WorldWideScience

Sample records for black range tin

  1. Black chrome on commercially electroplated tin as a solar selecting coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    The reflectance properties of black chrome electroplated on commercially electroplated tin were measured for various black chrome plating times for both the solar and infrared spectrum. The values of absorptance and emittance were calculated from the measured reflectance values. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar region and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the black chrome plated on commercially electroplated tin is obtained for a black chrome plating time of between one and two minutes.

  2. Tin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Kaaber, K; Osmundsen, P E; Andersen, J R; Yding, F; Valeur, G

    1987-01-01

    Patch tests with metallic tin in 73 nickel-sensitive patients revealed 6 positive allergic reactions. Only 4 doubtful reactions were seen, which makes irritancy unlikely. The relevance and clinical significance of the unexpected finding deserves further evaluation.......Patch tests with metallic tin in 73 nickel-sensitive patients revealed 6 positive allergic reactions. Only 4 doubtful reactions were seen, which makes irritancy unlikely. The relevance and clinical significance of the unexpected finding deserves further evaluation....

  3. The Primordial Black Hole Mass Range

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    We investigate Primoridal Black Hole (PBH) formation by which we mean black holes produced in the early universe during radiation domination. After discussing the range of PBH mass permitted in the original mechanism of Carr and Hawking, hybrid inflation with parametric resonance is presented as an existence theorem for PBHs of arbitrary mass. As proposed in arXiv:1510.00400, PBHs with many solar masses can provide a solution to the dark matter problem in galaxies. PBHs can also explain dark matter observed in clusters and suggest a primordial origin for supermassive black holes in galactic cores.

  4. The primordial black hole mass range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate Primordial Black Hole (PBH) formation by which we mean black holes produced in the early Universe during radiation domination. After discussing the range of PBH mass permitted in the original mechanism of Carr and Hawking, hybrid inflation with parametric resonance is presented as an existence theorem for PBHs of arbitrary mass. As proposed in arXiv:1510.00400, PBHs with many solar masses can provide a solution to the dark matter problem in galaxies. PBHs can also explain dark matter observed in clusters and suggest a primordial origin for Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs) in galactic cores.

  5. Smart Windows, Switchable between Transparent, Mirror, and Black States, Fabricated Using Rough and Smooth Indium Tin Oxide Films Deposited by Spray Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Ryou; Seki, Yoshiyuki; Seki, Shigeyuki; Yamada, Katsumi; Sawada, Yutaka; Uchida, Takayuki

    2013-02-01

    Two types of indium-tin oxide films, rough and smooth, with an average grain size of 434 and 71 nm, respectively, were deposited by spray pyrolysis chemical vapor deposition. Using both these films, we fabricated glare tunable transparent electrochemical devices exhibiting reversible optical changes between transparent, mirror, and black states, without any treatments. Under zero bias conditions, the transmittance of the transparent state reached 81.1% at 700 nm. With a bias of -2.5 V, the reflectance of the mirror state reached 82.0% at 700 nm. The total transmittances in the mirror and black state amounted to 0.6% in the visible range.

  6. Evaporating Black Holes and Long Range Scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Hadi

    2003-01-01

    For an effective treatment of the evaporation process of a large black hole the problem concerning the role played by the fluctuations of the (vacuum) stress tensor close to the horizon is addressed. We present arguments which establish a principal relationship between the outward fluctuations of the stress tensor close to the horizon and quantities describing the onset of the evaporation process. This suggest that the evaporation process may be described by a fluctuation-dissipation theorem ...

  7. Black Rail Range - CWHR [ds595

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model...

  8. Black Swift Range - CWHR [ds605

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model...

  9. Multi-band emission in a wide wavelength range from tin oxide/Au nanocomposites grown on porous anodic alumina substrate (AAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoluminescence (PL) properties of tin oxide nanostructures are investigated. Three samples of different morphology, induced by deposition process and various geometrical features of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrate, are analyzed. X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals the presence of two forms of tin oxide on the surface of all studied samples: SnO and SnO2. The former form is typical for reduced surface with bridging oxygen atoms and every other row of in-plane oxygen atoms removed. The oxygen defects give rise to a strong emission in visible region. Two intense PL peaks are observed centered at about 540 (band I) and 620 (band II) nm. The origin of these bands was ascribed to the recombination of electrons from the conduction band (band I) and shallow traps levels (band II) to the surface oxygen vacancy levels. Upon deposition of Au nanoparticles on the top of tin oxide nanostructures the emission at 540 and 620 nm disappears and a new band (band III) occurs in the range >760 nm. The PL mechanism operating in the studied systems is discussed. The tin oxide/Au nanocomposites can be used as efficient multi-band light emitters in a wide (from visible to near infrared) wavelength range.

  10. Cornish Tin Mining and Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how Cornwall was once the world's leading producer of tin. Cornwall's industrial past is now a World Heritage Site alongside the Grand Canyon or the Great Wall of China. A hint is in the Cornish flag, a simple white cross against a black background, also known as Saint Piran's flag. At Geevor Tin Mine, one of…

  11. Standardising Home Range Studies for Improved Management of the Critically Endangered Black Rhinoceros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotz, Roan D.; Grecian, W. James; Kerley, Graham I.H.; Linklater, Wayne L.

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of recent estimations of home range sizes for the critically endangered black rhinoceros in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), South Africa, with historical estimates led reports of a substantial (54%) increase, attributed to over-stocking and habitat deterioration that has far-reaching implications for rhino conservation. Other reports, however, suggest the increase is more likely an artefact caused by applying various home range estimators to non-standardised datasets. We collected 1939 locations of 25 black rhino over six years (2004–2009) to estimate annual home ranges and evaluate the hypothesis that they have increased in size. A minimum of 30 and 25 locations were required for accurate 95% MCP estimation of home range of adult rhinos, during the dry and wet seasons respectively. Forty and 55 locations were required for adult female and male annual MCP home ranges, respectively, and 30 locations were necessary for estimating 90% bivariate kernel home ranges accurately. Average annual 95% bivariate kernel home ranges were 20.4 ± 1.2 km2, 53 ±1.9% larger than 95% MCP ranges (9.8 km2 ± 0.9). When home range techniques used during the late-1960s in HiP were applied to our dataset, estimates were similar, indicating that ranges have not changed substantially in 50 years. Inaccurate, non-standardised, home range estimates and their comparison have the potential to mislead black rhino population management. We recommend that more care be taken to collect adequate numbers of rhino locations within standardized time periods (i.e., season or year) and that the comparison of home ranges estimated using dissimilar procedures be avoided. Home range studies of black rhino have been data deficient and procedurally inconsistent. Standardisation of methods is required. PMID:27028728

  12. Host Range Expansion of Honey Bee Black Queen Cell Virus in the Bumble Bee, Bombus huntii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee viruses display a host range that is not restricted to their original host, European honey bees, Apis mellifera. Here we provide the first evidence that Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV), one of the most prevalent honey bee viruses, can cause an infection in both laboratory-reared and field-co...

  13. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in free-ranging American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Maryland, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Ellen; Spiker, Harry; Driscoll, Cindy P

    2014-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Maryland, USA, live in forested areas in close proximity to humans and their domestic pets. From 1999 to 2011, we collected 84 serum samples from 63 black bears (18 males; 45 females) in five Maryland counties and tested them for exposure to infectious, including zoonotic, pathogens. A large portion of the bears had antibody to canine distemper virus and Toxoplasma gondii, many at high titers. Prevalences of antibodies to zoonotic agents such as rabies virus and to infectious agents of carnivores including canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus were lower. Bears also had antibodies to vector-borne pathogens common to bears and humans such as West Nile virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Antibodies were detected to Leptospira interrogans serovars Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, and Bratislava. We did not detect antibodies to Brucella canis or Ehrlichia canis. Although this population of Maryland black bears demonstrated exposure to multiple pathogens of concern for humans and domesticated animals, the low levels of clinical disease in this and other free-ranging black bear populations indicate the black bear is likely a spillover host for the majority of pathogens studied. Nevertheless, bear populations living at the human-domestic-wildlife interface with increasing human and domestic animal exposure should continue to be monitored because this population likely serves as a useful sentinel of ecosystem health. PMID:25075540

  14. Toxicology of inorganic tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin(II) or stannous ion as a reducing agent is important in nuclear medicine because it is an essential component and common denominator for many in vivo radiodiagnostic agents, commonly called kits for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. This report is intended to alert nuclear medicine community regarding the wide range of biological effects that the stannous ion is capable of producing, and is a review of a large number of selected publications on the toxicological potential of tin(II)

  15. The finite infinite range Heisenberg model and microcanonical black hole statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Aste, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Gelfand pattern of the reduction of the N-fold tensor product of the fundamental representation of the special unitary group SU(2) by itself is studied in the framework of a finite Heisenberg model with infinite range, where N spins couple to each other with the same strength. The present findings are related to the microstatistics of non-rotating black holes for illustrative purposes.

  16. Thermodynamics with long-range interactions: from Ising models to black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2003-07-01

    Methods are presented which enables one to analyze the thermodynamics of systems with long-range interactions. Generically, such systems have entropies which are nonextensive (do not scale with the size of the system). We show how to calculate the degree of nonextensivity for such a system. We find that a system interacting with a heat reservoir is in a probability distribution of canonical ensembles. The system still possesses a parameter akin to a global temperature, which is constant throughout the substance. There is also a useful quantity which acts like a local temperatures and it varies throughout the substance. These quantities are closely related to counterparts found in general relativity. A lattice model with long-range spin-spin coupling is studied. This is compared with systems such as those encountered in general relativity and gravitating systems with Newtonian-type interactions. A long-range lattice model is presented which can be seen as a black hole analog. One finds that the analog's temperature and entropy have many properties which are found in black holes. Finally, the entropy scaling behavior of a gravitating perfect fluid of constant density is calculated. For weak interactions, the entropy scales like the volume of the system. As the interactions become stronger, the entropy becomes higher near the surface of the system, and becomes more area scaling. PMID:12935201

  17. Optimal use of resources structures home ranges and spatial distribution of black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that territories of animals are economical. Home ranges should be similarly efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources and this should structure their distribution on a landscape, although neither has been demonstrated empirically. To test these hypotheses, we used home range models that optimize resource use according to resource-maximizing and area-minimizing strategies to evaluate the home ranges of female black bears, Ursus americanus, living in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We tested general predictions of our models using 104 home ranges of adult female bears studied in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, North Carolina, U.S.A., from 1981 to 2001. We also used our models to estimate home ranges for each real home range under a variety of strategies and constraints and compared similarity of simulated to real home ranges. We found that home ranges of female bears were efficient with respect to the spatial distribution of resources and were best explained by an area-minimizing strategy with moderate resource thresholds and low levels of resource depression. Although resource depression probably influenced the spatial distribution of home ranges on the landscape, levels of resource depression were too low to quantify accurately. Home ranges of lactating females had higher resource thresholds and were more susceptible to resource depression than those of breeding females. We conclude that home ranges of animals, like territories, are economical with respect to resources, and that resource depression may be the mechanism behind ideal free or ideal preemptive distributions on complex, heterogeneous landscapes. ?? 2007 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  18. Extreme plasticity in thermoregulatory behaviors of free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, E.M.; Savage, L.T.; Antolin, M.F.; Biggins, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    In the natural environment, hibernating sciurids generally remain dormant during winter and enter numerous deep torpor bouts from the time of first immergence in fall until emergence in spring. In contrast, black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) remain active throughout winter but periodically enter short and shallow bouts of torpor. While investigating body temperature (Tb) patterns of black-tailed prairie dogs from six separate colonies in northern Colorado, we observed one population that displayed torpor patterns resembling those commonly seen in hibernators. Five individuals in this population experienced multiple torpor bouts in immediate succession that increased in length and depth as winter progressed, whereas 16 prairie dogs in five neighboring colonies remained euthermic for the majority of winter and entered shallow bouts of torpor infrequently. Our results suggest that these differences in torpor patterns did not result from differences in the physiological indicators that we measured because the prairie dogs monitored had similar body masses and concentrations of stored lipids across seasons. Likewise, our results did not support the idea that differences in overwinter Tb patterns between prairie dogs in colonies with differing torpor patterns resulted from genetic differences between populations; genetic analyses of prairie dog colonies revealed high genetic similarity between the populations and implied that individuals regularly disperse between colonies. Local environmental conditions probably played a role in the unusual T b patterns experienced by prairie dogs in the colony where hibernation-like patterns were observed; this population received significantly less rainfall than neighboring colonies during the summer growing seasons before, during, and after the year of the winter in which they hibernated. Our study provides a rare example of extreme plasticity in thermoregulatory behaviors of free-ranging prairie dogs and provides

  19. Coexistence of black holes and a long-range scalar field in cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Zloshchastiev, Konstantin G.

    2004-01-01

    The exactly solvable scalar hairy black hole model (originated from the modern high-energy theory) is proposed. It turns out that the existence of black holes (BH) is strongly correlated to global scalar field, in a sense that they mutually impose bounds upon their physical parameters like the BH mass (lower bound) or the cosmological constant (upper bound). We consider the same model also as a cosmological one and show that it agrees with recent experimental data; additionally, it provides a...

  20. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Mao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are an important source to carbonaceous aerosols in the Western United States (WUS. We quantify the relative contribution of biomass burning to black carbon (BC in the WUS mountain ranges by analyzing surface BC observations for 2006 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE network using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Observed surface BC concentrations show broad maxima during late June to early November. Enhanced potassium concentrations and potassium/sulfur ratios observed during the high-BC events indicate a dominant biomass burning influence during the peak fire season. Model surface BC reproduces the observed day-to day and synoptic variabilities in regions downwind of but near urban centers. Major discrepancies are found at elevated mountainous sites during the July-October fire season when simulated BC concentrations are biased low by a factor of two. We attribute these low biases largely to the underestimated (by more than a factor of two and temporally misplaced biomass burning emissions of BC in the model. Additionally, we find that the biomass burning contribution to surface BC concentrations in the USA likely was underestimated in a previous study using GEOS-Chem (Park et al., 2003, because of the unusually low planetary boundary layer (PBL heights in the GEOS-3 meteorological reanalysis data used to drive the model. PBL heights from GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 reanalysis data are comparable to those from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR. Model simulations show slightly improved agreements with the observations when driven by GEOS-5 reanalysis data, but model results are still biased low. The use of biomass burning emissions with diurnal cycle, synoptic variability, and plume injection has relatively small impact on the simulated surface BC concentrations in the WUS.

  1. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the western United States mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are an important source to carbonaceous aerosols in the western United States (WUS. We quantify the relative contribution of biomass burning to black carbon (BC in the WUS mountain ranges by analyzing surface BC observations for 2006 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE network using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Observed surface BC concentrations show broad maxima during late June to early November. Enhanced potassium concentrations and potassium/sulfur ratios observed during the high-BC events indicate a dominant biomass burning influence during the peak fire season. Model surface BC reproduces the observed day-to-day and synoptic variabilities in regions downwind of and near urban centers. Major discrepancies are found at elevated mountainous sites during the July–October when simulated BC concentrations are biased low by a factor of two. We attribute these biases largely to the underestimated and temporally misplaced biomass burning emissions of BC in the model. Additionally, we find that the biomass burning contribution to surface BC concentrations in the US likely was underestimated in a previous study using GEOS-Chem (Park et al., 2003, because of the unusually low planetary boundary layer (PBL heights and weak precipitation in the GEOS-3 meteorological reanalysis data used to drive the model. PBL heights from GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 reanalysis data are comparable to those from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR. Model simulations show improved agreements with the observations when driven by GEOS-5 reanalysis data, but model results are still biased low. The use of biomass burning emissions with diurnal cycle, synoptic variability, and plume injection has relatively small impact on the simulated surface BC concentrations in the WUS.

  2. Tectonic and magmatic evolution of the northwestern Basin and Range and its transition to unextended volcanic plateaus: Black Rock Range, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, D.W.; Miller, E.; McWilliams, M.; Colgan, J.

    2008-01-01

    The seismically active eastern and western margins of the northern Basin and Range have been extensively studied, yet the northwestern margin of the province remains incompletely understood. The Black Rock Range of northwestern Nevada straddles the transition from the Basin and Range province to the south and east, and flat-lying volcanic plateaus to the west. This poorly understood range preserves a remarkably complete record of Cenozoic magmatism and provides an important window into the pre-Miocene history of the unextended volcanic plateaus of northeastern California and southern Oregon. Geologic mapping and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology from the northern Black Rock Range document three significant episodes of Eocene to middle Miocene volcanism. Eocene (35 Ma) basalts directly overlie Mesozoic granites and arc-related volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Locally erupted Oligocene to early Miocene (27-21 Ma) bimodal volcanic rocks comprise the bulk of the Cenozoic section and conformably overlie the Eocene basalt flows. These bimodal units include rhyolitic lavas, variably welded rhyolitic ash flows, unwelded ash-fall deposits, and thin basalt flows. In the neighboring Pine Forest Range ???20 km to the north, similar Oligocene to early Miocene units are overlain by more than 500 m of ca. 16.4 Ma Steens-equivalent basalt flows and are capped by ca. 16 Ma rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs. In the northern Black Rock Range, the ca. 16.4 Ma middle Miocene basalts are absent from the section, and a 16.2 Ma rhyolitic ash-flow tuff directly overlies the early Miocene flows. Basaltic and rhyolitic volcanic products in the northern Black Rock Range span 35-16 Ma, with many of the Oligocene volcanic units derived from local vents and dikes. Despite the map-scale complexities of locally derived lava flows, the Cenozoic section is broadly conformable and dips gently (???5??-10??) to the northwest. The region experienced no significant tilting between 35 and 16 Ma, with moderate tilting (???5

  3. Peracute sodium toxicity in free-ranging black-bellied whistling duck ducklings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolley, D.S.; Meteyer, C.U.

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 July 2002, 98a??103 newly hatched black-bellied whistling ducks (Dendrocygna autumnalis) were observed alive at an inland saline lake (La Sal Vieja) in Willacy County, Texas (USA). Seventy-one (71%) died after showing signs indicative of sodium toxicity within 5 hr of entering the water; some died within minutes. Six carcasses were sent to the United States Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center (Madison, Wisconsin, USA) for analysis, and brain sodium levels of all ducklings were above 2,000 parts per million wet weight. More black-bellied whistling duck ducklings are likely to have been affected, but they were not observed after hatching.

  4. Black locust - successful invader of a wide range of soil conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítková, Michaela; Tonika, J.; Müllerová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 505, FEB 1 (2015), s. 315-328. ISSN 0048-9697 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasion * black-locust * physical-chemical sdoil characteristic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.099, year: 2014

  5. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J R Lafferty

    Full Text Available Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol, key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116 as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD] and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD. We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  6. Black holes as random particles: entanglement dynamics in infinite range and matrix models

    CERN Document Server

    Magan, Javier M

    2016-01-01

    We first propose and study a quantum toy model of black hole dynamics. The model is unitary, displays quantum thermalization, and the Hamiltonian couples every oscillator with every other, a feature intended to emulate the color sector physics of large-$\\mathcal{N}$ matrix models. Considering out of equilibrium initial states, we analytically compute the time evolution of every correlator of the theory and of the entanglement entropies, allowing a proper discussion of global thermalization/scrambling of information through the entire system. Microscopic non-locality causes factorization of reduced density matrices, and entanglement just depends on the time evolution of occupation densities. In the second part of the article, we show how the gained intuition extends to large-$\\mathcal{N}$ matrix models, where we provide a gauge invariant entanglement entropy for `generalized free fields', again depending solely on the quasinormal frequencies. The results challenge the fast scrambling conjecture and point to a ...

  7. Inheritance of a new albino mutation in Brazilian free-range black chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Jorge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A genetically recessive albino mutation, which inhibits pigment development in the eyes, skin, and feathers of domestic chickens from Brazil, is described. This mutation appeared in a flock of completely black chickens of a private breeder. There are no information on the origin, breed, or specific line of the birds. Pigment inhibition is apparently complete in the feathers and eyes. Bird sight is very impaired, but no histological examination was carried out. Ratios obtained in F2 and backcrossed birds indicate that a single autosomal recessive gene is responsible for the condition. The data suggest that the absence of melanin in the eyes, skin, and feathers (symbol cc is a mutation of the pigmented C wild gene.

  8. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Z; Wu, RJ; Wickramaratne, D.; Shahrezaei, S; Liu, C; Temiz, S; Patalano, A; M Ozkan; Lake, RK; Mkhoyan, KA; Ozkan, CS

    2016-01-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2...

  9. Tin in Human Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jambor, Jaroslav; Smreka, Vâclav

    1993-01-01

    TIN IN HUMAN BONES. The tin content in the bones of 149 skeletons from the 1st - 5th centuries A.D., and of 11 individuals of the recent population was determined. The bone samples were carbonized and analyzed through emission spectroscopy with a.c. excitation. The tin content in bones of recent populations not exposed to extra tin supply is about one order of magnitude higher than is the case with the bones od some populations that lived at the beginning of our era. The distribut...

  10. Friction and wear of tin and tin alloys from minus 100 C to 150 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with an iron (110) single-crystal pin sliding on single and polycrystalline tin and tin alloys. Specimens were examined at various ambient temperatures from -100 to 150 C. Applied loads varied from 1 to 50 grams, and sliding velocity was constant at 0.7 mm/min. Results indicate that the crystal transformation of tin influences the friction coefficient. Friction was higher for the diamond structure (gray tin) than it was for the body-centered tetragonal structure (white tin). Bismuth arrested the crystal transformation, which resulted in constant friction over the temperature range -100 to 150 C. Both copper and aluminum enhanced the kinetics of transformation, with aluminum producing a nearly twofold change in friction with the crystal transformation.

  11. Integration of Big Data & Cloud Computing To Detect Black Money Rotation with Range – Aggregate Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kedharewsari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the big data is difficult to be analyzed due to the presence and characteristics of huge amount of data. Hadoop technology plays a key role in analyzing the large scale data. The aggregate queries are executed on more columns concurrently and it is difficult for huge amount of data. This paper is proposing the method in which the fast RAQ is dividing the big data in to autonomous partitions by means of a balanced partition algorithm and later for each partition a local assessment sketch is generated. By the arrival of the range-aggregate query demand the fast RAQ gets the result in a direct manner by shortening local estimate from all partition and then the cooperative results are provided. Thus in fast RAQ technique three tier Architecture is insisted and they are of 1.Extracting the helpful information’s from Unstructured Data, 2.Implementation of the big data in Multi system Approach, 3.Application Deployment – Insurance/ Banking. This paper is implement for the banking domain process and two major departments are involved in this process and they are 1.To maintain the accounts and for adding new clients the Bank Server is used. To create account in any bank the user have to give their ID proof at the time of registration.2.Account Monitoring Server is used for monitoring every users accounts in various banks and this server is used for retrieving the users who are maintaining and transacting more than Rs 50,000 per annum in various bank accounts by using the similar ID proof is identified by Map Reduce technique. The Online Aggregation is a smart sampling-based method that is performed to provide response to aggregation query by an approximation to the last outcome, with the self-assurance interval which is becoming tighter eventually. It is built into a Map-Reduce-based cloud scheme for analytics of the big data that allows the user to save the money by means of killing the calculation early and to observe the query progress when the

  12. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  13. Three-dimensional carbon foam supported tin oxide nanocrystallites with tunable size range: Sulfonate anchoring synthesis and high rate lithium storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Asfaw, Habtom Desta; Edström, Kristina

    2015-10-01

    The development of a free-standing electrode with high rate capability requires the realization of facile electrolyte percolation, fast charge transfer at the electrode-electrolyte interface as well as the intimate electrical wiring to the current collector. Employing a sulfonated high internal phase emulsion polymer (polyHIPE) as the carbon precursor, we developed a free-standing composite of carbon foam encapsulated SnO2 nanocrystallites, which simultaneously satisfies the aforementioned requirements. When directly evaluated in the pouch cell without using the binder, carbon additive or metallic current collector, the best performing composite exhibits a good rate performance up to 8 A g-1 and very stable cyclability for 250 cycles. This cycling performance was attributed to the synergistic coupling of hierarchical macro/mesoporous carbon foam and SnO2 nanocrystals with optimized size range. Postmortem characterizations unveiled the significant influence of subtle size variation of oxides on the electrochemical performance.

  14. Determination of tin in cassiterite ores by colorimetry of iodometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical methods are described far the determination of tin in cassiterite ores. The gallein-colorimetric method is described for determining small amounts of tin, covering the 0,01-0,5 per cent range. The sample is decomposed by heating with ammonium iodide, and tin is analyzed colorimetrically by means of it s complex with gallein. The final measure may be brought about either visually or spectrophotometrically at 525 nm. (Author)

  15. Source apportionment of wide range particle size spectra and black carbon collected at the airport of Venice (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Vu, Tuan V.; Beddows, David C. S.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric particles are of high concern due to their toxic properties and effects on climate, and large airports are known as significant sources of particles. This study investigates the contribution of the Airport of Venice (Italy) to black carbon (BC), total particle number concentrations (PNC) and particle number size distributions (PNSD) over a large range (14 nm-20 μm). Continuous measurements were conducted between April and June 2014 at a site located 110 m from the main taxiway and 300 m from the runway. Results revealed no significantly elevated levels of BC and PNC, but exhibited characteristic diurnal profiles. PNSD were then analysed using both k-means cluster analysis and positive matrix factorization. Five clusters were extracted and identified as midday nucleation events, road traffic, aircraft, airport and nighttime pollution. Six factors were apportioned and identified as probable sources according to the size profiles, directional association, diurnal variation, road and airport traffic volumes and their relationships to micrometeorology and common air pollutants. Photochemical nucleation accounted for ∼44% of total number, followed by road + shipping traffic (26%). Airport-related emissions accounted for ∼20% of total PNC and showed a main mode at 80 nm and a second mode beyond the lower limit of the SMPS (international airport located in area affected by a complex emission scenario. The results may underpin measures for improving local and regional air quality, and health impact assessment studies.

  16. Long-range transported dissolved organic matter, ions and black carbon deposited on Central Asian snow covered glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Kang, Shichang; Peltier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ninety percent of the Central Asian population depend on water precipitated in the mountains stored in glaciers and snow cover. Accelerated melting of the snow and ice can be induced by the deposition of airborne impurities such as mineral dust, black carbon and co-emitted species leading to significant reductions of the surface albedo. However, Central Asia is a relatively understudied region and data on the source regions, chemical and microphysical characteristics as well as modelling studies of long-range transported air pollution and dust to the Tien Shan mountains is very scarce. We studied the atmospheric aerosol deposited most likely between summer 2012 and summer 2013on three different glaciers in the Kyrgyz Republic. Samples were taken from four snow pits on the glaciers Abramov (2 pits, 39.59 °N, 71.56 °E, 4390 m elevation, 240 cm deep, and 39.62°N, 71.52 °E, 4275 m elevation, 125 cm deep), Ak-Shiirak (41.80 °N, 78.18 °E, 4325 m elevation, 75 cm deep) and Suek (41.78 °N, 77.75 °E, 4341 m elevation, 200 cm deep). The latter two glaciers are located roughly within 6 and 38 km of an operating gold mine. The snow was analyzed for black carbon, ions, metals and organic carbon. We here focus on the results of inorganic ion measurements and organic carbon speciation based on analysis with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and potential pollution sources that can be deduced from the chemical information as well as back trajectories. Average contributions of snow impurities measured by the HR-ToF-AMS were dominated by organic carbon. Relative concentrations of organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in snow were 86 %, 3 %, 9 % and 2 % respectively for Abramov, 92 %, 1 %, 5 % and 1 % for Suek, and 95 %, 1 %, 3 % and 1 % for Ak-Shiirak. Generally, impurities on Suek and Ak-Shiirak were three and five times higher than on Abramov. Mass concentrations of organic carbon were on average 6 times higher in samples

  17. Tin-silver-bismuth solders for electronics assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianco, Paul T.; Rejent, Jerome A.

    1995-01-01

    A lead-free solder alloy for electronic assemblies composed of a eutectic alloy of tin and silver with a bismuth addition, x, of 0tin effective to depress the melting point of the tin-silver composition to a desired level. Melting point ranges from about 218.degree. C. down to about 205.degree. C. depending an the amount of bismuth added to the eutectic tin-silver alloy as determined by DSC analysis, 10.degree. C./min. A preferred alloy composition is 91.84Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi (weight percent based on total alloy weight).

  18. Tin Can Radiation Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crull, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

  19. Preservation of wide-ranging top predators by site-protection: Black and red kites in Doñana National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio, Fabrizio; Blas, Julio; Forero, Manuela G.; Fernández, Néstor; Donázar, José A.; Hiraldo, F.

    2005-01-01

    We used data from a long-term study on two medium-sized generalist predators, the black kite (Milvus migrans) and the red kite (Milvus milvus), to illustrate the complexity of managing wide-ranging top predators by site-protection. The study was conducted between 1989 and 2000 in the Reserva Biológica de Doñana, located at the core of Doñana National Park. Both species occurred at high density and showed high productivity. Black kites were slightly increasing, and red kites showed a non-signi...

  20. Source apportionment of wide range particle size spectra and black carbon collected at the airport of Venice (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Vu, Tuan V.; Beddows, David C. S.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric particles are of high concern due to their toxic properties and effects on climate, and large airports are known as significant sources of particles. This study investigates the contribution of the Airport of Venice (Italy) to black carbon (BC), total particle number concentrations (PNC) and particle number size distributions (PNSD) over a large range (14 nm-20 μm). Continuous measurements were conducted between April and June 2014 at a site located 110 m from the main taxiway and 300 m from the runway. Results revealed no significantly elevated levels of BC and PNC, but exhibited characteristic diurnal profiles. PNSD were then analysed using both k-means cluster analysis and positive matrix factorization. Five clusters were extracted and identified as midday nucleation events, road traffic, aircraft, airport and nighttime pollution. Six factors were apportioned and identified as probable sources according to the size profiles, directional association, diurnal variation, road and airport traffic volumes and their relationships to micrometeorology and common air pollutants. Photochemical nucleation accounted for ∼44% of total number, followed by road + shipping traffic (26%). Airport-related emissions accounted for ∼20% of total PNC and showed a main mode at 80 nm and a second mode beyond the lower limit of the SMPS (factors accounted for less than 10% of number counts, but were relevant for total volume concentrations: nighttime nitrate, regional pollution and local resuspension. An analysis of BC levels over different wind sectors revealed no especially significant contributions from specific directions associated with the main local sources, but a potentially significant role of diurnal dynamics of the mixing layer on BC levels. The approaches adopted in this study have identified and apportioned the main sources of particles and BC at an international airport located in area affected by a complex emission scenario. The results may underpin

  1. Tin-nitrogen and tin-phosphorus heterocycles

    OpenAIRE

    Veith, Michael

    1987-01-01

    In this chapter, rings and cages are described that contain the elements tin and nitrogen, or tin and phosphorus. Ring systems containing elements other than these three are only considered if their chemistry and structure are dominated by stannazane or stannaphosphane units. Polycyclic compounds and cages that are exclusively based upon tin and nitrogen or tin and phosphorus have been known for only a short time and are also dealt with.

  2. Investigations on sodium tin phosphate and tin pyrophosphate glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Sobha, KC; Rao, KJ

    1995-01-01

    Glasses of the alkali tin phosphate system have been investigated. The infrared absorption and fluorescence spectra of the glasses have been examined. It is found that tin is present in both + 2 and + 4 oxidation states. Also tin ions occupy four- or six-coordinated sites in the glass.

  3. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950

  4. Surface tension of tin-lithium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature and concentration dependences of surface tension of tin-lithium alloys in the range of temperatures 250-410 deg C and concentrations 6.3-15.0 at. % Li were measured by the big drop method. It was ascertained that lithium is a surfactant component of Sn-Li system. Positive sign of surface tension temperature coefficients suggests prevailing lithium desorption from the liquid alloy surface with temperature increase. Calculated value of maximum lithium adsorption in its alloys with tin, containing about 4 at. % Li, makes up 8.5 x 10-6 mol/m2

  5. The effects of temperature and humidity on the growth of tin whisker and hillock from Sn5Nd alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cai-Fu [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Liu, Zhi-Quan, E-mail: zqliu@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Shang, Jian-Ku [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tin whiskers and hillocks grow from Sn5Nd alloy due to oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature and humidity can affect the oxidation and the growth diversities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth models of whiskers and hillocks were proposed upon microstructural study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed models can explain the characteristics of whiskers and hillocks. - Abstract: The effects of exposure time, temperature and humidity on the growth of tin whisker and hillock from Sn5Nd alloy were investigated via scanning electron microscopy. It was found that tin whiskers grew from NdSn{sub 3} compound, while hillocks grew from the tin matrix around the NdSn{sub 3} compound, which was induced by the oxidation of NdSn{sub 3} compound by oxygen and water vapor in the ambient. More tin whiskers and/or hillocks were extruded from the substrate with longer exposure time, higher temperature and higher humidity. This resulted in the formation of various morphologies of tin extrusions at different storage conditions, including thread-like, spiral, flute-like, claw-like, sprout-like, chrysanthemum-like and rod-like whiskers, as well as hillocks. Tin whisker was extruded from the crack of the surface Nd(OH){sub 3} layer which serves as the mold of tin whisker growth. And the proposed growth models of tin whisker and hillock on Sn-Nd alloy can explain the diversity of the whisker morphology.

  6. Scaling and long range dependence in option pricing, IV: Pricing European options with transaction costs under the multifractional Black-Scholes model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Tian

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with the problem of discrete time option pricing using the multifractional Black-Scholes model with transaction costs. Using a mean self-financing delta hedging argument in a discrete time setting, a European call option pricing formula is obtained. The minimal price of an option under transaction costs is obtained. In addition, we show that scaling and long range dependence have a significant impact on option pricing.

  7. Tin-Containing Silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Søren; Meier, Sebastian; Sádaba, I.;

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic glycolytic systems, capable of transforming glucose through a cascade of catalytic steps, can lead to efficient chemical processes utilising carbohydrates as feedstock. Tin-containing silicates, such as Sn-Beta, are showing potential for the production of lactates from sugars through a ...

  8. Scaling and long-range dependence in option pricing I: Pricing European option with transaction costs under the fractional Black-Scholes model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Tian

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with the problem of discrete time option pricing by the fractional Black-Scholes model with transaction costs. By a mean self-financing delta-hedging argument in a discrete time setting, a European call option pricing formula is obtained. The minimal price C(t,St) of an option under transaction costs is obtained as timestep δt=((, which can be used as the actual price of an option. In fact, C(t,St) is an adjustment to the volatility in the Black-Scholes formula by using the modified volatility σ√{2}(( to replace the volatility σ, where {k}/{σ}{1}/{2} is the Hurst exponent, and k is a proportional transaction cost parameter. In addition, we also show that timestep and long-range dependence have a significant impact on option pricing.

  9. Production of the entire range of r-process nuclides by black hole accretion disk outflows from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Fernández, Rodrigo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-08-01

    We consider r-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion disks formed in double neutron star and neutron star - black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important - and in some cases dominant - contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disk outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second r-process peak (mass number A ˜ 130), independent of model parameters, with significant production of A nuclear physics inputs. Some of our models produce an abundance spike at A = 132 that is absent in the Solar System r-process distribution. The spike arises from convection in the disk and depends on the treatment of nuclear heating in the simulations. We conclude that disk outflows provide an important - and perhaps dominant - contribution to the r-process yields of compact binary mergers, and hence must be included when assessing the contribution of these systems to the inventory of r-process elements in the Galaxy.

  10. Assessment of wear resistance of tin and tin alloy coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Wayne Pui-Wing

    2007-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Tin alloy coatings have traditionally been used as corrosion resistant bamens due to their inert nature and comprehensive coverage, and have seldom been considered in physically demanding applications, such as wear resistant coatings owing to misconceptions associated with the soft nature of tin metal. The alloying of tin with copper has already been shown to significantly increase its mechan...

  11. Thermodynamical features of Verlinde's approach for a non-commutative Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter black hole in a broad range of scales

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdipour, S. Hamid

    2014-01-01

    We try to study the thermodynamical features of a non-commutative inspired Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter black hole in the context of entropic gravity model, particularly for the model that is employed in a broad range of scales, from the short distances to the large distances. At small length scales, the Newtonian force is failed because one finds a linear relation between the entropic force and the distance. In addition, there are some deviations from the standard Newtonian gravity at large l...

  12. Tin Whisker Formation - A Stress Relieve Phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the move towards lead-free electronics also the solderable finish of electronic components' terminations are converted. While the typical finish was containing 5 % to 20 % lead (Pb) and thus was almost whisker free, lead (Pb)-free finishes such as pure tin or high tin alloys are rather prone to grow whisker. These whiskers are spontaneous protrusions that grow to a significant length of up to millimeters with a typical diameter in the range of few microns and are suspect to cause shorts in electronic assemblies. The latest details of the mechanisms are not yet understood. However it appears to be well established that the driving force for tin whisker growth is a compressive stress in the tin layer and that this stress is released by whisker formation. Besides the mechanism for whisker growth therefore the mechanism of the stress induction is of interest. The origin of that stress may have multiple sources. Among others the most important one is the volume increase within the tin layer due the formation of intermetallics at the interface to the base material. This applies to all copper based material. For base materials with a coefficient of thermal expansion (cte) significantly different from the tin finish another mechanism plays the dominant role. This is the induction of stress during thermal cycling due to the different expansion of the materials with every temperature change. Another mechanism for stress induction may be the oxidation of the finish, which also leads to a local volume increase. Based on the knowledge of stress induction various mitigation strategies can be deducted. Most common is the introduction of a diffusion barrier (e.g. Ni) in order to prevent the growth of the Cu-Sn intermetallics, the controlled growth of Cu-Sn intermetallics in order to prevent their irregularity or the introduction of a mechanical buffer material targeting at the minimisation of the cte mismatch between base and finish material. With respect to the stress

  13. Thickness dependence of structural and optical properties of indium tin oxide nanofiber thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation onto quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Nahass, M.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo 11757 (Egypt); El-Menyawy, E.M., E-mail: emad_elmenyawy@yahoo.com [Solid State Electronics Lab, Solid State Physics Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo 12622 (Egypt)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Indium tin oxide thin films grow as nanofibers by e-beam evaporation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transparency of the films is strongly affected by film thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dielectric constant of the films is independent on film thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical band gap and carrier concentration decrease with increasing film thickness. - Abstract: Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films, produced by electron beam evaporation technique onto quartz substrates maintained at room temperature, are grown as nanofibers. The dependence of structural and optical properties of ITO thin films on the film thickness (99-662 nm) has been reported. The crystal structure and morphology of the films are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope techniques, respectively. The particle size is found to increase with increasing film thickness without changing the preferred orientation along (2 2 2) direction. The optical properties of the films are investigated in terms of the measurements of the transmittance and reflectance determined at the normal incidence of the light in the wavelength range (250-2500 nm). The absorption coefficient and refractive index are calculated and the related optical parameters are evaluated. The optical band gap is found to decrease with the increase of the film thickness, whereas the refractive index is found to increase. The optical dielectric constant and the ratio of the free carrier concentration to its effective mass are estimated for the films.

  14. Long-range transport of black carbon to the Pacific Ocean and its dependence on aging timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Tao, S.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the ability of global models to predict concentrations of black carbon (BC) over the Pacific Ocean is essential to evaluate the impact of BC on marine climate. In this study, we tag BC tracers from 13 source regions around the globe in a global chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). Numerous sensitivity simulations are carried out varying the aging timescale of BC emitted from each source region. The aging timescale for each source region is optimized by minimizing errors in vertical profiles of BC mass mixing ratios between simulations and HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO). For most HIPPO deployments, in the Northern Hemisphere, optimized aging timescales are less than half a day for BC emitted from tropical and midlatitude source regions and about 1 week for BC emitted from high-latitude regions in all seasons except summer. We find that East Asian emissions contribute most to the BC loading over the North Pacific, while South American, African and Australian emissions dominate BC loadings over the South Pacific. Dominant source regions contributing to BC loadings in other parts of the globe are also assessed. The lifetime of BC originating from East Asia (i.e., the world's largest BC emitter) is found to be only 2.2 days, much shorter than the global average lifetime of 4.9 days, making the contribution from East Asia to the global BC burden only 36 % of that from the second largest emitter, Africa. Thus, evaluating only relative emission rates without accounting for differences in aging timescales and deposition rates is not predictive of the contribution of a given source region to climate impacts. Our simulations indicate that the lifetime of BC increases nearly linearly with aging timescale for all source regions. When the aging rate is fast, the lifetime of BC is largely determined by factors that control local deposition rates (e.g., precipitation). The sensitivity of lifetime to aging

  15. Copper matrix filamentary niobium-tin superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent designs of filamentary niobium-tin superconducting composites are described and critical density and mechanical property performance data is given. Methods of improving the efficiency of the reaction are described and an aging process which degrades critical current density has been identified. The performance of a solenoid magnet constructed with a copper matrix composite is described. Conductor fabrication procedures are reported which have been developed to a sufficient degree to permit niobium-tin magnets to be wound and then reacted as a routine operation to give winding densities of 700 A mm-2 10 T, 280 A mm-2 14 T and in situ critical strains to the onset of flux instability in the range 0.2 to 0.5%. (author)

  16. Tin Oxide Microheater for Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharesi, Mohsen; Ansari, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Tin oxide is the main material utilized for the fabrication of chemical sensing pellets which operate at elevated temperatures. The heating is commonly carried out with ruthenium dioxide resistors. Here, a tin oxide-based microheater is developed for microsensor applications. These microheaters are fabricated on 0.5 mm thick alumina substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. The optimum SnO2 heaters have a sheet resistivity in the 40-70 Ω/a range. Ohmic Ag/SnO2 contacts are formed by silver paste printing followed by an appropriate thermal annealing, which provide connections to the external circuitry. Durability tests are carried out on several samples; the long-term performance of the fabricated devices is satisfactory. The method allows the elimination of the expensive ruthenium dioxide from the structure of generic gas sensors.

  17. Rectal prolapse associated with a healed pelvic fracture in a pregnant free-ranging African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis. Part 2 : surgery and necropsy : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olivier

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The oedematous and traumatised protruding section of the rectal tissue of an adult free-ranging female African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis was surgically amputated. Immediately before completion of surgery, the rhinoceros died of anaesthetic-related cardiac arrest. At necropsy a deformed pelvis and sacrum associated with a healed fracture of the left ileal wing were noted. New bone formation in and around the left ventral sacral foramina may have resulted in neuropathy of particularly the 3rd and 4th left ventral sacral nerves, which (in the horse supply the majority of the nerve fibres innervating the caudal rectum and anus. The cause of the injury is not known, although back injuries, presumably sustained during mating by bulls, have been recorded in white rhinoceros. An encounter with elephants could also have been responsible for the injury in this case.

  18. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Francisco A., E-mail: fco.aurelio@inbox.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Camurri, Carlos G., E-mail: ccamurri@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Carrasco, Claudia A., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Colas, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.colas@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 Degree-Sign C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn{sub 3} particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  19. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perring, Loic; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija [Department of Quality and Safety Assurance, Nestle Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, Vers chez-les-Blanc, 1000, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99{+-}5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. (orig.)

  20. Multijet investigations with tin melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the experiments which are described in this paper, several jets or chains of drops by hot tin melt were side by side brought into a container filled with water, so that the melt formed a plane in the water. By the ignition of an underwater bridgewire explosion an interaction was triggered at that jet, which was nearest to the explosion centre. Under suitable conditions this interaction leaped over to neighbouring jets and reached even the most distant jet, when not stopped before. The propagation could be recorded by a high speed camera. The records showed, that the interactions propagated in special directions and the velocity of the propagation was in a range of 2 to 8 m/s. The position of the drops and their distance to each other is very important for the propagation. By separating the single melt jets with fixed copper plats, it could be showed, that hydrodynamic effects are not responsible for the propagation of the interactions. Shock waves, resulting from the interaction cycles, are the cause for the propagation of the interactions. (orig.)

  1. Proton transport properties of tin phosphate, chromotropic acid anchored onto tin phosphate and tin phenyl phosphonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chithra Sumej; P P Sharmila; Nisha J Tharayil; S Suma

    2013-02-01

    Tin (IV) phosphates of the class of tetravalent metal acid (TMA) salts have been synthesized by sol–gel method. The functionalized materials of tin (IV) phosphate (SnP) like chromotropic acid anchored tin phosphate (SnPCA) and tin phenyl phosphonate (SnPP) were also synthesized. These materials have been characterized for elemental analysis (ICP–AES), thermal analysis, X-ray analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Chemical resistivity of these materials has been accessed in acidic, basic and organic solvent media. The proton present in the structural hydroxyl groups indicates good potential for TMA salts to exhibit solid-state proton conduction. The transport properties of these materials have been explored by measuring specific proton conductance at different temperatures. Based on the specific conduction data and Arrhenius plots, a suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  2. Aggregation behavior of tin in tin oxides reacted with lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin aggregation behavior during charge/discharge of tin oxide electrodes is investigated using Li/Sn2BPO6 and Li/SnO cells. Sn aggregation is identified by the peaks in the derivative capacity vs. voltage plot. Scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and Auger electron spectroscope are used to investigate the formation and growth of Sn aggregates. Sn aggregation is more prominent when the upper cutoff voltage is higher than 1.0 V, and Sn aggregates continues to grow with cycling. The upper cutoff voltage is the most critical factor for Sn aggregation as it governs the size and growth rate of aggregates, whereas the effect of the lower cutoff voltage on Sn aggregation behavior seems relatively insignificant. Sn aggregation shows limited effect on cycling behavior of tin oxide electrode

  3. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Joseph Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cheng, Baolian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, Matthew Stouten [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patten, Austin Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-21

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer- Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release. A conceptual cylindrical liner and target is shown in Figure 1.

  4. Antimony Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films: Co Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 serves as an important base material in a variety of resistive type gas sensors. The widespread applicability of this semicoducting oxide is related both to its range of conductance variability and to the fact that it responds to both oxidising and reducing gases. The antimony doped tin-oxide films were prepared by spray pyrolysis method. The as-deposited films are blackish in colour. Addition of antimony impurity showed little increase in the thickness. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows characteristic tin oxide peaks with tetragonal structure. As the doping concentration of antimony was increased, new peak corresponding to Sb was observed. The intensity of this peak found to be increased when the Sb concentration was increased from 0.01 % to the 1 % which indicates the antimony was incorporated into the tin oxide. For gas sensing studies ohmic contacts were preferred to ensure the changes in resistance of sensor is due to only adsorption of gas molecule. The graph of I-V shows a straight line in nature which indicates the ohmic contact. The sensitivity of the sensor for CO gas was tested. The sensitivity of antimony doped tin oxide found to be increased with increasing Sb concentration. The maximum sensitivity was observed for Sb = 1 % at a working temperature of 250 °C.

  5. Radiation-induced deposition of transparent conductive tin oxide coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnov, S.; Asainov, O.; Temenkov, V.

    2016-04-01

    The study of tin oxide films is stimulated by the search for an alternative replacement of indium-tin oxide (ITO) films used as transparent conductors, oxidation catalysts, material gas sensors, etc. This work was aimed at studying the influence of argon ions irradiation on optical and electrical characteristics of tin oxide films. Thin films of tin oxide (without dopants) were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature using reactive magnetron sputtering. After deposition, the films were irradiated with an argon ion beam. The current density of the beam was (were) 2.5 mA/cm2, and the particles energy was 300-400 eV. The change of the optical and electrical properties of the films depending on the irradiation time was studied. Films optical properties were investigated by photometry in the range of 300-1100 nm. Films structural properties were studied using X-ray diffraction. The diffractometric research showed that the films, deposited on a substrate, had a crystal structure, and after argon ions irradiation they became quasi-crystalline (amorphous). It has been found that the transmission increases proportionally with the irradiation time, however the sheet resistance increases disproportionally. Tin oxide films (thickness ~30 nm) with ~100% transmittance and sheet resistance of ~100 kOhm/sq. were obtained. The study has proved to be prospective in the use of ion beams to improve the properties of transparent conducting oxides.

  6. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Margolin, Len G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-06

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release.

  7. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies in the...

  8. Stabilized tin-oxide-based oxidation/reduction catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Schryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Gulati, Suresh T. (Inventor); Summers, Jerry C. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention described herein involves a novel approach to the production of oxidation/reduction catalytic systems. The present invention serves to stabilize the tin oxide reducible metal-oxide coating by co-incorporating at least another metal-oxide species, such as zirconium. In one embodiment, a third metal-oxide species is incorporated, selected from the group consisting of cerium, lanthanum, hafnium, and ruthenium. The incorporation of the additional metal oxide components serves to stabilize the active tin-oxide layer in the catalytic process during high-temperature operation in a reducing environment (e.g., automobile exhaust). Moreover, the additional metal oxides are active components due to their oxygen-retention capabilities. Together, these features provide a mechanism to extend the range of operation of the tin-oxide-based catalyst system for automotive applications, while maintaining the existing advantages.

  9. 48 CFR 204.7202-3 - TINs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TINs. 204.7202-3 Section... OF DEFENSE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Identification 204.7202-3 TINs. Requirements for use of TINs are in FAR subpart 4.9....

  10. Non-hydrolytic Sol-gel Synthesis of Tin Sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajvinder

    systematic study was carried out to understand the influence of all reaction variables, which include tin halides, thioethers, solvents, time, temperature, stoichiometry and concentration. Fine tuning of all reaction variables was carried out. The crystallization and phase stability of the as-recovered products was further studied by heat treatments of the samples. A detailed investigation of synthetic variables during NHSG reactions resulted in controlled synthesis of two crystalline tin sulfide polymorphs, SnS and SnS2. A third polymorph, Sn2S3, could be obtained after heat treatments in the temperature range of 400 to 500 °C. Conditions for the targeted synthesis of particles with various sizes and morphologies were established. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy in combination with EDS, CHNS analysis and thermo gravimetric/differential thermal analysis.

  11. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N.; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface ...

  12. Determination of tin in cassiterite ores by colorimetry of iodometry; Determinacion de Estano en minerales y productos de concentracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, B.

    1972-07-01

    The analytical methods are described far the determination of tin in cassiterite ores. The gallein-colorimetric method is described for determining small amounts of tin, covering the 0,01-0,5 per cent range. The sample is decomposed by heating with ammonium iodide, and tin is analyzed colorimetrically by means of it s complex with gallein. The final measure may be brought about either visually or spectrophotometrically at 525 nm. (Author)

  13. Investigation of oxidation behavior of TiN particulate reinforcement Si3N4 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brittleness of Si3N4 ceramic is improved by adding TiN, but it is unclear the influence of its oxidation properties. Oxidation behavior of TiN particulate reinforcement of Si3N4 composites has been investigated. The results indicate: Oxidation of composite tested between 800 degree C-1000 degree C follows the typical parabolic law. With the increasing of TiN content, oxidation weight gain of composite increases. Oxidation weight gain of composite appears transition when TiN content is 50 wt%. The oxidation activation energy of 30% TiN composite is 145 kJ/mol in this temperature range. The higher oxidation temperature, the more serious oxidation is, the larger reduction of strength after oxidation

  14. Source of ore-forming materials of the Cangpo carbonate replacement tin deposit in the Dachang tin field: evidence from oxygen, carbon and hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dachang tin field with more than one hundred million tonnes of ore at 1% tin and 3% Zn is one of the largest tin fields in the world. The deposit hosted by middle Devonian limestone, argillaceous limestone and black shale, is genetically related to the Longxianggei granite. The oxygen, hydrogen and carbon isotope data of minerals, rocks and fluids suggest a magnatic fluid which evolved during the crystallization of the Longxianggei granite. Mass balance calculations show that the depletions observed in 180 and 13C values of calcites from the ore bodies to the country rocks were due to continous isotopic exchange reactions between the magmatic fluid and the marine limestones at different W/R ratios and between 300 and 600 deg.C. 7 refs., 4 figs

  15. Microhotplates with TiN heaters

    OpenAIRE

    Creemer, J.F.; Briand, Danick; Zandbergen, H. W.; van der Vlist, W.; de Boer, C. R.; de Rooij, Nicolaas F.; Sarro, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been investigated as a heater material for microhotplates and microreactors. TiN is available in many CMOS processes, unlike many other microheater materials. In addition, TiN has a very high melting point (2950 °C) meaning that it is stable up to higher temperatures than platinum (Pt) and polysilicon. For the first time, TiN is tested inside a conventional membrane of LPCVD silicon nitride (SiN). Two types of sputtered TiN are considered: high stress and low stress...

  16. Chemistry of tin compounds and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the large volume of tin compounds reported in the literature, possible only 100 are commercially important. Tin compounds are a wide variety of purposes such as catalysts, stabilizers for many materials including polymer, biocidal agents, bactericides, insecticides, fungicides, wood preservatives, acaricides and anti fouling agents in paints, anticancer and antitumour agents, ceramic opacifiers, as textile additives, in metal finishing operations, as food additives and in electro conductive coating. All these applications make the environment much exposed to tin contamination. The application of organotin compounds as biocides account for about 30% of total tin consumption suggesting that the main environmental effects are likely to originate from this sector. Diorgano tins and mono-organo tins are used mainly in plastic industry which is the next big source for environmental pollution. In this presentation all environmental aspects of the use of tin compounds and the recommended preventive measures are discussed. (author)

  17. Electrical Properties of Electrospun Sb-Doped Tin Oxide Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Brito, Neliza; Melendez, Anamaris; Ramos, Idalia; Pinto, Nicholas J.; Santiago-Aviles, Jorge J.

    2007-03-01

    Transparent and conducting tin oxide fibers are of considerable interest for solar energy conversion, sensors and in various electrode applications. Appropriate doping can further enhance the conductivity of the fibers without loosing optical transparency. Undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide fibers have been synthesized by our group in previous work using electrospinning and metallorganic decomposition techniques. The undoped tin oxide fibers were obtained using a mixture of pure tin oxide sol made from tin (IV) chloride : water : propanol : isopropanol at a molar ratio of 1:9:9:6, and a viscous solution made from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and chloroform at a ratio of 200 mg PEO/10 mL chloroform. In this work, antimony doped fibers were obtained by adding a dopant solution of antimony trichloride and isopropanol at a ratio of 2.2812 g antimony trichloride/10 ml isopropanol to the original tin oxide precursor solution. The Sb concentration in the precursor solution is 1.5%. After deposition, the fibers were sintered 600°C in air for two hours. The electrical conductivity of single fibers measured at room temperature increases by up to three orders of magnitude when compared to undoped fibers prepared using the same method. The resistivity change as a function of the annealing temperature can be attributed to the thermally activated formation of a nearly stoichoimetric solid. The resistivity of the fibers changes monotonically with temperature from 714Ω-cm at 2 K to 0.1Ω-cm at 300 K. In the temperature range from 2 to 8 K the fibers have a positive magnetoresistance (MR) with the highest value of 155 % at 2 K and ±9 T. At temperatures of 10 and 12 K the sign of MR changes to negative values for low magnetic fields and positive for high magnetic fields. For higher temperatures (15 K and above) the MR becomes negative and its magnitude decreases with temperature.

  18. Electrical Properties of Electrospun Sb-Doped Tin Oxide Nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparent and conducting tin oxide fibers are of considerable interest for solar energy conversion, sensors and in various electrode applications. Appropriate doping can further enhance the conductivity of the fibers without loosing optical transparency. Undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide fibers have been synthesized by our group in previous work using electrospinning and metallorganic decomposition techniques. The undoped tin oxide fibers were obtained using a mixture of pure tin oxide sol made from tin (IV) chloride : water : propanol : isopropanol at a molar ratio of 1:9:9:6, and a viscous solution made from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and chloroform at a ratio of 200 mg PEO/10 mL chloroform. In this work, antimony doped fibers were obtained by adding a dopant solution of antimony trichloride and isopropanol at a ratio of 2.2812 g antimony trichloride/10 ml isopropanol to the original tin oxide precursor solution. The Sb concentration in the precursor solution is 1.5%. After deposition, the fibers were sintered 600deg. C in air for two hours. The electrical conductivity of single fibers measured at room temperature increases by up to three orders of magnitude when compared to undoped fibers prepared using the same method. The resistivity change as a function of the annealing temperature can be attributed to the thermally activated formation of a nearly stoichoimetric solid. The resistivity of the fibers changes monotonically with temperature from 714Ω-cm at 2 K to 0.1Ω-cm at 300 K. In the temperature range from 2 to 8 K the fibers have a positive magnetoresistance (MR) with the highest value of 155 % at 2 K and ±9 T. At temperatures of 10 and 12 K the sign of MR changes to negative values for low magnetic fields and positive for high magnetic fields. For higher temperatures (15 K and above) the MR becomes negative and its magnitude decreases with temperature

  19. Effect of DC current on tensile creep of pure tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tensile creep of tin was performed in a temperature range of 323–423 K and under the tensile stress of 1.93–13.89 MPa. During the constant-load tensile creep test, a direct electric current of electric current density in the range from 0 to 3.78 kA/cm2 was passed through the tin specimen, which introduced electrical–thermal–mechanical interaction. A quasi-steady state creep deformation was observed under the simultaneous action of electrical current and tensile stress. The minimum creep rate increased with the increase in temperature, tensile stress and electrical current density. For the same tensile stress and the same chamber temperature, the minimum creep rate increased linearly with the square of the electric current density. A power-law relation was used to describe the stress dependence of the minimum creep rate for the tensile creep of tin. The passage of an electric current of high current density caused the rise of local temperature through the release of Joule heat and introduced the momentum exchange between high-speed mobile electrons and lattice atoms, which resulted in the increase of local grain rotation and grain boundary sliding. The electric current density had no significant effect on the stress exponent and activation energy of the tensile creep of tin for the experimental conditions

  20. Tin and Tin Compounds for Sodium Ion Battery Anodes: Phase Transformations and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Ding, Jia; Mitlin, David

    2015-06-16

    Sodium ion batteries (NIB, NAB, SIB) are attracting interest as a potentially lower cost alternative to lithium ion batteries (LIB), with readily available and geographically democratic reserves of the metal. Tin is one of most promising SIB anode materials, which alloys with up to 3.75 Na, leading to a charge storage capacity of 847 mAh g(-1). In this Account, we outline the state-of-the-art understanding regarding the sodiation-induced phase transformations and the associated performance in a range of Sn-based systems, treating metallic Sn and its alloys, tin oxide (SnO2), tin sulfide (SnS2/SnS), and tin phosphide (Sn4P3). We first detail what is known about the sodiation sequence in metallic Sn, highlighting the most recent insight into the reactions prior to the terminal equilibrium Na15Sn4 intermetallic. We explain why researchers argue that the equilibrium (phase diagram) series of phase transitions does not occur in this system, and rather why sodiation/desodiation proceeds through a series of metastable crystalline and amorphous structures. We also outline the recent modeling-based insight regarding how this phase transition profoundly influences the mechanical properties of the alloy, progressively changing the bonding and the near neighbor arrangement from "Sn-like" to "Na-like" in the process. We then go on to discuss the sodiation reactions in SnO2. We argue that while a substantial amount of experimental work already exists where the focus is on synthesis and testing of tin oxide-based nanocomposites, the exact sodiation sequence is just beginning to be understood. Unlike in Sn and Sn alloys, where capacities near the theoretical are reached at least early during cycling, SnO2 never quite achieves anything close to the 1398 mAh g(-1) that would be possible with a combination of fully reversible conversion and alloying reactions. We highlight recent work demonstrating that contrary to general expectations, it is the Sn to Na15Sn4 alloying reaction that

  1. THE EFFECTS OF METALLIC INTERLAYER FORMATION ON THE ADHESION PROPERTIES OF PACVD - TiN FILMS ON TOOL STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, S.; In, C.; Choi, S.; Chun, S.

    1991-01-01

    The adhesion of PACVD - TiN films on tool steel (AISI M2) has been investigated as a function of interfacial chemistry and the metallic interlayer formation between TiN films and substrate steel. Prior to TiN deposition, thin metallic interlayers such as Ti, Cr, Cu films were deposited on a steel substrate with thickness range of 200 - 2000 A by Magnetron sputtering. TiN films were deposited by RF Glow Discharge PACVD technique using the gaseous mixture of TiCl4, N2, H2 and Ar at 520 °C. The ...

  2. Studies on Cementation of Tin on Copper and Tin Stripping from Copper Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cementation of tin on copper in acid chloride-thiourea solutions leads to the formation of porous layers with a thickness dependent on the immersion time. The process occurs via Sn(II-Cu(I mechanism. Chemical stripping of tin was carried out in alkaline and acid solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents. It resulted in the dissolution of metallic tin, but refractory Cu3Sn phase remained on the copper surface. Electrochemical tin stripping allows complete tin removal from the copper substrate, but porosity and complex phase composition of the tin coating do not allow monitoring the process in unambiguous way.

  3. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance......-styled references to, among other things, the culturally and ideologically effervescent interwar-period have made me curious as to what alternative possibilities – for instance ‘emancipation’ – a comparative analysis might disclose concerning the visual rhetoric of black. Thus, in conclusion, it is briefly...

  4. Decorative layers on tin bronzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Konopka

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Decorative layers are decisive for aesthetic value of castings, therefore significant demands are raised towards such layers, e.g. pleasant durable colour, gloss, and smoothness. The work discusses the influence of the type of mechanical working applied to the surfaces of CuSn10 tin bronze castings on the quality and durability of a decorative coating. The scope of the work has included designing and manufacturing of cast samples of tin bronze, mechanical working of the surfaces in order to prepare them for applying coating layers,generating decorative layers as a result of chemical reactions, and the quality assessment and comparison of the obtained coating. Theassessment of thickness and continuity of the obtained decorative layers based on metallographic examinations has been presented.

  5. Tinned fish with radioprotective ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of food ingredients with pronounced radioprotective properties is made. The protective effect of fish proteins and some vegetable oils is mentioned. As suitable additives to tinned fish during the manufacturing process the β carotene, anthocyans and apple pectin are pointed out. β-carotene possesses the ability to absorb radiations. It can be added either as a pure crystalline substance or dissolved in the vegetable oil. Anthocyans have an antimutagen effect due to their ability to inhibit free radical reactions. Some vegetable polyphenols can be added with wine. The Bulgarian anthocyan concentrate Enobagrin (made by extraction of marc and wine) is also proposed. A combination of Enobagrin, β-tocopherol and pyracetam decreases the postradiation hypoplasia. Special attention is paid to the importance of the pectin in intoxication with heavy radioactive metals. It is thought that the pectin forms unsoluble complex compounds with Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr. The binding energy depends on the available carboxylic groups. Some experiments showing the interaction of the pectin with 90Sr are mentioned. In the tinned fish the pectin can be introduced with tomato paste. Vegetables rich in pectin and carotene - carrots and tomato concentrate - can be added as well. Proposed enriched tinned fish can be used as a preventive radioprotective food under conditions of increased radiation risk. 19 refs

  6. Formation of excited tin ion in collisions of slow electrons with SnCl2 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of tin excited ions in collisions of slow electrons with tin dichloride molecules was studied experimentally. At electron energy of 100 eV 50 cross sections of excited single charged tin ions spectral lines were measured. 6 optical functions of dissociative excitation in the electron energy range of 0-100 eV were recorded. Comparison of cross sections for direct and dissociative excitation of certain lines was made. Dissociative excitation of spectral lines in two systems of SnCl molecules was studied simultaneously

  7. Whisker Formation On Galvanic Tin Surface Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanyi A.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the effect of substrate composition, thickness of the tin electroplate and its morphology on pressure-induced tin whisker formation. Pure tin deposits of different thickness were obtained on a copper and brass substrates using methane sulfonic industrial bath. The deposits were compressed by a steel bearing ball forming imprint on the surface. The microstructure of tin whiskers obtained at the boundary of each imprint, their length and number were studied using both light and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that the most intensive formation and growth of whiskers was observed in the first two hours. In general, brass substrate was shown to be more prone to whisker formation than copper independently of the tin coating thickness. The results have been compared with industrial bright tin finish on control unit socket leads and proposals have been made as to modification of the production process in order to minimize the risk of whiskering.

  8. Classical and quantum chaotic scattering in a muffin tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the classical mechanics, the quantum mechanics and the semi-classical approximation of the 2-dimensional scattering from a muffin tin potential. The classical dynamical system for Coulombic muffin tins is proven to be chaotic by explicit construction of the exponentially increasing number of periodic orbits. These are all shown to be completely unstable (hyperbolic). By methods of the thermodynamic formalism we can determine the Hausdorff dimension, escape rate and Kolmogorov-Sinai-entropy of the system. An extended KKR-method is developed to determine the quantum mechanical S-matrix. We compare a few integrable scattering examples with the results of the muffin tin scattering. Characteristic features of the spectrum of eigenphases turn out to be the level repulsion and long range rigidity as compared to a completely random spectrum. In the semiclassical analysis we can rederive the regularized Gutzwiller trace formula directly from the exact KKR-determinant to prove that no further terms contribute in the case of the muffin tin potential. The periodic orbit sum allows to draw some qualitative conclusions about the effects of classical chaos on the quantum mechanics. In the context of scaling systems the theory of almost periodic functions is discussed as a possible mathematical foundation for the semiclassical periodic orbit sums. Some results that can be obtained from this analysis are developed in the context of autocorrelation functions and distribution functions for chaotic scattering systems. (orig.)

  9. Interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin octoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interesterification of rapeseed oil was performed for the first time by using tin octoate as Lewis acid homogeneous catalysts and methyl or ethyl acetate as acyl acceptors in a batch reactor, within the temperature range 393–483 K. The yields in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and triacetin (TA) after 20 h of reaction time increased from 8% and 2%–to 61% and 22%, respectively, when the reaction temperature increased from 423 to 483 K. An optimum value of 40 for the acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio was found to be necessary to match good fatty acid alkyl ester yields with high enough reaction rate. The rate of generation of esters was significantly higher when methyl acetate was used as acyl acceptor instead of its ethyl homologue. The collected results suggest that tin octoate can be used as effective catalyst for the interesterification of rapeseed oil with methyl or ethyl acetate being highly soluble in the reaction system, less expensive than enzymes and allowing the operator to work under milder conditions than supercritical interesterification processes. - Highlights: • We study the interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin(II) octoate. • Tin(II) octoate is an effective homogeneous catalyst at 483 K. • The acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio must be optimized. • Higher rate of reaction is obtained with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor

  10. Scaling and long-range dependence in option pricing V: Multiscaling hedging and implied volatility smiles under the fractional Black-Scholes model with transaction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Tian

    2011-05-01

    This paper deals with the problem of discrete time option pricing using the fractional Black-Scholes model with transaction costs. Through the ‘anchoring and adjustment’ argument in a discrete time setting, a European call option pricing formula is obtained. The minimal price of an option under transaction costs is obtained. In addition, the relation between scaling and implied volatility smiles is discussed.

  11. High damping indium-tin alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Dooris, A.; Lakes, Roderick S.; Myers, B.; Stephens, N

    2015-01-01

    This research is directed toward the development of materials of high stiffness and high mechanical damping for the purpose of damping vibrations instructures and machinery. To this end, indium-tin alloys are considered. Cast In-Sn exhibits substantial damping for a metal. Quenching substantially improved the damping of indium-tin alloy but the effect gradually disappeared due to aging. Cold work of 1.3% permanent shear strain had the effect of moderately increasing the damping of indium-tin,...

  12. Effect of passive film on electrochemical surface treatment for indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yung-Fu, E-mail: gausswu@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, MingChi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Rd., Taishan, Taipei 24301, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chi-Hao [Department of Chemical Engineering, MingChi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Rd., Taishan, Taipei 24301, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxalic, tartaric, and citric acid baths accompanying with applied voltages were used to treat the ITO surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the changes in ITO surfaces by examining the potentiodynamic behavior of ITO films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AFM analysis showed the formation of a passive layer could assist to planarize surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS analysis indicated this passive layer was mainly composed of SnO{sub 2.} Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A better planarization was obtained by treating in 3.0 wt.% tartaric acid at 0.5 V due to weak complexation strength. - Abstract: Changes in indium tin oxide (ITO) film surface during electrochemical treatment in oxalic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid were investigated. Controlling the voltage applied on ITO film allows the formation of a passive layer, effectively protecting the film surface. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry showed that the passive layer composition was predominantly SnO{sub 2} in tartaric acid, while a composite of tin oxide and tin carboxylate in citric or oxalic acid. Even though the passive films on ITO surface generated in these organic acids, the indium or tin could complex with the organic acid anions, enhancing the dissolution of ITO films. The experimental results show that the interaction between the dissolution and passivation could assist to planarize the ITO surface. We found that the optimal treatment at 0.5 V in 3 wt.% tartaric acid could provide the ITO surface with root-mean-squared roughness less than 1.0 nm, due to the weak complexing characteristics of tartaric acid.

  13. Understanding tin plasmas in vacuum: A new approach to tin whisker risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the mechanisms governing sustained tin plasma formation in vacuum. The authors have experimentally demonstrated that sustained tin plasmas can form in vacuum at dc power supply voltages as low as 4 V, and present a qualitative model for the observed voltage and current signatures associated with tin plasma formation. Engineering estimates were developed to help quantify tin whisker risk as a function of power supply voltage. Implications for space applications are also discussed

  14. Microstructure and growth mechanism of tin whiskers on RESn3 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Large amount of intact tin whiskers were firstly prepared without post handling, and their microstructures were investigated systematically with TEM. A growth model was proposed to explain the observed growth characteristics from Sn–RE alloys. - Abstract: An exclusive method was developed to prepare intact tin whiskers as transmission electron microscope specimens, and with this technique in situ observation of tin whisker growth from RESn3 (RE = Nd, La, Ce) film specimen was first achieved. Electron irradiation was discovered to have an effect on the growth of a tin whisker through its root. Large quantities of tin whiskers with diameters from 20 nm to 10 μm and lengths ranging from 50 nm to 500 μm were formed at a growth rate of 0.1–1.8 nm s−1 on the surface of RESn3 compounds. Most (>85%) of these tin whiskers have preferred growth directions of 〈1 0 0〉, 〈0 0 1〉, 〈1 0 1〉 and 〈1 0 3〉, as determined by statistics. This kind of tin whisker is single-crystal β-Sn even if it has growth striations, steps and kinks, and no dislocations or twin or grain boundaries were observed within the whisker body. RESn3 compounds undergo selective oxidation during whisker growth, and the oxidation provides continuous tin atoms for tin whisker growth until they are exhausted. The driving force for whisker growth is the compressive stress resulting from the restriction of the massive volume expansion (38–43%) during the oxidation by the surface RE(OH)3 layer. Tin atoms diffuse and flow to feed the continuous growth of tin whiskers under a compressive stress gradient formed from the extrusion of tin atoms/clusters at weak points on the surface RE(OH)3 layers. A growth model was proposed to discuss the characteristics and growth mechanism of tin whiskers from RESn3 compounds.

  15. A new membrane electro-deposition based process for tin recovery from waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-Guang, Yang; Jie, Lei; Si-Yao, Peng; Yuan-Lu, Lv; Wei-Qiang, Shi

    2016-03-01

    The current research investigated a process combining leaching, purification and membrane electrodeposition to recover tin from the metal components of WPCBs. Experimental results showed that with a solid liquid ratio of 1:4, applying 1.1 times of stoichiometric SnCl4 dosage and HCl concentration of 3.5-4.0 mol/L at a temperature of 60-90°C, 99% of tin can be leached from the metal components of WPCBs. The suitable purification conditions were obtained in the temperature range of 30-45°C with the addition of 1.3-1.4 times of the stoichiometric quantity of tin metal and stirring for a period of 1-2h; followed by adding 1.3 times of the stoichiometric quantity of Na2S for sulfide precipitation about 20-30 min at room temperature. The purified solution was subjected to membrane electrowinning for tin electrodeposition. Under the condition of catholyte Sn(2+) 60 g/L, HCl 3 mol/L and NaCl 20 g/L, current density 200 A/m(2) and temperature 35°C, a compact and smooth cathode tin layer can be obtained. The obtained cathode tin purity exceeded 99% and the electric consumption was less than 1200 kW h/t. The resultant SnCl4 solution generated in anode compartment can be reused as leaching agent for leaching tin again. PMID:26595900

  16. Determination of total tin in silicate rocks by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheimer, H.N.; Fries, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of total tin in silicate rocks utilizing a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with a stabilized-temperature platform furnace and Zeeman-effect background correction. The sample is decomposed by lithium metaborate fusion (3 + 1) in graphite crucibles with the melt being dissolved in 7.5% hydrochloric acid. Tin extractions (4 + 1 or 8 + 1) are executed on portions of the acid solutions using a 4% solution of tricotylphosphine oxide in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Ascorbic acid is added as a reducing agent prior to extraction. A solution of diammonium hydrogenphosphate and magnesium nitrate is used as a matrix modifier in the graphite furnace determination. The limit of detection is > 10 pg, equivalent to > 1 ??g l-1 of tin in the MIBK solution or 0.2-0.3 ??g g-61 in the rock. The concentration range is linear between 2.5 and 500 ??g l-1 tin in solution. The precision, measured as relative standard deviation, is < 20% at the 2.5 ??g l-1 level and < 7% at the 10-30 ??g l-1 level of tin. Excellent agreement with recommended literature values was found when the method was applied to the international silicate rock standards BCR-1, PCC-1, GSP-1, AGV-1, STM-1, JGb-1 and Mica-Fe. Application was made to the determination of tin in geological core samples with total tin concentrations of the order of 1 ??g g-1 or less.

  17. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs

  19. Radiation levels and countermeasure research on radiological protection in tin mine in china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the distribution of radiation level in our nation's tin mine, therefore comes up with proposals on radiological protection and provide scientific evidence on how to protect lives and health of worker underground in tin mine. Methods: To get the radiation level of the underground workplaces in tin mine by analysis of research papers and the measuring results from on-scene investigations. Results: Majority of the absorbed dose rates of γ radiation in the air of underground workplaces in tin mine falls within the range of radiation levels of normal background. Earlier, the typical values of radon concentration and potential alpha energy concentration of radon daughters in the air of underground workplaces in tin mine are 3.12 kBq/m3 and 5.61 μJ/m3 respectively. Now, radon concentration and potential alpha energy concentration of radon daughters in the air of underground workplaces in majority of tin mine are lower than 1000 Bq/m3 and 3.57 μJ/m3. Conclusion: For these tin mine workers with an average of annual effective dose greater than 1 mSv or these of their specific activity for natural uranium in materials are greater than 1 Bq/g need to have regulation of radiological protection. The control limits for the radon concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of radon daughters and the absorbed dose rates of γ radiation in the air of underground workplaces in tin mine are 1000 Bq/m3, 3.57 μJ/m3 and 1 μGy/h respectively. The administrative individual dose for workers working under the ground of tin mine is 10 mSv/a. If a worker's total annual effective dose is greater than 10 mSv, he/she should be considered as radioactive worker. (authors)

  20. Technical problems associated with the production of technetium Tc 99m tin(II) pyrophosphate kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of tin(II) required for adequate reduction, complexation, and stability of technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate in radiopharmaceutical kits, and methods of preventing the loss of tin(II) during formulation of these lyophilized kits are investigated. Tin(II) loss from stannous chloride solutions was studied under several conditions, including room air versus nitrogen atmospheres, during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood with samples frozen on dry ice versus samples at room temperature, during lyophilization, and during storage under refrigerated, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Various amounts of stannous chloride, ranging from 5 to 1000 microgram/ml, were used in formulating sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m kits containing 100 mCi technetium Tc 99m and 0.4 microgram total technetium. Samples were removed at various times; hydrolyzed technetium, pertechnetate, and technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate were isolated on instant thin-layer chromatography-silica gel and quantified with a scintillation counter. The time necessary to deoxygenate distilled water by nitrogen purging was measured. Several sources of stannous chloride were assayed for tin(II) content. Tin(II) loss occurs rapidly in solution (15% in one hour) unless continuously protected with nitrogen, and during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood unless frozen with dry ice. No substantial loss of tin(II) was detected during lyophilization or during storage of lyophilized product at any of the three temperatures. A minimum of 400 microgram tin(II) was required to provide 90% technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate at six hours after preparation. Adequate deoxygenation of small quantities (450 ml) of water was accomplished in less than one hour. Some stannous chloride salts were highly oxidized in the dry state, and only high-purity elemental tin wire gave acceptable yields of tin

  1. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries. PMID:26093469

  2. Tin release from oxygenated Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterized samples of oxygenated Zircaloy were heated in a Knudsen-cell apparatus to 2400 K. The vapour pressure of tin above the Zircaloy was measured as a function of temperature, oxygen content and time. Activity coefficients on the order of 10-2 were measured for tin in Zircaloy for oxygen contents up to 17 atom %. Above that oxygen content, the apparent activity coefficient was 10 times lower; however, this probably arose from diffusion control of the tin volatilization, and not from an enhanced attraction of tin to the Zircaloy lattice at high oxygen contents. The derived tin diffusion coefficient was high, about 3.8 x 10-5 cm2·s-1, probably dominated by diffusion through defects in the lattice and along grain boundaries. (author)

  3. Nucleation and growth of tin whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing; Vianco, Paul T.; Zhang, Bei; Li, James C. M.

    2011-06-01

    Pure tin film of one micron thick was evaporated onto a silicon substrate with chromium and nickel underlayers. The tinned silicon disk was bent by applying a dead load at the center and supported below around the edge to apply biaxial compressive stresses to the tin layer. After 180 C vacuum annealing for 1,2,4,6, and 8 weeks, tin whiskers/hillocks grew. A quantitative method revealed that the overall growth rate decreased with time with a tendency for saturation. A review of the literature showed in general, tin whisker growth has a nucleation period, a growth period and a period of saturation, very similar to recrystallization or phase transformation. In fact we found our data fit Avrami equation very well. This equation shows that the nucleation period was the first week.

  4. Fabrication of ion conductive tin oxide-phosphate amorphous thin films by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of tin oxide-phosphate films using tetrakis(dimethylamino)tin and trimethyl phosphate as precursors. The growth rates were 1.23–1.84 Å/cycle depending upon the deposition temperature and precursor combination. The ionic conductivity of the ALD tin oxide-phosphate films was evaluated by cross-plane impedance measurements in the temperature range of 50–300 °C under atmospheric air, with the highest conductivity measured as 1.92 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 300 °C. Furthermore, high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy exhibited two O1s peaks that were classified as two subpeaks of hydroxyl ions and oxygen ions, revealing that the quantity of hydroxyl ions in the ALD tin oxide-phosphate films influences their ionic conductivity

  5. Effect of pulsed voltage on electrochemical migration of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    respectively at 10 and 5 V, while the duty cycle and the pulse width were varied in the range of ms. The results showed that varying of pulse width at fixed duty cycle has a minor effect under investigated conditions, whereas increasing duty cycle significantly reduces the time to short due to dendrite...... formation and increases the charge transferred between the electrodes over time. With increase of duty cycle, increases the anodic dissolution of tin, which was visualized using a tin ion indicator applied on the components prior to applying the voltage. The anodic dissolution of tin significantly...... influences the dendritic growth, although a tendency for more hydroxide precipitation was observed for lower duty cycles. The precipitation of tin hydroxides was identified as influencing factor for the reduction of charge transfer under pulsed voltage with low duty cycles, therefore resulting in the...

  6. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S1 x S2. We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  7. Low-temperature Synthesis of Tin(II) Oxide From Tin(II) ketoacidoximate Precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Alshankiti, Buthainah

    2015-04-01

    Sn (II) oxide finds numerous applications in different fields such as thin film transistors1, solar cells2 and sensors.3 In this study we present the fabrication of tin monoxide SnO by using Sn (II) ketoacid oximate complexes as precursors. Tin (II) ketoacidoximates of the type [HON=CRCOO]2Sn where R= Me 1, R= CH2Ph 2, and [(MeON=CMeCOO)3Sn]- NH4 +.2H2O 3 were synthesized by in situ formation of the ketoacid oximate ligand. The crystal structures were determined via single crystal X- ray diffraction of the complexes 1-3 revealed square planar and square pyramidal coordination environments for the Sn atom. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in all the complexes. Furthermore, the complexes were characterized by Infrared (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and elemental analysis. From thermogravimetric analysis of 1-3, it was found that the complexes decomposed in the range of 160 – 165 oC. Analysis of the gases evolved during decomposition indicated complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step and the formation of SnO. Spin coating of 1 on silicon or glass substrate show uniform coating of SnO. Band gaps of SnO films were measured and found to be in the range of 3.0 – 3.3 eV by UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated surface oxidation of the SnO film. Heating 1 above 140 oC in air gives SnO of size ranging from 10 – 500 nm and is spherical in shape. The SnO nanomaterial is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction(XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  8. Platelet Composite Coatings for Tin Whisker Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Martin, James E.

    2015-11-01

    Reliable methods for tin whisker mitigation are needed for applications that utilize tin-plated commercial components. Tin can grow whiskers that can lead to electrical shorting, possibly causing critical systems to fail catastrophically. The mechanisms of tin whisker growth are unclear and this makes prediction of the lifetimes of critical components uncertain. The development of robust methods for tin whisker mitigation is currently the best approach to eliminating the risk of shorting. Current mitigation methods are based on unfilled polymer coatings that are not impenetrable to tin whiskers. In this paper we report tin whisker mitigation results for several filled polymer coatings. The whisker-penetration resistance of the coatings was evaluated at elevated temperature and high humidity and under temperature cycling conditions. The composite coatings comprised Ni and MgF2-coated Al/Ni/Al platelets in epoxy resin or silicone rubber. In addition to improved whisker mitigation, these platelet composites have enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric constant compared with unfilled polymers.

  9. Therapeutic tin-117m compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Meinken, George E.; Mausner, Leonard F.; Atkins, Harold L.

    2003-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the palliation of bone pain due to cancer by the administration of a unique dosage of a tin-117m (Sn-117m) stannic chelate complex in a pharmaceutically acceptable composition. In addition, the invention provides a method for simultaneous palliation of bone pain and radiotherapy in cancer patients using compositions containing Sn-117m chelates. The invention also provides a method for palliating bone pain in cancer patients using Sn-117m-containing compositions and monitoring patient status by imaging the distribution of the Sn-117m in the patients. Also provided are pharmaceutically acceptable compositions containing Sn-117m chelate complexes for the palliation of bone pain in cancer patients.

  10. Evidence for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2003-06-20

    Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity. PMID:12817138

  11. Synthesis of tin-containing polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzell, S. A.; Taylor, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    A series of tin-containing polyimide films derived from either 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride and 4,4'-oxydianiline have been synthesized and their electrical properties examined. Highest quality materials (i.e., homogeneous, smooth surface, flexible) with the best electrical properties were doped with either SnCl2.2H2O or (n-Bu)2SnCl2. In all cases, extensive reactivity of the tin dopant with water, air or polyamic acid during imidization is observed. Lowered electrical surface resistivities appear to be correlatable with the presence of surface tin oxide on the film surface.

  12. Immobilization of Tin (IV) molybdophosphate onto mesoporous silica SBA-15 and its application on strontium removal from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghayan, H. [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14155-4383, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahjoub, A.R., E-mail: mahjouba@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14155-4383, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khanchi, A.R., E-mail: akanchi@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science and Technology Institute, P.O. Box. 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilization of Tin (IV) molybdophosphate onto mesoporous silica is performed by two step aqueous impregnation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High dispersion of Tin (IV) molybdophosphate is obtained upon immobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By supporting Tin (IV) molybdophosphate onto mesoporous silica adsorption rate and ion exchange capacity is increased for strontium removal from aqueous solution. - Abstract: Ordered mesoporous silica materials are one of the most extensively used adsorbents for trapping pollutants. They have many advantages such as good accessibility to active sites, rapid mass transport inside the nanostructures, and good hydrothermal stability, but most mesoporous materials do not themselves have the appropriate surface properties. To address this issue, we reported a simple method for immobilization of heteropolymetalate onto mesoporous, because they have potential sorption and ion exchange properties. Here we attempted to immobilized Tin (IV) molybdophosphate onto mesoporous silica SBA-15 and used for strontium removal from aqueous solution. The obtained products were characterized by inductively coupled plasma (ICP), XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FT-IR. This work provides new methodology for the general synthesis of supported heteropolymetalate with large surface areas, and ordered nano porous structures.

  13. Tunable Near-Infrared Luminescence in Tin Halide Perovskite Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, May L; Tay, Timothy Y S; Sadhanala, Aditya; Dutton, Siân E; Li, Guangru; Friend, Richard H; Tan, Zhi-Kuang

    2016-07-21

    Infrared emitters are reasonably rare in solution-processed materials. Recently, research into hybrid organo-lead halide perovskite, originally popular in photovoltaics,1-3 has gained traction in light-emitting diodes (LED) due to their low-cost solution processing and good performance.4-9 The lead-based electroluminescent materials show strong colorful emission in the visible region, but lack emissive variants further in the infrared. The concerns with the toxicity of lead may, additionally, limit their wide-scale applications. Here, we demonstrate tunable near-infrared electroluminescence from a lead-free organo-tin halide perovskite, using an ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3Sn(Br1-xIx)3/F8/Ca/Ag device architecture. In our tin iodide (CH3NH3SnI3) LEDs, we achieved a 945 nm near-infrared emission with a radiance of 3.4 W sr(-1) m(-2) and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 0.72%, comparable with earlier lead-based devices. Increasing the bromide content in these tin perovskite devices widens the semiconductor bandgap and leads to shorter wavelength emissions, tunable down to 667 nm. These near-infrared LEDs could find useful applications in a range of optical communication, sensing and medical device applications. PMID:27336412

  14. A Win for the Future of Tin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Drinking that draft beer from a glass? Why not try tin products instead—they keep your beer cooler and more refreshing longer than glasses! In 1885, Yong Koon, a young man from Guangdong Province, traveled

  15. Observational Evidence for Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Ramesh; McClintock, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers have discovered two populations of black holes: (i) stellar-mass black holes with masses in the range 5 to 30 solar masses, millions of which are present in each galaxy in the universe, and (ii) supermassive black holes with masses in the range 10^6 to 10^{10} solar masses, one each in the nucleus of every galaxy. There is strong circumstantial evidence that all these objects are true black holes with event horizons. The measured masses of supermassive black hole are strongly corr...

  16. Solid 7Li-NMR and in situ XRD studies of the insertion reaction of lithium with tin oxide and tin-based amorphous composite oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lithium insertion reactions with tin (II) oxide (SnO) and tin-based composite oxide (abbreviated as TBCO) are studied by solid 7Li-NMR Knight shift, T1 and T1ρ relaxation rate, TEM and in situ XRD methods. By the insertion reaction for SnO, the lithium oxide and β-tin are produced first at Li/Sn = 2; at Li/Sn = 3 to 6 the products are not simple and a mixture of LiSn2, LiSn, Li5Sn2 and Li7Sn2 alloys is detected during the insertion. For the TBCO, which is revealed as amorphous, mainly constituted by randomly distributed very short-range (order of 10-9 m) regions by TEM observation, it is found that electrochemically inserted lithium forms Li2O and produces metallic tin (Sn) in the first step (Li/Sn 7Sn2 (and Li7Si2), are produced in the second step (Li/Sn >2). During the second step, the Li/Sn ratio of formed lithium-tin alloy is kept at almost 4. By the analyses of 7Li NMR Knight shifts, line shape and in situ XRD, the lithium-inserted TBCOs are characterized as almost amorphous and mixtures of highly ionic components. (author)

  17. Space Shuttle Program Tin Whisker Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimi, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of tin whiskers (TW) on space shuttle hardware led to a program to investigate and removal and mitigation of the source of the tin whiskers. A Flight Control System (FCS) avionics box failed during vehicle testing, and was routed to the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot for testing and disassembly. The internal inspection of the box revealed TW growth visible without magnification. The results of the Tiger Team that was assembled to investigate and develop recommendations are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation.

  18. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  19. A unique case of extra-group infant adoption in free-ranging Angola black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus angolensis palliatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Noah Thomas; Opere, Paul Otieno

    2016-04-01

    Infant adoption has been reported in a variety of primate taxa both in captive and natural settings. Adoption by females may be adaptive by increasing inclusive fitness via shared genes between adoptive mother and adoptee or by providing valuable maternal practice which, in turn, may increase the female's future reproductive success. Others have argued that adoption may be non-adaptive and the result of a general attraction toward infants. Our study examines a unique case of adoption by an adult female Angola black and white colobus monkey (Colobus angolensis palliatus) who adopted an extra-group infant alongside her own biological infant. We compare infant behaviors and mother-infant interactions between biological infant and adoptee and then compare both biological infant and adoptee behavioral profiles to those of infants under normal circumstances. Data were collected from July 2014 to June 2015 on three habituated groups in the Diani Forest of Kenya. Scan sampling and pooled data were used to create daily and monthly behavioral profiles for the biological infant and adoptee, as well as a mean monthly profile of four infants under normal circumstances. Data include time spent (1) clinging to mother/adoptive mother, (2) clinging to another individual, (3) behaving independently, and (4) behaving in close proximity to mother/adoptive mother. Initially, the adoptee struggled to achieve behavioral profiles consistent with those of the biological infant and normal colobus infants of the same age as he spent significantly more time moving independently and significantly less time clinging to the adoptive mother. After the mysterious death of the biological infant in mid-January 2015, the adoptee assumed a behavioral profile similar to that of infants under normal conditions. This case does not support adaptive hypotheses for adoption (i.e., inclusive fitness or learning to mother). Instead, because the biological infant died, possibly due to the presence of the

  20. Tin(II) ketoacidoximates: synthesis, X-ray structures and processing to tin(II) oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash; Davaasuren, Bambar; Alshankiti, Buthainah Ameen; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2015-12-14

    Tin(II) ketoacidoximates of the type [HON=CRCOO]2Sn (R = Me 1, CH2Ph 2) and (MeON=CMeCOO)3Sn](-) NH4(+)·2H2O 3 were synthesized by reacting pyruvate- and hydroxyl- or methoxylamine RONH2 (R = H, Me) with tin(II) chloride dihydrate SnCl2·2H2O. The single crystal X-ray structure reveals that the geometry at the Sn atom is trigonal bipyramidal in 1, 2 and trigonal pyramidal in 3. Inter- or intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in 1-3. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis shows that the decomposition of 1-3 to SnO occurs at ca. 160 °C. The evolved gas analysis during TG indicates complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step for 1 whereas a small organic residue is additionally removed at temperatures >400 °C for 2. Above 140 °C, [HON=C(Me)COO]2Sn (1) decomposes in air to spherical SnO particles of size 10-500 nm. Spin coating of 1 on Si or a glass substrate followed by heating at 200 °C results in a uniform film of SnO. The band gap of the produced SnO film and nanomaterial was determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to be in the range of 3.0-3.3 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates surface oxidation of the SnO film to SnO2 in ambient atmosphere. PMID:26528675

  1. An Investigation into Zinc Diffusion and Tin Whisker Growth for Electroplated Tin Deposits on Brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Mark A.; Wilcox, Geoffrey D.; Higginson, Rebecca L.; Heath, Richard J.; Liu, Changqing

    2014-04-01

    It is widely documented that whisker growth is more rapid for tin deposits on brass compared with deposits produced on other substrate materials, such as copper. As a result, studies investigating the effect of process variables on tin whisker formation are often conducted on brass substrates to take advantage of the increased whisker growth rates. Although it has been understood since the 1960s that the increased whisker growth results from zinc diffusion, to date there has not been any detailed analysis of the zinc/zinc oxide distribution at the surface of the tin deposit. Using a commercial bright tin electroplating bath, the formation of zinc oxide at the surface of tin deposits on brass has been investigated. Analyses show that zinc oxide is present on the surface of the deposit within 1 day of electroplating. During storage at room temperature, a network of zinc oxide is formed at the surface grain boundaries, the extent of which increases with time. The critical role that zinc surface diffusion plays in whisker growth for tin deposits on brass has been demonstrated by electrochemical oxidation of the tin shortly after electroplating. This develops a tin oxide film that is thicker than the native air-formed oxide and subsequently serves as a diffusion barrier to zinc surface diffusion, thereby mitigating whisker growth.

  2. Preparation and Optimization of High Quality TiN Films

    OpenAIRE

    DUYAR, Özlem; KOÇUM, Cengiz; DURUSOY, H. Zafer

    2003-01-01

    TiN thin films have been deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method on glass substrates. The effects of the substrate temperature and the substrate bias voltage on the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were studied by using XRD, STM, optical transmission and resistivity measurements. The bias voltage was varied in the 0 to 200 V range for two substrate temperatures, 100 °C and 300 °C. The results showed that the substrate bias voltage influenced the...

  3. A comparative study on wear behavior of TiN and diamond coated WC-Co substrates against hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarthy, G.V. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India); Chandran, Maneesh, E-mail: maneesh@physics.iitm.ac.in [Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India); Bhattacharya, S.S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India); Rao, M.S. Ramachandra [Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India); Kamaraj, M., E-mail: kamaraj@iitm.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wear behaviors of diamond/WC-Co, TiN/WC-Co and WC-Co against Al-Si were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both TiN and diamond coatings were done using chemical vapor deposition technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction and sliding wear properties were characterized using a pin-on-disc method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond coated WC-Co pins showed one order less wear loss than bare WC-Co pins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A weight gain was observed for the TiN coated WC-Co pins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Average coefficient of friction was lowest for the diamond coated WC-Co pins. - Abstract: The demand for better tools for machining hypereutectic aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are increasing day by day since the extensive use of these alloys in internal combustion engines. In addition to the lifetime of the machining tool, surface finish of the machined piece is also equally important, as it directly affects the performance of the engine. In this paper, we compared the wear behavior of bare tungsten carbide (WC-Co), titanium nitride (TiN) coated WC-Co and diamond coated WC-Co substrates against Al-Si alloys using pin-on-disc method. Both TiN and diamond coatings were done using chemical vapor deposition technique. Diamond coated WC-Co substrates show one order less wear loss compared to the bare WC-Co substrates. Instead of weight loss, a weight gain was observed for the TiN coated WC-Co substrates. Average coefficient of friction was lowest for the diamond coated WC-Co substrates due to the different wear behavior of diamond coated tribological system, which is explained in detail.

  4. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  5. Fabrication, microstructure, and mechanical properties of tin nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A novel fabrication method was developed for single-crystalline tin nanopillars. → BCT tin nanopillar strain-rate sensitivity is similar to bulk tin. → BCT tin nanostructures exhibit a strength size effect similar to FCC metals. → Synchrotron XRD results showed no accumulation of dislocations in deformed pillars. → This is believed to be the 1st report on the tin nanopillar mechanical properties. - Abstract: Vertically aligned, cylindrical tin nanopillars have been fabricated via an electron beam lithography and electroplating method. Characterization by a non-destructive synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction (μSXRD) technique revealed that the tin nanostructures are body-centered tetragonal and are likely single-crystalline, or consist of a few large grains. The mechanical properties of tin nanopillars with average diameters of 920 nm, 560 nm, and 350 nm were studied by uniaxial compression in a nanoindenter outfitted with a flat punch diamond tip. The results of compression tests reveal strain rate sensitivity for nanoscale tin deformation, which matches closely to the previously reported bulk tin values. However, unlike bulk, tin nanopillars exhibit size-dependent flow stresses where smaller diameter specimens exhibit greater attained strengths. The observed size-dependence matches closely to that previously reported for single-crystalline face centered cubic metals at the nanoscale. μSXRD data was used to compare the dislocation density between as-fabricated and deformed tin nanopillars. Results of this comparison suggest that there is no measurable accumulation of dislocations within deformed tin nanopillars.

  6. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  7. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  8. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretic to increase urine flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other products, black tea is used for weight loss. In foods, ...

  9. Tin in a chondritic interplanetary dust particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Submicron platey Sn-rich grains are present in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (IDP) W7029 A and it is the second occurrence of a tin mineral in a stratospheric micrometeorite. Selected Area Electron Diffraction data for the Sn-rich grains match with Sn2O3 and Sn3O4. The oxide(s) may have formed in the solar nebula when tin metal catalytically supported reduction of CO or during flash heating on atmospheric entry of the IDP. The presence of tin is consistent with enrichments for other volatile trace elements in chondritic IDPs and may signal an emerging trend toward nonchondritic volatile element abundances in chondritic IDPs. The observation confirms small-scale mineralogical heterogeneity in fine-grained chondritic porous interplanetary dust.

  10. Broad spectral response photodetector based on individual tin-doped CdS nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weichang; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Yong; Tang, Dongsheng

    2014-12-01

    High purity and tin-doped 1D CdS micro/nano-structures were synthesized by a convenient thermal evaporation method. SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM were used to examine the morphology, composition, phase structure and crystallinity of as-prepared samples. Raman spectrum was used to confirm tin doped into CdS effectively. The effect of impurity on the photoresponse properties of photodetectors made from these as-prepared pure and tin-doped CdS micro/nano-structures under excitation of light with different wavelength was investigated. Various photoconductive parameters such as responsivity, external quantum efficiency, response time and stability were analyzed to evaluate the advantage of doped nanowires and the feasibility for photodetector application. Comparison with pure CdS nanobelt, the tin-doped CdS nanowires response to broader spectral range while keep the excellect photoconductive parameters. Both trapped state induced by tin impurity and optical whispering gallery mode microcavity effect in the doped CdS nanowires contribute to the broader spectral response. The micro-photoluminescence was used to confirm the whispering gallery mode effect and deep trapped state in the doped CdS nanowires.

  11. Increase in the conductivity and work function of pyrosol indium tin oxide by infrared irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of infrared irradiation on an indium tin oxide transparent conductor prepared by a pyrosol method was investigated. As-deposited indium tin oxide was irradiated with infrared in nitrogen gas at atmospheric pressure and temperatures ranging from 50 to 430 deg. C. Typically, infrared irradiation of the as-deposited indium tin oxide at 400 deg. C for 60 min reduced the electrical resistance by 60%, raised the work function by 0.5 eV, and enlarged the optical energy band gap by 0.05 V. The resistance was mainly decreased during the initial 10 min of irradiation. The results of field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the infrared irradiation enhanced the crystallinity of the indium tin oxide. These results, derived from treatment at atmospheric pressure and using inexpensive equipment, suggest that infrared irradiation should be an inexpensive method to reduce the resistance and raise the work function of as-deposited pyrosol indium tin oxide

  12. The embedded atom model and large-scale MD simulation of tin under shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the work was to develop an interatomic potential, that can be used in large-scale classical MD simulations to predict tin properties near the melting curve, the melting curve itself, and the kinetics of melting and solidification when shock and ramp loading. According to phase diagram, shocked tin melts from bcc phase, and since the main objective was to investigate melting, the EAM was parameterized for bcc phase. The EAM was optimized using isothermal compression data (experimental at T=300 K and ab-initio at T=0 K for bcc, fcc, bct structures), experimental and QMD data on the Hugoniot and on the melting at elevated pressures. The Hugoniostat calculations centred at β-tin at ambient conditions showed that the calculated Hugoniot is in good agreement with experimental and QMD data above p-bct transition pressure. Calculations of overcooled liquid in pressure range corresponding to bcc phase showed crystallization into bcc phase. Since the principal Hugoniot of tin originates from the β-tin that is not described by this EAM the special initial state of bcc samples was constructed to perform large-scale MD simulations of shock loading.

  13. Experimental transition probabilities and Stark-broadening parameters of neutral and single ionized tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Strengths and Stark-effect widths of the Sn I and Sn II lines prominent between 3200 and 7900 A are measured with a spectroscopic shock tube. Absolute strengths of 17 ionic lines are obtained with estimated (22-50)% accuracy and conform to appropriate quantum-mechanical sum rules. Relative transition probabilities for nine prominent neutral tin lines, normalized to radiative-lifetime data, are compared with other experiments and theoretical predictions. Parameters for Stark-effect broadening are measured over a range of plasma electron densities. Broadening data (with accuracies of 15-35%) for one neutral and ten ionic lines of tin are compared to theoretical predictions.

  14. Black hairy tongue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although ...

  15. Theoretical calculation of a complete set of the neutron reaction data for natural tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction data of neutron with natural Tin (Nnn) have been calculated by means of the optical model (OPM), the Hauser-Feshbach Theory (HFT) and the evaporation model including the Pre-equilibrium emission (PEM) in the incident neutron energy range between 1-20 MeV. Comparing with experimental values, good agreement have been obtained

  16. Synchrotron characterization of functional tin dioxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wire-like crystals of tin dioxide were synthesized by a gas-transport technique. The wires, of mainly nanometric diameters, were characterized by spectroscopy and microscopy techniques with the use of highly brilliant and intense synchrotron radiation. We studied the influence of the surface chemical state and the oxygen vacancies on the atomic and electronic structure of the nanowires. The surface of the nanowires is covered by a few nanometers of tin suboxides. The lack of oxygen over the surface layers leads to specific sub-zone formation in a gap, as shown by synchrotron studies

  17. Electron beam induced growth of tin whiskers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the influence of electron irradiation on tin whisker growth. Sputtered tin samples exposed to electron beam of 6 MeV energy exhibited fast whisker growth, while control samples did not grow any whiskers. The statistics of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects due to charges trapped in an insulating substrate. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols

  18. Electron beam induced growth of tin whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, A. C.; Warrell, G. R.; Parsai, E. I.; Karpov, V. G.; Shvydka, Diana

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the influence of electron irradiation on tin whisker growth. Sputtered tin samples exposed to electron beam of 6 MeV energy exhibited fast whisker growth, while control samples did not grow any whiskers. The statistics of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects due to charges trapped in an insulating substrate. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  19. Interface flow mechanism for tin whisker growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, H.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Cheng, J. [Materials Science Program, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Vianco, P.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Li, J.C.M., E-mail: li@me.rochester.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Materials Science Program, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Tin coatings, widely used in electronics, are susceptible to the spontaneous eruption of fine metal filaments or 'whiskers'. Tin whiskers are a serious reliability issue in microelectronics, as they can cause short circuits and device failure. While it is generally accepted that whiskers grow to relieve compressive stresses, the specific mechanism for whisker formation is yet unknown. Data are presented to support an interface-transport mechanism for whisker nucleation and growth. This mechanism, involving the formation of a viscous layer at the interface between substrate and coating, could explain the extremely rapid growth of whiskers that has been observed experimentally.

  20. Electron Microscopy Study of Tin Whisker Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Murray G.(Washington State University); Lebret, Joel (8392)

    2003-03-30

    The growth of tin whiskers formed on sputtered tin layers deposited on brass was studied using electron microscopy. The occurrence of whiskers appeared to be largely independent of the macroscopic stress state in the film; rather it was microscopic compressive stresses arising from the formation of an intermetallic phase that appeared to be the necessary precursor. Whisker morphology was a result of whether nucleation had occurred on single grains or on multiple grains. In the latter case, the whiskers had a fluted or striated surface. The formation of whiskers on electron transparent samples was demonstrated. These samples showed the whiskers were monocrystalline and defect free, and that the growth direction could be determined.

  1. Interface flow mechanism for tin whisker growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin coatings, widely used in electronics, are susceptible to the spontaneous eruption of fine metal filaments or 'whiskers'. Tin whiskers are a serious reliability issue in microelectronics, as they can cause short circuits and device failure. While it is generally accepted that whiskers grow to relieve compressive stresses, the specific mechanism for whisker formation is yet unknown. Data are presented to support an interface-transport mechanism for whisker nucleation and growth. This mechanism, involving the formation of a viscous layer at the interface between substrate and coating, could explain the extremely rapid growth of whiskers that has been observed experimentally.

  2. Synchrotron characterization of functional tin dioxide nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domashevskaya, E. P., E-mail: ftt@phys.vsu.ru; Chuvenkova, O. A.; Turishchev, S. Yu. [Voronezh State University, Voronezh (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    Wire-like crystals of tin dioxide were synthesized by a gas-transport technique. The wires, of mainly nanometric diameters, were characterized by spectroscopy and microscopy techniques with the use of highly brilliant and intense synchrotron radiation. We studied the influence of the surface chemical state and the oxygen vacancies on the atomic and electronic structure of the nanowires. The surface of the nanowires is covered by a few nanometers of tin suboxides. The lack of oxygen over the surface layers leads to specific sub-zone formation in a gap, as shown by synchrotron studies.

  3. Cluster formation probability in the trans-tin and trans-lead nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P; Sahadevan, Sabina; 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.03.004

    2010-01-01

    Within our fission model, the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM) cluster formation probabilities are calculated for different clusters ranging from carbon to silicon for the parents in the trans-tin and trans- lead regions. It is found that in trans-tin region the 12^C, 16^O, 20^Ne and 24^Mg clusters have maximum cluster formation probability and lowest half lives as compared to other clusters. In trans-lead region the 14^C, 18, 20^O, 23^F, 24,26^Ne, 28,30^Mg and 34^Si clusters have the maximum cluster formation probability and minimum half life, which show that alpha like clusters are most probable for emission from trans-tin region while non-alpha clusters are probable from trans-lead region. These results stress the role of neutron proton symmetry and asymmetry of daughter nuclei in these two cases.

  4. Rolling contact fatigue behavior of Cu and TiN coatings on bearing steel substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, R. F.; Erdemir, A.; Dolan, F. J.; Thom, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The resistance of copper and TiN coatings on various bearing substrates to high-load rolling contact fatigue (RCF) is investigated. Special attention is given to the lubricating characteristics of copper deposited by ion plating, and the wear resistant characteristics of TiN deposited by ion plating and magnetron sputtering techniques. RCF samples of 440C and AMS 5749 bearing steels were coated. Sputter deposited and ion plated films were on the RCF samples in a range of thickness from about 2000 A to 2 microns. Results showed a marked improvement of the RCF for pure copper tested on 440C, but a degradation for copper on AMS 5749. It is also found that the 2000 A TiN films behave favorably on the 440C and AMS 5749 bearing steels at RCF stress levels of 786 ksi. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis were used during the investigation.

  5. Methodology for the effective stabilization of tin-oxide-based oxidation/reduction catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony N. (Inventor); Schryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Gulati, Suresh T. (Inventor); Summers, Jerry C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention described herein involves a novel approach to the production of oxidation/reduction catalytic systems. The present invention serves to stabilize the tin oxide reducible metal-oxide coating by co-incorporating at least another metal-oxide species, such as zirconium. In one embodiment, a third metal-oxide species is incorporated, selected from the group consisting of cerium, lanthanum, hafnium, and ruthenium. The incorporation of the additional metal oxide components serves to stabilize the active tin-oxide layer in the catalytic process during high-temperature operation in a reducing environment (e.g., automobile exhaust). Moreover, the additional metal oxides are active components due to their oxygen-retention capabilities. Together, these features provide a mechanism to extend the range of operation of the tin-oxide-based catalyst system for automotive applications, while maintaining the existing advantages.

  6. Microwave plasma CVD of NANO structured tin/carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek, Marek; Kostecki, Robert

    2012-07-17

    A method for forming a graphitic tin-carbon composite at low temperatures is described. The method involves using microwave radiation to produce a neutral gas plasma in a reactor cell. At least one organo tin precursor material in the reactor cell forms a tin-carbon film on a supporting substrate disposed in the cell under influence of the plasma. The three dimensional carbon matrix material with embedded tin nanoparticles can be used as an electrode in lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Tuning the optical bandgap of TiO2-TiN composite films as photocatalyst in the visible light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-TiN composite catalysts were prepared by oxidizing the TiN films in air at 350 °C. By adjusting the oxidation time to control the oxidation stage of TiN films, the optical band gap of the TiO2-TiN composites can be varied in a wide range from 1.68 eV to 3.23 eV. These composite films all showed red shift in photo-response towards the visible region, and depending on the optical band gap, some composite films exhibited good catalytic activity in the visible light region. This study provides a simple but effective method to prepare film photocatalyst working in visible light.

  8. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  9. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zheng Jiao; Xiaojuan Wan; Bing Zhao; Huijiao Guo; Tiebing Liu; Minghong Wu

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam irradiation on the gas sensing performance of tin dioxide thin films toward H2 are studied. The tin dioxide thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The results show that the sensitivity increased after electron beam irradiation. The electron beam irradiation effects on tin dioxide thin films were simulated and the mechanism was discussed.

  10. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-11-01

    reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

  11. Synthesising highly reactive tin oxide using Tin(II2- ethylhexanoate polynucleation as precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Montenegro Hernández

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide is a widely used compound in technological applications, particularity as a catalyst, gas sensor and in making varistors, transparent conductors, electrocatalytic electrodes and photovoltaic cells. An ethylhexanoate tin salt, a carboxylic acid and poly-esterification were used for synthesising highly reactive tin oxide in the present study. Synthesis was controlled by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and recording changes in viscosity. The tin oxide characteristics so obtained were determined using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SnO2 dust synthesised and heat-treated at 550°C yielded high density aggregates, having greater than 50 μm particle size. This result demonstrates the high reactivity of the ceramic powders synthesised here.

  12. Anodic corrosion of lead, tin and lead-tin alloys in sulphuric acid solutions. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of lead and tin and the effect of tin on the anodic behavior of lead in sulfuric acid solutions has been studied in relation to the corrosion of the positive grid of the lead acid battery. The release of soluble Pb(IV) species into sulfuric acid during the anodic polarization of lead has been mapped using the ring-disk electrode technique and their role in the electrochemistry of lead is discussed. Part of the tetravalent products formed on lead are reduced only at high negative potentials. The usefulness of the rotating ring-disk electrode for the determination of different soluble corrosion products has been demonstrated. Mechanisms for tin dissolution in different regions (open circuit, active dissolution and passive region) have been proposed. Ex situ surface analysis of the anodic layer formed on the tin electrode showed this to be mainly SnO.

  13. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash P.

    2015-03-01

    Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles are formed in the presence of a carboxylic acid and base in air at room temperature. IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (coupled with infrared spectroscopy), powder X-ray diffraction, high temperature X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy are used for the characterization of Sn6O4(OH)4 and the investigation of its selective decomposition into SnO or SnO2. Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction results indicate that SnO is formed by the removal of water from crystalline Sn6O4(OH)4. SEM shows octahedral morphology of the Sn6O4(OH)4, SnO and SnO2 with particle size from 400 nm-2 μm during solid state conversion. Solution phase transformation of Sn6O4(OH)4 to SnO2 occurs in the presence of potassium glutarate and oxygen. SnO2 particles are 15-20 nm in size.

  14. Lithiation of Tin Oxide: A Computational Study

    CERN Document Server

    Pedersen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest that the lithiation of pristine SnO forms a layered Li$_\\text{X}$O structure while the expelled tin atoms agglomerate into 'surface' planes separating the Li$_\\text{X}$O layers. The proposed lithiation model widely differs from the common assumption that tin segregates into nano-clusters embedded in the lithia matrix. With this model we are able to account for the various tin bonds that are seen experimentally and explain the three volume expansion phases that occur when SnO undergoes lithiation: (i) at low concentrations Li behaves as an intercalated species inducing small volume increases; (ii) for intermediate concentrations SnO transforms into lithia causing a large expansion; (iii) finally, as the Li concentration further increases a saturation of the lithia takes place until a layered Li$_2$O is formed. A moderate volume expansion results from this last process. We also report a 'zipper' nucleation mechanism that could provide the seed for the transformation from tin oxide to lithium oxide.

  15. Preparation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon tin alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnat, M.; Marchal, G.; Piecuch, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a new method to obtain hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor alloys. The method is reactive co-evaporation. Silicon tin hydrogenated alloys are prepared under atomic hydrogen atmosphere. We discuss the influence of various parameters of preparation (hydrogen pressure, tungsten tube temperature, substrate temperature, annealing...) on electrical properties of samples.

  16. Spin current transport in ceramic: TiN thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongyu; Kanno, Yusuke; Tashiro, Takaharu; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji; Ando, Kazuya

    2016-03-01

    The spin current transport property in a ceramic material TiN has been investigated at room temperature. By attaching TiN thin films on Ni20Fe80 with different thicknesses of TiN, the spin pumping experiment has been conducted, and the spin diffusion length in TiN was measured to be around 43 nm. Spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance has also been taken to investigate the spin Hall angle of TiN, which was estimated to be around 0.0052. This study on ceramic material provides a potential selection in emerging materials for spintronics application.

  17. Woodgrain defect on tinned steel Flandres foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin electrocoated steel strip, also referred to as Flandres foil, is largely used for manufacturing food containers. Tinplates must have good corrosion resistance, workability, weldability, as well as a bright appearance. The woodgrain defect, a not yet fully understood defect that occurs on tinplates and accounts for their high scrap rate, consists of alternate bands of bright/dull reflectivity and resembles longitudinally cut wood. Observations of the woodgrain defect by scanning electron microscopy showed that the molten tin spreads irregularly during both the melting and solidification stages. X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the metallic tin tended to crystallize in the (200) direction for coupons with and without the woodgrain defect. Nevertheless, the preferential orientation degree decreased for coupons with the woodgrain defect. The rocking curves, also known as omega-scan, showed that the tin grains were uniformly aligned parallel to the strip surface for coupons with no defects, whereas for tinplates with woodgrain, the tin grains were not uniformly oriented, probably due to the misalignment of the grains in relation to the surface. - Graphical abstract: The woodgrain defect occurs on Flandres tinplates and consists in the formation of alternate bands of different reflectivity (bright/dull), which looks like longitudinally cut wood. X-ray diffractometry showed that the typical bright surface of tinplate is associated to the uniform distribution of aligned (200) Sn grains, whereas in tinplate with the woodgrain defect, the Sn grains were not uniformly oriented, due to the misalignment of the (200) Sn planes relative to the surface. Research highlights: → The bright surface of tinplate is associated to the uniform distribution of aligned (200) Sn grains. → The woodgrain defect on tinplate consists in alternate bands of bright/dull appearance. → In tinplate with the woodgrain defect, the Sn grains were not uniformly oriented, due to the

  18. Lithium tin phosphate anode partially reduced through prelithiation for hybrid capacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Chien-Ju [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Keelung Road, Section 4, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Dah-Shyang, E-mail: dstsai@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Keelung Road, Section 4, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chuan-hua [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Keelung Road, Section 4, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Le, Minh-Vien [Chemical Engineering Department, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • LiSn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} LSP is prelithiated to yield tin and made steady its electrode capacity. • Several hybrid capacitors are made with negative LSP and positive activated carbon AC. • The effects of LSP prelithiation level and LSP:AC mass ratio are studied. • The plus of metallic tin on capacity is realized only at low current densities. • The LSP-I:AC ratio of 1:1 in mass is superior under most operation conditions. - Abstract: Incorporated as the negative electrode, the LiSn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (LSP) crystals requires a prelithiation step to decompose LSP partially and yield tin metal for a relatively steadied capacity in cycling the hybrid capacitor of LiPF{sub 6} electrolyte. The charge transfer reactions of lithium alloying tin at low potentials offer a substantial amount of electrical capacity. Hence, several capacitors of LSP negative and activated carbon (AC) positive are prepared to understand the effects of prelithiation and LSP:AC mass ratio on how to exploit this electrochemical capacity. Among two prelithiation levels and three mass ratios, the combination of LSP-I (10% tin) and 1:1 (LSP:AC) mass ratio stands out as the best choice over a wide range of specific current. On the other hand, the selection of a specific current low enough to match the charge-transfer reaction kinetics enables the LSP electrode of high prelithiation level, LSP-II (45% tin), to utilize its battery-like capacity thoroughly. The maximum energy of hybrid capacitor LSP-II/AC is measured 28.7 W h kg{sup −1} at a minimum specific current 0.03 A g{sup −1}.

  19. Lithium tin phosphate anode partially reduced through prelithiation for hybrid capacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • LiSn2(PO4)3 LSP is prelithiated to yield tin and made steady its electrode capacity. • Several hybrid capacitors are made with negative LSP and positive activated carbon AC. • The effects of LSP prelithiation level and LSP:AC mass ratio are studied. • The plus of metallic tin on capacity is realized only at low current densities. • The LSP-I:AC ratio of 1:1 in mass is superior under most operation conditions. - Abstract: Incorporated as the negative electrode, the LiSn2(PO4)3 (LSP) crystals requires a prelithiation step to decompose LSP partially and yield tin metal for a relatively steadied capacity in cycling the hybrid capacitor of LiPF6 electrolyte. The charge transfer reactions of lithium alloying tin at low potentials offer a substantial amount of electrical capacity. Hence, several capacitors of LSP negative and activated carbon (AC) positive are prepared to understand the effects of prelithiation and LSP:AC mass ratio on how to exploit this electrochemical capacity. Among two prelithiation levels and three mass ratios, the combination of LSP-I (10% tin) and 1:1 (LSP:AC) mass ratio stands out as the best choice over a wide range of specific current. On the other hand, the selection of a specific current low enough to match the charge-transfer reaction kinetics enables the LSP electrode of high prelithiation level, LSP-II (45% tin), to utilize its battery-like capacity thoroughly. The maximum energy of hybrid capacitor LSP-II/AC is measured 28.7 W h kg−1 at a minimum specific current 0.03 A g−1

  20. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface in wavelengths above 1000 nm. On the other hand, carbon absorbs at those and longer wavelengths. Thus, it is possible to combine black silicon with carbon to create an artificial material with very low reflectivity over a wide spectral range. Here we report our results on coating conformally black silicon substrate with amorphous pyrolytic carbon. We present a superior black surface with reflectance of light less than 0.5% in the spectral range of 350 nm to 2000 nm. PMID:27174890

  1. Superconductivity of novel tin hydrides (SnnHm) under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi Davari Esfahani, M.; Wang, Zhenhai; Oganov, Artem R.; Dong, Huafeng; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Shengnan; Rakitin, Maksim S.; Zhou, Xiang-Feng

    2016-03-01

    With the motivation of discovering high-temperature superconductors, evolutionary algorithm USPEX is employed to search for all stable compounds in the Sn-H system. In addition to the traditional SnH4, new hydrides SnH8, SnH12 and SnH14 are found to be thermodynamically stable at high pressure. Dynamical stability and superconductivity of tin hydrides are systematically investigated. Im2-SnH8, C2/m-SnH12 and C2/m-SnH14 exhibit higher superconducting transition temperatures of 81, 93 and 97 K compared to the traditional compound SnH4 with Tc of 52 K at 200 GPa. An interesting bent H3–group in Im2-SnH8 and novel linear H in C2/m-SnH12 are observed. All the new tin hydrides remain metallic over their predicted range of stability. The intermediate-frequency wagging and bending vibrations have more contribution to electron-phonon coupling parameter than high-frequency stretching vibrations of H2 and H3.

  2. Superconductivity of novel tin hydrides (SnnHm) under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi Davari Esfahani, M.; Wang, Zhenhai; Oganov, Artem R.; Dong, Huafeng; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Shengnan; Rakitin, Maksim S.; Zhou, Xiang-Feng

    2016-01-01

    With the motivation of discovering high-temperature superconductors, evolutionary algorithm USPEX is employed to search for all stable compounds in the Sn-H system. In addition to the traditional SnH4, new hydrides SnH8, SnH12 and SnH14 are found to be thermodynamically stable at high pressure. Dynamical stability and superconductivity of tin hydrides are systematically investigated. Im2-SnH8, C2/m-SnH12 and C2/m-SnH14 exhibit higher superconducting transition temperatures of 81, 93 and 97 K compared to the traditional compound SnH4 with Tc of 52 K at 200 GPa. An interesting bent H3–group in Im2-SnH8 and novel linear H in C2/m-SnH12 are observed. All the new tin hydrides remain metallic over their predicted range of stability. The intermediate-frequency wagging and bending vibrations have more contribution to electron-phonon coupling parameter than high-frequency stretching vibrations of H2 and H3. PMID:26964636

  3. Sol gel synthesis and characterization of tin oxide and doped-tin oxide nanosized materials used for gas-sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongmei

    SnO2-based gas sensors have been shown to be convenient tools for detecting inflammable or toxic gases diluted in air. Grain size reduction and mixed tin oxidation states are two of the main factors enhancing sensor properties of undoped and doped tin oxides. Two tin(II) halide precursors were utilized along with variations in solvent, aging times, drying atmosphere and annealing temperatures to synthesize SnO, SnO2 or the SnO/SnO2 mixed powders by a modified sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction and UV-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy were the primary techniques used to characterize powder structure and properties. It has been found that SnCl2 is a suitable precursor for synthesis of nanocrystalline mixed Sn(II)/Sn(IV) oxide powders. The ratio of SnO to SnO2 can be adjusted by sintering/annealing of the SnO/SnO 2 mixture in air. A rarely observed form of Sn3O4 and another intermediate phase, orthorhombic SnO2, can be generated at the range of 500--600°C. SnBr2 and SnBr4 can be used as precursors for an efficient low-temperature, atmospheric pressure vapor deposition of nanocrystalline SnO2, most likely via a partially hydrolyzed Sn(IV) bromide intermediate. As vapor-deposited, the average SnO 2 crystallite size is approximately 3 nm, and can be increased systematically from 3 nm to 16 nm by annealing in air. The presence of amorphous material and the remaining hydroxyl groups in the SnO2 crystals are possible causes of the crystalline deformation of SnO/SnO2 materials precipitated from SnCl2. SnO 2 obtained from the SnO/SnO2 mixture are more disordered than that from tin(H) oxyhydroxide and from SnO2 gel heated at the same sintering temperature. The more disordered material has lower band gaps and bigger Urbach energies. Coprecipitation of a second metal, such as Cr, Fe, Zn, Co, K and Cu, results in variations in SnO2 crystallite growth patterns, depending on identity of the added dopant. Metal oxide materials mixed with polypyrrole were tested as composite

  4. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  5. Preparation of transparent conductive indium tin oxide thin films from nanocrystalline indium tin hydroxide by dip-coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with well-controlled layer thickness were produced by dip-coating method. The ITO was synthesized by a sol-gel technique involving the use of aqueous InCl3, SnCl4 and NH3 solutions. To obtain stable sols for thin film preparation, as-prepared Sn-doped indium hydroxide was dialyzed, aged, and dispersed in ethanol. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was applied to enhance the stability of the resulting ethanolic sols. The transparent, conductive ITO films on glass substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The ITO layer thickness increased linearly during the dipping cycles, which permits excellent controllability of the film thickness in the range ∼ 40-1160 nm. After calcination at 550 oC, the initial indium tin hydroxide films were transformed completely to nanocrystalline ITO with cubic and rhombohedral structure. The effects of PVP on the optical, morphological and electrical properties of ITO are discussed.

  6. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-12-12

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to achieve transparent and conductive films free carriers have to be generated by oxygen vacancies, by metal ions at interstitial positions in the crystal lattice or by cation doping with Sb or Nb, respectively. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide films have been prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (dc MS) from metallic targets. The process parameters and the doping concentration in the films have been varied. The films have been electrically, optically and structurally analysed in order to analyse the influence of the process parameters and the doping concentration on the film properties. Post-deposition treatments of the films have been performed in order to improve the film properties. For the deposition of transparent and conductive tin oxide, the dominant parameter during the deposition is the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The Sb incorporation as doping atoms has a minor influence on the electrical, optical and structural properties. Within a narrow oxygen content in the sputtering gas highly transparent and conductive tin oxide films have been prepared. In this study, the lowest resistivity in the as deposited state is 2.9 m{omega} cm for undoped tin oxide without any postdeposition treatment. The minimum resistivity is related to a transition to crystalline films with the stoichiometry of SnO{sub 2}. At higher oxygen content the films turn out to have a higher resistivity due to an oxygen excess. After post

  7. Electrochemical reduction of trinitrotoluene on core-shell tin-carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we studied the electrochemical process of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) reduction on a new type of electrodes based on a core-shell tin-carbon Sn(C) structure. The Sn(C) composite was prepared from the precursor tetramethyl-tin Sn(CH3)4, and the product contained a core of submicron-sized tin particles uniformly enveloped with carbon shells. Cyclic voltammograms of Sn(C) electrodes in aqueous sodium chloride solutions containing TNT show three well-pronounced reduction waves in the potential range of -0.50 to -0.80 V (vs. an Ag/AgCl/Cl- reference electrode) that correspond to the multistep process of TNT reduction. Electrodes containing Sn(C) particles annealed at 800 deg. C under argon develop higher voltammetric currents of TNT reduction (comparing to the as-prepared tin-carbon material) due to stabilization of the carbon shell. It is suggested that the reduction of TNT on core-shell tin-carbon electrodes is an electrochemically irreversible process. A partial oxidation of the TNT reduction products occurred at around -0.20 V. The electrochemical response of TNT reduction shows that it is not controlled by the diffusion of the active species to/from the electrodes but rather by interfacial charge transfer and possible adsorption phenomena. The tin-carbon electrodes demonstrate significantly stable behavior for TNT reduction in NaCl solutions and provide sufficient reproducibility with no surface fouling through prolonged voltammetric cycling. It is presumed that tin nanoparticles, which constitute the core, are electrochemically inactive towards TNT reduction, but Sn or SnO2 formed on the electrodes during TNT reduction may participate in this reaction as catalysts or carbon-modifying agents. The nitro-groups of TNT can be reduced irreversibly (via two possible paths) by three six-electron transfers, to 2,4,6-triaminotoluene, as follows from mass-spectrometric studies. The tin-carbon electrodes described herein may serve as amperometric sensors for

  8. Are black holes totally black?

    CERN Document Server

    Grib, A A

    2014-01-01

    Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

  9. Spray pyrolysis deposited tin selenide thin films for thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin selenide thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using tin (II) chloride and selenourea as a precursor compounds using Se:Sn atomic ratio of 1:1 in the starting solution onto glass substrates. Deposition process was carried out in the substrate temperature range of 250 °C–400 °C using 1 ml/min flow rate. The films were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption and thermoelectric studies. The X-ray diffraction patterns suggest that the major phase is hexagonal-SnSe2 was present when the deposition was carried out in 275–375 °C temperature range, while for the films deposited in the below and above to this range, Sn and Se precipitates into some impure and mixed phase. Raman scattering analysis allowed the assignment of peaks at ∼180 cm−1 to the hexagonal-SnSe2 phase. The optical absorption study shows that the direct band gap of the film decreases with increase in substrate temperature and increasing crystallite size. The thermo-electrical measurements have shown n-type conductivity in as deposited films and the magnitude of thermo EMF for films has been found to be increasing with increasing deposition temperature, except for 350 °C sample. 350 °C deposited samples shows enhance thermoelectric value as compared to other samples. Thermoelectric study reveal that although sample deposited between 275 °C and 375 °C are structurally same but 350 °C sample is thermoelectrically best. - Highlights: • Influence of substrate temperature on the deposition of SnSe has been shown. • Seebeck measurements at 275°C–375 °C confirms n-type conductivity. • Higher seebeck coefficient has been observed at 350 °C deposited film. • Decrease in band gap was observed on increasing Tsub and size of the crystallites

  10. Layered tin (II) methylphosphonate with luminescent properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jan; Lin, Ch.-H.; Chang, T.-G.; Zima, Vítězslav; Melánová, Klára; Beneš, L.

    Strasbourg: European Materials Research Society, 2012. P1 1-P1 1. ISBN -. [E- MRS Spring Meeating 2012 – Symposium P Advanced Hybrid Materials II: design and applications. 14.05.2012-18.05.2012, Strasbourg] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0208 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : tin(II) phosphonates * structure * photoluminiscence Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry http://www.emrs-strasbourg.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&Itemid=132&id=479

  11. Third-generation muffin–tin orbitals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O K Andersen; T Saha-Dasgupta; S Ezhov

    2003-01-01

    By the example of $sp^3$-bonded semiconductors, we illustrate what 3rd-generation muffin–tin orbitals (MTOs) are. We demonstrate that they can be downfolded to smaller and smaller basis sets: $sp^3d^{10}, sp^3$, and bond orbitals. For isolated bands, it is possible to generate Wannier functions a priori. Also for bands, which overlap other bands, Wannier-like MTOs can be generated a priori. Hence, MTOs have a unique capability for providing chemical understanding.

  12. Dating of Malaysian fluvial tin placers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Daud A. F.

    The richest tin placers in Malaysia—fluviatile and piedmont fan placers—formed mainly within the "Boulder Beds" (BB fan facies), "Old Alluvium" (OA alluvial plain facies) and "Transitional Unit" (TU) which are regional lithostratigraphic units that can be correlated throughout western Peninsular Malaysia. Palaeomagnetic studies show that the TU was deposited during the early part of the Brunhes Normal Polarity Epoch (0-0.73 Ma) whereas the OA and BB mainly formed during the Matuyama Reversed Epoch (0.73-2.48 Ma). Present environments are mostly unfavorable for tin placer formation. Economic placers are generally covered on land by Young Alluvium (YA) overburden or are submerged offshore. As many of the rich OA/BB near-source placers are now largely worked out, the transported TU fluvial placers are becoming more important economically. The latest Pliocene to Mid Pleistocene period represented the principal phase of economic tin placer formation. Evidence from palaeomagnetism and the stratigraphic context of placers, and the relationship between sea level change, climatic change and placer genesis, suggest that the bulk of OA placers formed during a Lower Pleistocene interglacial period. A Mid Pleistocene age for TU placers is indicated by vertebrate fossils, palaeomagnetism, and their stratigraphic position below Upper Quaternary YA and above OA which is older than 0.73 Ma.

  13. Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    This resource letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. Both the physics and astrophysics of black holes are discussed. Breadth has been emphasized over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from non-technical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stability of black holes, numerical simulations, collisions, the production of gravity waves, black hole thermodynamics and Hawking radiation, quantum treatments of black holes, black holes in both higher and lower dimensions, and connections to nuclear and condensed matter physics. On the astronomical end, we also cover the physics of gas accretion onto black holes, relativistic jets, gravitationally red-shifted emission lines, evidence for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems and super-massive black holes at the centers...

  14. Initial stages of indoor atmospheric corrosion of electronics contact metals in humid tropical climate: tin and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of electrolytic tin and nickel have been exposed for 1 to 12 m in indoor environment, inside a box (rain sheltered cabinet), placed in tropical humid marine-urban climate, as a part of Gulf of Mexico. The corrosion aggressiveness of box has been classified as a very high corrosive, based on the monitored chlorides and SO2 deposition rates, and the Temperature/Relative Humidity air daily complex. The annual mass increasing of nickel is approximately twice higher than its values of lass loss (C). the relation between nickel mass loss or increasing and time of wetness (t) of metal surface is linear and does not obey the power equation C=A t''n, which has be found for tin. The SEM images reveal a localized corrosion on nickel and tin surfaces. XRD detects the formation of SnCl2.H2O as a corrosion product. Within the time on the tin surface appear black spots, considered as organic material. (Author) 26 refs

  15. Recovery of antimony-125 from tin-124 irradiated by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, antimony-125 is produced by recovery from tin-124 irradiated by neutrons in nuclear reactors. The radionuclide builds up following the pathway: Sn-124 (n,γ) → Sn-125 (β-) (9.6 days) → Sb-125 ((β-) (2.77 years) The cross-section of the (n,γ) reaction is low (0.2 barn), therefore tin metal enriched with tin-124 is used. It should be noted that the use of an enriched target decreases the build-up of other radionuclides as compared to the natural mixture of tin isotopes. Published data showed that ion exchange on anion exchangers is one of the most promising procedures of recovery of antimony-125 from irradiated tin-124. We irradiated tin metal enriched with tin-124 (approximately 96%). After cooling and storage, the specific activity was 5 μCi per g of metal. The irradiated sample was dissolved in concentrated hydrochloric acid containing hydrogen peroxide or bromine in order to convert tin to the tetravalent state and antimony to the pentavalent state. We used tin-119m as a mark for an express gamma-spectrometric determination of the distribution coefficients. We studied the separation of Sb-125 and tin on strongly basic (Dowex-50 and AV-17), moderately basic (AN-2FN), and weakly basic (AN-31) ion exchangers. Hydrochloric acid, a mixture of hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids, and nitric acid were used as the elutriating agents. The samples from chromatography were subjected to gamma-spectrometric analysis using Si(Li) and Ge(Li) semiconductor detectors. In experiments examining the separation on strongly basic anion exchangers, the attained decontamination factor for removal of tin from antimony-125 was approximately 104-105 in one cycle. In the experiments devoted to the separation on moderately basic and weakly basic anion exchangers, tin was eluted before antimony-125. This should improve reasonably the regeneration of the enriched tin samples. The most interesting and significant results were obtained in the study of separation of antimony-125

  16. TiC and TiN coatings by reactive sputtering for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Films of TiC, TiN and their composite were prepared on molybdenum by a reactive sputtering method with CH4 and N2 as the reactive gases and argon as the sputtering gas and applying bias potentials to the substrate material. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. The quantitative chemical composition of the TiC and TiN coatings was determined as a function of the partial pressures of CH4 (Psub(CH4)) and N2 (Psub(N2)) during the reactive sputtering. For the TiC coating the most suitable Psub(CH4) range which gives the stoichiometric composition (carbon-to-titanium ratio, 0.8-1.0) without impurities was found to be (2-5) X 10-4 Torr (substrate temperature, 3000C; bias potential, -300 V). For the TiN coating the structure and composition of the films prepared by reactive sputtering were observed to depend greatly on the condition of applying the bias potential. The suitable Psub(N2) range which gives golden films of the stoichiometric composition was higher than 1 X 10-4 Torr (substrate temperature, 200-3000C; bias potential from -75 to - 200 V). On the basis of these experimental studies of TiC and TiN coatings successive coatings of TiC and TiN were deposited onto a molybdenum substrate to achieve higher thermal stability and better adhesion to the substrate. The successive coating method is a promising technique for use in fusion reactors. (Auth.)

  17. The inorganic speciation of tin(II) in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigala, Rosalia Maria; Crea, Francesco; De Stefano, Concetta; Lando, Gabriele; Milea, Demetrio; Sammartano, Silvio

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports new voltammetric measurements on the interactions between tin(II) and the most important natural inorganic ligands, OH-, Cl-, F-, CO32-, SO42- and PO43-. For a better understanding of tin(II) speciation, an analysis is also given of prior data on the same systems from the literature. The formation constants were determined at t = 25 °C in different ionic media and at different ionic strengths, specifically the following: Sn(OH)q (0.1 ⩽ I/mol L-1 ⩽ 1.0 in NaNO3), SnClr and Sn(OH)Cl (0.1 ⩽ I/mol L-1 ⩽ 2.3 in Na(NO3, Cl)), Sn(SO4)r (0.1 ⩽ I/mol L-1 ⩽ 1.6 in Na(NO3, SO4)), SnHqCO3 and SnHqPO4 (0.15 ⩽ I/mol L-1 ⩽ 1.0 in NaNO3), where the subscripts r and q represent the stoichiometric coefficients. Concerning the SnFr species, reliable literature values were considered (0.15 ⩽ I/mol L-1 ⩽ 1.0 in NaClO4). Fifteen voltammetric measurements were performed in synthetic seawater; the total seawater binding ability was evaluated by a model in which synthetic seawater is expressed as a single salt, BA. The formation of species between tin(II) and the anion of the marine salt (A) was also proposed, and the corresponding stability constants at different salinities (5 ⩽ S ⩽ 50) were reported. In addition, studies on the solubility of Sn(OH)2(s) were carried out using voltammetry and light scattering measurements. The "extra-stability" of the mixed species with respect to the parent species was evaluated, in particular for Sn(OH)Cl and the corresponding species involving the anion of the marine salt (A). The dependence of the formation constants on ionic strength was analysed using extended Debye-Hückel and Specific ion Interaction Theory (SIT) type equations. Tin(II) speciation was also evaluated in different natural fluid conditions, where, in all cases, carbonate complexation was predominant, hampering the formation of hydrolytic species throughout the investigated pH range. Moreover, some formation enthalpy changes were calculated

  18. Light emission from silicon with tin-containing nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-containing nanocrystals, embedded in silicon, have been fabricated by growing an epitaxial layer of Si1−x−ySnxCy, where x = 1.6 % and y = 0.04 % on a silicon substrate, followed by annealing at various temperatures ranging from 650 ∘C to 900 ∘C. The nanocrystal density and average diameters are determined by scanning transmission-electron microscopy to ≈1017 cm−3 and ≈5 nm, respectively. Photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates that the light emission is very pronounced for samples annealed at 725 ∘C, and Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry shows that the nanocrystals are predominantly in the diamond-structured phase at this particular annealing temperature. The origin of the light emission is discussed

  19. Light emission from silicon with tin-containing nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesgaard, Søren [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Chevallier, Jacques; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Jensen, Pia Bomholt; Larsen, Arne Nylandsted; Balling, Peter; Julsgaard, Brian, E-mail: brianj@phys.au.dk [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Gaiduk, Peter I. [Belarussian State University, Praspyekt Nyezalyezhnastsi 4, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Svane, Axel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2015-07-15

    Tin-containing nanocrystals, embedded in silicon, have been fabricated by growing an epitaxial layer of Si{sub 1−x−y}Sn{sub x}C{sub y}, where x = 1.6 % and y = 0.04 % on a silicon substrate, followed by annealing at various temperatures ranging from 650 {sup ∘}C to 900 {sup ∘}C. The nanocrystal density and average diameters are determined by scanning transmission-electron microscopy to ≈10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} and ≈5 nm, respectively. Photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates that the light emission is very pronounced for samples annealed at 725 {sup ∘}C, and Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry shows that the nanocrystals are predominantly in the diamond-structured phase at this particular annealing temperature. The origin of the light emission is discussed.

  20. Heat Resistance of TiN Coated HSS Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兰英; 周焕雷; 贾庆莲

    2003-01-01

    The cutting friction, cutting deformation, producing heat, conducting heat, temperature field of TiN coated HSS tools in the cutting process are discussed profoundly. In order to make clear the heat property of TiN coated tools, from the micromechanism angle, the relationship of the heat property and the crystal structure of TiN compound is analyzed, and the regularity of TiN compound crystal structure changing with temperature rising is sought. The difference of the wear resistance and heat resistance of TiN coated tools deposited by c1 and c2 depositing techniques is proved by tests. The conclusions will offer the theoretical basis for correct design of geometrical parameters of TiN coated tools, rational selection of cutting regimes and optimization of the depositing technique.

  1. Ion irradiation damage on tin side surface of float glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the surface morphology and in-depth density variation in two surfaces of a float glass viz. the tin side and non-tin side surface, are investigated after 100 keV Ar ion irradiation. In the tin side surface, the irradiation caused a drastic change in density and surface roughness, whereas the other side (non-tin side surface) remained almost unaffected. Roughness of the tin side increases from 8 A to 41 A. Surface density also modified significantly with a redistribution of surface impurities. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the displacement of tin and Fe impurities are responsible for the surface damage, which are experimentally examined by employing the total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique. Morphological and density changes are analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy techniques. Subsequent changes in surface morphology of float glass by ion irradiation are explained

  2. Trace determination and separation of tin (II by floatation-spectrophotometric using kalmagyte and CTAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Shiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel floatation-spectrophotometric extraction method was developed for the recovery of tin (II from aqueous samples prior to determination by UV spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the formation of a complex between tin (II and kalmagyte in pH=8. The complex is floated in the interface of n-hexane and aqueous phases. After removing the aqueous phase, the floated particles are dissolved in methanol and the absorbance is measured at 637 nm. Different parameters of the floatation-spectrophotometric technique such as reagent concentration, pH, surfactant, standing time and interfering ions were studied and optimized to obtain the best extraction results with the minimum interference from other compounds. Under these conditions, the extraction of the target compound was almost complete (mean values of recovery was more than 92.6% in a short time (6 min. The optimized method demonstrated good linearity (r2 > 0.9991 in the range of 4-350 ng/mL, sensitivity (limit of detection for tin (II, 1.7 ng/mL, accuracy (0.19–7.35% and precision (3.66%, 4.21%. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated by extraction of tin(II from different water samples.

  3. Embedding tin nanoparticles in micron-sized disordered carbon for lithium- and sodium-ion anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein, a new and facile synthesis of a tin-carbon nanocomposite and its electrochemical characterization is presented. Tin nanoparticles were embedded in micron-sized carbonaceous particles, thus successfully preventing the aggregation of tin nanoparticles and buffering the occurring volume strain, which accompanies the reversible (de-)alloying process. Such active material presents specific capacities of around 440 and 390 mAh g−1 for applied specific currents of 0.1 and 0.2 A g−1, respectively, as lithium-ion anode using environmentally friendly and cost-efficient carboxymethyl cellulose as binder. Even more remarkably, at very high specific currents of 2, 5, and 10 A g−1, electrodes based on this composite still offer specific capacities of about 280, 240, and 187 mAh g−1, respectively. In addition, this tin-carbon nanocomposite appears highly promising as anode material for sodium-ion batteries, showing very stable cycling performance in a suitable potential range, and specific capacities of more than 180, 150, 130, and 90 mAh g−1 for an applied specific current of 12.2, 122, 244, and 610 mA g−1, respectively, thus highlighting the high versatility of this composite active material for both Li-ion and Na-ion battery technologies

  4. Effect of sulfur doping on thermoelectric properties of tin selenide – A first principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present the thermoelectric properties of tin selenide (SnSe) and sulfur doped tin selenide(SnSe(1-x)Sx, x= 0.125 and 0.25) obtained using first principles calculations. We investigated the electronic band structure using the FP-LAPW method within the sphere of the density functional theory. Thermoelectric properties were calculated using BOLTZTRAP code using the constant relaxation time approximation at three different temperatures 300, 600 and 800 K. Seebeck coefficient (S) was found to decrease with increasing temperature, electrical conductivity (σ/τ) was almost constant in the entire temperature range and thermal conductivity (κ/τ) increased with increasing temperature for all samples. Sulfur doped samples showed enhanced seebeck coefficient, decreased thermal conductivity and decreased electrical conductivity at all temperatures. At 300 K, S increased from 1500 µV/K(SnSe) to 1720μV/K(SnSe0.75S0.25), thermal conductivity decreased from 5 × 1015 W/mKs(SnSe) to 3 × 1015 W/mKs(SnSe0.75S0.25), electrical conductivity decreased from 7 × 1020/Ωms(SnSe) to 5 × 1020 /Ωms(SnSe0.75S0.25). These calculations show that sulfur doped tin selenide exhibit better thermoelectric properties than undoped tin selenide

  5. Tinned Fruit Consumption and Mortality in Three Prospective Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Aasheim, Erlend T.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Appleby, Paul N.; Shipley, Martin J.; Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; Kay-Tee Khaw; Eric Brunner; Key, Tim J.; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Dietary recommendations to promote health include fresh, frozen and tinned fruit, but few studies have examined the health benefits of tinned fruit. We therefore studied the association between tinned fruit consumption and mortality. We followed up participants from three prospective cohorts in the United Kingdom: 22,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort (1993-2012), 52,625 participants from the EPIC-Oxford cohort (1993-20...

  6. Black market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way for states and subnational groups to acquire material, knowledge and equipment necessary to build a nuclear weapon or device are illegal transactions. These were singular in the past and did not cause the development of a nuclear black market. But all necessary components of a functioning black market exist. Therefore the further spread and extension of the use of nuclear power would enhance the threat of a nuclear black market, if the trade and use of specific nuclear material is not abandoned worldwide. (orig.)

  7. A STUDY OF TIN IMPURITY ATOMS IN AMORPHOUS SILICON

    OpenAIRE

    Rabchanova, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Using the Mössbauer spectroscopy method for the 119 Sn isotope the state of tin impurity atoms in amorphous a-Si silicon is studied. The electrical and optical properties of tin doped films of thermally spray-coated amorphous silicon have been studied. It is shown that in contrast to the crystalline silicon where tin is an electrically inactive substitution impurity, in vacuum deposited amorphous silicon it produces an acceptor band near the valence band and a fraction of the tin atoms become...

  8. Reductive spectrophotometry of divalent tin sensitization on soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejugam, Vinith; Wei, Xingfei; Roper, D. Keith

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and facile evaluation of tin (II) sensitization could lead to improved understanding of metal deposition in electroless (EL) plating. This report used a balanced redox reaction between 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB-HCL) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to evaluate effects of sensitization conditions (i.e., sensitization time, analyte concentration, aqueous immersion, and acid content) on the accumulated mass of surface-associated divalent tin ion. The accumulated mass of tin (II) increased as the sensitization time increased up to 30 s in proportion to aqueous tin (II) chloride concentrations between 2.6 and 26 mM at a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) content of 68 mM. The average mass peaked at 7.3 nanomoles (nmol) per cm2 after a 5 s aqueous immersion post-sensitization, and then decreased with increasing aqueous immersion post-sensitization. The total average tin (II) + tin (IV) accumulated on soda lime glass measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was 17% higher at 30 s sensitization, suggesting a fraction of the tin (II) present may have oxidized to tin (IV). These results indicated that in situ spectrophotometric evaluation of tin (II) could support development of EL plating for electronics, catalysis, and solar cells.

  9. Horndeski black hole geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyakova, D A

    2016-01-01

    We examine geodesics for the scalar-tensor black holes in the Horndeski-Galileon framework. Our analysis shows that first kind relativistic orbits may not be present within some model parameters range. This is a highly pathological behavior contradicting to the black hole accretion and Solar System observations. We also present a new (although very similar to those previously known) solution, which contains the orbits we expect from a compact object, admits regular scalar field at the horizon and and can fit into the known stability criteria.

  10. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Shamala; L C S Murthy; K Narasimha Rao

    2004-06-01

    Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different preparation conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of undoped evaporated films varied from 2.65 × 10-2 -cm to 3.57 × 10-3 -cm in the temperature range 150–200°C. For undoped spray pyrolyzed films, the resistivity was observed to be in the range 1.2 × 10-1 to 1.69 × 10-2 -cm in the temperature range 250–370°C. Hall effect measurements indicated that the mobility as well as carrier concentration of evaporated films were greater than that of spray deposited films. The lowest resistivity for antimony doped tin oxide film was found to be 7.74 × 10-4 -cm, which was deposited at 350°C with 0.26 g of SbCl3 and 4 g of SnCl4 (SbCl3/SnCl4 = 0.065). Evaporated films were found to be amorphous in the temperature range up to 200°C, whereas spray pyrolyzed films prepared at substrate temperature of 300–370°C were polycrystalline. The morphology of tin oxide films was studied using SEM.

  11. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  12. Influence of tin additions on the precipitation processes in a Cu-Ni-Zn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of 1.1 wt% tin additions on the precipitation hardening of Cu-11 wt% Ni-20 wt% Zn alloy was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), microhardeness measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The calorimetric curves, in the range of temperatures analyzed, show the presence of two exothermic reactions in the ternary alloy, associated to the short-range-order development assisted by migration of excess vacancies. On the other hand, one exothermic and one endothermic reaction are observed in the quaternary alloy, associated to the formation and dissolution of Cu2NiZn precipitates, respectively. It has been show that an addition of 1.1% tin plays an important role in the formation of Cu2NiZn precipitates, responsible for the precipitation hardening of the ternary alloy. (Author)

  13. Pattern Transfer of Sub-10 nm Features via Tin-Containing Block Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Michael J.; Mori, Kazunori; Sirard, Stephen M.; Dinhobl, Andrew M.; Bates, Christopher M.; Gurer, Emir; Blachut, Gregory; Lane, Austin P.; Durand, William J.; Carlson, Matthew C.; Strahan, Jeffrey R.; Ellison, Christopher J.; Willson, C. Grant

    2016-01-01

    Tin-containing block copolymers were investigated as materials for nanolithographic applications. Poly(4-trimethylstannylstyrene-block-styrene) (PSnS-PS) and poly(4-trimethylstannylstyrene-block-4-methoxystyrene) (PSnS-PMOST) synthesized by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization form lamellar domains with periodicities ranging from 18 to 34 nm. Thin film orientation control was achieved by thermal annealing between a neutral surface treatment and a top coat. Incorpora...

  14. High temperature fretting behaviour of plasma vapour deposition TiN coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalho, A.; Celis, J.-P.

    2002-01-01

    Fretting tests (mode I) were performed on TiN coatings at test temperatures of 23-500 °C. The evolution of the coefficient of friction with the number of fretting cycles for tests performed in that temperature range was recorded. Differences in that evolution were analysed based on the frictional energy dissipated in the sliding contact during the fretting tests. That analysis demonstrated the role of dissipated frictional energy and thermal energy in initiating a structural modification of t...

  15. Molecular sorption of tin(2) ferrocyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption behaviour of some element chlorides as to saline forms of tin ferrocyanide (2) with hexagonal and cubic lattices was studied. Compensated adsorption of cation-anion pairs (molecular sorption) turned to be a predominant process of interphase redistribution for them. Fowler-Huggenhaim-Langmuir model is shown to describe adequately molecular sorption from liquid phase. It is determined that in systems with molecular sorption of lateral interaction energy of adsorbed molecules does not depend on phase and chemical composition of sorbent and sorbate. 14 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Si(SiMe3)2SiPh3 - a ligand for novel sub-valent tin cluster compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, R; Schrenk, C; Schnepf, A

    2014-11-14

    For the synthesis of metalloid tin cluster compounds applying the disproportionation reaction of a Sn(i) halide, silyl ligands, especially the symmetric Si(SiMe3)3 has proven to be extremely useful. Silyl ligands of lower symmetry where e.g. one SiMe3 group is substituted with SiPh3 are thereby unexplored, although the synthesis of the anionic silyl precursors is quite easy, referring to previously described methods. Here the synthesis of the silanide [Si(SiMe3)2(SiPh3)](-) as its potassium () as well as its lithium salt () in excellent yield is presented. proved to be a suitable starting material for the synthesis of subvalent tin compounds as shown by the reaction with tin halides in oxidation state +2 (SnCl2) and +1 (SnCl); i.e. on the one hand the anticipated stannide [Sn(Si(SiMe3)2SiPh3)2Cl](-) could be isolated and on the other hand the unexpectedly partly substituted ring compound Cl4Sn4[Si(SiMe3)2SiPh3]4 is obtained. As no elemental tin is formed during the reaction with SnCl, metalloid tin clusters may be present in solution too, which is supported by the nearly black color of the reaction mixture, showing that might be a suitable ligand for the synthesis of such cluster compounds. PMID:25242586

  17. Synthesis of tin and tin oxide nanoparticles of low size dispersity for application in gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayral, C; Viala, E; Fau, P; Senocq, F; Jumas, J C; Maisonnat, A; Chaudret, B

    2000-11-17

    Nanocomposite core-shell particles that consist of a Sn0 core surrounded by a thin layer of tin oxides have been prepared by thermolysis of [(Sn(NMe2)2)2] in anisole that contains small, controlled amounts of water. The particles were characterized by means of electronic microscopies (TEM, HRTEM, SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The TEM micrographs show spherical nanoparticles, the size and size distribution of which depends on the initial experimental conditions of temperature, time, water concentration, and tin precursor concentration. Nanoparticles of 19 nm median size and displaying a narrow size distribution have been obtained with excellent yield in the optimized conditions. HRTEM, XPS, XRD and Mossbauer studies indicate the composite nature of the particles that consist of a well-crystallized tin beta core of approximately equals 11 nm covered with a layer of approximately equals 4 nm of amorphous tin dioxide and which also contain quadratic tin monoxide crystallites. The thermal oxidation of this nanocomposite yields well-crystallized nanoparticles of SnO2* without coalescence or size change. XRD patterns show that the powder consists of a mixture of two phases: the tetragonal cassiterite phase, which is the most abundant, and an orthorhombic phase. In agreement with the small SnO2 particle size, the relative intensity of the adsorbed dioxygen peak observed on the XPS spectrum is remarkable, when compared with that observed in the case of larger SnO2 particles. This is consistent with electrical conductivity measurements, which demonstrate that this material is highly sensitive to the presence of a reducing gas such as carbon monoxide. PMID:11151840

  18. A tin-mineralized topaz rhyolite dike with coeval topaz granite enclaves at Qiguling in the Qitianling tin district, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Wang, Rucheng; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Jinchu; Zhang, Wenlan; Lu, Jianjun; Zhang, Rongqing

    2013-06-01

    The Qiguling topaz rhyolite is present as a dike within the Qitianling biotite granite batholith of the Nanling Range of southern China. Here, the rhyolitic dike, 4.5 m wide and 500 m long, contains enclaves of topaz granite. These rhyolites contain up to 72 wt.% SiO2, have alumina saturation index (ASI) > 1.1, and have groundmasses with estimated fluorine contents of approximately 1.5 wt.%. Textural relationships provide evidence of a quenched silicate melt that contains quartz, K-feldspar, albite, and zinnwaldite phenocrysts in a groundmass containing abundant topaz. The rhyolites in the study area are also strongly enriched in tin (90-2700 ppm), and generally have a close association between cassiterite and zinnwaldite, although cassiterite is also present as sponge-textured fills between rock-forming minerals. Granite enclaves and their hosted rhyolite have similar major geochemical compositions and mineralogies to each other. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the topaz rhyolite (147-150 Ma) and topaz granite enclaves (154 Ma) were formed contemporaneously, with ages that overlap within analytical uncertainty. In addition, the major and trace element compositions of the rhyolite and their granite enclaves are dissimilar to those of the hosting Qitianling biotite granite. This discovery of granite enclaves within rhyolite dikes suggests the presence of a topaz-bearing granite body at depth that may host tin mineralization. The expected hidden tin granite may be of great interest in the further exploration.

  19. Role of tin as a reducing agent in iron containing heat absorbing soda–magnesia–lime–silica glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aman; S P Singh

    2004-12-01

    The role of tin as a reducing agent in a 18Na2O.2MgO.8CaO.72SiO2 glass containing a definite amount of total, Fe = [Fe2+] + [Fe3+], was investigated with different concentrations of total tin, Sn = [Sn2+] + [Sn4+], by absorption spectra of iron ions in the optical range 300–1200 nm recorded on a JASCO-7800 spectrophotometer. The single broad absorption band for Fe2+ ion was marked at 1055 nm in the near infrared region and a narrow weak band for Fe3+ ion at its max at around 380 nm was observed in the silicate glass. The proportion of ferrous iron was found to increase in the glass in the beginning with the addition of tin up to 0.788% Sn and then it approached a maxima with 1.182% Sn. Further addition of tin was found to be futile for the constant iron concentration of 0.875% for achieving higher [Fe2+]/[Fe3+] ratio for maximum heat absorption due to Fe2+ ion in the glass. The mechanism of the process was discussed on the basis of Sn2+/Sn4+ and Fe2+/Fe3+ mutual redox interaction in the molten glass at 1400°C. The suitable limit of tin was suggested to be 0.788 ≤ ≤ 1.182% by wt for 0.875% of total iron for getting maximum ferrous ion in the glass.

  20. Growth of TiN films at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, L.I. [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Chen Junfang [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)]. E-mail: tolwwt@163.com

    2007-06-30

    Thermodynamic analysis on growth of TiN films was given. The driving force for deposition of TiN is dependent on original Ti(g)/N(g) ratio and original partial pressure of N(g). TiN films were deposited by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation system under suitable nitrogen gas flow rate at 523 K while the density of plasma varied with diverse discharge pressure had been investigated by the Langmuir probe. TiN films were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrum (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and observed by means of atom force microscopy (AFM). The results of these measurements indicated preferential TiN(1 1 1) films were deposited on substrate of Si(1 0 0) and glass by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation system at low temperature, and it was possible for the deposition of TiN films with a preferential orientation or more orientations if the nitrogen gas flow rate increased enough. Sand Box was used to characterize the fractal dimension of surface of TiN films. The results showed the fractal dimension was a little more than 1.7, which accorded with the model of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA), and the fractal dimension of TiN films increased with increase of the temperature of deposition.

  1. Growth of TiN films at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L. I.; Jun-Fang, Chen

    2007-06-01

    Thermodynamic analysis on growth of TiN films was given. The driving force for deposition of TiN is dependent on original Ti(g)/N(g) ratio and original partial pressure of N(g). TiN films were deposited by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation system under suitable nitrogen gas flow rate at 523 K while the density of plasma varied with diverse discharge pressure had been investigated by the Langmuir probe. TiN films were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrum (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and observed by means of atom force microscopy (AFM). The results of these measurements indicated preferential TiN(1 1 1) films were deposited on substrate of Si(1 0 0) and glass by ion beam assisted electron beam evaporation system at low temperature, and it was possible for the deposition of TiN films with a preferential orientation or more orientations if the nitrogen gas flow rate increased enough. Sand Box was used to characterize the fractal dimension of surface of TiN films. The results showed the fractal dimension was a little more than 1.7, which accorded with the model of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA), and the fractal dimension of TiN films increased with increase of the temperature of deposition.

  2. Radiolytic preparation of anhydrous tin (2) chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Anhydrous tin (2) chloride (SnCl2) is prepared by radiolysis with high energy electrons of a tin (4) chloride (SnCl4) solution in heptane. The SnCl4 is reduced to insoluble SNCl2. The energy yield, G(SnCl2), molecules of SnCl2, produced per 100 eV, increases with SnCl4 concentration from 1.6 at 0.15 M SnCl4 to 3.1 at 3.0 M SnCl4. Other parameters such as temperature total dose and beam current have little influence on G(SnCl2). The method may be used to prepare other metal halides if the higher valence, more covalent metal halide is soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons and the lower more ionic metal halide is insoluble. The reaction mechanism is discussed; the radiolysis of both heptane and SnCl4 is involved. At high SnCl4 concentration G(SnCl2) appears to be limited by the yield of SnC13 radicals.

  3. Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immer, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A relatively rapid, economical process has been devised for patterning a thin film of indium tin oxide (ITO) that has been deposited on a polyester film. ITO is a transparent, electrically conductive substance made from a mixture of indium oxide and tin oxide that is commonly used in touch panels, liquid-crystal and plasma display devices, gas sensors, and solar photovoltaic panels. In a typical application, the ITO film must be patterned to form electrodes, current collectors, and the like. Heretofore it has been common practice to pattern an ITO film by means of either a laser ablation process or a photolithography/etching process. The laser ablation process includes the use of expensive equipment to precisely position and focus a laser. The photolithography/etching process is time-consuming. The present process is a variant of the direct toner process an inexpensive but often highly effective process for patterning conductors for printed circuits. Relative to a conventional photolithography/ etching process, this process is simpler, takes less time, and is less expensive. This process involves equipment that costs less than $500 (at 2005 prices) and enables patterning of an ITO film in a process time of less than about a half hour.

  4. Studies on Properties and Structure of Electroless Plating Tin Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Rui-dong; GUO Zhong-cheng; ZHU Xiao-yun

    2004-01-01

    The composition and structure of electroless tin coating were analyzed by SEM and X-ray diffraction. In the meantime, porosity, solderability and extensibility were determined by physical and chemical methods. The results showed that the porosity of the tin coating increases with the rise of bath temperature and decreases as the plating time rises. Solderability is improved with the rise of thickness of tin coating, and decreases when the tin deposit is heated at 180 ~ 200 ℃. The crystalline grain size becomes bigger and bigger with increasing plating time or bath temperature or coating thickness. X-ray diffraction indicates that only Cu and β-Sn phases show up in the diffraction patterns. Tin coating has a strong joint force with copper substrate and excellent function of electrochemical protection as anode coating.

  5. Amorphous tin-cadmium oxide films and the production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Gessert, Timothy A

    2013-10-29

    A tin-cadmium oxide film having an amorphous structure and a ratio of tin atoms to cadmium atoms of between 1:1 and 3:1. The tin-cadmium oxide film may have an optical band gap of between 2.7 eV and 3.35 eV. The film may also have a charge carrier concentration of between 1.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3 and 2.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3. The tin cadmium oxide film may also exhibit a Hall mobility of between 40 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1 and 60 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1. Also disclosed is a method of producing an amorphous tin-cadmium oxide film as described and devices using same.

  6. Synthesis of indium tin oxide nanorods by a facile process with ethylene glycol as solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium tin oxide nanorods with cubic bixbyite crystalline structure were synthesized by a facilely heating process using InCl3.4H2O, SnCl4.5H2O, carbamide, polyisobutylene bis-succinimide, and ethylene glycol as precursors. The length of the obtained nanorods ranges from 80 nm to 500 nm, with the short dimension ranging from 50 nm to 100 nm. The electrical conductivity of the nanorods is higher than those reported in previous works due to less grain boundaries. The nanorods show strong absorption in the ultraviolet region while very weak absorption in the visible range due to its relative wide bandgap.

  7. Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide and zinc tin oxide using tetraethyltin and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ellis J.; Gladfelter, Wayne L., E-mail: wlg@umn.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Johnson, Forrest; Campbell, Stephen A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Silicon or glass substrates exposed to sequential pulses of tetraethyltin (TET) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were coated with thin films of SnO{sub 2}. Self-limiting deposition was found using 8 s pulse times, and a uniform thickness per cycle (TPC) of 0.2 nm/cycle was observed in a small, yet reproducible, temperature window from 290 to 320 °C. The as-deposited, stoichiometric SnO{sub 2} films were amorphous and transparent above 400 nm. Interspersing pulses of diethylzinc and O{sub 3} among the TET:O{sub 3} pulses resulted in deposition of zinc tin oxide films, where the fraction of tin, defined as [at. % Sn/(at. % Sn + at. % Zn)], was controlled by the ratio of TET pulses, specifically n{sub TET}:(n{sub TET} + n{sub DEZ}) where n{sub TET} and n{sub DEZ} are the number of precursor/O{sub 3} subcycles within each atomic layer deposition (ALD) supercycle. Based on film thickness and composition measurements, the TET pulse time required to reach saturation in the TPC of SnO{sub 2} on ZnO surfaces was increased to >30 s. Under these conditions, film stoichiometry as a function of the TET pulse ratio was consistent with the model devised by Elliott and Nilsen. The as-deposited zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films were amorphous and remained so even after annealing at 450 °C in air for 1 h. The optical bandgap of the transparent ZTO films increased as the tin concentration increased. Hall measurements established that the n-type ZTO carrier concentration was 3 × 10{sup 17} and 4 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} for fractional tin concentrations of 0.28 and 0.63, respectively. The carrier mobility decreased as the concentration of tin increased. A broken gap pn junction was fabricated using ALD-deposited ZTO and a sputtered layer of cuprous oxide. The junction demonstrated ohmic behavior and low resistance consistent with similar junctions prepared using sputter-deposited ZTO.

  8. Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide and zinc tin oxide using tetraethyltin and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon or glass substrates exposed to sequential pulses of tetraethyltin (TET) and ozone (O3) were coated with thin films of SnO2. Self-limiting deposition was found using 8 s pulse times, and a uniform thickness per cycle (TPC) of 0.2 nm/cycle was observed in a small, yet reproducible, temperature window from 290 to 320 °C. The as-deposited, stoichiometric SnO2 films were amorphous and transparent above 400 nm. Interspersing pulses of diethylzinc and O3 among the TET:O3 pulses resulted in deposition of zinc tin oxide films, where the fraction of tin, defined as [at. % Sn/(at. % Sn + at. % Zn)], was controlled by the ratio of TET pulses, specifically nTET:(nTET + nDEZ) where nTET and nDEZ are the number of precursor/O3 subcycles within each atomic layer deposition (ALD) supercycle. Based on film thickness and composition measurements, the TET pulse time required to reach saturation in the TPC of SnO2 on ZnO surfaces was increased to >30 s. Under these conditions, film stoichiometry as a function of the TET pulse ratio was consistent with the model devised by Elliott and Nilsen. The as-deposited zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films were amorphous and remained so even after annealing at 450 °C in air for 1 h. The optical bandgap of the transparent ZTO films increased as the tin concentration increased. Hall measurements established that the n-type ZTO carrier concentration was 3 × 1017 and 4 × 1018 cm−3 for fractional tin concentrations of 0.28 and 0.63, respectively. The carrier mobility decreased as the concentration of tin increased. A broken gap pn junction was fabricated using ALD-deposited ZTO and a sputtered layer of cuprous oxide. The junction demonstrated ohmic behavior and low resistance consistent with similar junctions prepared using sputter-deposited ZTO

  9. Tin passivation in alkaline media: Formation of SnO microcrystals as hydroxyl etching product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of the electrochemical passivation on Tin electrodes in 0.1 M NaOH is studied at low scan rates in a wide potential range. To this aim, tin oxide layers were grown on a polycrystalline tin surface under potentiostatic conditions in both the active and passive electrochemical potential ranges, and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the first anodic process in the active region corresponds to the formation of a SnO·nH2O prepassive layer that is removed upon increasing the applied potential due to surface etching occurring at the metal/oxide interface. During the etching process, Sn2+ ions supersaturate at the electrode vicinity thus forming a SnO crystalline phase on top of the electrode surface in the presence of the alkaline medium. At higher anodic potentials, near the passive plateau, the etching process ceases and the current drops due to the formation of a n-type Sn(IV)-based oxide at the metal/SnO interface that provides an efficient electronic passivation of the electrode

  10. Spray pyrolysis deposited tin selenide thin films for thermoelectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, Sharmistha; Gowthamaraju, S.; Mishra, B.K.; Singh, S.K.; Shahid, Anwar, E-mail: shahidanwr@gmail.com

    2015-03-01

    Tin selenide thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using tin (II) chloride and selenourea as a precursor compounds using Se:Sn atomic ratio of 1:1 in the starting solution onto glass substrates. Deposition process was carried out in the substrate temperature range of 250 °C–400 °C using 1 ml/min flow rate. The films were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption and thermoelectric studies. The X-ray diffraction patterns suggest that the major phase is hexagonal-SnSe{sub 2} was present when the deposition was carried out in 275–375 °C temperature range, while for the films deposited in the below and above to this range, Sn and Se precipitates into some impure and mixed phase. Raman scattering analysis allowed the assignment of peaks at ∼180 cm{sup −1} to the hexagonal-SnSe{sub 2} phase. The optical absorption study shows that the direct band gap of the film decreases with increase in substrate temperature and increasing crystallite size. The thermo-electrical measurements have shown n-type conductivity in as deposited films and the magnitude of thermo EMF for films has been found to be increasing with increasing deposition temperature, except for 350 °C sample. 350 °C deposited samples shows enhance thermoelectric value as compared to other samples. Thermoelectric study reveal that although sample deposited between 275 °C and 375 °C are structurally same but 350 °C sample is thermoelectrically best. - Highlights: • Influence of substrate temperature on the deposition of SnSe has been shown. • Seebeck measurements at 275°C–375 °C confirms n-type conductivity. • Higher seebeck coefficient has been observed at 350 °C deposited film. • Decrease in band gap was observed on increasing Tsub and size of the crystallites.

  11. Fischer Black

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes

    2013-01-01

    ReprintThis article was originally published by Wiley for the American Finance Association (Merton RC, Scholes MS. 1995. Fischer Black. J. Finance 50(5):1359–70). It is reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons © 1995. Reference formatting was updated to facilitate linking.

  12. Vacuum metastability with black holes.

    OpenAIRE

    Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evapor...

  13. Silver-tin alloys and amalgams: electrochemical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, H J

    1980-01-01

    The corrosion potential and anodic polarization profiles of a representative number of silver-tin alloys and their corresponding amalgams in a physiological solution were determined and compared to their microstructures. For the alloys with tin-content greater than 27%(wt) and for all amalgams, the corrosion process is related to the attack of free tin for the alloys and to the gamma-2 tin for the amalgams. The gamma-2 concentration in the amalgams increases with an increase in tin-content. For alloys with tin-content less than 27%, the corrosion process is even more restricted than for the process observed with pure silver. From a developed theory based upon the potential-time and polarization results, association of the O2 reduction process on a SnO cathodic film to an intermediate specie of H2O2 is made. The rate of H2O2 decomposition on a SnO surface in a four electron process is thought to control the O2 reduction overvoltage. The O2 reduction overvoltage decreases with increases in the silver-content of the amalgam, particularily seen with the 8 and 12% tin compositions. Due to the polarization induced corrosion process, a phase with high silver and high mercury concentrations was observed over the unreacted particles. PMID:7362862

  14. (n,γ) Experiments on tin isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron capture experiments on highly enriched 117,119Sn isotopes were performed with the DANCE detector array located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The DANCE detector provides detailed information about the multi-step γ-ray cascade following neutron capture. Analysis of the experimental data provides important information to improve understanding of the neutron capture reaction, including a test of the statistical model, the assignment of spins and parities of neutron resonances, and information concerning the Photon Strength Function (PSF) and Level Density (LD) below the neutron separation energy. Preliminary results for the (n,γ) reaction on 117,119Sn are presented. Resonance spins of the odd-A tin isotopes were almost completely unknown. Resonance spins and parities have been assigned via analysis of the multi-step γ-ray spectra and directional correlations.

  15. Niobium-tin quadrupole, study of stability in transient regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of stability studies conducted in the framework of niobium-tin quadrupole. The aim is to determine the minimum quench energy (MQE or stability range) of a conductor wire. A 3 dimension calculation is led by using the finite element code CASTEM-2000 and 3 types of conductor are considered: i) an impregnated conductor with epoxy resin (12,5% of the cross-section), ii) an impregnated conductor as above but whose porous insulating part holds 10% liquid helium, iii) a conductor holding itself 5% liquid helium and with an insulating part as in ii). The results show that in i) the stability range is 0.29 mJ, this value can be increased by adding helium to the insulator, in ii) we get 0.47 mJ. In iii) the high value obtained 3,34 mJ is explained by the increase of the mean heat capacity of the conductor due to the adding of helium. The impact of the purity of copper is also quantified. (A.C.)

  16. Si incorporation in Ti1-xSixN films grown on TiN(001) and (001)-faceted TiN(111) columns

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Anders; Tengstrand, Olof; Lu, Jun; Jensen, Jens; Eklund, Per; Rosén, Johanna; Petrov, Ivan; Greene, Joseph E; Hultman, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Thin films consisting of TiN nanocrystallites encapsulated in a fully percolated SiNy tissue phase are archetypes for hard and superhard nanocomposites. Here, we investigate metastable SiNy solid solubility in TiN and probe the effects of surface segregation during the growth of TiSiN films onto substrates that are either flat TiN(001)/MgO(001) epitaxial buffer layers or TiN(001) facets of length 1-5 nm terminating epitaxial TiN(111) nanocolumns, separated by voids, deposited on epitaxial TiN...

  17. 40 CFR 421.290 - Applicability: Description of the secondary tin subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary tin subcategory. 421.290 Section 421.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Tin Subcategory § 421.290 Applicability: Description of the secondary tin subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of tin at secondary...

  18. Tin-phosphate glass anode for sodium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Honma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical property of tin-phosphate (designate as GSPO glass anode for the sodium ion battery was studied. During the first charge process, sodium ion diffused into GSPO glass matrix and due to the reduction of Sn2+ to Sn0 state sodiated tin metal nano-size particles are formed in oxide glass matrix. After the second cycle, we confirmed the steady reversible reaction ∼320 mAh/g at 0–1 V cutoff voltage condition by alloying process in NaxSn4. The tin-phosphate glass is a promising candidate of new anode active material that realizes high energy density sodium ion batteries.

  19. In-vivo behavior of tin-radiopharmaceuticals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Tin is an essential ingredient of most technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals but its in-vivo distribution and long-term fate are not well understood. This work describes distribution in mice of several tin-117m labeled compounds. The results indicate that stannic-HEDTMP appears to be the best overall bone localizing agent with very low blood, muscle, kidney, or liver uptake, and its binding to bone is higher than that of tin-117m-DTPA, which make it potentially useful as an agent for skeletal scintigraphy and radiotherapy of bone tumors.

  20. Is Tin Tailing Sand the Source of a High Natural Gamma Background in Na Mom Districts, Songkhla Province, Southern Thailand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at quantitatively analysis of the activity concentration of the naturally occurring radionuclides in samples collected from the abandoned tin mining areas in Na Mom district of Songkhla province of Southern Thailand. The main objective is to assess whether the tin tailing sand from abandoned tin mines used for house construction in the district could affect the gamma dose rate exposed to public in the area or not. In this study the gamma-ray ground survey was performed using a portable NaI(Tl) Gamma spectrometer to determine the absorbed dose rate in the study area. The 22 sand samples were collected from house construction sites and tin tailing sites in Na Mom district and from clean sand quarries in Hatyai districts, Songkhla province. Totally 34 soil samples were also collected from Na Mom district. All collected samples were analyzed using a high resolution HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. Results show the external gamma dose rate in Na Mom district ranged 39-235 nGy/h and is averaged at 103 nGy/h. Results clearly showed that the specific activities of the Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in tin tailing sand samples collected from Na Mom district are 2-6 times higher than those collected from the clean sand quarries in Hat Yai district. However, radium equivalent activities and the radiation hazard indices of the measured samples used to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these tin tailing sands in constructing of dwelling were within the safety limits recommended by the UNSCEAR. (author)

  1. FeNi{sub 3}/indium tin oxide (ITO) composite nanoparticles with excellent microwave absorption performance and low infrared emissivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Li-Shun; Jiang, Jian-Tang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhen, Liang, E-mail: lzhen@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Micro-systems and Micro-structures Manufacturing, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Shao, Wen-Zhu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical conductivity and infrared emissivity can be controlled by ITO content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The infrared emissivity is the lowest when the mole ratio of In:Sn in sol is 9:1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The permittivity in microwave band can be controlled by the electrical conductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EMA performance is significantly influenced by the content of ITO phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FeNi{sub 3}/ITO composite particles are suitable for both infrared and radar camouflage. - Abstract: FeNi{sub 3}/indium tin oxide (ITO) composite nanoparticles were synthesized by a self-catalyzed reduction method and a sol-gel process. The dependence of the content of ITO phase with the mole ratios of In:Sn of different sols was investigated. The relation between the electrical conductivity, infrared emissivity of FeNi{sub 3}/ITO composite nanoparticles and the content of ITO phase was discussed. Electromagnetic wave absorption (EMA) performance of products was evaluated by using transmission line theory. It was found that EMA performance including the intensity and the location of effective band is significantly dependent on the content of ITO phase. The low infrared emissivity and superior EMA performance of FeNi{sub 3}/ITO composite nanoparticles can be both achieved when the mole ratio of In:Sn in sol is 9:1.

  2. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  3. Oxidation behaviour of VN, TiN and TiAlVN coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Multifunctional hard coatings have wide-range applications in various fields, since they significantly increase the lifetime and the performance of tools and machine parts that are subjected to severe working conditions. In low friction coatings such as VN, TiN and TiAlVN the improved tribological properties have been ascribed to the formation of oxide overlayers with planar defect structures, the so-called Magneli phases, which act as self-lubricants. However, the tribo-chemical formation of V-oxide and Ti-oxide based Magneli phases from the nitride coatings during elevated temperature operation in terms of oxidation kinetics is largely unknown. We have investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) the oxidation behaviour of VN, TiN and TiAlVN coatings deposited by reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering. We have found that on VN samples for high oxygen doses (> 50000 L) and at elevated temperatures (> 500oC) a thick (several atomic layers) V2O5-x (x2 and TiNxOy phases. The oxinitride TiNxOy phase could be only detected for high temperatures (> 250oC) and for oxygen doses above 1000 L. Interestingly, the TiAlVN coatings show a more pronounced tendency towards oxidation, as compared to the VN and TiN samples. Here lower sample temperatures or oxygen exposures appear to be sufficient for the formation of highly oxidized Ti- and V-oxide phases

  4. Corrosion behaviour of TiN and ZrN in the environment containing fluoride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, a wide range of materials for human implants is used. To reach the required properties of implants, coatings are applied in some cases. This contribution is focused on the corrosion properties of TiN and ZrN layers on cp-titanium (commercially pure titanium) under environment modelling conditions in an oral cavity. Measurements were done in artificial saliva and a physiological solution unbuffered and buffered to a pH value of 4.2 with the addition of fluoride ions up to 4000 ppm. Standard corrosion electrochemical techniques were applied. Both types of layers were stable in both model saliva and physiological solution with non-adjusted pH. The decrease in pH to 4.2 resulted in a minor decrease of corrosion resistance in all cases, but polarization resistance was still in the order of 105 Ω cm2. An important change in a specimens' behaviour was noticed in the presence of fluoride ions. TiN was stable in the highest concentration of fluorides used. The ZrN layers were destabilized in an environment containing a few hundred ppm of fluoride ions. As for TiN, the decisive factor is the influence of porosity; the corrosion resistance of ZrN is limited. From the corrosion point of view, the application of the TiN-based barrier layers in dental implantology is more advisable than the use of ZrN, provided that the application of a barrier is inevitable.

  5. Improved progressive TIN densification filtering algorithm for airborne LiDAR data in forested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoqian; Guo, Qinghua; Su, Yanjun; Xue, Baolin

    2016-07-01

    Filtering of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data into the ground and non-ground points is a fundamental step in processing raw airborne LiDAR data. This paper proposes an improved progressive triangulated irregular network (TIN) densification (IPTD) filtering algorithm that can cope with a variety of forested landscapes, particularly both topographically and environmentally complex regions. The IPTD filtering algorithm consists of three steps: (1) acquiring potential ground seed points using the morphological method; (2) obtaining accurate ground seed points; and (3) building a TIN-based model and iteratively densifying TIN. The IPTD filtering algorithm was tested in 15 forested sites with various terrains (i.e., elevation and slope) and vegetation conditions (i.e., canopy cover and tree height), and was compared with seven other commonly used filtering algorithms (including morphology-based, slope-based, and interpolation-based filtering algorithms). Results show that the IPTD achieves the highest filtering accuracy for nine of the 15 sites. In general, it outperforms the other filtering algorithms, yielding the lowest average total error of 3.15% and the highest average kappa coefficient of 89.53%.

  6. Spatial diagnostics of the laser-produced tin plasma in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Ahmed, R.; Rafique, M.; Anwar-ul-Haq, M.; Baig, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    We present here new experimental studies on the laser-produced tin plasma generated by focusing the beam of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) on the sample in air at atmospheric pressure. The optical emission spectra were recorded with a set of five spectrometers covering the spectral range from 200–720 nm. The electron temperature has been calculated to be about (10 600  ±  600) K using three methods; the two-line ratio, Boltzmann plot and the Saha–Boltzmann plot method, whereas the electron number density of about (9.0  ±  0.8)  ×  1016 cm‑3 has been calculated using the Stark broadened line profiles of tin lines and the hydrogen Hα-line. Furthermore, the branching fractions have been deduced for 15 spectral lines of the 5p5d  →  5p2 transition array in tin, whereas the absolute values of the transition probabilities have been calculated by combining the experimental branching fractions with the lifetimes of the excited levels. Our measured values are compared with those reported in the literature and NIST data base, showing good agreement.

  7. X-Ray Spectroscopic Measurements from Copper and Tin Vacuum Spark Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray emissions of copper and tin plasmas produced by a low energy and low inductance vacuum spark were studied. Both the time resolved and the time integrated measurements of the x-ray emissions were carried out using an x-ray spectrometer (XR-100 CR), a PIN diode and an x-ray diode (XRD). The x-ray spectra of the copper plasma obtained shows strong Kα and Kβ line radiations embedded in the continuum radiation. It is found that the hot spot formed has an electron temperature in the range from 2 keV to 3 keV. At this electron temperature, the dominant ionic specie is Cu27+ indicating that the plasma is not hot enough for the emission of the K line radiations. The emission of copper K lines is therefore believed to be produced by the energetic electron beam associated with sausage instability. For the case of tin plasma, strong Lα superimposed on the continuum background was observed. These tin spectra are predominantly the result of the interaction of electron beam generated from the transient hollow cathode effect with the anode tip

  8. Modified carbon black materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Pollak, Elad; Lux, Simon

    2016-06-14

    A lithium (Li) ion battery comprising a cathode, a separator, an organic electrolyte, an anode, and a carbon black conductive additive, wherein the carbon black has been heated treated in a CO.sub.2 gas environment at a temperature range of between 875-925 degrees Celsius for a time range of between 50 to 70 minutes to oxidize the carbon black and reduce an electrochemical reactivity of the carbon black towards the organic electrolyte.

  9. Determination of tin in biological reference materials by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of a lack of reliable analytical techniques for the determination of tin in biological materials, there have been no reference materials certified for this element. However, the authors' experience has shown that it is feasible to use both atomic absorption and nuclear activation techniques at least for selected matrices. Therefore, an investigation was undertaken to determine tin in several biological materials such as non-fat milk powder (NBS-SRM-1549), citrus leaves (NBS-SRM-1572), total diet (NIST-SRM-1548), mixed diet (NBS-RM-8431), and USDIET-I by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). AAS-ashed samples were extracted with MIBK and assayed using a Perkin Elmer model 5000 apparatus. NAA was carried out by irradiating the samples at the NIST reactor in the RT-4 facility and counting with the help of a Ge(Li) detector connected to a multichannel analyzer. The concentration of tin measured by both AAS and NAA agree well for USDIET-I, total diet, citrus leaves and non-fat milk powder (the concentration ranges for tin in these matrices were from 0.0025 to 3.8 micro g/g). However, in the case of mixed diet (RM-8431), the mean values found were 47 ± 5.6 (n = 19) by AAS and 55.5 ± 2.5 (n = 6) by INAA. Since RM-8431 is not certified it is difficult to draw conclusions. For apple and peach leaves, a distillation step was required. The results were apple leaves 0.085 ± 0.015 (n = 10) by AAS and < 0.2 (n = 3) by RNAA; for peach leaves 0.077 ± 0.02 (n = 9) by AAS and < 0.1 (n = 3) by RNAA. All concentrations are expressed in micro g/g dry weight

  10. Reduced graphene oxide decorated with tin nanoparticles through electrodeposition for simultaneous determination of trace heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A simple fabrication method of graphene decorated with tin nanoparticles was developed. • A mechanism for the formation of graphene-tin nanocomposite was proposed. • The graphene-tin nanocomposite electrode developed was able to detect heavy metals at 10−10 M level concentration. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) decorated with tin nanoparticles (SnNPs) was electrodeposited on glassy carbon sheet (GCS), i.e. G-Sn/GCS, with a drop-casting method followed by constant potential electroreduction. Raman spectroscopic analysis on the graphitic structure of the G-Sn/GCS confirmed a good intercalation of SnNPs in the RGO matrix. Field emission scanning electron microscopic measurements illustrated a uniform distribution of the SnNPs on the RGO sheets. The G-Sn/GCS showed a better electroanalytical performance than the bare GCS and RGO/GCS in the simultaneous determination of divalent cadmium ions (Cd2+), lead ions (Pb2+) and copper ions (Cu2+) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The electroanalytical measurements using the G-Sn/GCS were optimized at −1 V for 150 s in a 0.1 M acetate buffer solution (pH 5). The G-Sn/GCS demonstrated a highly linear behavior in the detection of Cd2+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ in the concentration range of 10 nM to 100 nM with detection limits of 0.63 nM, 0.60 nM and 0.52 nM (S/N=3), respectively. A mechanism for the formation of the G-Sn nanocomposite was proposed in this paper

  11. Surface tension of molten tin investigated with sessile drop method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; YUAN Zhang-fu; FAN Jian-feng; KE Jia-jun

    2005-01-01

    The surface tension of molten tin was determined by a set of self-developed digital equipment with sessile drop method at oxygen partial pressure of 1.0 × 10-6 MPa under different temperatures, and the dependence of surface tension of molten tin on temperature was also discussed. The emphasis was placed on the comparison of surface tension of the same molten tin sample measured by using different equipments with sessile drop method. Results of the comparison indicate that the measurement results with sessile drop method under the approximate experimental conditions are coincident, and the self-developed digital equipment for surface tension measurement has higher stability and accuracy. The relationships of surface tension of molten tin and its temperature coefficient with temperature and oxygen partial pressure were also elucidated from the thermodynamic equilibrium analysis.

  12. Relationship between Crustal Structure and Tin Mineralization in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A close relationship between tin metallogenic and crustal structure in South China is demonstrated, which is based on a careful study on crustal structure and a detailed comparison between typical deposits in different tectonic units. Types, locations, emplacement of ore bodies and ore genesis of tin deposits are relative to crustal structure. Tin mineralization zones of South China can be divided into three tin metallogenic units including the west part corresponding to Youjiang fold belt, middle part corresponding to fold belt of Hunan-Guangdong-Jiangxi provinces and the east part corresponding to Southeast China coastal volcanic faulting depression. From the above, it is concluded that crustal compositions and structures are the main facts of Sn concentration in South China.

  13. Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN), TIN raster file obtained from DASC, Published in unknown, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Reno County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of unknown. It is described as 'TIN raster file obtained from DASC'....

  14. Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN), Compiled a TIN baed our LIDARD data through ArcGIS tools, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) dataset, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of unknown. It is described as 'Compiled a TIN baed our...

  15. Method of preparation of tin (2) fluoroborate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for preparation of tin (2) fluoroborate solution, allowing to lower in price the process when the desined product yield being kept, is suggested. The solution is prepared from the acid solution of tin dichloride, where the boric acid, boric anhydride or borax in quantity providing atomic ratio B:Sn=5.5:7.0 in the reaction mixture is preliminary introduced, and dissolution of a precipitate is carried out in the hydrofluoric acid

  16. Study on Systemic Separation of Palladium, Silver, Cadmium and Tin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Zhen-hua; HUANG; Kun

    2013-01-01

    To accurately measure the yields of palladium,silver,cadmium and tin that generated from the fission of plutonium,radiochemical method is needed because there is much interference in using directγ-spectroscopy measurements.Usually,we want to get as much as possible the experiment data from one target,so it is required systemic separation of palladium,silver,cadmium and tin.Considering the

  17. Synthesis of tin nanocrystals in room temperature ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Le Vot, Steven; Dambournet, Damien; Groult, Henri; Ngo, Anh-tu; Petit, Christophe; Rizzi, Cécile; Salzemann, Caroline; Sirieix-Plenet, Juliette; Borkiewicz, Olaf J.; Raymundo-Piñero, Encarnación; Gaillon, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    International audience The aim of this work was to investigate the synthesis of tin nanoparticles (NPs) or tin/carbon composites, in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), that could be used as structured anode materials for Li-ion batteries. An innovative route for the synthesis of Sn nanoparticles in such media is successfully developed. Compositions, structures, sizes and morphologies of NPs were characterized by high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (...

  18. Fabrication and excellent conductive performance of antimony-doped tin oxide-coated diatomite with porous structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Yucheng, E-mail: ychengdu@bjut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yan Jing; Meng Qi; Wang Jinshu [Key Lab of Advanced Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Dai Hongxing, E-mail: hxdai@bjut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Catalysis Chemistry and Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2012-04-16

    Graphical abstract: Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)-coated diatomite with porous structures are fabricated using the co-precipitation method. The porous ATO-coated diatomite material shows excellent conductive performance. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sb-doped SnO{sub 2} (ATO)-coated diatomite materials with porous structures are prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sn/Sb ratio, ATO coating amount, pH value, and temperature influence resistivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous ATO-coated diatomite materials show excellent conductive performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lowest resistivity of the porous ATO-coated diatomite sample is 10 {Omega} cm. - Abstract: Diatomite materials coated with antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) were prepared by the co-precipitation method, and characterized by means of the techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement. It was shown that the coated ATO possessed a tetragonal rutile crystal structure, and the ATO-coated diatomite materials had a multi-pore (micro- meso-, and macropores) architecture. The porous ATO-coated diatomite materials exhibited excellent electrical conductive behaviors. The best conductive performance (volume resistivity = 10 {Omega} cm) was achieved for the sample that was prepared under the conditions of Sn/Sb molar ratio = 5.2, Sn/Sb coating amount = 45 wt%, pH = 1.0, and reaction temperature = 50 Degree-Sign C. Such a conductive porous material is useful for the applications in physical and chemical fields.

  19. Fast-neutron scatteridng at Z = 50: Tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron total cross sections of elemental tin were measured from ∼ 0.8 to 4.5 NeV with energy detail sufficient to average intermediate structure. Neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured from ∼ 1.5 to 10 NeV. Below 3 NeV 10 angular intervals were used distributed between ∼ 20 degrees and 160 degrees, and the incident energy increments were ∼ 0.1 NeV. From 3 to 4 NeV twenty angular intervals, distributed over the same angular range, were used, and the energy increments were ∼ 0.2 NeV. From 4.5 to 10 NeV the measurements were made at ≥ 40 angular intervals distributed between ∼ 17 degrees and 160 degrees, and at energy increments of ∼ 0.5 MeV. Inelastic neutron groups corresponding to average excitations of approximately 1.15 and 2.27 NeV were observed. The experimental results were combined with elemental and isotopic values available in the literature, extending from ∼ 0.4 to 24 NeV, to form a comprehensive data base for physical interpretations using optical-statistical, dispersive-optical and coupled-channels models. The parameters of the models were determined in detail, including isospin, and collective effects. These physical interpretations were compared with present and previously-reported experimental results and with theoretical physical concepts

  20. Vacuum Carbothermal Reduction for Treating Tin Anode Slime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Weizhong; Qiu, Keqiang

    2013-11-01

    In this work, a process of vacuum carbothermal reduction was proposed for treating tin anode slime containing antimony and lead. During vacuum carbothermal reduction, the antimony and lead were selectively removed simultaneously by reducing and decomposing the less volatile mixed oxide of lead and antimony into the more volatile Sb2O3 and PbO. Then the tin was enriched in the distilland and primarily present as SnO2. Crude tin was obtained via vacuum reduction of the residual SnO2. The results showed that 92.85% by weight of antimony and 99.58% by weight of lead could be removed at 850°C for 60 min with 4 wt.% of reductant and air flow rate at 400 mL/min corresponding to the residual gas pressure of 40 Pa-150 Pa. Under these conditions, an evaporation ratio of 52.7% was achieved. Crude tin with a tin content of 94.22 wt.% was obtained at temperature of 900°C, reduction time of 60 min, reductant dosage of 12.5 wt.%, and a residual gas pressure of 40 Pa-400 Pa. Correspondingly, the direct recovery of tin was 94.35%.

  1. Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN), TIN Bayfield County, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Bayfield County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008....

  2. The episodic influx of tin-rich cosmic dust particles during the last ice age

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaViolette, Paul A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents evidence of the first detection of interstellar dust in ice age polar ice. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are reported for 15 elements found in dust filtered from eight samples of Camp Century Greenland ice dating from 40 to 78 kyrs BP. High concentrations of Sn, Sb, Au, Ag, Ir, and Ni were found to be present in three out of these eight samples. One compositionally anomalous dust sample from an ice core depth of 1230.5 m (age ∼49 kyrs BP, near the beginning of D/O stadial No. 13) was found to contain tin with an average weight percent of 49% as determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). This sample was also found to contain high concentrations of Pb with an average weight abundance of 8.4% and matching the Sn:Pb ratio observed in interstellar spectra. Dust particles in this sample generally have a platy morphology and range from submicron size up to a size as large as 120 μm, a particle consisting almost entirely of SnO2 and being the largest monomineralic extraterrestrial dust particle so far discovered. One porous aggregate tin-bearing particle was found to contain nanometer sized chondrules indicating an extraterrestrial origin. The extraterrestrial origin for the tin is also indicated by the presence of isotopic anomalies in the 114Sn, 115Sn and 117Sn isotopes. Follow up isotopic measurements of this tin-rich dust need to be performed to improve confidence in the anomalies reported here. High abundances of the low melting point elements Ag, Au, and Sb are also present in this tin-rich sample along with elevated abundances of the siderophiles Ir, Ni, Fe, and Co, the latter being present in chondritic proportions and indicating that about 9% of the dust has a C1 chondrite component. Measurements indicate that about 97% of this dust is of extraterrestrial origin with a 3% residual being composed of terrestrial windblown dust. EDS analysis of another tin-rich Camp Century ice core dust sample dating to ∼130 kyrs BP

  3. Underwater Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  4. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 °C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn3 particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: ► The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. ► The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. ► It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  5. Tin Content Determination in Canned Fruits and Vegetables by Hydride Generation Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Rončević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin content in samples of canned fruits and vegetables was determined by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (HG-ICP-OES, and it was compared with results obtained by standard method of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Selected tin emission lines intensity was measured in prepared samples after addition of tartaric acid and followed by hydride generation with sodium borohydride solution. The most favorable line at 189.991 nm showed the best detection limit (1.9 μg L−1 and limit of quantification (6.4 μg kg−1. Good linearity and sensitivity were established from time resolved analysis and calibration tests. Analytical accuracy of 98–102% was obtained by recovery study of spiked samples. Method of standard addition was applied for tin determination in samples from fully protected tinplate. Tin presence at low-concentration range was successfully determined. It was shown that tenth times less concentrations of Sn were present in protected cans than in nonprotected or partially protected tinplate.

  6. Cosmic evolution during primordial black hole evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Zimdahl, Winfried; Pavón, Diego

    1998-01-01

    Primordial black holes with a narrow mass range are regarded as a nonrelativistic fluid component with an equation of state for dust. The impact of the black hole evaporation on the dynamics of the early universe is studied by resorting to a two-fluid model. We find periods of intense radiation reheating in the initial and final stages of the evaporation.

  7. Charged black holes in phantom cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Qadir, Asghar; Rashid, Muneer Ahmad [National University of Sciences and Technology, Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2008-11-15

    In the classical relativistic regime, the accretion of phantom-like dark energy onto a stationary black hole reduces the mass of the black hole. We have investigated the accretion of phantom energy onto a stationary charged black hole and have determined the condition under which this accretion is possible. This condition restricts the mass-to-charge ratio in a narrow range. This condition also challenges the validity of the cosmic-censorship conjecture since a naked singularity is eventually produced due to accretion of phantom energy onto black hole. (orig.)

  8. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  9. The Zirconium-Titanium-Tin system (Zr-Ti-Sn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of the properties of the Sn-Zr system is relevant in the nuclear-power technology because tin is a key element in the design of Zr-base alloys, since it increases their strength and corrosion resistance. Many critical components for the nuclear power reactors are manufactured employing this kind of materials. Titanium and zirconium, being elements with great affinity, form solid solutions in both structures, hexagonal closed-packed and body-centered cubic, in the complete range of compositions. Although they have different neutron capture properties, the possibility of partial replacement of zirconium by titanium in this kind of alloys was considered in the past. That is why some work has been done on the Zr-Ti-Sn ternary system and published in the past decades. Thirteen alloys were produced by melting the metal components in a non-consumable tungsten electrode arc furnace with a copper crucible and under a high purity argon atmosphere. The compositions were selected in relation with the objective of the work. All specimens were heat treated at 900 and 1100 C degrees in two long periods of time in order to assure the phase equilibria observing the invariability in compositions. The different phases were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. The compositions of the phases were determined by quantitative microanalysis in the electron microprobe. The two and three-phase equilibria were established for the total range of compositions of the ternary system. The isothermal sections at 900 and 1100 C degrees showing the equilibrium phases of the Zr-Ti-Sn system are presented. (author)

  10. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  11. Large-Scale Synthesis of Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Nanofibers Using Water as Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altecor, Aleksey; Mao, Yuanbing; Lozano, Karen

    2012-09-01

    Here we report the successful fabrication of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanofibers using a scalable Forcespinning™ method. In this environmentally-friendly process, water was used as the only solvent for both Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, the sacrificial polymer) and the metal chloride precursor salts. The obtained precursor nanofiber mats were calcinated at temperatures ranging from 500-800°C to produce ITO nanofibers with diameters as small as 400 nm. The developed ITO nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis.

  12. High contrast thermochromic switching in vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin films deposited on indium tin oxide substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beydaghyan, Gisia, E-mail: gisia.beydaghyan@umoncton.ca; Basque, Vincent; Ashrit, P.V.

    2012-11-01

    Vanadium dioxide thin films with excellent thermochromic switching properties were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates with the RF magnetron sputtering technique. Reversible transmission switching of these films from as much as 65% to near zero at 2500 nm, with contrast ratios of more than 3000, was observed. These films compare favorably to those deposited on glass slides, and, in particular, show a resistivity drop of nearly 2 orders of magnitude upon switching to the metallic state. Inducing the metal-insulator transition by electrical current through the ITO layer lowers the transition temperature by 4-7 Degree-Sign C, as compared to traditional heating of the sample by a heating plate. The presence of an ITO sublayer also seems to result in smaller grain size and slightly broader hysteresis in VO{sub 2} films. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) films deposited on transparent conductive substrates (ITO). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent thermochromic switching with contrast ratios of 3000 or better. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower transition temperatures obtained via Joule heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of Frankel-Poole mechanism on transition temperature.

  13. Formation of black hole and emission of gravitational waves

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura,Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations were performed for the formation process of rotating black holes. It is suggested that Kerr black holes are formed for wide ranges of initial parameters. The nature of gravitational waves from a test particle falling into a Kerr black hole as well as the development of 3D numerical relativity for the coalescing binary neutron stars are discussed.

  14. Formation of black hole and emission of gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi

    2006-12-01

    Numerical simulations were performed for the formation process of rotating black holes. It is suggested that Kerr black holes are formed for wide ranges of initial parameters. The nature of gravitational waves from a test particle falling into a Kerr black hole as well as the development of 3D numerical relativity for the coalescing binary neutron stars are discussed. PMID:25792793

  15. Tin Nitride as an Earth Abundant Photoanode for Water Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Christopher; Ma, Ming; Stephanovic, Vladan; Laney, Stephan; Ginley, David; Richards, Ryan; Smith, Wilson; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2014-03-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting-the conversion of water to hydrogen and oxygen using light-is an attractive route to the chemical storage of solar energy. We demonstrate that spinel tin nitride (Sn3N4) has conduction and valence bands that straddle the redox potentials of water and we study it as a photoannode material. Sn3N4 thin films have been grown on glass at ambient temperature by reactive sputtering of tin in a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting materials were n-type semiconductors. Carrier concentration, carrier mobility, work function, and optical properties were measured. Results indicate that tin nitride has a band gap of ~ 1.7 eV aligned around water's redox potentials. GW-corrected DFT-surface calculations that take into account water surface dipole interactions are consistent with experiment. Early PEC devices were made from Sn3N4 on fluorinated tin oxide with cobalt oxide catalysts and show a small but promising photoresponse (~ 0.1 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE) under AM 1.5 illumination in 0.1 M potassium phosphate (pH= 7.25). Further work will focus on increasing the photocurrent in tin nitride devices by increasing film quality and identifying the proper catalyst. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), VENI scheme.

  16. Evaluation of Effectiveness of Conformal Coatings as Tin Whisker Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sungwon; Osterman, Michael; Meschter, Stephan; Pecht, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The application of a conformal coat has been considered as a mitigation strategy to prevent unintended shorting events induced by tin whisker formation in electronic products. While various conformal coatings have been shown to be effective at containing tin whiskers on treated coupons, the effectiveness of conformal coating on actual assembled hardware has not been adequately examined. In this study, the ability of six types of conformal coatings to contain tin whiskers was examined through their application to assembled gull-wing lead quad flat package test specimens. Nonuniform coverage of conformal coating on the gull-wing leads was found to be a primary concern. Quantitative image analysis using scanning electron microscopy in backscattered electron mode was developed to aid in quantifying coating coverage. The ability of applied coatings to contain tin whiskers was examined after specimens were subjected to sequential temperature cycling and elevated temperature/humidity conditions as well as exposure to corrosive gases. For all but one coating, tin whiskers were observed to escape areas of relatively thin coating. Parylene C coating was found to be the most effective coating in providing uniform coverage and thickness, and containing whiskers.

  17. Stress analysis and microstructure of PVD monolayer TiN and multilayer TiN/(Ti,Al)N coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Zoestbergen, E.; Kooi, B.J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de

    2003-04-01

    Two PVD titanium nitride based coatings; monolayer TiN and multilayer resulting from the stacking of TiN and (Ti,Al)N layers were evaluated with respect to their stress state and microstructure. The TiN was deposited by triode evaporation ion plating, whereas the TiN/(Ti,Al)N was deposited using a reactive hybrid deposition process consisting of a combination of electron beam evaporation of Ti and DC magnetron sputtering of a Ti-Al alloy. The structural and mechanical state characterisations of the as-deposited coatings on steel substrates were performed using X-ray diffraction methods. The Bragg-Brentano geometry was used to study the texture and the sin{sup 2} {psi} method was applied to obtain the stress-free lattice parameter, the Poisson's ratio and the residual stresses. The monolayer exhibited a preferred orientation with (1 1 1) parallel to the surface. However, the TiN and (Ti,Al)N layers from the multilayer revealed a slightly (3 1 1) preferred orientation. All coatings were in a state of compressive stress ranging from 10.1 to 2.7 GPa, depending logically on the substrate material, layer thickness and deposition processes. The microstructure and composition of the coatings were investigated using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, plan-view and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The TiN exhibited a fibrous microstructure where only a few columns extended through the whole coating thickness. The TiN/(Ti,Al)N multilayer revealed a more pronounced columnar microstructure with the columns extending throughout the film thickness. Micrometer-sized macroparticles were present in the multilayer at various distances from the substrate, but never at the substrate surface. The results showed that they were incorporated in the growing film in the solid state and consisted of a core structure with equiaxed grains having the {alpha}-Ti phase and an outer layer of TiN

  18. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Williams

    Full Text Available Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users.The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components.Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol.Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality.

  19. The effect of substrate temperature on atomic layer deposited zinc tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the film properties were investigated for varying deposition temperatures in the range of 90 to 180 °C. It was found that the [Sn]/([Sn] + [Zn]) composition is only slightly temperature dependent, while properties such as growth rate, film density, material structure and band gap are more strongly affected. The growth rate dependence on deposition temperature varies with the relative number of zinc or tin containing precursor pulses and it correlates with the growth rate behavior of pure ZnO and SnOx ALD. In contrast to the pure ZnO phase, the density of the mixed ZTO films is found to depend on the deposition temperature and it increases linearly with about 1 g/cm3 in total over the investigated range. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy suggests that zinc rich ZTO films contain small (~ 10 nm) ZnO or ZnO(Sn) crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix, and that these crystallites increase in size with increasing zinc content and deposition temperature. These crystallites are small enough for quantum confinement effects to reduce the optical band gap of the ZTO films as they grow in size with increasing deposition temperature. - Highlights: • Zinc tin oxide thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition. • The structure and optical properties were studied at different growth temperatures. • The growth temperature had only a small effect on the composition of the films. • Small ZnO or ZnO(Sn) crystallites were observed by TEM in zinc rich ZTO films. • The growth temperature affects the crystallite size, which influences the band gap

  20. Potentiodynamic studies on anodic dissolution and passivation of tin, indium and tin-indium alloys in some fruit acids solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anodic dissolution and passivation of tin, indium and tin-indium alloys were studied in 0.5 M solutions of both malic and citric acids, using potentiodynamic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The E/I curves showed that the anodic behavior of all investigated electrodes exhibits active/passive transition. The active region of tin involves two anodic peaks (I and II) prior to the passive region in both the investigated acids, while indium exhibits two peaks (I and II) in malic and one peak in citric acid. These two peaks (I and II) correspond to the formation of InOOH and In(OH)3/In2O3 system, respectively, but that observed peak in citric acid is to InOOH. The active region for tin-indium alloys (I, II and III) in citric acid showed one peak (I) and shoulders (II). This shoulder predominates with increasing temperature due to little In2O3 formation and its dissolution at higher temperatures. The disappearance of this shoulder for the alloys (IV and V) with high indium percent may be due to the formation of large amounts of In2O3 with tin oxides on the surface.

  1. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  2. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  3. Trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to finish the design of tritium extraction system (TES) of fusion fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) tritium blanket, involving the dynamic mathematical model of liquid metal in contact with a gaseous atmosphere, approximate mathematical equation of tritium in lithium tin alloy was deduced. Moreover, carrying process used for trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy was investigated with hydrogen being used to simulate tritium in the study. The study results indicate that carrying process is effective way for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy, and the best flow velocity of carrier gas is about 4 L/min under 1 kg alloy temperatures and carrying numbers are the main influencing factors of hydrogen number. Hydrogen extraction efficiency can reach 85% while the alloy sample is treated 6 times at 823 K. (authors)

  4. Recovery of antimony-125 from tin-124 irradiated by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation of 125Sb from tin using highly basic, medium-basic, and weakly basic ion-exchangers was studied. The best results were obtained for AN-31 weakly basic anion exchanger. The yield of 125Sb was 95 -98 % of the initial activity, the yield of tin, 98 ± 0.5% of the initial amount. The separation coefficient is 106-107 for one cycle. A procedure based on ion exchange was developed. Extraction procedures of separation of 125Sb from tin were studied. Isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, and di-n-butyl ether were used as extracting agents. The most efficient extracting agent is di-n-butyl ether. Carrier-free radiochemically pure sample of 125Sb was produced. More than 20 mCi of the target product was recovered. The extraction recovery procedure of 125Sb has been developed. (author)

  5. Recovery of antimony-125 from tin-124 irradiated by neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluev, A. V.; Mityakhina, V. S.; Krasnikov, L. V.; Galkin, B. Ya.; Besnosyuk, V. I.

    2003-01-01

    Separation of 125Sb from tin using highly basic, medium-basic, and weakly basic ion-exchangers was studied. The best results were obtained for AN-31 weakly basic anion exchanger. The yield of 125Sb was 95-98% of the initial activity, the yield of tin, 98±0.5% of the initial amount. The separation coefficient is 106-107 for one cycle. A procedure based on ion exchange was developed. Extraction procedures of separation of 125Sb from tin were studied. Isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, and di- n-butyl ether were used as extracting agents. The most efficient extracting agent is di- n-butyl ether. Carrier-free radiochemically pure sample of 125Sb was produced. More than 20 mCi of the target product was recovered. The extraction recovery procedure of 125Sb has been developed.

  6. Tin - an unlikely ally for silicon field effect transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2014-01-13

    We explore the effectiveness of tin (Sn), by alloying it with silicon, to use SiSn as a channel material to extend the performance of silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductors. Our density functional theory based simulation shows that incorporation of tin reduces the band gap of Si(Sn). We fabricated our device with SiSn channel material using a low cost and scalable thermal diffusion process of tin into silicon. Our high-κ/metal gate based multi-gate-field-effect-transistors using SiSn as channel material show performance enhancement, which is in accordance with the theoretical analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N.

    2016-01-01

    The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator. PMID:27387140

  8. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Beaudette, C; Guo, J; Bozhilov, K; Mangolini, L

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive "dead spots" in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  9. States of antimony and tin atoms in lead chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown by Mössbauer spectroscopy of the 119Sb(119mSn) isotope that impurity antimony atoms in PbS, PbSe, and PbTe lattices are distributed between cation and anion sublattices. In n-type samples, the greatest part of antimony is located in the anion sublattice; in hole ones, in the cation sublattice. The tin atoms formed as a result of radioactive decay of 119Sb (antisite state) are electrically inactive in the anion sub-lattice of PbS and PbSe, while, in the cation sublattice, they form donor U− centers. Electron exchange between the neutral and doubly ionized tin U− centers via the allowed band states is observed. The tin atoms formed after radioactive decay of 119Sb are electrically inactive in the anion and cation sublattices of PbTe.

  10. Tin nanoparticles as an effective conductive additive in silicon anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L.; Beaudette, C.; Guo, J.; Bozhilov, K.; Mangolini, L.

    2016-01-01

    We have found that the addition of tin nanoparticles to a silicon-based anode provides dramatic improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability. Using a simple procedure and off-the-shelf additives and precursors, we developed a structure in which the tin nanoparticles are segregated at the interface between the silicon-containing active layer and the solid electrolyte interface. Even a minor addition of tin, as small as ∼2% by weight, results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction. PMID:27484849

  11. Solidification mechanism of highly undercooled metal alloys. [tin-lead and nickel-tin alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Y.; Chu, M. G.; Macisaac, D. G.; Flemings, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on metal droplet undercooling, using Sn-25wt%Pb and Ni-34wt%Sn alloys. To achieve the high degree of undercooling, emulsification treatments were employed. Results show the fraction of supersaturated primary phase is a function of the amount of undercooling, as is the fineness of the structures. The solidification behavior of the tin-lead droplets during recalescence was analyzed using three different hypotheses; (1) solid forming throughout recalescence is of the maximum thermodynamically stable composition; (2) partitionless solidification below the T sub o temperature, and solid forming thereafter is of the maximum thermodynamically stable composition; and (3) partitionless solidification below the T sub o temperature with solid forming thereafter that is of the maximum thermodynamically metastable composition that is possible. The T sub o temperature is calculated from the equal molar free energies of the liquid solid using the regular solution approximation.

  12. Indium Tin Oxide@Carbon Core–Shell Nanowire and Jagged Indium Tin Oxide Nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports two new indium tin oxide (ITO-based nanostructures, namely ITO@carbon core–shell nanowire and jagged ITO nanowire. The ITO@carbon core–shell nanowires (~50 nm in diameter, 1–5 μm in length, were prepared by a chemical vapor deposition process from commercial ITO nanoparticles. A carbon overlayer (~5–10 in thickness was observed around ITO nanowire core, which was in situ formed by the catalytic decomposition of acetylene gas. This carbon overlayer could be easily removed after calcination in air at an elevated temperature of 700°C, thus forming jagged ITO nanowires (~40–45 nm in diameter. The growth mechanisms of ITO@carbon core–shell nanowire and jagged ITO nanowire were also suggested.

  13. Charge transport in a single superconducting tin nanowire encapsulated in a multiwalled carbon nanotube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tombros, Nikolaos; Buit, Luuk; Arfaoui, Imad; Tsoufis, Theodoros; Gournis, Dimitrios; Trikalitis, Pantelis N.; van der Molen, Sense Jan; Rudolf, Petra; van Wees, Bart J.

    2008-01-01

    The charge transport properties of single superconducting tin nanowires encapsulated by multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been investigated by multiprobe measurements. The multiwalled carbon nanotube protects the tin nanowire from oxidation and shape fragmentation and therefore allows us to investig

  14. Nested case-control study of lung cancer in four Chinese tin mines

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, W; Chen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the relation between occupational dust exposure and lung cancer in tin mines. This is an update of a previous study of miners with high exposure to dust at four tin mines in southern China.

  15. Transition metal catalysed Grignard-like allylic activation across tetragonal tin(II) oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradipta Sinha; Moloy Banerjee; Abhijit Kundu; Sujit Roy

    2002-08-01

    The reaction of allyl halide and a carbonyl compound under the aegis of tetragonal tin(II) oxide and catalytic 8, 10 metal complexes provides the corresponding homoallylic alcohol, via a novel allyl tin intermediate.

  16. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticles without Chlorine Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium tin oxide (In2Sn1-xO5-y) nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method from stable indium tin acetylacetone complexes and post annealing at 600 .deg. C. The absence of chlorine ions shortened the synthesis process, decreased the particle agglomeration and improved the particle purity. The introduced complexing ligand acetylacetone decreased the obtained nanoparticle size. The improved powder properties accelerated the sintering of the In2Sn1-xO5-y nanoparticles and reached a relative density of 96.4% when pressureless sintered at 1400 .deg. C

  17. Indium tin oxide-silicon thin film solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterojunction solar cells consisting of amorphous indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films on silicon films have been fabricated and studied. The results show that the devices give a photovoltaic effect and rectifying characteristics. One of the main characteristics of amorphous ITO thin films is better transparency (>85%) over the complete useful window of the solar spectrum. The polarity observed is found to be consistent with V/sub oc/ = 0.34 volt, I/sub sc/ = 22mA/cm/sup 2/ and fill factor = 0.48. An attempt has been made to understand the conduction mechanism of indium tin oxide - silicon heterojunction

  18. Tin in silicate glasses: structure, thermodynamics and kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work Moessbauer spectroscopy is used to investigate the oxidation states and structures of tin in silicate glasses. Thermal treatment of the glasses in atmospheres with varying oxygen partial pressure leads to the simultaneous appearance of reduction and diffusion. Experiments with varying treatment time give the opportunity to study diffusion and reduction processes in detail. Comparison of the hyperfine parameters of reference materials with measured parameter provides information about the local surroundings of the tin atoms. An octahedral surrounding for Sn4+ is presumed, while Sn2+ and three oxygen atoms form a tetrahedral coordination.

  19. Controlled positions and kinetic analysis of spontaneous tin whisker growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study achieved controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers. We surmounted the unpredictable growing nature of such whiskers and performed accurately quantitative analyses of the growth kinetics and yielded precise measurement of the growth rate. Furthermore, using synchrotron radiation x-ray, this study determined the stress variations in conjunction with whisker growth that fitted appropriately to the model. Accordingly, the results could address the debate held for decades and prove that forming a surface oxide layer is one of the required and necessary conditions for controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers.

  20. Controlled positions and kinetic analysis of spontaneous tin whisker growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chien-Hao; Chen, Hao; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Albert T.

    2011-09-01

    This study achieved controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers. We surmounted the unpredictable growing nature of such whiskers and performed accurately quantitative analyses of the growth kinetics and yielded precise measurement of the growth rate. Furthermore, using synchrotron radiation x-ray, this study determined the stress variations in conjunction with whisker growth that fitted appropriately to the model. Accordingly, the results could address the debate held for decades and prove that forming a surface oxide layer is one of the required and necessary conditions for controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers.

  1. Controlled positions and kinetic analysis of spontaneous tin whisker growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chien-Hao; Chen, Hao; Wu, Albert T. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli City 320, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hsin-Yi [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, HsinChu City 300, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-26

    This study achieved controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers. We surmounted the unpredictable growing nature of such whiskers and performed accurately quantitative analyses of the growth kinetics and yielded precise measurement of the growth rate. Furthermore, using synchrotron radiation x-ray, this study determined the stress variations in conjunction with whisker growth that fitted appropriately to the model. Accordingly, the results could address the debate held for decades and prove that forming a surface oxide layer is one of the required and necessary conditions for controlling the positions of spontaneous growth of tin whiskers.

  2. Tin oxide-carbon nanotube composite for NOx sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong Mi; Jung, Hyuck; Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Kim, Dojin; Hong, Soon-Ku; Kim, Hyojin

    2012-02-01

    Tin oxide-single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) nano composites are synthesized for gas sensor application. The fabrication includes deposition of porous SWCNTs on thermally oxidized SiO2 substrates followed by rheotaxial growth of Sn and thermal oxidation at 300, 400, 500, and 600 degrees C in air. The effects of oxidation temperature on morphology, microstructure, and gas sensing properties are investigated for process optimization. The tin monoxide oxidized at 400 degrees C showed the highest response at the operating temperature of 200 degrees C. Under the optimized test condition, the composite structure showed better response than both structures of SWCNTs and thin film SnO. PMID:22629971

  3. Deposition of TiN films in a batch reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Hasper, Albert; Snijders, Gert-Jan; Vandezande, Lieve; De Blank, Marinus J.; Bankras, Radko Gerard

    2006-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) films are formed in a batch reactor using titanium chloride (TiCl4) and ammonia (NH3) as precursors. The TiCl4 is flowed into the reactor in temporally separated pulses. The NH3 can also be flowed into the reactor in temporally spaced pulses which alternate with the TiCl4 pulses, or the NH3 can be flowed continuously into the reactor while the TiCl4 is introduced in pulses. The resulting TiN films exhibit low resistivity and good uniformity.

  4. An Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim; Wright, Clara; Asfour, Shihab; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon; Ludwig, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, an empirical model to quantify the probability of occurrence of an electrical short circuit from tin whiskers as a function of voltage was developed. This empirical model can be used to improve existing risk simulation models. FIB and TEM images of a tin whisker confirm the rare polycrystalline structure on one of the three whiskers studied. FIB cross-section of the card guides verified that the tin finish was bright tin.

  5. Edge phonons in black phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, H B; Villegas, C E P; Bahamon, D A; Muraca, D; Castro Neto, A H; de Souza, E A T; Rocha, A R; Pimenta, M A; de Matos, C J S

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  6. Control of preferred (222) crystalline orientation of sputtered indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Duy Phong [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Phan, Bach Thang [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Faculty of Materials Science, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van Dung; Nguyen, Huu Truong [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Ta, Thi Kieu Hanh [Faculty of Materials Science, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Maenosono, Shinya [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Ishikawa (Japan); Tran, Cao Vinh, E-mail: tcvinh@hcmus.edu.vn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam)

    2014-11-03

    We report a two-step growth process for the fabrication of (222)-plane textured indium tin oxide (ITO) films. A thin ITO seed layer was grown in mixed Argon + Oxygen gases, followed by a thick ITO deposited in Argon gas. X-Ray diffraction shows that the sputtered ITO films exhibit strongly preferred (222) crystalline orientation. The (222)-plane textured ITO films have high transmittance above 80% in the visible range and carrier concentration, mobility and resistivity in the range of 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}, 40 cm{sup 2}/Vs and 10{sup −4} Ω·cm, respectively. The surface roughness of our (222) textured ITO films is 1.4 nm, which is one of the smallest value obtained from sputtered ITO thin films. - Highlights: • Control of preferred (222) crystalline orientation of indium tin oxide (ITO) films • A thin oxygen rich seed layer activates (222) orientation growth of overhead ITO films. • The surface roughness of (222)-plane textured ITO films is about 1.4 nm. • Carrier concentration and resistivity are about 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} and 10{sup −4} Ω·cm, respectively.

  7. A novel tin-bismuth alloy electrode for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a novel tin-bismuth alloy electrode (SnBiE) for the determination of trace concentrations of zinc ions by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry without deoxygenation. The SnBiE has the advantages of easy fabrication and low cost, and does not require a pre-treatment (in terms of modification) prior to measurements. A study on the potential window of the electrode revealed a high hydrogen overvoltage though a limited anodic range due to the oxidation of tin. The effects of pH value, accumulation potential, and accumulation time were optimized with respect to the determination of trace zinc(II) at pH 5. 0. The response of the SnBiE to zinc(II) ion is linear in the 0.5-25 μM concentration range. The detection limit is 50 nM (after 60 s of accumulation). The SnBiE was applied to the determination of zinc(II) in wines and honeys, and the results were consistent with those of AAS. (author)

  8. Theoretical modeling of a self-referenced dual mode SPR sensor utilizing indium tin oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sachin K.; Verma, Roli; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2016-06-01

    A prism based dual mode SPR sensor was theoretically modeled to work as a self-referenced sensor in spectral interrogation scheme. Self-referenced sensing was achieved by sandwiching an indium tin oxide thin film in between the prism base and the metal layer. The proposed sensor possesses two plasmon modes similar to long and short range SPRs (LR- and SR-SPRs) and we have analogically used LRSPR and SRSPR for them. However, these modes do not possess usual long range character due to the losses introduced by the imaginary part of indium tin oxide (ITO) dielectric function. One of the two plasmon modes responds to change in analyte refractive index while the other remains fixed. The influence of various design parameters on the performance of the sensor was evaluated. The performance of the proposed sensor was compared, via control simulations, with established dual mode geometries utilizing silicon dioxide (SiO2), Teflon AF-1600 and Cytop. The design parameters of the established geometries were optimized to obtain self-referenced sensing operation. Trade-offs between the resonance spectral width, minimum reflectivity, shift in resonance wavelength and angle of incidence were examined for optimal design. The present study will be useful in the fabrication of self-referenced sensors where the ambient conditions are not quite stable.

  9. Study on Optical Properties of Tin Oxide Thin Film at Different Annealing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturi Baco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tin Oxide (SnO2 thin film is one of the important transparent conducting oxides (TCOs and applied in various fields such as in solar cells, optoelectronic devices, heat mirror, gas sensors, etc due to its electrical and optical transparency in visible light spectrum. In this paper, we presented the optical properties of tin oxide thin film at four different annealing temperatures (373 K, 437 K, 573 K and 673 K prepared by radio frequency sputtering technique. The optical characteristic of these films was investigated using the UV-VIS 3101-PC Spectrophotometer. From this study, all samples exhibit high transmittance more than 70% in the visible light spectrum. Sample annealed at 473 K shows the maximum transmittance which is 87%. Refractive index, n were in the range of 2.33 – 2.80 at  = 550 nm and enhanced with the annealing temperature. However the extinction of coefficient, k was found to be very small. The optical band-edge absorption coefficients were found in the range of 104 – 105cm-1. The energy gap value was decreased with increasing annealing temperature and the type of photon transition was allowed direct transition.

  10. Tin(II Selective PVC Membrane Electrode Based on Salicylaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone as an Ionophore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulekh Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric membrane-based tin selective electrode was developed by using salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (STSC. The best performance was recorded with a membrane composition of PVC : TBP : ionophore : NaTPB as 28 : 59 : 8 : 5 (w/w%. The Nernstian slope calculated from the calibration curve for Sn2+ sensor was 28.8 ± 0.4 mV/decade. The detection limit of the sensor was 2.10 × 10−8 M, in the linear concentration range of 1.0 × 10−2−1.1 × 10−7 M. It was relatively fast response time (<8 s for concentration ≥1.0×10−4 and <12 s for concentration of ≥1.0×10−6 M and can be used for 9 months without any considerable divergence in potentials. The proposed sensor exhibit relatively good selectivity and high sensitivity for tin(II as other mono-, di-, and trivalent cations and can be used in a pH range of 2.0–8.5. The analytical usefulness of the proposed electrode has been evaluated by its application in the determination of stannous in artificially made samples.

  11. Tin (II Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is one of the promising energy source alternatives to fossil fuel. To produce biodiesel in a more economical way, the employment of the low-cost feed stocks, such as non-edible oils with high free fatty acid (FFA, is necessary. Accordingly, the esterification reaction of FFA in vegetable oils plays an important role in the biodiesel production. In this work, esterification of FFA contained in Crude Jatropha Oil (CJO in the presence of tin (II chloride catalyst in a batch reactor has been carried out. The esterification reaction was conducted using methanol at the temperature of 40-60 °C for 4 hours. The effect of molar ratio of methanol to oil was studied in the range 15:1 to 120:1. The influence of catalyst loading was investigated in the range of 2.5 to 15% w/w oil. The optimum reaction conversion was obtained at 60 °C with the catalyst loading of 10% w/w oil and molar ratio of methanol to oil of 120:1. A pseudo-homogeneous reversible second order kinetic model for describing the esterification of FFA contained in CJO with methanol over tin (II chloride catalyst was developed based on the experimental data. The kinetic model can fit the data very well.

  12. Thermal and plasma-enhanced oxidation of ALD TiN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, A.W.; Brunets, I.; Boogaard, A.; Aarnink, A.A.I.; Kovalgin, A.Y.; Schmitz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite its high chemical stability, sputtered stoichiometric TiN can still be oxidized at temperatures below 400 ºC, whereas a non-stoichiometric TiN is known to oxidize even at room temperature. In this work, the oxidation behaviour of thin TiN layers, realized via atomic layer deposition (ALD), i

  13. 26 CFR 31.3406(j)-1 - Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) matching program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) matching... Number (TIN) matching program. (a) The matching program. Under section 3406(i), the Commissioner has the authority to establish Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) matching programs. The Commissioner...

  14. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  16. The tin mining and heavy mineral processing industry in the Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overview of the tin mining and heavy mineral processing in the Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia was presented. Amang, a mixture composed of tin ore, sand, ilmenite, monazite, zircon, xenotime, struvite, etc , as a product from tin mining activities was discussed too in this paper

  17. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusse, Jay; Sampson, Mike; Leidecker, Henning; Kadesch, Jong

    2004-01-01

    This website provides information about tin whiskers and related research. The independent research performed during the past 50+ years is so vast that it is impractical to cover all aspects of tin whiskers in this one resource. Therefore, the absence of information in this website about a particular aspect of tin whiskers should NOT be construed as evidence of absence.

  18. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: roles for distinctTIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-Ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Campisi, Judith

    2006-11-07

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins, TRF1, TRF2 and POT1, and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. These and two other proteins form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere-maintenance complex. It is not clear whether subcomplexes exist or function in vivo. Here, we provide evidence for two TIN2 subcomplexes with distinct functions in human cells. TIN2 ablation by RNA interference caused telomere uncapping and p53-independent cell death in all cells tested. However, we isolated two TIN2 complexes from cell lysates, each selectively sensitive to a TIN2 mutant (TIN2-13, TIN2-15C). In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN215C more than TIN2-13 caused genomic instability and cell death. Thus, TIN2 subcomplexes likely have distinct functions in telomere maintenance, and may provide selective targets for eliminating cells with mutant p53.

  19. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: Roles for distinct TIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Zou, Ying; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Yannone, Steven M.; Campisi, Judith

    2007-10-02

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins (TRF1, TRF2 and POT1), and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. Along with two other proteins, TPP1 and hRap1, these form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere maintenance complex. It is not clear whether sub-complexes also exist in vivo. We provide evidence for two TIN2 sub-complexes with distinct functions in human cells. We isolated these two TIN2 sub-complexes from nuclear lysates of unperturbed cells and cells expressing TIN2 mutants TIN2-13, TIN2-15C, which cannot bind TRF2 or TRF1, respectively. In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere dysfunction and cell death. Our findings suggest that distinct TIN2 complexes exist, and that TIN2-15C-sensitive subcomplexes are particularly important for cell survival in the absence of functional p53.

  20. Low gravity solidification structures in the tin-15 wt pct lead and tin-3 wt pct bismuth alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. H.; Parr, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The tin-15 wt pct lead and tin-3 wt pct bismuth alloys have been solidified in the low-gravity environment provided by the Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR), on the KC-135 airplane, and at high 'g' levels in a centrifuge furnace. In each case the resultant cast structure was significantly different from that obtained in ground based experiments. Earlier low-gravity studies with the metal-model system NH4Cl-H2O presaged these results. This paper presents and discusses the influence of changes in the gravity force on the grain structure of these materials.

  1. Mechanism of Tin-bridge formation on C-Dip packages in acid tin bath, and its inhibition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the mechanism of a tin-bridge formation on the solder glass surface during acid bright tin plating of a C-Dip package. In the PbO-ZnO-B2O3 system under study, the formation is found to be primarily due to the cathodic reduction of sulfates on the glass surface. And these sulfates, mainly PbSO4, are shown to be the products of a precleaning with acids. The bath conditions are varied to see their effect on the tinbridge formation. We find that the formation can be avoided by pretreating the glass surface with oxyful. Possible mechanisms for this are discussed

  2. Corrosion behaviour of TiN and ZrN in the environment containing fluoride ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joska, Ludek; Fojt, Jaroslav; Hradilova, Monika [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Hnilica, Frantisek [UJP, Prague (Czech Republic); Cvrcek, Ladislav, E-mail: joskal@vscht.c [HVM Plasma, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-10-01

    Nowadays, a wide range of materials for human implants is used. To reach the required properties of implants, coatings are applied in some cases. This contribution is focused on the corrosion properties of TiN and ZrN layers on cp-titanium (commercially pure titanium) under environment modelling conditions in an oral cavity. Measurements were done in artificial saliva and a physiological solution unbuffered and buffered to a pH value of 4.2 with the addition of fluoride ions up to 4000 ppm. Standard corrosion electrochemical techniques were applied. Both types of layers were stable in both model saliva and physiological solution with non-adjusted pH. The decrease in pH to 4.2 resulted in a minor decrease of corrosion resistance in all cases, but polarization resistance was still in the order of 10{sup 5} {Omega} cm{sup 2}. An important change in a specimens' behaviour was noticed in the presence of fluoride ions. TiN was stable in the highest concentration of fluorides used. The ZrN layers were destabilized in an environment containing a few hundred ppm of fluoride ions. As for TiN, the decisive factor is the influence of porosity; the corrosion resistance of ZrN is limited. From the corrosion point of view, the application of the TiN-based barrier layers in dental implantology is more advisable than the use of ZrN, provided that the application of a barrier is inevitable.

  3. Residual stress in coated low-Z films of TiC and TiN. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlations of the residual stresses with microstructures of TiC and TiN films deposited onto various substrates were examined by means of observations of SEM micrographs, X-ray back-reflected Debye rangs and diffraction line profile of X-ray spectrometer chart. It was found that specimens with lower residual stress generally show sharp line profile and good separation between Ksub(α1) and Ksub(α2) diffraction peaks in both TiN and TiC films, indicating better crystalline perfection. PVD coated TiC films on Mo and Inconel substrates show poor separation of Ksub(α1) and Ksub(α2) peaks, namely due to higher residual stresses in comparison with those of CVD coated TiN and TiC films on Mo or Inconel substrate. In CVD TiC/Pocographite system, with film thickness ranging from 10 to 100 μm, the grain size increase with increasing the thickness, except 100 μm thick specimen which has the smallest grain size in this group. However, the sharpness of diffraction profile is best in 20 μm thick film, and worst in 100 μm thick film. This is in good correlation with the amount of residual stress. (orig.)

  4. Optical properties of SnO{sub 2} nanostructures prepared via one-step thermal decomposition of tin (II) chloride dihydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Gaashani, R., E-mail: Rashad_jashani@yahoo.com [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Thamar University, Dhamar, Republic of Yemen (Yemen); Radiman, S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Tabet, N. [Center of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Daud, A.R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple method to synthesize and control nanostructured SnO{sub 2} is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several morphologies of SnO{sub 2} nanostructures were produced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One-step thermal decomposition and one raw material were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of the SnO{sub 2} nanostructures changed as the temperature was varied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer E{sub g} of SnO{sub 2} decreased from 3.9 to 3.6 eV with increasing crystallite size from 25 to 53 nm. - Abstract: In this study we report on a simple method to synthesize tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanostructures through one-step thermal decomposition of tin (II) chloride dihydrate (SnCl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) under ambient conditions. The size and morphology of the SnO{sub 2} nanostructures can be controlled by changing the temperature and the time of the decomposition process. The structural properties of the products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of the samples were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy. The optical gap of the samples was determined from the analysis of the absorbance versus wavelength curves. The results showed that the morphology, the size and the optical gap of the samples varied with the temperature and treatment duration.

  5. Chaos in a coulombic muffin-tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the two-dimensional classical scattering dynamics by a Muffin-Tin potential with 3 Coulomb singularities. A complete symbolic dynamics for the periodic orbits is derivd. The classical trajectories are shown to be hyperbolic everywhere in phase space and to carry no conjugate points. (orig.)

  6. Hybrid tin oxide-SWNT nanostructures based gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facile electrochemical functionalization method was utilized to decorate single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with tin oxide and their gas sensing performance toward various analytes (NH3, NO2, H2, H2S, acetone, and water vapor) was evaluated at room temperature. Tin oxy-hydroxide was site-specifically precipitated on the surface of SWNTs because of an increase in local pH during electrochemical reduction of nitrate to nitrite ions. By adjusting the amount of charge passed during deposition, the amount of tin oxide deposited on SWNTs was controlled, which altered the electronic and gas sensing properties of the nanostructures. The resulting hybrid nanostructures showed excellent sensitivities upon exposure to trace amounts of both oxidizing gases (limit of detection (LOD) of 25 ppbV for NO2) and reducing gases (LOD of 10 ppmV for H2) at room temperature. The enhanced sensing performance was due to the charge transfer between the surface active tin oxide nanoparticles and SWNTs, with the direction of charge transfer depending on the analyte gas. This approach can be applied to fabricate other hybrid metal oxide-SWNTs nanostructures to create highly sensitive gas sensor arrays

  7. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...

  8. Replacing the Tin Can: Creating an Effective Electronic Communication Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Susan M.; Dutt-Doner, Karen M.

    Electronic communication tools may have more in common with the old communication game where tin cans were connected by a string than with traditional classroom communication. The charge is to find ways to make the communication more like, and possibly better, than effective classroom communication. Creating a firm foundation for successful…

  9. Oxidative Additions of Homoleptic Tin(II) Amidinate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlupatý, T.; Růžičková, Z.; Horáček, Michal; Alonso, M.; de Proft, F.; Kampová, H.; Brus, Jiří; Růžička, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 3 (2015), s. 606-615. ISSN 0276-7333 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : oxidative additions * homoleptic Tin(II) amidinate * DFT methods Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 4.126, year: 2014

  10. Discovery of Calcium, Indium, Tin, and Platinum Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Amos, S.; J.L. Gross; Thoennessen, M

    2010-01-01

    Currently, twenty-four calcium, thirty-eight indium, thirty-eight tin and thirty-nine platinum isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  11. Geochemistry of the Panasqueira tungsten-tin deposit, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Major tin-tungsten deposits in Portugal are related to intrusions of the Younger Series (300-280 Ma) of Hercynian granitoids. Mineralized granites are 'specialized' by a specific increase or decrease of major, minor and trace element contents in comparison with non-mineralized occurrences. Component

  12. On the electrochemical migration mechanism of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical migration (ECM) of tin can result in the growth of a metal deposit with a dendritic structure from cathode to anode. In electronics, such growth can lead to short circuit of biased electrodes, potentially leading to intermittent or complete failure of an electronic device...

  13. Black holes with bottle-shaped horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We present a new class of four-dimensional AdS black holes with non-compact event horizons of finite area. The event horizons are topologically spheres with one puncture, with the puncture pushed to infinity in the form of a cusp. Because of the shape of their event horizons, we call such black holes "black bottles". The solution was obtained as a special case of the Plebanski-Demianski solution, and may describe either static or rotating black bottles. For certain ranges of parameters, an acceleration horizon may also appear in the space-time. We study the full parameter space of the solution, and the various limiting cases that arise. In particular, we show how the rotating black hole recently discovered by Klemm arises as a special limit.

  14. Effects of Conformal Coat on Tin Whisker Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadesch, Jong S.; Leidecker, Henning; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A whisker from a tin plated part was blamed for the loss of a commercial spacecraft in 1998. Although pure tin finishes are prohibited by NASA, tin plated parts, such as hybrids, relays and commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts, are something discovered to have been installed in NASA spacecraft. Invariably, the assumption is that a conformal coat will prevent the growth of, or short circuits caused by, tin whiskers. This study measures the effect a Uralane coating has on the initiation and growth of tin whiskers, on the ability of this coating to prevent a tin whisker from emerging from the coating, and on the ability to prevent shorting. A sample of fourteen brass substrates (1 inch by 4 inches by 1/16 inch) were plated by two separate processes: half of the specimens were 'bright' tin plated directly over the brass substrate and half received a copper flash over the brass substrate prior to 'bright' tin plating. Each specimen was coated on one half of the substrate with three bi-directional sprays of Uralane 5750 to a nominal thickness of 25 to 75 micrometers (1 to 3 mils). Several specimens of both types, Cu and non-Cu flashed, were placed in an oven maintained at 50 C as others' work suggests that this is the optimal temperature for whisker formation. The remaining specimens were maintained at room ambient conditions. The surfaces of each specimen have been regularly inspected using both optical (15 to 400x power) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM). Many types of growths, including needle-like whiskers, first appeared approximately three months after plating on the non-conformally coated sides of all specimens. At four months, 4 to 5 times more growth sites were observed on the coated side; however, the density of growth sites on the non-conformally coated side has since increased rapidly, and now, at one year, is about the same for both sides. The density of growth sites is estimated at 90/sq mm with 30 percent of the sites growing whiskers (needle

  15. Micro/nano-scale investigation on tin alloys and tin dioxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong

    Tin (Sn) and its alloys have been at people's service since 3000 BC when bronze (alloy of tin and copper) was produced in large scale. They have unique properties and find applications in various engineering fields. Correspondingly, there is abundant information waiting to be clarified surrounding these Sn-related materials. As the key element used for solder alloys, the properties of Sn alloys have been of great interest to the electronic packaging community. At the same time, the intriguing phenomenon of spontaneous Sn whisker growth from Sn / Sn-alloy thin films have bothered, yet also inspired materials scientists for over 60 years. The most commonly seen Sn-containing compound, SnO 2, is in high demand as well due to its exceptional electronic and chemical properties. In addition, nanostructures of SnO2 are intensively studied for their potential applications as solid-state sensors, transparent conducting materials, lithium-ion batteries, high-efficiency solar cell and recently, supercapacitors. The objective of this proposed research is to explore the amazing properties of Sn and Sn-alloys from several different perspectives. Firstly, ever since the banish of lead in solder alloys, lead-free alloys such as Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) has been put under the spotlight. We intend to use our expertise in nanomechanics to give an in-depth and thorough investigation on a popular SAC387 alloy. The mechanical properties of each phase and the local deformation mechanisms have been considered. Secondly, the Sn whisker growth phenomenon is to be re-visited. With the aid of digital image correlation (DIC) techniques, it was found that magnitude of the strain gradient plays an important role in whisker growth. Moreover, DIC helps to visualize the dynamic growth process in which the alteration of strain field has been identified to cause growth of subsequent whiskers. Last but not least, the performance of SnO2 nanowires is to be evaluated in several aspects including mechanical

  16. Process for Making a Noble Metal on Tin Oxide Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Miller, Irvin; Upchurch, Billy

    2010-01-01

    To produce a noble metal-on-metal oxide catalyst on an inert, high-surface-area support material (that functions as a catalyst at approximately room temperature using chloride-free reagents), for use in a carbon dioxide laser, requires two steps: First, a commercially available, inert, high-surface-area support material (silica spheres) is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide, a monolayer equivalent. Very beneficial results have been obtained using nitric acid as an oxidizing agent because it leaves no residue. It is also helpful if the spheres are first deaerated by boiling in water to allow the entire surface to be coated. A metal, such as tin, is then dissolved in the oxidizing agent/support material mixture to yield, in the case of tin, metastannic acid. Although tin has proven especially beneficial for use in a closed-cycle CO2 laser, in general any metal with two valence states, such as most transition metals and antimony, may be used. The metastannic acid will be adsorbed onto the high-surface-area spheres, coating them. Any excess oxidizing agent is then evaporated, and the resulting metastannic acid-coated spheres are dried and calcined, whereby the metastannic acid becomes tin(IV) oxide. The second step is accomplished by preparing an aqueous mixture of the tin(IV) oxide-coated spheres, and a soluble, chloride-free salt of at least one catalyst metal. The catalyst metal may be selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, gold, and rhodium, or other platinum group metals. Extremely beneficial results have been obtained using chloride-free salts of platinum, palladium, or a combination thereof, such as tetraammineplatinum (II) hydroxide ([Pt(NH3)4] (OH)2), or tetraammine palladium nitrate ([Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2).

  17. Characterization of tin films synthesized from ethaline deep eutectic solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Swatilekha, E-mail: yourslekha@gmail.com; Roy, Sudipta

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Tin deposition was achieved by galvanostatic method on the basic substrates from ethaline deep eutectic solvent without use of any additives. • The current potential behaviour of tin system changes with increase in concentration of hydrated tin chloride in ethaline. • The deposition rate in ethaline display three times lower value compared to aqueous electrolytes. • Fine grained crystals of 62 ± 10 nm were obtained for tin deposits. • The deposition process is economical and can be adapted for industrial applications. - Abstract: Tin (Sn) films were electrodeposited by galvanostatic method from ethaline deep eutectic solvent (DES), without any additives. The effect of various deposition parameters on the microstructure was studied. With increase in metal salt concentration from 0.01 to 0.1 M, changes in current–potential behaviour were observed in the polarization scans. This might be due to the existence of [SnCl{sub 3}]{sup −}, [Sn{sub 2}Cl{sub 5}]{sup −} complexes in ethaline DES. Smooth and homogeneous deposits were obtained on a steel substrate surface by applying current density of 1.57 × 10{sup −3} A/cm{sup 2} at 25 °C. Under these conditions the deposition rate was found to be 0.1 ± 10% μm/min and current efficiency was obtained as 84 ± 3%. XRD analysis of the deposit confirmed the polycrystalline tetragonal structure with mostly (2 0 0) orientation having a crystallite size about 62 ± 16% nm along with an internal strain of 0.0031 ± 22%. The present deposition method is simple, economical and can be adapted for industrial applications.

  18. Characterization of tin films synthesized from ethaline deep eutectic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Tin deposition was achieved by galvanostatic method on the basic substrates from ethaline deep eutectic solvent without use of any additives. • The current potential behaviour of tin system changes with increase in concentration of hydrated tin chloride in ethaline. • The deposition rate in ethaline display three times lower value compared to aqueous electrolytes. • Fine grained crystals of 62 ± 10 nm were obtained for tin deposits. • The deposition process is economical and can be adapted for industrial applications. - Abstract: Tin (Sn) films were electrodeposited by galvanostatic method from ethaline deep eutectic solvent (DES), without any additives. The effect of various deposition parameters on the microstructure was studied. With increase in metal salt concentration from 0.01 to 0.1 M, changes in current–potential behaviour were observed in the polarization scans. This might be due to the existence of [SnCl3]−, [Sn2Cl5]− complexes in ethaline DES. Smooth and homogeneous deposits were obtained on a steel substrate surface by applying current density of 1.57 × 10−3 A/cm2 at 25 °C. Under these conditions the deposition rate was found to be 0.1 ± 10% μm/min and current efficiency was obtained as 84 ± 3%. XRD analysis of the deposit confirmed the polycrystalline tetragonal structure with mostly (2 0 0) orientation having a crystallite size about 62 ± 16% nm along with an internal strain of 0.0031 ± 22%. The present deposition method is simple, economical and can be adapted for industrial applications

  19. Study of tin-sulphur-carbon nanocomposites based on electrically exploded tin as anode for sodium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, S. A.; Kim, D.; Lee, S.-M.; Doh, C.-H.; Lee, S.; Farooq, U.; Saleem, M.

    2016-05-01

    An electrochemical study of tin-sulphur-carbon nano-composites, based on electrically exploded tin-carbon nanoparticles as anode for sodium-ion battery (NIB), is carried out in electrolytes with and without fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC). The composites are synthesized through high energy mechanical milling (HEMM) of electrical exploded tin, sulphur nanoparticles and grinded carbon. The final product consists of tin sulfide nanoparticles embedded in amorphous carbon matrix. The results demonstrate an excellent response for the electrode materials in terms of initial discharge capacity (>425 mAhg-1) and cyclic performance (415 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles). Even more remarkably, at high current densities of 400, 600, and 800 mAg-1, electrodes still offer specific capacities of about 375, 355, and 315 mAhg-1, respectively, suggesting good rate capability of the materials. Furthermore, it is observed that the material response is much better when electrolyte has FEC as an additive which helped in the formation of an optimized SEI layer. Such an improved electrochemical performance of the electrode materials highlights their suitability for the recently emerging Na-ion battery technology.

  20. A study on low cost-high conducting fluorine and antimony-doped tin oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of undoped, fluorine- and antimony-doped tin oxide on glass at 400 deg. C was prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Tin chloride (SnCl2), ammonium fluoride (NH4F), and antimony trichloride (SbCl3) were used as source for tin (Sn), fluorine (F), and antimony (Sb), respectively. To ensure the control of solution concentration on growth rate, fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO2:F) thin films were first prepared with different amount of tin precursor, in the range of 5-12g, which has resulted in deposition of films with different thickness values. The optimum amount of tin precursor found from this study (11g) was fixed constant for preparing SnO2 films with different doping levels of F and Sb. From the X-ray diffraction analyses, it is understood that the preferred orientation of SnO2:F films is dependent on their thickness and the solution concentration. The variation in the solution concentration and orientation of the films was reflected in their morphology as examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM studies showed that the variation in the solution concentration lead to different grain shapes for different orientations. The AFM study showed that the RMS roughness of undoped films reduced considerably from 86 to 24nm due to fluorine doping (15wt.%), whereas the antimony doping (2wt.%) has no significance effect on RMS roughness (93nm). The electrical properties of the films were examined by a Hall measurements setup in van der Pauw configuration. A minimum sheet resistance of 1.75 and 2.17Ω/ were obtained for F and Sb doped films, respectively. From the optical studies, it is found that the transmittance of undoped films increased from 42% to a maximum 85% on 30wt.% fluorine doping, whereas that has been decreased to a minimum of 12% on 4wt.% antimony doping (800nm). A discussion on the effect of type of dopants and their concentration on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the SnO2 film have

  1. Black hairy tongue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-08-21

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient's re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

  2. The Role of Primordial Kicks on Black Hole Merger Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Micic, Miroslav; Abel, Tom; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2006-01-01

    Primordial stars are likely to be very massive >30 Msun, form in isolation, and will likely leave black holes as remnants in the centers of their host dark matter halos. We expect primordial stars to form in halos in the mass range 10^6-10^10 Msun. Some of these early black holes, formed at redshifts z>10, could be the seed black hole for a significant fraction of the supermassive black holes found in galaxies in the local universe. If the black hole descendants of the primordial stars exist,...

  3. Do microscopic stable black holes contribute to dark matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Suranyi, P.; Vaz, C.; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate some of the experimental, observational and theoretical consequences of hypothetical stable black holes in the mass range between the electro-weak scale and the Planck mass, 2.4$\\times 10^{15}$ TeV. For the purpose of calculations we use Lovelock black holes in odd dimensions. If such black holes exist they contribute to dark matter. We show that the passage of the black holes through matter and the collision of black holes have a well defined experimental signature. Depending ...

  4. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  5. Superconductivity of tin and lead after heavy ion irradiation below 7.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the influence of radiation defects induced by heavy ion irradiation at low temperatures on the specific residual resistivity, the critical temperature of superconductivity, and the width of the resistive-superconductive phase transition have been measured for lead and tin as a function of dose and subsequent isochronous annealing. In the case of lead the critical magnetic field parallel to the surface of the sample, which in a wide range of defect contrations is identical with the surface superconductivity critical field, also has been measured at 5 K and 6 K as a function of dose and subsequent isochronous annealing. As projectiles 25 MeV oxygen ions have been used for irradiation, with a sufficiently low particle flux to obtain irradiation temperatures below about 7.2 K. However these temperatures are large enough to allow for free motion of interstitial atoms in the case of lead. For tin the results presented here also suggest free motion of the defects. (orig./WBU)

  6. Superconductivity of novel tin hydrides (Sn(n)H(m)) under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi Davari Esfahani, M; Wang, Zhenhai; Oganov, Artem R; Dong, Huafeng; Zhu, Qiang; Wang, Shengnan; Rakitin, Maksim S; Zhou, Xiang-Feng

    2016-01-01

    With the motivation of discovering high-temperature superconductors, evolutionary algorithm USPEX is employed to search for all stable compounds in the Sn-H system. In addition to the traditional SnH4, new hydrides SnH8, SnH12 and SnH14 are found to be thermodynamically stable at high pressure. Dynamical stability and superconductivity of tin hydrides are systematically investigated. I4m2-SnH8, C2/m-SnH12 and C2/m-SnH14 exhibit higher superconducting transition temperatures of 81, 93 and 97 K compared to the traditional compound SnH4 with Tc of 52 K at 200 GPa. An interesting bent H3-group in I4m2-SnH8 and novel linear H in C2/m-SnH12 are observed. All the new tin hydrides remain metallic over their predicted range of stability. The intermediate-frequency wagging and bending vibrations have more contribution to electron-phonon coupling parameter than high-frequency stretching vibrations of H2 and H3. PMID:26964636

  7. Microcontroller based instrumentation for heater control circuit of tin oxide based hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thin film sensor based on tin oxide developed in IGCAR is used to monitor very low levels of hydrogen (concentration ranging from 2 ppm to 80 ppm). The heater and the sensor patterns are integrated on a miniature alumina substrate and necessary electrical leads are taken out. For proper functioning of the sensor, the heater has to be maintained at a constant temperature of 350°C. The sensor output (voltage signal) varies with H2 concentration. In fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium is used as coolant. The sensor is used to detect water/steam leak in secondary sodium circuit. During the start up of the reactor, steam leak into sodium circuit generates hydrogen gas as a product that doesn't dissolve in sodium, but escapes to the surge tank containing argon i.e. in cover gas plenum of sodium circuit. On-line monitoring of hydrogen in cover gas is done to detect an event of water/steam leakage. The focus of this project is on the instrumentation pertaining to the temperature control for the sensor heater. The tin oxide based hydrogen sensor is embedded in a substrate which consists of a platinum heater, essentially a resistor. There is no provision of embedding a temperature sensor on the heater surface due to the physical constraints, without which maintaining a constant heater temperature is a complex task

  8. Deposition of transparent conductive mesoporous indium tin oxide thin films by a dip coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) templated mesoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on quartz plates by an evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) process using a dip coating method. The starting solution was prepared by mixing indium chloride, tin chloride, and CTAB dissolved in ethanol. Five to fifty mole percent Sn-doped ITO films were prepared by heat-treatment at 400 deg. C for 5 h. The structural, adsorptive, electrical, and optical properties of mesoporous ITO thin films were investigated. Results indicate that the mesoporous ITO thin films have an ordered two-dimensional hexagonal (p6mm) structure, with nanocrystalline domains in the inorganic oxide framework. The continuous thin films have highly ordered pore sizes (>20 A), high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area up to 340 m2/g, large pore volume (>0.21 cm3/g), outstanding transparency in the visible range (>80%), and show a minimum resistivity of ρ = 1.2 x 10-2 Ω cm

  9. One-step synthesis of antimony-doped tin dioxide nanocrystallites and their property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Min; WANG Bao

    2009-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin dioxide(ATO) nanoparticles with primary diameter in the range of 9-10 nm were rapidly synthesized via a novel combustion technique, starting with antimony trichloride and tin tetrachloride as metal sources and self-assembly compounds as fuels. The combustion phenomena and characteristics of products were controlled by assembling components in fuel compounds according to appropriate molar ratio. The as-synthesized products were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and XPS, respectively. The electrical conductivity was evaluated through measuring the antistatic property of polyester fiber treated by the as-synthesized products. The results show that a mild combustion phenomena without release of smoke can be taken on and perfect azury rutile ATO crystal with complete substitution can be formed rapidly under the appropriate synthetic conditions. The antistatic property of the polyester fiber treated by the as-synthesized ATO products is enhanced remarkably. The triboelectricity voltage below 1.0 kV, half life below 1.0 s and surface resistance below 1.0×106 Ω can be attained.

  10. Modulating indium doped tin oxide electrode properties for laccase electron transfer enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaconu, Mirela [National Institute for Biological Sciences, Centre of Bioanalysis, 296 Spl. Independentei, Bucharest 060031 (Romania); Chira, Ana [National Institute for Biological Sciences, Centre of Bioanalysis, 296 Spl. Independentei, Bucharest 060031 (Romania); Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1-7 Polizu Str., 011061 (Romania); Radu, Lucian, E-mail: gl_radu@chim.upb.ro [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1-7 Polizu Str., 011061 (Romania)

    2014-08-28

    Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were functionalized with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cysteamine monolayer to enhance the heterogeneous electron transfer process of laccase from Trametes versicolor. The assembly of GNP on ITO support was performed through generation of H{sup +} species at the electrode surface by hydroquinone electrooxidation at 0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. Uniform distribution of gold nanoparticle aggregates on electrode surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The size of GNP aggregates was in the range of 200–500 nm. The enhanced charge transfer at the GNP functionalized ITO electrodes was observed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrocatalytic behavior of laccase immobilized on ITO modified electrode toward oxygen reduction reaction was evaluated using CV in the presence of 2,2′-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfuric acid (ABTS). The obtained sigmoidal-shaped voltammograms for ABTS reduction in oxygen saturated buffer solution are characteristic for a catalytic process. The intensity of catalytic current increased linearly with mediator concentration up to 6.2 × 10{sup −4} M. The registered voltammogram in the absence of ABTS mediator clearly showed a significant faradaic current which is the evidence of the interfacial oxygen reduction. - Highlights: • Assembly of gold nanoparticles on indium tin oxide support at positive potentials • Electrochemical and morphological evaluation of the gold nanoparticle layer assembly • Bioelectrocatalytic oxygen reduction on laccase modified electrode.

  11. Synthesis and thermal behavior of tin-based alloy (Sn-Ag-Cu) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanghias, Ali; Yakymovych, Andriy; Bernardi, Johannes; Ipser, Herbert

    2015-03-19

    The prominent melting point depression of nanoparticles has been the subject of a considerable amount of research. For their promising applications in electronics, tin-based nano-alloys such as near-eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) alloys have been synthesized via various techniques. However, due to issues such as particle aggregation and oxidation or introduced impurities, the application of these nano-size particles has been confined or aborted. For instance, thermal investigations by DTA/DSC in a large number of studies revealed exothermic peaks in the range of 240-500 °C, i.e. above the melting point of SAC nanoparticles, with different and quite controversial explanations for this unclear phenomenon. This represents a considerable drawback for the application of nanoparticles. Correspondingly, in the current study, the thermal stability of SAC nanoparticles has been investigated via electron microscopy, XRD, FTIR, and DSC/TG analysis. It was found that the nanoparticles consist mainly of a metallic β-Sn core and an amorphous tin hydroxide shell structure. The SnO crystalline phase formation from this amorphous shell has been associated with the exothermic peaks on the first heating cycle of the nanoparticles, followed by a disproportionation reaction into metallic Sn and SnO₂.The results also revealed that the surfactant and reducing agent cannot only affect the size and size distribution of the nanoparticles, they might also alter the ratio between the amorphous shell and the crystalline core in the structure of particles. PMID:25757694

  12. Geology and sulfur isotope geochemistry of Dafulou tin-polymetallic deposit in Dachang orefield, Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成永生

    2013-01-01

    No. 22 ore of Dafulou deposit was systematically analyzed for sulfur isotopes. The results show that the δ34S values of sulfide minerals, ranging from 0.154 to +0.218% and with an average value of +0.114 1%, are mostly positive and characterized by rich sulfur(S) content. This suggests that the sulfur of the Dafulou ore deposit is derived from magma and relates to the Longxianggai concealed granite, which points to the important role of magma during mineralization and implyies the product of the active continental margin. By comparison between the Dafulou and the Kengma tin deposit, significant differences exist in the sulfur isotope composition. In the Kengma deposit, the sulfur isotope composition is characterized by the high negative value, which is different from the Dafulou tin-polymetallic deposit. The difference of the enrichment and fractionation of the sulfur isotope is the synthesized result of the metallogenic conditions. It also has the difference in the metallogenic environment and metallogenic characteristics of the deposit in the same ore belt.

  13. Modulating indium doped tin oxide electrode properties for laccase electron transfer enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were functionalized with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cysteamine monolayer to enhance the heterogeneous electron transfer process of laccase from Trametes versicolor. The assembly of GNP on ITO support was performed through generation of H+ species at the electrode surface by hydroquinone electrooxidation at 0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. Uniform distribution of gold nanoparticle aggregates on electrode surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The size of GNP aggregates was in the range of 200–500 nm. The enhanced charge transfer at the GNP functionalized ITO electrodes was observed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrocatalytic behavior of laccase immobilized on ITO modified electrode toward oxygen reduction reaction was evaluated using CV in the presence of 2,2′-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfuric acid (ABTS). The obtained sigmoidal-shaped voltammograms for ABTS reduction in oxygen saturated buffer solution are characteristic for a catalytic process. The intensity of catalytic current increased linearly with mediator concentration up to 6.2 × 10−4 M. The registered voltammogram in the absence of ABTS mediator clearly showed a significant faradaic current which is the evidence of the interfacial oxygen reduction. - Highlights: • Assembly of gold nanoparticles on indium tin oxide support at positive potentials • Electrochemical and morphological evaluation of the gold nanoparticle layer assembly • Bioelectrocatalytic oxygen reduction on laccase modified electrode

  14. Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Grown by Home Made Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Gbadebo; Babatola, Babatunde Keji; Ishola, Abdulahi Dimeji; Awodugba, Ayodeji O.; Solar cell Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Transparent conducting antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) films have been deposited on glass substrates by home made spray pyrolysis technique. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the ATO films have been investigated as a function of Sb-doping level and annealing temperature. The optimum target composition for high conductivity and low resistivity was found to be 20 wt. % SnSb2 + 90 wt. ATO. Under optimized deposition conditions of 450oC annealing temperature, electrical resistivity of 5.2×10-4 Ω -cm, sheet resistance of 16.4 Ω/sq, average optical transmittance of 86% in the visible range, and average optical band-gap of 3.34eV were obtained. The film deposited at lower annealing temperature shows a relatively rough, loosely bound slightly porous surface morphology while the film deposited at higher annealing temperature shows uniformly distributed grains of greater size. Keywords: Annealing, Doping, Homemade spray pyrolysis, Tin oxide, Resistivity

  15. Preconcentration by coprecipitation of arsenic and tin in natural waters with a Ni-pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex and their direct determination by solid-sampling atomic-absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q. [Dept. of Material Science, Kitami Institute of Technology (Japan); Minami, H. [Instrumental Analysis Center, Kitami Institute of Technology (Japan); Inoue, S.; Atsuya, I. [Dept. of Material Science, Kitami Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    A method for the determination of trace amounts of arsenic and tin in natural waters is described. Trace amounts of arsenic and tin were preconcentrated by coprecipitation with a Ni-ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) complex. The coprecipitates obtained were directly analyzed by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) using the Ni-APDC complex solid-sampling technique. The coprecipitation conditions used for the trace amounts of arsenic and tin in natural water were investigated in detail. It was found that arsenic and tin at sub-ng mL{sup -1} levels were both coprecipitated quantitatively by Ni(PDC){sub 2} in the pH range 2-3. The concentration factors by coprecipitation reached approximately 40,000 when 2 mg nickel was added as a carrier element to 500 mL of the water sample. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of trace amounts of arsenic and tin in river water and seawater reference materials, and the detection limits for arsenic and tin, which were calculated from three times of the standard deviation of the procedural blanks, are 0.02 ng mL{sup -1} and 0.04 ng mL{sup -1}, respectively, for 500-mL volumes of water sample. (orig.)

  16. Preconcentration by coprecipitation of arsenic and tin in natural waters with a Ni-pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate complex and their direct determination by solid-sampling atomic-absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Minami, H; Imoue, S; Atsuya, I

    2001-08-01

    A method for the determination of trace amounts of arsenic and tin in natural waters is described. Trace amounts of arsenic and tin were preconcentrated by coprecipitation with a Ni-ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) complex. The coprecipitates obtained were directly analyzed by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) using the Ni-APDC complex solid-sampling technique. The coprecipitation conditions used for the trace amounts of arsenic and tin in natural water were investigated in detail. It was found that arsenic and tin at sub-ng mL(-1) levels were both coprecipitated quantitatively by Ni(PDC)2 in the pH range 2-3. The concentration factors by coprecipitation reached approximately 40,000 when 2 mg nickel was added as a carrier element to 500 mL of the water sample. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of trace amounts of arsenic and tin in river water and seawater reference materials, and the detection limits for arsenic and tin, which were calculated from three times of the standard deviation of the procedural blanks, are 0.02 ng mL(-1) and 0.04 ng mL(-1), respectively, for 500-mL volumes of water sample. PMID:11569865

  17. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  18. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  19. Black Hole Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Strominger, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ``infinite statist...

  20. Phantom Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, C. J.; Zhang, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    The exact solutions of electrically charged phantom black holes with the cosmological constant are constructed. They are labelled by the mass, the electrical charge, the cosmological constant and the coupling constant between the phantom and the Maxwell field. It is found that the phantom has important consequences on the properties of black holes. In particular, the extremal charged phantom black holes can never be achieved and so the third law of thermodynamics for black holes still holds. ...

  1. Space-Based Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Space-Based Range (SBR), previously known as Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS), is a multicenter NASA proof-of-concept project to determine if space-based communications using NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) can support the Range Safety functions of acquiring tracking data and generating flight termination signals, while also providing broadband Range User data such as voice, video, and vehicle/payload data. There was a successful test of the Range Safety system at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on December 20, 2005, on a two-stage Terrier-Orion spin-stabilized sounding rocket. SBR transmitted GPS tracking data and maintained links with two TDRSS satellites simultaneously during the 10-min flight. The payload section deployed a parachute, landed in the Atlantic Ocean about 90 miles downrange from the launch site, and was successfully recovered. During the Terrier-Orion tests flights, more than 99 percent of all forward commands and more than 95 percent of all return frames were successfully received and processed. The time latency necessary for a command to travel from WFF over landlines to White Sands Complex and then to the vehicle via TDRSS, be processed onboard, and then be sent back to WFF was between 1.0 s and 1.1 s. The forward-link margins for TDRS-10 (TDRS East [TDE]) were 11 dB to 12 dB plus or minus 2 dB, and for TDRS-4 (TDRS Spare [TDS]) were 9 dB to 10 dB plus or minus 1.5 dB. The return-link margins for both TDE and TDS were 6 dB to 8 dB plus or minus 3 dB. There were 11 flights on an F-15B at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) between November 2006 and February 2007. The Range User system tested a 184-element TDRSS Ku-band (15 GHz) phased-array antenna with data rates of 5 Mbps and 10 Mbps. This data was a combination of black-and-white cockpit video, Range Safety tracking and transceiver data, and aircraft and antenna controller data streams. IP data formatting was used.

  2. Central black hole masses of galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊军辉

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the stellar velocity dispersions in the host galaxies are used to estimate the central black hole masses for a sample of elliptical galaxies. We find that the central black hole masses are in the range of 10(5.5-9.5) M(○). Based on the estimated masses in this paper and those by Woo & Urry (2002) and the measured host galaxy absolute magnitude,a relation, log(MBH/M(○)) = -(0.25 ± 4.3 × 10-3)MR + (2.98 4 0.208) is found for central black hole mass and the host galaxy magnitude. Some discussions are presented.

  3. Diagnostic tools to identify black Aspergilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Robert A.; Noonim, P.; Meijer, M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Varga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present taxonomy of the black aspergilli reveals that there are 19 accepted taxa. However the identification of species of Aspergillus section Nigri is often problematic in spite of the existence of numerous methods proposed. An overview is provided of phenotypic and molecular methods to...... identify the accepted species of the black aspergilli. Colony morphology, conidial size and ornamentation of the ex type cultures is presented in a pictorial overview. The temperature range of all species is given and their growth characteristics on creatine agar and boscalid agar, a medium which was...... evaluation of the usefulness of various techniques and genomic loci for species identification of black aspergilli is presented....

  4. Rotating black holes can have short bristles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elegant ‘no short hair’ theorem states that, if a spherically-symmetric static black hole has hair, then this hair must extend beyond 3/2 the horizon radius. In the present paper we provide evidence for the failure of this theorem beyond the regime of spherically-symmetric static black holes. In particular, we show that rotating black holes can support extremely short-range stationary scalar configurations (linearized scalar ‘clouds’) in their exterior regions. To that end, we solve analytically the Klein–Gordon–Kerr–Newman wave equation for a linearized massive scalar field in the regime of large scalar masses

  5. Black Nuns as Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Theresa A.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the contributions of Black Roman Catholic nuns to Black education in the United States since the early 1800s. Also shows that, despite declining membership, the three existing religious orders continue to be active in Black education and social change. (GC)

  6. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions (Black Strings and Black Rings)

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    The last three years have again seen new exciting developments in the area of higher dimensional black objects. For black objects with noncompact higher dimensions, the solution space was exlored further within the blackfold approach and with numerical schemes, yielding a large variety of new families of solutions, while limiting procedures created so-called super-entropic black holes. Concerning compact extra dimensions, the sequences of static nonuniform black strings in five and six dimensions were extended to impressively large values of the nonuniformity parameter with extreme numerical precision, showing that an oscillating pattern arises for the mass, the area or the temperature, while approaching the conjectured double-cone merger solution. Besides the presentation of interesting new types of higherdimensional solutions, also their physical properties were addressed in this session. While the main focus was on Einstein gravity, a significant number of talks also covered Lovelock theories.

  7. Reactivation of a Tin-Oxide-Containing Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert; Sidney, Barry; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin; Miller, George; Upchurch, Bill; Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The electrons in electric-discharge CO2 lasers cause dissociation of some CO2 into O2 and CO, and attach themselves to electronegative molecules such as O2, forming negative O2 ions, as well as larger negative ion clusters by collisions with CO or other molecules. The decrease in CO2 concentration due to dissociation into CO and O2 will reduce the average repetitively pulsed or continuous wave laser power, even if no disruptive negative ion instabilities occur. Accordingly, it is the primary object of this invention to extend the lifetime of a catalyst used to combine the CO and O2 products formed in a laser discharge. A promising low-temperature catalyst for combining CO and O2 is platinum on tin oxide (Pt/SnO2). First, the catalyst is pretreated by a standard procedure. The pretreatment is considered complete when no measurable quantity of CO2 is given off by the catalyst. After this standard pretreatment, the catalyst is ready for its low-temperature use in the sealed, high-energy, pulsed CO2 laser. However, after about 3,000 minutes of operation, the activity of the catalyst begins to slowly diminish. When the catalyst experiences diminished activity during exposure to the circulating gas stream inside or external to the laser, the heated zone surrounding the catalyst is raised to a temperature between 100 and 400 C. A temperature of 225 C was experimentally found to provide an adequate temperature for reactivation. During this period, the catalyst is still exposed to the circulating gas inside or external to the laser. This constant heating and exposing the catalyst to the laser gas mixture is maintained for an hour. After heating and exposing for an appropriate amount of time, the heated zone around the catalyst is allowed to return to the nominal operating temperature of the CO2 laser. This temperature normally resides in the range of 23 to 100 C. Catalyst activity can be measured as the percentage conversion of CO to CO2. In the specific embodiment

  8. A transmission electron microscopy study of cavities formed in the α and β phases of tin by xenon ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation is described of bubbles initially formed in body-centred-tetragonal (b.c.t.) β-tin by implantation with 40 keV Xe+ ions at room temperature. At the highest dose (5x1016 ion/cm2) a large range of bubble sizes was observed, the larger bubbles being faceted with side lengths in excess of 50 nm. The smaller bubbles were found to contain solid xenon at room temperature whereas the xenon in the larger faceted bubbles was observed to solidify only on cooling to temperatures below -120 deg C. The gas content of the larger bubbles indicated that they were considerably underpressurized compared with the expected equilibrium pressure. Experiments were also carried out in which the β-tin was phase transformed to the α-phase which has a diamond structure. The large faceted xenon bubbles (which act as a crystallographic direction reference) survive the transformation and were observed on either side of the transformation interface. Evidence was found for some restruc-turing of the bubbles in the α-tin, although the bubbles did not appear to be sheared in specific directions as might be expected if the transformation was martensitic in nature. Cooling studies showed that the xenon was retained in the bubbles after the phase transformation had taken place. (author). 13 refs.; 4 figs

  9. Surface chemical changes of TiC, TiN and TiO2 by light-ion bombardments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface chemical chances of TiC, TiN and TiO2 due to ion bombardment with H2+, D2+ and He+ ions in the energy range of 0.5 keV to 10 keV have been studied by electron spectroscopy. In almost all cases, depletion of the light constituents was observed. No evidence for formation of titanium hydride or the metallic state is obtained for bombarded TiC and TiN surfaces. Preferential loss of oxygen from TiO2 results in formation of Ti2O3 by the H2+ and D2+ bombardments, and of a mixture of Ti2O3 and TiO by the He+ bombardment. In the cases of TiC and TiN, a similar dependence on the incident ion energy was observed for the changes between the X/Ti (X=C,N) surface compositional ratio at steady state and the Ti+/X+ signal ratio of secondary-ion mass spectra. The compositional change is discussed in relation to sputtering properties of the constituents. (orig.)

  10. Laser physical and laser chemical vapor deposition of TiN and TiNxOy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have investigated the formation of polycrystalline TiN and amorphous TiNxOy films using laser physical (LPVD) and laser chemical (LCVD) vapor deposition techniques. The LPVD method involved the ablation of a TiN hot pressed pellet and Ti in the presence of nitrogen plasma using nanosecond XeCl excimer laser pulses (wavelength 308nm, pulse duration 45 x 10-9 seconds, and energy density ∼ 4-5 Jcm-2). The films were polycrystalline (average grain size ∼ 100 angstrom) with face-centered-cubic structure and lattice constant of 4.25 angstrom. The average grain size remained constant as the substrate temperature ranged from 25 to 550 degrees C. In the LCVD method, a pulsed CO2 laser beam was used to crack TiCl4 and NH3 and from TiN films. Amorphous TiNxOy films were formed under poor vacuum conditions in the LPVD techniques. These amorphous TiNxOy films often exhibited explosive recrystallization with characteristic star patterns. Resistivity and microhardness measurements were made on these films and these results have been correlated with microstructure and chemical composition

  11. Interfacial properties in ultrathin MgO films on TiN(001) surfaces: ab-initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using ab-initio electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory, we systematically investigated the interfacial properties of the MgO/TiN(001) system with increasing MgO film thickness from one to three monolayers (ML). Atomic geometries and adhesion characteristics of the MgO/TiN(001) systems in the range of 1- to 3-ML MgO are presented. O-Ti and Mg-N bonds were formed across the interfaces. Our calculated energetics indicate that the interfacial adhesion of the MgO films to the TiN substrates was stronger than that for the metal-oxide systems of MgO/Ag(001) and MgO/Fe(001). An analysis of the electronic properties of the MgO/TiN(001) systems was also performed. Upon the adsorption of the MgO overlayers, the work function of the TiN(001) surface was found to exhibit a significant decrease due to the large interface dipole formed at the interface of this system. Very interestingly, the obtained work functions of 1.89 - 1.96 eV for 1- to 3-ML MgO films on TiN(001) were lower than those for other metal-supported MgO films.

  12. Oxygen effect of transparent conducting amorphous Indium Zinc Tin Oxide films on Polyimide substrate for flexible electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the effect of oxygen on the transparent conducting properties and mechanical durability of the amorphous indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO) films. IZTO films deposited on flexible clear polyimide (PI) substrate using pulsed direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering at room temperature under various oxygen partial pressures. All IZTO films deposited at room temperature exhibit an amorphous structure. The electrical and optical properties of the IZTO films were sensitively influenced by oxygen partial pressures. At optimized deposition condition of 3.0% oxygen partial pressure, the IZTO film shows the lowest resistivity of 6.4 × 10−4 Ωcm, high transmittance of over 80% in the visible range, and figure of merit value of 3.6 × 10−3 Ω−1 without any heat controls. In addition, high work function and good mechanical flexibility of amorphous IZTO films are beneficial to flexible applications. It is proven that the proper oxygen partial pressure is important parameter to enhance the transparent conducting properties of IZTO films on PI substrate deposited at room temperature. - Highlights: • Indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO) films were deposited on polyimide at room temperature. • Transparent conducting properties of IZTO were influenced with oxygen partial pressure. • The smooth surface and high work function of IZTO were beneficial to anode layer. • The mechanical reliability of IZTO shows better performance to indium tin oxide film

  13. In situ bismuth-film electrode for square-wave anodic stripping voltammetric determination of tin in biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A bismuth-film electrode for tin determination. → The sensor showed excellent performance. → High levels of tin were found in biodiesel samples. - Abstract: A bismuth-film electrode (BiFE) was applied in square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) in order to determine Sn (IV) in biodiesel samples. In situ simultaneous deposition of tin and bismuth at -1.2 V for 90 s was carried out in a supporting electrolyte containing 0.1 mol L-1 acetate buffer (pH 4.5) and 1.73 mmol L-1 caffeic acid as the complexing agent. A single well-defined anodic stripping peak was observed at -0.58 V for the oxidation of Sn to Sn (II), which was used as the analytical signal. The calibration curve was obtained in the concentration range of 0.17-7.83 μmol L-1 with the detection limit being 0.14 μmol L-1 (r = 0.9990). Repeatability and reproducibility for the measurement of the current peak were characterized by relative standard deviations of 3.6% and 4.1%, respectively, for a 5.0 μmol L-1 Sn (IV) solution (n = 10). The method was validated by comparing the results obtained with those provided by application of the atomic absorption spectroscopy technique.

  14. Some Aspects of Intermediate mass black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaram, C; Arun, Kenath

    2007-01-01

    There is a lot of current astrophysical evidence and interest in intermediate mass black holes, ranging from a few hundred to several thousand solar masses. The active galaxy M82 and the globular cluster in M31, for example, are known to host such objects. Here we discuss several aspects of intermediate mass black holes such as their expected luminosity, spectral nature of radiation, associated jets, etc. We also discuss possible scenarios for their formation including the effects of dynamica...

  15. The conducting tin oxide thin films deposited via atomic layer deposition using Tetrakis-dimethylamino tin and peroxide for transparent flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Highly-conducting SnO2 thin films have been deposited by tetrakis(dimethylamino)tin and hydrogen peroxide on low deposition temperatures. • Impurity-free SnO2 film exhibited very low resistivity (9.7 × 10−4 Ω cm) at 200 °C, and high carrier mobility (22 cm2/V sec). • High transparent SnO2 film (over 80%) can be successfully deposited on flexible poly-imide (CPI) substrates. - Abstract: The ALD SnO2 thin films were investigated as a function of growth temperature to obtain optimized process and film properties using tetrakis(dimethylamino)tin as a Sn precursor, and hydrogen peroxide as reactant. The film growth shows 1.2 Å/cycle in the 100–200 °C temperature range and follows typical ALD window behavior. ALD SnO2 thin films show low resistivity (9.7 × 10−4 Ω cm) at 200 °C, and high carrier mobility (22 cm2/V sec). The transmittance of 40 nm ALD SnO2 films was over 80% at all of temperatures. The growth behavior, film composition, chemical bonding states, film crystallinity, electronic structure, and optical properties were investigated in order to verify the origin of the electrical properties as a function of growth temperature. These data show that the favorable properties of ALD SnO2 are due to the electronic band structure change associated with poly-crystalline formation

  16. Final mass and maximum spin of merged black holes and the golden black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results on the mass and spin of the final black hole from mergers of equal mass, spinning black holes. The study extends over a broad range of initial orbital configurations, from direct plunges to quasicircular inspirals to more energetic orbits (generalizations of Newtonian elliptical orbits). It provides a comprehensive search of those configurations that maximize the final spin of the remnant black hole. We estimate that the final spin can reach a maximum spin a/Mh≅0.99±0.01 for extremal black hole mergers. In addition, we find that, as one increases the orbital angular momentum from small values, the mergers produce black holes with mass and spin parameters (Mh/M,a/Mh) spiraling around the values (M-circumflexh/M,a-circumflex/Mh) of a golden black hole. Specifically, (Mh-M-circumflexh)/M∝e±Bφcosφ and (a-a-circumflex)/Mh∝e±Cφsinφ, with φ a monotonically growing function of the initial orbital angular momentum. We find that the values of the parameters for the golden black hole are those of the final black hole obtained from the merger of a binary with the corresponding spinning black holes in a quasicircular inspiral.

  17. Final Mass and Spin of Merged Black Holes and the Golden Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Healy, James; Matzner, Richard A; Shoemaker, Deirdre M

    2009-01-01

    We expand our recent study of scattering/hyperbolic mergers of equal mass black holes to include spinning holes and to consider a broader range of initial orbital angular momentum. These encounters are plunge coalescences aimed at minimizing angular momentum radiation losses during the merger, thus maximizing the final spin of the merged black hole. For the optimal case of initial black holes with spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum, we find that the final spin of the black hole can reach a maximum spin a/M_h = 0.98 when extrapolated to maximal spinning merging black holes. We also find that as one approaches the merger/no-merger threshold the encounters produce a golden black hole whose mass M_h/M and spin a/M_h depend on the total initial spin of the merging black holes but not on the initial orbital angular momentum configuration. Furthermore, solutions approaching the golden black hole limit track a spiral in the mass-spin plane of parameters of the final black hole.

  18. Van der Waals black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of extended phase space, where the negative cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure in the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we find an asymptotically AdS metric whose thermodynamics matches exactly that of the Van der Waals fluid. We show that as a solution of Einstein's equations, the corresponding stress energy tensor obeys (at least for certain range of metric parameters) all three weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions

  19. Van der Waals black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Rajagopal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of extended phase space, where the negative cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure in the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we find an asymptotically AdS metric whose thermodynamics matches exactly that of the Van der Waals fluid. We show that as a solution of Einstein's equations, the corresponding stress energy tensor obeys (at least for certain range of metric parameters all three weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions.

  20. Initial stages of indoor atmospheric corrosion of electronics contact metals in humid tropical climate: tin and nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veleva, L.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Samples of electrolytic tin and nickel have been exposed for 1 to 12 m in indoor environment, inside a box (rain sheltered cabinet, placed in tropical humid marine-urban climate, as a part of Gulf of Mexico. The corrosion aggressiveness of box has been classified as a very high corrosive, based on the monitored chlorides and SO2 deposition rates, and the Temperature/Relative Humidity air daily complex. The annual mass increasing of nickel is approximately twice higher than its values of mass loss (C. The relation between nickel mass loss or increasing and time of wetness (t of metal surface is linear and does not obey the power equation C = A tn, which has be found for tin. The SEM images reveal a localized corrosion on nickel and tin surfaces. XRD detects the formation of SnCl2.H2O as a corrosion product. Within the time on the tin surface appear black spots, considered as organic material.

    Muestras de estaño y níquel electrolíticos han sido expuestas de 1 a 12 m en ambiente interno (indoor, en una caseta (gabinete protegido de lluvia, colocada en clima tropical húmedo marino-urbano del Golfo de México. La agresividad de la caseta ha sido clasificada como muy altamente corrosiva, basada al registro de la velocidad de deposición de cloruros y SO2, y en el complejo diario de temperatura/humedad relativa del aire. El incremento de masa anual de níquel es, aproximadamente, dos veces mayor que del valor de su pérdida de masa (C. La relación entre la pérdida de masa de Ni o su incremento, y el tiempo de humectación (t de la superficie metálica y lineal y no obedece la ley de potencia C = A tn , que ha sido encontrada para el estaño. Las imágenes del SEM revelan una corrosión localizada en las superficie de níquel y estaño. El análisis de rayos-X detecta la formación de SnCl2.H2O como producto de corrosión. Con el tiempo

  1. A Unified View of the Spectral States of ULXs Using the Te/Tin Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Makishima, K.

    2014-07-01

    Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are unusually bright X-ray objects in external galaxies. Though still controversial, they are good candidates for intermediate mass black holes (Makishima+2000). They are found either in the Disk-like state wherein the spectra have round shapes, or in the Power-Law (PL) state with power-law shaped spectra. Although the former spectra are often fitted with a Slim disk model while the latter ones with a Comptonized disk model (Cdm), the former are also reproduced with the Cdm, leading to more reasonable interpretation (Miyawaki+2009). Aiming at a unified description of the two states, we applied the Cdm to the spectra of several ULXs observed by Suzaku. Regardless of the spectral states, the model was successful on every data set, yielding relatively cool disk with a sub-keV temperature T_{in}, and a corona with an electron temperature of T_{e} ˜ a few keV. To quantify the fitting results, we introduced a new parameter Q=T_{e}/T_{in}, which represents the balance between coronal cooling by photons and heating by ions. We found that Q successfully distinguish the two states of ULXs, with Q ˜ 3 for the Disk-like state and Q ˜ 10 for the PL state.

  2. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics. (paper)

  3. Black Hole Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  4. NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    time, the ones in between have been counted properly. Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated "We need to have an accurate head count over time of all growing black holes if we ever hope to understand their habits, so to speak," co-author Richard Mushotzky of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. Supermassive black holes themselves are invisible, but heated gas around them -- some of which will eventually fall into the black hole - produces copious amounts of radiation in the centers of galaxies as the black holes grow. Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated Growth of Smaller Black Holes Illustrated This study relied on the deepest X-ray images ever obtained, the Chandra Deep Fields North and South, plus a key wider-area survey of an area called the "Lockman Hole". The distances to the X-ray sources were determined by optical spectroscopic follow-up at the Keck 10-meter telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, and show the black holes range from less than a billion to 12 billion light years away. Since X-rays can penetrate the gas and dust that block optical and ultraviolet emission, the very long-exposure X-ray images are crucial to find black holes that otherwise would go unnoticed. Black Hole Animation Black Hole Animation Chandra found that many of the black holes smaller than about 100 million Suns are buried under large amounts of dust and gas, which prevents detection of the optical light from the heated material near the black hole. The X-rays are more energetic and are able to burrow through this dust and gas. However, the largest of the black holes show little sign of obscuration by dust or gas. In a form of weight self-control, powerful winds generated by the black hole's feeding frenzy may have cleared out the remaining dust and gas. Other aspects of black hole growth were uncovered. For example, the typical size of the galaxies undergoing supermassive black hole formation reduces with

  5. Modified biological behaviour of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate in man as a result of a preceding administration of tin (tin effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increased image of blood-filled spaces (Plexus chorioideus, Sinus transversus) was observed in sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy when it had been preceded by the administration of tin (e.g. of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diphosphonate). We have called this behaviour the 'tin-effect'. In vitro studies demonstrated binding of about 80% of the administered activity in the blood with a biological half-life of about 44 hr and an effective half-life of about 5.3 hr. 95% of the blood activity was bound to red cells and 5% to plasma. This resulted in an increased radiation dose to the bone marrow of about 530 mrad/mCi sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate (following tin). The extent of the tin effect decreased with the length of the interval between tin and sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate administration. Because of the tin effect, sup(99m)Tc-DTPA or sup(99m)Tc-citrate should be used for brain scintigraphy if this has to be performed within the first 5 or 7 days following a bone scintigraphy with a tin-containing radiopharmaceutical. The 'tin effect' might be taken advantage of when labelling red cells and imaging vascular spaces. (orig.)

  6. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.; Tremonti, C. A.;

    2007-01-01

    We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3......We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3...

  7. Goldanskii-Karyagin effect on hyperalkaline tin(II)-hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frozen aqueous solution of hyperalkaline tin(II)-hydroxide was analysed by 119Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy at low temperature in order to determinate the structure of the hydroxo complex formed under hyperalkaline (pH[13) conditions. Interestingly, the quadrupole doublet characteristic of this complex in the 119Sn Moessbauer spectrum exhibited asymmetry in the line intensities. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the Moessbauer spectra demonstrated that this phenomenon can be rationalised by the Goldanskii-Karyagin effect. The effect emerges due to the vibrational anisotropy of bonds in the tin complex formed in hyperalkaline solution, similarly to what has been found earlier for SnF2 with analogous Sn bond structure. (author)

  8. Cluster radioactivity in trans-tin region using semiempirical formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A semiempirical formula with only three parameters for calculating the logarithm of half-lives of heavy particle emission from a radioactive nucleus is recently proposed. The constants in the formula were obtained by fitting the available data in the trans-actinide region. The suitability of the formula in trans-tin region is studied here. The present study reveals that the semiempirical formula with only three parameters is not agreeing well with other theoretical models in the trans-tin region. Hence, one of the constants proposed earlier which acts a scaling constant is suitably replaced by a quadratic equation. The results are compared with analytical superasymmetric fission model and Shanmugham and Kamalakaran model. The semiempirical formula with new set of constants are found to have a better agreement with the available theoretical results. (author)

  9. Direct reaction experimental studies with beams of radioactive tin ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at 100Sn, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at 132Sn out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich 130Sn. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of γ rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications

  10. Configuration interaction in charge exchange spectra of tin and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge-state-specific extreme ultraviolet spectra from both tin ions and xenon ions have been recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan University. The electron cyclotron resonance source spectra were produced from charge exchange collisions between the ions and rare gas target atoms. To identify unknown spectral lines of tin and xenon, atomic structure calculations were performed for Sn14+-Sn17+ and Xe16+-Xe20+ using the Hartree-Fock configuration interaction code of Cowan (1981 The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press)). The energies of the capture states involved in the single-electron process that occurs in these slow collisions were estimated using the classical over-barrier model.

  11. Influence of decyl glucoside on the electrodeposition of tin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED CHARROUF

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to improve an electrochemical deposition bath for tin coating an acidic sulphate medium by addition of decyl glucoside. The effects of this additve on the deposition kinetics were examined by electrochemical methods,namely voltammetry and galvanostatic tin-layer formation, while scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis allowed the determination of the morphological and structural modifications resulting from the addition of this new surface active agent. The presence of the examined additive induced an increase of the activation energy and of the overvoltage of the reduction of stannous ions. From the morphological point of view, a marked decrease in the grain size of the deposit was achieved in the presence of the additive. The preferential crystal growth axes was also changed from Sn (200 without additive to Sn (112 with the additive.

  12. Accommodation of tin in tetragonal ZrO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, B. D. C.; Murphy, S. T.; Burr, P. A.; Grimes, R. W.; Wenman, M. R.

    2015-02-01

    Atomic scale computer simulations using density functional theory were used to investigate the behaviour of tin in the tetragonal phase oxide layer on Zr-based alloys. The S nZ r × defect was shown to be dominant across most oxygen partial pressures, with S nZ r ″ charge compensated by VO • • occurring at partial pressures below 10-31 atm. Insertion of additional positive charge into the system was shown to significantly increase the critical partial pressure at which S nZ r ″ is stable. Recently developed low-Sn nuclear fuel cladding alloys have demonstrated an improved corrosion resistance and a delayed transition compared to Sn-containing alloys, such as Zircaloy-4. The interaction between the positive charge and the tin defect is discussed in the context of alloying additions, such as niobium and their influence on corrosion of cladding alloys.

  13. Polymorphic transition of tin under shock wave compression: Experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinatti F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the β-bct polymorphic transition in tin is investigated by means of plate impact experiments. The Sn target surface is observed in a partially released state obtained thanks to a transparent lithium fluoride (LiF anvil. We report both measurements of interface velocity and temperature obtained using Photon Doppler Velocimetry and IR optical pyrometer on shock-loaded tin from 8 to 16 GPa. We show that the Mabire Model EOS associated to the SCG plasticity model provides an overall good estimate of the velocity profiles. However, depnding on the shock amplitude, its prediction of the temperature profile may be less satisfactory, hence underlining the need for future improvements in terms of phase transition kinetics description.

  14. The role of layer structure in tin oxidation kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhalde, S.; Arcondo, B.; Sirkin, H.

    1991-11-01

    Tin exhibits different oxidation kinetics which are composition dependent, when it forms intermetallic compounds with the chalcogenides S and Se. This phenomenon is related to the layer compounds SnS2 and SnSe2 crystalline structure. These minerals have anisotropic bonding characteristics, due to Van der Waals bonds presence between chalcogenides adjoining planes. The mentioned weak bonds allow the oxygen diffusion to the bulk, favouring the reaction with the inner tin atoms. In this work we study samples of Sn-S alloy with different thermal treatment by XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Results are discussed and compared with those obtained for Sn-Se alloy in an early work [1].

  15. Black Flowers in Flatland

    CERN Document Server

    Alkac, Gokhan; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Asymptotically flat black holes in $2+1$ dimensions are a rarity. We study the recently found black flower solutions (asymptotically flat black holes with deformed horizons), static black holes, rotating black holes and the dynamical black flowers (black holes with radiative gravitons ) of the purely quadratic version of new massive gravity. We show how they appear in this theory and we also show that they are also solutions to the infinite order extended version of the new massive gravity, that is the Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity with an amputated Einsteinian piece. The same metrics also solve the topologically extended versions of these theories, with modified conserved charges and the thermodynamical quantities, such as the Wald entropy. Besides these we find new conformally flat radiating type solutions to these extended gravity models. We also show that these metrics do not arise in Einstein's gravity coupled to physical perfect fluids.

  16. Indium Tin Oxide-Polyaniline Biosensor: Fabrication and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Grooms, Daniel L.; Alocilja, Evangelyn C.; Zarini Muhammad Tahir

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a novel indium tin oxide (ITO)-polyaniline (Pani) biosensor was designed, fabricated, and characterized. Initial testing was conducted for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The biosensor design was based upon the specific nature of antibodies to capture the target virus, and the conductive properties of self-doped Pani to translate the antibody-antigen binding into a quantifying signal. The first part of the study was to assess the feasibility of the self-dop...

  17. ORGANO—TIN POLYMERS:SYNTHESIS,PROPERTIES AND APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIRongbao; CheRongrui; 等

    1993-01-01

    Through interfacial poly-condensation of R2SnCl2 (R=Me,Bu) with various diacids,diphenols (diols),diamines,amino-acids,hydroxyacids,urea,or thiourea,a series of organo-tin poly-esters,poly-ethers,poly-amines,poly-amine-esters,poly-ureas,poly-thioureas were prepared,and characterised altogether totalling 100 polymers,among which 91 are previously unreported.The synthesized polymers have a potential as a thermostabilizer in PVC products.

  18. Abrasion of abutment screw coated with TiN

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Seok-Won; Son, Mee-Kyoung; Chung, Chae-Heon; Kim, Hee-Jung

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Screw loosening has been a common complication and still reported frequently. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate abrasion of the implant fixture and TiN coated abutment screw after repeated delivery and removal with universal measuring microscope. MATERIAL AND METHODS Implant systems used for this study were Osstem and 3i. Seven pairs of implant fixtures, abutments and abutment screws for each system were selected and all the fixtures were perpendicularly m...

  19. Antifriction and wear resistance of tin diffusion coating on brass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    After brass is coated with tin, heat treatment makes the coating metal Sn and the substrate metal lic elements Cu and Zn diffuse with each other. This causes the c oating composition to be changed and the interface to be strengthened. The diffusion coating with a multiphase structure formed by this process has excellent properties of antifriction and wear resistance. With the aid of scanning electron microscopy, electronic probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction, the mechanism of the properties is discussed.

  20. Tin Whiskers: A History of Documented Electrical System Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidecker, Henning; Brusse, Jay

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the history of tin and other metal whiskers, and the damage they have caused equipment. There are pictures of whiskers on various pieces of electronic equipment, and microscopic views of whiskers. There is also a chart with information on the documented failures associated with metal whiskers. There are also examples of on-orbit failures believed to be caused by whiskers.

  1. Field Emission from Carbon Nanotube/Tin Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bo; ZHANG Ya-fei

    2009-01-01

    Powder metallurgy was used to fabricate carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission cathodes. CNTs and tin (Sn) powder were blended, compacted and sintered. After polishing and etching, CNTs were exposed and protruded from the metal surface. CNTs were embedded into the Sn matrix, which acted as stable field emitters. The J-E curves show excellent field emission properties, such as low turn-on field of 2.8 V/μm, high emission current density and good current stability.

  2. Gravitational macrosegregation in unidirectionally solidified lead-tin alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Laxmanan, V.; Wallace, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    Nine small samples of binary lead-tin alloys were solidifed unidirectionally upward, with both cooling rate and thermal gradient being closely controlled. Results presented include thermal measurements, chemical composition measurements, and microstructural characterization. In the six Pb-15 wt pct Sn ingots, normal macrosegregation was observed, with Sn content being highest at the top of the ingot. No significant macrosegretation was noted in the three ingots of nominal composition Sn-15 wt pct Sn.

  3. Laser synthesis of germanium tin alloys on virtual germanium

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov, S; Conde, J. C.; Chiussi, S; De Benedetti, A.; Serra, C.; Werner, J.; Oehme, M.; Schulze, J.; Buca, D.; Holländer, B; Mantl, S.

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of heteroepitaxial germanium tin (GeSn) alloys using excimer laser processing of a thin 4 nm Sn layer on Ge has been demonstrated and studied. Laser induced rapid heating, subsequent melting, and re-solidification processes at extremely high cooling rates have been experimentally achieved and also simulated numerically to optimize the processing parameters. "In situ" measured sample reflectivity with nanosecond time resolution was used as feedback for the simulations and directly co...

  4. Accommodation of Tin in Tetragonal ZrO2

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, B. D. C.; Murphy, S. T.; Burr, P. A.; Grimes, R. W.; Wenman, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic scale computer simulations using density functional theory were used to investigate the behaviour of tin in the tetragonal phase oxide layer on Zr-based alloys. The $Sn_{Zr}^{\\times}$ site defect was shown to be dominant across most oxygen partial pressures, with $Sn_{Zr}^{"}$ charge compensated by fully charged oxygen vacancies occurring at partial pressures below $10^{-31}$ atm. Insertion of additional positive charge into the system was shown to significantly increase the critical p...

  5. Isostructural Phase Transition of TiN under High Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing-Geng; LI Yan-Chun; LIU Jing; YANG Liu-Xiang; YU Yong; YOU Shu-Jie; YU Ri-Cheng; LI Feng-Ying; CHEN Liang-Chcn; JIN Chang-Qing; LI Xiao-Dong

    2005-01-01

    @@ In situ high-pressure energy dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments on polycrystalline powder TiN with NaC1type structure have been conducted with the pressure up to 30.1 GPa by using a diamond anvil cell instrument with synchrotron radiation at room temperature. The experimental results suggest that an isostructural phase transition might exist at about 7GPa as revealed by the discontinuity of V/Vo with pressure.

  6. Diffusion of tin in germanium: A GGA+U approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2011-10-18

    Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the formation and diffusion of tin-vacancy pairs (SnV) in germanium(Ge). Depending upon the Fermi energy, SnV pairs can form in neutral, singly negative, or doubly negative charged states. The activation energies of diffusion, also as function of the Fermi energy, are calculated to lie between 2.48-3.65 eV, in agreement with and providing an interpretation of available experimental work.

  7. Silver diffusion over silicon surfaces with adsorbed tin atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver diffusion over the (111), (100), and (110) surfaces of silicon with preliminarily adsorbed tin atoms is studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. Diffusion is observed only on the surface of Si(111)-2√3 × 2√3-Sn. The diffusion mechanism is established. It is found that the diffusion coefficient depends on the concentration of diffusing atoms. The diffusion coefficient decreases with increasing silver concentration, while the activation energy and the preexponential factor increase

  8. Tin (Sn) for enhancing performance in silicon CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2013-10-01

    We study a group IV element: tin (Sn) by integrating it into silicon lattice, to enhance the performance of silicon CMOS. We have evaluated the electrical properties of the SiSn lattice by performing simulations using First-principle studies, followed by experimental device fabrication and characterization. We fabricated high-κ/metal gate based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using SiSn as channel material to study the impact of Sn integration into silicon. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Possible suppression of Hawking radiation from microscopic black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Doyeol

    2010-01-01

    Microscopic black holes with mass in the TeV range to be produced in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) should undergo the prompt and quasi-thermal evaporation by emitting Hawking radiation. If this Hawking decay is not universal, some black holes can live long enough to penetrate into the Earth and grow dangerously. At present, the effects of black hole internal quantum state evolution on the evaporation are not well understood. This study shows that Hawking decay could be suppressed when the black hole internal matter state is in the coherent state. In this case, black holes created in the LHC may live long enough to grow catastrophically. The condition to avoid this catastrophic situation is also discussed. Our results demonstrate that the black hole evaporation is strongly dependent on the black hole internal quantum state and its evolution.

  10. Acid-catalyzed kinetics of indium tin oxide etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the kinetic characterization of indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching by chemical treatment in acidic and basic electrolytes. It was observed that film etching increased under more acidic conditions, whereas basic conditions led to minimal etching on the time scale of the experiments. Quartz crystal microbalance was employed in order to track the reaction kinetics as a function of the concentration of hydrochloric acid and accordingly solution pH. Contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy experiments determined that acid treatment increases surface hydrophilicity and porosity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments identified that film etching is primarily caused by dissolution of indium species. A kinetic model was developed to explain the acid-catalyzed dissolution of ITO surfaces, and showed a logarithmic relationship between the rate of dissolution and the concentration of undisassociated hydrochloric acid molecules. Taken together, the findings presented in this work verify the acid-catalyzed kinetics of ITO film dissolution by chemical treatment, and support that the corresponding chemical reactions should be accounted for in ITO film processing applications. - Highlights: • Acidic conditions promoted indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching via dissolution. • Logarithm of the dissolution rate depended linearly on the solution pH. • Acid treatment increased ITO surface hydrophilicity and porosity. • ITO film etching led to preferential dissolution of indium species over tin species

  11. Water vapor detection with individual tin oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual tin oxide nanowires (NWs), contacted to platinum electrodes using focused ion beam assisted nanolithography, were used for detecting water vapor (1500-32 000 ppm) in different gaseous environments. Responses obtained in synthetic air (SA) and nitrogen atmospheres suggested differences in the sensing mechanism, which were related to changes in surface density of the adsorbed oxygen species in the two cases. A model describing the different behaviors has been proposed together with comparative evaluation of NW responses against sensors based on bulk tin oxide. The results obtained on ten individual devices (tested >6 times) revealed the interfering effect of water in the detection of carbon monoxide and illustrated the intrinsic potential of nanowire-based devices as humidity sensors. Investigations were made on sensitivity, recovery time and device stability as well as surface-humidity interactions. This is the first step towards fundamental understanding of single-crystalline one-dimensional (1D) tin oxide nanostructures for sensor applications, which could lead to integration in real devices

  12. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish.

  13. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Tetra(o-cyanobenzyl)tin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Dai-Zhi; JIANG Jiang-Ping; FENG Yong-Lan; ZHANG Fu-Xing; WANG Jian-Qiu; LUO Yi-Ming

    2008-01-01

    The tetra(o-eyanobenzyl)tin compound has been synthesized by the reaction of eyanobenzyl chloride with tin, and its molecular structure was characterized by elemental analysis,IR spectra, 1H NMR and X-ray diffraction. Crystal data for this compound: monoclinie, space group C2/c, M, = 583.24, a = 1.9629(2), b = 1.05967(13), c = 1.41249(18) nm, β = 118.180(2)°, V =2.5898(5) nm3, Z = 4, Dc =1.496 g/cm3, μ(MoKa) = 1.015 cm-1, F(000) = 1176, R = 0.0189, wR =0.0497 (observed reflections with Ⅰ 2σ(Ⅰ)) and R = 0.0218, wR = 0.0513 (all reflections).The molecular structure adopts a distorted tetrahedral geometry around the tin atom. The Sn…N weak interaction between the Sn and N atoms of cyano forms an intermolecular H-bonding, and the bond length is 0.3570 nm; the interaction between hydrogen of methylene and benzene ring of benzyl forms C-H…C with its bond length of 0.2817 nm; and the interaction among hydrogen of benzene ring and carbon of cyano forms Ph-H…C bond (0.2897 nm) of the σ…π interaction. A 3D chain structure is formed by the above weak intermolecular interactions.

  14. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies(AED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery s...

  15. Analyzing the kinetic response of tin oxide-carbon and tin oxide-CNT composites gas sensors for alcohols detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using solution combustion technique and tin oxide – carbon composite thick films are fabricated with amorphous carbon as well as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and porosity measurements show that the as-synthesized nanoparticles are having rutile phase with average crystallite size ∼7 nm and ∼95 m2/g surface area. The difference between morphologies of the carbon doped and CNT doped SnO2 thick films, are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The adsorption-desorption kinetics and transient response curves are analyzed using Langmuir isotherm curve fittings and modeled using power law of semiconductor gas sensors

  16. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjalk Lochan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  17. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2016-04-01

    The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos-Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  18. Determination of alkylated tin compounds in landfill leachates using isotopically enriched tin species with GC-ICP-MS detection

    OpenAIRE

    Pinel-Raffaitin, P.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, P.; Ponthieu, M.; Amouroux, D.; Le Hécho, I.; Mazéas, L.; Potin Gautier, M.

    2007-01-01

    / A method for the simultaneous determination of methylated, ethylated and butylated tin compounds in landfill leachates has been developed in this work. The assessment of the organotin compound composition has been achieved by the development of a specific GC-ICP-MS protocol adapted to these complex matrices. The analytical procedure consists in three major steps which have been carefully optimized, taking into account the variety of alkyltin compounds and the high organic content of the ...

  19. Germanium-tin multiple quantum well on silicon avalanche photodiode for photodetection at two micron wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Lee, Shuh Ying; Lei, Dian; Gong, Xiao; Khai Loke, Wan; Yoon, Soon-Fatt; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2016-09-01

    We report the demonstration of a germanium-tin multiple quantum well (Ge0.9Sn0.1 MQW)-on-Si avalanche photodiode (APD) for light detection near the 2 μm wavelength range. The measured spectral response covers wavelengths from 1510 to 2003 nm. An optical responsivity of 0.33 A W‑1 is achieved at 2003 nm due to the internal avalanche gain. In addition, a thermal coefficient of breakdown voltage is extracted to be 0.053% K‑1 based on the temperature-dependent dark current measurement. As compared to the traditional 2 μm wavelength APDs, the Si-based APD is promising for its small excess noise factor, less stringent demand on temperature stability, and its compatibility with silicon technology.

  20. Hybrid composite thin films composed of tin oxide nanoparticles and cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of hybrid thin films consisting of tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles and cellulose. SnO2 nanoparticle loaded cellulose hybrid thin films were fabricated by a solution blending technique, using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a dispersion agent. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed uniform dispersion of the SnO2 nanoparticles in the cellulose matrix. Reduction in the crystalline melting transition temperature and tensile properties of cellulose was observed due to the SnO2 nanoparticle loading. Potential application of these hybrid thin films as low cost, flexible and biodegradable humidity sensors is examined in terms of the change in electrical resistivity of the material exposed to a wide range of humidity as well as its response–recovery behavior. (paper)

  1. Effect of the heat treatment on the infrared emissivity of indium tin oxide (ITO) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on glass substrates at temperatures ranging from 100 deg. C to 400 deg. C by direct current magnetron sputtering. The mean infrared emissivities at the waveband of 8-14 μm were measured in process of heating and cooling between room temperature and 350 deg. C. Microstructure and phases of ITO films before (Group A) and after (Group B) heat treatment were characterized by SEM and XRD, respectively. Electrical properties were characterized with a four-point probe method and by Hall measurement system. During heat treatment, the infrared emissivity of the film increases with the increase of temperature, and decreases with the decrease of temperature. While, the infrared emissivity of the films decreases slightly around 250 deg. C in heating process. On the other hand, after heat treatment, the crystalline phases of the films have no obvious change. However, both the resistivity and the infrared emissivity of all films decrease.

  2. Effect of the heat treatment on the infrared emissivity of indium tin oxide (ITO) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Kewei, E-mail: sunkewei0616@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Zhou Wancheng; Tang Xiufeng; Huang Zhibin; Lou Fa; Zhu Dongmei [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2011-09-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on glass substrates at temperatures ranging from 100 deg. C to 400 deg. C by direct current magnetron sputtering. The mean infrared emissivities at the waveband of 8-14 {mu}m were measured in process of heating and cooling between room temperature and 350 deg. C. Microstructure and phases of ITO films before (Group A) and after (Group B) heat treatment were characterized by SEM and XRD, respectively. Electrical properties were characterized with a four-point probe method and by Hall measurement system. During heat treatment, the infrared emissivity of the film increases with the increase of temperature, and decreases with the decrease of temperature. While, the infrared emissivity of the films decreases slightly around 250 deg. C in heating process. On the other hand, after heat treatment, the crystalline phases of the films have no obvious change. However, both the resistivity and the infrared emissivity of all films decrease.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of indium tin oxide current spreading layers in light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transparent conductors such as indium tin oxide (ITO) are used in a range of optoelectronic devices. Such materials provide both the electrical interface with the semiconductor and a transparent window for the injection or extraction of photons. In AlGaInP surface emitting LED device structures, a particular problem is that of providing an efficient current spreading layer in order to ensure that electrons are injected across the whole of the active region. In this way, the light extracted can be maximised as it originates from the region below the transparent conductor rather than the contact metal. This paper describes a Monte Carlo simulation that can assist in the optimisation of current spreading and light transmission of ITO layers in LED devices

  4. Controlled Deposition of Tin Oxide and Silver Nanoparticles Using Microcontact Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo C. Chan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This report describes extensive studies of deposition processes involving tin oxide (SnOx nanoparticles on smooth glass surfaces. We demonstrate the use of smooth films of these nanoparticles as a platform for spatially-selective electroless deposition of silver by soft lithographic stamping. The edge and height roughness of the depositing metallic films are 100 nm and 20 nm, respectively, controlled by the intrinsic size of the nanoparticles. Mixtures of alcohols as capping agents provide further control over the size and shape of nanoparticles clusters. The distribution of cluster heights obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM is modeled through a modified heterogeneous nucleation theory as well as Oswald ripening. The thermodynamic modeling of the wetting properties of nanoparticles aggregates provides insight into their mechanism of formation and how their properties might be further exploited in wide-ranging applications.

  5. Tin(II) Selective PVC Membrane Electrode Based on Salicylaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone as an Ionophore

    OpenAIRE

    Sulekh Chandra; Kusum Sharma; Adarsh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A polymeric membrane-based tin selective electrode was developed by using salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (STSC). The best performance was recorded with a membrane composition of PVC : TBP : ionophore : NaTPB as 28 : 59 : 8 : 5 (w/w%). The Nernstian slope calculated from the calibration curve for Sn2+ sensor was 28.8 ± 0.4 mV/decade. The detection limit of the sensor was 2.10 × 10−8 M, in the linear concentration range of 1.0 × 10−2−1.1 × 10−7 M. It was relatively fast response time (...

  6. Electrochemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles onto indium tin oxide glass and application in biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple one-step method for the electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) onto bare indium tin oxide film coated glass substrate without any template or surfactant was investigated. The effect of electrolysis conditions such as potential range, temperature, concentration and deposition cycles were examined. The connectivity of GNPs was analyzed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were found to connect in pairs or to coalesce in larger numbers. The twin GNPs display a transverse and a longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band, which is similar to that of gold nanorods. The presence of longitudinal LSPR band correlates with high refractive index sensitivity. Conjugation of the twin-linked GNPs with albumin bovine serum-biotin was employed for the detection of streptavidin as a model based on the specific binding affinity in biotin/streptavidin pairs. The spectrophotometric sensor showed concentration-dependent binding for streptavidin.

  7. Indium tin oxide and indium phosphide heterojunction nanowire array solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterojunction solar cells were formed with a position-controlled InP nanowire array sputtered with indium tin oxide (ITO). The ITO not only acted as a transparent electrode but also as forming a photovoltaic junction. The devices exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.436 V, short-circuit current of 24.8 mA/cm2, and fill factor of 0.682, giving a power conversion efficiency of 7.37% under AM1.5 G illumination. The internal quantum efficiency of the device was higher than that of the world-record InP cell in the short wavelength range

  8. Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its epsilon-near-zero region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M Zahirul; De Leon, Israel; Boyd, Robert W

    2016-05-13

    Nonlinear optical phenomena are crucial for a broad range of applications, such as microscopy, all-optical data processing, and quantum information. However, materials usually exhibit a weak optical nonlinearity even under intense coherent illumination. We report that indium tin oxide can acquire an ultrafast and large intensity-dependent refractive index in the region of the spectrum where the real part of its permittivity vanishes. We observe a change in the real part of the refractive index of 0.72 ± 0.025, corresponding to 170% of the linear refractive index. This change in refractive index is reversible with a recovery time of about 360 femtoseconds. Our results offer the possibility of designing material structures with large ultrafast nonlinearity for applications in nanophotonics. PMID:27127238

  9. Trace characterisation of tin-bismuth alloy by optical emission spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An emission spectrographic method has been developed for the determination of eighteen impurities in a tin-bismuth alloy sample. The metal alloy is converted to its oxide form and mixed with pure graphite in the ratio 2:1. 20mg of this mixture taken in a 1/4inch dia graphite electrode, is excited in nitrogen atmosphere using a 10 amp d.c. arc. The spectra of the samples are photographed using a 3.4M Ebert spectrograph with a 1180 grooves/mm grating. The concentration range covered are between 0.1ppm and 1000ppm for various elements and the precision of the method is found to be about 18 per cent. (author). 4 tabs., 6 figs

  10. Novel fabrication of an electrochromic antimony-doped tin oxide film using a nanoparticle deposition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungsub; Park, Yunchan; Choi, Dahyun; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2016-07-01

    Novel deposition method of Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films was introduced using a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS) to fabricate an electrochromic (EC) device. NPDS is a dry deposition method that simplifies the ATO deposition process by eliminating the need for solvents or binders. In this study, an ATO EC layer was deposited using NPDS. The surface morphology and electrochemical and optical transmittance properties were characterized. The optical transmittance change in the ATO EC device was ∼35% over the wavelength range of 350-800 nm, and the cyclic transmittance was stable. The ATO film deposited using NPDS, exhibited a coloration efficiency of 15.5 cm2 C-1. Therefore, our results suggest that ATO EC devices can be fabricated using a simple, cost-effective NPDS, which allows nanoparticles to be deposited directly without pre- or post-processing.

  11. Investigation of the Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing Characteristics of Tin Oxide Mixed Cerium Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Haider

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tin oxide mixed cerium oxide were grown on unheated substrates by physical vapor deposition. The films were annealed in air at 500 °C for two hours, and were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical spectrophotometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy results reveal that the films were highly porous and porosity of our films was found to be in the range of 11.6–21.7%. The films were investigated for the detection of carbon monoxide, and were found to be highly sensitive. We found that 430 °C was the optimum operating temperature for sensing CO gas at concentrations as low as 5 ppm. Our sensors exhibited fast response and recovery times of 26 s and 30 s, respectively.

  12. Reactive Plasma Sprayed TiN Coating and Its Thermal Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Dong-li; YAN Dian-ran; HE Ji-ning; LI Xiang-zhi; DONG Yan-chun; ZHANG Jian-xin

    2007-01-01

    TiN coating was prepared by reactive plasma spraying in the Ar and N2 containing plasma jet. The results of XRD show that the TiN coating consists of TiN and Ti3O, neither Ti2N nor TiO2 phases. The toughening mechanism was characterized by analyzing the SEM morphologies of the TiN coating's indentation of microhardness and fracture surfaces. The results indicate that the coating possesses a high toughness. The adhesion strength among the TiN layers is 25.88 MPa, which is slightly lower than that of the Ni/Al bonding coating. The oxidation process of the RPS TiN coating is TiN→Ti3O→TiO2.

  13. The Mechanism of Residual Stress Relief for Various Tin Grain Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Fu; Hsieh, Ker-Chang

    2010-08-01

    A pure tin deposition process was developed with various tin grain structures to study tin whisker formation. Samples were tested for 4000 h to examine whisker formation, grain structures, and intermetallic formation using a focused ion beam (FIB). The lateral side of the FIB-cut cavity displayed tin protrusions after 6 days. These phenomena, along with the growth of tin whiskers and/or hillocks, could illustrate the residual stress relief behavior of various tin grain structures. In full columnar structures, whiskers formed normal to the deposition surface and relieved most of the stress. In contrast, stress relaxation in semicolumnar and random structures is highly likely to occur, and proceeds rapidly in the direction parallel to the deposition surface after only a few days. In comparing mixed grain structures, it is apparent that stress is more likely to be rapidly relieved within structures with fewer grain boundaries.

  14. A Model for Rapid Tin Whisker Growth on the Surface of ErSn3 Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hu; Xu, Guangchen; Song, Yonglun; Shi, Yaowu; Guo, Fu

    2012-02-01

    Spontaneous growth of tin whiskers on the finish of leadframes is an extremely slow process under moderate temperature conditions. It therefore becomes difficult to track the continuous growth of tin whiskers and to vary the experimental conditions to determine their root causes. Accordingly, the fundamental growth behaviors of tin whiskers are still not fully understood. In this study, rapid tin whisker growth was achieved by adding 1 wt.% Er to Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder alloy. The results showed unique tin whisker morphology with nonconstant cross-section. An explanation is proposed by adding kinetic energy to the conventional energy balance equation. In addition, a double compressive stress zone is proposed to demonstrate the driving force for tin whisker growth in rare-earth-bearing phases.

  15. Effect of doping of tin on optoelectronic properties of indium oxide: DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium tin oxide is widely used transparent conductor. Experimentally observed that 6% tin doping in indium oxide is suitable for optoelectronic applications and more doping beyond this limit degrades the optoelectronic property. The stoichiometry (In32-xSnxO48+x/2; x=0-6) is taken to understand the change in lattice parameter, electronic structure, and optical property of ITO. It is observed that lattice parameter increases and becomes constant after 6% tin doping that is in good agreement of the experimental observation. The electronic structure calculation shows that the high tin doping in indium oxide adversely affects the dispersive nature of the bottom of conduction band of pure indium oxide and decreases the carrier mobility. Optical calculations show that transmittance goes down upto 60% for the tin concentration more than 6%. The present paper shows that how more than 6% tin doping in indium oxide adversely affects the optoelectronic property of ITO

  16. Investigation into effect of tin and zirconium alloying on high-temperature strength and heat resistance of Ti3Al compound base alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made of the effect of tin and zirconium on the phase composition, high-temperature strength and heat resistance of a Ti3Al compound. The study has been made over the (Ti3Al + 3% Zr)-Sn section, the concentration of tin being varied from 0 to 20 wt%. The high-temperature strength of the materials investigated has been studied by the centrifugal bending method and long-term strength at 700 - 800 deg C. The heat resistance has been evaluated by the results of gravimetric studies of sample oxidation in air at 600, 800 and 1000 deg C. The data of differential thermal and microstructural analyses are used to construct the phase diagram of the (Ti3Al + 3% Zr)-Sn partial section. Doping the Ti3Al intermetallide with tin and zirconium is shown to enhance considerably its high-temperature strength within the entire temperature range under study (from room temperature to 800 deg C) and its heat resistance at 600 deg C. The introduction of tin and zirconium is detrimental to the heat resistance of Ti3Al at 800 deg C and especially at 1000 deg C

  17. Elastic and thermo-physical properties of TiC, TiN, and their intermediate composition alloys using ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Elastic properties of TiC, TiN and their alloys were calculated by ab initio calculations. ► Debye temperature and Gruneisen constant of TiC, TiN and their alloys were calculated as a function of nitrogen content. ► Thermo-physical properties were calculated as a function of nitrogen content. ► Thermal expansion of the alloys was fitted in different temperature range. - Abstract: The equilibrium lattice parameters, elastic properties, material brittleness, heat capacities, and thermal expansion coefficients of TiC, TiN, and their intermediate composition alloys (Ti(C1−xNx), x = 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75) were calculated using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) methods. We employed the Debye–Gruneisen model to calculate a finite temperature heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient. The calculated elastic moduli and thermal expansion coefficients agreed well with the experimental data and with other DFT calculations. Accurate heat capacities of TiC, TiN, and their intermediate composition alloys were obtained by calculating not only the phonon contributions but also the electron contributions to the heat capacity. Our calculations indicated that the heat capacity differences between each composition originated mainly from the electronic contributions.

  18. New aspects on URu2Si2 and CeTIn5 (T = Rh, Ir, Co) observed by high pressure NMR and NQR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Kohara

    2002-05-01

    NMR and NQR studies on two interesting systems (URu2Si2, CeTIn5) were performed under high pressure. (1) URu2Si2: In the pressure range 3.0 to 8.3 kbar, we have observed new 29Si NMR signals arising from the antiferromagnetic (AF) region besides the previously observed 29Si NMR signals which come from the paramagnetic (PM) region in the sample. This gives definite evidence for spatially-inhomogeneous development of AF ordering below 0 of 17.5 K. The volume fraction is enhanced by applied pressure, whereas the value of internal field (∼ 91 mT) remains constant up to 8.3 kbar. In the AF region, the ordered moment is about one order of magnitude larger than 0.03 . (2) CeTIn5: The pressure and temperature () dependences of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/1 of 115In in CeTIn5 have shown that the superconductivity (SC) occurs close to an AF instability. From the dependences of 1/1 and Knight shift below c, CeTIn5 has been found to exhibit non- wave (probable wave) SC with even parity and line nodes in the SC energy gap.

  19. Pyrophosphate complexation of tin(II) in aqueous solutions as applied in electrolytes for the deposition of tin and tin alloys such as white bronze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Magnus R; Kraus, Florian; Schmidbaur, Hubert

    2012-08-20

    Electrodeposition of tin and tin alloys from electrolytes containing tin(II) and pyrophosphates is an important process in metal finishing, but the nature of the tin pyrophosphate complexes present in these solutions in various pH regions has remained unknown. Through solubility and pH studies, IR and (31)P and (119)Sn NMR spectroscopic investigations of solutions obtained by dissolving Sn(2)P(2)O(7) in equimolar quantities of either Na(4)P(2)O(7)·10H(2)O or K(4)P(2)O(7) the formation of anionic 1:1 complexes {[Sn(P(2)O(7))]}(n)(2n-) has now been verified and the molecular structures of the monomer (n = 1) and the dimer (n = 2) have been calculated by density functional theory (DFT) methods. Whereas the alkali pyrophosphates Na/K(4)P(2)O(7) give strongly alkaline aqueous solutions (pH ∼13), because of partial protonation of the [P(2)O(7)](4-) anion, the [Sn(P(2)O(7))](2-) anion is not protonated and the solutions of Na/K(2)[Sn(P(2)O(7))] are almost neutral (pH ∼8). The monomeric dianion appears to have a ground state with C(2v) symmetry with the Sn atom in a square pyramidal coordination and the lone pair of electrons in the apical position, while the dimer approaches C(2) symmetry with the Sn atoms in a rhombic pyramidal coordination, also with a sterically active lone pair. A comparison of experimental and calculated IR details favors the monomer as the most abundant species in solution. With an excess of pyrophosphate, 3:2 and 2:1 complexes (P(2)O(7)):(Sn) are first formed, which, in the presence of more pyrophosphate, undergo rapid ligand exchange on the NMR time scale. The structure of the 2:1 complex [Sn(P(2)O(7))(2)](6-) was calculated to have a pyramidal complexation by two 1,5-chelating pyrophosphate ligands. Neutralization of these alkaline solutions by sulfuric or sulfonic acids (H(2)SO(4), MeSO(3)H), as also practiced in electroplating, appears to afford the tin(II) hydrogen pyrophosphates [Sn(P(2)O(7)H)](-) and [Sn(H(2)P(2)O(7))](0). The molecular

  20. Analysis of the Portevin - Le Chatelier effect in tin bronzes at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ozgowicz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present paper is the determination of the effect of the chemical composition and temperature of deformation of standardized tin bronzes and bronze modified with zirconium on the Portevin – Le Chatelier (PLC phenomenon, mainly basing on the shape of stress-strain curves within the temperature range of 100-300oC and observations of their structure. The reasons of the occurrence of such en effect are so far no fully known and explained and the opinions concerning is physical basis vary.Design/methodology/approach: Of essential design in this research is determination of the dependence of PLC effect on the chemical composition, temperature and strain rate and the preliminary heat treatment and grain size. The main method used in this investigation is tensile test at elevated temperature.Findings: The main conclusions are following: the PLC effect on tin bronzes with a micro-addition of zirconium in an amount of 0.01-0.05% depends the temperature of deformation in the tensile test in the range of 100-300oC and the chemical composition of the alloys; the type of serration revealed on the σ–ε curve depend mainly on the temperature of deformation and can be differ during the respective stages of the analyzed curves.Practical implications: In this paper implications for practice are not taken into consideration.Originality/value: In this paper an additive type of serration observed on the curves σ–ε, denoted by the symbol D, is new.

  1. Tin-Silver Alloys for Flip-Chip Bonding Studied with a Rotating Cylinder Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Pedersen, E.H.; Bech-Nielsen, G.;

    1999-01-01

    Electrodeposition of solder for flip-chip bonding is studied in the form of a pyrophosphate/iodide tin-silver alloy bath. The objective is to obtain a uniform alloy composition, with 3.8 At.% silver, over a larger area. This specific alloy will provide an eutectic solder melting at 221°C (or 10°C...... photoresist, have shown a stable and promising alternative to pure tin and tin-lead alloys for flip-chip bonding applications....

  2. A TIN2 dyskeratosis congenita mutation causes telomerase-independent telomere shortening in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Frescas, David; de Lange, Titia

    2014-01-01

    The progressive bone marrow failure syndrome dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is often caused by mutations in telomerase or factors involved in telomerase biogenesis and trafficking. However, a subset of DC patients is heterozygous for mutations in the shelterin component TIN2. Here, heterozygous TIN2-DC mice showed a telomere-shortening phenotype in both telomerase-proficient and telomerase-deficient backgrounds. This study raises the possibility that some of the TIN2-DC mutations may affect telo...

  3. Production of Si3N4/TiN nano composites

    OpenAIRE

    Fricke, Markus; Nonninger, Ralph; Schmidt, Helmut K.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon nitride is used in different applications because of its resistance against thermal shock, igh temperature and mechanical load. An appropriate second phase like TiN could make Si3N4 attractive for additional applications. This work deals with the introduction of a TiN phase from a nanosize TiN powder into the Si3N4 matrix by a single-step wet chemical process.

  4. The electrochemical deposition of tin-nickel alloys and the corrosion properties of the coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2005-01-01

    The electrodeposition of tin/nickel (65/35 wt%) is a unique coating process because of the deposition of an intermetallic phase of nickel and tin, which cannot be formed by any pyrometallurgical process. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that intermetallic phases can be formed through...... electrochemical tests, including polarization curves, chronoamperometric studies and tribocorrosion tests have been performed to show the consequence of replacing nickel coatings with tin/nickel coatings....

  5. Kinetics and thermodynamics of sorption of alkali metals ions with tin phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to extract microquantities of potassium from sodium iodide the sorption method with application of tin phosphate as ion exchanger is proposed. The conditions of synthesis of tin phosphate are optimized. Theoretical aspects of sorption process are considered. The kinetics of sorption of alkaline metals with amorphous tin phosphate is studied by means of limited volume method. The activation energies of sorption of alkaline metals ions are defined. Thermodynamic characteristics of process are defined as well.

  6. Anomalies in option pricing: the Black-Scholes model revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Fortune

    1996-01-01

    In 1973, Myron Scholes and the late Fischer Black published their seminal paper on option pricing. The Black-Scholes model revolutionized financial economics in several ways: It contributed to our understanding of a wide range of contracts with option-like features, and it allowed us to revise our understanding of traditional financial instruments. This article addresses the question of how well the Black-Scholes model of option pricing works. The goal is to acquaint a general audience with t...

  7. Black holes in the presence of dark energy

    OpenAIRE

    Babichev, E. O.; Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.

    2014-01-01

    The new, rapidly developing field of theoretical research --- studies of dark energy interacting with black holes (and, in particular, accreting onto black holes) --- is reviewed. The term `dark energy' is meant to cover a wide range of field theory models, as well as perfect fluids with various equations of state, including cosmological dark energy. Various accretion models are analyzed in terms of the simplest test field approximation or by allowing back reaction on the black-hole metric. T...

  8. Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Spaans, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.

  9. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  10. 119Sn conversion electron Moessbauer spectrometric (CEMS) study on transparent conductive ito and tin oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium-tin oxides (ITO) films were prepared on glass by Ar ion sputtering, ion plating and electron beam melting in vacuum, and tin oxide films were prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of SnCl4 in methanol containing HF. The chemical state of samples prepared was analyzed by CEMS. ITO films, produced from ITO source materials with higher solubility of tin oxide, showed lower electric resistivity. Amorphous ITO films had larger quadrupole splitting than crystalline ones. The tin oxide films were exposed in hydrogen plasma and hydrogen gas and the change of these films was also assessed by CEMS. (orig.)

  11. Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish .

  12. Studies on Nanocrystalline TiN Coatings Prepared by Reactive Plasma Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yanchun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride (TiN coatings with nanostructure were prepared on the surface of 45 steel (Fe-0.45%C via reactive plasma spraying (denoted as RPS Ti powders using spraying gun with self-made reactive chamber. The microstructural characterization, phases constitute, grain size, microhardness, and wear resistance of TiN coatings were systematically investigated. The grain size was obtained through calculation using the Scherrer formula and observed by TEM. The results of X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction indicated that the TiN is main phase of the TiN coating. The forming mechanism of the nano-TiN was characterized by analyzing the SEM morphologies of surface of TiN coating and TiN drops sprayed on the surface of glass, and observing the temperature and velocity of plasma jet using Spray Watch. The tribological properties of the coating under nonlubricated condition were tested and compared with those of the AISI M2 high-speed steel and Al2O3 coating. The results have shown that the RPS TiN coating presents better wear resistance than the M2 high-speed steel and Al2O3 coating under nonlubricated condition. The microhardness of the cross-section and longitudinal section of the TiN coating was tested. The highest hardness of the cross-section of TiN coating is 1735.43HV100 g.

  13. Nature of contact deformation of TiN films on steel

    OpenAIRE

    S. Bhowmick; Xie, ZH; M. Hoffman; Jayaram, V; Biswas, SK

    2004-01-01

    Nanoindentation experiments were carried out on a columnar similar to1.5-mum-thick TiN film on steel using a conical indenter with a 5-mum tip radius. Microstructural examination of the contact zone indicates that after initial elastic deformation, the deformation mechanism of the TiN is dominated by shear fracture at inter-columnar grain boundaries of the TiN film. A simple model is proposed whereby the applied load is partitioned between a deforming TiN annulus and a central expanding cavit...

  14. Thermal and plasma-enhanced oxidation of ALD TiN

    OpenAIRE

    Groenland, A.W.; Brunets, I.; Boogaard, A.; Aarnink, A. A. I.; Kovalgin, A.Y.; Schmitz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite its high chemical stability, sputtered stoichiometric TiN can still be oxidized at temperatures below 400 ºC, whereas a non-stoichiometric TiN is known to oxidize even at room temperature. In this work, the oxidation behaviour of thin TiN layers, realized via atomic layer deposition (ALD), is investigated. Our experiments on thermal oxidation of ALD TiN revealed the existence of a linear and parabolic regime. The extracted activation energies for the parabolic regime resemble the valu...

  15. The role of tin in surface bonding of CO to Pt(111)

    OpenAIRE

    Askar, Raid

    2011-01-01

    We have used synchrotron radiation based photoelectron spectroscopy to study tin induced modifications in surface bonding of CO to Pt(111). Tin can form both so-called surface alloys, where tin replaces surface platinum atoms and ordered adatom structures where tin stays on top of the surface. The alloy is formed after annealing to 600 °C. The results from Pt(111) are in excellent agreement with previous literature, with CO binding in top site and in bridge site. On Pt(111)-Sn alloys we obser...

  16. Distribution behavior of Copper and Tin between FeO-rich slag and iron solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长荣; 洪新; 郑少波; 蒋国昌

    2004-01-01

    The distribution behavior of residual elements copper and tin between FeO-rich slag and iron solution was investigated under the condition of an induction furnace. The results indicate that a part of copper and tin is incidently oxidized when oxygen is blasted into bath to react with iron element. The distribution ratio of copper and tin between slag and metal is about 0.1. Phenomena of Cu and Sn elements segregation and accumulation in slag were observed by means of EPMA analysis. The distribution ratio of copper and tin between slag and metal may descend with increasing of CaO content in slag.

  17. Optical absorption, 31P NMR, and photoluminescence spectroscopy study of copper and tin co-doped barium–phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical and structural properties of 50P2O5:50BaO glasses prepared by melting have been investigated for additive concentrations of 10 and 1 mol% of CuO and SnO dopants. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies were employed in the optical characterization, whereas structural properties were assessed by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Residual Cu2+ was detectable by absorption spectroscopy for the highest concentration of CuO and SnO. More prominently, the optical data suggests contributions from both twofold-coordinated Sn centers and Cu+ ions to light absorption and emission in the glasses. The luminescence depends strongly on excitation wavelength for the highest concentration of dopants where a blue–white emission is observed under short-wavelength excitation (e.g., 260 nm) largely due to tin, while an orange luminescence is exhibited for longer excitation wavelengths (e.g., 360 nm) essentially due to Cu+ ions. On the other hand, dissimilar luminescent properties were observed in connection to Cu+ ions for the lowest concentration studied, as the copper ions were preferentially excited in a narrower range at shorter wavelengths near tin centers absorption. The structural analyses revealed the glass matrix to be composed essentially of Q2 (two bridging oxygens) and Q1 (one bridging oxygen) phosphate tetrahedra. A slight increase in the Q1/Q2 ratio reflected upon SnO doping alone suggests a major incorporation of tin into the glass network via P–O–Sn bonds, compatible with the 2-coordinated state attributed to the luminescent Sn centers. However, a significant increase in the Q1/Q2 ratio was indicated with the incorporation of copper at the highest concentration, consistent with a key role of the metal ions as network modifiers. Thus, the change in Cu+ optical properties concurs with different distributions of local environments around the ions induced by variation in metal ion concentration. Luminescence decay curve

  18. Cosmic Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Eun-Joo; Cavaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Production of high-energy gravitational objects is a common feature of gravitational theories. The primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other nonperturbative gravitational entities. Cosmic black holes can be used to probe physical properties of the very early universe which would usually require the knowledge of the theory of quantum gravity. They may be the only tool to explore thermalisation of the early universe. Whereas the creation of cosmic black ...

  19. The New Black

    OpenAIRE

    Lettman-Hicks, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The New Black is a documentary that tells the story of how the African American community is grappling with the gay rights issue in light of the recent gay marriage movement and the fight over Civil Rights. The film documents activities, families and clergy on both sides of the campaign to legalize gay marriage and examines homophobia in the Black community's institutional pillar, the Black church, and reveals the Christian right wing's strategy of exploiting this phenomenon in order to pursu...

  20. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298

  1. Kerr black string flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We give a general illumination of a rotating black string falling into a rotating horizon in dimension D=5. It is a configuration of one smooth intersection between these two objects when the spacetime is axisymmetric and in the limit that the thickness of the black hole is much larger than the thickness of the black string. Following this configuration, we further extend them to the rotating and charged flows.

  2. Stability and formation kinetics of TiN and silicides in the Ti/Si3N4 diffusion couple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactions in Ti/Si3N4 and TiN/Si diffusion couples annealed in the temperature range of 1000-1200 C were studied theoretically as well as experimentally with SEM/EPMA technique. Isothermal sections of the Ti-Si-N system were calculated using the most recent thermodynamic data. Calculations showed that TiN and Si react with each other and form Si3N4 and TiSi2, parallel to the experimental studies. Correspondingly, results from the Ti/Si3N4 couple were in good accordance with calculated phase equilibria. (orig.)

  3. Possibility to Use Low Temperature Pulsed RF Sputtered Indium Tin Oxide for the Fabrication of Organic Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Partha Pratim Ray; Animesh Layek; Somnath Middya

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have used pulsed RF sputtering method to deposit indium tin oxide (ITO) for the fabrication of P3HT:PCBM based bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell. We have deposited ITO at low substrate temperature (100°C) and for different pulse modes. Oxygen was used as an admixture to the sputtering gas argon, and the percentage was varied from 0 to 6%. During deposition, plasma was studied by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) method. For our present range of deposition conditions low...

  4. Concentration of heavy metal As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, Zn, Cr, Fe and radon gas in bottom sediment from abandoned tin mines in the Phuket Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suteerasak, T.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at analyzing the heavy metals: As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and radon gas emission in bottom sediment from six abandoned tin mines in Phuket Province. Fe, Mn, and Sn were found in higher concentrations (but non-polluting than Cr and Ni. As, Pb, and Zn were polluting at lower levels. The concentration ranges for As, Pb, and Zn were 75.3-169, 98.6-547.5, and 120.4-323.3 mg/kg respectively. The activity of radon gas emission from bottom sediment from an abandoned tin mine in Amphur Muang was in the range of 162-212 Bq/kg., in the Amphur Katoo mine the range was 122-266 Bq/kg. and in the Amphur Talang mine the range was 180-263 Bq/kg. All these sites have higher concentrations of radon gas emissions than other similar sites. The heavy metals and radon gas come from geochemical materials such as soil and granite rock, found around the abandoned tin mines.

  5. Ten shades of black

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    The holographic principle has taught us that, as far as their entropy content is concerned, black holes in $(3+1)$-dimensional curved spacetimes behave as ordinary thermodynamic systems in flat $(2+1)$-dimensional spacetimes. In this essay we point out that the opposite behavior can also be observed in black-hole physics. To show this we study the quantum Hawking evaporation of near-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. We first point out that the black-hole radiation spectrum departs from the familiar radiation spectrum of genuine $(3+1)$-dimensional perfect black-body emitters. In particular, the would be black-body thermal spectrum is distorted by the curvature potential which surrounds the black hole and effectively blocks the emission of low-energy quanta. Taking into account the energy-dependent gray-body factors which quantify the imprint of passage of the emitted radiation quanta through the black-hole curvature potential, we reveal that the $(3+1)$-dimensional black holes effectively behave as p...

  6. Black hole statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather, they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ''infinite statistics'' which resembles that of distinguishable particles and is realized by a q deformation of the quantum commutation relations

  7. Antigravity and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, D

    2006-01-01

    We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in quantization of gravity.

  8. Deforming regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, J C S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have deformed regular black holes which possess a general mass term described by a function which generalizes the Bardeen and Hayward mass terms. Using linear constraints in the energy-momentum tensor, the solutions are either regular or singular. That is, with this approach, it is possible to generate singular black holes from regular black holes and vice versa. Moreover, contrary to the Bardeen and Hayward regular solutions, the regular deformed metrics may violate the weak energy condition despite the presence of the spherical symmetry. Some comments on accretion of deformed black holes in cosmological scenarios are made.

  9. Black stain - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarise the fundamentals about black stain, its diagnosis and possible differential diagnoses as well as its microbiology and therapy. In addition, various studies investigating the relationship between black stain and dental caries are examined. Many studies report lower caries prevalence in children with black stain, but this finding could not be confirmed by all authors. Also, a negative relation between degree of staining and caries severity has been described. Reasons for these results are not yet clear but it was speculated that they are related to the specific oral microflora described in black stain-affected individuals. PMID:21594205

  10. "Black Capitalism": Toward Controlled Development of Black America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert E.

    1969-01-01

    Argues in favor of the connotation of the term "Black capitalism as the accumulation of capital resources by the Black people in a collective fashion for the benefit of the masses of Black people. (RJ)

  11. Geological Characteristics of the Furong Tin Orefield, Hunan,40Ar-39Ar Dating of Tin Ores and Related Granite and Its Geodynamic Significance for Rock and Ore Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jingwen; LI Xiaofeng; CHEN Wen; LAN Xiaoming; WEI Shaoliu

    2004-01-01

    Furong, Hunan, is a large tin orefield discovered in China in recent years, which is mainly of the skarn-greisenchlorite type. On the basis of the geological characteristics of the orefield, 40Ar-39Ar dating was performed on muscovite from greisen-type tin ore and biotite from related amphibole-biotite granite, which yielded three sets of age data, i.e., a plateau age of 157.5±0.3 Ma and an i sochron age of 156.9±3 Ma for amphibole-biotite granite; a plateau age of 156.1 ±0.4Ma and an isochron age of 155.7±1.7 Ma for the Sanmen greisen-type tin ore; and a plateau age of 160.1±0.9 Ma and an isochron age of 157.5±1.5 Ma for the Taoxiwo greisen-type tin ore. The three sets of age data coincide well with each other They not only accurately reflect the timing of rock and ore formation but also indicate close relations between granite and tin deposits. In addition, the plateau ages of all three sets suggest that no subsequent thermal perturbation event occurred after the formation of granite and tin deposits. The Furong tin orefield is a component part of the southern Hunan large tungsten-tin polymetallic deposit concentration area and also a representative deposit formed in the time interval of 160-135 Ma in four peaks of Mesozoic tungsten-tin mineralization in the South China region. They might still correspond to the middle and late stages of the major geodynamic transition from a N-S- to an E-W-direction in eastern China.

  12. Wide range pure bending strains of Nb3Sn wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure bending behavior of Nb3Sn wire over a wide range of bending has been characterized. A previously developed test device designed to apply variable bending strains to Nb3Sn strands using a beam style sample holder was used. Based on finite element and experimental investigations, two sample holder beams were developed to cover pure bending strains up to 1.25% for ITER-type Nb3Sn wires. These newly designed beams were optimized to apply consistent and uniform pure bending strains to Nb3Sn strands over the entire bending range. Their performance was evaluated by testing two ITER-type Nb3Sn wires including one internal tin and one bronze route. The internal tin strands experienced around 55% critical current degradation at 1.25% bending strain while the critical current of the bronze route strands were only reduced by 40%. Upon removal of the bending load, the internal tin wires experienced significant permanent degradation whereas the bronze route wires were completely reversible. These critical current results were evaluated and explained using an existing integrated model accounting for neutral axis shift, current transfer length, filament breakage and uniaxial strain release under pure bending loads. (paper)

  13. Black holes and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for instance, the UK

  14. Peroxide induced tin oxide coating of graphene oxide at room temperature and its application for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new, simple and low-temperature method for ultra-thin coating of graphene oxide (GO) by peroxostannate, tin oxide or a mixture of tin and tin oxide crystallites by different treatments. The technique is environmentally friendly and does not require complicated infrastructure, an autoclave or a microwave. The supported peroxostannate phase is partially converted after drying to crystalline tin oxide with average, 2.5 nm cassiterite crystals. Mild heat treatment yielded full coverage of the reduced graphene oxide by crystalline tin oxide. Extensive heat treatment in vacuum at >500  °C yielded a mixture of elemental tin and cassiterite tin oxide nanoparticles supported on reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The usefulness of the new approach was demonstrated by the preparation of two types of lithium ion anodes: tin oxide–rGO and a mixture of tin oxide and tin coated rGO composites (SnO2–Sn–rGO). The electrodes exhibited stable charge/discharge cyclability and high charging capacity due to the intimate contact between the conductive graphene and the very small tin oxide crystallites. The charging/discharging capacity of the anodes exceeded the theoretical capacity predicted based on tin lithiation. The tin oxide coated rGO exhibited higher charging capacity but somewhat lower stability upon extended charge/discharge cycling compared to SnO2–Sn–rGO. (paper)

  15. Rotating Brane World Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Modgil, Moninder Singh; Panda, Sukanta; Sengupta, Gautam

    2001-01-01

    A five dimensional rotating black string in a Randall-Sundrum brane world is considered. The black string intercepts the three brane in a four dimensional rotating black hole. The geodesic equations and the asymptotics in this background are discussed.

  16. Adulteration and its detection of black raspberry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have continually researched improvements for commercially available cultivars of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap). During the past decade, we have analyzed fruit from over 1,000 black raspberry genotypes and cultivars, and found that the anthocyanin content to ranged from 39 to 9...

  17. Color coating on tin plate by electron beam curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of thin films of color paints cured by electron beam radiation were examined for the purpose of appling electron beams to the color printing of can exteriors. The mixtures of various kinds of acrylic oligomers, monomers, and pigments were used as color paints. The color paints were coated on tin plate and the plates were irradiated in an atmosphere of nitrogen with low energy electron beams of 200 kV. The pencil hardness, adhesion, cracking, and hue of cured coating were measured. From the results of these tests, several color paints seem to be appropriate for the processing of can exterious. (author)

  18. Coating power RF components with TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility for coating RF power components with thin films of Ti and/or TiN has been in operation for some time at Fermilab supporting the Accelerator Division RF development work and the TESLA program. It has been experimentally verified that such coatings improve the performance of these components as far as withstanding higher electric fields. This is attributed to a reduction in the secondary electron emission coefficient of the surfaces when coated with a thin film containing titanium. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to describe the facility and the procedure used

  19. Coating power RF components with TiN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchnir, M.; Hahn, E.

    1995-03-01

    A facility for coating RF power components with thin films of Ti and/or TiN has been in operation for some time at Fermilab supporting the Accelerator Division RF development work and the TESLA program. It has been experimentally verified that such coatings improve the performance of these components as far as withstanding higher electric fields. This is attributed to a reduction in the secondary electron emission coefficient of the surfaces when coated with a thin film containing titanium. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to describe the facility and the procedure used.

  20. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  1. Electrochemical investigations on spray deposited tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P.S.; Chigare, P.S.; Sadale, S.B.; Mujawar, S.H.; Shinde, P.S. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India)

    2007-06-15

    Tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films were prepared by a simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique from an aqueous solution at various substrate temperatures viz. 300, 400 and 500 C, and their electrochemical studies have been carried out. The thin films have been optically and electrochemically characterized by means of transmittance, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The mechanism of reduction and oxidation reactions that took place during the potential cycling is presented. The samples deposited at 500 C exhibit better performance in terms of coloration efficiency, reversibility, contrast ratio and response time. (author)

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF LOW TEMPERATURE ION PLATING TiN COATINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The TiN coatings were deposited onto the low carbon steel substrates with different temperatures (150,250,350 and 450 ℃), using hollow cathode discharge (HCD) ion plating method. The measurements of the microhardness and wear resistance of the coatings show that the hardness value slowly increases and the wear resistance remains almost unchanged with increasing the substrate temperature from 150 ℃ to 450 ℃. The reason for effect of the substrate temperature on the properties and morphologies of the coatings was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  3. Microstructures of duplex (beta + gamma) silver-tin alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, J R; Miller, D R; Netherway, D J

    1985-05-01

    The microstructures of (beta + gamma) silver-tin alloys are especially influenced by both homogenization temperature and subsequent heat treatment. When the alloy is cooled from homogenization temperatures above approximately 200 degrees C, lenticular regions of the ordered orthorhombic gamma phase precipitate from within the disordered h.c.p. beta phase on three structurally equivalent planes, (1210), (1120), and (2110), to form a Widmanstatten structure. When the duplex alloys were homogenized at temperatures below approximately 200 degrees C, where the beta/(beta + gamma) phase boundary is vertical, these structures were not observed. PMID:3858310

  4. Platinum/Tin Oxide/Silica Gel Catalyst Oxidizes CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Davis, Patricia P.; Schryer, David R.; Miller, Irvin M.; Brown, David; Van Norman, John D.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    1991-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalyst of platinum, tin oxide, and silica gel combines small concentrations of laser dissociation products, CO and O2, to form CO22 during long times at ambient temperature. Developed as means to prevent accumulation of these products in sealed CO2 lasers. Effective at ambient operating temperatures and installs directly in laser envelope. Formulated to have very high surface area and to chemisorb controlled quantities of moisture: chemisorbed water contained within and upon its structure, makes it highly active and very longlived so only small quantity needed for long times.

  5. High dislocation density of tin induced by electric current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yi-Han; Liang, Chien-Lung; Lin, Kwang-Lung, E-mail: matkllin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, R. O. C (China); Wu, Albert T. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan, R. O. C (China)

    2015-12-15

    A dislocation density of as high as 10{sup 17} /m{sup 2} in a tin strip, as revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscope, was induced by current stressing at 6.5 x 10{sup 3} A/ cm{sup 2}. The dislocations exist in terms of dislocation line, dislocation loop, and dislocation aggregates. Electron Backscattered Diffraction images reflect that the high dislocation density induced the formation of low deflection angle subgrains, high deflection angle Widmanstätten grains, and recrystallization. The recrystallization gave rise to grain refining.

  6. Tin Whisker Growth on NdSn3 Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Chang; Xian, Ai-Ping

    2011-09-01

    Tin whiskers grew rapidly and spontaneously on NdSn3 powder under atmospheric conditions. By in situ optical microscopy observation, the incubation period of whisker growth was found to be very short, only about 10 min to 30 min, and the whisker growth rate was very high (up to 73 Å/s). It is proposed that the strong tendency for whisker growth on NdSn3 powder indicates that such growth is closely related to decomposition of NdSn3 under atmospheric conditions. An electron beam irradiation effect on whisker growth was also observed, in which the whiskers cease to grow after observation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  7. Acidic leaching of copper and tin from used consumer equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Orac D.; Havlik T.; Maul A.; Berwanger M.

    2015-01-01

    This work is focused on studying thermal pretreatment and leaching of copper and tin from printed circuit boards (PCBs) from used consumer equipment. Thermal treatment experiments were realized with and without presence of oxygen at 300°C, 500°C, 700°C and 900°C for 30 minutes. Leaching experiments were performed at 80°C in 2M HCl in two stages. The first stage consisted of classic leaching experiments of samples without and after thermal treatment. The sec...

  8. Evolution of massive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Volonteri, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I'll discuss black hole formation processes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and how massive black hole evolve in a hierarchical Universe...

  9. Influence of Oxygen Pressure on Filtered Vacuum Arc Deposition of Tin Oxide Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin oxide is a conducting material which is transparent in the visible region, reflective in the infra-red, and absorbing in the ultraviolet. Applied as a thin film, it is used for transparent electrodes for solar cells and in energy conserving coatings on architectural glass. This paper presents the results of experiments in which tin oxide films were deposited using filtered vacuum arc deposition. A plasma jet of ionized Sn vapor was produced by cathode spots on a 93 mm diameter Sn cathode by a 160 A d.c. arc. The plasma jet was directed through a quarter torus duct using a magnetic field, while droplets of liquid Sn collided with the duct walls and were thus filtered from the plasma stream. The plasma jet was directed either to a probe or to a substrate placed downstream from the duct outlet, and where an oxygen atmosphere was maintained at a pressure P 0-6 mTorr. Arc voltage, ion current, coating transmission and coating conductivity were measured as a function of the oxygen pressure. It was found that the arc voltage was 30V, and relatively independent of p for P<4 mTorr. With higher pressures, the arc increasingly operated in a high voltage mode, with an arc voltage typically 10 V higher than in the low voltage mode. The change from the low to the high voltage mode is likewise associated with a trebling in the extracted ion current, from 250 to 750 mA. The deposition rate decreased linearly from 14 to 5 nm/s when the pressure was increased from 3 to 5 mTorr. The optical extinction length had a maximum value of 2.6 m in the pressure range of 3.9-4.3 mTorr, while minimum electrical conductivities of 410-3 - cm were obtained for 3.8-4.1 mTorr

  10. Photoelectrochemical salt water splitting using ternary silver-tin-selenide photoelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kong-Wei; Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Chiu, Ting-Hsuan

    2016-03-01

    Ternary AgSnSe2 and Ag8SnSe6 semiconductor photoelectrodes are prepared on various substrates via the selenization of thermally evaporation of silver-tin metal precursors. The structural, optical and electrical properties of ternary AgSnSe2 and Ag8SnSe6 samples are investigated as a function of the [Ag]/[Ag + Sn] molar ratio in the metal precursors. X-ray diffraction patterns of samples show that the phases of samples change from cubic AgSnSe2 to cubic Ag8SnSe6 phase at a selenization temperature of 410 °C when the molar ratio of [Ag]/[Ag + Sn] in silver-tin metal precursors increase from 0.51 to 0.68. The images obtained from a field-emission scanning electron microscopy show that the surface microstructures of samples change from plate-like microstructures with some pinholes to polygonal microstructures with increasing [Ag]/[Ag + Sn] molar ratios in samples. The energy bang gaps, carrier concentrations and mobilities of the samples are in the ranges of 0.86-1.19 eV, 1.27 × 1011-2.39 × 1012 cm-3 and 238-655 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. The highest photo-enhanced current densities of the samples in aqueous Na2S + K2SO3 and NaCl solutions are 3.34 and 0.61 mA cm-2 at an applied voltage of 0 and + 0.4 V vs. an Ag/AgCl electrode under 100 mW cm-2 light illumination from a Xe lamp source, respectively.

  11. Synthesis of a mixed-valent tin nitride and considerations of its possible crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Christopher M; Holder, Aaron; Shulda, Sarah; Christensen, Steven T; Diercks, David; Schwartz, Craig P; Biagioni, David; Nordlund, Dennis; Kukliansky, Alon; Natan, Amir; Prendergast, David; Orvananos, Bernardo; Sun, Wenhao; Zhang, Xiuwen; Ceder, Gerbrand; Ginley, David S; Tumas, William; Perkins, John D; Stevanovic, Vladan; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Lany, Stephan; Richards, Ryan M; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-04-14

    Recent advances in theoretical structure prediction methods and high-throughput computational techniques are revolutionizing experimental discovery of the thermodynamically stable inorganic materials. Metastable materials represent a new frontier for these studies, since even simple binary non-ground state compounds of common elements may be awaiting discovery. However, there are significant research challenges related to non-equilibrium thin film synthesis and crystal structure predictions, such as small strained crystals in the experimental samples and energy minimization based theoretical algorithms. Here, we report on experimental synthesis and characterization, as well as theoretical first-principles calculations of a previously unreported mixed-valent binary tin nitride. Thin film experiments indicate that this novel material is N-deficient SnN with tin in the mixed ii/iv valence state and a small low-symmetry unit cell. Theoretical calculations suggest that the most likely crystal structure has the space group 2 (SG2) related to the distorted delafossite (SG166), which is nearly 0.1 eV/atom above the ground state SnN polymorph. This observation is rationalized by the structural similarity of the SnN distorted delafossite to the chemically related Sn3N4 spinel compound, which provides a fresh scientific insight into the reasons for growth of polymorphs of metastable materials. In addition to reporting on the discovery of the simple binary SnN compound, this paper illustrates a possible way of combining a wide range of advanced characterization techniques with the first-principle property calculation methods, to elucidate the most likely crystal structure of the previously unreported metastable materials. PMID:27083713

  12. Synthesis of a Mixed-Valent Tin Nitride and Considerations of its Possible Crystal Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Christopher M.; Holder, Aaron; Shulda, Sarah; Christensen, Steven T.; Diercks, David; Schwartz, Craig P.; Biagioni, David; Nordlund, Dennis; Kukliansky, A.; Natan, Amir; Prendergast, David; Orvananos, B.; Sun, Wenhao; Zhang, Xiuwen; Ceder, Gerbrand; Ginley, David S.; Tumas, William; Perkins, John D.; Stevanovic, Vladan; Pylypenko, S.; Lany, Stephan; Richards, Ryan M.; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-04-14

    Recent advances in theoretical structure prediction methods and high-throughput computational techniques are revolutionizing experimental discovery of the thermodynamically stable inorganic materials. Metastable materials represent a new frontier for these studies, since even simple binary non ground state compounds of common elements may be awaiting discovery. However, there are significant research challenges related to non-equilibrium thin film synthesis and crystal structure predictions, such as small strained crystals in the experimental samples and energy minimization based theoretical algorithms. Here we report on experimental synthesis and characterization, as well as theoretical first-principles calculations of a previously unreported mixed-valent binary tin nitride. Thin film experiments indicate that this novel material is N-deficient SnN with tin in the mixed II/IV valence state and a small low-symmetry unit cell. Theoretical calculations suggest that the most likely crystal structure has the space group 2 (SG2) related to the distorted delafossite (SG166), which is nearly 0.1 eV/atom above the ground state SnN polymorph. This observation is rationalized by the structural similarity of the SnN distorted delafossite to the chemically related Sn3N4 spinel compound, which provides a fresh scientific insight into the reasons for growth of polymorphs of the metastable material. In addition to reporting on the discovery of the simple binary SnN compound, this paper illustrates a possible way of combining a wide range of advanced characterization techniques with the first-principle property calculation methods, to elucidate the most likely crystal structure of the previously unreported metastable materials.

  13. Synthesis of a mixed-valent tin nitride and considerations of its possible crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Christopher M.; Holder, Aaron; Shulda, Sarah; Christensen, Steven T.; Diercks, David; Schwartz, Craig P.; Biagioni, David; Nordlund, Dennis; Kukliansky, Alon; Natan, Amir; Prendergast, David; Orvananos, Bernardo; Sun, Wenhao; Zhang, Xiuwen; Ceder, Gerbrand; Ginley, David S.; Tumas, William; Perkins, John D.; Stevanovic, Vladan; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Lany, Stephan; Richards, Ryan M.; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in theoretical structure prediction methods and high-throughput computational techniques are revolutionizing experimental discovery of the thermodynamically stable inorganic materials. Metastable materials represent a new frontier for these studies, since even simple binary non-ground state compounds of common elements may be awaiting discovery. However, there are significant research challenges related to non-equilibrium thin film synthesis and crystal structure predictions, such as small strained crystals in the experimental samples and energy minimization based theoretical algorithms. Here, we report on experimental synthesis and characterization, as well as theoretical first-principles calculations of a previously unreported mixed-valent binary tin nitride. Thin film experiments indicate that this novel material is N-deficient SnN with tin in the mixed ii/iv valence state and a small low-symmetry unit cell. Theoretical calculations suggest that the most likely crystal structure has the space group 2 (SG2) related to the distorted delafossite (SG166), which is nearly 0.1 eV/atom above the ground state SnN polymorph. This observation is rationalized by the structural similarity of the SnN distorted delafossite to the chemically related Sn3N4 spinel compound, which provides a fresh scientific insight into the reasons for growth of polymorphs of metastable materials. In addition to reporting on the discovery of the simple binary SnN compound, this paper illustrates a possible way of combining a wide range of advanced characterization techniques with the first-principle property calculation methods, to elucidate the most likely crystal structure of the previously unreported metastable materials.

  14. Carbon black recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process and apparatus for recovering carbon black from hot smoke which comprises passing the smoke through a cyclone separation zone following cooling, then through aggregate filter beds and regeneration of filter beds with clean off-gas which is recycled to the carbon black reaction zone as quench

  15. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t - r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  16. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Mehdipour, S.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t — r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  17. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  18. Black holes in inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.

    1997-08-01

    We summarise recent work on the quantum production of black holes in the inflationary era. We describe, in simple terms, the Euclidean approach used, and the results obtained both for the pair creation rate and for the evolution of the black holes.

  19. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  20. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  1. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  2. Suppressed black hole production from minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large extra dimensions lower the Planck scale to values soon accessible. Motivated by string theory, the models of large extra dimensions predict a vast number of new effects in the energy range of the lowered Planck scale, among them the production of TeV-mass black holes. But not only is the Planck scale the energy scale at which effects of modified gravity become important. String theory as well as non-commutative quantum mechanics suggest that the Planck length acts a minimal length in nature, providing a natural ultraviolet cutoff and a limit to the possible resolution of spacetime. The minimal length effects thus become important in the same energy range in which the black holes are expected to form. In this Letter we examine the influence of the minimal length on the expected production rate of the black holes

  3. Fluctuating Black Hole Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.

  4. Potential of Conversion Electron Emitter Tin-117m for Application to Cardiovascular Therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Tin-117m has many advantages over other commonly used therapeutic radionuclides, in particular for application to systemic radionuclide therapy of cancer and of cardiovascular diseases. The production of 117mSn labeled molecules is relatively simple and they have high chemical and in-vivo stability. Tin-117m is much less toxic to bone marrow compared to other treatments including chemotherapy, as well as therapy using common beta emitters. It thus offers increased treatment options for patients with chemotherapy- or radiation-induced bone marrow suppression. Tin-117m also shows considerable promise for the non-invasive molecular imaging and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, in particular of occluded coronary arteries and vulnerable plaques through the use of i) coronary stents electroplated with 117mSn, or ii) specific 117mSn labeled molecules systemically targeted to vulnerable plaque components .This paper presents the results of our initial work on the stable electroplating of commonly used stainless steel stents (BMS) with 117mSn, and their use in experimental animal models to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness. Tin-117m has a half-life of 14 days and it emits three major short-range monoenergetic conversion electrons with discrete energies (and discrete ranges in tissue) of 127, 129, and 152 KeV with high linear energy transfer. These conversion electrons deposit their intense energy in discrete ranges in tissue within a distance of between 0.22 mm and 0.29 mm, which closely corresponds with the average thickness of the human coronary arteries. Since inflammatory cells are more radiosensitive than other arterial wall cell types, the conversion electrons may exhibit a beneficial anti-inflammatory effect in diseased coronary arteries, or those that are being treated by revascularization procedures. Since twenty-eight days, corresponding to two half-lives of 117mSn, is believed to be about the optimum period for neoproliferative tissue suppression

  5. Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN), TIN of Thomas County, GA, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Thomas County BOC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It...

  6. Fast, versatile x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in impregnated wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabæk, I.; Christensen, Leif Højslet

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes an energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in bis(tri-n-butyl)tin-oxide impregnated wood. The proposed method is of the backscatter/fundamental parameter type. Its versatility, precision, and accuracy is demonstrated by analyses of eleven samples of...

  7. Reversible storage of lithium in a rambutan-like tin-carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Da; Lee, Jim Yang

    2009-01-01

    Fruity electrodes: A simple bottom-up self-assembly method was used to fabricate rambutan-like tin-carbon (Sn@C) nanoarchitecture (see scheme, green Sn) to improve the reversible storage of lithium in tin. The mechanism of the growth of the pear-like hairs is explored. PMID:19156791

  8. Incorporation of tin affects crystallization, morphology, and crystal composition of Sn-Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Søren; Katerinopoulou, A.; Falcone, D. D.;

    2014-01-01

    only drastically a ff ects the time required for crystallization, but also that the presence of tin changes the morphology of the formed Sn-Beta crystals. For low amounts of tin (Si/Sn ¼ 400) crystallization occurs within four days and the Sn-Beta crystals are capped bipyramidal in shape, whereas for...

  9. Characterisation of baroque tin amalgam mirrors of the historical Green Vault in Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywitzki, O.; Nedon, W.; Kopte, T.; Modes, T.

    2008-07-01

    The historical Green Vault, one of Europe’s most sumptuous treasure chambers, has reopened in September 2006 in the Dresden Royal Palace. For the baroque presentation of the artworks the special properties of tin amalgam mirrors are of great importance. A comprehensive analytic characterisation was necessary for restoration and reconstruction. The different original casting glasses were analysed in respect of chemical composition, roughness, waviness and optical properties like chromaticity coordinates and transmittance. The microstructure of the tin amalgam layers were investigated on metallographic cross-sections and by X-ray diffraction. The investigations reveal that the tin amalgam layers are composed of γ-HgSn6-10 phase with a grain size between 5 and 50 μm surrounded by a thin mercury phase with about 2 wt. % tin. However the most important property of the baroque tin amalgam mirrors is a relative low reflectivity of about 59% which is drastically lower than for silver mirrors with a reflectivity of about 96%. According to the characterisation results a suitable glass for reconstruction was selected. The mirror layers were produced by historical tin amalgam technology for the rooms not destroyed by bombarding of Dresden in February 1945. For the completely destroyed Jewel Room pure tin layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The results show that this new technology enables an adequate substitute for the original tin amalgam layers.

  10. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived films doped with platinum and antimony deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savaniu, C.; Arnautu, A.; Cobianu, C.; Craciun, G.; Flueraru, C.; Zaharescu, M.; Parlog, C.; Paszti, F.; Berg, van den A.

    1999-01-01

    SnO2 sol-gel derived thin films doped simultaneously with Pt and Sb are obtained and reported for the first time. The Sn sources were tin(IV) ethoxide or tin(II) ethylhexanoate, while hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and antimony chloride (SbCl3) were used as platinum and antimony sources, respecti

  11. A comparative study of the properties of TiN films deposited by MAIP and FCAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this study two types of TiN films were prepared, one using the filtered cathodic arc plasma (FC AP) technique with an in-plane "S" filier, and the other using the multi-arc ion-plating (MAIP), and both deposited under the same parameters. Comparisons of the texture, hardness, roughness, tribological and electrochemical corrosion behaviors of the two types of TiN films were given. The TiN films obtained by the FCAP technology were found to be highly uniform, smooth and macroparticle-free. The TiN films deposited by FCAP had a (111) preferred orientation, while there was no texture in the films deposited by MAIP. Under low load the two kinds of TiN coatings had very different wear mechanisms; the films of FCAP had a lower wear rate and friction coefficient compared with the TiN films deposited by the MAIP technique. The dense and hole-free structure of TiN films of FCAP could effectively avoid the avalanche of TiN films from the substrate during corrosion tests.

  12. Occupational irritant contact folliculitis associated with triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Petri, M

    1982-01-01

    Triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) is a bioactive organo-tin compound used in concentrations 2-12% as anti-foulants in boat paints. The chemical is moderately toxic to the skin. An occupational irritant contact folliculitis from TPTF in a marine paint plant worker is described. Contact allergy was...

  13. Tin- and Lead-Based Perovskite Solar Cells under Scrutiny: An Environmental Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano-Luján, Lucía; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod;

    2015-01-01

    The effect of substituting lead with tin in perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs) has shows that lead is preferred over tin by a lower cumulative energy demand. The results, which also include end-of-life management, show that a recycling scenario that carefully handles emission of lead enables use...

  14. STUDIES ON SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF BIS(β—ALKOXYCARBONYALKYL)TIN POLYTHIOETHERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CheRongrui; WeiRongboa; 等

    1994-01-01

    Bis(β-alkoxycarbonylalkyl) tin dichlorides were interfacial condensed with organic dithio-alcohols to give a series of new organo-tin polymers.Experimental parameters were discussed.The polymers synthesized were tested for their effect on the heat-stabilization of PVC resins.The results are of interest in this area of application.

  15. Tin- and titanium-doped gamma-Fe2O3 (maghemite)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, O.; Greneche, J.M.; Berry, F.J.; Mørup, Steen; Mosselmans, F.

    2001-01-01

    2.5% and 8% tin- and 8% titanium-doped gamma -Fe2O3 have been synthesized and examined by x-ray powder diffraction, EXAFS, electron microscopy and by Fe-57- and Sn-119-Mossbauer spectroscopy. The Sn- and Ti-K-edge EXAFS show that both tin and titanium adopt octahedral sites in the spinel related ...... (magnetite)....

  16. Accommodation of tin in tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, B. D. C.; Grimes, R. W.; Wenman, M. R., E-mail: m.wenman@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials and Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Murphy, S. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Burr, P. A. [Department of Materials and Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

    2015-02-28

    Atomic scale computer simulations using density functional theory were used to investigate the behaviour of tin in the tetragonal phase oxide layer on Zr-based alloys. The Sn{sub Zr}{sup ×} defect was shown to be dominant across most oxygen partial pressures, with Sn{sub Zr}{sup ″} charge compensated by V{sub O}{sup ••} occurring at partial pressures below 10{sup −31 }atm. Insertion of additional positive charge into the system was shown to significantly increase the critical partial pressure at which Sn{sub Zr}{sup ″} is stable. Recently developed low-Sn nuclear fuel cladding alloys have demonstrated an improved corrosion resistance and a delayed transition compared to Sn-containing alloys, such as Zircaloy-4. The interaction between the positive charge and the tin defect is discussed in the context of alloying additions, such as niobium and their influence on corrosion of cladding alloys.

  17. Recent direct reaction experimental studies with radioactive tin beams

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, K L; Allmond, J M; Ayres, A; Bardayan, D W; Baugher, T; Bazin, D; Berryman, J S; Bey, A; Bingham, C; Cartegni, L; Cerizza, G; Chae, K Y; Cizewski, J A; Gade, A; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Garcia-Ruiz, R F; Grzywacz, R; Howard, M E; Kozub, R L; Liang, J F; Manning, B; Matos, M; McDaniel, S; Miller, D; Nesaraja, C D; O'Malley, P D; Padgett, S; Padilla-Rodal, E; Pain, S D; Pittman, S T; Radford, D C; Ratkiewicz, A; Schmitt, K T; Shore, A; Smith, M S; Stracener, D W; Stroberg, S R; Tostevin, J; Varner, R L; Weisshaar, D; Wimmer, K; Winkler, R

    2015-01-01

    Direct reaction techniques are powerful tools to study the single-particle nature of nuclei. Performing direct reactions on short-lived nuclei requires radioactive ion beams produced either via fragmentation or the Isotope Separation OnLine (ISOL) method. Some of the most interesting regions to study with direct reactions are close to the magic numbers where changes in shell structure can be tracked. These changes can impact the final abundances of explosive nucleosynthesis. The structure of the chain of tin isotopes is strongly influenced by the Z=50 proton shell closure, as well as the neutron shell closures lying in the neutron-rich, N=82, and neutron-deficient, N=50, regions. Here we present two examples of direct reactions on exotic tin isotopes. The first uses a one-neutron transfer reaction and a low-energy reaccelerated ISOL beam to study states in 131Sn from across the N=82 shell closure. The second example utilizes a one-neutron knockout reaction on fragmentation beams of neutron-deficient 106,108Sn...

  18. Electron-Beam Induced Transformations of Layered Tin Dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, E; Huang, Y; Komsa, H-P; Ghorbani-Asl, M; Krasheninnikov, A V; Sutter, P

    2016-07-13

    By combining high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and associated analytical methods with first-principles calculations, we study the behavior of layered tin dichalcogenides under electron beam irradiation. We demonstrate that the controllable removal of chalcogen atoms due to electron irradiation, at both room and elevated temperatures, gives rise to transformations in the atomic structure of Sn-S and Sn-Se systems so that new phases with different properties can be induced. In particular, rhombohedral layered SnS2 and SnSe2 can be transformed via electron beam induced loss of chalcogen atoms into highly anisotropic orthorhombic layered SnS and SnSe. A striking dependence of the layer orientation of the resulting SnS-parallel to the layers of ultrathin SnS2 starting material, but slanted for transformations of thicker few-layer SnS2-is rationalized by a transformation pathway in which vacancies group into ordered S-vacancy lines, which convert via a Sn2S3 intermediate to SnS. Absence of a stable Sn2Se3 intermediate precludes this pathway for the selenides, hence SnSe2 always transforms into basal plane oriented SnSe. Our results provide microscopic insights into the transformation mechanism and show how irradiation can be used to tune the properties of layered tin chalcogenides for applications in electronics, catalysis, or energy storage. PMID:27336595

  19. Acidic leaching of copper and tin from used consumer equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orac D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on studying thermal pretreatment and leaching of copper and tin from printed circuit boards (PCBs from used consumer equipment. Thermal treatment experiments were realized with and without presence of oxygen at 300°C, 500°C, 700°C and 900°C for 30 minutes. Leaching experiments were performed at 80°C in 2M HCl in two stages. The first stage consisted of classic leaching experiments of samples without and after thermal treatment. The second stage consisted of oxidative leaching experiments (blowing of air or oxygen with the aim to intensify metals leaching. The results of thermal treatment experiments show that maximal mass loss after burning (combustion was 53 % (700°C and after pyrolysis 47 % (900 %. Oxidative leaching resulted in complete dissolution of copper and tin after 60. or 90 minutes of thermally treated samples. Pyrolysis and combustion have positive effects on metals dissolution in comparison with samples without thermal pretreatment. Moreover, the dissolution of metals is more effective and needs shorter leaching time.

  20. The nature of paramagnetic defects in tin (IV) oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • EPR signal at g = 1.8–1.9 (D) was studied in SnO2 prepared under different conditions. • Conditions appropriate for detection of D signal and parameters of them were defined. • Structure of paramagnetic center (PC) attributed to the D signal was proposed. • The PC is a complex of oxygen vacancies with entrapped electrons near SnO2 surface. - Abstract: The nature of paramagnetic centers which are responsible for the EPR signal at g = 1.8–1.9 in tin (IV) oxide was studied. Polycrystalline SnO2 samples were obtained by sol–gel method and by thermal treatment of the precursors containing tin atoms in different oxidation states. The parameters of the EPR spectra recorded after heat treatment of the samples in air, oxygen and hydrogen atmospheres, and in vacuum were analyzed. The observed parameters of the EPR spectra do not allow to assign the paramagnetic center with g = 1.8–1.9 to Sn3+ center. The structure of the paramagnetic center attributed to the EPR signal at g = 1.8–1.9 was proposed. The proposed structure of the paramagnetic center includes a complex of oxygen vacancies at (1 0 1) plane of rutile-type SnO2 lattice