutation in Brazilian free-range black chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Jorge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A genetically recessive albino mutation, which inhibits pigment development in the eyes, skin, and feathers of domestic chickens from Brazil, is described. This mutation appeared in a flock of completely black chickens of a private breeder. There are no information on the origin, breed, or specific line of the birds. Pigment inhibition is apparently complete in the feathers and eyes. Bird sight is very impaired, but no histological examination was carried out. Ratios obtained in F2 and backcrossed birds indicate that a single autosomal recessive gene is responsible for the condition. The data suggest that the absence of melanin in the eyes, skin, and feathers (symbol cc is a mutation of the pigmented C wild gene.

  18. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Diana J R; Laudenslager, Mark L; Mowat, Garth; Heard, Doug; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol), key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116) as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD]) and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD). We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  19. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Diana J. R.; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Mowat, Garth; Heard, Doug; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol), key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116) as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD]) and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD). We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges. PMID:26529405

  20. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J R Lafferty

    Full Text Available Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol, key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116 as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD] and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD. We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  1. The Pemali tin deposit, Bangka, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M. O.; Surjono

    1991-04-01

    The Pemali tin deposit is located in a Triassic granite pluton the magmatic evolution of which is characterized by a decrease of compatible Ca, Mg, Ti, P and Zr in the sequence: medium- to coarse-grained biotite granite, megacrystic medium-grained biotite granite, two-mica granite/muscovite granite. The tin mineralization is confined to the two-mica granite and consists of disseminated cassiterite as well as greisen-bordered veins. The highly evolved muscovite granite is tin-barren and is distinguished from the two-mica granite by its low mica content and low loss-on-ignition values. The fluid inclusions in quartz and fluorite of the two-mica granite and of the greisen homogenize in the 115 410 °C temperature range; the salinities are in the range of 0.4 23 equiv wt% NaCl and the CO2 concentrations are < 2 mole%.

  2. Does home range of the black-tailed tree rat ( Thallomys nigricauda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We found no significant difference in home-range size along the aridity gradient. It is suggested that a combination of habitat productivity, season and breeding system influences the size of home range and that this species displays phenotypic flexibility in terms of its behavioural responses to these factors. African Zoology ...

  3. Black holes as random particles: entanglement dynamics in infinite range and matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magán, Javier M.

    2016-01-01

    We first propose and study a quantum toy model of black hole dynamics. The model is unitary, displays quantum thermalization, and the Hamiltonian couples every oscillator with every other, a feature intended to emulate the color sector physics of large-N matrix models. Considering out of equilibrium initial states, we analytically compute the time evolution of every correlator of the theory and of the entanglement entropies, allowing a proper discussion of global thermalization/scrambling of information through the entire system. Microscopic non-locality causes factorization of reduced density matrices, and entanglement just depends on the time evolution of occupation densities. In the second part of the article, we show how the gained intuition extends to large-N matrix models, where we provide a gauge invariant entanglement entropy for ‘generalized free fields’, again depending solely on the quasinormal frequencies. The results challenge the fast scrambling conjecture and point to a natural scenario for the emergence of the so-called brick wall or stretched horizon. Finally, peculiarities of these models in regards to the thermodynamic limit and the information paradox are highlighted.

  4. EVALUATION OF SERUM FERRITIN AND SERUM IRON IN FREE-RANGING BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS) AS A TOOL TO UNDERSTAND FACTORS AFFECTING IRON-OVERLOAD DISORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Chavey, Patricia Sue; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Doering, Alyssa; Buss, Peter; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Iron overload disorder (IOD) is a significant health issue for captive black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ). Measurement of serum ferritin with a validated rhinoceros ferritin ELISA has been used extensively to detect animals in U.S. zoos that are at risk of developing IOD. However, there is limited information on serum ferritin levels in free-ranging black rhinoceros using this same assay. Serum ferritin, iron, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were determined in 194 black rhinoceros from southern Africa. Mean ferritin in free-ranging black rhinoceros (290.54 ±247.4 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in free-ranging white rhinoceros (64.0 ± 102.4 ng/ml) sampled in this study from Kruger National Park, South Africa. However, there were no significant differences between genders or age groups. Ferritin values varied with geographical location of the black rhinoceros, although this was not clinically significant. Serum iron values were also higher in black rhinoceros (40.4 ± 19.1 μmol/L) compared to white rhinoceros (29.7 ± 10.7 μmol/L). There was no association between ferritin and GGT. This study provides serum ferritin, iron, and GGT values from free-ranging black rhinoceros that can be used for as comparative target values for captive animals.

  5. It's not black or white?on the range of vision and echolocation in echolocating bats

    OpenAIRE

    Boonman, Arjan; Bar-On, Yinon; Cvikel, Noam; Yovel, Yossi

    2013-01-01

    Around 1000 species of bats in the world use echolocation to navigate, orient, and detect insect prey. Many of these bats emerge from their roost at dusk and start foraging when there is still light available. It is however unclear in what way and to which extent navigation, or even prey detection in these bats is aided by vision. Here we compare the echolocation and visual detection ranges of two such species of bats which rely on different foraging strategies (Rhinopoma microphyllum and Pip...

  6. Application of Microwave Melting for the Recovery of Tin Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work explores the application of microwave heating for the melting of powdered tin. The morphology and particle size of powdered tin prepared by the centrifugal atomization method were characterized. The tin particles were uniform and spherical in shape, with 90% of the particles in the size range of 38–75 μm. The microwave absorption characteristic of the tin powder was assessed by an estimation of the dielectric properties. Microwave penetration was found to have good volumetric heating on powdered tin. Conduction losses were the main loss mechanisms for powdered tin by microwave heating at temperatures above 150 °C. A 20 kW commercial-scale microwave tin-melting unit was designed, developed, and utilized for production. This unit achieved a heating rate that was at least 10 times higher than those of conventional methods, as well as a far shorter melting duration. The results suggest that microwave heating accelerates the heating rate and shortens the melting time. Tin recovery rate was 97.79%, with a slag ratio of only 1.65% and other losses accounting for less than 0.56%. The unit energy consumption was only 0.17 (kW·h·kg–1—far lower than the energy required by conventional melting methods. Thus, the microwave melting process improved heating efficiency and reduced energy consumption.

  7. It's not black or white—on the range of vision and echolocation in echolocating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonman, Arjan; Bar-On, Yinon; Cvikel, Noam; Yovel, Yossi

    2013-01-01

    Around 1000 species of bats in the world use echolocation to navigate, orient, and detect insect prey. Many of these bats emerge from their roost at dusk and start foraging when there is still light available. It is however unclear in what way and to which extent navigation, or even prey detection in these bats is aided by vision. Here we compare the echolocation and visual detection ranges of two such species of bats which rely on different foraging strategies (Rhinopoma microphyllum and Pipistrellus kuhlii). We find that echolocation is better than vision for detecting small insects even in intermediate light levels (1–10 lux), while vision is advantageous for monitoring far-away landscape elements in both species. We thus hypothesize that, bats constantly integrate information acquired by the two sensory modalities. We suggest that during evolution, echolocation was refined to detect increasingly small targets in conjunction with using vision. To do so, the ability to hear ultrasonic sound is a prerequisite which was readily available in small mammals, but absent in many other animal groups. The ability to exploit ultrasound to detect very small targets, such as insects, has opened up a large nocturnal niche to bats and may have spurred diversification in both echolocation and foraging tactics. PMID:24065924

  8. The effects of temperature and humidity on the growth of tin whisker and hillock from Sn5Nd alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cai-Fu [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Liu, Zhi-Quan, E-mail: zqliu@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Shang, Jian-Ku [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tin whiskers and hillocks grow from Sn5Nd alloy due to oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature and humidity can affect the oxidation and the growth diversities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth models of whiskers and hillocks were proposed upon microstructural study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed models can explain the characteristics of whiskers and hillocks. - Abstract: The effects of exposure time, temperature and humidity on the growth of tin whisker and hillock from Sn5Nd alloy were investigated via scanning electron microscopy. It was found that tin whiskers grew from NdSn{sub 3} compound, while hillocks grew from the tin matrix around the NdSn{sub 3} compound, which was induced by the oxidation of NdSn{sub 3} compound by oxygen and water vapor in the ambient. More tin whiskers and/or hillocks were extruded from the substrate with longer exposure time, higher temperature and higher humidity. This resulted in the formation of various morphologies of tin extrusions at different storage conditions, including thread-like, spiral, flute-like, claw-like, sprout-like, chrysanthemum-like and rod-like whiskers, as well as hillocks. Tin whisker was extruded from the crack of the surface Nd(OH){sub 3} layer which serves as the mold of tin whisker growth. And the proposed growth models of tin whisker and hillock on Sn-Nd alloy can explain the diversity of the whisker morphology.

  9. TIN-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Daniel C; Yang, Jeremy J; Mathias, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: The increasing amount of peer-reviewed manuscripts requires the development of specific mining tools to facilitate the visual exploration of evidence linking diseases and proteins. Results: We developed TIN-X, the Target Importance and Novelty eXplorer, to visualize the association be...... and diseases based on ontology classes, and displays a scatter plot with two proposed new bibliometric statistics: Importance and Novelty. Availability and Implementation: http://www.newdrugtargets.org. Contact: cbologa@salud.unm.edu....

  10. Tin and tin-resistant microrganisms in Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallas, L.E.; Cooney, J.J.

    1981-02-01

    Sediment and water samples from nine stations in Chesapeake Bay were examined for tin content and for microbial populations resistant to inorganic tin (75 mg of Sn liter/sup -1/ as SnCl/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O) or to the organotin compound dimethyltin chloride (15 mg of Sn liter/sup -1/ ad (CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/SnCl/sub 2/). Tin concentrations in sediments were higher (3.0 to 7.9 mg kg/sup -1/) at sites impacted by human activity than at open water sites (0.8 to 0.9 mg kg/sup -1/), and they were very high (239.6 mg kg/sup -1/) in Baltimore Harbor, which is impacted by both shipping and heavy industry. Inorganic tin (75 mg Sn liter/sup -1/) in agar medium significantly decreased viable counts, but its toxicity was markedly reduced in liquid medium; it was not toxic in medium solidified with silica gel. Addition of SnCl/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O to these media produced a tin precipitate which was not involved in the metal's toxicity. The data suggest that a soluble tin-agar complex which is toxic to cells is formed in agar medium. Thus, the toxicity of tin depends more on the chemical species than on the metal concentration in the medium. All sites in Chesapeake Bay contained organisms resistant to tin. The microbial flora was more sensitive to (CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/SnCl/sub 2/ than to SnCl/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O. The elevated level of tin-resistant microorganisms in some areas not containing unusually high tin concentrations suggests that factors other than tin may participate in the selection for a tin-tolerant microbial flora.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...... of tin tetrachloride on industrial soda glass at ~800K to thicknesses of ~3×10-8 and 3×10 -7 m, commercially by the `titanising' process on industrial soda glass at ~800K to a thickness of ~3.10-9 m, and in the laboratory by radio frequency sputtering from tin oxide powder over a range of glass...

  12. Sex-biased inbreeding effects on reproductive success and home range size of the critically endangered black rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Bradley; Wandera, Antony B; Shawcross, Susan G; Edwin Harris, W; Stevens-Wood, Barry; Kemp, Stephen J; Okita-Ouma, Benson; Watts, Phillip C

    2014-04-01

    A central premise of conservation biology is that small populations suffer reduced viability through loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding. However, there is little evidence that variation in inbreeding impacts individual reproductive success within remnant populations of threatened taxa, largely due to problems associated with obtaining comprehensive pedigree information to estimate inbreeding. In the critically endangered black rhinoceros, a species that experienced severe demographic reductions, we used model selection to identify factors associated with variation in reproductive success (number of offspring). Factors examined as predictors of reproductive success were age, home range size, number of nearby mates, reserve location, and multilocus heterozygosity (a proxy for inbreeding). Multilocus heterozygosity predicted male reproductive success (p58%) and correlated with male home range size (p 44%). Such effects were not apparent in females, where reproductive success was determined by age (p < 0.01, explained deviance 34%) as females raise calves alone and choose between, rather than compete for, mates. This first report of a 3-way association between an individual male's heterozygosity, reproductive output, and territory size in a large vertebrate is consistent with an asymmetry in the level of intrasexual competition and highlights the relevance of sex-biased inbreeding for the management of many conservation-priority species. Our results contrast with the idea that wild populations of threatened taxa may possess some inherent difference from most nonthreatened populations that necessitates the use of detailed pedigrees to study inbreeding effects. Despite substantial variance in male reproductive success, the increased fitness of more heterozygous males limits the loss of heterozygosity. Understanding how individual differences in genetic diversity mediate the outcome of intrasexual competition will be essential for effective management, particularly

  13. Directly smelted lead-tin alloys: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, R. K.

    2010-08-01

    This paper discusses evidence related to the genesis and occurrence of mixed lead-tin ore deposit consisting of cassiterite and the secondary minerals formed from galena. These evidences belong to a very long time period ranging from pre-historic to as late as the nineteenth century a.d. This type of mixed ore deposits was smelted to prepare lead-tin alloys. The composition of the alloy depended on the composition of the starting ore mixture. A nineteenth century evidence for the production of directly smelted lead-tin alloys in southern Thailand is discussed. A unique and rather uncommon metallurgical terminology in Sanskrit language— Nāgaja—was introduced in India for the tin recovered from impure lead. This suggests that Indians developed a process for recovering tin from lead-tin alloys, which in all probability was based on the general principle of fire refining. It has been shown that in the context of India the possibility of connection between the word Nāgaja and the directly smelted lead-tin alloys cannot be ruled out.

  14. Long-range transported dissolved organic matter, ions and black carbon deposited on Central Asian snow covered glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Kang, Shichang; Peltier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ninety percent of the Central Asian population depend on water precipitated in the mountains stored in glaciers and snow cover. Accelerated melting of the snow and ice can be induced by the deposition of airborne impurities such as mineral dust, black carbon and co-emitted species leading to significant reductions of the surface albedo. However, Central Asia is a relatively understudied region and data on the source regions, chemical and microphysical characteristics as well as modelling studies of long-range transported air pollution and dust to the Tien Shan mountains is very scarce. We studied the atmospheric aerosol deposited most likely between summer 2012 and summer 2013on three different glaciers in the Kyrgyz Republic. Samples were taken from four snow pits on the glaciers Abramov (2 pits, 39.59 °N, 71.56 °E, 4390 m elevation, 240 cm deep, and 39.62°N, 71.52 °E, 4275 m elevation, 125 cm deep), Ak-Shiirak (41.80 °N, 78.18 °E, 4325 m elevation, 75 cm deep) and Suek (41.78 °N, 77.75 °E, 4341 m elevation, 200 cm deep). The latter two glaciers are located roughly within 6 and 38 km of an operating gold mine. The snow was analyzed for black carbon, ions, metals and organic carbon. We here focus on the results of inorganic ion measurements and organic carbon speciation based on analysis with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and potential pollution sources that can be deduced from the chemical information as well as back trajectories. Average contributions of snow impurities measured by the HR-ToF-AMS were dominated by organic carbon. Relative concentrations of organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in snow were 86 %, 3 %, 9 % and 2 % respectively for Abramov, 92 %, 1 %, 5 % and 1 % for Suek, and 95 %, 1 %, 3 % and 1 % for Ak-Shiirak. Generally, impurities on Suek and Ak-Shiirak were three and five times higher than on Abramov. Mass concentrations of organic carbon were on average 6 times higher in samples

  15. Extraction and Separation of Tin from Tin-Bearing Secondary Resources: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zijian; Zhang, Yuanbo; Liu, Bingbing; Lu, Manman; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao

    2017-11-01

    The proven global tin reserves were reported to be approximately 4.7 million tons (Mts) in 2016, and among these resources, only approximately 2.2 Mts can be recovered economically. The original tin deposits will be exhausted in several years, therefore, tin-bearing secondary resources, such as tin alloy, tin anode slime, e-wastes, tin slag and tin-bearing tailings, will become the primary source from which tin can be extracted. Many investigations have been conducted on the recovery of tin from these tin-bearing materials. However, the separation and recovery approaches of tin vary significantly, since the content and phase compositions of tin are totally different in these secondary resources. This paper reviews these methods of extracting and separating tin from different kinds of tin-bearing secondary resources.

  16. Tin recovery from tin slag using electrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumari, Arif; Purwanto, Agus; Nur, Adrian; Budiman, Annata Wahyu; Lerian, Metty; Paramita, Fransisca A.

    2018-02-01

    The process in industry, including in mining industry, would surely give negative effect such as waste polluting to the environment. Some of waste could be potentially reutilized to be a commodity with the higher economic value. Tin slag is one of them. The aim of this research was to recover the tin contained in tin slag. Before coming to the electrolysis, tin slag must be treated by dissolution. The grinded tin slag was dissolved into HCl solution to form a slurry. During dissolution, the slurry was agitated and heated, and finally filtered. The filtrate obtained was then electrolyzed. During the process of electrolysis, solid material precipitated on the used cathode. The precipitated solid was then separated and dried. The solid was then analyzed using XRD, XRF and SEM. The XRD analysis showed that the longest time of dissolution and electrolysis the highest the purity obtained in the product. The SEM analysis showed that the longest time of electrolysis the smallest tin particle obtained. Optimum time achieved in this research was 2 hours for the recovering time and 3 hours for the electrolysis time, with 9% tin recovered.

  17. Patterns of behavior across reproductive states of free-ranging female black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christina J

    2004-06-01

    Reports on the behavior of spider monkeys (genus Ateles) describe a suite of 5-6 behaviors that are indicative of an estrous female. This study presents hormonal data as an independent measure of reproductive state to determine if these behaviors are associated with any particular reproductive state or stage of the ovarian cycle. Fecal samples collected from 6 free-ranging female black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) over the course of 11 months were assayed for estrogen (E1C) and progesterone (PdG) metabolites, using an enzyme immunoassay. Behavioral data collected from the same females were analyzed for patterns associated with different reproductive states. A more detailed analysis of behavioral data associated with reproductively cycling periods determined whether each behavior clustered with copulations or a particular phase in the ovarian cycle. Observations of place-sniffing were more frequent for 4 of 5 females when reproductively cycling. Of all copulations observed, 80% occurred when the female participant was reproductively cycling. In addition, the rates of self-clitoral hold and self-clitoral rub behaviors were significantly higher for 2 of 4 and 4 of 5 of females, respectively, when reproductively cycling. No behavior consistently occurred in association with copulations or with any particular phase in the ovarian cycle. Results from this study suggest that the behaviors tested in this paper can provide some information regarding female spider monkey reproductive state (whether or not she is reproductively cycling), but that they are not indicators of estrus in female spider monkeys. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Layered tin dioxide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Junhong; Huang Hongbo; Gong Jiangfeng; Zhao Xiaoning; Cheng Guangxu; Yang Shaoguang

    2007-01-01

    Single-crystalline layered SnO 2 microrods were synthesized by a simple tin-water reaction at 900 deg. C. The structural and optical properties of the sample were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies and selected area electron diffraction patterns revealed that the layered SnO 2 microrods are single crystalline and their growth direction is along [1 1 0]. The growth mechanism of the microrods was proposed based on SEM, TEM characterization and thermodynamic analysis. It is deduced that the layered microrods grow by the stacking of SnO 2 sheets with a (1 1 0) surface in a vapour-liquid-solid process. Three emission peaks at 523, 569 and 626 nm were detected in room-temperature PL measurements

  19. Tin-containing silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian M.; Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Dahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    stannosilicates have been investigated: Sn-BEA, Sn-MFI, Sn-MCM-41 and Sn-SBA-15. When comparing the properties of tin sites in the structures, substantial differences are observed. Sn-beta displays the highest Lewis acid strength, as measured by probe molecule studies using infrared spectroscopy, which gives......The selective conversion of biomass-derived substrates is one of the major challenges facing the chemical industry. Recently, stannosilicates have been employed as highly active and selective Lewis acid catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. In the present work, four different...... it a significantly higher activity at low temperatures than the other structures investigated. Furthermore, the increased acid strength translates into large differences in selectivity between the catalysts, thus demonstrating the influence of the structure on the active site, and pointing the way forward...

  20. Assays for Detection and Identification of the Causative Agent of Mange in Free-Ranging Black Bears ( Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Sarah K; Brown, Justin D; Ternent, Mark A; Fenton, Heather; Niedringhaus, Kevin D; Yabsley, Michael J

    2018-03-02

    Three mite species ( Demodex ursi, Ursicoptes americanus, and Sarcoptes scabiei) have been associated with mange in black bears ( Ursus americanus). Since the early 1990s, the number and geographic distribution of mange cases in black bears in Pennsylvania has increased; however, the causative mites have yet to be completely defined. We evaluated several diagnostic approaches for detection and identification of mites in 72 black bears with severe lesions consistent with mange. Sarcoptes scabiei was morphologically identified in skin scrapes from 66 of the bears; no mites were identified in the remaining six. Histopathologic lesions consistent with sarcoptic mange were observed in 39 of 40 bear skin samples examined, and intralesional mites were observed in samples from 38 of these bears. Samples were collected from a subset of the 72 bears for PCR testing targeting both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-2 region and cytochrome c oxidase I ( cox1) gene including 69 skin scrapes ( ITS-2 only), 56 skin biopsies ( ITS-2 and cox1), and 36 fecal samples ( ITS-2 and cox1). Skin scrapes were a more sensitive sample for PCR detection than either skin biopsies or fecal samples, and the ITS-2 primers proved more sensitive than cox1. Using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibodies to S. scabiei were detected in 45/49 (92%) black bears with confirmed mange and 0/62 (0%) cubs with no gross lesions suggestive of mange and which were born to seronegative sows. Sarcoptes scabiei was the predominant mite associated with mange in black bears in Pennsylvania. Diagnostically, cytologic examination of skin scrapes was the most effective approach for diagnosing active mite infestations in black bears. The evaluated serologic assay accurately detected antibodies to S. scabiei in most bears with confirmed S. scabiei infestations. Additional research is needed to determine the usefulness of this approach for larger scale surveys and for asymptomatic bears.

  1. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perring, Loic; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija [Department of Quality and Safety Assurance, Nestle Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, Vers chez-les-Blanc, 1000, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99{+-}5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. (orig.)

  2. Seasonal variations in black-faced black spider monkey (Ateles chamek) habitat use and ranging behavior in a southern Amazonian tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert B

    2006-04-01

    Data are presented regarding the habitat use and ranging behavior of a spider monkey (Ateles chamek) community at Lago Caiman in northeastern Bolivia. Habitat use was driven primarily by fruit availability and distribution across the community home range. Strong seasonal variations occurred in fruit availability within all five of the floristically and phenologically distinct habitat types identified within the study site, and the spider monkeys dramatically shifted their ranging according to which habitat was richest in fleshy fruits. This use of local habitat diversity resulted in an unusually elongated shape for the home range that was otherwise typical of previous Ateles studies in terms of size. Ranging behavior was clumped and community core areas shifted seasonally across the focal community home range. Individual core areas were not relevant to the study due to dramatic community-wide shifts in ranging patterns. Day journey lengths were highly variable (460-5,690 m) and the distribution and abundance of fleshy fruit resources explained 81% of the monthly variations in mean day journey length. Keystone habitats for forest frugivores are identified and results are discussed with reference to previous studies on this genus, and the importance of considering keystone habitats and local habitat diversity within the management of forestry concessions in the region. Results are also discussed with reference to the behavioral ecology of the genus Ateles. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Hydrothermal, biogenic, and seawater components in metalliferous black shales of the Brooks Range, Alaska: Synsedimentary metal enrichment in a carbonate ramp setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.; Selby, David; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Trace element and Os isotope data for Lisburne Group metalliferous black shales of Middle Mississippian (early Chesterian) age in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska suggest that metals were sourced chiefly from local seawater (including biogenic detritus) but also from externally derived hydrothermal fluids. These black shales are interbedded with phosphorites and limestones in sequences 3 to 35 m thick; deposition occurred mainly on a carbonate ramp during intermittent upwelling under varying redox conditions, from suboxic to anoxic to sulfidic. Deposition of the black shales at ~335 Ma was broadly contemporaneous with sulfide mineralization in the Red Dog and Drenchwater Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, which formed in a distal marginal basin.Relative to the composition of average black shale, the metalliferous black shales (n = 29) display large average enrichment factors (>10) for Zn (10.1), Cd (11.0), and Ag (20.1). Small enrichments (>2–seawater. Such moderate enrichments, which are common in other metalliferous black shales, suggest wholly marine sources (seawater and biogenic material) for these metals, given similar trends for enrichment factors in organic-rich sediments of modern upwelling zones on the Namibian, Peruvian, and Chilean shelves. The largest enrichment factors for Zn and Ag are much higher (1.4 × 107 and 2.9 × 107, respectively), consistent with an appreciable hydrothermal component. Other metals such as Cu, Pb, and Tl that are concentrated in several black shale samples, and are locally abundant in the Red Dog and Drenchwater Zn-Pb-Ag deposits, may have a partly hydrothermal origin but this cannot be fully established with the available data. Enrichments in Cr (up to 7.8 × 106) are attributed to marine and not hydrothermal processes. The presence in some samples of large enrichments in Eu (up to 6.1 × 107) relative to modern seawater and of small positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* up to 1.12) are considered unrelated to hydrothermal activity, instead

  4. Evaluation of the suitability of tin slag in cementitious materials: Mechanical properties and Leaching behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustandi, Andi; Wafa’ Nawawi, Fuad; Pratesa, Yudha; Cahyadi, Agung

    2018-01-01

    Tin slag, a by-product of tin production has been used in cementitious application. The present investigation focuses on the suitability of tin slag as primary component in cement and as component that substitute some amount of Portland Cement. The tin slags studied were taken from Bangka, Indonesia. The main contents of the tin slag are SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 according to the XRF investigation. The aim of this article was to study the mechanical behaviour (compressive strength), microstructure and leaching behaviour of tin slag blended cement. This study used air-cooled tin slag that had been passed through 400# sieve to replace Portland Cement with ratio 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 by weight. Cement pastes and tin slag blended cement pastes were prepared by using water/cement ratio (W/C) of 0.40 by weight and hydrated for various curing ages of 3, 7, 14 days The microstructure of the raw tin slag was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The phase composition of each cement paste was investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The aim of the leachability test was to investigate the environmental impacts of tin slag blended cement product in the range 4-8 pH by using static pH-dependent leaching test. The result show that the increase of the tin slag content decreasing the mortar compressive strength at early ages. The use of tin slag in cement provide economic benefits for all related industries.

  5. Production of the entire range of r-process nuclides by black hole accretion disc outflows from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Fernández, Rodrigo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-12-01

    We consider r-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion discs formed in double neutron star and neutron star-black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important - and in some cases dominant - contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disc outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second r-process peak (mass number A ˜ 130), independent of model parameters, with significant production of A spike at A = 132 that is absent in the Solar system r-process distribution. The spike arises from convection in the disc and depends on the treatment of nuclear heating in the simulations. We conclude that disc outflows provide an important - and perhaps dominant - contribution to the r-process yields of compact binary mergers, and hence must be included when assessing the contribution of these systems to the inventory of r-process elements in the Galaxy.

  6. Limited attractant range of the black-light suction trap for the capture of Culicoides biting midges (Dipetera: Ceratopogonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2016-01-01

    The suction light trap (LT) is a standard tool used to capture Culicoides biting midges, when estimating abundances, and mapping species ranges. The exact range of attraction of the LT is in dispute, however, with several studies indicating the range to vary widely, between 4 and 50 m. In this

  7. Snow Cover Variability in the Black Forest Region as an Example of a German Low Mountain Range under the Influence of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbein, J.; Schneider, C.

    2003-04-01

    During the last decades high snow cover variability was observed in the German low mountain ranges. In addition, average snow cover periods have decreased at most localities. This process involves a strong economic impact on skiing resorts of low mountain ranges. Based on data sets from weather stations of the German meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD)) which cover up to the last 60 years, the temporal development of the mean seasonal snow cover period in the low mountain ranges of Black Forest (south-west), Harz (north), and Bavarian Forest (south-east) of Germany was examined. Mean wintertime air temperature in the low mountain ranges is increasing more rapidly compared to the annual mean air temperature. Additionally the south west is the warmest region in Germany. Therefore, the snow cover of the Black Forest is much more susceptible to an increase in air temperature than in the other low mountain ranges in Germany. In the Black Forest region air temperatures near the melting point are observed even in January. Snow cover in the Bavarian Forest region with its much more continental climate is less affected by temperature variations but subject to variations in wintertime precipitation. Seasonal snow cover in the Harz region starts about two weeks earlier compared to Bavarian Forest and the Black Forest. The future snow cover development of Black Forest was examined using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) prognosis of future air temperature development and trend analysis within observed time series at low mountain range weather stations. The IPCC scenarios were adopted specifically with respect to region, season and altitude and afterwards compared to the observed trend. A transfer function describes the relation between seasonal air temperature change and snow cover duration. A mean reduction of snow cover duration until 2025 for each mountain range is approximated. For instance, the period of a snow cover with a minimum height

  8. Efficacy of GPS cluster analysis for predicting carnivory sites of a wide-ranging omnivore: the American black bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindschuh, Sarah R.; Cain, James W.; Daniel, David; Peyton, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to describe and quantify predation by large carnivores expanded considerably with the advent of GPS technology. Analyzing clusters of GPS locations formed by carnivores facilitates the detection of predation events by identifying characteristics which distinguish predation sites. We present a performance assessment of GPS cluster analysis as applied to the predation and scavenging of an omnivore, the American black bear (Ursus americanus), on ungulate prey and carrion. Through field investigations of 6854 GPS locations from 24 individual bears, we identified 54 sites where black bears formed a cluster of locations while predating or scavenging elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), or cattle (Bos spp.). We developed models for three data sets to predict whether a GPS cluster was formed at a carnivory site vs. a non-carnivory site (e.g., bed sites or non-ungulate foraging sites). Two full-season data sets contained GPS locations logged at either 3-h or 30-min intervals from April to November, and a third data set contained 30-min interval data from April through July corresponding to the calving period for elk. Longer fix intervals resulted in the detection of fewer carnivory sites. Clusters were more likely to be carnivory sites if they occurred in open or edge habitats, if they occurred in the early season, if the mean distance between all pairs of GPS locations within the cluster was less, and if the cluster endured for a longer period of time. Clusters were less likely to be carnivory sites if they were initiated in the morning or night compared to the day. The top models for each data set performed well and successfully predicted 71–96% of field-verified carnivory events, 55–75% of non–carnivory events, and 58–76% of clusters overall. Refinement of this method will benefit from further application across species and ecological systems.

  9. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Margolin, Len G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-06

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release.

  10. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Joseph Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cheng, Baolian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, Matthew Stouten [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patten, Austin Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-21

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer- Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release. A conceptual cylindrical liner and target is shown in Figure 1.

  11. Plant-soil biota interactions and spatial distribution of black cherry in its native and invasive ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Packer, A.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Clay, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    One explanation for the higher abundance of invasive species in their non-native than native ranges is the escape from natural enemies. But there are few experimental studies comparing the parallel impact of enemies (or competitors and mutualists) on a plant species in its native and invaded ranges,

  12. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, D.M.; Sabin, A.E.; Reed, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The International Strategic Minerals Inventory tin inventory contains records for 56 major tin deposits and districts in 21 countries. These countries accounted for 98 percent of the 10 million metric tons of tin produced in the period 1934-87. Tin is a good alloying metal and is generally nontoxic, and its chief uses are as tinplate for tin cans and as solder in electronics. The 56 locations consist of 39 lode deposits and 17 placers and contain almost 7.5 million metric tons of tin in identified economic resources (R1E) and another 1.5 million metric tons of tin in other resource categories. Most of these resources are in major deposits that have been known for over a hundred years. Lode deposits account for 44 percent of the R1E and 87 percent of the resources in other categories. Placer deposits make up the remainder. Low-income and middle-income countries, including Bolivia and Brazil and countries along the Southeast Asian Tin Belt such as Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia account for 91 percent of the R1E resources of tin and for 61 percent of resources in other categories. The United States has less than 0.05 percent of the world's tin R1E in major deposits. Available data suggest that the Soviet Union may have about 4 percent of resources in this category. The industrial market economy countries of the United States, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom are major consumers of tin, whereas the major tin-producing countries generally consume little tin. The Soviet Union and China are both major producers and consumers of tin. At the end of World War II, the four largest tin-producing countries (Bolivia, the Belgian Congo (Zaire), Nigeria, and Malaysia) produced over 80 percent of the world's tin. In 1986, the portion of production from the four largest producers (Malaysia, Brazil, Soviet Union, Indonesia) declined to about 55 percent, while the price of tin rose from about $1,500 to $18,000 per metric ton. In response to tin shortages

  13. Increased inflammation and decreased insulin sensitivity indicate metabolic disturbances in zoo-managed compared to free-ranging black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schook, Mandi W; Wildt, David E; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Wolfe, Barbara A; Dennis, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Black rhinoceros (rhinos) living in zoos express a host of unusual disease syndromes that are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, including hemolytic anemia, rhabdomyolysis, hepatopathy and ulcerative skin disease, hypophosphatemia and iron overload. We hypothesized that iron overload is a consequence and indicator of disturbances related to inflammation and insulin/glucose metabolism. The objectives of this study were to: (1) generate the first baseline information on biomarkers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα], serum amyloid A [SAA]), insulin sensitivity (insulin, glucose and proxy calculations of insulin sensitivity), phosphate and iron stores (ferritin) using banked serum from free-ranging black rhinos; and (2) then compare serum biomarkers between zoo-managed (n=86 individuals) and free-ranging (n=120) animals. Enzyme immunoassays were validated for serum and then biomarker levels analyzed using mixed models while controlling for sex, age and year of sample collection. Concentrations of TNFα, SAA, insulin and insulin-to glucose ratio were higher (Prhinos managed in ex situ conditions compared to free-living counterparts. Findings indicate that the captive environment is contributing to increased inflammation and decreased insulin sensitivity in this endangered species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Highly conducting and transparent sprayed indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. (Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique des Materiaux)

    1998-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has a wide range of applications in solar cells (e.g. by controlling the resistivity, we can use low conductivity ITO as buffer layer and highly conducting ITO as front contact in thin films CuInS[sub 2] and CuInSe[sub 2] based solar cells) due to its wide band gap (sufficient to be transparent) in both visible and near infrared range, and high carrier concentrations with metallic conduction. A variety of deposition techniques such as reactive electron beam evaporation, DC magnetron sputtering, evaporation, reactive thermal deposition, and spray pyrolysis have been used for the preparation of undoped and tin doped indium oxide. This latter process which makes possible the preparation of large area coatings has attracted considerable attention due to its simplicity and large scale with low cost fabrication. It has been used here to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, optical and structural properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have preferred orientation [400]. INdium tin oxide layers with small resistivity value around 7.10[sup -5] [omega].cm and transmission coefficient in the visible and near IR range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained. (authors) 13 refs.

  15. Chemistry of tin compounds and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Mazhar, M.; Mahmood, S.; Bhatti, M.H.; Chaudhary, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Of the large volume of tin compounds reported in the literature, possible only 100 are commercially important. Tin compounds are a wide variety of purposes such as catalysts, stabilizers for many materials including polymer, biocidal agents, bactericides, insecticides, fungicides, wood preservatives, acaricides and anti fouling agents in paints, anticancer and antitumour agents, ceramic opacifiers, as textile additives, in metal finishing operations, as food additives and in electro conductive coating. All these applications make the environment much exposed to tin contamination. The application of organotin compounds as biocides account for about 30% of total tin consumption suggesting that the main environmental effects are likely to originate from this sector. Diorgano tins and mono-organo tins are used mainly in plastic industry which is the next big source for environmental pollution. In this presentation all environmental aspects of the use of tin compounds and the recommended preventive measures are discussed. (author)

  16. Determination of tin in cassiterite ores by colorimetry of iodometry; Determinacion de Estano en minerales y productos de concentracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, B.

    1972-07-01

    The analytical methods are described far the determination of tin in cassiterite ores. The gallein-colorimetric method is described for determining small amounts of tin, covering the 0,01-0,5 per cent range. The sample is decomposed by heating with ammonium iodide, and tin is analyzed colorimetrically by means of it s complex with gallein. The final measure may be brought about either visually or spectrophotometrically at 525 nm. (Author)

  17. Selective Recovery of Mushistonite from Gravity Tailings of Copper–Tin Minerals in Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tajikistan has abundant copper–tin resources. In this study, mineralogical analysis of copper–tin ores from the Mushiston deposit of Tajikistan indicates that tin mainly occurred in mushistonite, cassiterite, and stannite, while copper mainly occurred in mushistonite, malachite, azurite, and stannite. The total grades of tin (Sn and copper (Cu were 0.65% and 0.66%, respectively, and the dissemination size of copper–tin minerals ranged from 4 μm to over 200 μm. Coarse particles of copper–tin minerals were partially recovered by shaking table concentrators with a low recovery rate. Based on the mineralogical analysis, flotation recovery was used for the first time on the fine particles of copper–tin minerals, including mushistonite, from shaking table tailings. Single factor flotation experiments, open circuit flotation tests, and closed circuit flotation tests were performed to determine the optimized flotation conditions. Results indicated that benzohydroxamic acid (C6H5CONHOH and lead nitrate could effectively recover the mushistonite, cooperating with other depressants. The final concentrate contained 13.28% Sn, with a recovery rate of 61.56%, and 18.51% Cu, with a recovery rate of 86.52%. This method proved effective for the exploitation and use of this type of copper–tin resource in Tajikistan.

  18. Room Temperature Detection of Benzene Vapours by Tin Oxide Nano Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. PANCHAL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tin oxide with nano clusters were deposited using Chemical Vapour Transport technique. The annealed films were used as sensor to detect benzene vapours at room temperature. The response was studied for the concentration range 300-1000 ppm. A comparative study of the response of the nano clustered films to benzene vapours in this range with the response of thin films of Indium tin oxide and tin oxide deposited by the physical vapour deposition method was taken up.

  19. Movement Patterns, Home Range Size and Habitat Selection of an Endangered Resource Tracking Species, the Black-Throated Finch (Poephila cincta cincta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechetelo, Juliana; Grice, Anthony; Reside, April Elizabeth; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Moloney, James

    2016-01-01

    Understanding movement patterns and home range of species is paramount in ecology; it is particularly important for threatened taxa as it can provide valuable information for conservation management. To address this knowledge gap for a range-restricted endangered bird, we estimated home range size, daily movement patterns and habitat use of a granivorous subspecies in northeast Australia, the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta; BTF) using radio-tracking and re-sighting of colour banded birds. Little is known about basic aspects of its ecology including movement patterns and home range sizes. From 2011-2014 we colour-banded 102 BTF and radio-tracked 15 birds. We generated home ranges (calculated using kernel and Minimum Convex Polygons techniques of the 15 tracked BTF). More than 50% of the re-sightings occurred within 200 m of the banding site (n = 51 out of 93 events) and within 100 days of capture. Mean home-range estimates with kernel (50%, 95% probability) and Minimum Convex Polygons were 10.59 ha, 50.79 ha and 46.27 ha, respectively. Home range size differed between two capture sites but no seasonal differences were observed. BTF home ranges overlapped four habitat types among eight available. Habitat selection was different from random at Site 1 (χ2 = 373.41, df = 42, pmovements may be related to resource bottleneck periods. Daily movement patterns differed between sites, which is likely linked to the fact that the sites differ in the spatial distribution of resources. The work provides information about home range sizes and local movement of BTF that will be valuable for targeting effective management and conservation strategies for this endangered granivore.

  20. Synthesis, Internal Structure, and Formation Mechanism of Monodisperse Tin Sulfide Nanoplatelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kergommeaux, Antoine; Lopez-Haro, Miguel; Pouget, Stéphanie; Zuo, Jian-Min; Lebrun, Colette; Chandezon, Frédéric; Aldakov, Dmitry; Reiss, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tin sulfide nanoparticles have a great potential for use in a broad range of applications related to solar energy conversion (photovoltaics, photocatalysis), electrochemical energy storage, and thermoelectrics. The development of chemical synthesis methods allowing for the precise control of size,

  1. Studies on Cementation of Tin on Copper and Tin Stripping from Copper Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cementation of tin on copper in acid chloride-thiourea solutions leads to the formation of porous layers with a thickness dependent on the immersion time. The process occurs via Sn(II-Cu(I mechanism. Chemical stripping of tin was carried out in alkaline and acid solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents. It resulted in the dissolution of metallic tin, but refractory Cu3Sn phase remained on the copper surface. Electrochemical tin stripping allows complete tin removal from the copper substrate, but porosity and complex phase composition of the tin coating do not allow monitoring the process in unambiguous way.

  2. Tin Whisker Testing and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, University of Maryland CTE Coefficient of Thermal Expansion DAU Defense Acquisition University DI...below 2.0% PCB Printed Circuit Board synonymous with PWB PWB Printed Wiring Board synonymous with PCB PCTC Simulated power cycling thermal cycling ...DoD focused tin whisker risk assessments and whisker growth mechanisms (long term testing, corrosion/oxidation in humidity, and thermal cycling

  3. Rectal prolapse associated with a healed pelvic fracture in a pregnant free-ranging African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis. Part 2 : surgery and necropsy : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olivier

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The oedematous and traumatised protruding section of the rectal tissue of an adult free-ranging female African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis was surgically amputated. Immediately before completion of surgery, the rhinoceros died of anaesthetic-related cardiac arrest. At necropsy a deformed pelvis and sacrum associated with a healed fracture of the left ileal wing were noted. New bone formation in and around the left ventral sacral foramina may have resulted in neuropathy of particularly the 3rd and 4th left ventral sacral nerves, which (in the horse supply the majority of the nerve fibres innervating the caudal rectum and anus. The cause of the injury is not known, although back injuries, presumably sustained during mating by bulls, have been recorded in white rhinoceros. An encounter with elephants could also have been responsible for the injury in this case.

  4. Whisker Formation On Galvanic Tin Surface Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanyi A.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the effect of substrate composition, thickness of the tin electroplate and its morphology on pressure-induced tin whisker formation. Pure tin deposits of different thickness were obtained on a copper and brass substrates using methane sulfonic industrial bath. The deposits were compressed by a steel bearing ball forming imprint on the surface. The microstructure of tin whiskers obtained at the boundary of each imprint, their length and number were studied using both light and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that the most intensive formation and growth of whiskers was observed in the first two hours. In general, brass substrate was shown to be more prone to whisker formation than copper independently of the tin coating thickness. The results have been compared with industrial bright tin finish on control unit socket leads and proposals have been made as to modification of the production process in order to minimize the risk of whiskering.

  5. Mineral resource of the month: tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Tin was one of the earliest-known metals. Because of its hardening effect on copper, tin was used in bronze implements as early as 3500 B.C. Bronze, a copper-tin alloy that can be sharpened and is hard enough to retain a cutting edge, was used during the Bronze Age in construction tools as well as weapons for hunting and war. The geographical separation between tin-producing and tin-consuming nations greatly influenced the patterns of early trade routes. Historians think that as early as 1500 B.C., Phoenicians traveled by sea to the Cornwall district of England to obtain tin. The pure metal was not used unalloyed until about 600 B.C.

  6. Recovery Of Valuable Metals In Tin-Based Anodic Slimes By Carbothermic Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Han Chulwoong; Kim Young-Min; Son Seong Ho; Choi Hanshin; Kim Tae Bum; Kim Yong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the recovery of anodic slimes by carbothermic reaction in the temperature range of 973~1,273K and amount of carbon as a function of time. Tin anodic slime samples were collected from the bottom of the electrolytic cells during the electro-refining of tin. The anodic slimes are consisted of high concentrated tin, silver, copper and lead oxides. The kinetics of reduction were determined by means of the weight-loss measurement technique. In order to understand in detail o...

  7. Interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin octoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, Alessandro; Centineo, Alessio; Saracco, Guido; Schiavo, Benedetto; Scialdone, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    The interesterification of rapeseed oil was performed for the first time by using tin octoate as Lewis acid homogeneous catalysts and methyl or ethyl acetate as acyl acceptors in a batch reactor, within the temperature range 393–483 K. The yields in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and triacetin (TA) after 20 h of reaction time increased from 8% and 2%–to 61% and 22%, respectively, when the reaction temperature increased from 423 to 483 K. An optimum value of 40 for the acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio was found to be necessary to match good fatty acid alkyl ester yields with high enough reaction rate. The rate of generation of esters was significantly higher when methyl acetate was used as acyl acceptor instead of its ethyl homologue. The collected results suggest that tin octoate can be used as effective catalyst for the interesterification of rapeseed oil with methyl or ethyl acetate being highly soluble in the reaction system, less expensive than enzymes and allowing the operator to work under milder conditions than supercritical interesterification processes. - Highlights: • We study the interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin(II) octoate. • Tin(II) octoate is an effective homogeneous catalyst at 483 K. • The acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio must be optimized. • Higher rate of reaction is obtained with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor

  8. Classical and quantum chaotic scattering in a muffin tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, S.

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, we study the classical mechanics, the quantum mechanics and the semi-classical approximation of the 2-dimensional scattering from a muffin tin potential. The classical dynamical system for Coulombic muffin tins is proven to be chaotic by explicit construction of the exponentially increasing number of periodic orbits. These are all shown to be completely unstable (hyperbolic). By methods of the thermodynamic formalism we can determine the Hausdorff dimension, escape rate and Kolmogorov-Sinai-entropy of the system. An extended KKR-method is developed to determine the quantum mechanical S-matrix. We compare a few integrable scattering examples with the results of the muffin tin scattering. Characteristic features of the spectrum of eigenphases turn out to be the level repulsion and long range rigidity as compared to a completely random spectrum. In the semiclassical analysis we can rederive the regularized Gutzwiller trace formula directly from the exact KKR-determinant to prove that no further terms contribute in the case of the muffin tin potential. The periodic orbit sum allows to draw some qualitative conclusions about the effects of classical chaos on the quantum mechanics. In the context of scaling systems the theory of almost periodic functions is discussed as a possible mathematical foundation for the semiclassical periodic orbit sums. Some results that can be obtained from this analysis are developed in the context of autocorrelation functions and distribution functions for chaotic scattering systems. (orig.)

  9. Movement Patterns, Home Range Size and Habitat Selection of an Endangered Resource Tracking Species, the Black-Throated Finch (Poephila cincta cincta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rechetelo

    Full Text Available Understanding movement patterns and home range of species is paramount in ecology; it is particularly important for threatened taxa as it can provide valuable information for conservation management. To address this knowledge gap for a range-restricted endangered bird, we estimated home range size, daily movement patterns and habitat use of a granivorous subspecies in northeast Australia, the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta; BTF using radio-tracking and re-sighting of colour banded birds. Little is known about basic aspects of its ecology including movement patterns and home range sizes. From 2011-2014 we colour-banded 102 BTF and radio-tracked 15 birds. We generated home ranges (calculated using kernel and Minimum Convex Polygons techniques of the 15 tracked BTF. More than 50% of the re-sightings occurred within 200 m of the banding site (n = 51 out of 93 events and within 100 days of capture. Mean home-range estimates with kernel (50%, 95% probability and Minimum Convex Polygons were 10.59 ha, 50.79 ha and 46.27 ha, respectively. Home range size differed between two capture sites but no seasonal differences were observed. BTF home ranges overlapped four habitat types among eight available. Habitat selection was different from random at Site 1 (χ2 = 373.41, df = 42, p<0.001 and Site 2 (χ2 = 1896.1, df = 45, p<0.001; however, the preferred habitats differed between the two sites. BTF moved further than expected on the basis of current knowledge, with three individuals being resighted over 15 km from the banding location. However, BTF maintain small home ranges over short time-frames. Occasional long-distance movements may be related to resource bottleneck periods. Daily movement patterns differed between sites, which is likely linked to the fact that the sites differ in the spatial distribution of resources. The work provides information about home range sizes and local movement of BTF that will be valuable for targeting effective

  10. Characterization of tin phosphate coatings by CEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Kiyoshi; Ujihira, Yusuke; Takai, Osamu; Kojima, Ryuji

    1992-01-01

    The structure and chemical state of tin in converted tin phosphate coatings, obtained by a treatment of Zn and Mn phosphate in SnCl 2 solution, were characterized by CEMS. Converted Sn(II) phosphate and adsorbed SnO 2 species were main products in the ∝1/3 top layers of Mn and Zn phosphate coatings, and metallic tin was occasionally recognized in deeper layers. Tin phosphate layers, coated directly on a steel substrate by RF sputtering of Ar ions, were composed of two kinds of Sn(IV) species. (orig.)

  11. Precipitation Behaviors of TiN Inclusion in GCr15 Bearing Steel Billet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qianren; Wang, Guocheng; Zhao, Yang; Li, Jing; Wang, Qi

    2018-03-01

    There are many types of non-metallic TiN-based inclusions observed in GCr15 bearing steel, including single-particle TiN, multi-particle polymerized TiN, and complex inclusions like TiN-MnS, TiN-MgO-MgAl2O4 (TiN-MgO-MA), and TiN-MgAl2O4-MnS (TiN-MA-MnS). Thermodynamic calculations suggest that single-particle TiN precipitates dominate the mushy zone of GCr15 bearing steel. Kinetic calculations regarding TiN growth suggest that the final size of the single-particle TiN ranges between 1 and 6 μm in the initial concentration range of [pct Ti] = 0.0060 to 0.0079 and [pct N] = 0.0049 to 0.0070, at 1620 to 1640 K and a local cooling rate of 0.5 to 10 K/s. The multi-particle polymerized TiN are formed by single TiN particles in three stages: single-particle TiN inclusions approach each other drawn by the cavity bridge force (CBF), local active angles consolidate, and neck region sintering occurs. Based on the thermodynamic calculations of TiN, MnS, and MgO precipitation, the formation behaviors of complex inclusions of TiN-MnS, TiN-MgO-MA, and TiN-MA-MnS were investigated.

  12. Jig protects transistors from heat while tinning leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, A. J.; Willis, G. A.

    1966-01-01

    In tinning transistor leads, an aluminum jig is used to dip the leads into the molten tin. The jigs mass shunts excess heat given off by the molten tin before it reaches and damages the transistor body.

  13. Laterality in semi-free-ranging black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata): head-tilt correlates with hand use during feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eliza L; O'Karma, Jaime M; Ruperti, Felicia S; Novak, Melinda A

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies in human and chimpanzee infants have identified a predictive relationship between early rightward head orientation and later right hand use. Data from lemurs suggest a leftward bias in hand preference, but there are no data on head positioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between head and hand preferences in the black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata). Ruffed lemurs rotate the head vertically during chewing in a behavior called head-tilting. Frequency of head-tilting and bouts of unimanual hand use were measured during normal feeding in a semi-free-ranging population of lemurs. Subjects were provisioned at feeding platforms twice daily with fresh fruits, vegetables, and other food items. Sampling was spontaneous and all observations were videotaped. No group-level bias was found for head-tilting, but a left hand bias emerged for hand use. A positive relationship was found between direction of head-tilting preference and direction of hand use preference such that left head-tilts increased as left hand use increased. Furthermore, left head-tilts increased as the degree of hand preference lateralization increased. When the hand used to bring food to the mouth just before head-tilting was examined, there was a strong bias for the left hand to precede left head-tilts. For right head-tilts, however, lemurs were equally likely to use either hand before head-tilting. Overall a strong relationship was found between the left hand and left head-tilting in black and white ruffed lemurs, suggesting a common link between these behaviors. However, the direction of bias was different from that seen in human and chimpanzee studies. Additional studies on patterns of laterality would be informative for understanding how laterality has changed across the primate order and the adaptive significance of laterality in primates.

  14. Determination of total tin in silicate rocks by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheimer, H.N.; Fries, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of total tin in silicate rocks utilizing a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with a stabilized-temperature platform furnace and Zeeman-effect background correction. The sample is decomposed by lithium metaborate fusion (3 + 1) in graphite crucibles with the melt being dissolved in 7.5% hydrochloric acid. Tin extractions (4 + 1 or 8 + 1) are executed on portions of the acid solutions using a 4% solution of tricotylphosphine oxide in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Ascorbic acid is added as a reducing agent prior to extraction. A solution of diammonium hydrogenphosphate and magnesium nitrate is used as a matrix modifier in the graphite furnace determination. The limit of detection is > 10 pg, equivalent to > 1 ??g l-1 of tin in the MIBK solution or 0.2-0.3 ??g g-61 in the rock. The concentration range is linear between 2.5 and 500 ??g l-1 tin in solution. The precision, measured as relative standard deviation, is < 20% at the 2.5 ??g l-1 level and < 7% at the 10-30 ??g l-1 level of tin. Excellent agreement with recommended literature values was found when the method was applied to the international silicate rock standards BCR-1, PCC-1, GSP-1, AGV-1, STM-1, JGb-1 and Mica-Fe. Application was made to the determination of tin in geological core samples with total tin concentrations of the order of 1 ??g g-1 or less.

  15. Tin Whisker Formation — A Stress Relieve Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, M.; Oberndorff, P.; Crema, P.; Su, P.

    2006-02-01

    With the move towards lead-free electronics also the solderable finish of electronic components' terminations are converted. While the typical finish was containing 5 % to 20 % lead (Pb) and thus was almost whisker free, lead (Pb)-free finishes such as pure tin or high tin alloys are rather prone to grow whisker. These whiskers are spontaneous protrusions that grow to a significant length of up to millimeters with a typical diameter in the range of few microns and are suspect to cause shorts in electronic assemblies. The latest details of the mechanisms are not yet understood. However it appears to be well established that the driving force for tin whisker growth is a compressive stress in the tin layer and that this stress is released by whisker formation. Besides the mechanism for whisker growth therefore the mechanism of the stress induction is of interest. The origin of that stress may have multiple sources. Among others the most important one is the volume increase within the tin layer due the formation of intermetallics at the interface to the base material. This applies to all copper based material. For base materials with a coefficient of thermal expansion (cte) significantly different from the tin finish another mechanism plays the dominant role. This is the induction of stress during thermal cycling due to the different expansion of the materials with every temperature change. Another mechanism for stress induction may be the oxidation of the finish, which also leads to a local volume increase. Based on the knowledge of stress induction various mitigation strategies can be deducted. Most common is the introduction of a diffusion barrier (e.g. Ni) in order to prevent the growth of the Cu-Sn intermetallics, the controlled growth of Cu-Sn intermetallics in order to prevent their irregularity or the introduction of a mechanical buffer material targeting at the minimisation of the cte mismatch between base and finish material. With respect to the stress

  16. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, S.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs

  18. Role of tin as a reducing agent in iron containing heat absorbing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The role of tin as a reducing agent in a 18Na2O⋅2MgO⋅8CaO⋅72SiO2 glass containing a definite amount of total, ΣFe = [Fe2+] + [Fe3+], was investigated with different concentrations of total tin, ΣSn = [Sn2+] + [Sn4+], by absorption spectra of iron ions in the optical range 300–1200 nm recorded on a JASCO-.

  19. Role of tin as a reducing agent in iron containing heat absorbing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... tin as a reducing agent in a 18Na2O.2MgO.8CaO.72SiO2 glass containing a definite amount of total, Fe = [Fe2+] + [Fe3+], was investigated with different concentrations of total tin, Sn = [Sn2+] + [Sn4+], by absorption spectra of iron ions in the optical range 300–1200 nm recorded on a JASCO-7800 spectrophotometer.

  20. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries.

  1. Technical problems associated with the production of technetium Tc 99m tin(II) pyrophosphate kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalsky, R.J.; Dalton, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The amount of tin(II) required for adequate reduction, complexation, and stability of technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate in radiopharmaceutical kits, and methods of preventing the loss of tin(II) during formulation of these lyophilized kits are investigated. Tin(II) loss from stannous chloride solutions was studied under several conditions, including room air versus nitrogen atmospheres, during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood with samples frozen on dry ice versus samples at room temperature, during lyophilization, and during storage under refrigerated, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Various amounts of stannous chloride, ranging from 5 to 1000 microgram/ml, were used in formulating sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m kits containing 100 mCi technetium Tc 99m and 0.4 microgram total technetium. Samples were removed at various times; hydrolyzed technetium, pertechnetate, and technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate were isolated on instant thin-layer chromatography-silica gel and quantified with a scintillation counter. The time necessary to deoxygenate distilled water by nitrogen purging was measured. Several sources of stannous chloride were assayed for tin(II) content. Tin(II) loss occurs rapidly in solution (15% in one hour) unless continuously protected with nitrogen, and during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood unless frozen with dry ice. No substantial loss of tin(II) was detected during lyophilization or during storage of lyophilized product at any of the three temperatures. A minimum of 400 microgram tin(II) was required to provide 90% technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate at six hours after preparation. Adequate deoxygenation of small quantities (450 ml) of water was accomplished in less than one hour. Some stannous chloride salts were highly oxidized in the dry state, and only high-purity elemental tin wire gave acceptable yields of tin

  2. Tin( ii ) ketoacidoximates: synthesis, X-ray structures and processing to tin( ii ) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-10-21

    Tin(ii) ketoacidoximates of the type [HONCRCOO]Sn (R = Me 1, CHPh 2) and (MeONCMeCOO)Sn] NH·2HO 3 were synthesized by reacting pyruvate- and hydroxyl- or methoxylamine RONH (R = H, Me) with tin(ii) chloride dihydrate SnCl·2HO. The single crystal X-ray structure reveals that the geometry at the Sn atom is trigonal bipyramidal in 1, 2 and trigonal pyramidal in 3. Inter- or intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in 1-3. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis shows that the decomposition of 1-3 to SnO occurs at ca. 160 °C. The evolved gas analysis during TG indicates complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step for 1 whereas a small organic residue is additionally removed at temperatures >400 °C for 2. Above 140 °C, [HONC(Me)COO]Sn (1) decomposes in air to spherical SnO particles of size 10-500 nm. Spin coating of 1 on Si or a glass substrate followed by heating at 200 °C results in a uniform film of SnO. The band gap of the produced SnO film and nanomaterial was determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to be in the range of 3.0-3.3 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates surface oxidation of the SnO film to SnO in ambient atmosphere.

  3. On the electrochemistry of tin oxide coated tin electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhme, Solveig; Edström, Kristina; Nyholm, Leif

    2015-01-01

    As tin based electrodes are of significant interest in the development of improved lithium-ion batteries it is important to understand the associated electrochemical reactions. In this work it is shown that the electrochemical behavior of SnO 2 coated tin electrodes can be described based on the SnO 2 and SnO conversion reactions, the lithium tin alloy formation and the oxidation of tin generating SnF 2 . The CV, XPS and SEM data, obtained for electrodeposited tin crystals on gold substrates, demonstrates that the capacity loss often observed for SnO 2 is caused by the reformed SnO 2 layer serving as a passivating layer protecting the remaining tin. Capacities corresponding up to about 80 % of the initial SnO 2 capacity could, however, be obtained by cycling to 3.5 V vs. Li + /Li. It is also shown that the oxidation of the lithium tin alloy is hindered by the rate of the diffusion of lithium through a layer of tin with increasing thickness and that the irreversible oxidation of tin to SnF 2 at potentials larger than 2.8 V vs. Li + /Li is due to the fact that SnF 2 is formed below the SnO 2 layer. This improved electrochemical understanding of the SnO 2 /Sn system should be valuable in the development of tin based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Low-temperature Synthesis of Tin(II) Oxide From Tin(II) ketoacidoximate Precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Alshankiti, Buthainah

    2015-04-01

    Sn (II) oxide finds numerous applications in different fields such as thin film transistors1, solar cells2 and sensors.3 In this study we present the fabrication of tin monoxide SnO by using Sn (II) ketoacid oximate complexes as precursors. Tin (II) ketoacidoximates of the type [HON=CRCOO]2Sn where R= Me 1, R= CH2Ph 2, and [(MeON=CMeCOO)3Sn]- NH4 +.2H2O 3 were synthesized by in situ formation of the ketoacid oximate ligand. The crystal structures were determined via single crystal X- ray diffraction of the complexes 1-3 revealed square planar and square pyramidal coordination environments for the Sn atom. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in all the complexes. Furthermore, the complexes were characterized by Infrared (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and elemental analysis. From thermogravimetric analysis of 1-3, it was found that the complexes decomposed in the range of 160 – 165 oC. Analysis of the gases evolved during decomposition indicated complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step and the formation of SnO. Spin coating of 1 on silicon or glass substrate show uniform coating of SnO. Band gaps of SnO films were measured and found to be in the range of 3.0 – 3.3 eV by UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated surface oxidation of the SnO film. Heating 1 above 140 oC in air gives SnO of size ranging from 10 – 500 nm and is spherical in shape. The SnO nanomaterial is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction(XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  5. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  6. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  7. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses.......Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance...

  8. Multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in southwestern China: High genetic diversity, broad host range, and zoonotic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Deng

    Full Text Available Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate eukaryotic intracellular parasite that infects a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Although considerable research has been conducted on this organism, relatively little information is available on the occurrence of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in zoos in southwestern China. Fecal specimens from Asiatic black bears in four zoos, located in four different cities, were collected and analyzed for the prevalence of E. bieneusi. The average prevalence of E. bieneusi was 27.4% (29/106, with the highest prevalence in Guiyang Zoo (36.4%, 16/44. Altogether, five genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified among the 29 E. bieneusi-positive samples, including three known genotypes (CHB1, SC02, and horse2 and two novel genotypes named ABB1 and ABB2. Multi-locus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7 and one minisatellite (MS4 revealed V, III, V, and IV genotypes at these four loci, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotypes SC02 and ABB2 were clustered into group 1 of zoonotic potential, the genotypes CHB1 and ABB1 were clustered into a new group, and the genotype horse2 was clustered into group 6 of unclear zoonotic potential. In conclusion, this study identified two novel E. bieneusi genotypes in captive Asiatic black bears, and used microsatellite and minisatellite markers to reveal E. bieneusi genetic diversity. Moreover, our findings show that genotypes SC02 (identified in humans and ABB2 belong to group 1 with zoonotic potential, suggesting the risk of transmission of E. bieneusi from Asiatic black bears to humans and other animals.

  9. Multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in southwestern China: High genetic diversity, broad host range, and zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Li, Wei; Zhong, Zhijun; Gong, Chao; Cao, Xuefeng; Song, Yuan; Wang, Wuyou; Huang, Xiangming; Liu, Xuehan; Hu, Yanchun; Fu, Hualin; He, Min; Wang, Ya; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Kongju; Peng, Guangneng

    2017-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate eukaryotic intracellular parasite that infects a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Although considerable research has been conducted on this organism, relatively little information is available on the occurrence of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in zoos in southwestern China. Fecal specimens from Asiatic black bears in four zoos, located in four different cities, were collected and analyzed for the prevalence of E. bieneusi. The average prevalence of E. bieneusi was 27.4% (29/106), with the highest prevalence in Guiyang Zoo (36.4%, 16/44). Altogether, five genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified among the 29 E. bieneusi-positive samples, including three known genotypes (CHB1, SC02, and horse2) and two novel genotypes named ABB1 and ABB2. Multi-locus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4) revealed V, III, V, and IV genotypes at these four loci, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotypes SC02 and ABB2 were clustered into group 1 of zoonotic potential, the genotypes CHB1 and ABB1 were clustered into a new group, and the genotype horse2 was clustered into group 6 of unclear zoonotic potential. In conclusion, this study identified two novel E. bieneusi genotypes in captive Asiatic black bears, and used microsatellite and minisatellite markers to reveal E. bieneusi genetic diversity. Moreover, our findings show that genotypes SC02 (identified in humans) and ABB2 belong to group 1 with zoonotic potential, suggesting the risk of transmission of E. bieneusi from Asiatic black bears to humans and other animals.

  10. Preliminary study of tin slag concrete mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Mohd Jamil; Mansor, Ishak; Pauzi Ismail, Mohamad; Sani, Suhairy; Azmi, Azhar; Sayuti, Shaharudin; Zaidi Ibrahim, Mohd; Adli Anuar, Abul; Rahim, Abdul Adha Abdul

    2018-01-01

    The study focuses on practices to facilitate tin smelting industry to reduce radioactive waste product (Tin Slag) by diluting its radioactivity to a safe level and turning it to a safer infrastructural building product. In the process the concrete mix which include Portland cement, sand, tin slag, water and plasticizer are used to produce interlocking brick pavements, piles and other infrastructural products. The mixing method follows DOE (UK) standard method of mixing targeted at in selected compressive strength suitable for its function and durability. A batching machine is used in the mixing and six test cubes are produced for the test. The testing equipment used are a compressional machine, ultrasonic measurement and a Geiger Muller counter to evaluate of the concrete mix to find the lowest emission of radiation surface dose without compromising the strength of concrete mix. The result obtained indicated the radioactivity of tin slag in the mixing process has reduced to background level that is 0.5μSv/h while the strength and workability of the concrete has not been severely affected. In conclusion, the concrete mix with tin slag has shown the potential it can be turned into a safe beneficial infrastructural product with good strength.

  11. Review of literature for radium, protactinium, tin and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.; Beetham, C.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a review of literature concerning the occurrence and behaviour of radium and protactinium in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, tin in terrestrial ecosystems, and carbon in soil-plant systems following introduction as methane to sub-soils. Representative values for a range of modelling parameters have been derived from the data. The extent of literature for the four elements varies considerably in quality and quantity; data for protactinium and carbon, as methane, are particularly limited and could usefully be extended by experimental research. (author)

  12. Combined TiN- and TaN temperature compensated thin film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmros, Anna; Andersson, Kristoffer; Rorsman, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    The opposite signs of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of two thin film materials, titanium nitride (TiN) and tantalum nitride (TaN), were used to form temperature compensated thin film resistors (TFRs). The principle of designing temperature compensated TFRs by connecting TFRs of each compound in series or in parallel was demonstrated. TiN, TaN, and combined TiN and TaN TFRs for monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) were fabricated by reactive sputtering. DC characterization was performed over the temperature range of 30–200 °C. The TiN TFRs exhibited an increase in resistivity with temperature with TCRs of 540 and 750 ppm/°C. The TaN TFR on the other hand exhibited a negative TCR of − 470 ppm/°C. The shunted TFRs were fabricated by serial deposition of TiN and TaN to form a bilayer component. The TCRs of the series- and shunt configurations were experimentally reduced to − 60 and 100 ppm/°C, respectively. The concept of temperature compensation was used to build a Wheatstone bridge with an application in on-chip temperature sensing.

  13. Combined TiN- and TaN temperature compensated thin film resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmros, Anna, E-mail: anna.malmros@chalmers.se; Andersson, Kristoffer; Rorsman, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    The opposite signs of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of two thin film materials, titanium nitride (TiN) and tantalum nitride (TaN), were used to form temperature compensated thin film resistors (TFRs). The principle of designing temperature compensated TFRs by connecting TFRs of each compound in series or in parallel was demonstrated. TiN, TaN, and combined TiN and TaN TFRs for monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) were fabricated by reactive sputtering. DC characterization was performed over the temperature range of 30-200 Degree-Sign C. The TiN TFRs exhibited an increase in resistivity with temperature with TCRs of 540 and 750 ppm/ Degree-Sign C. The TaN TFR on the other hand exhibited a negative TCR of - 470 ppm/ Degree-Sign C. The shunted TFRs were fabricated by serial deposition of TiN and TaN to form a bilayer component. The TCRs of the series- and shunt configurations were experimentally reduced to - 60 and 100 ppm/ Degree-Sign C, respectively. The concept of temperature compensation was used to build a Wheatstone bridge with an application in on-chip temperature sensing.

  14. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam irradiation on the gas sensing performance of tin dioxide thin films toward H2 are studied. The tin dioxide thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The results show that the sensitivity increased after electron beam irradiation. The electron beam irradiation effects on tin ...

  15. Determination of trace amounts of tin in geological materials by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, E.P.; Chao, T.T.

    1976-01-01

    An atomic absorption method is described for the determination of traces of tin in rocks, soils, and stream sediments. A dried mixture of the sample and ammonium iodide is heated to volatilize tin tetraiodide -which is then dissolved in 5 % hydrochloric acid, extracted into TOPO-MIBK, and aspirated into a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The limit of determination is 2 p.p.m. tin and the relative standard deviation ranges from 2 to 14 %. Up to 20 % iron and 1000 p.p.m. Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Hg, Mo, V, or W in the sample do not interfere. As many as 50 samples can be easily analyzed per man-day. ?? 1976.

  16. Methodology for the effective stabilization of tin-oxide-based oxidation/reduction catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony N. (Inventor); Schryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Gulati, Suresh T. (Inventor); Summers, Jerry C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention described herein involves a novel approach to the production of oxidation/reduction catalytic systems. The present invention serves to stabilize the tin oxide reducible metal-oxide coating by co-incorporating at least another metal-oxide species, such as zirconium. In one embodiment, a third metal-oxide species is incorporated, selected from the group consisting of cerium, lanthanum, hafnium, and ruthenium. The incorporation of the additional metal oxide components serves to stabilize the active tin-oxide layer in the catalytic process during high-temperature operation in a reducing environment (e.g., automobile exhaust). Moreover, the additional metal oxides are active components due to their oxygen-retention capabilities. Together, these features provide a mechanism to extend the range of operation of the tin-oxide-based catalyst system for automotive applications, while maintaining the existing advantages.

  17. Synthesising highly reactive tin oxide using Tin(II2- ethylhexanoate polynucleation as precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Montenegro Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide is a widely used compound in technological applications, particularity as a catalyst, gas sensor and in making varistors, transparent conductors, electrocatalytic electrodes and photovoltaic cells. An ethylhexanoate tin salt, a carboxylic acid and poly-esterification were used for synthesising highly reactive tin oxide in the present study. Synthesis was controlled by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and recording changes in viscosity. The tin oxide characteristics so obtained were determined using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SnO2 dust synthesised and heat-treated at 550°C yielded high density aggregates, having greater than 50 μm particle size. This result demonstrates the high reactivity of the ceramic powders synthesised here.

  18. Localized tail state distribution and hopping transport in ultrathin zinc-tin-oxide thin film transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jeng-Ting; Liu, Li-Chih; Chen, Jen-Sue; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Liao, Po-Yung; Chiang, Hsiao-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Chang; Nugraha, Mohamad Insan; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    Carrier transport properties of solution processed ultra thin (4 nm) zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) thin film transistor are investigated based on its transfer characteristics measured at the temperature ranging from 310K to 77K. As temperature decreases, the transfer curves show a parellel shift toward more

  19. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-11-01

    reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

  20. A comparative study on wear behavior of TiN and diamond coated WC-Co substrates against hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarthy, G.V. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India); Chandran, Maneesh, E-mail: maneesh@physics.iitm.ac.in [Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India); Bhattacharya, S.S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India); Rao, M.S. Ramachandra [Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India); Kamaraj, M., E-mail: kamaraj@iitm.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wear behaviors of diamond/WC-Co, TiN/WC-Co and WC-Co against Al-Si were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both TiN and diamond coatings were done using chemical vapor deposition technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction and sliding wear properties were characterized using a pin-on-disc method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond coated WC-Co pins showed one order less wear loss than bare WC-Co pins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A weight gain was observed for the TiN coated WC-Co pins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Average coefficient of friction was lowest for the diamond coated WC-Co pins. - Abstract: The demand for better tools for machining hypereutectic aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are increasing day by day since the extensive use of these alloys in internal combustion engines. In addition to the lifetime of the machining tool, surface finish of the machined piece is also equally important, as it directly affects the performance of the engine. In this paper, we compared the wear behavior of bare tungsten carbide (WC-Co), titanium nitride (TiN) coated WC-Co and diamond coated WC-Co substrates against Al-Si alloys using pin-on-disc method. Both TiN and diamond coatings were done using chemical vapor deposition technique. Diamond coated WC-Co substrates show one order less wear loss compared to the bare WC-Co substrates. Instead of weight loss, a weight gain was observed for the TiN coated WC-Co substrates. Average coefficient of friction was lowest for the diamond coated WC-Co substrates due to the different wear behavior of diamond coated tribological system, which is explained in detail.

  1. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-03-01

    Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles are formed in the presence of a carboxylic acid and base in air at room temperature. IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (coupled with infrared spectroscopy), powder X-ray diffraction, high temperature X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy are used for the characterization of Sn6O4(OH)4 and the investigation of its selective decomposition into SnO or SnO2. Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction results indicate that SnO is formed by the removal of water from crystalline Sn6O4(OH)4. SEM shows octahedral morphology of the Sn6O4(OH)4, SnO and SnO2 with particle size from 400 nm-2 μm during solid state conversion. Solution phase transformation of Sn6O4(OH)4 to SnO2 occurs in the presence of potassium glutarate and oxygen. SnO2 particles are 15-20 nm in size.

  2. Tin compounds interaction with membranes of egg lecithin liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, D.; Podolak, M. [Opole Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics

    2007-05-15

    This work is a continuation of earlier research concerning the influence of tin compounds on the dynamic properties of liposome membranes produced with lecithin hen egg yolks (EYL). The experiments were carried out at room temperature (about 25 C). Four tin compounds were chosen, including three organic ones, (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}Sn, (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}Sn and (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}SnCl, and one inorganic, SnCl{sub 2}. The investigated compounds were admixed to water dispersions of liposomes. The content of the admixture changed within the range 0 mol-% to 11 mol-% in proportion to EYL. Two spin probes were used in the experiment: 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine- 1-oxyl (TEMPO) and 2-ethyl-2-(15-methoxy-15-oxopentadecyl)-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxazolidinyloxyl (16-DOXYL-stearic acid), which penetrated through different areas of the membrane. It was found that tin compounds containing chlorine were the most active in interaction with liposome membranes. In the case of (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}SnCl, after exceeding 4% admixture content, an additional line appeared in the spectrum of the TEMPO probe which can be a result of formation of domain structures in the membranes of the studied liposomes. Compounds containing chlorine are of ionized form in water solution. The obtained results can thus mean that the activity of admixtures can be seriously influenced by their ionic character. In case of an admixture of non-ionic compounds the compound with a longer hydrocarbon chain displayed a slightly stronger effect on the spectroscopic parameters of the probes. (orig.)

  3. NMR studies of metallic tin confined within porous matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnaya, E. V.; Tien, Cheng; Lee, M. K.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2007-01-01

    119 Sn NMR studies were carried out for metallic tin confined within synthetic opal and porous glass. Tin was embedded into nanoporous matrices in the melted state under pressure. The Knight shift for liquid confined tin was found to decrease with decreasing pore size. Correlations between NMR line shapes, Knight shift, and pore filling were observed. The melting and freezing phase transitions of tin under confinement were studied through temperature dependences of NMR signals upon warming and cooling. Melting of tin within the opal matrix agreed well with the liquid skin model suggested for small isolated particles. The influence of the pore filling on the melting process was shown

  4. Electrochemical mechanism of tin membrane electrodeposition under ultrasonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Tianxiang; Yang, Jianguang; Chen, Bing

    2018-04-01

    Tin was electrodeposited from chloride solutions using a membrane cell under ultrasonic waves. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CHR), and chronopotentiometry were applied to investigate the electrochemical mechanism of tin electrodeposition under ultrasonic field. Chronoamperometry curves showed that the initial process of tin electrodeposition followed the diffusion controlled three-dimensional nucleation and grain growth mechanism. The analysis of the cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry diagrams showed that the application of ultrasound can change the tin membrane electro-deposition reaction from diffusion to electrochemical control, and the optimum parameters for tin electrodeposition were H + concentration 3.5 mol·L -1 , temperature 35 °C and ultrasonic power 100 W. The coupling ultrasonic field played a role in refining the grain in this process. The growth of tin crystals showed no orientation preferential, and the tin deposition showed a tendency to form a regular network structure after ultrasonic coupling. While in the absence of ultrasonic coupling, the growth of tin crystals has a high preferential orientation, and the tin deposition showed a tendency to form tin whiskers. Ultrasonic coupling was more favorable for obtaining a more compact and smoother cathode tin layer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aqueous Barbier allylation of aldehydes mediated by tin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ricardo L; Lima, Dimas J P; Barros, Maria Ester S B; Cavalcanti, Lívia N; Hallwass, Fernando; Navarro, Marcelo; Bieber, Lothar W; Malvestiti, Ivani

    2007-08-29

    The aqueous tin-mediated Barbier reaction affords good to excellent yields and moderate syn diastereoselectivity under basic and acidic conditions. The high yields and stereoselectivity observed in the case of o-substituted aldehydes suggest a cyclic organotin intermediate or transition state in K2HPO4 solution. A practical and efficient aqueous tin allylation of methoxy- and hydroxybenzaldehydes can be carried out in HCl solution in 15 minutes to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols in high yields. Aliphatic aldehydes give moderate to excellent yields with reaction times ranging from 30 to 60 minutes. Under these conditions, crotylation gives exclusively the gamma-product and the syn isomer is formed preferentially. For 2-methoxybenzaldehyde, an equilibration of the isomers to a syn/anti ratio of 1:1 can be observed after several hours. Control experiments with radical sources or scavengers give no support for radical intermediates. NMR studies suggest a mechanism involving an organotin intermediate. The major organotin species formed depends on the reaction medium and the reaction time. The use of acidic solution reduces the reaction times, due to the acceleration of the formation of the allyltin(IV) species.

  6. Aqueous Barbier Allylation of Aldehydes Mediated by Tin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivani Malvestiti

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous tin-mediated Barbier reaction affords good to excellent yields and moderate syn diastereoselectivity under basic and acidic conditions. The high yields and stereoselectivity observed in the case of o-substituted aldehydes suggest a cyclic organotin intermediate or transition state in K2HPO4 solution. A practical and efficient aqueous tin allylation of methoxy- and hydroxybenzaldehydes can be carried out in HCl solution in 15 minutes to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols in high yields. Aliphatic aldehydes give moderate to excellent yields with reaction times ranging from 30 to 60 minutes. Under these conditions, crotylation gives exclusively the γ-product and the syn isomer is formed preferentially. For 2-methoxybenzaldehyde, an equilibration of the isomers to a syn/anti ratio of 1:1 can be observed after several hours. Control experiments with radical sources or scavengers give no support for radical intermediates. NMR studies suggest a mechanism involving an organotin intermediate. The major organotin species formed depends on the reaction medium and the reaction time. The use of acidic solution reduces the reaction times, due to the acceleration of the formation of the allyltin(IV species.

  7. UV-visible spectroscopic estimation of photodegradation of rhodamine-B dye using tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangami, G; Dharmaraj, N

    2012-11-01

    Nanocrystalline, tin(IV) oxide (SnO(2)) particles has been prepared by thermal decomposition of tin oxalate precursor obtained from the reactions of tin(IV) chloride and sodium oxalate using eggshell membrane (ESM). The as-prepared SnO(2) nanoparticles were characterized by thermal studies, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, FT-IR and UV-visible studies and used as a photocatalyst for the degradation of rhodamine-B (Rh-B) dye. The size of the prepared nanoparticles was in the range of 5-12nm as identified from the TEM images. Powder XRD data revealed the presence of a tetragonal, rutile crystalline phase of the tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles. Thermal analysis showed that the decomposition of tin oxalate precursor to yield the titled tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles was completed below 500°C. The extent of degradation of Rh-B in the presence of SnO(2) monitored by absorption spectral measurements demonstrated that 94.48% of the selected dye was degraded upon irradiation with UV light for 60 min. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Pagami Creek smoke plume after long-range transport to the upper troposphere over Europe - aerosol properties and black carbon mixing state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlkötter, F.; Gysel, M.; Sauer, D.; Minikin, A.; Baumann, R.; Seifert, P.; Ansmann, A.; Fromm, M.; Voigt, C.; Weinzierl, B.

    2014-06-01

    During the CONCERT 2011 field experiment with the DLR research aircraft Falcon, an enhanced aerosol layer with particle linear depolarization ratios of 6-8% at 532 nm was observed at altitudes above 10 km over northeast Germany on 16 September 2011. Dispersion simulations with HYSPILT suggest that the elevated aerosol layer originated from the Pagami Creek forest fire in Minnesota, USA, which caused pyro-convective uplift of particles and gases. The 3-4 day-old smoke plume had high total refractory black carbon (rBC) mass concentrations of 0.03-0.35 μg m-3 at standard temperature and pressure (STP) with rBC mass equivalent diameter predominantly smaller than 130 nm. Assuming a core-shell particle structure, the BC cores exhibit very thick (median: 105-136 nm) BC-free coatings. A large fraction of the BC-containing particles disintegrated into a BC-free fragment and a BC fragment while passing through the laser beam of the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). In this study, the disintegration is a result of very thick coatings around the BC cores. This is in contrast to a previous study in a forest-fire plume, where it was hypothesized to be a result of BC cores being attached to a BC-free particle. For the high-altitude forest-fire aerosol layer observed in this study, increased mass specific light-absorption cross sections of BC can be expected due to the very thick coatings around the BC cores, while this would not be the case for the attached-type morphology. We estimate the BC mass import from the Pagami Creek forest fire into the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) region (best estimate: 25 Mg rBC). A comparison to black carbon emission rates from aviation underlines the importance of pyro-convection on the BC load in the UTLS region. Our study provides detailed information on the microphysics and the mixing state of BC in the forest-fire aerosol layer in the upper troposphere that can be used to better understand and investigate the radiative

  9. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  10. A Thermote, a Novel Thermal Element Simplifying the Finding of a Medium's Entropy Emerges as a Sensible Dark Matter Candidate from Primordial Black Holes with a Mass in Range of Axion's, a Leading Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, Erlan H.

    2017-06-01

    Black holes acting as dark matter have been predicted, e.g., via a duality theory in (Feria 2011, Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. on SMC, Alaska, USA) and via observations in (Kashlinsky 2016, AJL). Here a thermote, a novel thermal element simplifying the finding of a medium’s entropy, emerges as a dark matter candidate from primordial black holes with a mass in range of axion's, a leading candidate. The thermote energy, eT, is defined as the average thermal energy contributed to a particle’s motion by the medium’s degrees of freedom (DoF) and is thus given by eT=NDoFkBT/2 where NDoF is the DoF number (e.g., NDoF=2 for a black-hole since only in its event-horizon particle motions can occur) and kBT/2 is the thermal energy contributed by each degree of freedom (kB is the Boltzmann constant and T is temperature). The entropy S of a spherical homogeneous medium is then simply stated as S=(kB/2)E/eT where E=Mc2 is the medium's rest-energy, with M its point-mass and c the speed of light, and eT=NDoFkBT/2 is the thermote's kinetic-energy. This simple equation naturally surfaced from a rest/kinetic or retention/motion mass-energy duality theory where, e.g., black-holes and vacuums form together such a duality with black holes offering the least resistance to mass-energy rest, or retention, and vacuums offering the least resistance to mass-energy kinetics, or motions. In turn, this duality theory has roots in the universal cybernetics duality principle (UCDP) stating “synergistic physical and mathematical dualities arise in efficient system designs” (Feria 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/2.1201407.005429, SPIE Newsroom). Our thermote based entropy finding method is applicable to spherical homogeneous mediums such as black-holes, photon-gases, and flexible-phase (Feria 2016, Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. on Smart Cloud, Columbia University, NY, USA), where the thermote of a primordial black hole, with NDoF=2 and a CMB radiation temperature of T=2.725 kelvin, emerges as a

  11. Third-generation muffin–tin orbitals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    By the example of sp3-bonded semiconductors, we illustrate what 3rd-generation muffin–tin orbi- ... there is one, and only one, such MTO per electron. To .... Computational steps. The radial Schrödinger (Dirac) equation (2) is integrated numerically from r = 0 to sR. This yields the radial func- tions, ϕRl(ε, r), and their phase ...

  12. Electrochemical reduction of trinitrotoluene on core-shell tin-carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriants, Irena; Markovsky, Boris; Persky, Rachel; Perelshtein, Ilana; Gedanken, Aharon; Aurbach, Doron; Filanovsky, Boris; Bourenko, Tatiana; Felner, Israel

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we studied the electrochemical process of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) reduction on a new type of electrodes based on a core-shell tin-carbon Sn(C) structure. The Sn(C) composite was prepared from the precursor tetramethyl-tin Sn(CH 3 ) 4 , and the product contained a core of submicron-sized tin particles uniformly enveloped with carbon shells. Cyclic voltammograms of Sn(C) electrodes in aqueous sodium chloride solutions containing TNT show three well-pronounced reduction waves in the potential range of -0.50 to -0.80 V (vs. an Ag/AgCl/Cl - reference electrode) that correspond to the multistep process of TNT reduction. Electrodes containing Sn(C) particles annealed at 800 deg. C under argon develop higher voltammetric currents of TNT reduction (comparing to the as-prepared tin-carbon material) due to stabilization of the carbon shell. It is suggested that the reduction of TNT on core-shell tin-carbon electrodes is an electrochemically irreversible process. A partial oxidation of the TNT reduction products occurred at around -0.20 V. The electrochemical response of TNT reduction shows that it is not controlled by the diffusion of the active species to/from the electrodes but rather by interfacial charge transfer and possible adsorption phenomena. The tin-carbon electrodes demonstrate significantly stable behavior for TNT reduction in NaCl solutions and provide sufficient reproducibility with no surface fouling through prolonged voltammetric cycling. It is presumed that tin nanoparticles, which constitute the core, are electrochemically inactive towards TNT reduction, but Sn or SnO 2 formed on the electrodes during TNT reduction may participate in this reaction as catalysts or carbon-modifying agents. The nitro-groups of TNT can be reduced irreversibly (via two possible paths) by three six-electron transfers, to 2,4,6-triaminotoluene, as follows from mass-spectrometric studies. The tin-carbon electrodes described herein may serve as amperometric sensors

  13. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-12-12

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to achieve transparent and conductive films free carriers have to be generated by oxygen vacancies, by metal ions at interstitial positions in the crystal lattice or by cation doping with Sb or Nb, respectively. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide films have been prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (dc MS) from metallic targets. The process parameters and the doping concentration in the films have been varied. The films have been electrically, optically and structurally analysed in order to analyse the influence of the process parameters and the doping concentration on the film properties. Post-deposition treatments of the films have been performed in order to improve the film properties. For the deposition of transparent and conductive tin oxide, the dominant parameter during the deposition is the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The Sb incorporation as doping atoms has a minor influence on the electrical, optical and structural properties. Within a narrow oxygen content in the sputtering gas highly transparent and conductive tin oxide films have been prepared. In this study, the lowest resistivity in the as deposited state is 2.9 m{omega} cm for undoped tin oxide without any postdeposition treatment. The minimum resistivity is related to a transition to crystalline films with the stoichiometry of SnO{sub 2}. At higher oxygen content the films turn out to have a higher resistivity due to an oxygen excess. After post

  14. Synthesis of Tin Powder Using Tin Oxide and Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, S.; Eroglu, S.

    2018-02-01

    The reduction behavior of SnO2 powder has been investigated in the temperature range of 900-1200 K under ethanol flow. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and mass measurement techniques were used to characterize the products. Full oxide reduction was attained at 1000 K, 1100 K, and 1200 K within about 20 min, 15 min, and 7.5 min, respectively. At 900 K, the extent of reduction increased with the reaction time up to 20 min, but further increases in the time (30 min and 60 min) resulted in a slight mass gain. This was attributable to the C uptake. Spherical Sn particles (diameter 1 μm) were observed at 1000 K and 1100 K. At 1200 K, large beads of Sn (diameter 400-800 μm) were obtained. The spherical particle morphology was attributed to the liquid metallic phase formed during the reaction. The reduction mechanism of SnO2 in ethanol has been discussed in the light of thermodynamic and experimental results.

  15. Teenage mothers of black and minority ethnic origin want access to a range of mental and physical health support: a participatory research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Maria; Kirk, Rosalind; Alfafara, Emily; Jonika, Jennifer; Waddell, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    In high risk, economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, such as those primarily resident by black and minority ethnic groups (BME), teenage pregnancies are relatively more frequent. Such families often have limited access to and/or knowledge of services, including prenatal and post-partum physical and mental health support. To explore preferences held by vulnerable young mothers of BME origin and those close to them about existing and desired perinatal health services. Drawing on a community-based participatory approach, a community steering committee with local knowledge and experience of teenage parenthood shaped and managed an exploratory qualitative study. In collaboration with a local agency and academic research staff, community research assistants conducted two focus groups with 19 members and 21 individual semi-structured interviews with young mothers of BME origin and their friends or relatives. These were coded, thematically analysed, interpreted and subsequently triangulated through facilitator and participant review and discussion. Despite perceptions of a prevalent local culture of mistrust and suspicion, a number of themes and accompanying recommendations emerged. These included a lack of awareness by mothers of BME origin about current perinatal health services, as well as programme inaccessibility and inadequacy. There was a desire to engage with a continuum of comprehensive and well-publicized, family-focused perinatal health services. Participants wanted inclusion of maternal mental health and parenting support that addressed the whole family. It is both ethical and equitable that comprehensive perinatal services are planned and developed following consultation and participation of knowledgeable community members including young mothers of BME origin, family and friends. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Post-release ranging behaviour of hand-raised black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. in Matusadona National Park, Zimbabwe with recommendations for management of introduction to the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Matipano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand-raised rhinos would preferentially settle at sites close to areas where human activity was significant. Hand-raised rhinos that attached themselves to sites of human activity tended to move less widely and to have smaller seasonal ranges than those that moved away from human settlements. These rhinos had no fear of humans and some animals would move along established roads into hostile areas outside the park. These factors made hand-raised rhinos more vulnerable to poaching than their wild counterparts. Management of hand-raised rhinos with regards to ranging behaviour is discussed in the text.

  17. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  18. Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  19. Liquid Tin Anode SOFC JP-8 Start-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    and excessive soot build up on the stand off. ............................. 15 Figure 11: The JP-8 flow rate as a function of air leak rate...high fuel utilization is the solubility limit of oxygen in liquid tin. Work by CellTech Power has shown experimentally and theoretically that 80% fuel...operational temperature, 1000°C. This prevents detrimental formation of tin dioxide ( SnO2 ) as opposed to the formation of tin monoxide (SnO) which is

  20. Thermally evaporated mechanically hard tin oxide thin films for opto-electronic apllications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sumanta K.; Rajeswari, V. P. [Centre for Nano Science and Technology, GVP College of Engineering (Autonomous), Visakhapatnam- 530048 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Tungsten doped tin oxide (WTO) and Molybdenum doped tin oxide (MoTO) thin film were deposited on corn glass by thermal evaporation method. The films were annealed at 350°C for one hour. Structural analysis using Xray diffraction data shows both the films are polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of tin oxide, Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, corresponding to JCPDS card number 01-078-6064. SEM photograph showed that both the films have spherical grains with size in the range of 20–30 nm. Compositional analysis was carried out using EDS which reveals the presence of Sn, O and the dopant Mo/W only thereby indicating the absence of any secondary phase in the films. The films are found to contain nearly 6 wt% of Mo, 8 wt% of W as dopants respectively. The transmission pattern for both the films in the spectral range 200 – 2000 nm shows that W doping gives a transparency of nearly 80% from 380 nm onwards while Mo doping has less transparency of 39% at 380nm. Film hardness measurement using Triboscope shows a film hardness of about 9–10 GPa for both the films. It indicates that W or M doping in tin oxide provides the films the added advantage of withstanding the mechanical wear and tear due to environmental fluctuations By optimizing the optical and electrical properties, W/Mo doped tin oxide films may be explored as window layers in opto-electronic applications such as solar cells.

  1. Room temperature hydrogen gas sensitivity of nanocrystalline pure tin oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S; Seal, S

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline (6-8 nm) tin oxide (SnO2) thin film (100-150 nm) sensor is synthesized via sol-gel dip-coating process. The thin film is characterized using focused ion-beam microscopy (FIB) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques to determine the film thickness and the nanocrystallite size. The utilization of nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 thin film to sense a typical reducing gas such as hydrogen, at room temperature, is demonstrated in this investigation. The grain growth behavior of nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 is analyzed, which shows very low activation energy (9 kJ/mol) for the grain growth within the nanocrystallite size range of 3-20 nm. This low activation energy value is correlated, via excess oxygen-ion vacancy concentration, with the room temperature hydrogen gas sensitivity of the nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 thin film sensor.

  2. Thermodynamic modeling of the formation and stability of small tin clusters and their ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodlaa, A.; Suliman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the results of previous quantum-chemical study of electronic structure properties for neutral and single positively and negatively charged thin clusters in the size range of N 2-17 atoms, and on the thermodynamic laws, we have studied the thermodynamic properties of tin clusters and their ions. The characteristic amounts (cohesive enthalpy, formation enthalpy, fragmentation enthalpy, entropy and free enthalpy) for the formation and stability of these clusters at different temperatures were calculated. From the results, which are presented and discussed in this work, one can observe the following: The tin clusters Sn N (N=2-17) and their cations Sn + N and anions Sn - N are formed in the gas phase, and this agrees with experimental results. The clusters Sn 3 and Sn 1 0 are the most stable clusters of all. Here we also, find a correspondence with the results of the experimental studies. Our results go beyond that since we have found Sn 1 5 is also specially stable. By this thermodynamic study we could evaluate approximately the formation and stability of small neutral, single positively and negatively charged tin clusters. It has also allowed us to study the effects of the temperature on the formation and stability of these clusters. The importance of such study is not only what mentioned above, but it is also the first thermodynamic study for modeling the formation and stability of small tin clusters. (author)

  3. Defects in TiN and HfN studied by helium thermal desorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoondert, W.H.B.; Thijsse, B.J.; Beuckel, A. van den

    1994-01-01

    Point defects in sub-stoichiometric TiN 1-x and HfN 1-x were investigated by helium thermal desorption spectrometry (300-1800K) following He + ion implantation at energies up to 3000eV. It was found that the low energy spectra are dominated by helium dissociating from the structural vacancies on the nitrogen sublattice; the activation energy for dissociation is 2.2eV for TiN. Above a few hundred electron volts the ions begin to produce several other types of defects, from which helium dissociates with activation energies in the range 2.6-4.0eV. The identity of these defects is discussed. The results for the two nitrides were similar in many respects. The most significant difference observed is that in TiN low energy He + ions generate damage on the N sublattice of a type that is not observed for HfN. Activation energies for HfN are found to be consistently 0.7eV lower than for TiN. ((orig.))

  4. Reductive spectrophotometry of divalent tin sensitization on soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejugam, Vinith; Wei, Xingfei; Roper, D. Keith

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and facile evaluation of tin (II) sensitization could lead to improved understanding of metal deposition in electroless (EL) plating. This report used a balanced redox reaction between 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB-HCL) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to evaluate effects of sensitization conditions (i.e., sensitization time, analyte concentration, aqueous immersion, and acid content) on the accumulated mass of surface-associated divalent tin ion. The accumulated mass of tin (II) increased as the sensitization time increased up to 30 s in proportion to aqueous tin (II) chloride concentrations between 2.6 and 26 mM at a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) content of 68 mM. The average mass peaked at 7.3 nanomoles (nmol) per cm2 after a 5 s aqueous immersion post-sensitization, and then decreased with increasing aqueous immersion post-sensitization. The total average tin (II) + tin (IV) accumulated on soda lime glass measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was 17% higher at 30 s sensitization, suggesting a fraction of the tin (II) present may have oxidized to tin (IV). These results indicated that in situ spectrophotometric evaluation of tin (II) could support development of EL plating for electronics, catalysis, and solar cells.

  5. MAGIC NUCLEI: Tin-100 turns up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the same way as the Periodic Table of chemical elements reflects the successive filling of orbital electron shells, in nuclear physics the socalled 'magic' numbers correspond to closed shells of 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126,... neutrons and/or protons. More tightly bound than other nuclei, these are the nuclear analogues of the inert gases. 'Doubly magic' nuclei have closed shells of both neutrons and protons. Examples in nature are helium-4 (2 protons and 2 neutrons), oxygen-16 (8 and 8), calcium-40 (20 and 20) and calcium-48 (20 and 28). Radioactive tin-132 (50+82) has been widely studied

  6. Moessbauer effect in superconducting organosol of tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekhtyar, I.Ya.; Zhelibo, E.P.; Kushnir, B.G.; Nishchenko, M.M.; Pan, V.M.; Popov, A.G.; Khvorov, M.M.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Kolloidnoj Khimii i Khimii Vody)

    1977-01-01

    Structure of disperse particles (approximately 1 μm) of tin organosols have been investigated by means of the Moessbauer effect. A considerable amount of oxides (up to 20%) in amorphous (SnO 2 ) or in metastable crystalline (SnO) states has been discovered. The observed properties of the Moessbauer spectrum of organosols are compared with measurements of their critical temperature. The effect of impurities and of other structural defects on the dynamic and superconducting properties of organosols is observed. Temperature broadening of lines and temperature variation of the Moessbauer effect value for the particle of different dimensions are in a qualitative agreement with the theory of the granular Moessbauer absorbers

  7. Mocvd of Tin Oxide for Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglicki, Peter Stanislaw

    1990-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Thin films of a wide variety of materials can be produced using an assortment of physical and chemical techniques. Such techniques are reviewed and compared, with particular reference to the deposition of tin oxide films. In the present study, MOCVD (Metal organic chemical vapour deposition) was used to grow thin films of tin oxide from dibutyltin diacetate precursor on a variety of substrates. A series of reactor prototypes were developed in accordance with specific requirements of reproducibility and process control. The evolution of the designs leading to the final working system is detailed. The theory of MOCVD is given with particular reference to the reactor used in this project. The effects of various deposition parameters on tin oxide film growth rates were investigated, and the results are discussed with reference to the deposition kinetics in the system. Films were characterised by optical interferometry, optical and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and electrical measurements. The films were generally uniform, conducting and polycrystalline, and were comprised of very small grains, resulting in a high density. A specific application of metal oxide materials is in solid state gas sensors, which are available in various forms and operate according to different mechanisms. These are compared and a detailed account is given on the theory of operation of surface conductivity modulated devices. The application of such devices based on tin oxide in thin film form was investigated in the present work. The prepared sensor samples were comprised of very small grains, resulting in a high density. The observation that preferred (310) orientation occured in thicker films, can be attributed to dendritic growth. The sensors generally showed response to numerous reducing gas ambients, although there was evidence of a degree of selectivity against methane

  8. Formation and annealing of radiation defects in tin-doped p-type germanium crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, V. V., E-mail: aif-minsk@ibb.by; Petukh, A. N.; Pokotilo, Ju. M. [Belarussian State University (Belarus); Markevich, V. P.; Lastovskii, S. B. [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Scientific and Practical Materials Research Center (Belarus)

    2012-05-15

    The effect of tin on the formation and annealing of radiation defects in p-type germanium crystals irradiated with 6-MeV electrons at a temperature of 80 K is studied. It is shown that acceptor complexes SnV with a hole ionization enthalpy of 0.16 eV are dominant in irradiated Ge:(Sn, Ga) crystals after their heating to a temperature of 300 K. These complexes disappeared as a result of the annealing of irradiated crystals in the temperature range 30-75 Degree-Sign C. Annealing of irradiated crystals at temperatures in the range 110-150 Degree-Sign C brings about the formation of deep-level centers with a donor level at E{sub v} + 0.29 eV; this center is presumably related to a complex consisting of a tin atom and an interstitial gallium atom.

  9. Electrical resistivity of CeTIn{sub 5} (T=Rh, Ir) under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Takaki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C.; Shimizu, Katsuya; Amaya, Kiichi; Aoki, Dai; Haga, Yoshinori; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2003-05-15

    We have studied the superconducting properties of CeTIn{sub 5} (T=Rh, Ir) under high pressures by means of electrical resistivity measurements and determined the pressure-temperature phase diagrams for the superconducting transition. For both systems, the superconductivity exists in a wide pressure range, 1.5{<=}P{<=}6.5 GPa for CeRhIn{sub 5} and 0{<=}P{<=}5.2 GPa for CeIrIn{sub 5}.

  10. Partitioning of multivariate phenotypes using regression trees reveals complex patterns of adaptation to climate across the range of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubida, Regis W; Gantulga, Dashzeveg; Zhang, Man; Zhou, Lecong; Bawa, Rajesh; Holliday, Jason A

    2015-01-01

    Local adaptation to climate in temperate forest trees involves the integration of multiple physiological, morphological, and phenological traits. Latitudinal clines are frequently observed for these traits, but environmental constraints also track longitude and altitude. We combined extensive phenotyping of 12 candidate adaptive traits, multivariate regression trees, quantitative genetics, and a genome-wide panel of SNP markers to better understand the interplay among geography, climate, and adaptation to abiotic factors in Populus trichocarpa. Heritabilities were low to moderate (0.13-0.32) and population differentiation for many traits exceeded the 99th percentile of the genome-wide distribution of FST, suggesting local adaptation. When climate variables were taken as predictors and the 12 traits as response variables in a multivariate regression tree analysis, evapotranspiration (Eref) explained the most variation, with subsequent splits related to mean temperature of the warmest month, frost-free period (FFP), and mean annual precipitation (MAP). These grouping matched relatively well the splits using geographic variables as predictors: the northernmost groups (short FFP and low Eref) had the lowest growth, and lowest cold injury index; the southern British Columbia group (low Eref and intermediate temperatures) had average growth and cold injury index; the group from the coast of California and Oregon (high Eref and FFP) had the highest growth performance and the highest cold injury index; and the southernmost, high-altitude group (with high Eref and low FFP) performed poorly, had high cold injury index, and lower water use efficiency. Taken together, these results suggest variation in both temperature and water availability across the range shape multivariate adaptive traits in poplar.

  11. Partitioning of Multivariate Phenotypes using Regression Trees Reveals Complex Patterns of Adaptation to Climate across the Range of Black Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Wendpouire Oubida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Local adaptation to climate in temperate forest trees involves the integration of multiple physiological, morphological, and phenological traits. Latitudinal clines are frequently observed for these traits, but environmental constraints also track longitude and altitude. We combined extensive phenotyping of 12 candidate adaptive traits, multivariate regression trees, quantitative genetics, and a genome-wide panel of SNP markers to better understand the interplay among geography, climate, and adaptation to abiotic factors in Populus trichocarpa. Heritabilities were low to moderate (0.13 to 0.32 and population differentiation for many traits exceeded the 99th percentile of the genome-wide distribution of FST, suggesting local adaptation. When climate variables were taken as predictors and the 12 traits as response variables in a multivariate regression tree analysis, evapotranspiration (Eref explained the most variation, with subsequent splits related to mean temperature of the warmest month, frost-free period (FFP, and mean annual precipitation (MAP. These grouping matched relatively well the splits using geographic variables as predictors: the northernmost groups (short FFP and low Eref had the lowest growth, and lowest cold injury index; the southern British Columbia group (low Eref and intermediate temperatures had average growth and cold injury index; the group from the coast of California and Oregon (high Eref and FFP had the highest growth performance and the highest cold injury index; and the southernmost, high-altitude group (with high Eref and low FFP performed poorly, had high cold injury index, and lower water use efficiency. Taken together, these results suggest variation in both temperature and water availability across the range shape multivariate adaptive traits in poplar.

  12. Amorphous tin-cadmium oxide films and the production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Gessert, Timothy A

    2013-10-29

    A tin-cadmium oxide film having an amorphous structure and a ratio of tin atoms to cadmium atoms of between 1:1 and 3:1. The tin-cadmium oxide film may have an optical band gap of between 2.7 eV and 3.35 eV. The film may also have a charge carrier concentration of between 1.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3 and 2.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3. The tin cadmium oxide film may also exhibit a Hall mobility of between 40 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1 and 60 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1. Also disclosed is a method of producing an amorphous tin-cadmium oxide film as described and devices using same.

  13. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support the liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

  14. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  15. Characterization and Electrochemical Performance at High Discharge Rates of Tin Dioxide Thin Films Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximov, M. Yu.; Novikov, P. A.; Nazarov, D. V.; Rymyantsev, A. M.; Silin, A. O.; Zhang, Y.; Popovich, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, thin films of tin dioxide have been synthesized on substrates of silicon and stainless steel by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with tetraethyl tin and by inductively coupled remote oxygen plasma as precursors. Studies of the surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy show a strong dependence on synthesis temperature. According to the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, the samples contain tin in the oxidation state +4. The thickness of the thin films for electrochemical performance was approximately 80 nm. Electrochemical cycling in the voltage range of 0.01-0.8 V have shown that tin oxide has a stable discharge capacity of approximately 650 mAh/g during 400 charge/discharge cycles with an efficiency of approximately 99.5%. The decrease in capacity after 400 charge/discharge cycles was around 5-7%. Synthesized SnO2 thin films have fast kinetics of lithium ions intercalation and excellent discharge efficiency at high C-rates, up to 40C, with a small decrease in capacity of less than 20%. Specific capacity and cyclic stability of thin films of SnO2 synthesized by ALD exceed the values mentioned in the literature for pure tin dioxide thin films.

  16. Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide and zinc tin oxide using tetraethyltin and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ellis J.; Gladfelter, Wayne L., E-mail: wlg@umn.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Johnson, Forrest; Campbell, Stephen A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Silicon or glass substrates exposed to sequential pulses of tetraethyltin (TET) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were coated with thin films of SnO{sub 2}. Self-limiting deposition was found using 8 s pulse times, and a uniform thickness per cycle (TPC) of 0.2 nm/cycle was observed in a small, yet reproducible, temperature window from 290 to 320 °C. The as-deposited, stoichiometric SnO{sub 2} films were amorphous and transparent above 400 nm. Interspersing pulses of diethylzinc and O{sub 3} among the TET:O{sub 3} pulses resulted in deposition of zinc tin oxide films, where the fraction of tin, defined as [at. % Sn/(at. % Sn + at. % Zn)], was controlled by the ratio of TET pulses, specifically n{sub TET}:(n{sub TET} + n{sub DEZ}) where n{sub TET} and n{sub DEZ} are the number of precursor/O{sub 3} subcycles within each atomic layer deposition (ALD) supercycle. Based on film thickness and composition measurements, the TET pulse time required to reach saturation in the TPC of SnO{sub 2} on ZnO surfaces was increased to >30 s. Under these conditions, film stoichiometry as a function of the TET pulse ratio was consistent with the model devised by Elliott and Nilsen. The as-deposited zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films were amorphous and remained so even after annealing at 450 °C in air for 1 h. The optical bandgap of the transparent ZTO films increased as the tin concentration increased. Hall measurements established that the n-type ZTO carrier concentration was 3 × 10{sup 17} and 4 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} for fractional tin concentrations of 0.28 and 0.63, respectively. The carrier mobility decreased as the concentration of tin increased. A broken gap pn junction was fabricated using ALD-deposited ZTO and a sputtered layer of cuprous oxide. The junction demonstrated ohmic behavior and low resistance consistent with similar junctions prepared using sputter-deposited ZTO.

  17. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  18. Anomalous growth of whisker-like bismuth-tin extrusions from tin-enriched tin-Bi deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, C.-C.; Tsai, Y.-D.; Lin, C.-C.; Lee, G.-L.; Chen, S.-W.; Lee, T.-C.; Wen, T.-C.

    2009-01-01

    This article shows the first finding that the anomalous growth of Bi-Sn extrusions from tin-enriched alloys (Sn-xBi with x between 20 and 10 wt.%) can be induced by post-plating annealing in N 2 between 145 and 260 deg. C for 10 min although metal whiskers were commonly formed on the surface of pure metals or alloys of the enriched component. From SEM observations, very similar to Sn whiskers, Bi-Sn extrusions vary in size, shape, length, and diameter with changing the annealing temperature, which are highly important in regarding the potential for failure of electronic products. Annealing resulting in thermal expansion of Sn grains is believed to squeeze the Bi-Sn alloys with relatively low melting points to form whisker-like extrusions although the exact mechanism is unclear

  19. An experimental study on the characteristics and delamination of TiN coatings deposited on Al 7075-T6 under fatigue cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskouei, R.H.; Ibrahim, R.N.; Barati, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, delamination of a titanium nitride (TiN) thin film from an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 substrate has been studied under fatigue loading conditions. TiN coatings of 3 μm in thickness were deposited onto the aluminium substrate using a physical vapour deposition process. Fatigue fracture surfaces of the coated specimens, failed under a range of low to high cyclic loads, were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analyses showed that the coating layer remained well-adhered to the substrate under fatigue loading with maximum stresses less than 200 MPa. However, local delaminations were observed at maximum cyclic stresses higher than 200 MPa. The coated specimens were found to beneficially resist maximum cyclic stresses up to 350 MPa without showing delaminations when subjected to a modified post heat treatment with a high solutionising temperature. This was associated with an average improvement of 27% in the fatigue life of the coated specimens subjected to the post heat treatment in a controlled atmosphere (argon) when compared to uncoated Al 7075-T6 for tested maximum alternating stress levels. Characterisation of TiN coatings confirmed the presence of single phase TiN film onto the substrate without any oxidisation when heat treated in argon atmosphere. Moreover, compressive residual stresses in TiN coatings increased from − 4.54 to − 7.56 GPa after the post heat treatment as a result of thermal stresses introduced during the quenching stage of the heat treatment. The actual lattice parameters were determined using the Cohen–Wagner method and were found to increase from 4.257 (Å) for the as-deposited TiN coatings to 4.262 (Å) for TiN coatings subjected to the post heat treatment. - Highlights: ► Improvement in fatigue life of TiN coated Al 7075-T6 after a post heat treatment ► Excellent adhesion of TiN film to the substrate at low and moderate cyclic loads ► Local delaminations of TiN film from Al 7075-T6 substrate

  20. Photoemission from tin and lead cluster anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantefoer, G.; Gausa, M.; Meiwes-Broer, K.H.; Lutz, H.O.

    1989-01-01

    Photoelectrons from mass-identified jet-cooled tin and lead cluster anions (Sn n - , Pb n - ) are detached by ultraviolet laser light (hν=3.68 eV). The photoelectron energy spectra give the detachment energies of ground state cluster anions (electron affinities) as well as excitation energies of neutral clusters in the geometry of the anions. The energy spectra for Sn n - are dominated by flat thresholds with an n-dependence similar to that of other group IV clusters. In contrast, for Pb n - we find pronounced narrow lines close to threshold, generally followed by a 0.3-1.4 eV gap which indicates closed-shell behaviour of Pb n - for nearly all n. (orig.)

  1. (n,{gamma}) Experiments on tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Walker, C. L.; Rusev, G. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O' Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Kroll, J. [Charles University of Prague, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Agvaanluvsan, U.; Dashdorj, D.; Erdenehuluun, B.; Tsend-Ayush, T. [MonAme Scientific Research Center, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2013-04-19

    Neutron capture experiments on highly enriched {sup 117,119}Sn isotopes were performed with the DANCE detector array located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The DANCE detector provides detailed information about the multi-step {gamma}-ray cascade following neutron capture. Analysis of the experimental data provides important information to improve understanding of the neutron capture reaction, including a test of the statistical model, the assignment of spins and parities of neutron resonances, and information concerning the Photon Strength Function (PSF) and Level Density (LD) below the neutron separation energy. Preliminary results for the (n,{gamma}) reaction on {sup 117,119}Sn are presented. Resonance spins of the odd-A tin isotopes were almost completely unknown. Resonance spins and parities have been assigned via analysis of the multi-step {gamma}-ray spectra and directional correlations.

  2. Novel inorganic tin phosphate gel: multifunctional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenyan; Komarneni, Sridhar; Noh, Young Dong; Ma, Jianfeng; Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng; Xue, Xiaoqiang; Jiang, Bibiao

    2018-03-08

    Here, we report a remarkable 15 Å nanolayered tin phosphate, Sn(HPO 4 ) 2 ·3H 2 O (SnP-H + or SnP), and its clay-like gel, which are multifunctional and are prepared using earth-abundant Sn and P chemicals by a facile, environmentally benign and potentially cost-effective process. This new energy material is discovered here as the best proton conductor among all the known layered phosphates with a very high proton conductivity of over 1 × 10 -2 S cm -1 at 100 °C for potential use in PEM fuel cells. But it is also a very good capacitor material with fast Li-storage kinetics (charging time of 13 s).

  3. Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. [Deptartmento de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1014, Ave Inb Battouta, Rabat (Morocco)

    1998-11-27

    Spray pyrolysis process has been used to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin-doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, structural and optical properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrate. The morphology of the surface as a function of the substrate temperature has been studied using atomic force microscopy. XRD has shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have a preferred orientation (4 0 0). Indium tin oxide layers with low resistivity values around 4x10{sup -5} {Omega} cm and transmission coefficients in the visible and near-infrared range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained

  4. Nanocrystalline SnO2 formation by oxygen ion implantation in tin thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondkar, Vidya; Rukade, Deepti; Kanjilal, Dinakar; Bhattacharyya, Varsha

    2018-03-01

    Metallic tin thin films of thickness 100 nm are deposited on fused silica substrates by thermal evaporation technique. These films are implanted with 45 keV oxygen ions at fluences ranging from 5 × 1015 to 5 × 1016 ions cm-2. The energy of the oxygen ions is calculated using SRIM in order to form embedded phases at the film-substrate interface. Post-implantation, films are annealed using a tube furnace for nanocrystalline tin oxide formation. These films are characterized using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal the formation of single rutile phase of SnO2. The size of the nanocrystallites formed decreases with an increase in the ion fluence. The nanocrystalline SnO2 formation is also confirmed by UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  5. Electrical Characterization of Postmetal Annealed Ultrathin TiN Gate Electrodes in Si MOS Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on sub-10 nm Silicon CMOS device fabrication technology, we have incorporated ultrathin TiN metal gate electrode in Hafnium Silicate (HfSiO based metal-oxide capacitors (MOSCAP with carefully chosen Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD process parameters. Gate element of the device has undergone a detailed postmetal annealed sequence ranging from 100°C to 1000°C. The applicability of ultrathin TiN on gate electrodes is established through current density versus voltage (J-V, resistance versus temperature (R-T, and permittivity versus temperature analysis. A higher process window starting from 600°C was intentionally chosen to understand the energy efficient behavior expected from ultrathin gate metallization and its unique physical state with shrinking thickness. The device characteristics in form of effective electronic mobility as a function of inverse charge density were also found better than those conventional gate stacks used for EOT scaling.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of tin(IV) antimonate and study of its ion-exchange equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burham, N.; Abdel-Halim, S.H.; El-Shahat, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Tin(IV) antimonate with different Sb/Sn molar ratios has been prepared. The characterization of the product materials was carried out using X-ray diffraction pattern, thermal analysis and infrared spectra. The saturation capacities of sodium and cesium were found to increase with Sb/Sn molar ratios. The K d values on thermal treatment of tin(IV) antimonate, as a cation exchanger, have been measured for some heavy metal ions in the temperature range of 50-400 deg C. The maximum adsorption of 10 -4 M of the metal ions studied was obtained at 400 deg C. The selectivity sequence was Eu 3+ > Co 2+ > Sr 2+ > Cs + for the sample heated up to 400 deg C. No adsorption was observed on the sample heated at 700 deg C because of the formation of SnO 2 and Sb 6 O 13 . (author) 9 refs.; 7 figs.; 5 tabs

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with black raspberry, black carrot and rosella juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekerek, S.; Kudret, A.; Alver, Ü.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC's) were constructed from black raspberry ( Rubus Ideaus), black carrot ( Daucuscarota L.) and rosella juice ( Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.). In order to fabricate a DSSC the fluorine-doped tin (IV) oxide (FTO) thin films obtained by using spray pyrolysis technique were used as a substrate. TiO2 films on FTO layers were prepared by doctor-blading technique. Platinum-coated counter electrode and liquid Iodide/Iodine electrolyte solution were used to fabricate DSSC's. The efficiencies of solar cells produced with black carrot, rosella and black raspberry juice were calculated as 0.25%, 0.16% and 0.16% respectively, under a sunny day in Kahramanmaraş-Turkey.

  8. Colorimetric visualization of tin corrosion: A method for early stage corrosion detection on printed circuit boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    A majority of printed circuit board surfaces are covered with tin, therefore tin corrosion under humid conditions and movement of tin ions under the influence of an electric field plays an important role in the corrosion failure development. Tracking tin corrosion products spread on the printed...

  9. Tin-phosphate glass anode for sodium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Honma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical property of tin-phosphate (designate as GSPO glass anode for the sodium ion battery was studied. During the first charge process, sodium ion diffused into GSPO glass matrix and due to the reduction of Sn2+ to Sn0 state sodiated tin metal nano-size particles are formed in oxide glass matrix. After the second cycle, we confirmed the steady reversible reaction ∼320 mAh/g at 0–1 V cutoff voltage condition by alloying process in NaxSn4. The tin-phosphate glass is a promising candidate of new anode active material that realizes high energy density sodium ion batteries.

  10. Samarium (III Selective Membrane Sensor Based on Tin (IV Boratophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok S. K. Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A number of Sm (III selective membranes of varying compositions using tin (IV boratophosphate as electroactive material were prepared. Polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and epoxy resin were used as binding materials. Membrane having composition of 40% exchanger and 60% epoxy resin exhibited best performance. This membrane worked well over a wide concentration range of 1x10-5M to 1x10-1 M of samarium ions with a Super-Nernstian slope of 40 mV/decade. It has a fast response time of less than 10 seconds and can be used for at least six months without any considerable divergence in potentials. The proposed sensor revealed good selectivities with respect to alkali, alkaline earth, some transition and rare earth metal ions and can be used in the pH range of 4.0-10.0. It was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Sm (III ions against EDTA. Effect of internal solution was studied and the electrode was successfully used in non-aqueous media, too.

  11. "No Cosby Show": Single Black Mother Homes and How Black Men Build Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Maia Niguel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lives of 11 Black men to better understand how Black men who were raised in single Black mother homes build romantic relationships with Black women. One focus group and a series of individual in-person interviews were conducted with the participants who ranged between 23 and 43 years of age. Participants were…

  12. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  13. Diffuse scattering in metallic tin polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Bosak, Alexeï; Piccolboni, Giuseppe; Krisch, Michael; Refson, Keith; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Ivanov, Alexandre; Rumiantsev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The lattice dynamics of the metallic tin β and γ polymorphs has been studied by a combination of diffuse scattering, inelastic x-ray scattering and density functional perturbation theory. The non-symmorphic space group of the β -tin structure results in unusual asymmetry of thermal diffuse scattering. Strong resemblance of the diffuse scattering intensity distribution in β and γ-tin were observed, reflecting the structural relationship between the two phases and revealing the qualitative similarity of the underlying electronic potential. The strong influence of the electron subsystem on inter-ionic interactions creates anomalies in the phonon dispersion relations. All observed features are described in great detail by the density functional perturbation theory for both β - and γ-tin at arbitrary momentum transfers. The combined approach delivers thus a complete picture of the lattice dynamics in harmonic description. (paper)

  14. Aqueous Barbier Allylation of Aldehydes Mediated by Tin

    OpenAIRE

    Ivani Malvestiti; Lothar W. Bieber; Marcelo Navarro; Fernando Hallwass; Lívia N. Cavalcanti; Maria Ester S. B. Barros; Dimas J. P. Lima; Ricardo L. Guimarães

    2007-01-01

    The aqueous tin-mediated Barbier reaction affords good to excellent yields and moderate syn diastereoselectivity under basic and acidic conditions. The high yields and stereoselectivity observed in the case of o-substituted aldehydes suggest a cyclic organotin intermediate or transition state in K2HPO4 solution. A practical and efficient aqueous tin allylation of methoxy- and hydroxybenzaldehydes can be carried out in HCl solution in 15 minutes to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols...

  15. EUV resists based on tin-oxo clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardineau, Brian; Del Re, Ryan; Al-Mashat, Hashim; Marnell, Miles; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin; Sarma, Chandra; Neisser, Mark; Freedman, Daniel A.; Brainard, Robert L.

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the photolysis of tin clusters of the type [(RSn)12O14(OH)6] X2 using extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5 nm) light, and developed these clusters into novel high-resolution photoresists. A thin film of [(BuSn)12O14(OH)6][p-toluenesulfonate]2 (1) was prepared by spin coating a solution of (1) in 2-butanone onto a silicon wafer. Exposure to EUV light caused the compound (1) to be converted into a substance that was markedly less soluble in aqueous isopropanol. To optimize the EUV lithographic performance of resists using tin-oxo clusters, and to gain insight into the mechanism of their photochemical reactions, we prepared several compounds based on [(RSn)12O14(OH)6] X2. The sensitivity of tin-oxide films to EUV light were studied as a function of variations in the structure of the counter-anions (X, primarily carboxylates) and organic ligands bound to tin (R). Correlations were sought between the EUV sensitivity of these complexes vs. the strength of the carbon-carboxylate bonds in the counteranions and vs. the strength of the carbon-tin bonds. No correlation was observed between the strength of the carboncarboxylate bonds in the counter-anions (X) and the EUV photosensitivity. However, the EUV sensitivity of the tinoxide films appears to be well-correlated with the strength of the carbon-tin bonds. We hypothesize this correlation indicates a mechanism of carbon-tin bond homolysis during exposure. Using these tin clusters, 18-nm lines were printed showcasing the high resolution capabilities of these materials as photoresists for EUV lithography.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of ejecta production from sinusoidal tin surfaces under supported and unsupported shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bao; Wu, FengChao; Zhu, YinBo; Wang, Pei; He, AnMin; Wu, HengAn

    2018-04-01

    Micro-ejecta, an instability growth process, occurs at metal/vacuum or metal/gas interface when compressed shock wave releases from the free surface that contains surface defects. We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the ejecta production from tin surface shocked by supported and unsupported waves with pressures ranging from 8.5 to 60.8 GPa. It is found that the loading waveforms have little effect on spike velocity while remarkably affect the bubble velocity. The bubble velocity of unsupported shock loading remains nonzero constant value at late time as observed in experiments. Besides, the time evolution of ejected mass in the simulations is compared with the recently developed ejecta source model, indicating the suppressed ejection of unmelted or partial melted materials. Moreover, different reference positions are chosen to characterize the amount of ejecta under different loading waveforms. Compared with supported shock case, the ejected mass of unsupported shock case saturates at lower pressure. Through the analysis on unloading path, we find that the temperature of tin sample increases quickly from tensile stress state to zero pressure state, resulting in the melting of bulk tin under decaying shock. Thus, the unsupported wave loading exhibits a lower threshold pressure causing the solid-liquid phase transition on shock release than the supported shock loading.

  17. X-Ray Spectroscopic Measurements from Copper and Tin Vacuum Spark Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S. H.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2008-05-01

    X-ray emissions of copper and tin plasmas produced by a low energy and low inductance vacuum spark were studied. Both the time resolved and the time integrated measurements of the x-ray emissions were carried out using an x-ray spectrometer (XR-100 CR), a PIN diode and an x-ray diode (XRD). The x-ray spectra of the copper plasma obtained shows strong Kα and Kβ line radiations embedded in the continuum radiation. It is found that the hot spot formed has an electron temperature in the range from 2 keV to 3 keV. At this electron temperature, the dominant ionic specie is Cu27+ indicating that the plasma is not hot enough for the emission of the K line radiations. The emission of copper K lines is therefore believed to be produced by the energetic electron beam associated with sausage instability. For the case of tin plasma, strong Lα superimposed on the continuum background was observed. These tin spectra are predominantly the result of the interaction of electron beam generated from the transient hollow cathode effect with the anode tip.

  18. X-Ray Spectroscopic Measurements from Copper and Tin Vacuum Spark Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, S. H.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray emissions of copper and tin plasmas produced by a low energy and low inductance vacuum spark were studied. Both the time resolved and the time integrated measurements of the x-ray emissions were carried out using an x-ray spectrometer (XR-100 CR), a PIN diode and an x-ray diode (XRD). The x-ray spectra of the copper plasma obtained shows strong K α and K β line radiations embedded in the continuum radiation. It is found that the hot spot formed has an electron temperature in the range from 2 keV to 3 keV. At this electron temperature, the dominant ionic specie is Cu 27+ indicating that the plasma is not hot enough for the emission of the K line radiations. The emission of copper K lines is therefore believed to be produced by the energetic electron beam associated with sausage instability. For the case of tin plasma, strong L α superimposed on the continuum background was observed. These tin spectra are predominantly the result of the interaction of electron beam generated from the transient hollow cathode effect with the anode tip

  19. Sensitivity, selectivity and stability of tin oxide nanostructures on large area arrays of microhotplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, Balaji; Cavicchi, Richard; Semancik, Steve; DeVoe, Don L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the sensitivity, stability and selectivity of nanoparticle engineered tin oxide (SnO2) are reported, for microhotplate chemical sensing applications. 16 Å of metals such as nickel, cobalt, iron, copper and silver were selectively evaporated onto each column of the microhotplate array. Following evaporation, the microhotplates were heated to 500 °C and SnO2 was deposited on top of the microhotplates using a self-aligned chemical vapour deposition process. Scanning electron microscopy characterization revealed control of SnO2 nanostructures in the range of 20-121 nm. Gas sensing in seven different hydrocarbons revealed that metal nanoparticles that helped in producing faster nucleation of SnO2 resulted in smaller grain size and higher sensitivity. Sensitivity as a function of concentration and grain size is addressed for tin oxide nanostructures. Smaller grain sizes resulted in higher sensitivity of tin oxide nanostructures. Temperature programmed sensing of the devices yielded shape differences in the response between air and methanol, illustrating selectivity. Spiderweb plots were used to monitor the materials programmed selectivity. The shape differences between different gases in spiderweb plots illustrate materials selectivity as a powerful mapping approach for monitoring selectivity in various gases. Continuous monitoring in 80 ppm methanol yielded stable sensor response for more than 200 h. This comprehensive study illustrates the use of a nanoparticle engineering approach for sensitive, selective and stable gas sensing applications.

  20. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  1. Determination of tin in biological reference materials by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, M.; Iyengar, V.; Gills, T.

    1991-01-01

    Because of a lack of reliable analytical techniques for the determination of tin in biological materials, there have been no reference materials certified for this element. However, the authors' experience has shown that it is feasible to use both atomic absorption and nuclear activation techniques at least for selected matrices. Therefore, an investigation was undertaken to determine tin in several biological materials such as non-fat milk powder (NBS-SRM-1549), citrus leaves (NBS-SRM-1572), total diet (NIST-SRM-1548), mixed diet (NBS-RM-8431), and USDIET-I by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). AAS-ashed samples were extracted with MIBK and assayed using a Perkin Elmer model 5000 apparatus. NAA was carried out by irradiating the samples at the NIST reactor in the RT-4 facility and counting with the help of a Ge(Li) detector connected to a multichannel analyzer. The concentration of tin measured by both AAS and NAA agree well for USDIET-I, total diet, citrus leaves and non-fat milk powder (the concentration ranges for tin in these matrices were from 0.0025 to 3.8 micro g/g). However, in the case of mixed diet (RM-8431), the mean values found were 47 ± 5.6 (n = 19) by AAS and 55.5 ± 2.5 (n = 6) by INAA. Since RM-8431 is not certified it is difficult to draw conclusions. For apple and peach leaves, a distillation step was required. The results were apple leaves 0.085 ± 0.015 (n = 10) by AAS and < 0.2 (n = 3) by RNAA; for peach leaves 0.077 ± 0.02 (n = 9) by AAS and < 0.1 (n = 3) by RNAA. All concentrations are expressed in micro g/g dry weight

  2. Nature of active tin species and promoting effect of nickle in silica supported tin oxide for dehydrogenation of propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoren; Wang, Hui; Li, Xiuyi; Li, Chunyi

    2017-06-01

    Different with Wang et. al.'s study, we found that polymeric Si-O-Sn2+ rather than Ni-Sn alloy and metallic Sn are active species in silica-supported tin oxide catalysts for dehydrogenation of propane. The results showed that high surface area of mesoporous silica brought about high dispersion of tin oxide species, as a result, catalytic activity and stability were both improved. DRUV-vis, XPS, TPR and XRD studies of fresh and reduced catalysts indicated that the deactivation was related to the reduction of active species rather than the coke formation since active tin species cannot maintain its oxidation state at reaction conditions (high temperature and reducing atmosphere). The formed Ni3Sn2 alloy after reduction just functioned as promoter which accelerated the desorption of H2 and regeneration of active site. A synergy effect between active tin species and Ni3Sn2 alloy were observed.

  3. Black Cohosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have had hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer or for pregnant women or nursing mothers. Black cohosh should not be confused with blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) , which has different effects and may not be safe. Black cohosh has ...

  4. Structures of tin cluster cations Sn3(+) to Sn15(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drebov, Nedko; Oger, Esther; Rapps, Thomas; Kelting, Rebecca; Schooss, Detlef; Weis, Patrick; Kappes, Manfred M; Ahlrichs, Reinhart

    2010-12-14

    We employ a combination of ion mobility measurements and an unbiased systematic structure search with density functional theory methods to study structure and energetics of gas phase tin cluster cations, Sn(n)(+), in the range of n = 3-15. For Sn(13)(+) we also carry out trapped ion electron diffraction measurements to ascertain the results obtained by the other procedures. The structures for the smaller systems are most easily described by idealized point group symmetries, although they are all Jahn-Teller distorted: D(3h) (trigonal bipyramid), D(4h) (octahedron), D(5h) (pentagonal bipyramid) for n = 5, 6, and 7. For the larger systems we find capped D(5h) for Sn(8)(+) and Sn(9)(+), D(3h) (tricapped trigonal prism) and D(4d) (bicapped squared antiprism) plus adatoms for n = 10, 11, 14, and 15. A centered icosahedron with a peripheral atom removed is the dominant motif in Sn(12)(+). For Sn(13)(+) the calculations predict a family of virtually isoenergetic isomers, an icosahedron and slightly distorted icosahedra, which are about 0.25 eV below two C(1) structures. The experiments indicate the presence of two structures, one from the I(h) family and a prolate C(1) isomer based on fused deltahedral moieties.

  5. Liquid tin limiter for FTU tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertkov, A., E-mail: avertkov@yandex.ru [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I. [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zharkov, M. [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G.; Apicella, M.L.; Iafrati, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, Frascati, Rome, Italy, (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • First steady state operating liquid tin limiter TLL is under study on FTU tokamak. • The cooling system with water spray coolant for TLL has been developed and tested. • High corrosion resistance of W and Mo in molten Sn confirmed up to 1000 °C. • Wetting process with Sn has been developed for Mo and W. - Abstract: The liquid Sn in a matrix of Capillary Porous System (CPS) has a high potential as plasma facing material in steady state operating fusion reactor owing to its physicochemical properties. However, up to now it has no experimental confirmation in tokamak conditions. First steady state operating limiter based on the CPS with liquid Sn installed on FTU tokamak and its experimental study is in progress. Several aspects of the design, structural materials and operation parameters of limiter based on tungsten CPS with liquid Sn are considered. Results of investigation of corrosion resistance of Mo and W in Sn and their wetting process are presented. The heat removal for limiter steady state operation is provided by evaporation of flowing gaswater spray. The effectiveness of such heat removal system is confirmed in modelling tests with power flux up to 5 MW/m2.

  6. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-González, Francisco A.; Camurri, Carlos G.; Carrasco, Claudia A.; Colás, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 °C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn 3 particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: ► The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. ► The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. ► It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  7. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  8. Ultra-Thin Atomic Layer Deposited TiN Films: Non-Linear I–V Behaviour and the Importance of Surface Passivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hao, B.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the electrical resistivity of atomic layer deposited TiN thin films in the thickness range 2.5-20 nm. The measurements were carried out using the circular transfer length method structures. For the films with thickness in the range of 10-20 nm, the measurements exhibited linear

  9. Effects of air annealing on the optical, electrical, and structural properties of indium-tin oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejo-Cruz, C.; Mendoza-Galvan, A.; Lopez-Beltran, A.M.; Gracia-Jimenez, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of air annealing on the optical, electrical, and structural properties of indium-tin oxide thin films were investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the UV-visible range, reflectance-transmittance spectra at normal incidence in the infrared range, electrical resistivity measurements, and X-ray diffraction. It was found that annealing at 300 o C produces an overall shift to lower photon energies of the optical constant spectra, which is related to the increase in electrical resistivity. The electrical measurements performed in the 25-300 K range show a metallic behavior with large residual resistivity, quantity that increases with annealing temperature and is closely related with the change in the relative intensity of the main diffraction peaks. Also it is shown that under certain conditions of film deposition onto indium-tin oxide, some of its properties can change in a similar way as in air-annealing processing.

  10. Entrapment investigations of water-droplet behavior in a hot tin melt with varying discharge velocities and orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, G.; Mueller, K.

    1983-10-01

    Experiments were performed in which water was pressed through a thermally isolated tube into a clyindrical crucible (diameter 5 cm, height 7,5 cm both measured inside) filled with molten tin (600 K). The diameter of the circular water outlet was varied from 0.5 up to 10 mm and the discharge velocity of the water was in the range of 0.05 up to 20 m/s. In the tin melt the water divides into single drops, which emerged on the melt surface, if an interaction between water and tin melt did not occur. The probability for an interaction increased in experiments with higher discharge velocities of the water and smaller diameters of the water outlet. In experiments with discharge velocities ≥ 5 m/s and outlet diameters ≤ 2 mm one or more interactions occured in each case. At these interactions of water drops entrapped in the tin melt (called entrapment interactions) a portion of the melt was ejected from the crucible. The moment of the interaction and the pulse of the force toward the crucible bottom were recorded. (orig.) [de

  11. Tin Content Determination in Canned Fruits and Vegetables by Hydride Generation Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Rončević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin content in samples of canned fruits and vegetables was determined by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (HG-ICP-OES, and it was compared with results obtained by standard method of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Selected tin emission lines intensity was measured in prepared samples after addition of tartaric acid and followed by hydride generation with sodium borohydride solution. The most favorable line at 189.991 nm showed the best detection limit (1.9 μg L−1 and limit of quantification (6.4 μg kg−1. Good linearity and sensitivity were established from time resolved analysis and calibration tests. Analytical accuracy of 98–102% was obtained by recovery study of spiked samples. Method of standard addition was applied for tin determination in samples from fully protected tinplate. Tin presence at low-concentration range was successfully determined. It was shown that tenth times less concentrations of Sn were present in protected cans than in nonprotected or partially protected tinplate.

  12. Suburban Black Lives Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-McCoy, R. L'Heureux

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the range of experiences and meanings of Black life in suburban space. Drawing from educational, historical, and sociological literatures, I argue that an underconsideration of suburban space has left many portraits of educational inequality incomplete. The article outlines the emergence of American suburbs and the formation…

  13. Geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qinyuan; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Kang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on 1625 data collected from the published literature, the geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals, including the abundance, distribution, modes of occurrence, genetic types and combustion behavior, was discussed to make a better understanding. Our statistic showed the average Sn of Chinese coal was 3.38 mg/kg, almost two times higher than the world. Among all the samples collected, Guangxi coals occupied an extremely high Sn enrichment (10.46 mg/kg), making sharp contrast to Xinjiang coals (0.49 mg/kg). Two modes of occurrence of Sn in Chinese coals were found, including sulfide-bounded Sn and clay-bounded Sn. In some coalfields, such as Liupanshui, Huayingshan and Haerwusu, a response between REEs distribution and Sn content was found which may caused by the transportation of Sn including clay minerals between coal seams. According to the responses reflecting on REEs patterns of each coalfield, several genetic types of Sn in coalfields were discussed. The enrichment of Sn in Guangxi coals probably caused by Sn-rich source rocks and multiple-stage hydrothermal fluids. The enriched Sn in western Guizhou coals was probably caused by volcanic ashes and sulfide-fixing mechanism. The depletion of Sn in Shengli coalfield, Inner Mongolia, may attribute to hardly terrigenous input and fluids erosion. As a relative easily volatilized element, the Sn-containing combustion by-products tended to be absorbed on the fine particles of fly ash. In 2012, the emission flux of Sn by Chinese coal combustion was estimated to be 0.90 × 10(9) g.

  14. PHOTOELECTRIC AND PHOTOMAGNETIC RESPONSE OF INDIUM-TIN OXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Meshkovsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The goal of the present research is investigation of photoelectric and photomagnetic response of ITO (indium-tin oxide films under UV laser irradiation. Method. The ITO films were prepared by magnetron sputtering with the thickness equal to 300nm. The films were irradiated by UV laser light with 248 nm wavelength in laser pulse energy range from 10 mJ to 150 mJ by KrF excimer laser. Metallic electrodes were deposited on the films. Information about the films surface topography was obtained by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The film structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Main Results. It was shown that voltage appears between metallic contacts under the UV light effect. The electric current was observed through resistive load. The anisotropy of electric field producing photoelectric response was demonstrated for the first time. The appearance of magnetic field under the laser light irradiation was observed for the first time. The dependence of the response voltage on the laser pulse energy was linear over the whole measured energy range. The following physical mechanism was proposed for description of the observed phenomenon: electric voltage is associated with non-uniform distribution of the average crystallite size along the film surface, and, therefore, with mean free path of the charge carriers along the film surface. Photomagnetic response could be associated with collective behavior of the large number of charged particles, created due to high intensity laser irradiation. Practical Relevance. The phenomenon being studied could be applied for creation of new optoelectronic devices, for example, modulators, optical detectors, etc. Particularly, due to linear dependence of photoelectric response on the laser pulse energy, this phenomenon is attractive for manufacturing of simple and cheap excimer laser pulse energy detectors.

  15. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness ... that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen ( ...

  16. Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence of tin oxide nanoribbons and nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraia, El-Shazly M.A., E-mail: duraia_physics@yahoo.co [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mansorov, Z.A. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tokmolden, S. [Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2009-11-15

    In this work we report the successful formation of tin oxide nanowires and tin oxide nanoribbons with high yield and by using simple cheap method. We also report the formation of curved nanoribbon, wedge-like tin oxide nanowires and star-like nanowires. The growth mechanism of these structures has been studied. Scanning electron microscope was used in the analysis and the EDX analysis showed that our samples is purely Sn and O with ratio 1:2. X-ray analysis was also used in the characterization of the tin oxide nanowire and showed the high crystallinity of our nanowires. The mechanism of the growth of our1D nanostructures is closely related to the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The photoluminescence PL measurements for the tin oxide nanowires indicated that there are three stable emission peaks centered at wavelengths 630, 565 and 395 nm. The nature of the transition may be attributed to nanocrystals inside the nanobelts or to Sn or O vacancies occurring during the growth which can induce trapped states in the band gap.

  17. Ultrathin films of homeotropically aligned columnar liquid crystals on indium tin oxide electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, E.; Grelet, E.; Brettes, P.; Bock, H.; Saadaoui, H.; Cisse, L.; Destruel, P.; Gherardi, N.; Seguy, I.

    2008-01-01

    We report the achievement of very thin films (thickness of about 50nm) of thermotropic columnar liquid crystal in homeotropic (columns normal to the interface) orientation on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The face-on alignment of the discotic compound has been obtained by thermal annealing without any intermediate coating between the mesophase and the ITO substrate. Such a columnar mesophase alignment is thus shown on a substrate of technological interest in open supported thin film reaching the thickness range suitable for organic photovoltaic devices.

  18. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Williams

    Full Text Available Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users.The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components.Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol.Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality.

  19. Toward an Understanding of Thin-Film Transistor Performance in Solution-Processed Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide (ZTO) Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctis, Shawn; Koslowski, Nico; Hoffmann, Rudolf; Guhl, Conrad; Erdem, Emre; Weber, Stefan; Schneider, Jörg J

    2017-06-28

    Amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin films are accessible by a molecular precursor approach using mononuclear zinc(II) and tin(II) compounds with methoxyiminopropionic acid ligands. Solution processing of two precursor solutions containing a mixture of zinc and tin(II)-methoxyiminopropinato complexes results in the formation of smooth homogeneous thin films, which upon calcination are converted into the desired semiconducting amorphous ZTO thin films. ZTO films integrated within a field-effect transistor (FET) device exhibit an active semiconducting behavior in the temperature range between 250 and 400 °C, giving an increased performance, with mobility values between μ = 0.03 and 5.5 cm 2 /V s, with on/off ratios increasing from 10 5 to 10 8 when going from 250 to 400 °C. Herein, our main emphasis, however, was on an improved understanding of the material transformation pathway from weak to high performance of the semiconductor in a solution-processed FET as a function of the processing temperature. We have correlated this with the chemical composition and defects states within the microstructure of the obtained ZTO thin film via photoelectron spectroscopy (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy), Auger electron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and photoluminescence investigations. The critical factor observed for the improved performance within this ZTO material could be attributed to a higher tin concentration, wherein the contributions of point defects arising from the tin oxide within the final amorphous ZTO material play the dominant role in governing the transistor performance.

  20. Molecular dynamics study of the interactions of incident N or Ti atoms with the TiN(001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhai [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Centre for Precision Manufacturing, Department of Design, Manufacture and Engineering Management, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Zeng, Quanren [Centre for Precision Manufacturing, Department of Design, Manufacture and Engineering Management, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Yuan, Lin [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Qin, Yi [Centre for Precision Manufacturing, Department of Design, Manufacture and Engineering Management, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Chen, Mingjun [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shan, Debin, E-mail: d.b.shan@gmail.com [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Interactions of incident N or Ti atoms with TiN(001) surface are studied by CMD. • The impact position of incident N on the surface determines the interaction modes. • Adsorption could occur due to the atomic exchange process. • Resputtering and reflection may simultaneously occur. • The initial sticking coefficient of N on TiN(001) is much smaller than that of Ti. - Abstract: The interaction processes between incident N or Ti atoms and the TiN(001) surface are simulated by classical molecular dynamics based on the second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method potentials. The simulations are carried out for substrate temperatures between 300 and 700 K and kinetic energies of the incident atoms within the range of 0.5–10 eV. When N atoms impact against the surface, adsorption, resputtering and reflection of particles are observed; several unique atomic mechanisms are identified to account for these interactions, in which the adsorption could occur due to the atomic exchange process while the resputtering and reflection may simultaneously occur. The impact position of incident N atoms on the surface plays an important role in determining the interaction modes. Their occurrence probabilities are dependent on the kinetic energy of incident N atoms but independent on the substrate temperature. When Ti atoms are the incident particles, adsorption is the predominant interaction mode between particles and the surface. This results in the much smaller initial sticking coefficient of N atoms on the TiN(001) surface compared with that of Ti atoms. Stoichiometric TiN is promoted by N/Ti flux ratios larger than one.

  1. Solidification mechanism of highly undercooled metal alloys. [tin-lead and nickel-tin alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Y.; Chu, M. G.; Macisaac, D. G.; Flemings, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on metal droplet undercooling, using Sn-25wt%Pb and Ni-34wt%Sn alloys. To achieve the high degree of undercooling, emulsification treatments were employed. Results show the fraction of supersaturated primary phase is a function of the amount of undercooling, as is the fineness of the structures. The solidification behavior of the tin-lead droplets during recalescence was analyzed using three different hypotheses; (1) solid forming throughout recalescence is of the maximum thermodynamically stable composition; (2) partitionless solidification below the T sub o temperature, and solid forming thereafter is of the maximum thermodynamically stable composition; and (3) partitionless solidification below the T sub o temperature with solid forming thereafter that is of the maximum thermodynamically metastable composition that is possible. The T sub o temperature is calculated from the equal molar free energies of the liquid solid using the regular solution approximation.

  2. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwib, Lawrence L.; Zapata, Maria C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has a currently unknown probability associated with it. Due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In this experiment, we study the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From this data we can estimate the probability of an electrical short, as a function of voltage, given that a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors. In addition, three tin whiskers grown from the same Space Shuttle Orbiter card guide used in the aforementioned experiment were cross-sectioned and studied using a focused ion beam (FIB).

  3. Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N.

    2016-07-01

    The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator.

  4. Properties of Polydisperse Tin-doped Dysprosium and Indium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the complex permittivity, diffuse-reflectance, and characteristics of crystal lattices of tin-doped indium and dysprosium oxides are presented. Using the methods of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it is shown that doping of indium oxide with tin results in a significant increase of the components of the indium oxide complex permittivity and an appearance of the plasma resonance in its diffuse-reflectance spectra. This indicates the appearance of charge carriers with the concentration of more than 1021 cm−3 in the materials. On the other hand, doping of the dysprosium oxide with the same amount of tin has no effect on its optical and electromagnetic properties.

  5. Trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Hu Rui; Xie Shuxian; Weng Kuiping

    2010-01-01

    In order to finish the design of tritium extraction system (TES) of fusion fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) tritium blanket, involving the dynamic mathematical model of liquid metal in contact with a gaseous atmosphere, approximate mathematical equation of tritium in lithium tin alloy was deduced. Moreover, carrying process used for trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy was investigated with hydrogen being used to simulate tritium in the study. The study results indicate that carrying process is effective way for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy, and the best flow velocity of carrier gas is about 4 L/min under 1 kg alloy temperatures and carrying numbers are the main influencing factors of hydrogen number. Hydrogen extraction efficiency can reach 85% while the alloy sample is treated 6 times at 823 K. (authors)

  6. Tin - an unlikely ally for silicon field effect transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2014-01-13

    We explore the effectiveness of tin (Sn), by alloying it with silicon, to use SiSn as a channel material to extend the performance of silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductors. Our density functional theory based simulation shows that incorporation of tin reduces the band gap of Si(Sn). We fabricated our device with SiSn channel material using a low cost and scalable thermal diffusion process of tin into silicon. Our high-κ/metal gate based multi-gate-field-effect-transistors using SiSn as channel material show performance enhancement, which is in accordance with the theoretical analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Cyclic voltammetric study of tin hexacyanoferrate for aqueous battery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Gromadskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid composite containing 65 mass % of tin hexacyanoferrate mixed with 35 mass % of carbon nanotubes has been synthesized and its electrochemical behavior as a negative electrode in alkali metal-ion batteries has been studied in 1 mol L-1 aqueous solution of sodium sulfate. The specific capacity of pure tin hexacyanoferrate is 58 mAh g-1, whereas the specific capacity normalized per total electrode mass of the composite studied reaches 34 mAh g-1. The estimated maximal specific power of an aqueous alkali-metal ion battery with a tin hexacyanoferrate electrode is ca. 3.6 kW kg-1 being comparable to characteristics of industrial electric double-layer capacitors. The maximal specific energy accumulated by this battery may reach 25.6 Wh kg-1 at least three times exceeding the specific energy for supercapacitors.

  8. Fiber-Optic Thermal Sensor for TiN Film Crack Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiang-Chang; Hsieh, Tso-Sheng; Chen, Yi-Chian; Chen, Hung-En; Tsai, Liren; Chiang, Chia-Chin

    2017-11-11

    The study focuses on the thermal and temperature sensitivity behavior of an optical fiber sensor device. In this article, a titanium nitride (TiN)-coated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor fabricated using an ion beam sputtering system was investigated. The reflection spectra of the FBG sensor were tested using R-soft optical software to simulate the refractive index sensitivity. In these experiments, the temperature sensitivity of the TiN FBG was measured at temperatures ranging from 100 to 500 °C using an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). The results showed that the temperature sensitivity of the proposed TiN FBG sensor reached 12.8 pm/°C for the temperature range of 100 to 300 °C and 20.8 pm/°C for the temperature range of 300 to 500 °C. Additionally, we found that the produced oxidation at temperatures of 400-500 °C caused a crack, with the crack becoming more and more obvious at higher and higher temperatures.

  9. Advancing electric-vehicle development with pure-lead-tin battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, W. A.; Stickel, R. B.; May, G. J.

    Electric-vehicle (EV) development continues to make solid progress towards extending vehicle range, reliability and ease of use, aided significantly by technological advances in vehicle systems. There is, however, a widespread misconception that current battery technologies are not capable of meeting even the minimum user requirements that would launch EVs into daily use. Existing pure-lead-tin technology is moving EVs out of research laboratories and onto the streets, in daily side-by-side operation with vehicles powered by conventional gasoline and alternative fuels. This commercially available battery technology can provide traffic-compatible performance in a reliable and affordable manner, and can be used for either pure EVs or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Independent results obtained when applying lead-tin batteries in highly abusive conditions, both electrically and environmentally, are presented. The test fleet of EVs is owned and operated by Arizona Public Service (APS), an electric utility in Phoenix, AZ, USA. System, charger and battery development will be described. This gives a single charge range of up to 184 km at a constant speed of 72 km h -1, and with suitable opportunity charging, a 320 km range in a normal 8 h working day.

  10. Fiber-Optic Thermal Sensor for TiN Film Crack Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Chang Hsu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the thermal and temperature sensitivity behavior of an optical fiber sensor device. In this article, a titanium nitride (TiN-coated fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor fabricated using an ion beam sputtering system was investigated. The reflection spectra of the FBG sensor were tested using R-soft optical software to simulate the refractive index sensitivity. In these experiments, the temperature sensitivity of the TiN FBG was measured at temperatures ranging from 100 to 500 °C using an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA. The results showed that the temperature sensitivity of the proposed TiN FBG sensor reached 12.8 pm/°C for the temperature range of 100 to 300 °C and 20.8 pm/°C for the temperature range of 300 to 500 °C. Additionally, we found that the produced oxidation at temperatures of 400-500 °C caused a crack, with the crack becoming more and more obvious at higher and higher temperatures.

  11. The effect of substrate temperature on atomic layer deposited zinc tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, Johan; Hägglund, Carl; Wätjen, J. Timo; Edoff, Marika; Törndahl, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the film properties were investigated for varying deposition temperatures in the range of 90 to 180 °C. It was found that the [Sn]/([Sn] + [Zn]) composition is only slightly temperature dependent, while properties such as growth rate, film density, material structure and band gap are more strongly affected. The growth rate dependence on deposition temperature varies with the relative number of zinc or tin containing precursor pulses and it correlates with the growth rate behavior of pure ZnO and SnO x ALD. In contrast to the pure ZnO phase, the density of the mixed ZTO films is found to depend on the deposition temperature and it increases linearly with about 1 g/cm 3 in total over the investigated range. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy suggests that zinc rich ZTO films contain small (~ 10 nm) ZnO or ZnO(Sn) crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix, and that these crystallites increase in size with increasing zinc content and deposition temperature. These crystallites are small enough for quantum confinement effects to reduce the optical band gap of the ZTO films as they grow in size with increasing deposition temperature. - Highlights: • Zinc tin oxide thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition. • The structure and optical properties were studied at different growth temperatures. • The growth temperature had only a small effect on the composition of the films. • Small ZnO or ZnO(Sn) crystallites were observed by TEM in zinc rich ZTO films. • The growth temperature affects the crystallite size, which influences the band gap

  12. [Black nails caused by Proteus mirabilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadripur, S A; Schauder, S; Schwartz, P

    2001-07-01

    Black nails caused by Proteus mirabilis were seen in a motor mechanic and in a petrol pump attendant. Proteus mirabilis is a gram-negative bacillus that generates hydrogen sulfide. This compound reacts with traces of metals in the nail plate such as zinc, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, tin, copper and lead. Metal sulfides blacken the nail plate. The protracted course of the discoloration over months corresponds to the slow reactions of metals with hydrogen sulfide. The disappearance of the blackening after topical treatment with chinosol, tincture of iodine and chloramphenicol solution supports the etiologic connection between black nails and Proteus mirabilis. Wet and dirty work encourages the colonisation of Proteus mirabilis between nail fold and nail plate.

  13. Obtainment of SnO2 for utilization of sensors by coprecipitation of tin salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masetto, S.R.; Longo, E.

    1990-01-01

    Niobia doped tin dioxide was prepared by precipitation of tin dioxide II and IV using ammonium hydroxide. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and infra-red spectroscopy. (author) [pt

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of tungsten doped tin dioxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cailong; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yiwen; Lin, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin dioxide (WTO) nanocrystals were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal method. The structure, composition and morphology of WTO nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, zeta potential analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the as-prepared WTO nanocrystals were rutile-type structure with the size near 13 nm. Compared with the undoped tin dioxide nanocrystals, the WTO nanocrystals possessed better dispersity in ethanol phase and formed transparent sol.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of an indium tin oxide acoustoelectric hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Pier; Greenlee, Charles L.; Wang, Zhaohui; Olafsson, Ragnar; Norwood, Robert A.; Witte, Russell S.

    2010-03-01

    Clinical ultrasound (US) imaging and therapy require a precise knowledge of the intensity distribution of the acoustic field. Although piezoelectric hydrophones are most common, these devices are limited in terms of, for example, type of materials, cost, and performance at high frequency and pressure. As an alternative to conventional acoustic detectors, we describe acoustoelectric hydrophones, developed using photolithographic fabrication techniques, where the induced voltage (phase and amplitude) is proportional to both the US pressure and bias current injected through the device. In this study a number of different hydrophone designs were created using indium tin oxide (ITO). A constriction of the current path within the hydrophone created a localized "sensitivity zone" of high current density. The width of this zone ranged from 30 to 1000 μm, with a thickness of 100 nm. A raster scan of the US transducer produced a map of the acoustic field. Hydrophones were evaluated by mapping the pressure field of a 2.25 MHz single element transducer, and their performance was compared to a commercial capsule hydrophone. Focal spot sizes at -6 dB were as low as 1.75 mm, comparing well with the commercial hydrophone measurement of 1.80 mm. Maximum sensitivity was 2 nV/Pa and up to the 2nd harmonic was detected. We expect improved performance with future devices as we optimize the design. Acoustoelectric hydrophones are potentially cheaper and more robust than the piezoelectric models currently in clinical use, potentially providing more choice of materials and designs for monitoring therapy or producing arrays for imaging.

  16. Incorporation of tin affects crystallization, morphology, and crystal composition of Sn-Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Søren; Katerinopoulou, A.; Falcone, D. D.

    2014-01-01

    The crystallization of Sn-Beta in fl uoride medium is greatly in fl uenced by the amount and type of tin source present in the synthesis gel. By varying the amount of tin in the form of tin( IV ) chloride pentahydrate, the time required for crystallization was studied. It was found that tin not o...... to the minimum time required for obtaining full crystallinity. At excessive crystallization times, the catalytic activity decreased, presumably due to Ostwald ripening...

  17. 77 FR 5767 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... duty order covering certain tin mill products from Japan. The period of review is August 1, 2010... parties to request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products...

  18. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: Roles for distinct TIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Zou, Ying; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Yannone, Steven M.; Campisi, Judith

    2007-10-02

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins (TRF1, TRF2 and POT1), and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. Along with two other proteins, TPP1 and hRap1, these form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere maintenance complex. It is not clear whether sub-complexes also exist in vivo. We provide evidence for two TIN2 sub-complexes with distinct functions in human cells. We isolated these two TIN2 sub-complexes from nuclear lysates of unperturbed cells and cells expressing TIN2 mutants TIN2-13, TIN2-15C, which cannot bind TRF2 or TRF1, respectively. In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere dysfunction and cell death. Our findings suggest that distinct TIN2 complexes exist, and that TIN2-15C-sensitive subcomplexes are particularly important for cell survival in the absence of functional p53.

  19. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: roles for distinctTIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-Ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Campisi, Judith

    2006-11-07

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins, TRF1, TRF2 and POT1, and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. These and two other proteins form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere-maintenance complex. It is not clear whether subcomplexes exist or function in vivo. Here, we provide evidence for two TIN2 subcomplexes with distinct functions in human cells. TIN2 ablation by RNA interference caused telomere uncapping and p53-independent cell death in all cells tested. However, we isolated two TIN2 complexes from cell lysates, each selectively sensitive to a TIN2 mutant (TIN2-13, TIN2-15C). In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN215C more than TIN2-13 caused genomic instability and cell death. Thus, TIN2 subcomplexes likely have distinct functions in telomere maintenance, and may provide selective targets for eliminating cells with mutant p53.

  20. 77 FR 32998 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium... order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or... USITC Publication 4325 (May 2012), entitled Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan...

  1. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of the...

  2. Electron microscopy study of an Old Russian (XII century) encolpion cross with black inlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobylina, N. N.; Greshnikov, E. A.; Vasiliev, A. L.; Tereschenko, E. Yu.; Zaytseva, I. E.; Makarov, N. A.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2017-07-01

    The phase compositions of the basic material (alloy) of a pre-Mongolian Old Russian encolpion cross found near Suzdal and its black inlay have been investigated by methods of scanning and transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The cross material is lead-zinc-tin α-bronze, and the black is copper sulfide with lead inclusions. As a result of the corrosion, tin and copper oxides and zinc sulfides, which made the cross dark gray, were formed on its surface. It is shown that the corrosion depth is as large as 50 μm; thus, laps must be prepared to accurately determine the morphology and phase composition of the corrosion layer. Decoration with black was apparently performed by pouring with copper sulfide melt or melting a powder preliminarily placed in grooves forming an image on the surface.

  3. Tin(II Selective PVC Membrane Electrode Based on Salicylaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone as an Ionophore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulekh Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric membrane-based tin selective electrode was developed by using salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (STSC. The best performance was recorded with a membrane composition of PVC : TBP : ionophore : NaTPB as 28 : 59 : 8 : 5 (w/w%. The Nernstian slope calculated from the calibration curve for Sn2+ sensor was 28.8 ± 0.4 mV/decade. The detection limit of the sensor was 2.10 × 10−8 M, in the linear concentration range of 1.0 × 10−2−1.1 × 10−7 M. It was relatively fast response time (<8 s for concentration ≥1.0×10−4 and <12 s for concentration of ≥1.0×10−6 M and can be used for 9 months without any considerable divergence in potentials. The proposed sensor exhibit relatively good selectivity and high sensitivity for tin(II as other mono-, di-, and trivalent cations and can be used in a pH range of 2.0–8.5. The analytical usefulness of the proposed electrode has been evaluated by its application in the determination of stannous in artificially made samples.

  4. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 6, November 2002, pp. 505–507. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 505. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline hydrolysis of In(III) and Sn(IV) salts. NIMAI CHAND ... et al 1996; Yanagisawa and Udawatte 2000; Denoy and. Pradeep 1997) with low Sn content (In : Sn ≥ 90 ...

  5. A Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Nanocrystalline TiN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    A simple chemical synthetic route has been developed to prepare nanocrystalline titanium nitride (TiN) in an autoclave, by the reaction of metallic Ti with NaNH2 at low temperature of 500–600 °C. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron ...

  6. Recent results on neutron rich tin isotopes by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Crawford, J E; Essabaa, S; Fedosseev, V; Geithner, W; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Horn, R; Kappertz, S; Lassen, J; Le Blanc, F; Lee, J K P; Le Scornet, G; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Neugart, R; Obert, J; Oms, J; Ouchrif, A; Peru, S; Pinard, J; Ravn, H L; Sauvage, J; Verney, D

    2001-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron rich tin isotopes using the COMPLIS experimental setup. The nuclear charge radii of the even-even isotopes from A=108 to 132 are compared to the results of macroscopic and microscopic calculations. The improvements and optimizations needed to perform the isotope shift measurement on $^{134}$Sn are presented.

  7. Chaos in a coulombic muffin-tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, S.

    1994-04-01

    We study the two-dimensional classical scattering dynamics by a Muffin-Tin potential with 3 Coulomb singularities. A complete symbolic dynamics for the periodic orbits is derivd. The classical trajectories are shown to be hyperbolic everywhere in phase space and to carry no conjugate points. (orig.)

  8. Geochemistry of the Panasqueira tungsten-tin deposit, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Major tin-tungsten deposits in Portugal are related to intrusions of the Younger Series (300-280 Ma) of Hercynian granitoids. Mineralized granites are 'specialized' by a specific increase or decrease of major, minor and trace element contents in comparison with non-mineralized occurrences.

  9. Geochemistry of the Panasqueira tungsten-tin deposit, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Major tin-tungsten deposits in Portugal are related to intrusions of the Younger Series (300-280 Ma) of Hercynian granitoids. Mineralized granites are 'specialized' by a specific increase or decrease of major, minor and trace element contents in comparison with non-mineralized occurrences. Component

  10. Tasmanian tin and tungsten granites - their radiometric characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    A radiometric survey of Tasmanian granites has shown, with one exception, that tin and tungsten-bearing granites have high radioactivity, largely owing to increased uranium. Many have a high uranium/thorium ratio as well. Radiometric measurements can also delineate different granite types within composite bodies

  11. Hypnosis: emotions for the tin man (the schizoid personality).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, E M

    1989-01-01

    Insight psychotherapy had been ineffective in helping a schizoid patient experience affect. He remained cold, aloof, and without overt expression of affect. When hypnosis was utilized, the patient overtly demonstrated affect. Hence the title for the article--hypnosis was effective in changing the tin man into a person with emotions and feelings. A discussion indicates some possible variables associated with this phenomenon.

  12. On the electrochemical migration mechanism of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical migration (ECM) of tin can result in the growth of a metal deposit with a dendritic structure from cathode to anode. In electronics, such growth can lead to short circuit of biased electrodes, potentially leading to intermittent or complete failure of an electronic device...

  13. Residual stress in magnetron sputtered TiN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoestbergen, E; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Brebbia, CA; Kenny, JM

    1999-01-01

    In this study magnetron sputtered TiN layers are investigated with X-ray diffraction. The measurements show that there is a texture present and in these layers a non-linear d-sin(2)psi behavior for the (200) planes was found. The latter cannot be explained by the well-known causes that may generate

  14. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...

  15. Succession on tin-mined land in Bangka Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nurtjahya, E.; Setiadi, D.; Guhardja, E.; Muhadiono,; Setiadi, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative study of floristic composition and vegetation structure was conducted at Bangka Island, Indonesia. Six different vegetation types were chosen, riparian forest, abandoned farmland, and natural regeneration of tin-mined lands of different ages: 0 and barren, 7, 11 and 38 years’ old

  16. Functionalized alkoxy tin clusters as nanobuilding blocks for hybrid materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinez-Ferrero, E.; Ribot, F.; Rozes, L.; Sanchez, C.; Matějka, Libor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, 2-4 (2005), s. 89-97 ISSN 0079-6786 Grant - others:European Community Human Potential Program HPRN-CT-2002-00306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : tin clusters * polymer hybrids * nanobuilding blocks Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 15.167, year: 2005

  17. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different pre- paration conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of un-.

  18. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Electron beam; irradiation; gas sensor; tin dioxide. 1. Introduction. The theory, fabrication and application of semiconducting gas sensors, has been well developed in the last thirty years. However, their limited selectivity and sensitivity are still problematic. The usual methods to improve gas sensing properties of SnO2 gas ...

  19. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different preparation conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of undoped evaporated ...

  20. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    As the indium tin oxide (ITO) is an advanced ceramic material with many electronic and optical applications due to its high electrical conductivity and transparency .... Caulton K G and Hubert-Pfalzgraf L G 1990 Chem. Rev. 90. 969. Denoy M D and Pradeep B 1997 Bull. Mater. Sci. 20 1029. Gehman B L, Jonson S, Rudolf T, ...

  1. Oxidative Additions of Homoleptic Tin(II) Amidinate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlupatý, T.; Růžičková, Z.; Horáček, Michal; Alonso, M.; de Proft, F.; Kampová, H.; Brus, Jiří; Růžička, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 3 (2015), s. 606-615 ISSN 0276-7333 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : oxidative additions * homoleptic Tin(II) amidinate * DFT methods Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 4.186, year: 2015

  2. Development of TiN particulates reinforced SS316 based metal matrix composite by direct metal laser sintering technique and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Manowar; Mandal, Vijay; Kumar, Vikas; Das, A. K.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    The present study describes the fabrication of TiN particulates reinforced SS316 based Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) in nitrogen and argon atmosphere. The influence of sintering process parameters on microstructure, density, porosity, wear rate and microhardness of the fabricated samples has been analyzed. The input variable process parameters, such as, laser power density (range: 4.13-5.57 W/cm2 (× 104)), scanning speed (range: 3500-4500 mm/min) and the constant parameters, such as, laser beam diameter (0.4 mm), hatching distance (0.2 mm) and layer thickness (0.4 mm) have been considered in the process. It has been observed from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis that TiN and SS316 powder mixture can be sintered in which chromium acts as a binder. Fine gaps are not found at the interface between TiN and SS316 when the mixture is sintered in nitrogen atmosphere. With an increase in the percentage of TiN, the density and wear rate decreases. However, when the reinforcement is taken beyond 18% by weight, the wear rate starts increasing. The microhardness also increases with an increase in the percentage of TiN. The microstructure, elemental compositions and phase characterization of the developed sintered MMCs have been examined by FESEM, EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffractometer) analysis, respectively. The results have demonstrated the suitability of the TiN reinforced SS316 MMCs for industrial applications.

  3. Corrosion behaviour of TiN and ZrN in the environment containing fluoride ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joska, Ludek; Fojt, Jaroslav; Hradilova, Monika [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Hnilica, Frantisek [UJP, Prague (Czech Republic); Cvrcek, Ladislav, E-mail: joskal@vscht.c [HVM Plasma, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-10-01

    Nowadays, a wide range of materials for human implants is used. To reach the required properties of implants, coatings are applied in some cases. This contribution is focused on the corrosion properties of TiN and ZrN layers on cp-titanium (commercially pure titanium) under environment modelling conditions in an oral cavity. Measurements were done in artificial saliva and a physiological solution unbuffered and buffered to a pH value of 4.2 with the addition of fluoride ions up to 4000 ppm. Standard corrosion electrochemical techniques were applied. Both types of layers were stable in both model saliva and physiological solution with non-adjusted pH. The decrease in pH to 4.2 resulted in a minor decrease of corrosion resistance in all cases, but polarization resistance was still in the order of 10{sup 5} {Omega} cm{sup 2}. An important change in a specimens' behaviour was noticed in the presence of fluoride ions. TiN was stable in the highest concentration of fluorides used. The ZrN layers were destabilized in an environment containing a few hundred ppm of fluoride ions. As for TiN, the decisive factor is the influence of porosity; the corrosion resistance of ZrN is limited. From the corrosion point of view, the application of the TiN-based barrier layers in dental implantology is more advisable than the use of ZrN, provided that the application of a barrier is inevitable.

  4. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  5. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  6. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  7. Process for Making a Noble Metal on Tin Oxide Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Miller, Irvin; Upchurch, Billy

    2010-01-01

    To produce a noble metal-on-metal oxide catalyst on an inert, high-surface-area support material (that functions as a catalyst at approximately room temperature using chloride-free reagents), for use in a carbon dioxide laser, requires two steps: First, a commercially available, inert, high-surface-area support material (silica spheres) is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide, a monolayer equivalent. Very beneficial results have been obtained using nitric acid as an oxidizing agent because it leaves no residue. It is also helpful if the spheres are first deaerated by boiling in water to allow the entire surface to be coated. A metal, such as tin, is then dissolved in the oxidizing agent/support material mixture to yield, in the case of tin, metastannic acid. Although tin has proven especially beneficial for use in a closed-cycle CO2 laser, in general any metal with two valence states, such as most transition metals and antimony, may be used. The metastannic acid will be adsorbed onto the high-surface-area spheres, coating them. Any excess oxidizing agent is then evaporated, and the resulting metastannic acid-coated spheres are dried and calcined, whereby the metastannic acid becomes tin(IV) oxide. The second step is accomplished by preparing an aqueous mixture of the tin(IV) oxide-coated spheres, and a soluble, chloride-free salt of at least one catalyst metal. The catalyst metal may be selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, gold, and rhodium, or other platinum group metals. Extremely beneficial results have been obtained using chloride-free salts of platinum, palladium, or a combination thereof, such as tetraammineplatinum (II) hydroxide ([Pt(NH3)4] (OH)2), or tetraammine palladium nitrate ([Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2).

  8. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  9. Quantum black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.

  10. Conflict minerals in the compute sector: estimating extent of tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold use in ICT products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Colin; Olivetti, Elsa; Miller, Reed; Roth, Richard; Kirchain, Randolph

    2015-01-20

    Recent legislation has focused attention on the supply chains of tin, tungsten, tantalum, and gold (3TG), specifically those originating from the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The unique properties of these so-called “conflict minerals” lead to their use in many products, ranging from medical devices to industrial cutting tools. This paper calculates per product use of 3TG in several information, communication, and technology (ICT) products such as desktops, servers, laptops, smart phones, and tablets. By scaling up individual product estimates to global shipment figures, this work estimates the influence of the ICT sector on 3TG mining in covered countries. The model estimates the upper bound of tin, tungsten, tantalum, and gold use within ICT products to be 2%, 0.1%, 15%, and 3% of the 2013 market share, respectively. This result is projected into the future (2018) based on the anticipated increase in ICT device production.

  11. Few-layer black phosphorus nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Zdenek; Bouša, Daniel; Luxa, Jan; Mazanek, Vlastimil; Pumera, Martin

    2016-01-28

    Herein, black phosphorus quantum dots and nanoparticles of a few layer thickness were prepared and characterized using STEM, AFM, dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. Impact electrochemistry of the induvidual black phosphorus nanoparticles allows their size determination. The centrifugation of colloidal black phosphorus nanoparticles allowed separation of quantum dots with sizes up to 15 nm. These black phosphorus nanoparticles exhibit a large band gap and are expected to find a wide range of applications from semiconductors to biomolecule tags. The use of black phosphorus nanoparticles for vapour sensing was successfully demonstrated.

  12. Residual stress in coated low-Z films of TiC and TiN. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, I.; Kabeya, Z.; Kamada, K.

    1984-01-01

    The correlations of the residual stresses with microstructures of TiC and TiN films deposited onto various substrates were examined by means of observations of SEM micrographs, X-ray back-reflected Debye rangs and diffraction line profile of X-ray spectrometer chart. It was found that specimens with lower residual stress generally show sharp line profile and good separation between Ksub(α1) and Ksub(α2) diffraction peaks in both TiN and TiC films, indicating better crystalline perfection. PVD coated TiC films on Mo and Inconel substrates show poor separation of Ksub(α1) and Ksub(α2) peaks, namely due to higher residual stresses in comparison with those of CVD coated TiN and TiC films on Mo or Inconel substrate. In CVD TiC/Pocographite system, with film thickness ranging from 10 to 100 μm, the grain size increase with increasing the thickness, except 100 μm thick specimen which has the smallest grain size in this group. However, the sharpness of diffraction profile is best in 20 μm thick film, and worst in 100 μm thick film. This is in good correlation with the amount of residual stress. (orig.)

  13. The recovery of tin, and the production of niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride, from a tin slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Tyler, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the results of testwork on the recovery of tin, niobium, and tantalum from a tin slag. The slag, which consisted mainly of amorphous silica, with varying amounts of calcuim, magnesium, manganese, iron, and aluminium, contained an average of 8,8 per cent niobium pentoxide and 6,2 per cent tantalum pentoxide. The metallic tin-ion phase was removed from the crushed slag by magnetic separation. The slag was then leached with hydrochloric acid to remove magnesium, calcium, aluminium, iron, manganese, and the remainder of the tin. Leaching with sodium hydroxide for the removal of silica and phosphorous was followed by a final leach with hydrochloric acid for the removal of sodium. The upgraded concentrate thus obtained was purified by leaching with hydrofluoric acid, solvent extraction of niobium and tantalum into tri-n-butyl phosphate and methyl isobutyl ketone, and selective stripping of niobium with sulphuric acid and tantalum with ammonium floride. Niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride were then precipitated by the addition of ammonium hydroxide and potassium fluoride to the respective strip liquors. The overall recoveries in the upgraded concentrate were 98 per cent for tantalum and 92 per cent for niobium. Dissolutions and recoveries of over 99 per cent were obtained for both tantalum and niobium in the purification steps. The niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride precipitates obtained were of high purity

  14. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G. annd

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  15. Study On The Electro-Refining Of Tin In Acid Solution From Electronic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Seong Ho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tin metal could be retractable from wasted tin scrap, sludge, and wasted electroplated solution hydrometallurgical treatment, and purification process. In order to be used as resource of electronic devices, the retracted crude metal should be purified to the extent of higher than 99.9%. In this study, tin electro-refining process was performed to purify the casted tin crude metal at various experimental conditions: at the current density of 3, 5A/dm2, and in various electrolytes such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and methansulfonic acid. Additional experiment was conducted using Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE in order to investigate the rate determining step of tin electro-refining process. The current efficiency, 65.6%, was achievable at the condition of current density, 5A/dm2, and in the electrolyte of Hydrochloric acid. During tin electro-refining process, impurity dissolved from tin crude metal into the electrolyte was analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES, and the result showed the concentration of impurity metal gradually increased. Quantitative analysis on casted tin crude metal showed that it consists of tin with 93.9 wt.% and several impurity metals of Ag, Bi, Pb, Cu, and etc. After tin electro-refining process, the purity of tin increased up to 99.985 wt.%.

  16. Determination of tin and germanium with nonylfluorone and polymeric flocculants in plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya A. Ivanitsa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New analytical systems «polymeric flocculant (PF−nonylfluorone (NF−metal ion» were proposed for spectrophotometric determination of germanium and tin in plant materials. It is shown the higher efficiency of the modifying action of PF nonionic nature (polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP compared with the cationic PF polyhexamethyleneguanidine chloride. The presence of PVP increases absorbance complex solutions of both metals on 3.5 times. It is found that the compositions of binary complex Ge(IV and Sn(IV being equal to 1:2 in the presence of PF. The interval of optimum values of acidity is pH 1−4, concentration of modifier (PVP is 0.16 g/L. The difference in absorption of solutions PF–NF–metal and reference solution depends linearly on the concentration of metal in the range of 0.01−0.06 μg Ge(IV/mL (ε=1.35∙105, λ=515 nm and 0.18-0.90 μg Sn(IV/mL (ε=4.2∙104, λ=520 nm. The developed method was tested in the determination of germanium in garlic and aloe and tin in pomegranate. The correctness of the results were confirmed by independent spectrophotometric methods which used phenylfluorone and quercetin as reagents.

  17. Effect of Organic Tin Compounds on Electric Properties of Model Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podolak, M.; Engel, G.; Man, D. [Inst. of Physics, Opole Univ., Opole (Poland)

    2006-05-15

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the effect of selected organic tin compounds and potassium chloride (used as a reference substance) on the trans-membrane electric voltage and electric resistance of model membranes, the latter being nitrocellulose filters impregnated with butylene ester of lauric acid. The increasing KCl concentration (in the measurement chambers) caused a rapid rise of the negative trans-membrane voltage, whose value stabilized afterwards. In the case of (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}SnCl an abrupt maximum of the negative voltage was observed followed by a monotonic drop to zero. In the case of highest concentrations of this compound the voltages, after having reached zero, changed their polarization to the opposite. Within the range of small concentrations two slight voltage maxima were observed. Non-ionic tin compounds like (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}Sn and (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}Sn had an insignificant influence on the electric properties of the studied membranes. (orig.)

  18. Size and time dependences of the valence states of Sn ions in amphoteric tin oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunekawa, S.; Kang, J.; Asami, K.; Kawazoe, Y.; Kasuya, A.

    2002-01-01

    Sn 3d core-level spectra are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for nearly monodisperse acidic and alkaline SnO 2-x nanoparticles in the size range 3-4 nm (original) and 1.5-2.5 nm (ultrafiltrated) in diameter. The comparison between the spectra obtained from the acidic and alkaline filtrated samples reveals that the difference is small after a few days but very large after 3 months. The acidic samples show little change in the peak positions and the Sn valence remains around 2.9. The alkaline samples exhibit an increase in the binding energy of more than 0.1 eV and the Sn valence increases up to 3.60 after 3 months. The fact that the lattice strain and the valence change of the Sn ions in the alkaline samples are larger than those in the acidic samples is well explained by surface coating and structure, in which the tin oxalate in the acidic samples is much more stable than the ammonium tin oxide in the alkaline samples

  19. Modulating indium doped tin oxide electrode properties for laccase electron transfer enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Mirela; Chira, Ana; Radu, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were functionalized with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cysteamine monolayer to enhance the heterogeneous electron transfer process of laccase from Trametes versicolor. The assembly of GNP on ITO support was performed through generation of H + species at the electrode surface by hydroquinone electrooxidation at 0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. Uniform distribution of gold nanoparticle aggregates on electrode surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The size of GNP aggregates was in the range of 200–500 nm. The enhanced charge transfer at the GNP functionalized ITO electrodes was observed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrocatalytic behavior of laccase immobilized on ITO modified electrode toward oxygen reduction reaction was evaluated using CV in the presence of 2,2′-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfuric acid (ABTS). The obtained sigmoidal-shaped voltammograms for ABTS reduction in oxygen saturated buffer solution are characteristic for a catalytic process. The intensity of catalytic current increased linearly with mediator concentration up to 6.2 × 10 −4 M. The registered voltammogram in the absence of ABTS mediator clearly showed a significant faradaic current which is the evidence of the interfacial oxygen reduction. - Highlights: • Assembly of gold nanoparticles on indium tin oxide support at positive potentials • Electrochemical and morphological evaluation of the gold nanoparticle layer assembly • Bioelectrocatalytic oxygen reduction on laccase modified electrode

  20. Modulating indium doped tin oxide electrode properties for laccase electron transfer enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaconu, Mirela [National Institute for Biological Sciences, Centre of Bioanalysis, 296 Spl. Independentei, Bucharest 060031 (Romania); Chira, Ana [National Institute for Biological Sciences, Centre of Bioanalysis, 296 Spl. Independentei, Bucharest 060031 (Romania); Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1-7 Polizu Str., 011061 (Romania); Radu, Lucian, E-mail: gl_radu@chim.upb.ro [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1-7 Polizu Str., 011061 (Romania)

    2014-08-28

    Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were functionalized with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cysteamine monolayer to enhance the heterogeneous electron transfer process of laccase from Trametes versicolor. The assembly of GNP on ITO support was performed through generation of H{sup +} species at the electrode surface by hydroquinone electrooxidation at 0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. Uniform distribution of gold nanoparticle aggregates on electrode surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The size of GNP aggregates was in the range of 200–500 nm. The enhanced charge transfer at the GNP functionalized ITO electrodes was observed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrocatalytic behavior of laccase immobilized on ITO modified electrode toward oxygen reduction reaction was evaluated using CV in the presence of 2,2′-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfuric acid (ABTS). The obtained sigmoidal-shaped voltammograms for ABTS reduction in oxygen saturated buffer solution are characteristic for a catalytic process. The intensity of catalytic current increased linearly with mediator concentration up to 6.2 × 10{sup −4} M. The registered voltammogram in the absence of ABTS mediator clearly showed a significant faradaic current which is the evidence of the interfacial oxygen reduction. - Highlights: • Assembly of gold nanoparticles on indium tin oxide support at positive potentials • Electrochemical and morphological evaluation of the gold nanoparticle layer assembly • Bioelectrocatalytic oxygen reduction on laccase modified electrode.

  1. Size and time dependences of the valence states of Sn ions in amphoteric tin oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunekawa, S.; Kang, J.; Asami, K.; Kawazoe, Y.; Kasuya, A.

    2002-11-01

    Sn 3d core-level spectra are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for nearly monodisperse acidic and alkaline SnO 2- x nanoparticles in the size range 3-4 nm (original) and 1.5-2.5 nm (ultrafiltrated) in diameter. The comparison between the spectra obtained from the acidic and alkaline filtrated samples reveals that the difference is small after a few days but very large after 3 months. The acidic samples show little change in the peak positions and the Sn valence remains around 2.9. The alkaline samples exhibit an increase in the binding energy of more than 0.1 eV and the Sn valence increases up to 3.60 after 3 months. The fact that the lattice strain and the valence change of the Sn ions in the alkaline samples are larger than those in the acidic samples is well explained by surface coating and structure, in which the tin oxalate in the acidic samples is much more stable than the ammonium tin oxide in the alkaline samples.

  2. Sputter-Deposited Indium–Tin Oxide Thin Films for Acetaldehyde Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Cindemir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dual-target DC magnetron sputtering was used to prepare In–Sn oxide thin films with a wide range of compositions. The films were subjected to annealing post-treatment at 400 °C or 500 °C for different periods of time. Compositional and structural characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and scanning electron microscopy. Films were investigated for gas sensing at 200 °C by measuring their resistance response upon exposure to acetaldehyde mixed with synthetic air. We found that the relative indium-to-tin content was very important and that measurable sensor responses could be recorded at acetaldehyde concentrations down to 200 ppb, with small resistance drift between repeated exposures, for both crystalline SnO2-like films and for amorphous films consisting of about equal amounts of In and Sn. We also demonstrated that it is not possible to prepare crystalline sensors with intermediate indium-to-tin compositions by sputter deposition and post-annealing up to 500 °C.

  3. Microcontroller based instrumentation for heater control circuit of tin oxide based hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premalatha, S.; Krithika, P.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Ramanarayanan, R.R.; Prabhu, E.; Jayaraman, V.; Parthasarathy, R.

    2015-01-01

    A thin film sensor based on tin oxide developed in IGCAR is used to monitor very low levels of hydrogen (concentration ranging from 2 ppm to 80 ppm). The heater and the sensor patterns are integrated on a miniature alumina substrate and necessary electrical leads are taken out. For proper functioning of the sensor, the heater has to be maintained at a constant temperature of 350°C. The sensor output (voltage signal) varies with H 2 concentration. In fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium is used as coolant. The sensor is used to detect water/steam leak in secondary sodium circuit. During the start up of the reactor, steam leak into sodium circuit generates hydrogen gas as a product that doesn't dissolve in sodium, but escapes to the surge tank containing argon i.e. in cover gas plenum of sodium circuit. On-line monitoring of hydrogen in cover gas is done to detect an event of water/steam leakage. The focus of this project is on the instrumentation pertaining to the temperature control for the sensor heater. The tin oxide based hydrogen sensor is embedded in a substrate which consists of a platinum heater, essentially a resistor. There is no provision of embedding a temperature sensor on the heater surface due to the physical constraints, without which maintaining a constant heater temperature is a complex task

  4. Anodic stripping voltammetric measurement of trace cadmium at tin-coated carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bang Lin; Wu, Zhi Ling; Xiong, Chang Hong; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2012-01-15

    A carbon paste electrode modified with tin was used for the determination of trace cadmium by anodic stripping voltammetry. The electroanalytical performance for the determination of Cd(II) on the tin-coated carbon paste electrode(SnF-CPE) was better than that on the carbon paste electrode. The measuring conditions have been optimized. The measurement of trace cadmium on the SnF-CPE has the best response under the conditions of 0.10molL(-1) acetate buffer solution (pH 3.9), 3.5mgL(-1) Sn(II), deposition potential of -1.40V, and deposition time of 150s. The SnF-CPE revealed highly linear behavior in the concentration range of 2.0-90.0μgL(-1) with the detection limit of 1.13μgL(-1) for Cd(II). The developed sensor has been applied to the determination of Cd(II) in real water samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anisotropic behaviour of semiconducting tin monosulphoselenide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (where x = 0, 0⋅25, 0⋅50, 0⋅75 and 1), have been grown using direct vapour transport technique. The grown crystals were characterized by the X-ray diffraction analysis for their structural ... The d.c. electrical resistivity measurements parallel to c-axis (i.e. perpendicular to basal plane) in the temperature range 303–453 K ...

  6. Reactivation of a Tin-Oxide-Containing Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert; Sidney, Barry; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin; Miller, George; Upchurch, Bill; Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The electrons in electric-discharge CO2 lasers cause dissociation of some CO2 into O2 and CO, and attach themselves to electronegative molecules such as O2, forming negative O2 ions, as well as larger negative ion clusters by collisions with CO or other molecules. The decrease in CO2 concentration due to dissociation into CO and O2 will reduce the average repetitively pulsed or continuous wave laser power, even if no disruptive negative ion instabilities occur. Accordingly, it is the primary object of this invention to extend the lifetime of a catalyst used to combine the CO and O2 products formed in a laser discharge. A promising low-temperature catalyst for combining CO and O2 is platinum on tin oxide (Pt/SnO2). First, the catalyst is pretreated by a standard procedure. The pretreatment is considered complete when no measurable quantity of CO2 is given off by the catalyst. After this standard pretreatment, the catalyst is ready for its low-temperature use in the sealed, high-energy, pulsed CO2 laser. However, after about 3,000 minutes of operation, the activity of the catalyst begins to slowly diminish. When the catalyst experiences diminished activity during exposure to the circulating gas stream inside or external to the laser, the heated zone surrounding the catalyst is raised to a temperature between 100 and 400 C. A temperature of 225 C was experimentally found to provide an adequate temperature for reactivation. During this period, the catalyst is still exposed to the circulating gas inside or external to the laser. This constant heating and exposing the catalyst to the laser gas mixture is maintained for an hour. After heating and exposing for an appropriate amount of time, the heated zone around the catalyst is allowed to return to the nominal operating temperature of the CO2 laser. This temperature normally resides in the range of 23 to 100 C. Catalyst activity can be measured as the percentage conversion of CO to CO2. In the specific embodiment

  7. Corrosion of steels in molten gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Ishii, Masaomi; Muroga, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion of RAFM steel, JLF-1, in liquid Sn–20Li was caused by the formation of Fe-Sn alloyed layer. - Highlights: • The corrosion tests were performed for the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 and the austenitic steel SUS316 in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li at 873 K up to 750 h. • The weight loss of the specimens exposed to liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li was evaluated. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Ga was caused by the alloying reaction between Ga and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn was caused by the alloying reaction between Sn and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn-20Li was caused by the formation of the Fe-Sn alloyed layer and the diffusion of Sn and Li into the steel matrix. - Abstract: The compatibility of steels in liquid gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li) was investigated by means of static corrosion tests. The corrosion tests were performed for reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 (JOYO-HEAT, Fe–9Cr–2W–0.1C) and austenitic steel SUS316 (Fe–18Cr–12Ni–2Mo). The test temperature was 873 K, and the exposure time was 250 and 750 h. The corrosion of these steels in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn–20Li alloy was commonly caused by the formation of a reaction layer and the dissolution of the steel elements into the melts. The reaction layer formed in liquid Ga was identified as Fe 3 Ga from the results of metallurgical analysis and the phase diagram. The growth rate of the reaction layer on the JLF-1 steel showed a parabolic rate law, and this trend indicated that the corrosion could be controlled by the diffusion process through the layer. The reaction layer formed in liquid Sn and Sn–20Li was identified as FeSn. The growth rate had a linear function with exposure time. The corrosion in Sn and Sn–20Li could be controlled by the interface reaction on the layer. The growth rate of the layer formed in

  8. Surface chemical changes of TiC, TiN and TiO2 by light-ion bombardments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Y.; Sasaki, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    Surface chemical chances of TiC, TiN and TiO 2 due to ion bombardment with H 2 + , D 2 + and He + ions in the energy range of 0.5 keV to 10 keV have been studied by electron spectroscopy. In almost all cases, depletion of the light constituents was observed. No evidence for formation of titanium hydride or the metallic state is obtained for bombarded TiC and TiN surfaces. Preferential loss of oxygen from TiO 2 results in formation of Ti 2 O 3 by the H 2 + and D 2 + bombardments, and of a mixture of Ti 2 O 3 and TiO by the He + bombardment. In the cases of TiC and TiN, a similar dependence on the incident ion energy was observed for the changes between the X/Ti (X=C,N) surface compositional ratio at steady state and the Ti + /X + signal ratio of secondary-ion mass spectra. The compositional change is discussed in relation to sputtering properties of the constituents. (orig.)

  9. Highly conducting and crystalline doubly doped tin oxide films fabricated using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K., E-mail: kkr1365@yahoo.co [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpum College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India); Muruganantham, G.; Sakthivel, B. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpum College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Doubly doped (simultaneous doping of antimony and fluorine) tin oxide films (SnO{sub 2}:Sb:F) have been fabricated by employing an inexpensive and simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of SnCl{sub 2} precursor. The structural studies revealed that the films are highly crystalline in nature with preferential orientation along the (2 0 0) plane. It is found that the size of the crystallites of the doubly doped tin oxide films is larger (69 nm) than that (27 nm) of their undoped counterparts. The dislocation density of the doubly doped film is lesser (2.08x10{sup 14} lines/m{sup 2}) when compared with that of the undoped film (13.2x10{sup 14} lines/m{sup 2}), indicating the higher degree of crystallinity of the doubly doped films. The SEM images depict that the films are homogeneous and uniform. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap of the doubly doped films are 71% and 3.56 eV respectively. The sheet resistance (4.13 OMEGA/square) attained for the doubly doped film in this study is lower than the values reported for spray deposited fluorine or antimony doped tin oxide films prepared from aqueous solution of SnCl{sub 2} precursor (without using methanol or ethanol).

  10. Mean cross sections of fast neutrons radiative capture, transmission and mean resonance parameters for the tin isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timokhov, V.M.; Bokhovko, M.V.; Kazakov, L.E.; Kononov, V.N.; Manturov, G.N.; Poletaev, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    Results of measurements of neutron radiative capture cross sections in the energy range of 20-450 keV and of neutron transmission in the energy range of 20-1400 keV for 112,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,122 ,124S n isotopes and natural mixture of tin are presented. Analysis of the experimental data in the framework of nuclear reactions statistical theory is carried out, as a result of which data on neutron and radiation strength functions, potential scattering radii for S- and P-neutrons, as well as nuclear levels density parameters, are obtained

  11. TDPAC characterization of tin oxides using 181Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.S.; Desimoni, J.; Requejo, F.G.; Renteria, M.; Bibiloni, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    In connection with a general study of the evolution of tin-oxygen thin films, we report here on the hyperfine interactions of 181 Ta substitutionally replacing tin in the isolated phases SnO and SnO 2 . For this purpose, pure SnO pressed powder and a thin SnO 2 film were implanted with 181 Hf. In both cases, unique quadrupole frequencies were found after thermal annealing treatments. The results indicate that the following hyperfine parameters: ν Q =740.6(2.1) MHz, η=0.07(2) and ν Q =971.5(1.9) MHz, η=0.72(1) characterize 181 Ta and SnO and SnO 2 , respectively. (orig.)

  12. Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Beams of Radioactive Tin Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ahn, S.H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Allmond, James M [ORNL; Ayres, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Baugher, T. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bazin, D. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Beene, James R [ORNL; Berryman, J. S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bey, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cartegni, L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)/Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Gade, A. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Garcia-Ruiz, R.F. [Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001, Leuven, Belgium; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University (TTU); Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Matos, M. [Louisiana State University; McDaniel, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Padgett, S [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Radford, David C [ORNL; Ratkiewicz, Andrew J [ORNL; Schmitt, Kyle [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Stroberg, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tostevin, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weisshaar, D. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wimmer, K. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL)/Central Michigan University; Winkler, R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2015-01-01

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at Sn-100, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at Sn-132 out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich Sn-130. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of gamma rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications.

  13. Cosmologies of selection: lessons from the faculty biscuit tin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Maggie; Bartlett, Flora

    2016-12-01

    We conducted an ethnography of the faculty biscuit tin as we were interested in the lived experience of the biscuits contained within it. We used a constructivist epistemology, a social constructionist interpretive framework and a phenomenological methodology that included analysis from the perspectives of deixis and cosmology. The biscuits perceived that they were important to a selecting force and that the characteristics of one particular group had a specific value to the selector. Some enduring benefits may derive from the selection of this group, although its attractions were less immediately obvious than those of others. What is immediately attractive may not be the most fit for purpose; lessons for the selection of medical students may arise from this exploration of the selection experiences of biscuits in a faculty biscuit tin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  14. Polymorphic transition of tin under shock wave compression: Experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinatti F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the β-bct polymorphic transition in tin is investigated by means of plate impact experiments. The Sn target surface is observed in a partially released state obtained thanks to a transparent lithium fluoride (LiF anvil. We report both measurements of interface velocity and temperature obtained using Photon Doppler Velocimetry and IR optical pyrometer on shock-loaded tin from 8 to 16 GPa. We show that the Mabire Model EOS associated to the SCG plasticity model provides an overall good estimate of the velocity profiles. However, depnding on the shock amplitude, its prediction of the temperature profile may be less satisfactory, hence underlining the need for future improvements in terms of phase transition kinetics description.

  15. Heterogeneous Tin Catalysts Applied to the Esterification and Transesterification Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of efficient and environmentally benign catalysts for esters synthesis has increased exponentially, mainly due to the demand for biodiesel. In general, fatty esters are used as bioadditive, cosmetic ingredients, polymers, and, more recently, biofuel. Nevertheless, most of the production processes use nonrecyclable and homogenous alkaline catalysts, which results in the reactors corrosion, large generation of effluents, and residues on the steps of separation and catalyst neutralization. Heterogeneous acid catalysts can answer these demands and are an environmentally benign alternative extensively explored. Remarkably, solid acid catalysts based on tin have been shown highly attractive for the biodiesel production, mainly via FFA esterification reactions. This review describes important features related to be the synthesis, stability to, and activity of heterogeneous tin catalysts in biodiesel production reactions.

  16. Thickness-Dependent Bioelectrochemical and Energy Applications of Thickness-Controlled Meso-Macroporous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mieritz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of hierarchically meso-macroporous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO enable interfacing adsorbed species, such as biomacromolecules, with an electronic circuit. The coating thickness is a limiting factor for the surface coverage of adsorbates, that are electrochemically addressable. To overcome this challenge, a carbon black-based templating method was developed by studying the composition of the template system, and finding the right conditions for self-standing templates, preventing the reaction mixture from flowing out of the mask. The thicknesses of as-fabricated coatings were measured using stylus profilometry to establish a relationship between the mask thickness and the coating thickness. Cyclic voltammetry was performed on coatings with adsorbed cytochrome c to check whether the entire coating thickness was electrochemically addressable. Further, bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers were incorporated into the coatings, and photocurrent with respect to coating thickness was studied. The template mixture required enough of both carbon black and polymer, roughly 7% carbon black and 6% poly(ethylene glycol. Coatings were fabricated with thicknesses approaching 30 µm, and thickness was shown to be controllable up to at least 15 µm. Under the experimental conditions, photocurrent was found to increase linearly with the coating thickness, up to around 12 µm, above which were diminished gains.

  17. Radiation damage in indium tin oxide (ITO) layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D.V. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Salehi, A. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Aliyu, Y.H. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Bunce, R.W. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Diskett, D. [Applied Physics and Electro-optics Group, Cranfield University RMCS, Shrivenham, Swindon SN6 8LA (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-15

    The effects of proton damage on transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were investigated by electrical and optical techniques. ITO layers were found to be highly resistant to proton damage for fluences up to 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2}. For fluences greater than 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} the resistivity rises rapidly with a corresponding degradation of the transmittance. ((orig.))

  18. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors. 85 tron irradiation dose. Under low irradiation dose, <300 kGy, the sensitivity of SnO2 thin film shifts slightly, from 300–. 850 kGy, the sensitivity increases greatly, at 850 kGy and it reaches 24⋅8. Then the sensitivity reaches maximum and remains stable while ...

  19. A tin-119 Moessbauer study of Chinese bronze coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, M.; Tominaga, T.

    1977-01-01

    The chemical states of tin in Chinese bronze coins were characterized by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The spectra of the coins indicate the presence of Sn(IV) in addition to Sn(0) in alloy phase. The Sn(IV) oxide is in the corroded surface. Sn(IV) was also found in the interior body of a coin sample with an unusually high percentage of the Sn(IV) peak area. (author)

  20. Diffusion of tin in germanium: A GGA+U approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2011-10-18

    Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the formation and diffusion of tin-vacancy pairs (SnV) in germanium(Ge). Depending upon the Fermi energy, SnV pairs can form in neutral, singly negative, or doubly negative charged states. The activation energies of diffusion, also as function of the Fermi energy, are calculated to lie between 2.48-3.65 eV, in agreement with and providing an interpretation of available experimental work.

  1. Tin (Sn) for enhancing performance in silicon CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2013-10-01

    We study a group IV element: tin (Sn) by integrating it into silicon lattice, to enhance the performance of silicon CMOS. We have evaluated the electrical properties of the SiSn lattice by performing simulations using First-principle studies, followed by experimental device fabrication and characterization. We fabricated high-κ/metal gate based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using SiSn as channel material to study the impact of Sn integration into silicon. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Magnetic fields around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, David A. G.

    Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our

  3. Radiance Measurement on Shock-Ramp Loaded Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jeffrey; Akin, Minta; Asimow, Paul; Holmes, Neil

    2017-06-01

    An accurate material temperature is not only an essential component of an equation of state, but also a good measure of a phase transition, its kinetics, and associated thermal transport properties. In a series of experiments, we measured particle velocity and thermal emission at the tin-LiF interfaces on shock and ramp loading experiments. Using a graded density impactor, we drive the tin sample through melting with the initial shock and then further ramp-compress it back into the solid phase. Various configurations of experimental set-up were used to simultaneously measure particle velocity and thermal emission from which we deduce pressure, density, sound velocity and temperature. A gray body radiation is assumed in these calculations. We present here more recent results and updated analysis of shock-and-ramp-loaded tin experiments. The measured particle velocity shows a traditional signature for phase transition, while thermal radiance exhibits a change consistent with the heat of solidification. We will discuss here the mechanical and thermal aspects of this phase transition, its kinetics, and thermal transport issues in this experiment. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.

    1980-01-01

    In years 1920 as a result of quantum mechanics principles governing the structure of ordinary matter, a sudden importance for a problem raised a long time ago by Laplace: what happens when a massive body becomes so dense that even light cannot escape from its gravitational field. It is difficult to conceive how could be avoided in the actual universe the accumulation of important masses of cold matter having been submitted to gravitational breaking down followed by the formation of what is called to day a black hole [fr

  5. Initial stages of indoor atmospheric corrosion of electronics contact metals in humid tropical climate: tin and nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veleva, L.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Samples of electrolytic tin and nickel have been exposed for 1 to 12 m in indoor environment, inside a box (rain sheltered cabinet, placed in tropical humid marine-urban climate, as a part of Gulf of Mexico. The corrosion aggressiveness of box has been classified as a very high corrosive, based on the monitored chlorides and SO2 deposition rates, and the Temperature/Relative Humidity air daily complex. The annual mass increasing of nickel is approximately twice higher than its values of mass loss (C. The relation between nickel mass loss or increasing and time of wetness (t of metal surface is linear and does not obey the power equation C = A tn, which has be found for tin. The SEM images reveal a localized corrosion on nickel and tin surfaces. XRD detects the formation of SnCl2.H2O as a corrosion product. Within the time on the tin surface appear black spots, considered as organic material.

    Muestras de estaño y níquel electrolíticos han sido expuestas de 1 a 12 m en ambiente interno (indoor, en una caseta (gabinete protegido de lluvia, colocada en clima tropical húmedo marino-urbano del Golfo de México. La agresividad de la caseta ha sido clasificada como muy altamente corrosiva, basada al registro de la velocidad de deposición de cloruros y SO2, y en el complejo diario de temperatura/humedad relativa del aire. El incremento de masa anual de níquel es, aproximadamente, dos veces mayor que del valor de su pérdida de masa (C. La relación entre la pérdida de masa de Ni o su incremento, y el tiempo de humectación (t de la superficie metálica y lineal y no obedece la ley de potencia C = A tn , que ha sido encontrada para el estaño. Las imágenes del SEM revelan una corrosión localizada en las superficie de níquel y estaño. El análisis de rayos-X detecta la formación de SnCl2.H2O como producto de corrosión. Con el tiempo

  6. Analyzing the kinetic response of tin oxide-carbon and tin oxide-CNT composites gas sensors for alcohols detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, Vinayak, E-mail: vinbk@mrc.iisc.ernet.in; Umarji, Arun [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Tin oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using solution combustion technique and tin oxide – carbon composite thick films are fabricated with amorphous carbon as well as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and porosity measurements show that the as-synthesized nanoparticles are having rutile phase with average crystallite size ∼7 nm and ∼95 m{sup 2}/g surface area. The difference between morphologies of the carbon doped and CNT doped SnO{sub 2} thick films, are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The adsorption-desorption kinetics and transient response curves are analyzed using Langmuir isotherm curve fittings and modeled using power law of semiconductor gas sensors.

  7. Investigation of Conversion CO2 to Fuel by TiN nanotube-Cu nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mahdavian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The CO and CO2 effects are global warming, acid rain, limit visibility, decreases UV radiation; yellow/black color over cities and so on. In this study, convention of CO2 and H2O to CH4 and O2 near TiN- nanotube with Cu-nanoparticle calculated by Density Functional Theory (DFT methods. We have studied the structural, total energy, thermodynamic properties of these systems at room temperature. All the geometry optimization structures were carried out using GAMESS program package under Linux. DFT optimized their intermediates and transient states. The results have shown a sensitivity enhancement in resistance and capacitance when CO2 and H2O are converted to CH4 and O2. TiN-nanotube used photo-catalytic reactivity for the reduction of CO2 with H2O to form CH4 and O2 at 298K. The calculations are done in state them between of three TiN-nanotubes near Cu-nanoparticle.The calculation shown which heat reaction formation (∆H is endothermic for this reaction. This reaction needs to sun, photo active or other energy in the presence of visible light for doing.

  8. Comparison of several analytical methods for the determination of tin in geochemical samples as a function of tin speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J.S.; Evans, J.R.; Jackson, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate and precise determinations of tin in geological materials are needed for fundamental studies of tin geochemistry, and for tin prospecting purposes. Achieving the required accuracy is difficult because of the different matrices in which Sn can occur (i.e. sulfides, silicates and cassiterite), and because of the variability of literature values for Sn concentrations in geochemical reference materials. We have evaluated three methods for the analysis of samples for Sn concentration: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HGA-AAS) following iodide extraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. Two of these methods (HGA-AAS and ICP-OES) required sample decomposition either by acid digestion or fusion, while the third (EDXRF) was performed directly on the powdered sample. Analytical details of all three methods, their potential errors, and the steps necessary to correct these errors were investigated. Results showed that similar accuracy was achieved from all methods for unmineralized samples, which contain no known Sn-bearing phase. For mineralized samples, which contain Sn-bearing minerals, either cassiterite or stannous sulfides, only EDXRF and fusion ICP-OES methods provided acceptable accuracy. This summary of our study provides information which helps to assure correct interpretation of data bases for underlying geochemical processes, regardless of method of data collection and its inherent limitations. ?? 1989.

  9. Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth and Characterization of Thin Layers of Semiconductor Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Semiconductor Tin by P Folkes, P Taylor, C Rong, B Nichols, H Hier, and M Neupane Approved for public release; distribution...Laboratory Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth and Characterization of Thin Layers of Semiconductor Tin by P Folkes, P Taylor, C Rong, B Nichols... Semiconductor Tin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) P Folkes, P Taylor, C Rong, B Nichols, H Hier, and M

  10. Effect of preparation conditions on physic-chemical properties of tin-doped nanocrystalline indium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zhek, V. V.; Nefedov, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigation of phase formation and change of concentration of free electrons (Ne) in indium tin oxide system during heat treatment of coprecipitated hydroxides of indium and tin from nitric and hydrochloric solutions and also, for comparison melts of salts nitrates by an alkaline reactant (NH4OH) are considered.The performed investigation allowed to set the optimal condition of preparation of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide with maximal electron concentration.

  11. Rapid Fabrication of Low-Density Porous Tin Monolith via Hydrogen Bulb Dynamics Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongbo; Zhu, Jiayi; Bi, Yutie; Xu, Yewei; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Ni

    Low-density porous tin monolith with the pteridophyta leaf-like structure was fast fabricated by a facile route via the electrochemical deposition process via hydrogen bulb dynamics templates within less than 1min. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and so on. The results indicated that the deposited tin porous structure could be easily controlled to form film or monolith by adjusting the tin precursor concentration and surfactant content.

  12. Making Blackness, Making Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Too often the acknowledgment that race is a social construction ignores exactly how this construction occurs. By illuminating the way in which the category of blackness and black individuals are made, we can better see how race matters in America. Antidiscrimination policy, social science research, and the state's support of its citizens can all be improved by an accurate and concrete definition of blackness. Making Blackness, Making Policy argues that blackness and black people are literally...

  13. Effects of Deposition Parameters and Oxygen Addition on Properties of Sputtered Indium Tin Oxide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrul Munir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO films were sputtered on corning glass substrate. Oxygen admixture and sputtering deposition parameters were optimized to obtain the highest transparency as well as lowest resistivity. Structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were then examined. Increasing deposition rate and film thickness changed the crystallographic orientation from (222  to (400 and (440, as well as higher  surface roughness. It was necessary to apply substrate heating during reposition to get films with better crystallinity. The lowest resistivity of 5.36 x 10-4 Ω•cm was obtained at 750 nm film thickness. The films’ resistivity was increased by addition of oxygen up to 2% in the argon sputtering gas. All films showed over 85% transmittance in the visible wavelength range, possible for applications in photovoltaic and display devices. 

  14. Investigation of the Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing Characteristics of Tin Oxide Mixed Cerium Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Haider

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tin oxide mixed cerium oxide were grown on unheated substrates by physical vapor deposition. The films were annealed in air at 500 °C for two hours, and were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical spectrophotometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy results reveal that the films were highly porous and porosity of our films was found to be in the range of 11.6–21.7%. The films were investigated for the detection of carbon monoxide, and were found to be highly sensitive. We found that 430 °C was the optimum operating temperature for sensing CO gas at concentrations as low as 5 ppm. Our sensors exhibited fast response and recovery times of 26 s and 30 s, respectively.

  15. Bio-active synthesis of tin oxide nanoparticles using eggshell membrane for energy storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celina Selvakumari, J.; Nishanthi, S. T.; Dhanalakshmi, J.; Ahila, M.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2018-05-01

    Nano-sized tin oxide (SnO2) particles were synthesized using eggshell membrane (ESM), a natural bio-waste from the chicken eggshell. The crystallization of SnO2 into the tetragonal structure was confirmed from powder X-ray diffraction and the crystallite size ranged from 13 to 40 nm. Various shapes including rod, hexagonal and spherical SnO2 nanoparticles were observed from the morphological studies. The electrochemical impedance study revealed a lower charge transfer resistance (Rct) of 8.565 Ω and the presence of a constant phase element which arised due to surface roughness and porosity. Capacitive behavior seen in the cyclic voltammetry curve of the prepared SnO2 nanoparticles, find future applications in supercapacitors.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of indium tin oxide current spreading layers in light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perks, R.M.; Kettle, J.; Porch, A.; Morgan, D.V.

    2007-01-01

    Transparent conductors such as indium tin oxide (ITO) are used in a range of optoelectronic devices. Such materials provide both the electrical interface with the semiconductor and a transparent window for the injection or extraction of photons. In AlGaInP surface emitting LED device structures, a particular problem is that of providing an efficient current spreading layer in order to ensure that electrons are injected across the whole of the active region. In this way, the light extracted can be maximised as it originates from the region below the transparent conductor rather than the contact metal. This paper describes a Monte Carlo simulation that can assist in the optimisation of current spreading and light transmission of ITO layers in LED devices

  17. Controlled Deposition of Tin Oxide and Silver Nanoparticles Using Microcontact Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo C. Chan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This report describes extensive studies of deposition processes involving tin oxide (SnOx nanoparticles on smooth glass surfaces. We demonstrate the use of smooth films of these nanoparticles as a platform for spatially-selective electroless deposition of silver by soft lithographic stamping. The edge and height roughness of the depositing metallic films are 100 nm and 20 nm, respectively, controlled by the intrinsic size of the nanoparticles. Mixtures of alcohols as capping agents provide further control over the size and shape of nanoparticles clusters. The distribution of cluster heights obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM is modeled through a modified heterogeneous nucleation theory as well as Oswald ripening. The thermodynamic modeling of the wetting properties of nanoparticles aggregates provides insight into their mechanism of formation and how their properties might be further exploited in wide-ranging applications.

  18. Mid-infrared optical properties of chalcogenide glasses within tin-antimony-selenium ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruiqiang; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yicong; Song, Baoan; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Xianghua; Ji, Wei

    2017-10-16

    In this work, we investigated the mid-infrared (MIR) optical properties of selenide (Se-based) chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) within an As- and Ge-free system, namely the environment-friendly and low-cost tin-antimony-selenium (Sn-Sb-Se, SSS) ternary system, which has not been systematically studied to the best of our knowledge. As compared to ChGs within those conventional Se-based systems, SSS ChGs were found to exhibit extended infrared transmittance range as well as larger linear refractive index (n 0 ). Femtosecond Z-scan measurements show the presence of evident three-photon absorption from Urbach absorption of the SSS ChGs at MIR wavelength, which resonantly enhanced the nonlinear refractive behavior and resulted in large nonlinear refractive index (n 2 ).

  19. Molecular interfacial engineering of adhesion between polyfluorene and indium-tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.W. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and the Materials Science and Technology Research Centre, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Chinese University of Hong Kong, Institute of Precision Engineering, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Sin, L.Y.; Yeung, M.K.; Hark, S.K. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and the Materials Science and Technology Research Centre, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Lau, W.M. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and the Materials Science and Technology Research Centre, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Chinese University of Hong Kong, Institute of Precision Engineering, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); University of Western Ontario, Surface Science Western, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-04-15

    A self-assembly monolayer (SAM) selected from alkyl- and phenyl-silanes was inserted between polyfluorene (PFO) and indium-tin oxide (ITO). The relative changes in adhesion energy of PFO/SAM/ITO were semi-quantitatively measured. These relative changes are calculated by dividing the gains in adhesion energy by the adhesion energy of PFO/ITO with no SAM. The values for five alkyl-silanes with varying chain lengths are in the range of 1.0{+-}0.2 to 1.8{+-}0.5, and those for five selected phenyl-silanes are 1.8{+-}0.5 to 4.1{+-}1.1. Phenyl-silanes with a unit larger than that of benzene, together with appropriate tail-group functionality, give the best enhancement in adhesion. (orig.)

  20. Tin Valence and Local Environments in Silicate Glasses as Determined From X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, D.; Buechele, A.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to characterize the tin (Sn) environments in four borosilicate glass nuclear waste formulations, two silicate float glasses, and three potassium aluminosilicate glasses. Sn K-edge XAS data of most glasses investigated indicate Sn4+O6 units with average Sn-O distances near 2.03 Angstroms. XAS data for a float glass fabricated under reducing conditions show a mixture of Sn4+O6 and Sn2+O4 sites. XAS data for three glasses indicate Sn-Sn distances ranging from 3.43 to 3.53 Angstroms, that suggest Sn4+O6 units linking with each other, while the 4.96 Angstroms Sn-Sn distance for one waste glass suggests clustering of unlinked Sn4+O6 units.

  1. Investigation of pH effect on chemically synthesized tin selenide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okereke, N.A.; Ekpunobi, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Semiconducting thin films of tin selenide (SnSe) were chemically synthesized at room temperature by varying two different pH. X-ray diffraction data revealed that the crystallinity of SnSe films prepared at pH 11.0 slightly increased. XRD patterns of SnSe showed polycrystalline nature. The optical properties of the films were studied in the wavelength range of 0.36-1.10 μm. Optical absorption studies show that the pH has no effect on the band gap energy of the grown SnSe films; hence, the band gap remains the same as pH increases from 10.0 to 11.0. (authors)

  2. Thermoelectric detection of spherical tin inclusions in copper by magnetic sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon, Hector; Nagy, Peter B.; Nayfeh, Adnan H.

    2000-01-01

    Inclusions and other types of imperfections in metals can be nondestructively detected by noncontacting magnetic measurements that sense the thermoelectric currents around such flaws when the specimen is subjected to directional heating and cooling. This article presents experimental data for the magnetic field produced by thermoelectric currents around surface-breaking spherical tin inclusions in copper under external thermal excitation for different lift-off distances between the sensor and the surface of the specimen. The diameter of the inclusions and the lift-off distance varied from 2.4 to 12.7 mm and from 12 to 20 mm, respectively. A fairly modest 0.7 o C/cm temperature gradient in the specimen produced peak magnetic flux densities ranging from 1 to 250 nT. These results were found to be in good agreement with recently published theoretical predictions [P. B. Nagy and A. H. Nayfeh, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7481 (2000)

  3. Structural, electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide thin film grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition with tetramethyltin-precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Zimin; Tu, Wenbin; Ma, Xuejin; Wang, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) is grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using tetramethyltin (TDMASn) as tin precursor. The as-grown ITO films are polycrystalline with (111) and (100) textures. A gradual transition of crystallographic orientation from (111) preferred to (100) preferred is observed as the composition of tin changes. By precisely controlling the Sn doping, the ITO thin films present promising optical and electrical performances at either near-infrared-visible or visible-near-ultraviolet ranges. At low Sn doping level, the as-grown ITO possesses high electron mobility of 48.8 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, which results in high near-infrared transmittance and low resistivity. At higher Sn doping level, high carrier concentration (8.9 × 1020 cm‑3) and low resistivity (3 × 10‑4 Ω cm) are achieved. The transmittance is 97.8, 99.1, and 82.3% at the wavelength of 550, 365, and 320 nm, respectively. The results strongly suggest that MOCVD with TDMASn as tin precursor is an effective method to fabricate high quality ITO thin film for near-infrared, visible light, and near-ultraviolet application.

  4. Elastic and thermo-physical properties of TiC, TiN, and their intermediate composition alloys using ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jiwoong; Kang, Shinhoo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Elastic properties of TiC, TiN and their alloys were calculated by ab initio calculations. ► Debye temperature and Gruneisen constant of TiC, TiN and their alloys were calculated as a function of nitrogen content. ► Thermo-physical properties were calculated as a function of nitrogen content. ► Thermal expansion of the alloys was fitted in different temperature range. - Abstract: The equilibrium lattice parameters, elastic properties, material brittleness, heat capacities, and thermal expansion coefficients of TiC, TiN, and their intermediate composition alloys (Ti(C 1−x N x ), x = 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75) were calculated using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) methods. We employed the Debye–Gruneisen model to calculate a finite temperature heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient. The calculated elastic moduli and thermal expansion coefficients agreed well with the experimental data and with other DFT calculations. Accurate heat capacities of TiC, TiN, and their intermediate composition alloys were obtained by calculating not only the phonon contributions but also the electron contributions to the heat capacity. Our calculations indicated that the heat capacity differences between each composition originated mainly from the electronic contributions.

  5. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black holes; numerical relativity; nonlinear sigma. Abstract. Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. ... Theoretical and Computational Studies Group, Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA ...

  6. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-01-01

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO2 and TiO2. In order to ach...

  7. MnO2/TiN heterogeneous nanostructure design for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Stefanie A; Duay, Jonathon; Gui, Zhe; Banerjee, Parag; Rubloff, Gary W; Lee, Sang Bok

    2011-09-07

    MnO(2)/TiN nanotubes are fabricated using facile deposition techniques to maximize the surface area of the electroactive material for use in electrochemical capacitors. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit conformal nanotubes within an anodic aluminium oxide template. After template removal, the inner and outer surfaces of the TiN nanotubes are exposed for electrochemical deposition of manganese oxide. Electron microscopy shows that the MnO(2) is deposited on both the inside and outside of TiN nanotubes, forming the MnO(2)/TiN nanotubes. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge curves are used to characterize the electrochemical properties of the MnO(2)/TiN nanotubes. Due to the close proximity of MnO(2) with the highly conductive TiN as well as the overall high surface area, the nanotubes show very high specific capacitance (662 F g(-1) reported at 45 A g(-1)) as a supercapacitor electrode material. The highly conductive and mechanically stable TiN greatly enhances the flow of electrons to the MnO(2) material, while the high aspect ratio nanostructure of TiN creates a large surface area for short diffusion paths for cations thus improving high power. Combining the favourable structural, electrical and energy properties of MnO(2) and TiN into one system allows for a promising electrode material for supercapacitors. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  8. Investigation of the kinetics and mechanism of the dehydrogenation of isobutane on platinum-tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lok, L.K.; Gaidai, N.A.; Gudkov, B.S.; Kiperman, S.L.; Kogan, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the kinetics and mechanism for the dehydrogenation of isobutane on platinum-tin catalysts having different tin concentrations. It has been shown that the maximum activity is possessed by a catalyst containing 2% tin. On this catalyst the kinetic isotopic effect has been measured, in which the hydrogen was replaced by deuterium and the isotopic distribution has been measured for the exchange products between isobutane, isobutylene and deuterium. A stagewise system for the mechanism of the process and kinetic equations, proposed previously for the reaction on platinum and platinum-indium catalysts are fully applicable also to reactions on catalysts containing tin

  9. Landscape Function of Post Tin-Mining Land After Reclamation in Bangka, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, H. F.; Sulistijorini; Aryanti, N. S.

    2017-03-01

    Tin mining has a negative impact on the environment of Bangka, Indonesia. Efforts have being conducted to reclaim post tin-mining lands. However, the ecological function of the land have not been evaluated. The objective of this research was to assess the landscape function of post tin mining lands in Bangka. This researchwas conducted at three location that represented the tin mining conditions in Bangka. The landscape function analysis(LFA)was performed in each location for three types of land (A: unreclaimed tin-mining, B: reclaimed tin-mining, C: natural forest, as reference site). The results of LFA showed similar pattern for stability index among locations. The highest stability index (> 60%) occured at land C. On the other hand, the post tin mining area, land A and land B have low stability index (less than 38%). The infiltration index, high (>59%) in land C, low (33-36%) in land A and B).The nutrient cycling index also showed a value comparable to the stability index of land and infiltration index. It could be concluded that the post tin-mining landshas critical landscape function.However, by planting trees for reclaiming the area gradually improved the function of the post tin mining landscape.

  10. Influence of Direct Current Electric Field on Corrosion Behavior of Tin Under a Thin Electrolyte Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. L.; Bu, F. R.; Tian, J.; Liu, D.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of a direct current electric field (DCEF) on corrosion behavior of tin under a thin electrolyte layer was investigated based on an array electrode technology by polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and surface analysis. The experimental results indicate that the corrosion rate of tin near the positive plate of DCEF increases with increased electric field intensity, which could be attributed to the acceleration of the migration of ions, the removal of corrosion products under DCEF and the damage of tin surface oxide film. Furthermore, tin at different positions in a DCEF exhibits different corrosion behavior, which could be ascribed to the difference of the local corrosion environment caused by the DCEF.

  11. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  12. Charged black holes in phantom cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Qadir, Asghar; Rashid, Muneer Ahmad [National University of Sciences and Technology, Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2008-11-15

    In the classical relativistic regime, the accretion of phantom-like dark energy onto a stationary black hole reduces the mass of the black hole. We have investigated the accretion of phantom energy onto a stationary charged black hole and have determined the condition under which this accretion is possible. This condition restricts the mass-to-charge ratio in a narrow range. This condition also challenges the validity of the cosmic-censorship conjecture since a naked singularity is eventually produced due to accretion of phantom energy onto black hole. (orig.)

  13. Tidal interactions with Kerr black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    The tidal deformation of an extended test body falling with zero angular momentum into a Kerr black hole is calculated. Numerical results for infall along the symmetry axis and in the equatorial plane of the black hole are presented for a range of values of a, the specific angular momentum of the black hole. Estimates of the tidal contribution to the gravitational radiation are also given. The tidal contribution in equatorial infall into a maximally rotating Kerr black hole may be of the same order as the center-of-mass contribution to the gravitational radiation

  14. Planar domain walls in black hole spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficek, Filip; Mach, Patryk

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the behavior of low-mass, planar domain walls in the so-called ϕ4 model of the scalar field on the Schwarzschild and Kerr backgrounds. We focus on a transit of a domain wall through a black hole and solve numerically the equations of motion for a range of parameters of the domain wall and the black hole. We observe a behavior resembling an occurrence of ringing modes. Perturbations of domain walls vanish during latter evolution, suggesting their stability against a passage through the black hole. The results obtained for Kerr and Reissner-Nordström black holes are also compared.

  15. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  16. Charged topological black hole pair creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    I examine the pair creation of black holes in space-times with a cosmological constant of either sign. I consider cosmological C-metrics and show that the conical singularities in this metric vanish only for three distinct classes of black hole metric, two of which have compact event horizons on each spatial slice. One class is a generalization of the Reissner-Nordstroem (anti-)de Sitter black holes in which the event horizons are the direct product of a null line with a 2-surface with topology of genus g. The other class consists of neutral black holes whose event horizons are the direct product of a null conoid with a circle. In the presence of a domain wall, black hole pairs of all possible types will be pair created for a wide range of mass and charge, including even negative mass black holes. I determine the relevant instantons and Euclidean actions for each case. (orig.)

  17. Immune stimulation following dermal exposure to unsintered indium tin oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Kristie; Anderson, Stacey E; Lukomska, Ewa; Long, Carrie; Anderson, Katie; Marshall, Nikki; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several types of pulmonary pathology, including alveolar proteinosis, fibrosis, and emphysema, have been reported in workers in the indium industry. To date, there remains no clear understanding of the underlying mechanism(s). Pulmonary toxicity studies in rats and mice have demonstrated the development of mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia and granulomas of mediastinal lymph nodes and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues following exposure to indium tin oxide. Given the association between exposure to other metals and the development of immune-mediated diseases, these studies were undertaken to begin to investigate the immuno-modulatory potential of unsintered indium tin oxide (uITO) in a mouse model. Using modifications of the local lymph node assay, BALB/c mice (five animals/group) were exposed topically via intact or breached skin or injected intradermally at the base of the ear pinnae with either vehicle or increasing concentrations 2.5-10% uITO (90:10 indium oxide/tin oxide, particle size <50 nm). Dose-responsive increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed with a calculated EC3 of 4.7% for the intact skin study. Phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node cells following intradermal injection with 5% uITO yielded a profile consistent with a T-cell-mediated response. These studies demonstrate the potential for uITO to induce sensitization and using lymphocyte proliferation as a biomarker of exposure, and demonstrate the potential for uITO to penetrate both intact and breached skin.

  18. Dynamic viscosities of pure tin and Sn-Ag, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Ag-Cu eutectic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhitsina, E. V.; Gruner, S.; Kaban, I.; Hoyer, W.; Sidorov, V. E.; Popel', P. S.

    2011-02-01

    The dynamic viscosities of the melts of pure tin and eutectic Sn-Ag, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Ag-Cu alloys are studied in heating followed by cooling, and the maximum heating temperature was 1200°C. An irreversible decrease in the viscosity is found in the temperature range 800-1000°C in the polytherms of all melts. This finding is related to the loss of a local order in a melt and can be used to develop temperature regimes for the production of lead-free solders.

  19. Improved localized surface plasmon resonance index sensitivity based on chemically-synthesized gold nanoparticles on indium tin oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin; Li, Xiaolong; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Biao; Tian, Yubo

    2018-02-01

    The results of this reported work indicated that gold nanoparticle arrays self-assembled on indium tin oxide (ITO) glasses can obtain broader localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength range and higher sensitivity than the bare quartz. The results of surface electric field calculated using finite difference time domain showed that the electric field of nanoparticles on ITO glasses is enhanced and the repulsive forces within each particle is weakened. According to the dipolar interaction mechanism, a weakened repulsive forces within each particle lead to a lower resonance frequency and a strong redshift of the LSPR spectra.

  20. Propulsion of a flat tin target with pulsed CO2 laser radiation: measurements using a ballistic pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatosh, B. V.; Abramenko, D. B.; Ivanov, V. V.; Medvedev, V. V.; Krivtsun, V. M.; Koshelev, K. N.; Yakunin, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    The recoil momentum transfer produced by irradiation of a flat tin (Sn) target with pulses of high-power CO2 laser with intensity ranging from 107 to 1010 W cm-2 has been studied. Momentum measurements were performed using a ballistic pendulum, capable of measuring momenta as small as 0.001 g · cm s-1 . It has been established that the recoil momentum monotonically increases with the laser energy and asymptotically reaches the power scaling law p ∼ Iα with α = 0.96 +/- 0.07 . Results are compared with previously published theoretical studies.

  1. Spray Pyrolyzed Polycrystalline Tin Oxide Thin Film as Hydrogen Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh E. Patil; D. D. Kajale; D. N. Chavan; N. K. Pawar; V. B. Gaikwad; G. H. Jain

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) thin film was prepared by using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT). The film was characterized for their phase and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The crystallite size calculated from the XRD pattern is 84 nm. Conductance responses of the polycrystalline SnO2 were measured towards gases like hydrogen (H2), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ethanol vapors (C2H5OH), NH3, CO, CO2, Cl2 an...

  2. Effect of tin etiopurpurin and light on the canine prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Steven H.; Keck, Rick W.; Doiron, Daniel R.

    1995-03-01

    A series of experiments was undertaken to determine the effects of the combination of light and the tissue photosensitizer, tin etiopurpurin, on the canine prostate. Mongrel dogs were injected intravenously with 1.0 mg/kg of photosensitizer twenty-four hours prior to light delivery. Laser light, 660 nm, was administered either transurethrally or interstitially and tissue effects were assessed by histopathologic examination. Both techniques of light delivery resulted in hemorrhagic necrosis of the surrounding tissue. Photodynamic therapy may offer a novel approach to the treatment of both benign and malignant diseases of the prostate.

  3. Coating power RF components with TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Hahn, E.

    1995-03-01

    A facility for coating RF power components with thin films of Ti and/or TiN has been in operation for some time at Fermilab supporting the Accelerator Division RF development work and the TESLA program. It has been experimentally verified that such coatings improve the performance of these components as far as withstanding higher electric fields. This is attributed to a reduction in the secondary electron emission coefficient of the surfaces when coated with a thin film containing titanium. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to describe the facility and the procedure used

  4. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  5. Black Holes in Our Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Current technologies have enabled glimpses at the many facetsof black holes, which we know to be plentiful in our cosmos.A panoramic view of the evidence for them is presented hereacross the large range of masses that they span. Author Affiliations. Prajval Shastri. Resonance – Journal of Science Education.

  6. Concentration of heavy metal As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, Zn, Cr, Fe and radon gas in bottom sediment from abandoned tin mines in the Phuket Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suteerasak, T.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at analyzing the heavy metals: As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and radon gas emission in bottom sediment from six abandoned tin mines in Phuket Province. Fe, Mn, and Sn were found in higher concentrations (but non-polluting than Cr and Ni. As, Pb, and Zn were polluting at lower levels. The concentration ranges for As, Pb, and Zn were 75.3-169, 98.6-547.5, and 120.4-323.3 mg/kg respectively. The activity of radon gas emission from bottom sediment from an abandoned tin mine in Amphur Muang was in the range of 162-212 Bq/kg., in the Amphur Katoo mine the range was 122-266 Bq/kg. and in the Amphur Talang mine the range was 180-263 Bq/kg. All these sites have higher concentrations of radon gas emissions than other similar sites. The heavy metals and radon gas come from geochemical materials such as soil and granite rock, found around the abandoned tin mines.

  7. Formation of black hole and emission of gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi

    2006-12-01

    Numerical simulations were performed for the formation process of rotating black holes. It is suggested that Kerr black holes are formed for wide ranges of initial parameters. The nature of gravitational waves from a test particle falling into a Kerr black hole as well as the development of 3D numerical relativity for the coalescing binary neutron stars are discussed.

  8. Petrogenesis of Malaysian tin granites: geochemistry, fractional crystallization, U-Pb zircon geochronology and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai-Pan Ng, Samuel; Searle, Mike; Whitehouse, Martin; Chung, Sun-Lin; Ghani, Azman; Robb, Laurence; Sone, Masatoshi; Oliver, Grahame; Gardiner, Nick; Roselee, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    The Malaysian tin granites forming the backbone of the Thai-Malay Peninsula has been long recognized with two distinct granitic provinces:- 1. Early Permian to Late Triassic Eastern Province with mainly "I-type" (Hbl)-Bt granites with associated Cu-Au deposits, with subordinate Bt granites hosting limited Sn-W deposits, and 2. Late Triassic Main Range Province with mainly "S-type" Bt granites with associated Sn-W deposits, and subordinate (Hbl)-Bt granites. New geochemical data show that Chappell and White's (1974) I-S granite classification adopted in the existing model does not adequately distinguish the granites from one another as previously implied. Trace element geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions show that the Malaysian tin granites in both provinces have transitional I-S characteristics. In addition, they inherited within-plate signature from Cambro-Ordovician Gondwana-related source rocks. Previous ages were obtained by whole rock Rb-Sr and biotite K-Ar geochronology in the 70s and 80s, dating methods that may not accurately represent the crystallization age of granites. We re-sampled the entire Malaysian Peninsula and 40 samples were collected for high-precision U-Pb SIMS dating on extracted zircon grains in order to better constrain the magmatic and tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. The crystallization ages of the Eastern Province granitoids have been constrained ranging from 220 to 290 Ma, while the Main Range (Western) Province granitoids have ages ranging from 200 to 230 Ma. A progressive westward younging trend is apparent across the Eastern Province, but becomes less obvious in the Main Range Province. Our model suggests two east dipping subduction zones. We suggest that subduction roll-back along the Bentong-Raub suture might account for the westward younging trend, in the Eastern province. A second Late Triassic east-dipping subduction zone beneath western Malaysia is proposed in order to explain the "I-type" components to the Main

  9. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Black Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Black eye Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a ... 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-black-eye/basics/ART-20056675 . Mayo ...

  11. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  12. Plasmon polaritons in the near infrared on fluorine doped tin oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Lorenzo; Michelotti, Francesco; Brown, Thomas M; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2009-06-08

    Here we investigate plasmon polaritons in fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films. By fitting reflectance and transmittance measurements as a function of wavelength lambda epsilon [1.0microm, 2.5microm] we derive a Drude dispersion relation of the free electrons in the transparent conducting oxide films. Then we compute the dispersion curves for the bulk and surface modes together with a reflectance map over an extended wavelength region (lambda==>10microm). Although the surface polariton dispersion for a single FTO/air interface when neglecting damping should appear clearly in the plots in the considered region (since it is supposedly far and isolated from other resonances), a complex behaviour can arise. This is due to different characteristic parameters, such as the presence of a finite extinction coefficient, causing an enlargement and backbending of the feature, and the low film thickness, via coupling between the modes from both the glass/FTO and FTO/air interfaces. Taking into account these effects, computations reveal a general behaviour for thin and absorbing conducting films. They predict a thickness dependent transition region between the bulk polariton and the surface plasmon branches as previously reported for indium tin oxide. Finally, attenuated total reflection measurements vs the incidence angle are performed over single wavelengths lines R(theta) (lambda= 0.633,0.830,1.300,1.550microm) and over a two dimensional domain R(theta,lambda) in the near infrared region lambda epsilon [1.45microm, 1.59microm]. Both of these functions exhibit a feature which is attributed to a bulk polariton and not to a surface plasmon polariton on the basis of comparison with spectrophotometer measurements and modeling. The predicted range for the emergence of a surface plasmon polariton is found to be above lambda >or= 2.1microm, while the optimal film thickness for its observation is estimated to be around 200nm.

  13. Filling the voids in the SRTM elevation model — A TIN-based delta surface approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Siebert, Stefan; Buerkert, Andreas

    The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission is the most accurate near-global elevation model that is publicly available. However, it contains many data voids, mostly in mountainous terrain. This problem is particularly severe in the rugged Oman Mountains. This study presents a method to fill these voids using a fill surface derived from Russian military maps. For this we developed a new method, which is based on Triangular Irregular Networks (TINs). For each void, we extracted points around the edge of the void from the SRTM DEM and the fill surface. TINs were calculated from these points and converted to a base surface for each dataset. The fill base surface was subtracted from the fill surface, and the result added to the SRTM base surface. The fill surface could then seamlessly be merged with the SRTM DEM. For validation, we compared the resulting DEM to the original SRTM surface, to the fill DEM and to a surface calculated by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) from the SRTM data. We calculated the differences between measured GPS positions and the respective surfaces for 187,500 points throughout the mountain range (ΔGPS). Comparison of the means and standard deviations of these values showed that for the void areas, the fill surface was most accurate, with a standard deviation of the ΔGPS from the mean ΔGPS of 69 m, and only little accuracy was lost by merging it to the SRTM surface (standard deviation of 76 m). The CIAT model was much less accurate in these areas (standard deviation of 128 m). The results show that our method is capable of transferring the relative vertical accuracy of a fill surface to the void areas in the SRTM model, without introducing uncertainties about the absolute elevation of the fill surface. It is well suited for datasets with varying altitude biases, which is a common problem of older topographic information.

  14. Synthesis of a mixed-valent tin nitride and considerations of its possible crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Christopher M; Holder, Aaron; Shulda, Sarah; Christensen, Steven T; Diercks, David; Schwartz, Craig P; Biagioni, David; Nordlund, Dennis; Kukliansky, Alon; Natan, Amir; Prendergast, David; Orvananos, Bernardo; Sun, Wenhao; Zhang, Xiuwen; Ceder, Gerbrand; Ginley, David S; Tumas, William; Perkins, John D; Stevanovic, Vladan; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Lany, Stephan; Richards, Ryan M; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-04-14

    Recent advances in theoretical structure prediction methods and high-throughput computational techniques are revolutionizing experimental discovery of the thermodynamically stable inorganic materials. Metastable materials represent a new frontier for these studies, since even simple binary non-ground state compounds of common elements may be awaiting discovery. However, there are significant research challenges related to non-equilibrium thin film synthesis and crystal structure predictions, such as small strained crystals in the experimental samples and energy minimization based theoretical algorithms. Here, we report on experimental synthesis and characterization, as well as theoretical first-principles calculations of a previously unreported mixed-valent binary tin nitride. Thin film experiments indicate that this novel material is N-deficient SnN with tin in the mixed ii/iv valence state and a small low-symmetry unit cell. Theoretical calculations suggest that the most likely crystal structure has the space group 2 (SG2) related to the distorted delafossite (SG166), which is nearly 0.1 eV/atom above the ground state SnN polymorph. This observation is rationalized by the structural similarity of the SnN distorted delafossite to the chemically related Sn3N4 spinel compound, which provides a fresh scientific insight into the reasons for growth of polymorphs of metastable materials. In addition to reporting on the discovery of the simple binary SnN compound, this paper illustrates a possible way of combining a wide range of advanced characterization techniques with the first-principle property calculation methods, to elucidate the most likely crystal structure of the previously unreported metastable materials.

  15. Platinum/tin oxide/carbon cathode catalyst for high temperature PEM fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrondo, Javier; Mijangos, Federico; Rambabu, B.

    The performance of high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) using platinum supported over tin oxide and Vulcan carbon (Pt/SnOx/C) as cathode catalyst was evaluated at 160-200 °C and compared with Pt/C. This paper reports first time the Pt/SnOx/C preparation, fuel cell performance, and durability test up to 200 h. Pt/SnOx/C of varying SnO compositions were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and EIS. The face-centered cubic structure of nanosized Pt becomes evident from XRD data. TEM and EDX measurements established that the average size of the Pt nanoparticles were ∼6 nm. Low ionic resistances were derived from EIS, which ranged from 0.5 to 5 Ω-cm 2 for cathode and 0.05 to 0.1 Ω-cm 2 for phosphoric acid, doped PBI membrane. The addition of the SnOx to Pt/C significantly promoted the catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The 7 wt.% SnO in Pt/SnO 2/C catalyst showed the highest electro-oxidation activity for ORR. High temperature PEMFC measurements performed at 180 °C under dry gases (H 2 and O 2) showed 0.58 V at a current density of 200 mA cm -2, while only 0.40 V was obtained in the case of Pt/C catalyst. When the catalyst contained higher concentrations of tin oxide, the performance decreased as a result of mass transport limitations within the electrode. Durability tests showed that Pt/SnOx/C catalysts prepared in this work were stable under fuel cell working conditions, during 200 h at 180 °C demonstrate as potential cathode catalyst for HT-PEMFCs.

  16. Platinum/tin oxide/carbon cathode catalyst for high temperature PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrondo, Javier; Rambabu, B. [Solid State Ionics and Surface Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Southern University and A and M College, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 (United States); Mijangos, Federico [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Vizcaya 48940 (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The performance of high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) using platinum supported over tin oxide and Vulcan carbon (Pt/SnOx/C) as cathode catalyst was evaluated at 160-200 C and compared with Pt/C. This paper reports first time the Pt/SnOx/C preparation, fuel cell performance, and durability test up to 200 h. Pt/SnOx/C of varying SnO compositions were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and EIS. The face-centered cubic structure of nanosized Pt becomes evident from XRD data. TEM and EDX measurements established that the average size of the Pt nanoparticles were {proportional_to}6 nm. Low ionic resistances were derived from EIS, which ranged from 0.5 to 5 {omega}-cm{sup 2} for cathode and 0.05 to 0.1 {omega}-cm{sup 2} for phosphoric acid, doped PBI membrane. The addition of the SnOx to Pt/C significantly promoted the catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The 7 wt.% SnO in Pt/SnO{sub 2}/C catalyst showed the highest electro-oxidation activity for ORR. High temperature PEMFC measurements performed at 180 C under dry gases (H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}) showed 0.58 V at a current density of 200 mA cm{sup -2}, while only 0.40 V was obtained in the case of Pt/C catalyst. When the catalyst contained higher concentrations of tin oxide, the performance decreased as a result of mass transport limitations within the electrode. Durability tests showed that Pt/SnOx/C catalysts prepared in this work were stable under fuel cell working conditions, during 200 h at 180 C demonstrate as potential cathode catalyst for HT-PEMFCs. (author)

  17. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a barrier...

  18. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudecker, Bernd J.; Bates, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  19. The electrochemical deposition of tin-nickel alloys and the corrosion properties of the coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2005-01-01

    The electrodeposition of tin/nickel (65/35 wt%) is a unique coating process because of the deposition of an intermetallic phase of nickel and tin, which cannot be formed by any pyrometallurgical process. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that intermetallic phases can be formed throu...

  20. Study of optical characteristics of tin oxide thin film prepared by sol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present details of preparation of tin oxide (SnO2) thin film by sol–gel process. The film was synthesized on a glass (Corning 7059) plate by dip coating method. Here, we used tin (II) chloride as precursor and methanol as solvent. Optical characteristics and physical properties like refractive index, ...

  1. Tin- and Lead-Based Perovskite Solar Cells under Scrutiny: An Environmental Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano-Luján, Lucía; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2015-01-01

    The effect of substituting lead with tin in perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs) has shows that lead is preferred over tin by a lower cumulative energy demand. The results, which also include end-of-life management, show that a recycling scenario that carefully handles emission of lead enables use...

  2. Characterisation of baroque tin amalgam mirrors of the historical Green Vault in Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywitzki, O.; Nedon, W.; Kopte, T.; Modes, T.

    2008-07-01

    The historical Green Vault, one of Europe’s most sumptuous treasure chambers, has reopened in September 2006 in the Dresden Royal Palace. For the baroque presentation of the artworks the special properties of tin amalgam mirrors are of great importance. A comprehensive analytic characterisation was necessary for restoration and reconstruction. The different original casting glasses were analysed in respect of chemical composition, roughness, waviness and optical properties like chromaticity coordinates and transmittance. The microstructure of the tin amalgam layers were investigated on metallographic cross-sections and by X-ray diffraction. The investigations reveal that the tin amalgam layers are composed of γ-HgSn6-10 phase with a grain size between 5 and 50 μm surrounded by a thin mercury phase with about 2 wt. % tin. However the most important property of the baroque tin amalgam mirrors is a relative low reflectivity of about 59% which is drastically lower than for silver mirrors with a reflectivity of about 96%. According to the characterisation results a suitable glass for reconstruction was selected. The mirror layers were produced by historical tin amalgam technology for the rooms not destroyed by bombarding of Dresden in February 1945. For the completely destroyed Jewel Room pure tin layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The results show that this new technology enables an adequate substitute for the original tin amalgam layers.

  3. Studies on thermal processing of Tuna-A comparative study in tin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tin-free steel can is an ideal alternative to open top sanitary tin cans (OTS) for thermal processing of little tuna (Ethynnus affinis) in curry used as filling media. Effect of heat penetration on physical, biochemical and sensory characteristics of canned tuna product were studied. The chemical analysis of raw tuna fish showed a ...

  4. Occupational irritant contact folliculitis associated with triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Petri, M

    1982-01-01

    Triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) is a bioactive organo-tin compound used in concentrations 2-12% as anti-foulants in boat paints. The chemical is moderately toxic to the skin. An occupational irritant contact folliculitis from TPTF in a marine paint plant worker is described. Contact allergy...

  5. 78 FR 52802 - Tin T. Win, M.D., Dismissal of Proceeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Tin T. Win, M.D., Dismissal of Proceeding On... Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration to Tin T. Win, M.D. (hereinafter, Registrant), of Lake... precludes a finding of mootness, see Robert Charles Ley, 76 FR 20033, 20034 (2011), I directed the...

  6. Defect structures of ion-implanted α-tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.W.; Weyer, G.; Damgaard, S.; Nielsen, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Single crystalline and polycrystalline α-tin has been implanted at the room temperature 80-keV ions of radioactive sup(119m)Sn, 119 Sb, and sup(119m)Te. The radioactive nuclei decay to the Moessbauer level of 119 Sn. Moessbauer spectra of the emitted 24-keV γ radiation have been measured for different source temperatures by resonance counting techniques. Five individual lines in the spectra are characterized mainly by their isomer shifts and Debye temperatures. From these parameters the radiogenic 119 Sn atoms are concluded to be located in regular substitutional and interstitial lattice sites and in defect complexes. Simple models for the defects are proposed: A Sn-vacancy pair consists of Sn atoms on (nearly) substitutional sites with a dangling bond into an adjacent vacancy. In a complex oxygen-containing defect the Sn atoms have approximately a 5s 2 configuration with p-bonds to two nearest neighbour atoms. Sn atoms, having an atomic 5s 2 5p 2 configuration and large vibrational amplitudes, are concluded to be in non-bonding regular interstitial sites. For special implantation conditions minor fractions of SnO 2 molecules are formed in the bulk, The interstitial 119 Sn and the 119 Sn-vacancy pairs are proposed to represent elementary point defects in α-tin. Conclusions are also drawn concerning the lattice location and the defects created in the implantation process by the implanted parent isotopes. (orig.)

  7. A variable resolution right TIN approach for gridded oceanographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David; Elmore, Paul; Blain, Cheryl Ann; Bourgeois, Brian; Petry, Frederick; Ferrini, Vicki

    2017-12-01

    Many oceanographic applications require multi resolution representation of gridded data such as for bathymetric data. Although triangular irregular networks (TINs) allow for variable resolution, they do not provide a gridded structure. Right TINs (RTINs) are compatible with a gridded structure. We explored the use of two approaches for RTINs termed top-down and bottom-up implementations. We illustrate why the latter is most appropriate for gridded data and describe for this technique how the data can be thinned. While both the top-down and bottom-up approaches accurately preserve the surface morphology of any given region, the top-down method of vertex placement can fail to match the actual vertex locations of the underlying grid in many instances, resulting in obscured topology/bathymetry. Finally we describe the use of the bottom-up approach and data thinning in two applications. The first is to provide thinned, variable resolution bathymetry data for tests of storm surge and inundation modeling, in particular hurricane Katrina. Secondly we consider the use of the approach for an application to an oceanographic data grid of 3-D ocean temperature.

  8. TiN-conductive carbon black composite as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.R.; Wang, F.; Song, J.; Xiong, F.Y.; Gao, X.P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The TiN nanoparticles are highly dispersed on conductive carbon black matrix (CCB). ► The well dispersion of TiN nanoparticles can improve electrochemical performance. ► The TiN/CCB shows a high photovoltaic performance with high conversion efficiency. - Abstract: TiN-conductive carbon black (CCB)/Ti electrodes are prepared by the nitridation of TiO 2 –CCB mixtures filmed on metallic Ti substrate in ammonia atmosphere. It is demonstrated from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that TiN nanoparticles are highly dispersed on the CCB matrix in the composites. TiN–CCB/Ti electrodes show outstanding electrochemical performances as compared to individual TiN/Ti and CCB/Ti electrodes. In particular, the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using TiN–CCB (1:1, mass ratio)/Ti electrode presents an energy conversion efficiency of 7.92%, which is higher than that (6.59%) of the device using Pt/FTO (fluorine doped tin oxide) electrode measured under the same test conditions. Based on the analysis of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), the enhancements for the electrochemical and photochemical performance of TiN–CCB/Ti electrodes are attributed to the fact that the dispersed TiN nanoparticles in the CCB matrix provide an improved electrocatalytic activity and a facilitated diffusion for triiodine ions. This work shows a facile approach to develop metal nitrides–carbon composites as counter electrodes for DSSCs. High energy conversion efficiency and low lost will make the composites have significant potential for replacing the conventional Pt/FTO electrodes in DSSCs.

  9. VO2 /TiN Plasmonic Thermochromic Smart Coatings for Room-Temperature Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Li, Wan; Xu, Huiyan; Wang, Jiawei; Yin, Yin; Wang, Huaiyu; Ma, Libo; Ma, Fei; Jiang, Xuchuan; Schmidt, Oliver G; Chu, Paul K

    2018-03-01

    Vanadium dioxide/titanium nitride (VO 2 /TiN) smart coatings are prepared by hybridizing thermochromic VO 2 with plasmonic TiN nanoparticles. The VO 2 /TiN coatings can control infrared (IR) radiation dynamically in accordance with the ambient temperature and illumination intensity. It blocks IR light under strong illumination at 28 °C but is IR transparent under weak irradiation conditions or at a low temperature of 20 °C. The VO 2 /TiN coatings exhibit a good integral visible transmittance of up to 51% and excellent IR switching efficiency of 48% at 2000 nm. These unique advantages make VO 2 /TiN promising as smart energy-saving windows. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Comparison of radioactive tracer tin colloid and phytate for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masato; Nagashima, Takashi; Kasagawa, Takahiro; Sakakibara, Masahiro; Oshida, Keiko; Sangai, Takafumi; Nakano, S.; Miyazaki, Masaru [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-10-01

    Eighty-four consecutive sentinel node biopsies were performed using dye and radioactive tracer (tin colloid for 42 tumors and phytate for 42 tumors). They had subdermal injection on the morning of surgery or the afternoon before surgery. Maximum RI count of each sentinel node was recorded and classified {<=}5 counts per second (cps), 5-20, or 20<. In injection on the afternoon before surgery, 19 tumors had {<=}5 cps and 2 had 20 cps< in 24 of tin colloid, whereas 1 had {<=}5 cps and 18 had 20 cps< in 22 of phytate. In injection on the morning of surgery, 9 had {<=}5 and 20 had 20< in 18 of tin colloid, whereas 1 had {<=}5 and 18 had 20< in 20 of phytate. The injection of phytate tended to have higher RI count than tin colloid. Phytate is superior to tin colloid for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. (author)

  11. Effect of pulsed voltage on electrochemical migration of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pulsed voltage on electrochemical migration of tin was studied on size 0805 surface mount capacitors. The study was performed under water droplet condition using 0.0156 and 0.156 g L−1 concentrations of NaCl. The amplitude and the offset of rectangular shape pulse were fixed...... formation and increases the charge transferred between the electrodes over time. With increase of duty cycle, increases the anodic dissolution of tin, which was visualized using a tin ion indicator applied on the components prior to applying the voltage. The anodic dissolution of tin significantly...... influences the dendritic growth, although a tendency for more hydroxide precipitation was observed for lower duty cycles. The precipitation of tin hydroxides was identified as influencing factor for the reduction of charge transfer under pulsed voltage with low duty cycles, therefore resulting...

  12. Effects on stress rupture life and tensile strength of tin additions to Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Johnson, W.

    1982-01-01

    Because Inconel 718 represents a major use of columbium and a large potential source of columbium for aerospace alloys could be that of columbium derived from tin slags, the effects of tin additions to Inconel 718 at levels which might be typical of or exceed those anticipated if tin slag derived columbium were used as a melting stock were investigated. Tin was added to 15 pound Inconel 718 heats at levels varying from none added to approximately 10,000 ppm (1 wt%). Limited 1200 F stress rupture testing was performed at stresses from 68,000 to 115,000 psi and a few tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 800 and 1200 F. Additions of tin in excess of 800 ppm were detrimental to ductility and stress rupture life.

  13. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements. [Patent application; continuous process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1980-12-19

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support te liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

  14. Fabrication of TiN nanorods by electrospinning and their electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Dongfei; Lang, Junwei; Yan, Xingbin; Hu, Litian; Xue, Qunji

    2011-01-01

    TiN nanorods were synthesized using electrospinning technique followed by thermolysis in different atmospheres. A dimethyl formamide-ethanol solution of poly-(vinyl pyrrolidone) and Ti (IV)-isopropoxide was used as the electrospinning precursor solution and as-spun nanofibers were calcined at 500 o C in air to generate TiO 2 nanofibers. Subsequently, a conversion from TiO 2 nanofibers to TiN nanorods was employed by the nitridation treatment at 600∼1400 o C in ammonia atmosphere. A typical characteristic of the final products was that the pristine nanofibers were cut into nanorods. The conversion from TiO 2 to TiN was realized when the nitridation temperature was above 800 o C. As-prepared nanorods were composed of TiN nano-crystallites and the average crystallite size gradually increased with the increase of the nitridation temperature. Electrochemical properties of TiN nanorods showed strong dependence on the nitridation temperature. The maximum value of the specific capacitance was obtained from the TiN nanorods prepared at 800 o C. -- Graphical Abstract: TiN nanorods were prepared using electrospinning followed by thermolysis under different atmospheres. Electrochemical properties of the TiN nanorods showed strong dependence on the nitridation temperature. Display Omitted Highlights: → TiN nanorods were synthesized by a combination of electrospinning and thermolysis. → Electrochemical properties showed strong dependence on the nitridation temperature. → The TiN nanorods prepared at 800 o C possessed the highest specific capacitance.

  15. 76 FR 58536 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium... Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan AGENCY: United.... 1675(c)(5)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on tin- and chromium-coated...

  16. Stress analysis and microstructure of PVD monolayer TiN and multilayer TiN/(Ti,Al)N coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, NJM; Zoestbergen, E; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    Two PVD titanium nitride based coatings; monolayer TiN and multilayer resulting from the stacking of TiN and (Ti,Al)N layers were evaluated with respect to their stress state and microstructure. The TiN was deposited by triode evaporation ion plating, whereas the TiN/(Ti,AI)N was deposited using a

  17. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a TiN Ti TiN Trilayer KID Array for 3mm CMB Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowitz, A. E.; Brown, A. D.; Mikula, V.; Stevenson, T. R.; Timbie, P. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) are a promising technology for astronomical observations over a wide range of wavelengths in the mm and sub-mm regime. Simple fabrication, in as little as one lithographic layer, and passive frequency-domain multiplexing, with readout of up to 1000 pixels on a single line with a single cold amplifier, make KIDs an attractive solution for high-pixel-count detector arrays. We are developing an array that optimizes KIDs for optical frequencies near 100GHz to expand their usefulness in mm-wave applications, with a particular focus on CMBB-mode measurement efforts in association with the QUBIC telescope. We have designed, fabricated, and tested a 20-pixel prototype array using a simple quasi lumped microstrip design and pulsed DC reactive magnetron-sputtered TiNTiTiN trilayer resonators, optimized for detecting 100GHz (3mm) signals. Here we present a discussion of design considerations for the array, as well as preliminary detector characterization measurements and results from a study of TiN trilayer properties.

  18. Influence of thermal treatment in N{sub 2} atmosphere on chemical, microstructural and optical properties of indium tin oxide and nitrogen doped indium tin oxide rf-sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroescu, H.; Anastasescu, M.; Preda, S.; Nicolescu, M.; Stoica, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Stefan, N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, RO-77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kampylafka, V.; Aperathitis, E. [FORTH-IESL, Crete (Greece); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Zaharescu, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Gartner, M., E-mail: mgartner@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-31

    We report the influence of the normal thermal treatment (TT) and of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) and nitrogen doped indium tin oxide (ITO:N) thin films. The TT was carried out for 1 h at 400 °C and the RTA for 1 min up to 400 °C, both in N{sub 2} atmosphere. The ITO and ITO:N films were deposited by reactive sputtering in Argon, and respectively Nitrogen plasma, on Si with (100) and (111) orientation. The present study brings data about the microstructural and optical properties of ITO thin films with thicknesses around 300–400 nm. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis showed the formation of continuous and homogeneous films, fully covered by quasi-spherical shaped particles, with higher roughness values on Si(100) as compared to Si(111). Spectroscopic ellipsometry allowed the determination of film thickness, optical band gap as well as of the dispersion curves of n and k optical constants. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of diffraction peaks corresponding to the same nominal bulk composition of ITO, but with different intensities and preferential orientation depending on the substrate, atmosphere of deposition and type of thermal treatment. - Highlights: ► Stability of the films can be monitored by experimental ellipsometric spectra. ► The refractive index of indium tin oxide film on 0.3–30 μm range is reported. ► Si(100) substrate induces rougher film surfaces than Si(111). ► Rapid thermal annealing and normal thermal treatment lead to stable conductive film. ► The samples have a higher preferential orientation after rapid thermal annealing.

  19. Brane world black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, Anurag; Sengupta, Gautam

    2007-01-01

    Five dimensional neutral rotating black rings are described from a Randall-Sundrum brane world perspective in the bulk black string framework. To this end we consider a rotating black string extension of a five dimensional black ring into the bulk of a six dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world with a single four brane. The bulk solution intercepts the four brane in a five dimensional black ring with the usual curvature singularity on the brane. The bulk geodesics restricted to the plane of rotation of the black ring are constructed and their projections on the four brane match with the usual black ring geodesics restricted to the same plane. The asymptotic nature of the bulk geodesics are elucidated with reference to a bulk singularity at the AdS horizon. We further discuss the description of a brane world black ring as a limit of a boosted bulk black 2 brane with periodic identification

  20. Defect Engineering and Interface Phenomena in Tin Oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Albar, Arwa

    2017-04-05

    The advance in transparent electronics requires high-performance transparent conducting oxide materials. The microscopic properties of these materials are sensitive to the presence of defects and interfaces and thus fundamental understanding is required for materials engineering. In this thesis, first principles density functional theory is used to investigate the possibility of tuning the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of tin oxide by means of defects and interfaces. Our aim is to reveal unique properties and the parameters to control them as well as to explain the origin of unique phenomena in oxide materials. The stability of native defect in tin monoxide (SnO) under strain is investigated using formation energy calculations. We find that the conductivity (which is controlled by native defects) can be switched from p-type to either n-type or undoped semiconducting by means of applied pressure. We then target inducing magnetism in SnO by 3d transition metal doping. We propose that V doping is efficient to realize spin polarization at high temperature. We discuss different tin oxide interfaces. Metallic states are found to form at the SnO/SnO2 interface with electronic properties that depend on the interface terminations. The origin of these states is explained in terms of charge transfer caused by chemical bonding and band alignment. For the SnO/SnO2 heterostructure, we observe the formation of a two dimensional hole gas at the interface, which is surprising as it cannot be explained by the standard polar catastrophe model. Thus, we propose a charge density discontinuity model to explain our results. The model can be generalized to other polar-polar interfaces. Motivated by technological applications, the electronic and structural properties of the MgO (100)/SnO2 (110) interface are investigated. Depending on the interface termination, we observe the formation of a two dimensional electron gas or spin polarized hole gas. Aiming to identify further

  1. Extension of the distribution of the migratory range of the “Black-fronted Ground Tyrant” Muscisaxicola frontalis (Aves: Tyrannidae in Peru Extensión de la distribución del rango migratorio de la “Dormilona de Frente Negra”, Muscisaxicola frontalis (Aves: Tyrannidae en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Alcocer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We extent the migratory range of distribution and elevation of Muscisaxicola frontalis (Black-fronted Groundtyrant, Austral migrant reported previously only in the Southern region of the country. The species was observed in rocky slopes near Polylepis flavipilla (Rosaceae woodlands at 4450 m of altitude, in the Huancavelica Department.Extendemos el rango migratorio, altitudinal y de distribución norte de Muscisaxicola frontalis (“Dormilona de Frente Negra”, migrante Austral previamente reportado para el sur del país. La especie fue observada en laderas pedregosas cerca a remanentes de bosque de Queñoa (Polylepis flavipilla, Rosaceae a 4450 m de altitud, en el Departamento de Huancavelica.

  2. Indium tin oxide surface smoothing by gas cluster ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J H; Choi, W K

    2002-01-01

    CO sub 2 cluster ions are irradiated at the acceleration voltage of 25 kV to remove hillocks on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces and thus to attain highly smooth surfaces. CO sub 2 monomer ions are also bombarded on the ITO surfaces at the same acceleration voltage to compare sputtering phenomena. From the atomic force microscope results, the irradiation of monomer ions makes the hillocks sharper and the surfaces rougher from 1.31 to 1.6 nm in roughness. On the other hand, the irradiation of CO sub 2 cluster ions reduces the height of hillocks and planarize the ITO surfaces as smooth as 0.92 nm in roughness. This discrepancy could be explained by large lateral sputtering yield of the cluster ions and re-deposition of sputtered particles by the impact of the cluster ions on surfaces.

  3. Coordination compounds of titanium, zirconium, tin, thorium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.G.; Jain, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Reactions of isatin, furoic acid and picolinic acid have been carried out with titanium tetrachloride, tin tetrachloride, thorium tetrachloride, zirconyl chloride and uranyl nitrate. While 2:3(metal:ligand) type compounds of isatin have been obtained with Ti(IV) and Sn(IV), zirconium(IV), thorium(IV), and uranium(VI) do not react with the ligand under similar experimental conditions. Furoic acid (FAH) and picolinic acid(PicH) form various chloro furoates and picolinates when reacted with TiCl 4 , ZrOCl 2 and ThCl 4 , but do not react with SnCl 4 . The various compounds synthesised have been characterised on the basis of elemental analysis, infrared studies, conductivity and thermogravimetric measurements. (author). 1 tab., 10 refs

  4. Modeling dynamic beta-gamma polymorphic transition in Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Camille; Montheillet, Frank; Petit, Jacques; CEA Gramat Collaboration; EMSE Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Solid-solid phase transitions in metals have been studied by shock waves techniques for many decades. Recent experiments have investigated the transition during isentropic compression experiments and shock-wave compression and have highlighted the strong influence of the loading rate on the transition. Complementary data obtained with velocity and temperature measurements around the polymorphic transition beta-gamma of Tin on gas gun experiments have displayed the importance of the kinetics of the transition. But, even though this phenomenon is known, modeling the kinetic remains complex and based on empirical formulations. A multiphase EOS is available in our 1D Lagrangian code Unidim. We propose to present the influence of various kinetic laws (either empirical or involving nucleation and growth mechanisms) and their parameters (Gibbs free energy, temperature, pressure) on the transformation rate. We compare experimental and calculated velocities and temperature profiles and we underline the effects of the empirical parameters of these models.

  5. Embedded tin nanocrystals in silicon—an electrical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, L.; Haastrup, M. J.; Roesgaard, S.; Hansen, J. L.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Julsgaard, B.

    2018-02-01

    Tin nanocrystals embedded in a SiSn layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy on n-type Si are investigated by means of deep level transient spectroscopy. Two Sn related deep traps are observed, depending on the annealing temperature of the samples. A deep level at {E}{{C}}-0.62 {eV} (Sn1) is observed for annealing temperatures up to 650{}\\circ C, whereas a level at {E}{{C}}-0.53 {eV} (Sn2) appears for annealing temperatures above 600{}\\circ C. Scanning transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of Sn nanocrystals at 600{}\\circ C, which coincides with the appearance of Sn2. Sn1 is tentatively assigned to a Sn related precursor defect, which transforms upon annealing into either Sn nanocrystals or an interface defect located at the nanocrystal surface.

  6. Oxidation of tin clusters: A first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Suman Kalyan; Nigam, Sandeep; Sarkar, Pranab; Majumder, Chiranjib

    2011-12-01

    Here we report the interaction of an oxygen molecule with small tin clusters (Snn, n = 2-6, and 10) using plane wave based pseudo-potential method followed by the LCAO-MO approach. The interaction of oxygen with small Sn clusters undergoes through dissociative adsorption process. The Sn2 shows the highest binding with oxygen by releasing 7.13 eV energy. The higher stability of the Sn2O2 cluster was further verified by sharp increase in the energy gap between the HOMO and LUMO energy levels and very high ionization potential value. After oxidation of Sn clusters, the O atoms are attached to small number of Sn atoms, which is in line with the previous experiments.

  7. Molybdenum-tin as a solar cell metallization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D. W.; Radics, C.

    1981-01-01

    The operations of solar cell manufacture are briefly examined. The formation of reliable, ohmic, low-loss, and low-cost metal contacts on solar cells is a critical process step in cell manufacturing. In a commonly used process, low-cost metallization is achieved by screen printing a metal powder-glass frit ink on the surface of the Si surface and the conductive metal powder. A technique utilizing a molybdenum-tin alloy for the metal contacts appears to lower the cost of materials and to reduce process complexity. The ink used in this system is formulated from MoO3 with Sn powder and a trace amount of titanium resonate. Resistive losses of the resulting contacts are low because the ink contains no frit. The MoO3 is finally melted and reduced in forming gas (N2+H2) to Mo metal. The resulting Mo is highly reactive which facilitates the Mo-Si bonding.

  8. Determination of stannous tin in radiopharmaceutical cold kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrant, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods for determining stannous tin in 'cold kits', used for the preparation of Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals, have been developed. Both are based on the direct titration of the Sn2 in solution. In the first method titration is with N-bromosuccinimide. Of the materials commonly used as cold kits only albumin has been found to interfere with the determination. The second method is a standard iodometric titration in which starch is used as indicator. None of the materials tested interfere with this procedure. The N-bromosuccinimide method is the method of choice as the re-agent, a solid, can be used without prior standardization. Iodine solution must be standardized daily. The paper describes in detail the methods used and gives examples of kits in which the Sn2 levels have been determined using the described procedures

  9. Genotoxicity of indium tin oxide by comet test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO is used for liquid crystal display (LCDs, electrochromic displays, flat panel displays, field emission displays, touch or laptop computer screens, cell phones, energy conserving architectural windows, defogging aircraft and automobile windows, heat-reflecting coatings to increase light bulb efficiency, gas sensors, antistatic window coatings, wear resistant layers on glass, nanowires and nanorods because of its unique properties of high electrical conductivity, transparency and mechanical resistance.Genotoxic effects of ITO were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of ITO at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was a observed at all concentrations of ITO by Comet assay. These result indicate that ITO exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  10. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Organic thin film transistors with indium tin oxide bottom electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chang-Wook; Shin, Hee-Sun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Han, Min-Koo; Pang, Hee-Suk; Kim, Ki-Yong; Chung, In-Jae; Pyo, Sang-Woo; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kwan

    2006-01-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) which employ indium tin oxide (ITO) as source and drain electrodes instead of gold are fabricated. A double gate dielectric layer was used, which consists of benzocyclobutane (BCB) and silicon nitride (SiN x ). The pentacene TFT has lateral dimensions 192 μmx6 μm. The OTFT with the ITO bottom electrode shows a saturation mobility of 0.05∼0.09 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and an on-off current ratio of the order of 10 5 in a gate voltage span between 0 and -40 V. The TFT fabrication process steps had the beneficial side effect of changing the ITO surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This change allows pentacene films with larger grains, observed up to 0.5 μm, to be grown on TFT compared to as-deposited ITO film onto which high quality films cannot be grown

  12. Chemical Thermodynamics Vol. 12 - Chemical Thermodynamics of tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamsjaeger, Heinz; GAJDA, Tamas; Sangster, James; Saxena, Surendra K.; Voigt, Wolfgang; Perrone, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This is the 12th volume of a series of expert reviews of the chemical thermodynamics of key chemical elements in nuclear technology and waste management. This volume is devoted to the inorganic species and compounds of tin. The tables contained in Chapters III and IV list the currently selected thermodynamic values within the NEA TDB Project. The database system developed at the NEA Data Bank, see Section II.6, assures consistency among all the selected and auxiliary data sets. The recommended thermodynamic data are the result of a critical assessment of published information. The values in the auxiliary data set, see Tables IV-1 and IV-2, have been adopted from CODATA key values or have been critically reviewed in this or earlier volumes of the series

  13. Bumpy black holes from spontaneous Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovsky, Sergei; Tinyakov, Peter; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2007-01-01

    We consider black holes in Lorentz violating theories of massive gravity. We argue that in these theories black hole solutions are no longer universal and exhibit a large number of hairs. If they exist, these hairs probe the singularity inside the black hole providing a window into quantum gravity. The existence of these hairs can be tested by future gravitational wave observatories. We generically expect that the effects we discuss will be larger for the more massive black holes. In the simplest models the strength of the hairs is controlled by the same parameter that sets the mass of the graviton (tensor modes). Then the upper limit on this mass coming from the inferred gravitational radiation emitted by binary pulsars implies that hairs are likely to be suppressed for almost the entire mass range of the super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies

  14. Primordial black hole formation by vacuum bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Heling; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate during the inflationary epoch and expand, reaching relativistic speeds. After inflation ends, the bubbles are quickly slowed down, transferring their momentum to a shock wave that propagates outwards in the radiation background. The ultimate fate of the bubble depends on its size. Bubbles smaller than certain critical size collapse to ordinary black holes, while in the supercritical case the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior region by a wormhole. The wormhole then closes up, turning into two black holes at its two mouths. We use numerical simulations to find the masses of black holes formed in this scenario, both in subcritical and supercritical regime. The resulting mass spectrum is extremely broad, ranging over many orders of magnitude. For some parameter values, these black holes can serve as seeds for supermassive black holes and may account for LIGO observations.

  15. Supermassive Black Holes and Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, D.

    2004-01-01

    Supermassive black holes appear to be generic components of galactic nuclei. The formation and growth of black holes is intimately connected with the evolution of galaxies on a wide range of scales. For instance, mergers between galaxies containing nuclear black holes would produce supermassive binaries which eventually coalesce via the emission of gravitational radiation. The formation and decay of these binaries is expected to produce a number of observable signatures in the stellar distribution. Black holes can also affect the large-scale structure of galaxies by perturbing the orbits of stars that pass through the nucleus. Large-scale N-body simulations are beginning to generate testable predictions about these processes which will allow us to draw inferences about the formation history of supermassive black holes.

  16. Influence of Microstructure on the Electrical Properties of Heteroepitaxial TiN Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wenfeng; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Jiaqi

    2018-03-01

    Heteroepitaxial TiN films were deposited on Si substrates by pulse laser deposition at different substrate temperature. The microstructure and surface morphology of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (θ-2θ scan, ω-scan, and ϕ-scan) and atomic force microscopy. The electrical properties of the prepared TiN films were studied using a physical property measurement system. The experimental results showed that the crystallinity and surface morphology of the TiN films were improved gradually with increasing substrate temperature below 700 °C. Specially, single crystal TiN films were prepared when substrate temperature is above 700 °C; However, the quality of TiN films gradually worsened when the substrate temperature was increased further. The electrical properties of the films were directly correlated to their crystalline quality. At the optimal substrate temperature of 700 °C, the TiN films exhibited the lowest resistivity and highest mobility of 25.7 μΩ cm and 36.1 cm2/V s, respectively. In addition, the mechanism concerning the influence of substrate temperature on the microstructure of TiN films is discussed in detail.

  17. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  18. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  19. Black-Body Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Black-body radiation; thermal radiation; heat; electromagnetic radiation; Stefan's Law; Stefan–Boltzmann Law; Wien's Law; Rayleigh–Jeans Law; black-body spectrum; ultraviolet catastrophe; zero point energy; photon.

  20. Violent flickering in Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    intense energy flows of electrically charged matter in its vicinity. The environment of a black hole is constantly being reshaped by a riotous mêlée of strong and competing forces such as gravity, magnetism and explosive pressure. As a result, light emitted by the hot flows of matter varies in brightness in a muddled and haphazard way. "But the pattern found in this new study possesses a stable structure that stands out amidst an otherwise chaotic variability, and so, it can yield vital clues about the dominant underlying physical processes in action," says team member Andy Fabian. The visible-light emission from the neighbourhoods of black holes was widely thought to be a secondary effect, with a primary X-ray outburst illuminating the surrounding gas that subsequently shone in the visible range. But if this were so, any visible-light variations would lag behind the X-ray variability, and would be much slower to peak and fade away. "The rapid visible-light flickering now discovered immediately rules out this scenario for both systems studied," asserts Gandhi. "Instead the variations in the X-ray and visible light output must have some common origin, and one very close to the black hole itself." Strong magnetic fields represent the best candidate for the dominant physical process. Acting as a reservoir, they can soak up the energy released close to the black hole, storing it until it can be discharged either as hot (multi-million degree) X-ray emitting plasma, or as streams of charged particles travelling at close to the speed of light. The division of energy into these two components can result in the characteristic pattern of X-ray and visible-light variability.

  1. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  2. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  3. Electrochemical migration of tin in electronics and microstructure of the dendrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2011-01-01

    The macro-, micro-, and nano-scale morphology and structure of tin dendrites, formed by electrochemical migration on a surface mount ceramic chip resistor having electrodes consisting of tin with small amounts of Pb (∼2wt.%) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron...... microscopy including Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The tin dendrites were formed under 5 or 12V potential bias in 10ppm by weight NaCl electrolyte as a micro-droplet on the resistor during electrochemical migration experiments. The dendrites formed were found to have...

  4. Separation of substandard tin ores by x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, N.I.; Konovalov, V.M.; Kamenskij, Yu.V.; Neverov, A.D.; Ogorodnikov, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of pure tin ores on X-ray fluorescence separation (XFS) is carried out. The volumes of lump sampling are substantiated; several variants of technical and economical efficiency of XFS application have been calculated. It is shown that at XFS of -400+25 mm classes conditional as to tin content intermediate product with high efficiency factor may be prepared. Separation of -25+10 mm class is unsuitable, as it doesn't allow to increase tin content to conditional, and the process efficiency is low

  5. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I.G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  6. Alcoholism and Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Bertha; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Notes that in America, knowledge base concerning alcoholism is concentrated on drinking patterns of Whites, and that Black Americans often differ in their drinking behavior, resulting in a need to clarify issues regarding alcoholism and Blacks. Provides theoretical information useful in better discerning drinking behavior of Blacks. (Author/NB)

  7. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  8. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  9. Analysis of the tin diffusion step in Nb3Sn-Cu superconducting wire produced by the external tin process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Heimes, K.; Efron, A.; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011)

    1986-01-01

    Assuming volume diffusion is dominant, an analysis has been presented which allows one to analytically describe the three stages of the solid-state diffusion process for adding Sn in the external tin method for preparing Nb 3 Sn/Cu superconducting material. It is shown that one obtains a maximum intermetallic compound layer thickness in stage III which then decreases to zero thickness. Important practical questions in utilizing this process are the times required to complete stages I and II of the process, and this analysis predicts that the times required to complete stage I are on the order of days while stage II is completed in a matter of hours. The roles of grain-boundary diffusion and sample geometry are discussed and it is concluded that the analysis may be regarded as an upper bound for determining the times required to complete stages I and II of the solid state Sn diffusion process

  10. Electrical properties of tin-doped zinc oxide nanostructures doped at different dopant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. F., E-mail: babaibaik2002@yahoo.com; Zainol, M. N., E-mail: nizarzainol@yahoo.com; Hannas, M., E-mail: mhannas@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M. H., E-mail: mhmamat@salam.uitm.edu.my; Rusop, Mohamad, E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, S. A., E-mail: saadah@um.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    This project has been focused on the electrical and optical properties respectively on the effect of Tin doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films at different dopant concentrations. These thin films were doped with different Sn dopant concentrations at 1 at%, 2 at%, 3 at%, 4 at% and 5 at% was selected as the parameter to optimize the thin films quality while the annealing temperature is fixed 500 °C. Sn doped ZnO solutions were deposited onto the glass substrates using sol-gel spin coating method. This project was involved with three phases, which are thin films preparation, deposition and characterization. The thin films were characterized using Current Voltage (I-V) measurement and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer Lambda 750) for electrical properties and optical properties. The electrical properties show that the resistivity is the lowest at 4 at% Sn doping concentration with the value 3.08 × 10{sup 3} Ωcm{sup −1}. The absorption coefficient spectrum obtained shows all films exhibit very low absorption in the visible (400-800 nm) and near infrared (NIR) (>800 nm) range but exhibit high absorption in the UV range.

  11. Fractal morphological analysis of Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) layers deposited onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengadesh, P.; Muniandy, S.V.; Majid, W.H. Abd.

    2009-01-01

    Uniform Bacteriorhodopsin layers for the purpose of fabricating Bacteriorhodopsin-based biosensors were prepared by allowing drying of the layers under a constant electric field. To properly observe and understand the 'electric field effect' on the protein Bacteriorhodopsin, the electric and non-electric field influenced Bacteriorhodopsin layers prepared using a manual syringe-deposition method applied onto Indium Tin Oxide electrodes were structurally investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. The results yield obvious morphological differences between the electric and non-electric field assisted Bacteriorhodopsin layers and brings to attention the occurrence of the so-called 'coffee-ring' effect in the latter case. We applied stochastic fractal method based on the generalized Cauchy process to describe the morphological features surrounding the void. Fractal dimension is used to characterize the local regularity of the Bacteriorhodopsin clusters and the correlation exponent is used to describe the long-range correlation between the clusters. It is found that the Bacteriorhodopsin protein tends to exhibit with strong spatial correlation in the presence of external electric field compared to in absence of the electric field. Long-range correlation in the morphological feature may be associated to the enhancement of aggregation process of Bacteriorhodopsin protein in the presence of electric field, thereby inhibiting the formation of the so-called 'coffee-ring' effect. As such, the observations discussed in this work suggest some amount of control of surface uniformity when forming layers.

  12. Tin DioxideNanostructure Gas Sensor for Acetone and Methanol Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Abdul Azeez Dakhil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Simple and efficient technique were successfully used to prepare Tin dioxide (SnO2 nanostructure by simple evaporation method, using single stage horizontal tube furnace under atmosphere pressure and quartz tube with Argon flow without additive. SnO2 thick films were synthesized using simple, homemade, low-cost efficient screen print technique. The thick films were heated at 500 0Cfor one hour to vanish the organic material and any residual impurities. The prepared thick films were investigated using different techniques and apparatus, X-Ray and FESEM to study the structural and morphology of the films, the X-ray results show that the films are polycrystalline with sharp and high intensity peaks indicating high crystalinity of the product. The FESEM Images show homogenous nanostructure with high porosity the dimension range 40-70 nm, optical properties was studied with photoluminescence emission (PL and transmittance in UV-Visible range. SnO2 sensor was built up by electroding the thick films and used for Acetone and methanol detection.

  13. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  14. Towards the theory of mini black holes with subplanckian mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Y.B.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter phenomenologically examines the question of the decay (evaporation) and formation of mini black holes. Neutral black holes are considered, having neither electrical charge, nor color and weak charge, so that no long range vector field is present beyond gravitational radius. Topics considered include thermodynamic equilibrium and the formation of light black holes, the formation and decay of light black holes in the big bang, and the difficulties of the theory. It is emphasized that the existence of mini black holes has not yet been proven

  15. The Role of Primordial Kicks on Black Hole Merger Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Micic, Miroslav; Abel, Tom; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2006-01-01

    Primordial stars are likely to be very massive >30 Msun, form in isolation, and will likely leave black holes as remnants in the centers of their host dark matter halos. We expect primordial stars to form in halos in the mass range 10^6-10^10 Msun. Some of these early black holes, formed at redshifts z>10, could be the seed black hole for a significant fraction of the supermassive black holes found in galaxies in the local universe. If the black hole descendants of the primordial stars exist,...

  16. Particle creation by charged black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khriplovich, I. B.

    1999-10-01

    A simple derivation is given for the leading term (n = 1) in the Schwinger formula for the pair creation by a constant electric field. The same approach is applied then to the charged particle production by a charged black hole. In this case, as distinct from that of a constant electric field, the probability of the charged particle production depends essentially on the particle energy. The production rate by black holes is found in the nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic limits. The range of values for the mass and charge of a black hole is indicated where the discussed mechanism of radiation dominates the Hawking one.

  17. Rotating black holes can have short bristles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Hod

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The elegant ‘no short hair’ theorem states that, if a spherically-symmetric static black hole has hair, then this hair must extend beyond 3/2 the horizon radius. In the present paper we provide evidence for the failure of this theorem beyond the regime of spherically-symmetric static black holes. In particular, we show that rotating black holes can support extremely short-range stationary scalar configurations (linearized scalar ‘clouds’ in their exterior regions. To that end, we solve analytically the Klein–Gordon–Kerr–Newman wave equation for a linearized massive scalar field in the regime of large scalar masses.

  18. Nonequilibrium ab initio molecular dynamics determination of Ti monovacancy migration rates in B 1 TiN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, D.; Sangiovanni, D. G.; Alling, B.; Abrikosov, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    We use the color diffusion (CD) algorithm in nonequilibrium (accelerated) ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to determine Ti monovacancy jump frequencies in NaCl-structure titanium nitride (TiN), at temperatures ranging from 2200 to 3000 K. Our results show that the CD method extended beyond the linear-fitting rate-versus-force regime [Sangiovanni et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 094305 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.094305] can efficiently determine metal vacancy migration rates in TiN, despite the low mobilities of lattice defects in this type of ceramic compound. We propose a computational method based on gamma-distribution statistics, which provides unambiguous definition of nonequilibrium and equilibrium (extrapolated) vacancy jump rates with corresponding statistical uncertainties. The acceleration-factor achieved in our implementation of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics increases dramatically for decreasing temperatures from 500 for T close to the melting point Tm, up to 33 000 for T ≈0.7 Tm .

  19. A visible light photoelectrochemical sensor for tumor marker detection using tin dioxide quantum dot-graphene as labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhu; Li, Meng; Zhu, Yuanna; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2013-12-07

    In this paper, a simple and sensitive sandwich-type photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor for measurement of biomarkers on a gold nanoparticle-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode through electrodeposition for point-of-care testing was developed by using a tin dioxide quantum dot-graphene nanocomposite (G-SnO2) as an excellent label with amplification techniques. The capture antibody (Ab1) was firstly immobilized on the gold nanoparticle-modified ITO electrode due to the covalent conjugation, then the antigen and the AuNP/PDDA-G-SnO2 nanocomposite nanoparticle labeled signal antibody (Ab2) were conjugated successively to form a sandwich-type immunocomplex through a specific interaction. Under irradiation with a common ultraviolet lamp (∼365 nm, price $50), the SnO2 NPs were excited and underwent charge-separation to yield electrons (e(-)) and holes (h(+)). As the holes were scavenged by ascorbic acid (AA), the electrons were transferred to the ITO electrode through RGO to generate a photocurrent. The photocurrents were proportional to the CEA concentrations, and the linear range of the developed immunosensor was from 0.005 to 10 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.036 pg mL(-1). The proposed sensor shows high sensitivity, stability, reproducibility, and can become a promising platform for other biomolecular detection.

  20. A 20MeV (p,d) study of nuclear structure in the even and odd tin isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.G.; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay

    1978-01-01

    The even and odd tin isotopes have been studied by 20 MeV (p,d) reactions. States strongly populated in the odd isotopes are due to the valence neutron shells and extend up to only 2 MeV of excitation energy; 'deep hole' states were not identified. The occupation probabilities extracted from finite-range distorted-wave-Born-approximation calculations generally agree well with the predictions of the BCS theory of superconducting nuclei, particularly with the calculations of Clement and Baranger. In the even tin isotopes, strongly populated states are characterized predominantly by L=2 transfers extending up to 4 MeV excitation energy. The experimental spectroscopic factors are compared with the BCS calculated values of Clement and Baranger, Alzetta and Sawicki, and Van Gunsteren; relatively good agreement is obtained for L=2 transitions, but not for L=0 transitions. A considerable fraction of the sum rule L=2 strength in 118 Sn is missing in the 119 Sn(p,d) 118 Sn experimental spectrum; in like manner, no 4 + strength could be identified in either 114 Sn or 118 Sn

  1. Cytotoxicity and In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity of Antimony (V), Bismuth (V), and Tin (IV) Complexes of Lapachol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marcele Neves; Nogueira, Paula Monalisa; Demicheli, Cynthia; de Oliveira, Ludmila Gonçalvez; da Silva, Meiriane Mariano; Frézard, Frédéric; Melo, Maria Norma; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is the etiologic agent of the cutaneous and diffuse leishmaniasis often associated with drug resistance. Lapachol [2-hydroxy-3-(3'-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone] displays a wide range of antimicrobial properties against many pathogens. In this study, using the classic microscopic in vitro model, we have analyzed the effects of a series of lapachol and chlorides complexes with antimony (V), bismuth (V), and tin (IV) against L. amazonensis. All seven compounds exhibited antileishmanial activity, but most of the antimony (V) and bismuth (V) complexes were toxic against human HepG2 cells and murine macrophages. The best IC50 values (0.17 ± 0.03 and 0.10 ± 0.11 μg/mL) were observed for Tin (IV) complexes (3) [(Lp)(Ph3Sn)] and (6) (Ph3SnCl2), respectively. Their selective indexes (SIs) were 70.65 and 120.35 for HepG2 cells, respectively. However, while analyzing murine macrophages, the SI decreased. Those compounds were moderately toxic for HepG2 cells and toxic for murine macrophages, still underlying the need of chemical modification in this class of compounds.

  2. Dosimetric properties of new formulation of PRESAGE® with tin organometal catalyst: Development of sensitivity and stability to megavoltage energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezerloo, Davood; Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Takavar, Abbas; Zirak, Alireza; Farhood, Bagher; Banaee, Nooshin; Alidokht, Eisa

    2018-01-01

    Tin-base catalyst is one of the widely used organometallic catalysts in polyurethane technology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tin organometallic catalyst in the radiation response and radiological properties of a new formula of PRESAGE ® . In the study, two types of PRESAGE were fabricated. A very little amount of dibutyltindillaurate (DBTDL) (0.07% weight) was used as a catalyst in the fabrication of new PRESAGE (i.e., PRESAGE with catalyst), which components were: 93.93% weight polyurethane, 5% weight tetrachloride, and 1% weight leucomalachite green (LMG). For PRESAGE without catalyst, 94% weight polyurethane, 4% weight tetrachloride, and 2% weight LMG were used. Radiochromic response and postirradiation stability of PRESAGEs were determined. Also, radiological characteristics of PRESAGEs, such as mass density, electron density, mass attenuation coefficient, and mass stopping power in different photon energies were assessed and compared with water. The absorption peak of new PRESAGE compared to PRESAGE without catalyst was observed without change. Sensitivity of new PRESAGE was higher than PRESAGE without catalyst and its stability after the first 1 h was relatively constant. Also, Mass attenuation coefficient of new PRESAGE in energy ranges catalyst in very low concentration can be used in fabrication of radiochromic polymer gel to achieve high sensitivity and stability as well as good radiological properties in the megavoltage photon beam.

  3. Streaming Progressive TIN Densification Filter for Airborne LiDAR Point Clouds Using Multi-Core Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Kang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As one of the key steps in the processing of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR data, filtering often consumes a huge amount of time and physical memory. Conventional sequential algorithms are often inefficient in filtering massive point clouds, due to their huge computational cost and Input/Output (I/O bottlenecks. The progressive TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network densification (PTD filter is a commonly employed iterative method that mainly consists of the TIN generation and the judging functions. However, better quality from the progressive process comes at the cost of increasing computing time. Fortunately, it is possible to take advantage of state-of-the-art multi-core computing facilities to speed up this computationally intensive task. A streaming framework for filtering point clouds by encapsulating the PTD filter into independent computing units is proposed in this paper. Through overlapping multiple computing units and the I/O events, the efficiency of the proposed method is improved greatly. More importantly, this framework is adaptive to many filters. Experiments suggest that the proposed streaming PTD (SPTD is able to improve the performance of massive point clouds processing and alleviate the I/O bottlenecks. The experiments also demonstrate that this SPTD allows the quick processing of massive point clouds with better adaptability. In a 12-core environment, the SPTD gains a speedup of 7.0 for filtering 249 million points.

  4. Space-Based Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Space-Based Range (SBR), previously known as Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS), is a multicenter NASA proof-of-concept project to determine if space-based communications using NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) can support the Range Safety functions of acquiring tracking data and generating flight termination signals, while also providing broadband Range User data such as voice, video, and vehicle/payload data. There was a successful test of the Range Safety system at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on December 20, 2005, on a two-stage Terrier-Orion spin-stabilized sounding rocket. SBR transmitted GPS tracking data and maintained links with two TDRSS satellites simultaneously during the 10-min flight. The payload section deployed a parachute, landed in the Atlantic Ocean about 90 miles downrange from the launch site, and was successfully recovered. During the Terrier-Orion tests flights, more than 99 percent of all forward commands and more than 95 percent of all return frames were successfully received and processed. The time latency necessary for a command to travel from WFF over landlines to White Sands Complex and then to the vehicle via TDRSS, be processed onboard, and then be sent back to WFF was between 1.0 s and 1.1 s. The forward-link margins for TDRS-10 (TDRS East [TDE]) were 11 dB to 12 dB plus or minus 2 dB, and for TDRS-4 (TDRS Spare [TDS]) were 9 dB to 10 dB plus or minus 1.5 dB. The return-link margins for both TDE and TDS were 6 dB to 8 dB plus or minus 3 dB. There were 11 flights on an F-15B at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) between November 2006 and February 2007. The Range User system tested a 184-element TDRSS Ku-band (15 GHz) phased-array antenna with data rates of 5 Mbps and 10 Mbps. This data was a combination of black-and-white cockpit video, Range Safety tracking and transceiver data, and aircraft and antenna controller data streams. IP data formatting was used.

  5. Van der Waals black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Rajagopal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of extended phase space, where the negative cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure in the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we find an asymptotically AdS metric whose thermodynamics matches exactly that of the Van der Waals fluid. We show that as a solution of Einstein's equations, the corresponding stress energy tensor obeys (at least for certain range of metric parameters all three weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions.

  6. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  7. Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Elena; Marolf, Don

    2008-01-01

    This resource letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. Both the physics and astrophysics of black holes are discussed. Breadth has been emphasized over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from non-technical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stabil...

  8. Separation of methyltin species from inorganic tin, and their interactions with humates in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.; Bowen, H.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) and tin(IV) are absorbed from aqueous solutions by Sephadex G-25 gel, from which they can be eluted by humates or fulvates, with which they interact more strongly. Methyltin species are not absorbed by Sephadex G-25, and so can be separated from inorganic tin. Both inorganic tin and methyltin species in natural waters at pH 7.4 can be quantitatively retained by passing through small columns of Chelex-100 resin: the methyltin species can then be washed off the resin with 4M nitric acid. Trimethyltin chloride 113 Sn in water scarcely interacts with fulvates, humates, kaolinite or montmorillonite but is absorbed by Sphagnum peat. Dimethyltin dichloride- 113 Sn reacts significantly with all the above materials after 2 hours equilibration. Methyltin trichloride- 113 Sn interacts weakly in alkaline solutions. (author)

  9. Preparation of tin -heparin complex to be applied for myocardial infarct diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badi, J. M.; Al-Azzawi, H. A.; Resen, H. M.; Abed, I. G.; Owiad, H.; Manji, A. N.

    2012-12-01

    Tin-heparin complex has been prepared (liquid form) to be labeled with technetium-99 can be applied for diagnosis of myocardial infarcts vascular diseases and deep vein thrombosis. The preparation contents are 0.1mg tin chloride dehydrate and 1250 1.U of heparin. The results of the pH effect on the labeling yield indicated that high percentage of labeling yield (96.1%) was obtained in the optimal pH (5.50). The obtained results showed that the quantity of reducing agent (tin chloride dehydrate) and chelating agent (heparin) has no effect on the labeling yield. Results of radio analytical studies by paper chromatography technique wear confirmed by data obtained by Gel chromatography column scanning techniques. These techniques showed the high labeling yield of the tin-heparin complex. The persistence of high labeling yield for 8 hours is a good indication for its stability and efficiency for radio diagnosis examination in nuclear medicine centers. (Author)

  10. Filtrates & Residues: Experimental Work with Tin (II) Chloride in a High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Manuela Martin

    1988-01-01

    Presents a high school chemistry lab experiment using tin (II) chloride to explore the concepts of hydrolysis, Le Chatelier's principle, and electrolysis. Presents methodology and the chemistry involved. Offers questions for the students. (MVL)

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF NANOSECOND ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES TO OBTAIN TIN AND THE PROPERTIES OF ITS ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Komkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally found that the effect of nanosecond electromagnetic pulses to melt the charge, while the carbon thermal recovery of the tin ore, accelerates the formation of the metallic phase.

  12. Effects of Tin on Enzyme Activity in Holothuria grisea (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tatiana Miura; Mattar, Lívia Pôncio; Pereira, Edgar Rocha; Merçon, Julia; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Cruz, Zilma Maria Almeida

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of tin exposure on enzyme activity in the sea cucumber (Holothuria grisea Selenka, 1867). After exposure to 0 (control), 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12 mg L -1 tin, we tested the activities of total cholinesterase in longitudinal muscles, acid phosphatase in gonads and the respiratory tree, as well as alkaline phosphatase in the intestines during a 96-h bioassay. Regression analyses showed that all enzyme activities declined with increasing tin concentrations, except for acid phosphatase in the respiratory tree, which were similarly, inhibited at all tin concentrations. These results indicate that H. grisea is a potential bioindicator for seascape habitat monitoring programs, as its biochemical markers show sensitivity to trace elements that can indicate a rise in pollution levels.

  13. New cosmological constraints on primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B. J.; Kohri, Kazunori; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2010-01-01

    We update the constraints on the fraction of the Universe going into primordial black holes in the mass range 10 9 -10 17 g associated with the effects of their evaporations on big bang nucleosynthesis and the extragalactic photon background. We include for the first time all the effects of quark and gluon emission by black holes on these constraints and account for the latest observational developments. We then discuss the other constraints in this mass range and show that these are weaker than the nucleosynthesis and photon background limits, apart from a small range 10 13 -10 14 g, where the damping of cosmic microwave background anisotropies dominates. Finally we review the gravitational and astrophysical effects of nonevaporating primordial black holes, updating constraints over the broader mass range 1-10 50 g.

  14. The C-terminal extension unique to the long isoform of the shelterin component TIN2 enhances its interaction with TRF2 in a phosphorylation- and dyskeratosis congenita-cluster-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nya D; Dodson, Lois M; Escudero, Laura; Sukumar, Ann T; Williams, Christopher L; Mihalek, Ivana; Baldan, Alessandro; Baird, Duncan M; Bertuch, Alison A

    2018-03-26

    TIN2 is central to the shelterin complex, linking the telomeric proteins TRF1 and TRF2 with TPP1/POT1. Mutations in TINF2 , which encodes TIN2, that are found in dyskeratosis congenita (DC) result in very short telomeres and cluster in a region shared by the two TIN2 isoforms, TIN2S (short) and TIN2L (long). Here we show that TIN2L, but not TIN2S, is phosphorylated. TRF2 interacts more with TIN2L than TIN2S, and both the DC-cluster and phosphorylation promote this enhanced interaction. The binding of TIN2L, but not TIN2S, is affected by TRF2-F120, which is also required for TRF2's interaction with end processing factors such as Apollo. Conversely, TRF1 interacts more with TIN2S than with TIN2L. A DC-associated mutation further reduces TIN2L-TRF1, but not TIN2S-TRF1, interaction. Cells overexpressing TIN2L or phosphomimetic-TIN2L are permissive to telomere elongation, whereas cells overexpressing TIN2S or phosphodead-TIN2L are not. Telomere lengths are unchanged in cell lines in which TIN2L expression has been eliminated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutation. These results indicate that TIN2 isoforms are biochemically and functionally distinguishable, and that shelterin composition could be fundamentally altered in patients with TINF2 mutations. Copyright © 2018 Nelson et al.

  15. Fast, versatile x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in impregnated wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabæk, I.; Christensen, Leif Højslet

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes an energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in bis(tri-n-butyl)tin-oxide impregnated wood. The proposed method is of the backscatter/fundamental parameter type. Its versatility, precision, and accuracy is demonstrated by analyses of eleven samples...... of sapwood of Baltic Redwood. The results obtained are compared with those from neutron activation analysis....

  16. Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Munar, Melvin L.; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Dental implant made of pure titanium (Ti) is prone to scratch and abrasion during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results an increase in surface roughness and therefore, facilitates the adhesion of bacteria. In severe cases, this could lead to peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, surface modification of Ti is necessary to improve its abrasion resistance. Besides, a strong implant–gingiva interface should also be guaranteed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was first prepared with gas nitriding to increase surface hardness of pure the substrate. Then, the TiN was hydrothermally treated in CaCl 2 solution in order to improve its soft tissue biocompatibility. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on surface properties of TiN was investigated and its biocompatibility was assessed in vitro using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell. It was determined that 120 °C was the critical temperature for the hydrothermal treatment condition. Treatment below 120 °C could incorporate Ca into TiN surface, oxidize TiN surface partially and then improve the wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were improved and cell spreading was enhanced on hydrothermally treated specimens compared with untreated ones. Improved wettability, Ca incorporation and negative surface due to interstitial N were believed to be the main reasons. Hydrothermal treatment is expected to make TiN a promising dental implant coating with excellent abrasion resistance and good soft tissue affinity. - Highlights: • Ca was incorporated into TiN surface while not sacrificing its hardness. • Interstitial N due to oxidation promoted Ca adsorption and cell adhesion. • Hydrothermal treatment makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant

  17. Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xingling, E-mail: shixingling1985@hotmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Xu, Lingli [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Munar, Melvin L.; Ishikawa, Kunio [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Dental implant made of pure titanium (Ti) is prone to scratch and abrasion during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results an increase in surface roughness and therefore, facilitates the adhesion of bacteria. In severe cases, this could lead to peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, surface modification of Ti is necessary to improve its abrasion resistance. Besides, a strong implant–gingiva interface should also be guaranteed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was first prepared with gas nitriding to increase surface hardness of pure the substrate. Then, the TiN was hydrothermally treated in CaCl{sub 2} solution in order to improve its soft tissue biocompatibility. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on surface properties of TiN was investigated and its biocompatibility was assessed in vitro using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell. It was determined that 120 °C was the critical temperature for the hydrothermal treatment condition. Treatment below 120 °C could incorporate Ca into TiN surface, oxidize TiN surface partially and then improve the wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were improved and cell spreading was enhanced on hydrothermally treated specimens compared with untreated ones. Improved wettability, Ca incorporation and negative surface due to interstitial N were believed to be the main reasons. Hydrothermal treatment is expected to make TiN a promising dental implant coating with excellent abrasion resistance and good soft tissue affinity. - Highlights: • Ca was incorporated into TiN surface while not sacrificing its hardness. • Interstitial N due to oxidation promoted Ca adsorption and cell adhesion. • Hydrothermal treatment makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant.

  18. RF measurements of a traveling-wave muffin-tin accelerating structure at 90 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, P.J.; Bowden, G.B.; Copeland, M.R.; Menegat, A.; Pritzkau, D.P.; Siemann, R.H.

    1997-05-01

    A measuring system at the table-top scale was developed for RF measurements of a muffin-tin accelerating structure operating at 32 times the SLAC frequency (2.856 GHz). Both perturbation and non-perturbation methods are employed to characterize the RF properties of a muffin-tin structure. Conventional bead pull measurements are extended to millimeter wavelengths. Design of the measuring system and preliminary results of RF measurements are presented

  19. Determination of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead in canned fruits from the Czech market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Diviš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global production of metal cans is more than 300 billion cans. Benefits of metal packaging consist mainly from the great strenght, excellent barrier properties and good thermal conductivity. The main problem of used metal packaging are the corrosion processes. The corrosion of metal container causes dissolution of tin which is used as a protective layer of the steel shell of the can and other metallic elements used in the manufacture of cans. In this work 31 samples of canned fruit was analysed and the concentration of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead was determined in fruit and in syrup using ICP-OES and ICP-MS techniques. The results showed no difference between the concentration of analysed elements in fruit and in syrup. In none of the analyzed samples the permitted maximum concentration of tin 200 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. Maximum concentration of tin was measured in canned grepfruit (59.8 ±1.9 mg.kg-1. The age of cans had no significant effect on the concentration of tin in canned fruit. The concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans with protective layer of lacquer was significantly lower than the concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans without protective layer of lacquer. Concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead in the analysed samples was very low at the natural levels of occurrence of these metals in fruit and it was impossible to determine unequivocally that the measured concentrations of these metals in canned fruit originate from the corrosion of can. The corrosion of the tinplate was studied using scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer. By analyzing the SEM pictures and EDS spectra, critical areas of tin plate corrosion were observed. Based on the measured results it can be concluded that the consumption of fresh canned fruit is not a major problem for the inhabitants of the Czech Republic in terms of intake of potentially hazardous metals.

  20. Suppression of tin precipitation in SiSn alloy layers by implanted carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiduk, Peter; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed the accumul......By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed...

  1. Technology for complex processing of tin-rare earth raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumarev, V.M.; Okunev, A.I.; Krasikov, S.A.; Fedorov, V.D.; Safonov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The tested technology for processing of tin-rare earth raw materials with complicated composition, including the stage of reducing-sulfidizing melting of raw materials with tin and rare earth elements (gallium, thulium) transition in fumes, with rare refractory metals (tantalum, niobium, tungsten) transition in iron-base or matter-base alloy and transition of radionuclides in dump slag is offered. 4 fig., 5 refs

  2. Restoration of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Abandoned Tin- Mining in Bangka Belitung Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Yuarsah; Etik Puji Handayani; Rakhmiati; Yatmin

    2017-01-01

    The practices of tin mining that remove all soil layers on top of the mineral deposit layers have caused serious environmental problems, i.e. degradation of soil physical and chemical properties and disappearance of vegetation, flora and fauna in ecosystems, which further can change the local microclimate. The tailing area of tin mining have unstable soil structure and low organic matter content, so it is vulnerable to land slides and erosion. The characteristics of the soils in the tailing a...

  3. Application of experimental design in a method for screening sediments for global determination of organic tin by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arambarri, I.; Garcia, R.; Millan, E. [Dept. de Quimica Aplicada, Univ. del Pais Vasco, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2001-12-01

    An experimental design was developed to obtain a simple procedure for global determination of organic tin compounds in sediment. Sediment was extracted by a two-phase method and tin was determined in the organic extract by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), with palladium as chemical modifier. A Plackett-Burman design for screening and a fractional central composite design (CCD) for optimizing were used for evaluation of the effects of several variables. The results showed that sediment mass, volume and concentration of extracting acid, pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, and modifier concentration affect the determination. Reference material PACS-2 was analyzed to evaluate the procedure. It was possible to extract 82% of the organotin content certified in the reference sediment. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1}and the relative standard deviation was 4%. The method was applied to the analysis of estuarine superficial sediments from Gipuzkoa (Spain). The organotin content of these samples ranged from 0.7 to 7.7 {mu}g g {sup -1}, as tin, on a dry-weight basis. (orig.)

  4. NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    time, the ones in between have been counted properly. Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated "We need to have an accurate head count over time of all growing black holes if we ever hope to understand their habits, so to speak," co-author Richard Mushotzky of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. Supermassive black holes themselves are invisible, but heated gas around them -- some of which will eventually fall into the black hole - produces copious amounts of radiation in the centers of galaxies as the black holes grow. Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated Growth of Smaller Black Holes Illustrated This study relied on the deepest X-ray images ever obtained, the Chandra Deep Fields North and South, plus a key wider-area survey of an area called the "Lockman Hole". The distances to the X-ray sources were determined by optical spectroscopic follow-up at the Keck 10-meter telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, and show the black holes range from less than a billion to 12 billion light years away. Since X-rays can penetrate the gas and dust that block optical and ultraviolet emission, the very long-exposure X-ray images are crucial to find black holes that otherwise would go unnoticed. Black Hole Animation Black Hole Animation Chandra found that many of the black holes smaller than about 100 million Suns are buried under large amounts of dust and gas, which prevents detection of the optical light from the heated material near the black hole. The X-rays are more energetic and are able to burrow through this dust and gas. However, the largest of the black holes show little sign of obscuration by dust or gas. In a form of weight self-control, powerful winds generated by the black hole's feeding frenzy may have cleared out the remaining dust and gas. Other aspects of black hole growth were uncovered. For example, the typical size of the galaxies undergoing supermassive black hole formation reduces with

  5. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Concrete Material Composed of Tin Slag Waste in Aqueous Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustandi, Andi; Cahyadi, Agung; Taruli Siallagan, Sonia; Wafa’ Nawawi, Fuad; Pratesa, Yudha

    2018-01-01

    Tin slag is a byproduct of tin ore smelting process which is rarely utilized. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the use of tin slag for concrete cement material application compared to the industrial Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Tin slag composition was characterized by XRD and XRF analysis. The characterization results showed the similar chemical composition of tin slag and OPC. It also revealed the semi crystalline structure of tin slag sample. Several electrochemical tests were performed to evaluate corrosion behavior of tin slag, OPC and various mixed composition of both materials and the addition of CaO. The corrosion behavior of OPC and tin slag were evaluated by using Cyclic Polarization, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Electrochemical Frequency Modulation (EFM) methods. Aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with 3.5% w.t concentration which similar to seawater was used as the electrolyte in this work. The steel specimen used as the reinforce bar (rebar) material of the concrete was carbon steel AISI 1045. The rebar was embedded in the concrete cement which composed of OPC and the various composition of tin slag including slag without addition of CaO and slag mixed with addition of 50 % CaO. The electrochemical tests results revealed that tin slag affected its corrosion behavior which becoming more active and increasing the corrosion rate as well as decreasing the electrochemical impedance.

  6. Computing LS factor by runoff paths on TIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavka, Petr; Krasa, Josef; Bek, Stanislav

    2013-04-01

    The article shows results of topographic factor (the LS factor in USLE) derivation enhancement focused on detailed Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) based DEMs. It describes a flow paths generation technique using triangulated irregular network (TIN) for terrain morphology description, which is not yet established in soil loss computations. This technique was compared with other procedures of flow direction and flow paths generation based on commonly used raster model (DEM). These overland flow characteristics together with therefrom derived flow accumulation are significant inputs for many scientific models. Particularly they are used in all USLE-based soil erosion models, from which USLE2D, RUSLE3D, Watem/Sedem or USPED can be named as the most acknowledged. Flow routing characteristics are also essential parameters in physically based hydrological and soil erosion models like HEC-HMS, Wepp, Erosion3D, LISEM, SMODERP, etc. Mentioned models are based on regular raster grids, where the identification of runoff direction is problematic. The most common method is Steepest descent (one directional flow), which corresponds well with the concentration of surface runoff into concentrated flow. The Steepest descent algorithm for the flow routing doesn't provide satisfying results, it often creates parallel and narrow flow lines while not respecting real morphological conditions. To overcome this problem, other methods (such as Flux Decomposition, Multiple flow, Deterministic Infinity algorithm etc.) separate the outflow into several components. This approach leads to unrealistic diffusion propagation of the runoff and makes it impossible to be used for simulation of dominant morphological features, such as artificial rills, hedges, sediment traps etc. The modern methods of mapping ground elevations, especially ALS, provide very detailed models even for large river basins, including morphological details. New algorithms for derivation a runoff direction have been developed as

  7. Antimony doped tin oxides and their composites with tin pyrophosphates as catalyst supports for oxygen evolution reaction in proton exchange membrane water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng; Hansen, Martin Kalmar

    2012-01-01

    based on tin pyrophosphates as the catalyst support. The materials showed an overall conductivity of 0.57 S cm−1 at 130 °C under the water vapor atmosphere with a contribution of the proton conduction. Using this composite support, iridium oxide nanoparticle catalysts were prepared and characterized......Proton exchange membrane water electrolysers operating at typically 80 °C or at further elevated temperatures suffer from insufficient catalyst activity and durability. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and further doped with an inorganic proton conducting phase...

  8. Highly selective fluorescent probe for the detection of tin (IV) Ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Leiming; Yang, Jing; Wang, Qiusheng; Zeng, Lintao

    2014-01-01

    A novel fluorescent compound, 7-diethylamino-3-(2'-(1H-imidazo[4,5-b]phenazine)yl)coumarin (DIPC), was synthesized and employed as a fluorescent probe for detecting tin (IV) ion. Upon addition of tin (IV) ion to the solution of DIPC in DMSO–water (9:1, v/v), DIPC exhibited a considerable red-shift in its absorption spectrum and a decrease in fluorescence intensity. These changes result from tin (IV) ion binding to carbonyl oxygen of coumarin and nitrogen of imidazole, reflecting an enhanced ICT process from N,N-diethylamino unit to imidazole unit. The tin (IV) ion selective response was clearly observed by the naked eye through color change. We also studied the bioimaging application of DIPC for detecting tin (IV) ion in Hela cells. And a significant decrease of the fluorescence from the intracellular area was observed. -- Highlights: • We synthesized a novel coumarin derivative (DIPC). • DIPC was used to detect tin (IV) ion selectively. • The detection process was studied upon UV–vis and fluorescence spectrum. • We studied the bioimaging application of DIPC for detecting Sn 4+ ion in cells

  9. Properties of combined TiN and Pt thin films applied to gas sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Aabom, A E; Eriksson, M; Twesten, R D

    2002-01-01

    TiN was introduced as a part of the sensing layer of gas sensitive metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices. Three types of metallic gate layer structures deposited by magnetron sputtering were investigated: TiN, a double layer with Pt on top of TiN, and two-phase Pt-TiN films formed by co-sputtering. The homogeneity of the co-sputtered layer was strongly dependent on the substrate temperature during film growth, with segregation of Pt as a result of high temperature deposition. During the deposition conditions in this work, Pt and TiN appear to be immiscible, resulting in growth of films consisting of the two phases. Furthermore, surface oxidation of TiN and enhanced oxidation of TiN at the grain boundaries to Pt in both the as-deposited films after exposure to atmosphere at room temperature and the films subjected to MIS device processing and to gas response analyses at a temperature of 140 deg. C resulted in a three-phase TiN-TiO sub x -Pt system. A segregation of Pt to the growth surface was observed d...

  10. Aspects of nitrogen surface chemistry relevant to TiN chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulberg, M.T.; Allendorf, M.D.; Outka, D.A.

    1996-08-01

    NH{sub 3} is an important component of many chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes for TiN films, which are used for diffusion barriers and other applications in microelectronic circuits. In this study, the interaction of NH{sub 3} with TiN surfaces is examined with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and Auger electron spectroscopy. NH{sub 3} has two adsorption states on TiN: a chemisorbed state and a multilayer state. A new method for analyzing TPD spectra in systems with slow pumping speeds yields activation energies for desorption for the two states of 24 kcal/mol and 7.3 kcal/mol, respectively. The sticking probability into the chemisorption state is {approximately}0.06. These results are discussed in the context of TiN CVD. In addition, the high temperature stability of TiN is investigated. TiN decomposes to its elements only after heating to 1300 K, showing that decomposition is unlikely to occur under CVD conditions.

  11. Isotope Dilution - Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometric Analysis for Tin in a Fly Ash Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, C.; Fernandez, M.; Quejido, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    Isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) analysis has been applied to the determination of tin in a fly ash sample supplied by the EC Joint Research Centre (Ispra, Italy). The proposed procedure includes the silica gel/phosphoric acid technique for tin thermal ionisation activation and a strict heating protocol for isotope ratio measurements. Instrumental mass discrimination factor has been previously determined measuring a natural tin standard solution. Spike solutions has been prepared from 112Sn-enriched metal and quantified by reverse isotope dilution analysis. Two sample aliquots were spiked and tin was extracted with 4,5 M HCI during 25 min ultrasound esposure time. Due to the complex matrix of this fly ash material, a two-steps purification stage using ion-exchange chromatography was required prior TIMS analysis. Obtained results for the two sample-spike blends (10,10 + - 0,55 y 10,50 + - 0,64 imolg-1) are comprarable, both value and uncertainty. Also a good reproducibility is observed between measurements. The proposed ID-TIMS procedure, as a primary method and due to the lack of fly ash reference material certified for tin content, can be used to validate more routine methodologies applied to tin determination in this kind of materials. (Author) 75 refs

  12. Isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometric analysis for tin in a fly ash material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Carolina; Fernandez, Marta; Quejido, Alberto J.; Sanchez, Dolores M.; Morante, Ramon; Martin, Raul

    2006-01-01

    Isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) analysis has been applied to the determination of tin in a fly ash sample supplied by the EC Joint Research Centre (Ispra, Italy). The proposed procedure includes the silica gel/phosphoric acid technique for tin thermal ionisation activation and a strict heating protocol for isotope ratio measurements. Instrumental mass discrimination factor has been previously determined measuring a natural tin standard solution. Spike solution has been prepared from 112 Sn-enriched metal and quantified by reverse isotope dilution analysis. Two sample aliquots were spiked and tin was extracted with 4.5 M HCl during 25 min ultrasound exposure time. Due to the complex matrix of this fly ash material, a two-step purification stage using ion-exchange chromatography was required prior TIMS analysis. Obtained results for the two sample-spike blends (10.11 ± 0.55 and 10.50 ± 0.64 μmol g -1 ) are comparable, both value and uncertainty. Also a good reproducibility is observed between measurements. The proposed ID-TIMS procedure, as a primary method and due to the lack of fly ash reference materials certified for tin content, can be used to validate more routine methodologies applied to tin determination in this kind of samples

  13. Studies on tin based inorganic ion exchangers for fission products separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Murthy, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Tin(IV) antimonate and hydrous tin(IV) oxide have been prepared and their characteristics are evaluated. A new method has been finalized for the separation of 95 Zr- 95 Nb from irradiated uranium using hydrous tin(IV) oxide. In this process, the irradiated sample is dissolved in concentrated HNO 3 , evaporated to near dryness and taken up in 0.5 M HNO 3 . The solution is passed over tin(IV) oxide column and the isotope eluted with 10 M HNO 3 . The product is obtained in pure nitrate form which is generally preferred for different applications. A method has been finalized for the separation of 106 Ru from fission product solution using tin(IV) antimonate. In this method fission product solution is adjusted to 2 M with respect to nitric acid, 137 Cs is separated on a column of ammonium phosphomolybdate, the effluent after adjustment of acidity to 0.2 M is then passed over a column of tin(IV) antimonate where the effluent contains pure 106 Ru. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Stability of tinned food from pigs radiated with various doses of ionizing rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowska, A.; Kossakowski, S.; Widenska, T.; Wojton, B.

    1978-01-01

    The examinations were carried out on 347 tinned food made of meat from pigs exposed to radiation of 300 and 600 R. The animals were irradiated with 60 Co. The pigs irradiated with 300 R were slaughtered after 7 and 14 days, and these with 600 R after 7 and 12 days; the control animals were killed after 14 days. Post-slaughter visual and microbiological examinations were performed by seeding the samples of the blood, muscles, lymphnodes and internal organs for the presence of Salmonella sp. Meat was pickled and heated up to 67-68 0 C (in the center of tinned food). The lowest stability showed the tinned food made of pigs irradiated with 600 R and killed after 12 days. Chemical examinations of the tinned food stored at 6 0 C revealed the prevalence of oxydative processes in fat over hydrolitic ones. The difference in acid number between tinned food under test and controls appeared after 6 months. Peroxides occurred in the control after 6 months and in these under examination after 3 months, and the level was 4.00-5.80 apart from the tins made of meat of pigs irradiated with 300 R and slaughtered after 7 days. (author)

  15. Revisiting Black Holes as Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Could dark matter be made of intermediate-mass black holes formed in the beginning of the universe? A recent study takes a renewed look at this question.Galactic LurkersThe nature of dark matter has long been questioned, but the recent discovery of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has renewed interest in the possibility that dark matter could consist of primordial black holes in the mass range of 101000 solar masses.The relative amounts of the different constituents of the universe. Dark matter makes up roughly 27%. [ESA/Planck]According to this model, the extreme density of matter present during the universes early expansion led to the formation of a large number of intermediate-mass black holes. These black holes now hide in the halos of galaxies, constituting the mass that weve measured dynamically but remains unseen.LIGOs first gravitational-wave detection revealed the merger of two black holes that were both tens of solar masses in size. If primordial black holes are indeed a major constituent of dark matter, then LIGOs detection is consistent with what we would expect to find: occasional mergers of the intermediate-mass black holes that formed in the early universe and now lurk in galactic halos.Quasar MicrolensingTheres a catch, however. If there truly were a large number of intermediate-mass primordial black holes hiding in galactic halos, they wouldnt go completely unnoticed: we would see signs of their presence in the gravitational microlensing of background quasars. Unseen primordial black holes in a foreground galaxy could cause an image of a background quasar to briefly brighten which would provide us with clear evidence of such black holes despite our not being able to detect them directly.A depiction of quasar microlensing (click for a closer look!). The microlensing object in the foreground galaxy could be a star (as depicted), a primordial black hole, or any other compact object. [NASA

  16. Electrorheological Fluids with High Shear Stress Based on Wrinkly Tin Titanyl Oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinghua; Zhang, Lei; Xin, Xing; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Hui; Sun, Aihua; Cheng, Yuchuan; Chen, Xinde; Xu, Gaojie

    2018-02-21

    Electrorheological (ER) fluids are considered as a type of smart fluids because their rheological characteristics can be altered through an electric field. The discovery of giant ER effect revived the researchers' interest in the ER technological area. However, the poor stability including the insufficient dynamic shear stress, the large leakage current density, and the sedimentation tendency still hinders their practical applications. Herein, we report a facile and scalable coprecipitation method for synthesizing surfactant-free tin titanyl oxalate (TTO) particles with tremella-like wrinkly microstructure (W-TTO). The W-TTO-based ER fluids exhibit enhanced ER activity compared to that of the pristine TTO because of the improved wettability between W-TTO and the silicone oil. In addition, the static yield stress and leakage current of W-TTO ER fluids also show a fine time stability during the 30 day tests. More importantly, the dynamic shear stress of W-TTO ER fluids can remain stable throughout the shear rate range, which is valuable for their use in engineering applications. The results in this work provided a promising strategy to solving the long-standing problem of ER fluid stability. Moreover, this convenient route of synthesis may be considered a green approach for the mass production of giant ER materials.

  17. Deposition of low sheet resistance indium tin oxide directly onto functional small molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Franklin, Joseph B.

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We outline a methodology for depositing tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) directly onto semiconducting organic small molecule films for use as a transparent conducting oxide top-electrode. ITO films were grown using pulsed laser deposition onto copper(II)phthalocyanine (CuPc):buckminsterfullerene (C60) coated substrates. The ITO was deposited at a substrate temperature of 150 °C over a wide range of background oxygen pressures (Pd) (0.67-10 Pa). Deposition at 0.67 ≤ Pd ≤ 4.7 Pa led to delamination of the organic films owing to damage induced by the high energy ablated particles, at intermediate 4.7 ≤ Pd < 6.7 Pa pressures macroscopic cracking is observed in the ITO. Increasing Pd further, ≥ 6.7 Pa, supports the deposition of continuous, polycrystalline and highly transparent ITO films without damage to the CuPc:C60. The free carrier concentration of ITO is strongly influenced by Pd; hence growth at > 6.7 Pa induces a significant decrease in conductivity; with a minimum sheet resistance (Rs) of 145 /□ achieved for 300 nm thick ITO films. To reduce the Rs a multi-pressure deposition was implemented, resulting in the formation of polycrystalline, highly transparent ITO with an Rs of - 20/□ whilst maintaining the inherent functionality and integrity of the small molecule substrate.

  18. Uniaxial tensile and shear deformation tests of gold–tin eutectic solder film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Namazu, Hideki Takemoto, Hiroshi Fujita and Shozo Inoue

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel experimental technique for measuring mechanical properties of gold-tin (Au–Sn eutectic solder film used for soldering package in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS. Dual-source DC magnetron sputtering was employed to deposit Au-20 weight % (wt% Sn film. The tensile test with in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD measurement evaluates the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio at intermediate temperatures. The Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio at room temperature were found to be 51.3 GPa and 0.288, lower than bulk values. The Young's modulus decreased with increasing temperature, whereas the Poisson's ratio did not depend on temperature. The XRD tensile test also showed creep deformation behavior of Au–Sn film. We have developed a shear deformation test technique, which is performed by using Au–Sn film sandwiched by two single crystal silicon (Si cantilever structures, to characterize the shear properties of the film. The shear moduli obtained from the shear deformation tests ranged from 11.5 to 13.3 GPa, about 38% lower than those from the XRD tensile tests. The measured shear strength from 12 to 17 MPa exhibited a temperature dependency. Information about the tensile and shear characteristics would likely to be of great use in designing Au–Sn soldering packages for MEMS.

  19. Seed-mediated electrochemical growth of gold nanostructures on indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praig, Vera G.; Szunerits, Sabine [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), CNRS-INPG-UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI), USR CNRS 3078 and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN),UMR CNRS-8520, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Piret, Gaelle; Boukherroub, Rabah [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI), USR CNRS 3078 and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN),UMR CNRS-8520, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Manesse, Mael [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), CNRS-INPG-UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Castel, Xavier [Institut d' Electronique et de Telecommunications de Rennes (IETR), UMR CNRS 6164, 18 rue H. Wallon, BP 406, 22004 Saint-Brieuc Cedex 1 (France)

    2008-11-15

    Two-dimensional gold nanostructures (Au NSs) were fabricated on amine-terminated indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films using constant potential electrolysis. By controlling the deposition time and by choosing the appropriate ITO surface, Au NSs with different shapes were generated. When Au NSs were formed directly on aminosilane-modified ITO, the surface roughness of the interface was largely enhanced. Modification of such Au NSs with n-tetradecanethiol resulted in a highly hydrophobic interface with a water contact angle of 144 . Aminosilane-modified ITO films further modified with colloidal Au seeds before electrochemical Au NSs formation demonstrated interesting optical properties. Depending on the deposition time, surface colors ranging from pale pink to beatgold-like were observed. The optical properties and the chemical stability of the interfaces were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Well-defined localized surface plasmon resonance signals were recorded on Au-seeded interfaces with {lambda}{sub max}=675{+-} 2 nm (deposition time 180 s). The prepared interfaces exhibited long-term stability in various solvents and responded linearly to changes in the corresponding refractive indices. (author)

  20. Seed-mediated electrochemical growth of gold nanostructures on indium tin oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praig, Vera G.; Piret, Gaelle; Manesse, Mael; Castel, Xavier; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional gold nanostructures (Au NSs) were fabricated on amine-terminated indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films using constant potential electrolysis. By controlling the deposition time and by choosing the appropriate ITO surface, Au NSs with different shapes were generated. When Au NSs were formed directly on aminosilane-modified ITO, the surface roughness of the interface was largely enhanced. Modification of such Au NSs with n-tetradecanethiol resulted in a highly hydrophobic interface with a water contact angle of 144 deg. Aminosilane-modified ITO films further modified with colloidal Au seeds before electrochemical Au NSs formation demonstrated interesting optical properties. Depending on the deposition time, surface colors ranging from pale pink to beatgold-like were observed. The optical properties and the chemical stability of the interfaces were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Well-defined localized surface plasmon resonance signals were recorded on Au-seeded interfaces with λ max = 675 ± 2 nm (deposition time 180 s). The prepared interfaces exhibited long-term stability in various solvents and responded linearly to changes in the corresponding refractive indices

  1. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, M Cihan; Çalışkan, Deniz; Bütün, Bayram; Özbay, Ekmel

    2016-09-29

    Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO) heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption-dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  2. Improving the performance of fluorine-doped tin oxide by adding salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: Aguspur@uns.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Widiyandari, Hendri [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Dr. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Suryana, Risa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Jumari, Arif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia)

    2015-07-01

    High-performance fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated via a spray deposition technique with salt added to the precursor. The addition of NaCl in the precursor improved the conductivity of the FTO films. Increasing the NaCl concentration to its optimal concentration reduced the sheet resistance of the FTO film. The optimal values for the addition of a NaCl were 0.5, 0.5, 1.5, and 1.5 at.% for the FTO film prepared using NH{sub 4}F concentration of 4, 10, 16, and 22 at.%, respectively. The lowest sheet resistance of the salt-added FTO film was 4.8 Ω/□. The FTO film averaged a transmittance of more than 80% in the visible range region (λ = 400–800 nm). XRD diffractograms confirmed that the crystal structure of the as-grown FTO film was that of a tetragonal SnO{sub 2} and that the addition of salt improved its crystallinity. This film has the potential for use as an electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). - Highlights: • A method to improve FTO performance using the addition of salt • The FTO film exhibited high performance of conductivity and light transmittance. • This technique is low-cost, fast and scales-up easily using simple devices.

  3. Gate tunability and collapse of superconductivity in hybrid tin-graphene Josephson junction arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchiat, Vincent

    The accessible and surface-exposed 2D electron gas offered by graphene provides indeed an ideal platform on which to tune, via application of an electrostatic gate, the coupling between adsorbates deposited on its surface. We have experimentally studied the case of graphene transistors which channel is decorated with an array of superconducting tin nanoparticles. They induce via percolation of proximity effect a global 2D superconducting state which critical temperature Tc can be tuned by gate voltage. When the Graphene show strong disorder, it is possible to tune via the applied gate voltage the system towards an insulating state, demonstrating the possibility to trigger a superconducting to insulator transition, which features ressembles those found in granular superconductors. In this work, graphene monolayers are surface-conjugated to regular arrays of superconducting disk-shaped metal islands, whose inter-island distances were patterned to be in the quasi-ballistic limit of the underlying 2D electron gas. Arrays can be made on a large range of geometry and density, up to the highly diluted limit with less than 5% surface coverage and few micrometers in between islands. In the lower temperature limit (developed theory, and may provide a hint to the understanding of long-standing issue of ``zero-temperature'' bosonic metallic state

  4. Sensitivity and Response of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Tin Oxide Nanocomposite Multilayer Thin Film Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, G; Dhineshbabu, N R; Nithyavathy, N; Saminathan, K; Kaler, K V I S; Rajendran, V

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide (SnO₂) is Non-Stoichiometric in Nature with Functional Properties Suitable for gas sensing. In this study, SnO₂nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel technique, which were then characterised using X-ray diffraction. The nanoparticles showed tetragonal structure with an average crystallite size of 18 nm. The stretching and vibration modes of SnO₂were confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of SnO₂ nanoparticles was determined using particle size analyser, which was found be 60 ± 10 nm on average. The surface morphology of the nanoparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope, which showed irregular-sized agglomerated SnO₂nanostructures. In addition, primary particle size was evaluated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which was found to be 50 nm on average. The polyvinyl alcohol/SnO₂ composite thin film was prepared on a glass substrate using spin-coating method. The values of band gap energy and electrical conductance of 13-layer thin film were found to be 2.96 eV and 0.0505 mho, respectively. Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) was suitably tailored to verify the sensor response over a concentration range of 10-70 ppm at room temperature. The performance, response, and recovery time of sensors were increased by increasing the layers of the thin film.

  5. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cihan Çakır

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption–dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  6. Study of arsenopyrite weathering products in mine wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alvarez-Ayuso, E., E-mail: esther.alvarez@irnasa.csic.es [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Pellitero, E. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rodriguez, M.A. [Faculty of Sciences, Crystallography and Mineralogy Area, Avd. Elvas s/n. Extremadura University, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Garcia-Sanchez, A. [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Tamayo, A.; Rubio, J.; Rubio, F. [Ceramic and Glass Institute (CSIC), c/Kelsen, 5, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Rubin, J. [Material Science Institute of Aragon, CSIC-Zaragoza University, c/Maria de Luna 3, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Arsenopyrite-rich wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations were studied to determine the composition and characteristics of the secondary phases formed under natural weathering conditions so as to assess their potential environmental risk. Representative weathered arsenopyrite-bearing rock wastes collected from the mine dumps were analysed using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, polarizing microscopy analysis, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microRaman and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Scorodite, pharmacosiderite and amorphous ferric arsenates (AFA) with Fe/As molar ratios in the range 1.2-2.5 were identified as secondary arsenic products. The former showed to be the most abundant and present in the different studied mining areas. Its chemical composition showed to vary in function of the original surrounding rock mineralogy in such a way that phosphoscorodite was found as the mineral variety present in apatite-containing geoenvirons. Other ever-present weathering phases were goethite and hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), displaying, respectively, As retained amounts about 1 and 20% (expressed as As{sub 2}O{sub 5}). The low solubility of scorodite, the relatively low content of AFA and the formation of compounds of variable charge, mostly of amorphous nature, with high capacity to adsorb As attenuate importantly the dispersion of this element into the environment from these arsenopyrite-bearing wastes.

  7. Indium tin oxide films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval-Paz, M.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN-Unidad Queretaro, Apdo. postal 1-798, Queretaro, Qro., 76001 (Mexico); Ramirez-Bon, R. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN-Unidad Queretaro, Apdo. postal 1-798, Queretaro, Qro., 76001 (Mexico)], E-mail: rrbon@qro.cinvestav.mx

    2009-02-27

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on unheated polyethylene naphthalate substrates by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering from an In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (90 wt.%) containing SnO{sub 2} (10 wt.%) target. We report the structural, electrical and optical properties of the ITO films as a function of rf power and deposition time. Low rf power values, in the range of 100-130 W, were employed in the deposition process to avoid damage to the plastic substrates by heating caused by the plasma. The films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and optical transmission measurements. A Hall measurement system was used to measure the carrier concentration and electrical resistivity of the films by the Van der Pauw method. The X-ray diffraction measurements analysis showed that the ITO films are polycrystalline with the bixbite cubic crystalline phase. It is observed a change in the preferential crystalline orientation of the films from the (222) to the (400) crystalline orientation with increasing rf power or deposition time in the sputtering process. The optical transmission of the films was around 80% with electrical resistivity and sheet resistance down to 4.9 x 10{sup -4} {omega}cm and 14 {omega}/sq, respectively.

  8. MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN STELLAR SYSTEMS: 'QUIESCENT' ACCRETION AND LUMINOSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volonteri, M.; Campbell, D.; Mateo, M.; Dotti, M.

    2011-01-01

    Only a small fraction of local galaxies harbor an accreting black hole, classified as an active galactic nucleus. However, many stellar systems are plausibly expected to host black holes, from globular clusters to nuclear star clusters, to massive galaxies. The mere presence of stars in the vicinity of a black hole provides a source of fuel via mass loss of evolved stars. In this paper, we assess the expected luminosities of black holes embedded in stellar systems of different sizes and properties, spanning a large range of masses. We model the distribution of stars and derive the amount of gas available to a central black hole through a geometrical model. We estimate the luminosity of the black holes under simple, but physically grounded, assumptions on the accretion flow. Finally, we discuss the detectability of 'quiescent' black holes in the local universe.

  9. Scintigraphic study of gastric emptying with colloidal tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Paleo, Lester; Nuez Vilar, Maricela; Machado Lois, Marisel; López González, María Karla; Torres Leyva, Oscar; Izquierdo Izquierdo, Yimel; García González, Idelsy; Conesa Gonzalez, Ana Ibis

    2016-01-01

    Gastroparesis is defined as a delay in gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction, associated with symptoms such as nausea and / or vomiting, feeling of postprandial gastric fullness, early satiety or epigastric pain for more than 3 months. The gold standard in the diagnosis of delayed gastric emptying scintigraphy is gastric emptying and radiopharmaceutical has been used more 99m Tc-sulfur colloid not available in the country. In order to evaluate the usefulness of colloidal tin in the scintigraphic gastric emptying study, a descriptive study was conducted in 64 patients over 18 years using as radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-Sn colloid. 31% of patients had symptoms. The emptying time was normal in 50 cases and the association of gastroparesis symptoms was observed in 20 (15 diabetic and 5 non-diabetic), 9 patients had a delayed emptying, but reported no symptoms. Gastroparesis was more frequent in women than in men (35% versus 21%). 21% of patients had a moderate delayed gastric emptying. Conclusions: The results obtained with 99m Tc-Sn colloid are comparable to those reported by other authors using 99m Tc-SC in the scintigraphic assessment of gastric emptying. (author)

  10. Spray Pyrolyzed Polycrystalline Tin Oxide Thin Film as Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh E. Patil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline tin oxide (SnO2 thin film was prepared by using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT. The film was characterized for their phase and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. The crystallite size calculated from the XRD pattern is 84 nm. Conductance responses of the polycrystalline SnO2 were measured towards gases like hydrogen (H2, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, ethanol vapors (C2H5OH, NH3, CO, CO2, Cl2 and O2. The gas sensing characteristics were obtained by measuring the sensor response as a function of various controlling factors like operating temperature, operating voltages (1 V, 5 V, 10 V 15 V, 20 V and 25 V and concentration of gases. The sensor response measurement showed that the SnO2 has maximum response to hydrogen. Furthermore; the SnO2 based sensor exhibited fast response and good recovery towards hydrogen at temperature 150 oC. The result of response towards H2 reveals that SnO2 thin film prepared by SPT would be a suitable material for the fabrication of the hydrogen sensor.

  11. Highly efficient and durable TiN nanofiber electrocatalyst supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Cho, Min Kyung; Kwon, Jeong An; Jeong, Yeon Hun; Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, Na Young; Kim, Min Jung; Yoo, Sung Jong; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Nam, Suk Woo; Lim, Dong-Hee; Cho, EunAe; Lee, Kwan-Young; Kim, Jin Young

    2015-11-28

    To date, carbon-based materials including various carbon nanostructured materials have been extensively used as an electrocatalyst support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) applications due to their practical nature. However, carbon dissolution or corrosion caused by high electrode potential in the presence of O2 and/or water has been identified as one of the main failure modes for the device operation. Here, we report the first TiN nanofiber (TNF)-based nonwoven structured materials to be constructed via electrospinning and subsequent two-step thermal treatment processes as a support for the PEMFC catalyst. Pt catalyst nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on the TNFs (Pt/TNFs) were electrochemically characterized with respect to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and durability in an acidic medium. From the electrochemical tests, the TNF-supported Pt catalyst was better and more stable in terms of its catalytic performance compared to a commercially available carbon-supported Pt catalyst. For example, the initial oxygen reduction performance was comparable for both cases, while the Pt/TNF showed much higher durability from an accelerated degradation test (ADT) configuration. It is understood that the improved catalytic roles of TNFs on the supported Pt NPs for ORR are due to the high electrical conductivity arising from the extended connectivity, high inertness to the electrochemical environment and strong catalyst-support interactions.

  12. Thermal stability of germanium-tin (GeSn) fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dian; Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Wang, Wei; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Tan, Chuan Seng; Tok, Eng Soon; Gong, Xiao; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the thermal stability of germanium-tin (Ge1-xSnx) fins under rapid thermal annealing in N2 ambient. The Ge1-xSnx fins were formed on a GeSn-on-insulator substrate and were found to be less thermally stable than blanket Ge1-xSnx films. The morphology change and material quality of the annealed Ge1-xSnx fin are investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Obvious degradation of crystalline quality of the Ge0.96Sn0.04 fin was observed, and a thin Ge layer was formed on the SiO2 surface near the Ge0.96Sn0.04 fin region after 500 °C anneal. A model was proposed to explain the morphology change of the Ge0.96Sn0.04 fin.

  13. Etching of germanium-tin using ammonia peroxide mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yuan; Ong, Bin Leong; Wang, Wei; Gong, Xiao; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng [Institute of Material Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, #08-03, Innovis, Singapore 138634 (Singapore); Tok, Eng-Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2015-12-28

    The wet etching of germanium-tin (Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}) alloys (4.2% < x < 16.0%) in ammonia peroxide mixture (APM) is investigated. Empirical fitting of the data points indicates that the etch depth of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} is proportional to the square root of the etch time t and decreases exponentially with increasing x for a given t. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that increasing t increases the intensity of the Sn oxide peak, whereas no obvious change is observed for the Ge oxide peak. This indicates that an accumulation of Sn oxide on the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} surface decreases the amount of Ge atoms exposed to the etchant, which accounts for the decrease in etch rate with increasing etch time. Atomic force microscopy was used to examine the surface morphologies of the Ge{sub 0.918}Sn{sub 0.082} samples. Both root-mean-square roughness and undulation periods of the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} surface were observed to increase with increasing t. This work provides further understanding of the wet etching of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} using APM and may be used for the fabrication of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}-based electronic and photonic devices.

  14. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.; Tremonti, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3......We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3...

  15. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochan, Kinjalk, E-mail: kinjalk@iucaa.in; Chakraborty, Sumanta, E-mail: sumanta@iucaa.in

    2016-04-10

    The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  16. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2016-01-01

    The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  17. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjalk Lochan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  18. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies(AED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery s...

  19. A Black Hole Spectral Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe

    2000-03-01

    An accreting black hole is, by definition, characterized by the drain. Namely, the matter falls into a black hole much the same way as water disappears down a drain matter goes in and nothing comes out. As this can only happen in a black hole, it provides a way to see ``a black hole'', an unique observational signature. The accretion proceeds almost in a free-fall manner close to the black hole horizon, where the strong gravitational field dominates the pressure forces. In this paper we present analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations of the specific features of X-ray spectra formed as a result of upscattering of the soft (disk) photons in the converging inflow (CI) into the black hole. The full relativistic treatment has been implemented to reproduce these spectra. We show that spectra in the soft state of black hole systems (BHS) can be described as the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the CI upscattering spread (Greens) function. The latter boosted photon component is seen as an extended power-law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We demonstrate the stability of the power spectral index over a wide range of the plasma temperature 0 - 10 keV and mass accretion rates (higher than 2 in Eddington units). We also demonstrate that the sharp high energy cutoff occurs at energies of 200-400 keV which are related to the average energy of electrons mec2 impinging upon the event horizon. The spectrum is practically identical to the standard thermal Comptonization spectrum when the CI plasma temperature is getting of order of 50 keV (the typical ones for the hard state of BHS). In this case one can see the effect of the bulk motion only at high energies where there is an excess in the CI spectrum with respect to the pure thermal one. Furthermore we demonstrate that the change of spectral shapes from the soft X-ray state to the hard X-ray state is clearly to be

  20. Interacting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2000-01-01

    We revisit the geometry representing l collinear Schwarzschild black holes. It is seen that the black holes' horizons are deformed by their mutual gravitational attraction. The geometry has a string like conical singularity that connects the holes but has nevertheless a well defined action. Using standard gravitational thermodynamics techniques we determine the free energy for two black holes at fixed temperature and distance, their entropy and mutual force. When the black holes are far apart the results agree with Newtonian gravity expectations. This analyses is generalized to the case of charged black holes. Then we consider black holes embedded in string/M-theory as bound states of branes. Using the effective string description of these bound states and for large separation we reproduce exactly the semi-classical result for the entropy, including the correction associated with the interaction between the holes

  1. Black silicon integrated aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbo; Dickensheets, David L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the incorporation of nanotextured black silicon as an optical absorbing material into silicon-based micro-optoelectromechanical systems devices to reduce stray light and increase optical contrast during imaging. Black silicon is created through a maskless dry etch process and characterized for two different etch conditions, a cold etch performed at 0°C and a cryogenic etch performed at -110°C. We measure specular reflection at visible wavelengths to be black velvet paint used to coat optical baffles and compare favorably with other methods to produce black surfaces from nanotextured silicon or using carbon nanotubes. We illustrate the use of this material by integrating a black silicon aperture around the perimeter of a deformable focus-control mirror. Imaging results show a significant improvement in contrast and image fidelity due to the effective reduction in stray light achieved with the self-aligned black aperture.

  2. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  3. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  4. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan Selvaraj, Sathees [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Feinerman, Alan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Takoudis, Christos G., E-mail: takoudis@uic.edu [Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac){sub 2}], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1 ± 0.01 nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175–300 °C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnO{sub x}–Si interface. The resistivity of the SnO{sub x} films was calculated to be 0.3 Ω cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac){sub 2} as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnO{sub x} thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO{sub 2} or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications.

  7. Correspondence principle for black holes and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Polchinski, J.

    1997-01-01

    For most black holes in string theory, the Schwarzschild radius in string units decreases as the string coupling is reduced. We formulate a correspondence principle, which states that (i) when the size of the horizon drops below the size of a string, the typical black hole state becomes a typical state of strings and D-branes with the same charges, and (ii) the mass does not change abruptly during the transition. This provides a statistical interpretation of black hole entropy. This approach does not yield the numerical coefficient, but gives the correct dependence on mass and charge in a wide range of cases, including neutral black holes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Fabrication of High Energy Density Tin/Carbon Anode Using Reduction Expansion Synthesis and Aerosol through Plasma Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    coatings on iron. Using a precursor mix of water, urea, tin (II) chloride, and activated carbon, the reduction process removes the oxygen groups on...sample and displaying them in different colors , the distribution within a sample can be easily seen. Top left (in clockwise direction): SEM image of Sn...7] M. Winter and J. O. Besenhard, “Electrochemical lithiation of tin and tin-based intermetallics and composites,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 45

  9. Ground and Structure Deformation 3d Modelling with a Tin Based Property Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIAN, T.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, W.

    2013-12-01

    With the development of 3D( three-dimensional) modeling and visualization, more and more 3D tectonics are used to assist the daily work in Engineering Survey, in which the prediction of deformation field in strata and structure induced by underground construction is an essential part. In this research we developed a TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) based property model for the 3D (three dimensional) visualization of ground deformation filed. By record deformation vector for each nodes, the new model can express the deformation with geometric-deformation-style by drawing each node in its new position and deformation-attribute-distribution-style by drawing each node in the color correspond with its deformation attribute at the same time. Comparing with the volume model based property model, this new property model can provide a more precise geometrical shape for structure objects. Furthermore, by recording only the deformation data of the user-interested 3d surface- such as the ground surface or the underground digging surface, the new property model can save a lot of space, which makes it possible to build the deformation filed model of a much more large scale. To construct the models of deformation filed based on TIN model, the refinement of the network is needed to increase the nodes number, which is necessary to express the deformation filed with a certain resolution. The TIN model refinement is a process of sampling the 3D deformation field values on points on the TIN surface, for which we developed a self-adapting TIN refinement method. By set the parameter of the attribute resolution, this self-adapting method refines the input geometric-expressing TIN model by adding more vertexes and triangles where the 3D deformation filed changing faster. Comparing with the even refinement method, the self-adapting method can generate a refined TIN model with nodes counted less by two thirds. Efficiency Comparison between Self-adapting Refinement Method and Even

  10. Advective accretion flow properties around rotating black holes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAMIZ AKTAR

    2018-02-10

    Feb 10, 2018 ... in black hole source GRO J1655-40. While doing this, we attempt to constrain the range of ak based on observed. HFQPOs (∼300 Hz and ∼450 Hz) for the black hole source GRO J1655-40. Keywords. Accretion: accretion disc—black hole physics—shock waves—ISM: jets and outflows—X-ray: binaries. 1.

  11. Alkaline earth lead and tin compounds Ae2 Pb, Ae2 Sn, Ae =Ca,Sr,Ba, as thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David; Singh, David

    2014-03-01

    We present a detailed theoretical study of three alkaline earth compounds Ca2Pb, Sr2Pb and Ba2Pb, which have undergone little previous study, calculating electronic band structures and Boltzmann transport and bulk moduli using density functional theory. We also study the corresponding tin compounds Ca2Sn, Sr2Sn and Ba2Sn. We find that these are all narrow band gap semiconductors with an electronic structure favorable for thermoelectric performance, with substantial thermopowers for the lead compounds at temperature ranges from 300 to 800 K. For the lead compounds, we further find very low calculated bulk moduli - roughly half of the values for the lead chalcogenides, suggestive of soft phonons and hence low lattice thermal conductivity. All these facts indicate that these materials merit experimental investigation as potential high performance thermoelectrics. We find good potential for thermoelectric performance in the environmentally friendly stannide materials, particularly at high temperature.

  12. Plasma vapor deposited n-indium tin oxide/p-copper indium oxide heterojunctions for optoelectronic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, T. P.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Transparent crystalline n-indium tin oxide/p-copper indium oxide diode structures were fabricated on quartz substrates by plasma vapor deposition using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The p-n heterojunction diodes were highly transparent in the visible region and exhibited rectifying current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with a good ideality factor. The sputter power during fabrication of the p-layer was found to have a profound effect on I-V characteristics, and the diode with the p-type layer deposited at a maximum power of 200 W exhibited the highest value of the diode ideality factor (η value) of 2.162, which suggests its potential use in optoelectronic applications. The ratio of forward current to reverse current exceeded 80 within the range of applied voltages of -1.5 to +1.5 V in all cases. The diode structure possessed an optical transmission of 60-70% in the visible region.

  13. Alkaline earth lead and tin compounds Ae2Pb, Ae2Sn, Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba, as thermoelectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parker and David J Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed theoretical study of three alkaline earth compounds Ca2Pb, Sr2Pb and Ba2Pb, which have undergone little previous study, calculating electronic band structures and Boltzmann transport and bulk moduli using density functional theory. We also study the corresponding tin compounds Ca2Sn, Sr2Sn and Ba2Sn. We find that these are all narrow band gap semiconductors with an electronic structure favorable for thermoelectric performance, with substantial thermopowers for the lead compounds at temperature ranges from 300 to 800 K. For the lead compounds, we further find very low calculated bulk moduli—roughly half of the values for the lead chalcogenides, suggestive of soft phonons and hence low lattice thermal conductivity. All these facts indicate that these materials merit experimental investigation as potential high performance thermoelectrics. We find good potential for thermoelectric performance in the environmentally friendly stannide materials, particularly at high temperature.

  14. Flexible organic light-emitting device based on magnetron sputtered indium-tin-oxide on plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.L.; Fung, M.K.; Tong, S.W.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, S.T.

    2004-01-01

    A radio-frequency sputtering deposition method was applied to prepare indium tin oxide (ITO) on a plastic substrate, polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The correlation of deposition conditions and ITO film properties was systematically investigated and characterized. The optimal ITO films had a transmittance of over 90% in the visible range (400-700 nm) and a resistivity of 5.0x10 -4 Ω-cm. Sequentially α-napthylphenylbiphenyl diamine, tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium, and magnesium-silver were thermally deposited on the ITO-coated PET substrate to fabricate flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs). The fabricated devices had a maximum current efficiency of ∼4.1 cd/A and a luminance of nearly 4100 cd/m 2 at 100 mA/cm 2 . These values showed that the FOLEDs had comparable performance characteristics with the conventional organic light-emitting diodes made on ITO-coated glasses with the same device configuration

  15. Effect of cesium assistance on the electrical and structural properties of indium tin oxide films grown by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jaewon; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Park, Sung Jin; Yoon, Neung Ku [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Inter-university Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sorona Inc., Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi 451-841 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited by cesium (Cs)-assisted dc magnetron sputtering in an attempt to achieve a high performance at low temperatures. The films were deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si wafer and glass (Eagle 2000) substrates at a substrate temperature of 100 degree sign C with a Cs vapor flow during the deposition process. The ITO thin films deposited in the presence of Cs vapor showed better crystallinity than the control films grown under normal Ar/O{sub 2} plasma conditions. The resistivity of the films with the Cs assistance was lower than that of the control films. The lowest resistivity of 6.2x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm, which is {approx}20% lower than that of the control sample, was obtained without any postdeposition thermal annealing. The surface roughness increased slightly when Cs vapor was added. The optical transmittance was >80% at wavelengths ranging from 380 to 700 nm.

  16. Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide Nanofibers Deposited by a Novel Focused Electrospinning Method. Application to the Detection of TATP Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method of depositing tin dioxide nanofibers in order to develop chemical sensors is presented. It involves an electrospinning process with in-plane electrostatic focusing over micromechanized substrates. It is a fast and reproducible method. After an annealing process, which can be performed by the substrate heaters, it is observed that the fibers are intertwined forming porous networks that are randomly distributed on the substrate. The fiber diameters oscillate from 100 nm to 200 nm and fiber lengths reach several tens of microns. Each fiber has a polycrystalline structure with multiple nano-grains. The sensors have been tested for the detection of acetone and hydrogen peroxide (precursors of the explosive triacetone triperoxide, TATP in air in the ppm range. High and fast responses to these gases have been obtained.

  17. Nanocrystalline tin oxide nanofibers deposited by a novel focused electrospinning method. Application to the detection of TATP precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José Pedro; Fernández, Maria Jesús; Fontecha, José Luis; Matatagui, Daniel; Sayago, Isabel; Horrillo, Maria Carmen; Gracia, Isabel

    2014-12-16

    A new method of depositing tin dioxide nanofibers in order to develop chemical sensors is presented. It involves an electrospinning process with in-plane electrostatic focusing over micromechanized substrates. It is a fast and reproducible method. After an annealing process, which can be performed by the substrate heaters, it is observed that the fibers are intertwined forming porous networks that are randomly distributed on the substrate. The fiber diameters oscillate from 100 nm to 200 nm and fiber lengths reach several tens of microns. Each fiber has a polycrystalline structure with multiple nano-grains. The sensors have been tested for the detection of acetone and hydrogen peroxide (precursors of the explosive triacetone triperoxide, TATP) in air in the ppm range. High and fast responses to these gases have been obtained.

  18. Synthesis of tin monosulfide (SnS) nanoparticles using surfactant free microemulsion (SFME) with the single microemulsion scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkas, Hemant S.; Marathe, Deepak M.; Mahajan, Mrunal S.; Muntaser, Faisal; Patil, Mahendra B.; Tak, Swapnil R.; Sali, Jaydeep V.

    2017-02-01

    Synthesis of monomorphic, SnS nanoparticles without using a capping agent is a difficult task with chemical route of synthesis. This paper reports on synthesis of tin monosulfide (SnS) nanopartilces with dimension in the quantum-dot regime using surfactant free microemulsion with single microemulsion scheme. This has been achieved by reaction in microreactors in the CME (C: chlorobenzene, M: methanol and E: ethylene glycol) microemulsion system. This is an easy and controllable chemical route for synthesis of SnS nanoparticles. Nanoparticle diameter showed prominent dependence on microemulsion concentration and marginal dependence on microemulsion temperature in the temperature range studied. The SnS nanoparticles formed with this method form stable dispersion in Tolune.

  19. The influence of repetitively pulsed plasma immersion low energy ion implantation on TiN coating formation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivin, D. O.; Ananin, P. S.; Dektyarev, S. V.; Ryabchikov, A. I.; Shevelev, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    Application of high frequency short pulse plasma immersion low energy ion implantation for titanium nitride coating deposition using vacuum arc metal plasma and hot-cathode gas-discharge plasma on R6M5 alloy was investigated. Implementation of negative repetitively pulsed bias with bias amplitude 2 kV, pulse duration 5 μs and pulse frequency 105 Hz leads to 6.2-fold decrease of vacuum arc macroparticle surface density for macroparticles with diameter less than 0.5 μm. Ion sputtering due coating deposition reduces the production rate approximately by 30%. It was found that with bias amplitude range from 1.1 to 1.4 kV and pulse duration 5 μs yields to formation of coatings with local hardness up to 40 GPa. This paper presents the results of experimental studies of adhesion strength, tribological properties and surface morphology of deposited TiN coatings.

  20. Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide Nanofibers Deposited by a Novel Focused Electrospinning Method. Application to the Detection of TATP Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José Pedro; Fernández, Maria Jesús; Fontecha, José Luis; Matatagui, Daniel; Sayago, Isabel; Horrillo, Maria Carmen; Gracia, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    A new method of depositing tin dioxide nanofibers in order to develop chemical sensors is presented. It involves an electrospinning process with in-plane electrostatic focusing over micromechanized substrates. It is a fast and reproducible method. After an annealing process, which can be performed by the substrate heaters, it is observed that the fibers are intertwined forming porous networks that are randomly distributed on the substrate. The fiber diameters oscillate from 100 nm to 200 nm and fiber lengths reach several tens of microns. Each fiber has a polycrystalline structure with multiple nano-grains. The sensors have been tested for the detection of acetone and hydrogen peroxide (precursors of the explosive triacetone triperoxide, TATP) in air in the ppm range. High and fast responses to these gases have been obtained. PMID:25521384

  1. Synthesis and magnetic properties of tin spinel ferrites doped manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moussaoui, H., E-mail: elmoussaoui.hassan@gmail.com [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Mahfoud, T.; Habouti, S. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); El Maalam, K.; Ben Ali, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Laboratoire of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Departement of physique, B.P. 1014, Faculty of science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M.; Mounkachi, O. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Masrour, R. [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, Route Sidi Bouzid – BP 63, 46000 Safi (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Benyoussef, A. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Laboratoire of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Departement of physique, B.P. 1014, Faculty of science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-05-01

    In this work we report the synthesis, the microstructural characterization and the magnetic properties of tin spinel ferrites doped manganese (Sn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1) nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method. The effect of annealing temperature on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been investigated. The synthesized nanoparticle sizes have been controlled between 4 and 9 nm, with uniform spherical morphology as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the samples prepared possess single domain magnetic. The nanoparticles of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with 4 nm in diameter have a blocking temperature close to 100 K. In addition, the cation distribution obtained from the X-ray diffraction of this sample was confirmed by magnetic measurement. For the Sn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}; (0≤x≤1) samples, the magnetization and coercive fields increase when the augmentation of Mn content increases. For x=0.5, such parameters decrease when the calcination temperature increases. - Highlights: • We have studied the microstructural and the magnetic properties of Sn{sub 1-x}MnxFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • The nanoparticles of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have a blocking temperature around 100 K. • The Ms and Hc increase with the augmentation of Mn content.

  2. Tin dioxide nanostructured thin films obtained through polymeric precursor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antônio Dal Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 nanostructured thin films with low proportion of defects and low roughness were produced through the systematic control of temperature and viscosity of the precursor solutions used for thin films deposition. These solutions were obtained through the citrate method and the films were deposited through the ‘dip-coating’ technique on glass substrate and after thermal treatment at 470ºC/4h, they were characterized both structurally and morphologically through the X-ray diffractometry, optic microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray excited photoelectrons spectroscopy. The film thickness was obtained through scanning electronic microscopy of the films cross-section and correlated to the proportion of Sn and Si obtained through X-ray fluorescence. X-ray diffractometry of the films revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to the SnO2 crystalline phase, overlapping a wide peak between 20 and 30º (2?, characteristic of the glass substrate. Optic microscopy, Scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed homogeneous films, with low roughness, suitable to several applications such as sensors and transparent electrodes. It could be observed through the UV-Vis absorption analysis that the films presented high optical transparency and ‘band gap’ energy 4.36 eV. The X-ray excited photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of SnO2, as well as traces of the elements present in the glass substrate and residual carbon from the thermal treatment of the films.

  3. Experiments on In2S3:Sn Thin Films with up to 1% Tin Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraini, M.; Bouguila, N.; Koaib, J.; Vázquez-Vázquez, C.; López-Quintela, M. A.; Alaya, S.

    2016-11-01

    Tin-doped indium sulfide (In2S3:Sn) thin films with different Sn:In molar ratios (0% to 1% by mol in solution) have been deposited on glass substrates by a chemical spray pyrolysis method. The films were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, optical absorption, Raman, and photoluminescence spectroscopies, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The structural properties revealed that the In2S3:Sn thin films had polycrystalline cubic structure with average crystallite size increasing from 16.3 nm to 25.5 nm. The surface morphology of the films was continuous and crack free. The average and root-mean-square roughness increased from 13.12 nm to 31.65 nm and from 16.14 nm to 39.39 nm, respectively, with increasing Sn:In molar ratio. Raman studies revealed the presence of vibration modes related to In2S3 phase, with no signature of secondary phases. The transmission coefficient was about 65% to 70% in the visible region and 70% to 90% in the near-infrared region. The optical bandgap values for allowed direct transitions in In2S3:Sn were found to lie in the range from 2.68 eV to 2.80 eV. The refractive index of the In2S3:Sn thin films decreased from 2.45 to 2.37 while the k values lay in the range from 0.02 to 0.25 for all wavelengths. Defect-related photoluminescence properties are also discussed. These In2S3:Sn films are promising candidates for use in optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices.

  4. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-04-29

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  5. Black holes are warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)

  6. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  7. Black hole candidates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Black hole candidates. In the case of X-ray sources such as Cyg X-1, the mass of the compact object inferred from combined optical and X-ray data, suggest M_compact object > 3.4 M_sun => Black Hole! A remarkable discovery!! Thus X-ray emitting binary systems ...

  8. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  9. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  10. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  11. Protecting Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  12. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of ...

  13. Black Boycott: Gainsville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arthur O.

    1975-01-01

    A case study of the events precipitating a black student boycott in 1969 in Gainesville, Flordia, when school board manuevering to avoid school integration led to the threatened closing of Lincoln High School, a reputable black community school. Also described are the subsequent transformations of Lincoln into a vocational-technical school and…

  14. Neoliberalism and Black Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, John Martin

    1986-01-01

    In contrast to traditional liberals, neoliberals share a commitment to greater economic risk-taking, support for entrepreneurism, a new industrial policy, and a different Federal Role. While New Deal and Great Society liberalism may have been more favorable to blacks, perhaps more balanced and equitable policies for blacks could be developed if…

  15. Potential of tin (IV) chloride for treatment in Alor Pongsu as stabilized landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Sharifah Farah Fariza Syed; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Leachate production from landfilling contributes crucial pollutants to the environment. This study examined the potential of tin (IV) chloride as coagulant that involved charge neutralization and sweep flocculation mechanisms. The negative charge of leachate is neutralized by adding tin (IV) chloride as cationic coagulant which resulted precipitation and swept most of the colloids and dissolved solids that entrapped in the settling as hydrous oxide floc. Parameters such as suspended solid (SS) content, color, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed using standard jar test procedures. The best condition was observed at pH 8, with removal efficiencies of 75.99 %, 99.29 % and 98.36 % for COD, SS, and color, respectively. At optimum dosage, tin (IV) chloride successfully removed 98.40 % for color, 99.54 % for SS and 71.53 % for COD. These results indicated the satisfactory performance of tin (IV) chloride. Hence, tin (IV) chloride is a potential coagulant for the treatment of Alor Pongsu Landfill leachate.

  16. Mössbauer spectroscopy of tin in unirradiated and neutron irradiated Zircaloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Jerzy A.

    1999-01-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy of the 23.9 keV γ-rays in 119Sn nuclei was applied to study Zircaloy-2, Zircaloy-4, and other tin-bearing zirconium-based alloys of interest to nuclear power technology. Zircaloys are extensively used in nuclear reactors as fuel cladding. In CANDU reactors, Zircaloys are also used as major structural components such as calandria tubes, and were used until the late 1970's as pressure tubes (now replaced by Zr-2.5Nb alloy). Unirradiated specimens of these alloys, as well as radioactive specimens, both neutron-irradiated in high-flux test reactors and extracted from nuclear power-reactor components after many years of service, were examined. The obtained spectra consistently showed tin in substitutional solid solution in α-Zr, whereas no evidence was found of metallic Sn or intermetallic Zr 4Sn precipitates. In oxide scrapes removed from Zircaloy-2 pressure tube of one of CANDU reactors, where the alloy was exposed for about 10 years to pressurized heavy water coolant at temperatures of ˜280°C, a considerable fraction of tin was found in the Sn(IV) state, in the form that coincides with the state of tin in stannic oxide, SnO 2. The same form of tin was identified in filterable deposits in the primary heavy water coolant of CANDU reactors. For comparison, in Zircaloy heated in air, SnO 2 was formed only at temperatures above 500°C.

  17. Ambient gas effects on the dynamics of laser-produced tin plume expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harilal, S. S.; O'Shay, Beau; Tao Yezheng; Tillack, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Controlling the debris from a laser-generated tin plume is one of the prime issues in the development of an extreme ultraviolet lithographic light source. An ambient gas that is transparent to 13.5 nm radiation can be used for controlling highly energetic particles from the tin plume. We employed a partial ambient argon pressure for decelerating various species in the tin plume. The kinetic energy distributions of tin species were analyzed at short and large distances using time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy and a Faraday cup, respectively. A fast-gated intensified charged coupled device was used for understanding the hydrodynamics of the plume's expansion into argon ambient. Our results indicate that the tin ions can be effectively mitigated with a partial argon pressure ∼65 mTorr. Apart from thermalization and deceleration of plume species, the addition of ambient gas leads to other events such as double peak formation in the temporal distributions and ambient plasma formation

  18. The effect of tin sulfide quantum dots size on photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghizade, Mohsen [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamali-Sheini, Farid, E-mail: faridjamali@iauahvaz.ac.ir [Advanced Surface Engineering and Nano Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefi, Ramin [Department of Physics, Masjed-Soleiman Branch, Islamic Azad University (I.A.U), Masjed-Soleiman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknia, Farhad [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Sherafat, University of Farhangian, 15916, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sookhakian, Mehran [Centre for Ionic Liquids, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, tin sulfide Quantum Dots (QDs) was successfully synthesized through sonochemical synthesis method by applying sonication times of 10, 15, and 20 min. Structural studies showed an orthorhombic phase of SnS and Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3}, and hexagonal phase of SnS{sub 2}. The particle size of tin sulfide QDs prepared through sonication time of 20 min was smaller than other QDs. According to TEM images, an increase in sonication time resulted in smaller spherical shaped particles. According to the results of Raman studies, five Raman bands and a shift towards the lower frequencies were observed by enhancing the sonication time. Based on the outcomes of photocatalytic activity, higher this property was observed for tin sulfide QDs, which are prepared through longer sonication time. Solar cell devices manufactured using tin sulfide QDs have a greater performance for the samples with more sonication time. Considering the obtained outcomes, the sonication time seems probable to be a factor affecting synthesis process of SnS QDs as well as its optical and electrical, photocatalytic, and photovoltaic conversion features. - Highlights: • Tin sulfide quantum dots (QDs) synthesized using a sonication method. • The sonication time was selected as a synthesis parameter. • The photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance were depended on synthesis parameter.

  19. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Tin(II-Morin Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabuddin Memon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the interaction between morin and Tin(II and the resulting complex was characterized through various analytical techniques by comparing it with morin. The complexation was confirmed at first by UV-Vis study, which shows that addition of Tin(II to morin may produce bathochromic shifts indicative of complex formation. IR spectral studies indicated that carbonyl has involved in coordination with Tin(II. Moreover, 1H-NMR studies validated that in conjunction with carbonyl, 3-OH of morin is more appropriate to be involved in complexation by replacement of its proton. Scavenging activities of morin and its Tin(II complex on DPPH• radical showed the inhibitory rates of 65% and 49%, respectively. In addition, the reducing capacity of morin was outstanding at 0.5 and 2.0 mg/ml concentrations relative to Tin(II complex. Overall, the study potentially shows the strong impact in order to design the anticancer drugs jointly from its cytotoxic potential and antioxidant activities, thereby selectively targeting the cancerous cells in result increasing their therapeutic index as well as extra advantages over other anticancer drugs.

  20. Influence of TiN coating on the biocompatibility of medical NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shi; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    The biocompatibility of TiN coated nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi-SMA) was evaluated to compare with that of the uncoated NiTi-SMA. Based on the orthodontic clinical application, the surface properties and biocompatibility were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), wettability test, mechanical test and in vitro tests including MTT, cell apoptosis and cell adhesion tests. It was observed that the bonding between the substrate and TiN coating is excellent. The roughness and wettability increased as for the TiN coating compared with the uncoated NiTi-SMA. MTT test showed no significant difference between the coated and uncoated NiTi-SMA, however the percentage of early cell apoptosis was significantly higher as for the uncoated NiTi alloy. SEM results showed that TiN coating could enhance the cell attachment, spreading and proliferation on NiTi-SMA. The results indicated that TiN coating bonded with the substrate well and could lead to a better biocompatibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.