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Sample records for black range tin

  1. Tin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, E.J.; Meinema, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Tin is rather unique in the wide variety of its compounds and applications. Ever since the beginning of the bronze age the metal and its alloys have been of importance to mankind. When considering the impact of tin and its compounds on the environment, it has to be realized that no generalization ca

  2. Influence of carbon black and indium tin oxide absorber particles on laser transmission welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Mirko; Mamuschkin, Viktor; Olowinsky, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    For laser transmission welding of polypropylene carbon black and indium tin oxide (ITO) are used as absorber particles. Additionally, the colorant titanium dioxide is mixed to the absorbing part, while the transparent part is kept in natural state. The absorption coefficients of ITO and carbon black particles are obtained, as well as the scattering properties of polypropylene loaded with titanium dioxide (TiO2). At similar concentrations the absorption coefficient of ITO is an order of magnitude smaller than that of carbon black. Simulations of radiation propagation show that the penetration depth of laser light is smaller for carbon black. Therefore, the density of the released heat is higher. Adding TiO2 changes the distribution of heat in case of ITO, whereas for carbon black the effect is negligible. Thermal simulations reveal the influence of the two absorbers and TiO2 on the heat affected zone. The results of the thermal simulations are compared to tensile test results.

  3. Evaporating Black Holes and Long Range Scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, H

    2003-01-01

    For an effective treatment of the evaporation process of a large black hole the problem concerning the role played by the fluctuations of the (vacuum) stress tensor close to the horizon is addressed. We present arguments which establish a principal relationship between the outward fluctuations of the stress tensor close to the horizon and quantities describing the onset of the evaporation process. This suggest that the evaporation process may be described by a fluctuation-dissipation theorem relating the noise of the horizon to the black hole evaporation rate.

  4. Black Swift Range - CWHR [ds605

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  5. Black Rail Range - CWHR [ds595

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model...

  6. Veiling Glare and Perceived Black in High Dynamic Range Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murdoch, M.J.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    A perceptual experiment was conducted to measure the visibility of black-level differences in the proximity of a bright glare source. In a controlled viewing environment, visual difference thresholds were adaptively measured using dark, shadow-detail images shown on a high dynamic range liquid crys

  7. Titanium-tin oxide protective films on a black cobalt photothermal absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Enrique [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Depto de IPH, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Viveros, Tomas [Area de Ingenieria Quimica, Depto de IPH, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Montoya, Ascencion [Gerencia de Catalizadores. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ruiz, Mireya [Area de Ingenieria. en Recursos Energeticos, Depto de IPH, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-02-12

    We report the effect of covering an electrodeposited black cobalt absorber film with a Ti : Sn oxide film at various atomic ratios prepared by the sol-gel dip process. The resulting composite was characterized in its optical, structural and morphological properties. After thermal treatment at 400C, the uncoated black cobalt film is oxidized and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} is formed. Samples covered with Ti : Sn films and thermally treated at the same temperature suffered lower oxidation maintaining in great extent the original metallic cobalt structure. The optical properties of the resulting material were affected by the presence of the Ti : Sn coating, and the best protective film obtained was a transparent Ti : Sn (8 : 2) atomic ratio oxide film, with a 210 nm thickness. This composite system exhibits an absorptance value of 0.91 and an emittance value of 0.34 after a 100 h, 400C thermal treatment. A photothermal material composed of a layer of black cobalt and a protective oxide film coating seems then a promising solar energy absorber capable of withstanding high operating temperatures (400C)

  8. Long-ranged interactions in thin TiN films at the superconductor-insulator transition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronfeldner, Klaus; Strunk, Christoph [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Baturina, Tatyana [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    We measured IV-characteristics and magnetoresistance of square TiN-films in the vicinity of the disorder-tuned superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) for different sizes (5 μm to 240 μm). While the films are superconducting at zero magnetic field, at finite fields a SIT occurs. The resistance shows thermally activated behaviour on both sides of the SIT. Deep in the superconducting regime the activation energy grows linear with the sample size as expected for a size-independent critical current density. Closer to the SIT the activation energy becomes clearly size independent. On the insulating side the magnetoresistance maximum and the activation energy both grow logarithmically with sample size which is consistent with a size-limited charge BKT (Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless) scenario. In order to test for the presence of long-ranged interactions in our films, we investigate the influence of a topgate. It is expected to screen the possible long-ranged interactions as the distance of the film to the gate is much shorter than the electrostatic screening length deduced from the size-dependent activation energy.

  9. Synthesis of black cobalt and tin oxide films by the sol-gel process. Surface and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Huerta, L.; Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Avila, A. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Salido, Depto. de Ingenieria Electrica, CINVESTAV, IPN (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    Thin films of cobalt oxide (CO) and tin oxide (TO) were prepared by the dipping sol-gel method upon glass, stainless-steel (SS) and nickeled SS substrates. The aim of this study is to prepare selective photothermal coatings for medium temperature applications by superimposing TO films upon those of CO. Spectral reflectance measurements in both the UV-vis and the infrared ranges were used to characterize the relevant properties (absorptance and emittance). Also, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were made on the films. The XPS data tells us that several phases of CO coexist (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Co{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the films under the preparation conditions used. Besides, large amounts of carbon were detected in several configurations: both as graphite particles and carbon bonded to metallic and oxygen atoms. Regarding the TO films, both SnO and SnO{sub 2} phases were detected besides carbon particles as in CO. AFM studies made on samples upon glass substrates enable us to conclude that the dipping method yields surface morphologies with relatively low roughness, i.e., smooth film surfaces. By observing several tandem structures, it was found that placing a TO coating upon a CO film slightly improves the whole coating selectivity, but adding a nickel coating on the SS substrate improves even more such selectivity value.

  10. Microcanonical black hole statistics and the finite infinite range Heisenberg model

    CERN Document Server

    Aste, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Gelfand pattern of the reduction of the N-fold tensor product of the fundamental representation of the special unitary group SU(2) by itself is studied in the framework of a finite Heisenberg model with infinite range, where N spins couple to each other with the same strength. A speculative comment relates the present findings to the microstatistics of black holes for illustrative purposes.

  11. Physiologic reference ranges for captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckler, M Shannon; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Langham, Gregory L; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L; Carroll, Darin S

    2010-05-01

    The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a member of the order Rodentia and the family Sciuridae. Ecologically, prairie dogs are a keystone species in prairie ecology. This species is used as an animal model for human gallbladder disease and diseases caused by infection with Clostridium difficile, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and most recently, Orthopoxvirus. Despite increasing numbers of prairie dogs used in research and kept as pets, few data are available on their baseline physiology in animal facility housing conditions. To establish baseline physiologic reference ranges, we designed a study using 18 wild-caught black-tailed prairie dogs. Telemetry data were analyzed to establish circadian rhythms for activity and temperature. In addition, hematologic and serum chemistry analyses were performed. Baseline measurements were used to establish the mean for each animal, which then were compiled and analyzed to determine the reference ranges. Here we present physiologic data on serum chemistry and hematology profiles, as well as weight, core body temperature, and daily activity patterns for black-tailed prairie dogs. These results reflect the use of multiple measurements from species- and age-matched prairie dogs and likely will be useful to ecologists, scientists interested in using this animal model in research, and veterinarians caring for pet prairie dogs.

  12. Optimal use of resources structures home ranges and spatial distribution of black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that territories of animals are economical. Home ranges should be similarly efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources and this should structure their distribution on a landscape, although neither has been demonstrated empirically. To test these hypotheses, we used home range models that optimize resource use according to resource-maximizing and area-minimizing strategies to evaluate the home ranges of female black bears, Ursus americanus, living in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We tested general predictions of our models using 104 home ranges of adult female bears studied in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, North Carolina, U.S.A., from 1981 to 2001. We also used our models to estimate home ranges for each real home range under a variety of strategies and constraints and compared similarity of simulated to real home ranges. We found that home ranges of female bears were efficient with respect to the spatial distribution of resources and were best explained by an area-minimizing strategy with moderate resource thresholds and low levels of resource depression. Although resource depression probably influenced the spatial distribution of home ranges on the landscape, levels of resource depression were too low to quantify accurately. Home ranges of lactating females had higher resource thresholds and were more susceptible to resource depression than those of breeding females. We conclude that home ranges of animals, like territories, are economical with respect to resources, and that resource depression may be the mechanism behind ideal free or ideal preemptive distributions on complex, heterogeneous landscapes. ?? 2007 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  13. Unitary S matrices with long-range correlations and the quantum black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoury, Ratindranath

    2014-08-01

    We propose an S matrix approach to the quantum black hole in which causality, unitarity and their interrelation play a prominent role. Assuming the 't Hooft S matrix ansatz for a gravitating region surrounded by an asymptotically flat space-time we find a non-local transformation which changes the standard causality requirement but is a symmetry of the unitarity condition of the S matrix. This new S matrix then implies correlations between the in and out states of the theory with the involvement of a third entity which in the case of a quantum black hole, we argue is the horizon S matrix. Effects of spacetime curvature and horizon are in fact introduced by this procedure which is seen to be a generalization of the Bogoliubov transformation. The analysis is performed within the Bogoliubov S matrix framework by considering a spacetime consisting of causal complements with a boundary in between. No particular metric or lagrangian dynamics need be invoked even to obtain an evolution equation for the full S matrix. Hawking's results are reproduced by restricting to low energy incoming modes at the horizon and the generalized hamiltonian of the horizon S matrix in this case is shown to be the generator of the Bogoliubov transformation. The modification of Bogoliubov causality at intermediate stages of black hole evaporation allows for a temporary violation of quantum mechanical no cloning theorems. In this way we find that the tension between information preservation and complementarity may be resolved provided the full quantum gravity theory either through symmetries or fine tuning forbids the occurrence of closed time like curves of information flow. Then, even if causality is violated near the horizon at any intermediate stage, a standard causal ordering may be preserved for the observer outside the black hole. The usefulness of our formulation is that it appears well suited to understand unitarity at any intermediate stage of black hole evaporation. Moreover, it is

  14. Demography, range use, and behavior in black lemurs (Eulemur macaco macaco) at Ampasikely, northwest Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayart, Françoise; Simmen, Bruno

    2005-11-01

    We studied a black lemur population over a 2-year period (1992-1993) and 8 years later (2000) in a 50-ha secondary forest in northwest Madagascar. All of the animals were marked to investigate population dynamics and seasonal variation in ranging and behavior, and new data on black lemurs were obtained. Our data on demographic characteristics were expanded to include other forest sites and contrasted with those collected in other Eulemur macaco macaco field studies, in relation to human activity and the presence of introduced and cultivated plant species. Density is affected by deforestation and hunting. Group size and home range depend on the composition of the forest and probably food patches. Sex ratio at birth varies according to the number of females per group, a result that fits the local resource competition model. Groups are multimale-multifemale, and adult females form the core of the groups. Reproductive parameters indicate sharply defined seasonal breeding, a high female reproductive rate, and birth synchrony. Changes in group composition reveal male and female juvenile dispersal, male transfer between groups at the time of mating, and adult female transfer and group fission when groups exceed a critical size. At mating and birth, intergroup agonistic encounters occurred at home-range boundaries, and larger groups were dominant over smaller groups. Patterns of intragroup interactions suggest that males compete for access to groups of females during the mating season, and that females may compete for food resources during the birth season. Our study also reports female social dominance and lack of sexual weight dimorphism in this species.

  15. Copulation in free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christina J

    2006-05-01

    I report ad libitum data on 18 copulations involving free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. All copulations were performed in a dorsoventral position, as is typically reported for this genus. Intromission often appeared difficult to achieve, possibly as a result of the large size of the glans penis in these animals. The average length from intromission to termination of thrusting exceeded 17 min, followed by an average period of almost 2 min before separation occurred, which suggests the possibility of a copulatory lock. Offspring of the female participant were almost always in close proximity to or in contact with the pair, and harassment by the offspring was observed only during the final stages of the copulation. All but one copulatory event occurred in complete seclusion from other adult males, and sexual behavior was not limited to any one adult male in the group.

  16. Exploratory report Tin and tin compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; Bont PFH; Hesse JM; Annema JA

    1993-01-01

    In the Netherlands tin is produced from concentrate and secondary production (about 3,500 tonnes Sn per year), whereas about 5,000 tonnes Sn per year is applied. Of this amount about 4,200 tonnes is applied as inorganic tin (most for the manufacturing of tin plate) and about 800 tonnes Sn is applie

  17. The quantum nonthermal effect of a nonstationary Kerr-Newman black hole and the average range of the effective particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树政; 林理彬

    2002-01-01

    We have found that the nonthermal radiation of a nonstationary Kerr-Newman black hole is affected by interstellar materials. In particular, the interstellar gas deeply influences the average range of nonthermal radiation particles, while the average range depends on the maximum energy of the radiation and the energy extent of the radiation.

  18. Short-Range-Order Mineral Physical Protection On Black Carbon Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, B.; Weng, Y. T.; Wang, C. C.; Song, Y. F.; Lehmann, J.; Wang, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic matter is one of the largest reservoirs in global carbon cycle, and black carbon (BC) represents a chemical resistant component. Black C plays an important role in global climate change. Generally considered recalcitrant due to high aromaticity, the reactive surface and functional groups of BC are crucial for carbon sequestration in soils. Mineral sorption and physical protection is an important mechanism for BC long term stabilization and sequestration in environments. Previous studies on mineral protection of BC were limited to analysis techniques in two-dimensions, for example, by SEM, TEM, and NanoSIMS. Little is known about the scope of organo-mineral association, the in-situ distribution and forms of minerals, and the ultimate interplay of BC and minerals. The aim of this study is to investigate the three-dimensional interaction of organic C and minerals in submicron scale using synchrotron-based Transmission X-ray Microcopy (TXM) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Abundant poorly-crystallined nano-minerals particles were observed. These short-range-order (SRO) minerals also aggregate into clusters and sheets, and form envelops-like structures on the surface of BC. On top of large surface contact area, the intimate interplay between BC and minerals reinforces the stability of both organic C and minerals, resulting from chemical bonding through cation bridging and ligand exchange. The mineral protection enhances BC stabilization and sequestration and lowers its bioavailability in environment. The results suggest that mineral physical protection for BC sequestration may be more important than previous understanding.

  19. Squirrel monkey cytomegalovirus antibodies in free-ranging black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya), Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Argibay, Hernan; Rinas, Miguel A; Uhart, Marcela

    2012-04-01

    Serum from four black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) was screened for antibodies to seven viruses by dot immunoassay. Cytomegalovirus antibodies were detected in three of four individuals and provide the first evidence of exposure by black howler monkeys to this virus.

  20. Range Distribution Parameters and Electronic Stopping Power for 19F+ Ions in SnO2, Indium-Tin Oxide, AgGaSe2 and AgGaS2:Comparison Between Theory and Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Hui-Hao; LIU Xiang-Dong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Range distributions of fluorine for 19F+- implantation into SnO2, indium-tin oxide, AgGaS2 and AgGaSe2 are measured by using the 1gF(p,αγ)16O resonant nuclear reactions. The electronic stopping cross sections for 19F ions in these materials are derived from the measured range distributions. These experimental results are compared with those obtained from the newest version of stopping and range computer code, SRIM2003. The values of projected range predicted by the SRIM2003 agree well with the measured values for AgGaS2 and AgGaSe2 substrates. However, the values given by the SRIM2003 substantially deviate from the experimental values for the oxide materials SnO2 and ITO.

  1. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the western United States mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are an important source to carbonaceous aerosols in the western United States (WUS. We quantify the relative contribution of biomass burning to black carbon (BC in the WUS mountain ranges by analyzing surface BC observations for 2006 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE network using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Observed surface BC concentrations show broad maxima during late June to early November. Enhanced potassium concentrations and potassium/sulfur ratios observed during the high-BC events indicate a dominant biomass burning influence during the peak fire season. Model surface BC reproduces the observed day-to-day and synoptic variabilities in regions downwind of and near urban centers. Major discrepancies are found at elevated mountainous sites during the July–October when simulated BC concentrations are biased low by a factor of two. We attribute these biases largely to the underestimated and temporally misplaced biomass burning emissions of BC in the model. Additionally, we find that the biomass burning contribution to surface BC concentrations in the US likely was underestimated in a previous study using GEOS-Chem (Park et al., 2003, because of the unusually low planetary boundary layer (PBL heights and weak precipitation in the GEOS-3 meteorological reanalysis data used to drive the model. PBL heights from GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 reanalysis data are comparable to those from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR. Model simulations show improved agreements with the observations when driven by GEOS-5 reanalysis data, but model results are still biased low. The use of biomass burning emissions with diurnal cycle, synoptic variability, and plume injection has relatively small impact on the simulated surface BC concentrations in the WUS.

  2. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Mao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are an important source to carbonaceous aerosols in the Western United States (WUS. We quantify the relative contribution of biomass burning to black carbon (BC in the WUS mountain ranges by analyzing surface BC observations for 2006 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE network using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Observed surface BC concentrations show broad maxima during late June to early November. Enhanced potassium concentrations and potassium/sulfur ratios observed during the high-BC events indicate a dominant biomass burning influence during the peak fire season. Model surface BC reproduces the observed day-to day and synoptic variabilities in regions downwind of but near urban centers. Major discrepancies are found at elevated mountainous sites during the July-October fire season when simulated BC concentrations are biased low by a factor of two. We attribute these low biases largely to the underestimated (by more than a factor of two and temporally misplaced biomass burning emissions of BC in the model. Additionally, we find that the biomass burning contribution to surface BC concentrations in the USA likely was underestimated in a previous study using GEOS-Chem (Park et al., 2003, because of the unusually low planetary boundary layer (PBL heights in the GEOS-3 meteorological reanalysis data used to drive the model. PBL heights from GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 reanalysis data are comparable to those from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR. Model simulations show slightly improved agreements with the observations when driven by GEOS-5 reanalysis data, but model results are still biased low. The use of biomass burning emissions with diurnal cycle, synoptic variability, and plume injection has relatively small impact on the simulated surface BC concentrations in the WUS.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF REFERENCE RANGES FOR PLASMA TOTAL CHOLINESTERASE AND BRAIN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN FREE-RANGING CARNABY'S BLACK-COCKATOOS (CALYPTORHYNCHUS LATIROSTRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan-Higgins, Rebecca; Vitali, Simone; Reiss, Andrea; Besier, Shane; Hollingsworth, Tom; Smith, Gerard

    2016-07-01

    Published avian reference ranges for plasma cholinesterase (ChE) and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are numerous. However, a consistently reported recommendation is the need for species- and laboratory-specific reference ranges because of variables, including assay methods, sample storage conditions, season, and bird sex, age, and physiologic status. We developed normal reference ranges for brain AChE and plasma total ChE (tChE) activity for Carnaby's Black-Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) using a standardized protocol (substrate acetylthiocholine at 25 C). We report reference ranges for brain AChE (19-41 μmol/min per g, mean 21±6.38) and plasma tChE (0.41-0.53 μmol/min per mL, mean 0.47±0.11) (n=15). This information will be of use in the ongoing field investigation of a paresis-paralysis syndrome in the endangered Carnaby's Black-Cockatoos, suspected to be associated with exposure to anticholinesterase compounds and add to the paucity of reference ranges for plasma tChE and brain AChE in Australian psittacine birds.

  4. Durangite from the Black Range, New Mexico, and new data on durangite from Durango and Cornwall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foord, E.E.; Oakman, M.R.; Maxwell, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    Durangite, associated with cassiterite, hematite, quartz, tridymite, cristobalite and clinopyroxene, occurs in small veinlets within flows, ash-flow tuffs and lithic tuffs in a tin mine near Boiler Peak, New Mexico. It is clear to semi-translucent, pale yellow-orange to medium orange-red with a vitreous lustre, pale yellow streak; H. 5-5.5%; irregular to conchoidal fracture and a good (110) cleavage; elongate along c with (110), (010), (021) and (111) the prominent forms; Dmeas 3.90, Dcalc 3.92 g/cm3; alpha medium yellow orange 1.634(3), beta pale yellow orange 1.663(3), gamma colourless 1.685(3); weak to moderate dispersion r C2/c; Z = 4. Additional X-ray and chemical data on durangite from Durango and Cornwall are also included.-L.T.T.

  5. Mycobacterium bovis in a Free-Ranging Black Rhinoceros, Kruger National Park, South Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Peter E.; van Helden, Paul D.; Parsons, Sven D.C.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, an emaciated black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) was found in Kruger National Park, South Africa. An interferon-γ response was detected against mycobacterial antigens, and lung tissue was positive for Mycobacterium bovis. This case highlights the risk that tuberculosis presents to rhinoceros in M. bovis–endemic areas. PMID:28221132

  6. Influence of current density on microstructure of pulse electrodeposited tin coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Sen, Ranjan; Reddy, B.S.B. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Fecht, H.-J. [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanomaterialien, Universitaet Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Das, Karabi, E-mail: karabi@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Das, Siddhartha [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India)

    2012-06-15

    Pulse electrodeposited tin coatings on copper substrate have been synthesized from an aqueous solution containing sodium stannate (Na{sub 2}SnO{sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The effect of current density on surface morphology of the deposits has been investigated. As deposited coatings are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and line profile analysis. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the deposits consist of tetragonal ({beta}-Sn) structure with microcrystalline grains. The deposits plated at lower current density exhibit (110) texture which decreases with increasing current densities. The effects of current density on Cu-Sn diffusion and whisker growth of the electrodeposited tin coatings are also reported here. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pulse electrodeposition of Sn from aqueous alkaline solution without adding any organic additive. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of current density on morphology and whisker growth in tin coatings aged for 1 year. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution bath is stable and can be operated over a wide range of current density.

  7. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J R Lafferty

    Full Text Available Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol, key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116 as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD] and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD. We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  8. Inheritance of a new albino mutation in Brazilian free-range black chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Jorge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A genetically recessive albino mutation, which inhibits pigment development in the eyes, skin, and feathers of domestic chickens from Brazil, is described. This mutation appeared in a flock of completely black chickens of a private breeder. There are no information on the origin, breed, or specific line of the birds. Pigment inhibition is apparently complete in the feathers and eyes. Bird sight is very impaired, but no histological examination was carried out. Ratios obtained in F2 and backcrossed birds indicate that a single autosomal recessive gene is responsible for the condition. The data suggest that the absence of melanin in the eyes, skin, and feathers (symbol cc is a mutation of the pigmented C wild gene.

  9. Black holes as random particles: entanglement dynamics in infinite range and matrix models

    CERN Document Server

    Magan, Javier M

    2016-01-01

    We first propose and study a quantum toy model of black hole dynamics. The model is unitary, displays quantum thermalization, and the Hamiltonian couples every oscillator with every other, a feature intended to emulate the color sector physics of large-$\\mathcal{N}$ matrix models. Considering out of equilibrium initial states, we analytically compute the time evolution of every correlator of the theory and of the entanglement entropies, allowing a proper discussion of global thermalization/scrambling of information through the entire system. Microscopic non-locality causes factorization of reduced density matrices, and entanglement just depends on the time evolution of occupation densities. In the second part of the article, we show how the gained intuition extends to large-$\\mathcal{N}$ matrix models, where we provide a gauge invariant entanglement entropy for `generalized free fields', again depending solely on the quasinormal frequencies. The results challenge the fast scrambling conjecture and point to a ...

  10. Altitudinal ranging of black-crested gibbons at Mt. Wuliang, Yunnan: effects of food distribution, temperature and human disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2010-01-01

    We studied the altitudinal ranging of one habituated group of black-crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor) at Dazhaizi, Mt. Wuliang, Yunnan, China, between March 2005 and April 2006. The group ranged from 1,900 to 2,680 m above sea level. Food distribution was the driving force behind the altitudinal ranging patterns of the study group. They spent 83.2% of their time ranging between 2,100 and 2,400 m, where 75.8% of important food patches occurred. They avoided using the area above 2,500 m despite a lack of human disturbance there, apparently because there were few food resources. Temperature had a limited effect on seasonal altitudinal ranging but probably explained the diel altitudinal ranging of the group, which tended to use the lower zone in the cold morning and the higher zone in the warm afternoon. Grazing goats, the main disturbance, were limited to below 2,100 m, which was defined as the high-disturbance area (HDA). Gibbons spent less time in the HDA and, when ranging there, spent more time feeding and travelling and less time resting and singing. Human activities directly influenced gibbon behaviour, might cause forest degradation and create dispersal barriers between populations.

  11. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  12. Black holes as random particles: entanglement dynamics in infinite range and matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magán, Javier M.

    2016-08-01

    We first propose and study a quantum toy model of black hole dynamics. The model is unitary, displays quantum thermalization, and the Hamiltonian couples every oscillator with every other, a feature intended to emulate the color sector physics of large- {N} matrix models. Considering out of equilibrium initial states, we analytically compute the time evolution of every correlator of the theory and of the entanglement entropies, allowing a proper discussion of global thermalization/scrambling of information through the entire system. Microscopic non-locality causes factorization of reduced density matrices, and entanglement just depends on the time evolution of occupation densities. In the second part of the article, we show how the gained intuition extends to large- {N} matrix models, where we provide a gauge invariant entanglement entropy for `generalized free fields', again depending solely on the quasinormal frequencies. The results challenge the fast scrambling conjecture and point to a natural scenario for the emergence of the so-called brick wall or stretched horizon. Finally, peculiarities of these models in regards to the thermodynamic limit and the information paradox are highlighted.

  13. EVALUATION OF SERUM FERRITIN AND SERUM IRON IN FREE-RANGING BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS) AS A TOOL TO UNDERSTAND FACTORS AFFECTING IRON-OVERLOAD DISORDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Chavey, Patricia Sue; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Doering, Alyssa; Buss, Peter; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Iron overload disorder (IOD) is a significant health issue for captive black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ). Measurement of serum ferritin with a validated rhinoceros ferritin ELISA has been used extensively to detect animals in U.S. zoos that are at risk of developing IOD. However, there is limited information on serum ferritin levels in free-ranging black rhinoceros using this same assay. Serum ferritin, iron, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were determined in 194 black rhinoceros from southern Africa. Mean ferritin in free-ranging black rhinoceros (290.54 ±247.4 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in free-ranging white rhinoceros (64.0 ± 102.4 ng/ml) sampled in this study from Kruger National Park, South Africa. However, there were no significant differences between genders or age groups. Ferritin values varied with geographical location of the black rhinoceros, although this was not clinically significant. Serum iron values were also higher in black rhinoceros (40.4 ± 19.1 μmol/L) compared to white rhinoceros (29.7 ± 10.7 μmol/L). There was no association between ferritin and GGT. This study provides serum ferritin, iron, and GGT values from free-ranging black rhinoceros that can be used for as comparative target values for captive animals.

  14. Mitigating tin whisker risks theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Handwerker, Carol A; Bath, Jasbir

    2016-01-01

    Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks. This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described.

  15. Thermodynamics of the incongruently subliming niobium-tin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, R.A.; Bailey, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The niobium-tin system was investigated in the temperature range 1261-2076 K by measurement of tin vapor pressures with a simultaneous weight loss-mass-spectrometric technique. For the reaction Nb + 1/3Sn ..-->.. NbSn/sub 1///sub 3/, ..delta..H/sub f//sup 298/ was found to be -21.59 kJ/mol. The heat of solution of tin in niobium was determined as a function of composition. The temperature-composition diagram for the niobium-tin system above 1200/sup 0/C was constructed. The Nb/sub 3/Sn phase has a narrow homogeneity range from 25 to 28 at% tin below 1600 K that broadens to include 18 at% tin at 2076 K.

  16. Raman Scattering from Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    and processing that will enable us to investigate the unique electronic states between topological insulators (TIs) and high- temperature... superconductors . TIs are electronic materials that have a bulk bandgap and gapless conducting surface states that are protected by the topological and...temperatures lower than 286 K and undergoes a phase transition at 286 K to metallic tin (β-Sn), the stable tin allotrope at temperatures above 286 K.4 High

  17. Integration of Big Data & Cloud Computing To Detect Black Money Rotation with Range – Aggregate Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kedharewsari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the big data is difficult to be analyzed due to the presence and characteristics of huge amount of data. Hadoop technology plays a key role in analyzing the large scale data. The aggregate queries are executed on more columns concurrently and it is difficult for huge amount of data. This paper is proposing the method in which the fast RAQ is dividing the big data in to autonomous partitions by means of a balanced partition algorithm and later for each partition a local assessment sketch is generated. By the arrival of the range-aggregate query demand the fast RAQ gets the result in a direct manner by shortening local estimate from all partition and then the cooperative results are provided. Thus in fast RAQ technique three tier Architecture is insisted and they are of 1.Extracting the helpful information’s from Unstructured Data, 2.Implementation of the big data in Multi system Approach, 3.Application Deployment – Insurance/ Banking. This paper is implement for the banking domain process and two major departments are involved in this process and they are 1.To maintain the accounts and for adding new clients the Bank Server is used. To create account in any bank the user have to give their ID proof at the time of registration.2.Account Monitoring Server is used for monitoring every users accounts in various banks and this server is used for retrieving the users who are maintaining and transacting more than Rs 50,000 per annum in various bank accounts by using the similar ID proof is identified by Map Reduce technique. The Online Aggregation is a smart sampling-based method that is performed to provide response to aggregation query by an approximation to the last outcome, with the self-assurance interval which is becoming tighter eventually. It is built into a Map-Reduce-based cloud scheme for analytics of the big data that allows the user to save the money by means of killing the calculation early and to observe the query progress when the

  18. IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCRYSTALLINE TIN DIOXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Adamchuck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the analysis of the influence of annealing in an inert atmosphere on the electrical properties and structure of non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films by means of impedance spectroscopy method. Non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films were fabricated by two-step oxidation of metallic tin deposited on the polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. In order to modify the structure and stoichiometric composition, the films were subjected to the high temperature annealing in argon atmosphere in temperature range 300–800 °С. AC-conductivity measurements of the films in the frequency range 20 Hz – 2 MHz were carried out. Variation in the frequency dependencies of the real and imaginary parts of the impedance of tin dioxide films was found to occur as a result of high-temperature annealing. Equivalent circuits for describing the properties of films with various structure and stoichiometric composition were proposed. Possibility of conductivity variation of the polycrystalline tin dioxide films as a result of аnnealing in an inert atmosphere was demonstrated by utilizing impedance spectroscopy. Annealing induces the recrystallization of the films, changing in their stoichiometry as well as increase of the sizes of SnO2 crystallites. Variation of electrical conductivity and structure of tin dioxide films as a result of annealing in inert atmosphere was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Analysis of the impedance diagrams of tin dioxide films was found to be a powerful tool to study their electrical properties. 

  19. The Wide Range of Hot Dust Emission from Quasars: Clumpy Tori, Warped Disks and Black Hole Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin

    Objectives: Quasars and AGNs show characteristic hot dust emission not seen in other objects. This is due to an obscuring "torus" in the inner regions of the quasar. Understanding of this "torus" has progressed slowly in the past 2+ decades. Based on our WISE-based pilot project we find a wide range of IR (dust) to optical (accretion disk) emission ratios in quasar spectral energy distributions (SEDs). This implies order of magnitude differences in the covering factor of the obscuring "torus" from object to object. Moreover the near- IR (hot dust) to mid-IR (warm dust) ratio varies by a similar factor, so the structure within the "torus" also varies greatly from object to object. The results will inform us not only about the inner structure of quasars, but also of the mechanism that brings matter into bound orbit around the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Methods: We propose to analyze the WISE data for 24,257 SDSS broad emission line, type 1, quasars that also lie in the near-IR UKIDSS survey to produce optical-mid-IR SEDs. The properties of the dust-emitting region will be our primary focus. Previous samples have been limited to a few hundred quasar SEDs. With this large sample we can search for systematic SED changes with redshift, luminosity and with physical parameters derived from the SDSS spectra: black hole mass and Eddington ratio. We will use the 'mixing diagram' method developed for COSMOS, plus theory based clumpy torus and warped disk models. Significance: The growth of supermassive black holes is a central part of galaxy evolution and cosmology, yet is poorly understood. The "torus" is likely the resevoir from which the accretion disk is fed, but how it forms is unknown. Moreover AGN "feedback" is thought to have a major effect on the evolution of galaxies, regulating star formation. However, the influence of the central AGN on its host galaxy is limited if the "torus" intercepts most of AGN continuum, or blocks accretion disk winds. Our

  20. Vocal repertoire of free-ranging black howler monkeys' (Alouatta pigra): Call types, contexts, and sex-related contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseño-Jaramillo, Margarita; Biquand, Véronique; Estrada, Alejandro; Lemasson, Alban

    2017-01-17

    Alouatta species utter the most powerful primate vocalizations in the Neotropics and are well-known for their loud and long-lasting male howling bouts. However, the diversity of acoustic structures used in these howling bouts, as well as in non-howling contexts, and the relative contribution of the different group members to the entire vocal repertoire, needed to be explored further. This report provides the first detailed description of the vocal repertoire of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), focusing on acoustic structures and contexts of emission of both loud and soft calls as well as on the contribution rate of males and females to the different call types. Three free-ranging social groups of black howler monkeys living in Palenque National Park, Mexico were monitored. We identified twelve acoustically discriminable call types, eight described previously and four described here for the first time. A few call types were systematically emitted either isolated or during howling bouts, but most of them could be heard in both calling contexts. Three call types were emitted only by females and two only by males. Adult males' call rates (for the seven shared call types) were higher than those of females but only when considering calls emitted within howling bouts. Our contextual analysis enabled us to divide call types into potential functional categories, according to their degree of contribution, to intra-group versus inter-group interactions and to neutral-positive versus negative situations. We then discussed how socio-ecological factors, notably sex differences in social behaviors, may explain the variability found in the vocal repertoire of this species and compared our findings with the literature on other primate species.

  1. ICP-MS Determination of Platinum Metals in Black Shale Enriched by Tin Fire Assay%锡试金富集-电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定黑色页岩中的铂族元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君玉; 孙自军; 袁润蕾; 王盈; 李杰; 王敏捷

    2013-01-01

    黑色页岩中的铂族元素经锡试金富集后,所得贵金属沉淀物用盐酸-硝酸(3+1)混合酸溶解,用电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定样品中的铂族元素.以镥为内标元素,用轻质氧化镁-高纯碳化硅(2+1)作覆盖剂,以防止锇和钌的挥发损失.铂族元素在一定的质量浓度范围内与其光谱强度呈线性关系,检出限(3σ)在0.018~0.20 ng· g-1之间.方法的加标回收率在80.0%~110%之间,相对标准偏差(n=11)在5.9%~14%之间.%Platinum metals in black shale were enriched by the method of tin fire assay.The precious metal precipitate obtained was dissolved in mixed acid of HCl-HNC3 (3 + 1),and contents of platinum metals in the solution were determined by ICP-MS.Lutetium was used as internal standard; and a mixture of light MgO and high purity SiC (2 + 1) was used as covering reagent to avoid the volatilization of Os and Ru.Linear relationships between values of spectral intensity and mass concentration of the platinum metals were kept in definite ranges.Detection limits (3σ) found were in the range of 0.018-0.20 ng · g-1.Tests for recovery were made by standard addition method,giving values of recovery in the range of 80.0%-110% with RSD's (n=11) in the range of 5.9%-14%.

  2. The dysprosium-tin phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremenko, V.N.; Bulanova, M.V.; Martsenjuk, P.S. (I.N. Frantsevich Inst. for Problems of Materials Science, Kiev (Ukraine))

    1992-12-07

    The dysprosium-tin phase diagram was established by means of differential thermal, X-ray and microscopic analyses of 22 alloys. Seven intermetallic compounds were found to exist in the system. Dy[sub 5]Sn[sub 3] melts congruently at 1870 degC, and undergoes a polymorphous transformation at 1823 [+-] 6 degC. The intermetallics Dy[sub 5]Sn[sub 4], Dy[sub 11]Sn[sub 10], DySn, Dy[sub 4]Sn[sub 5], DySn[sub 2], DySn[sub 3] are formed peritectically at 1712 [+-]11, 1605 [+-]12, 1208 [+-]3, 1166 [+-]7, 1138 [+-]3 and 747 [+-]6 degC respectively. DySn[sub 3] exists in a narrow temperature range, in two polymorphous modifications. The transformation [beta]-DySn[sub 3] [yields] [alpha]-DySn[sub 3] occurs at 608 [+-] 12 degC, and at 499 [+-]2 degC [alpha]-DySn[sub 3] decomposes to DySn[sub 2] and the tin-rich melt. The dysprosium-rich eutectic crystallizes at 1204 [+-]10 degC and contains 13 at.% tin. The solid-state solubility of tin in dysprosium is about 3 at.%, and that of dysprosium in tin is negligible.

  3. Tin-containing silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian M.; Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Dahl, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    stannosilicates have been investigated: Sn-BEA, Sn-MFI, Sn-MCM-41 and Sn-SBA-15. When comparing the properties of tin sites in the structures, substantial differences are observed. Sn-beta displays the highest Lewis acid strength, as measured by probe molecule studies using infrared spectroscopy, which gives...

  4. Source apportionment of wide range particle size spectra and black carbon collected at the airport of Venice (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Vu, Tuan V.; Beddows, David C. S.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric particles are of high concern due to their toxic properties and effects on climate, and large airports are known as significant sources of particles. This study investigates the contribution of the Airport of Venice (Italy) to black carbon (BC), total particle number concentrations (PNC) and particle number size distributions (PNSD) over a large range (14 nm-20 μm). Continuous measurements were conducted between April and June 2014 at a site located 110 m from the main taxiway and 300 m from the runway. Results revealed no significantly elevated levels of BC and PNC, but exhibited characteristic diurnal profiles. PNSD were then analysed using both k-means cluster analysis and positive matrix factorization. Five clusters were extracted and identified as midday nucleation events, road traffic, aircraft, airport and nighttime pollution. Six factors were apportioned and identified as probable sources according to the size profiles, directional association, diurnal variation, road and airport traffic volumes and their relationships to micrometeorology and common air pollutants. Photochemical nucleation accounted for ∼44% of total number, followed by road + shipping traffic (26%). Airport-related emissions accounted for ∼20% of total PNC and showed a main mode at 80 nm and a second mode beyond the lower limit of the SMPS (pollution and local resuspension. An analysis of BC levels over different wind sectors revealed no especially significant contributions from specific directions associated with the main local sources, but a potentially significant role of diurnal dynamics of the mixing layer on BC levels. The approaches adopted in this study have identified and apportioned the main sources of particles and BC at an international airport located in area affected by a complex emission scenario. The results may underpin measures for improving local and regional air quality, and health impact assessment studies.

  5. Ion-assisted sputtering on TiN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, J.; Kadlec, S. (Inst. of Physics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Valvoda, V.; Kuzel, R. Jr.; Cerny, R. (Dept. of Semiconductor Physics, Charles Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1990-12-05

    Ion bombardment of growing films is one of the possible ways to produce films with specific properties. As yet there are no general rules for the production of these films. The quality of TiN films produced depends on the deposition conditions. A sharp transition from porous, black TiN films to compact, dense, bright gold TiN films is observed at a substrate bias U{sub s} of about -40 V. Recent experiments have indicated that the microstructure of TiN films and the transition mentioned above can be controlled by the ion energy delivered to the growing film per deposited particle E{sub p}=eU{sub s}{nu}{sub i}/{nu}{sub m}. This paper investigates the transition from porous, soft TiN films with a zone I microstructure to compact, hard TiN films with a zone T microstructure as a function of i{sub s}, U{sub s} and the deposition rate a{sub D} at constant temperature T{sub s}=350deg C and pressure p{sub T}=5 Pa. Correlations between the microhardness HV, the macrostress, {sigma}, the microstrain, e, the lattice parameters, the intensities of the X-ray reflections and the colour and appearance of the film are discussed. The zone I to zone T transition is observed at E{sub p}{approx equal}150 eV atom{sup -1}. (orig.).

  6. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.

    1978-01-01

    of tin tetrachloride on industrial soda glass at ~800K to thicknesses of ~3×10-8 and 3×10 -7 m, commercially by the `titanising' process on industrial soda glass at ~800K to a thickness of ~3.10-9 m, and in the laboratory by radio frequency sputtering from tin oxide powder over a range of glass......The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...

  7. Scaling and long-range dependence in option pricing I: Pricing European option with transaction costs under the fractional Black-Scholes model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Tian

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with the problem of discrete time option pricing by the fractional Black-Scholes model with transaction costs. By a mean self-financing delta-hedging argument in a discrete time setting, a European call option pricing formula is obtained. The minimal price C(t,St) of an option under transaction costs is obtained as timestep δt=((, which can be used as the actual price of an option. In fact, C(t,St) is an adjustment to the volatility in the Black-Scholes formula by using the modified volatility σ√{2}(( to replace the volatility σ, where {k}/{σ}{1}/{2} is the Hurst exponent, and k is a proportional transaction cost parameter. In addition, we also show that timestep and long-range dependence have a significant impact on option pricing.

  8. Influence of TiN nanoparticles on the microstructure and properties of W matrix materials prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Luo, Lai-Ma, E-mail: luolaima@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Engineering Research Center of Powder Metallurgy of Anhui Province, Hefei 230009 (China); Tan, Xiao-Yue [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Luo, Guang-Nan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zan, Xiang; Cheng, Ji-Gui; Zhu, Xiao-Yong; Wu, Yu-Cheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Engineering Research Center of Powder Metallurgy of Anhui Province, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Effect of TiN on microstructure and properties of composites were studied. • TiN particles exist in the grain interior and at the grain boundary. • The tensile strength reached 180 MPa when the content of TiN was 2 wt.%. - Abstract: W–(0.5, 1, 2, 4) wt.% TiN composite powders were formed by mechanical alloying for 5 h and sintered by spark plasma at 1800 °C. The effect of TiN nanoparticle content on the microstructure and properties of the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, tensile test, microhardness test, and thermal conductivity test. With the addition of TiN ranging from 0.5 wt.% to 4 wt.%, SEM analysis results showed that TiN was distributed homogeneously and W grains were refined by TiN. The fracturing of pure W was intergranular, whereas cleavage fracture appeared in the W–TiN composites and increased with increased TiN content. The density was found to initially increase and then decrease with increased TiN content. The same trend was observed for the thermal conductivity. Microhardness increased with increased TiN content. The tensile strength reached 180 MPa when the content of TiN was 2 wt.%. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of 2 wt.% exceeded those of other alloys at different TiN weight percentages.

  9. Production of the entire range of r-process nuclides by black hole accretion disc outflows from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Fernández, Rodrigo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-12-01

    We consider r-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion discs formed in double neutron star and neutron star-black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important - and in some cases dominant - contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disc outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second r-process peak (mass number A ˜ 130), independent of model parameters, with significant production of A dynamical ejecta with high electron fraction may not be required to explain the observed abundances of r-process elements in metal poor stars. Disc outflows reach the third peak (A ˜ 195) in most of our simulations, although the amounts produced depend sensitively on the disc viscosity, initial mass or entropy of the torus, and nuclear physics inputs. Some of our models produce an abundance spike at A = 132 that is absent in the Solar system r-process distribution. The spike arises from convection in the disc and depends on the treatment of nuclear heating in the simulations. We conclude that disc outflows provide an important - and perhaps dominant - contribution to the r-process yields of compact binary mergers, and hence must be included when assessing the contribution of these systems to the inventory of r-process elements in the Galaxy.

  10. Snow Cover Variability in the Black Forest Region as an Example of a German Low Mountain Range under the Influence of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbein, J.; Schneider, C.

    2003-04-01

    During the last decades high snow cover variability was observed in the German low mountain ranges. In addition, average snow cover periods have decreased at most localities. This process involves a strong economic impact on skiing resorts of low mountain ranges. Based on data sets from weather stations of the German meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD)) which cover up to the last 60 years, the temporal development of the mean seasonal snow cover period in the low mountain ranges of Black Forest (south-west), Harz (north), and Bavarian Forest (south-east) of Germany was examined. Mean wintertime air temperature in the low mountain ranges is increasing more rapidly compared to the annual mean air temperature. Additionally the south west is the warmest region in Germany. Therefore, the snow cover of the Black Forest is much more susceptible to an increase in air temperature than in the other low mountain ranges in Germany. In the Black Forest region air temperatures near the melting point are observed even in January. Snow cover in the Bavarian Forest region with its much more continental climate is less affected by temperature variations but subject to variations in wintertime precipitation. Seasonal snow cover in the Harz region starts about two weeks earlier compared to Bavarian Forest and the Black Forest. The future snow cover development of Black Forest was examined using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) prognosis of future air temperature development and trend analysis within observed time series at low mountain range weather stations. The IPCC scenarios were adopted specifically with respect to region, season and altitude and afterwards compared to the observed trend. A transfer function describes the relation between seasonal air temperature change and snow cover duration. A mean reduction of snow cover duration until 2025 for each mountain range is approximated. For instance, the period of a snow cover with a minimum height

  11. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Francisco A., E-mail: fco.aurelio@inbox.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Camurri, Carlos G., E-mail: ccamurri@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Carrasco, Claudia A., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Colas, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.colas@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 Degree-Sign C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn{sub 3} particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  12. Analysis of bell materials: Tin bronzes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaromir Audy; Katarina Audy

    2008-01-01

    The present study was set up to examine the effect of alloying elements (including harmful elements) on metallurgical features (material properties and qualitative parameters) of tin bronzes, with particular reference to church bells from Middle Ages to Current times. A driving force of this study was to identify and demonstrate features related to the quality of church bells made in different centuries. The findings have been derived via metallographic and chemical analysis of specimens of bells from various parts of Australasia and Europe. The bell materials consisted of a mixture of the a phase and the (α+β) eutectoid essentially, in proportions determined by tin content and mould materials during casting. The samples from the 15th century to the one from the 20th century showed a progressive increase in hardness, ranging from the minimum of -280 VHM20g to a maximum of -470 VHM20g for the (α+β) eutectoid, and -160 VHM20g to -230 VHM20g for the a phase. The investigation also shows that the sound decay of the bell decreased with lowering the wt.% of tin and increasing the wt.% of lead and silver. This information is expected to provide an additional interesting knowledge into manufacturing practices and their significance in the quality of church bells over past centuries.

  13. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perring, Loic; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija [Department of Quality and Safety Assurance, Nestle Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, Vers chez-les-Blanc, 1000, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99{+-}5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. (orig.)

  14. Proton transport properties of tin phosphate, chromotropic acid anchored onto tin phosphate and tin phenyl phosphonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chithra Sumej; P P Sharmila; Nisha J Tharayil; S Suma

    2013-02-01

    Tin (IV) phosphates of the class of tetravalent metal acid (TMA) salts have been synthesized by sol–gel method. The functionalized materials of tin (IV) phosphate (SnP) like chromotropic acid anchored tin phosphate (SnPCA) and tin phenyl phosphonate (SnPP) were also synthesized. These materials have been characterized for elemental analysis (ICP–AES), thermal analysis, X-ray analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Chemical resistivity of these materials has been accessed in acidic, basic and organic solvent media. The proton present in the structural hydroxyl groups indicates good potential for TMA salts to exhibit solid-state proton conduction. The transport properties of these materials have been explored by measuring specific proton conductance at different temperatures. Based on the specific conduction data and Arrhenius plots, a suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  15. Long-range transport of black carbon to the Pacific Ocean and its dependence on aging timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Tao, S.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the ability of global models to predict concentrations of black carbon (BC) over the Pacific Ocean is essential to evaluate the impact of BC on marine climate. In this study, we tag BC tracers from 13 source regions around the globe in a global chemical transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). Numerous sensitivity simulations are carried out varying the aging timescale of BC emitted from each source region. The aging timescale for each source region is optimized by minimizing errors in vertical profiles of BC mass mixing ratios between simulations and HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO). For most HIPPO deployments, in the Northern Hemisphere, optimized aging timescales are less than half a day for BC emitted from tropical and midlatitude source regions and about 1 week for BC emitted from high-latitude regions in all seasons except summer. We find that East Asian emissions contribute most to the BC loading over the North Pacific, while South American, African and Australian emissions dominate BC loadings over the South Pacific. Dominant source regions contributing to BC loadings in other parts of the globe are also assessed. The lifetime of BC originating from East Asia (i.e., the world's largest BC emitter) is found to be only 2.2 days, much shorter than the global average lifetime of 4.9 days, making the contribution from East Asia to the global BC burden only 36 % of that from the second largest emitter, Africa. Thus, evaluating only relative emission rates without accounting for differences in aging timescales and deposition rates is not predictive of the contribution of a given source region to climate impacts. Our simulations indicate that the lifetime of BC increases nearly linearly with aging timescale for all source regions. When the aging rate is fast, the lifetime of BC is largely determined by factors that control local deposition rates (e.g., precipitation). The sensitivity of lifetime to aging

  16. Rectal prolapse associated with a healed pelvic fracture in a pregnant free-ranging African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis. Part 2 : surgery and necropsy : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olivier

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The oedematous and traumatised protruding section of the rectal tissue of an adult free-ranging female African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis was surgically amputated. Immediately before completion of surgery, the rhinoceros died of anaesthetic-related cardiac arrest. At necropsy a deformed pelvis and sacrum associated with a healed fracture of the left ileal wing were noted. New bone formation in and around the left ventral sacral foramina may have resulted in neuropathy of particularly the 3rd and 4th left ventral sacral nerves, which (in the horse supply the majority of the nerve fibres innervating the caudal rectum and anus. The cause of the injury is not known, although back injuries, presumably sustained during mating by bulls, have been recorded in white rhinoceros. An encounter with elephants could also have been responsible for the injury in this case.

  17. Movement Patterns, Home Range Size and Habitat Selection of an Endangered Resource Tracking Species, the Black-Throated Finch (Poephila cincta cincta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechetelo, Juliana; Grice, Anthony; Reside, April Elizabeth; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Moloney, James

    2016-01-01

    Understanding movement patterns and home range of species is paramount in ecology; it is particularly important for threatened taxa as it can provide valuable information for conservation management. To address this knowledge gap for a range-restricted endangered bird, we estimated home range size, daily movement patterns and habitat use of a granivorous subspecies in northeast Australia, the black-throated finch (Poephila cincta cincta; BTF) using radio-tracking and re-sighting of colour banded birds. Little is known about basic aspects of its ecology including movement patterns and home range sizes. From 2011-2014 we colour-banded 102 BTF and radio-tracked 15 birds. We generated home ranges (calculated using kernel and Minimum Convex Polygons techniques of the 15 tracked BTF). More than 50% of the re-sightings occurred within 200 m of the banding site (n = 51 out of 93 events) and within 100 days of capture. Mean home-range estimates with kernel (50%, 95% probability) and Minimum Convex Polygons were 10.59 ha, 50.79 ha and 46.27 ha, respectively. Home range size differed between two capture sites but no seasonal differences were observed. BTF home ranges overlapped four habitat types among eight available. Habitat selection was different from random at Site 1 (χ2 = 373.41, df = 42, p<0.001) and Site 2 (χ2 = 1896.1, df = 45, p<0.001); however, the preferred habitats differed between the two sites. BTF moved further than expected on the basis of current knowledge, with three individuals being resighted over 15 km from the banding location. However, BTF maintain small home ranges over short time-frames. Occasional long-distance movements may be related to resource bottleneck periods. Daily movement patterns differed between sites, which is likely linked to the fact that the sites differ in the spatial distribution of resources. The work provides information about home range sizes and local movement of BTF that will be valuable for targeting effective management

  18. It’s not black or white - on the range of vision and echolocation in echolocating bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan eBoonman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Around 1000 species of bats in the world use echolocation to navigate, orient and detect insect prey. Many of these bats emerge from their roost at dusk and start foraging when there is still light available. It is however unclear in what way and to which extent navigation, or even prey detection in these bats is aided by vision. Here we compare the echolocation and visual detection ranges of two such species of bats which rely on different foraging strategies (Rhinopoma microphyllum and Pipistrellus kuhlii. We find that echolocation is better than vision for detecting small insects even in intermediate light levels (1-10lux, while vision is advantageous for monitoring far-away landscape elements in both species. We thus hypothesize that, bats constantly integrate information acquired by the two sensory modalities. We suggest that during evolution, echolocation was refined to detect increasingly small targets in conjunction with using vision. To do so, the ability to hear ultrasonic sound is a prerequisite which was readily available in small mammals, but absent in many other animal groups. The ability to exploit ultrasound to detect very small targets, such as insects, has opened up a large nocturnal niche to bats and may have spurred diversification in both echolocation and foraging tactics.

  19. DEM Based Modeling: Grid or TIN? The Answer Depends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, F. L.; Moreno, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The availability of petascale supercomputing power has enabled process-based hydrological simulations on large watersheds and two-way coupling with mesoscale atmospheric models. Of course with increasing watershed scale come corresponding increases in watershed complexity, including wide ranging water management infrastructure and objectives, and ever increasing demands for forcing data. Simulations of large watersheds using grid-based models apply a fixed resolution over the entire watershed. In large watersheds, this means an enormous number of grids, or coarsening of the grid resolution to reduce memory requirements. One alternative to grid-based methods is the triangular irregular network (TIN) approach. TINs provide the flexibility of variable resolution, which allows optimization of computational resources by providing high resolution where necessary and low resolution elsewhere. TINs also increase required effort in model setup, parameter estimation, and coupling with forcing data which are often gridded. This presentation discusses the costs and benefits of the use of TINs compared to grid-based methods, in the context of large watershed simulations within the traditional gridded WRF-HYDRO framework and the new TIN-based ADHydro high performance computing watershed simulator.

  20. Antimony Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films: Co Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 serves as an important base material in a variety of resistive type gas sensors. The widespread applicability of this semicoducting oxide is related both to its range of conductance variability and to the fact that it responds to both oxidising and reducing gases. The antimony doped tin-oxide films were prepared by spray pyrolysis method. The as-deposited films are blackish in colour. Addition of antimony impurity showed little increase in the thickness. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows characteristic tin oxide peaks with tetragonal structure. As the doping concentration of antimony was increased, new peak corresponding to Sb was observed. The intensity of this peak found to be increased when the Sb concentration was increased from 0.01 % to the 1 % which indicates the antimony was incorporated into the tin oxide. For gas sensing studies ohmic contacts were preferred to ensure the changes in resistance of sensor is due to only adsorption of gas molecule. The graph of I-V shows a straight line in nature which indicates the ohmic contact. The sensitivity of the sensor for CO gas was tested. The sensitivity of antimony doped tin oxide found to be increased with increasing Sb concentration. The maximum sensitivity was observed for Sb = 1 % at a working temperature of 250 °C.

  1. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Joseph Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cheng, Baolian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, Matthew Stouten [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patten, Austin Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-21

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer- Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release. A conceptual cylindrical liner and target is shown in Figure 1.

  2. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Margolin, Len G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-06

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release.

  3. Stabilized tin-oxide-based oxidation/reduction catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Schryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Gulati, Suresh T. (Inventor); Summers, Jerry C. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention described herein involves a novel approach to the production of oxidation/reduction catalytic systems. The present invention serves to stabilize the tin oxide reducible metal-oxide coating by co-incorporating at least another metal-oxide species, such as zirconium. In one embodiment, a third metal-oxide species is incorporated, selected from the group consisting of cerium, lanthanum, hafnium, and ruthenium. The incorporation of the additional metal oxide components serves to stabilize the active tin-oxide layer in the catalytic process during high-temperature operation in a reducing environment (e.g., automobile exhaust). Moreover, the additional metal oxides are active components due to their oxygen-retention capabilities. Together, these features provide a mechanism to extend the range of operation of the tin-oxide-based catalyst system for automotive applications, while maintaining the existing advantages.

  4. Modified solid electrodes for stripping voltammetric determination of tin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, C. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie]|[Univ. Trier (Germany). Abt. Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Henze, G. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie]|[Univ. Trier (Germany). Abt. Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Stojko, N. [Ural State Economic University, 8th of March Street 62, 620219 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Saraeva, S. [Ural State Economic University, 8th of March Street 62, 620219 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Brainina, K. [Ural State Economic University, 8th of March Street 62, 620219 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-07-01

    The paper describes the determination of tin by ASV using modified thick film electrodes. Three different types of electrodes were developed: One modified with a mixture of Nafion and mercury(II)acetate, one modified with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) or pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDC) and mercury(II)acetate, and one modified with calomel. The analyte was accumulated on the electrode surface after special electrochemical pretreatment of the modified electrode. After recording the voltammogram the electrodes were electrochemically regenerated. By virtue of their lifetime and their measurement reproducibility, we preferred the DDC and PDC modified electrodes. They can be used for months without changing their chemical characteristics. The linear range for tin determination with these electrodes is between 1 and 100 {mu}g/L; the detection limit was calculated as 0.9 {mu}g/L. The electrodes were applied to the direct determination of tin in different canned fruit juices without special sample pretreatment. (orig.). With 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Electronegativity-dependent tin etching from thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachecka, M.; Sturm, J.M.; Kruijs, van de R.W.E.; Lee, C.J.; Bijkerk, F.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of a thin film substrate material on the etching of a thin layer of deposited tin (Sn) by hydrogen radicals was studied. The amount of remaining Sn was quantified for materials that cover a range of electronegativities. We show that, for metals, etching depends on the relative electron

  6. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, D.M.; Sabin, A.E.; Reed, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The International Strategic Minerals Inventory tin inventory contains records for 56 major tin deposits and districts in 21 countries. These countries accounted for 98 percent of the 10 million metric tons of tin produced in the period 1934-87. Tin is a good alloying metal and is generally nontoxic, and its chief uses are as tinplate for tin cans and as solder in electronics. The 56 locations consist of 39 lode deposits and 17 placers and contain almost 7.5 million metric tons of tin in identified economic resources (R1E) and another 1.5 million metric tons of tin in other resource categories. Most of these resources are in major deposits that have been known for over a hundred years. Lode deposits account for 44 percent of the R1E and 87 percent of the resources in other categories. Placer deposits make up the remainder. Low-income and middle-income countries, including Bolivia and Brazil and countries along the Southeast Asian Tin Belt such as Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia account for 91 percent of the R1E resources of tin and for 61 percent of resources in other categories. The United States has less than 0.05 percent of the world's tin R1E in major deposits. Available data suggest that the Soviet Union may have about 4 percent of resources in this category. The industrial market economy countries of the United States, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom are major consumers of tin, whereas the major tin-producing countries generally consume little tin. The Soviet Union and China are both major producers and consumers of tin. At the end of World War II, the four largest tin-producing countries (Bolivia, the Belgian Congo (Zaire), Nigeria, and Malaysia) produced over 80 percent of the world's tin. In 1986, the portion of production from the four largest producers (Malaysia, Brazil, Soviet Union, Indonesia) declined to about 55 percent, while the price of tin rose from about $1,500 to $18,000 per metric ton. In response to tin shortages

  7. Enhanced photoefficiency in positive-tone direct patterning of metal complexes for forming patterned indium tin oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordonier, Christopher E.J., E-mail: chris@kanto-gakuin.ac.jp; Nakamura, Akimasa; Shimada, Kazuhiko; Fujishima, Akira

    2012-07-01

    The efficiency of positive-tone directly photo-patternable 4-(2-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl)catechol and 4-(6-nitroveratryloxycarbonyl)catechol complexes of indium tin was improved by tuning the solubility of the complexes and by chelation of maltol as a cooperative photo-solvolytic component, such that films could be patterned at up to 4.88 mW{center_dot}s/nm in terms of resultant indium tin oxide (ITO). Patterned indium tin complexes were thermally transformed to pattern shape preserved ITO by anisotropic contraction and oxidation. The photo-reaction of these ligands and related derivatives was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showing decomposition to the respective carboxylic acid for which linear rate constants were approximated, further elucidating the mechanism and mechanics of selective solubility. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoreaction of ortho-nitrobenzyl dioxybenzoate derivatives was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tuning the photolabile ester-indium tin complex increased film photoefficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A photoreaction of chelated maltol was also found to aid performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexes coated once gave patterned 8.35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega}{center_dot}cm indium tin oxide films.

  8. Electrical Properties of Electrospun Sb-Doped Tin Oxide Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Brito, Neliza; Melendez, Anamaris; Ramos, Idalia; Pinto, Nicholas J.; Santiago-Aviles, Jorge J.

    2007-03-01

    Transparent and conducting tin oxide fibers are of considerable interest for solar energy conversion, sensors and in various electrode applications. Appropriate doping can further enhance the conductivity of the fibers without loosing optical transparency. Undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide fibers have been synthesized by our group in previous work using electrospinning and metallorganic decomposition techniques. The undoped tin oxide fibers were obtained using a mixture of pure tin oxide sol made from tin (IV) chloride : water : propanol : isopropanol at a molar ratio of 1:9:9:6, and a viscous solution made from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and chloroform at a ratio of 200 mg PEO/10 mL chloroform. In this work, antimony doped fibers were obtained by adding a dopant solution of antimony trichloride and isopropanol at a ratio of 2.2812 g antimony trichloride/10 ml isopropanol to the original tin oxide precursor solution. The Sb concentration in the precursor solution is 1.5%. After deposition, the fibers were sintered 600°C in air for two hours. The electrical conductivity of single fibers measured at room temperature increases by up to three orders of magnitude when compared to undoped fibers prepared using the same method. The resistivity change as a function of the annealing temperature can be attributed to the thermally activated formation of a nearly stoichoimetric solid. The resistivity of the fibers changes monotonically with temperature from 714Ω-cm at 2 K to 0.1Ω-cm at 300 K. In the temperature range from 2 to 8 K the fibers have a positive magnetoresistance (MR) with the highest value of 155 % at 2 K and ±9 T. At temperatures of 10 and 12 K the sign of MR changes to negative values for low magnetic fields and positive for high magnetic fields. For higher temperatures (15 K and above) the MR becomes negative and its magnitude decreases with temperature.

  9. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  10. Studies on Cementation of Tin on Copper and Tin Stripping from Copper Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cementation of tin on copper in acid chloride-thiourea solutions leads to the formation of porous layers with a thickness dependent on the immersion time. The process occurs via Sn(II-Cu(I mechanism. Chemical stripping of tin was carried out in alkaline and acid solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents. It resulted in the dissolution of metallic tin, but refractory Cu3Sn phase remained on the copper surface. Electrochemical tin stripping allows complete tin removal from the copper substrate, but porosity and complex phase composition of the tin coating do not allow monitoring the process in unambiguous way.

  11. Different K{sup +}-Na{sup +} inter-diffusion kinetics between the air side and tin side of an ion-exchanged float aluminosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Liangbao; Guo Xintao; Li Xiaoyu; Li Lei; Zhang Guanli [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Yan Yue, E-mail: Yue.Yan@biam.ac.cn [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The difference between the diffusion characteristics of K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ions in float glass on the air and tin sides was first demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The diffusion coefficient is more sensitive to temperature and time on the tin than on the air sides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The activation energy on the tin side is about three times larger than that on the air side. - Abstract: The difference between the inter-diffusion kinetics of K{sup +}-Na{sup +} in the air and tin sides of an ion-exchanged float aluminosilicate glass was investigated as a function of the exchange temperature and time. The potassium concentration profiles of the ion-exchanged glass surface were experimentally measured by electron microprobe analysis, and the diffusion coefficient was calculated by the Boltzmann-Montano approach. On the tin side of the ion-exchanged glass, the diffusion of K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ions is hindered by tin. The diffusion coefficient is also more sensitive to temperature and time on the tin than on the air sides. The results would be useful in guiding the strengthening process of float glass by one step ion-exchange or two step ion-exchange to obtain engineered stress profile (ESP) glasses.

  12. Electrochemical characterization of TiN coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piippo, J. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Inst. of Materials Chemistry and Corrosion, Zuerich (Switzerland)); Elsener, B. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Inst. of Materials Chemistry and Corrosion, Zuerich (Switzerland)); Boehni, H. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Inst. of Materials Chemistry and Corrosion, Zuerich (Switzerland))

    1993-12-03

    The corrosion behaviour of titanium nitride (TiN) CVD coatings on AISI 316L stainless steel and on inert Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] in hydrochloric acid is studied with a.c. and d.c. electrochemical methods. The electrochemical behaviour of TiN on stainless steel can be divided into active and passive behaviour according to the state of the substrate. The measurements indicate that there is an oxide layer on TiN that is responsible for its noble electrochemical behaviour. A model that describes the formation of the oxide layer on TiN in an electrolyte is proposed. (orig.)

  13. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries.

  15. Optimization of electrodeposition processes for tin coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shixue

    The mechanism of nucleation and growth of tin electrodeposits was investigated. Also the influences of the operating parameters on the morphology, texture, and microstructure as well as the corrosion resistance of tin coatings were studied in order to propose optimum deposition conditions. Tin electrodeposition on glassy carbon and steel from acid sulfate electrolytes proceeds via the 3D (Volmer-Weber) mechanism. On low carbon steel substrates, 3D tin crystallites are initially formed preferentially on step edges, followed by fast deposition of other sites with much smaller and densely packed crystallites of about 150-180 nm in diameter. It was discovered that hydrogen co-evolution and gelatin have a synergy effect contributing to the fast and complete coverage of steel substrate with tin. The cathodic potential oscillation of tin (II) reduction in the tin electrolyte is attributed to the depletion and restoration of tin ions on the cathode surface. It has been found that an increase in current density improves the coverage of the substrate or the covering power. Without agitation, the deposits are powdery at high current densities. In order to obtain smooth and compact coatings, agitation is crucial when the applied current density is well above the limiting value. Tin coatings with two different fibre textures, (100) and (301) were produced by electrodeposition. At a lower current density of 100 A/m 2, (301) fibre was obtained. At the current densities of 100 and up to 400 A/m2, only (100) fibre texture was observed. An increase in current density leads to a decrease in grain size. At the same current density, the grain size of tin coatings increases with increased temperature. The influence of temperature (20, 40, 60 and 80°C) on texture is small. The corrosion resistance of tin coatings increases with a decrease in grain size. The corrosion resistance of tin coatings with (301) fibre was higher than that of the tin coating with (100) fibre texture. The optimum

  16. Structural studies of supported tin catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, Noel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Gerencia de Catalizadores (Mexico); Viveros, Tomas [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria Quimica (Mexico)

    1999-11-15

    Tin oxide was supported on aluminium oxide, titanium oxide, magnesium oxide and silicon oxide, and the resulting interactions between the components in the prepared samples and after reduction were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. It was observed that in the oxide state, tin is present as SnO{sub 2} on alumina, magnesia and silica, but on titania tin occupies Ti sites in the structure. After hydrogen treatment at high temperatures, tin is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(2) on alumina and titania; it is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(0) on silica, and is practically not reduced on magnesia. These results reveal the degree of interaction between tin and the different supports studied.

  17. Uranium in cassiterites of tin deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagruzina, I.A.; Pinskij, Eh.M.; Savinova, I.B.

    1986-01-01

    For the purpose of elucidation of physico-chemical features of uranium and tin behaviour in ore deposition zones uranium determinations (1000 determ) in cassiterite grains from 55 tin-ore deposits of different formation types of several separate regions are carried out by means of fission radiography. It is shown that uranium content in cassiterites is a genetic sign. Peculiarities of uranium concentration and migration in tin deposits permit to use them as prognostic radiogeochemical criteria. Radiogeochemical prognostic-search signs confirm the antagonism between uranium and tin deposits of cassiterite-silicate and cassiterite-sulfide formations and paragenetic of certain types of uranium hydrothermal deposits with tin deposits of cassiterite-quartz formation.

  18. Multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in southwestern China: High genetic diversity, broad host range, and zoonotic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuefeng; Song, Yuan; Wang, Wuyou; Huang, Xiangming; Liu, Xuehan; Hu, Yanchun; Fu, Hualin; He, Min; Wang, Ya; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Kongju; Peng, Guangneng

    2017-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate eukaryotic intracellular parasite that infects a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Although considerable research has been conducted on this organism, relatively little information is available on the occurrence of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in zoos in southwestern China. Fecal specimens from Asiatic black bears in four zoos, located in four different cities, were collected and analyzed for the prevalence of E. bieneusi. The average prevalence of E. bieneusi was 27.4% (29/106), with the highest prevalence in Guiyang Zoo (36.4%, 16/44). Altogether, five genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified among the 29 E. bieneusi-positive samples, including three known genotypes (CHB1, SC02, and horse2) and two novel genotypes named ABB1 and ABB2. Multi-locus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4) revealed V, III, V, and IV genotypes at these four loci, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genotypes SC02 and ABB2 were clustered into group 1 of zoonotic potential, the genotypes CHB1 and ABB1 were clustered into a new group, and the genotype horse2 was clustered into group 6 of unclear zoonotic potential. In conclusion, this study identified two novel E. bieneusi genotypes in captive Asiatic black bears, and used microsatellite and minisatellite markers to reveal E. bieneusi genetic diversity. Moreover, our findings show that genotypes SC02 (identified in humans) and ABB2 belong to group 1 with zoonotic potential, suggesting the risk of transmission of E. bieneusi from Asiatic black bears to humans and other animals. PMID:28182656

  19. Tin( ii ) ketoacidoximates: synthesis, X-ray structures and processing to tin( ii ) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-10-21

    Tin(ii) ketoacidoximates of the type [HONCRCOO]Sn (R = Me 1, CHPh 2) and (MeONCMeCOO)Sn] NH·2HO 3 were synthesized by reacting pyruvate- and hydroxyl- or methoxylamine RONH (R = H, Me) with tin(ii) chloride dihydrate SnCl·2HO. The single crystal X-ray structure reveals that the geometry at the Sn atom is trigonal bipyramidal in 1, 2 and trigonal pyramidal in 3. Inter- or intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in 1-3. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis shows that the decomposition of 1-3 to SnO occurs at ca. 160 °C. The evolved gas analysis during TG indicates complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step for 1 whereas a small organic residue is additionally removed at temperatures >400 °C for 2. Above 140 °C, [HONC(Me)COO]Sn (1) decomposes in air to spherical SnO particles of size 10-500 nm. Spin coating of 1 on Si or a glass substrate followed by heating at 200 °C results in a uniform film of SnO. The band gap of the produced SnO film and nanomaterial was determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to be in the range of 3.0-3.3 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates surface oxidation of the SnO film to SnO in ambient atmosphere.

  20. Low-temperature Synthesis of Tin(II) Oxide From Tin(II) ketoacidoximate Precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Alshankiti, Buthainah

    2015-04-01

    Sn (II) oxide finds numerous applications in different fields such as thin film transistors1, solar cells2 and sensors.3 In this study we present the fabrication of tin monoxide SnO by using Sn (II) ketoacid oximate complexes as precursors. Tin (II) ketoacidoximates of the type [HON=CRCOO]2Sn where R= Me 1, R= CH2Ph 2, and [(MeON=CMeCOO)3Sn]- NH4 +.2H2O 3 were synthesized by in situ formation of the ketoacid oximate ligand. The crystal structures were determined via single crystal X- ray diffraction of the complexes 1-3 revealed square planar and square pyramidal coordination environments for the Sn atom. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in all the complexes. Furthermore, the complexes were characterized by Infrared (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and elemental analysis. From thermogravimetric analysis of 1-3, it was found that the complexes decomposed in the range of 160 – 165 oC. Analysis of the gases evolved during decomposition indicated complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step and the formation of SnO. Spin coating of 1 on silicon or glass substrate show uniform coating of SnO. Band gaps of SnO films were measured and found to be in the range of 3.0 – 3.3 eV by UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated surface oxidation of the SnO film. Heating 1 above 140 oC in air gives SnO of size ranging from 10 – 500 nm and is spherical in shape. The SnO nanomaterial is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction(XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  1. Electronic structure of tin monosulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletskan, D. I.; Bletskan, M. M.; Glukhov, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    The band structure of three-dimensional and two-dimensional tin monosulfide was calculated by the density functional method in LDA and LDA+U approximations. Group-theoretical analysis of the electronic band structure of SnS crystallized in the orthorhombic structure with space group D2h16- Pcmn is carried out, the symmetry of wave functions of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band is found. The selection rules for direct and indirect optical transitions at different incident light polarization are determined. The group-theoretical analysis of energy states of the three-dimensional and two-dimensional SnS structures explains the formation of the band structure including the Davydov splitting. The calculated total density of states is compared with the known experimental XPS and UPS spectra, providing the assignment of their main features.

  2. Tin compounds and insect fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butovskiy, R.O.

    1985-03-01

    A review of the literature of tin compounds serving as pesticides has resulted in the identification of 11 widely used compounds, both organic and inorganic, with largely fungicidal activity. Organotin compounds seem to be limited in use to the control of insect pests, with the majority of the compounds consisting of Sn(IV) and falling into the following four categories: R/sub 4/Sn, R/sub 3/SNX, R/sub 2/SnX/sub 2/, and RSnX/sub 3/, where R = aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon radicals, and X = organic or inorganic substituent. The insecticidal activity of these compounds appears to rest on inhibition of ATPase and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. As a result, these compounds act as larvicides, ovicides and imagocides. 77 references.

  3. Synthesis of tin-containing polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzell, S. A.; Taylor, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    A series of tin-containing polyimide films derived from either 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride and 4,4'-oxydianiline have been synthesized and their electrical properties examined. Highest quality materials (i.e., homogeneous, smooth surface, flexible) with the best electrical properties were doped with either SnCl2.2H2O or (n-Bu)2SnCl2. In all cases, extensive reactivity of the tin dopant with water, air or polyamic acid during imidization is observed. Lowered electrical surface resistivities appear to be correlatable with the presence of surface tin oxide on the film surface.

  4. Investigation of morphological and electrical characteristics of tin doped indium oxide layers produced by a quasi single source precursor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veith, M., E-mail: Michael.veith@inm-gmbh.de [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Saarland University, Inorganic Chemistry, Campus C4 1, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Bubel, C.; Grobelsek, I. [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2012-12-01

    Sol-gel coatings of tin doped indium oxide (ITO) were prepared via spin-coating, using a quasi single source precursor system that enhances homogeneous distribution of the dopant tin inside the oxide lattice. In addition, the implementation of metastable, bivalent tin into the gel layer enables the application of a one-step heat treatment under inert atmosphere, eliminating the need for the usually required critical post reduction treatment after crystallisation. The ITO layers produced were uniformly polycrystalline with a homogeneous thickness of 60 nm. They showed increased electrical conductivity and optical performance in terms of transmission (vis) and IR reflection. The texture was less pronounced and the tensile residual stress determined in the layers was lower than in similar films, manufactured in a conventional two-step annealing process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A quasi single source precursor system enables one-step heat treatment of layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thereby less pronounced texture and lower tensile residual stress were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The layers show hardly any fluctuations in the thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrical conductivity could be increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical performance in terms of transmission (vis) and IR reflection was increased.

  5. Tunable Near-Infrared Luminescence in Tin Halide Perovskite Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, May L; Tay, Timothy Y S; Sadhanala, Aditya; Dutton, Siân E; Li, Guangru; Friend, Richard H; Tan, Zhi-Kuang

    2016-07-21

    Infrared emitters are reasonably rare in solution-processed materials. Recently, research into hybrid organo-lead halide perovskite, originally popular in photovoltaics,1-3 has gained traction in light-emitting diodes (LED) due to their low-cost solution processing and good performance.4-9 The lead-based electroluminescent materials show strong colorful emission in the visible region, but lack emissive variants further in the infrared. The concerns with the toxicity of lead may, additionally, limit their wide-scale applications. Here, we demonstrate tunable near-infrared electroluminescence from a lead-free organo-tin halide perovskite, using an ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3Sn(Br1-xIx)3/F8/Ca/Ag device architecture. In our tin iodide (CH3NH3SnI3) LEDs, we achieved a 945 nm near-infrared emission with a radiance of 3.4 W sr(-1) m(-2) and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 0.72%, comparable with earlier lead-based devices. Increasing the bromide content in these tin perovskite devices widens the semiconductor bandgap and leads to shorter wavelength emissions, tunable down to 667 nm. These near-infrared LEDs could find useful applications in a range of optical communication, sensing and medical device applications.

  6. A Win for the Future of Tin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Drinking that draft beer from a glass? Why not try tin products instead—they keep your beer cooler and more refreshing longer than glasses! In 1885, Yong Koon, a young man from Guangdong Province, traveled

  7. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    ’s a lifestyle I enjoy.” For Monáe, the tuxedo is both working clothes and a superhero uniform. Together with futuristic references to Fritz Lang’s dystopian Metropolis, her trademark starched shirt and tuxedo also recall Weimar and pre-war Berlin. While outwardly dissimilar, Sioux’s and Monáe’s shared black...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses....

  8. Tin oxide dependence of the CO2 reduction efficiency on tin electrodes and enhanced activity for tin/tin oxide thin-film catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihong; Kanan, Matthew W

    2012-02-01

    The importance of tin oxide (SnO(x)) to the efficiency of CO(2) reduction on Sn was evaluated by comparing the activity of Sn electrodes that had been subjected to different pre-electrolysis treatments. In aqueous NaHCO(3) solution saturated with CO(2), a Sn electrode with a native SnO(x) layer exhibited potential-dependent CO(2) reduction activity consistent with previously reported activity. In contrast, an electrode etched to expose fresh Sn(0) surface exhibited higher overall current densities but almost exclusive H(2) evolution over the entire 0.5 V range of potentials examined. Subsequently, a thin-film catalyst was prepared by simultaneous electrodeposition of Sn(0) and SnO(x) on a Ti electrode. This catalyst exhibited up to 8-fold higher partial current density and 4-fold higher faradaic efficiency for CO(2) reduction than a Sn electrode with a native SnO(x) layer. Our results implicate the participation of SnO(x) in the CO(2) reduction pathway on Sn electrodes and suggest that metal/metal oxide composite materials are promising catalysts for sustainable fuel synthesis.

  9. Tin(II) ketoacidoximates: synthesis, X-ray structures and processing to tin(II) oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash; Davaasuren, Bambar; Alshankiti, Buthainah Ameen; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2015-12-14

    Tin(II) ketoacidoximates of the type [HON=CRCOO]2Sn (R = Me 1, CH2Ph 2) and (MeON=CMeCOO)3Sn](-) NH4(+)·2H2O 3 were synthesized by reacting pyruvate- and hydroxyl- or methoxylamine RONH2 (R = H, Me) with tin(II) chloride dihydrate SnCl2·2H2O. The single crystal X-ray structure reveals that the geometry at the Sn atom is trigonal bipyramidal in 1, 2 and trigonal pyramidal in 3. Inter- or intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in 1-3. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis shows that the decomposition of 1-3 to SnO occurs at ca. 160 °C. The evolved gas analysis during TG indicates complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step for 1 whereas a small organic residue is additionally removed at temperatures >400 °C for 2. Above 140 °C, [HON=C(Me)COO]2Sn (1) decomposes in air to spherical SnO particles of size 10-500 nm. Spin coating of 1 on Si or a glass substrate followed by heating at 200 °C results in a uniform film of SnO. The band gap of the produced SnO film and nanomaterial was determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to be in the range of 3.0-3.3 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates surface oxidation of the SnO film to SnO2 in ambient atmosphere.

  10. Thermally evaporated mechanically hard tin oxide thin films for opto-electronic apllications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sumanta K.; Rajeswari, V. P.

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin oxide (WTO) and Molybdenum doped tin oxide (MoTO) thin film were deposited on corn glass by thermal evaporation method. The films were annealed at 350°C for one hour. Structural analysis using Xray diffraction data shows both the films are polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of tin oxide, Sn3O4, corresponding to JCPDS card number 01-078-6064. SEM photograph showed that both the films have spherical grains with size in the range of 20-30 nm. Compositional analysis was carried out using EDS which reveals the presence of Sn, O and the dopant Mo/W only thereby indicating the absence of any secondary phase in the films. The films are found to contain nearly 6 wt% of Mo, 8 wt% of W as dopants respectively. The transmission pattern for both the films in the spectral range 200 - 2000 nm shows that W doping gives a transparency of nearly 80% from 380 nm onwards while Mo doping has less transparency of 39% at 380nm. Film hardness measurement using Triboscope shows a film hardness of about 9-10 GPa for both the films. It indicates that W or M doping in tin oxide provides the films the added advantage of withstanding the mechanical wear and tear due to environmental fluctuations By optimizing the optical and electrical properties, W/Mo doped tin oxide films may be explored as window layers in opto-electronic applications such as solar cells.

  11. Tin in canned food: a review and understanding of occurrence and effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Steve; Wallace, Tony

    2003-12-01

    uncertain veracity. Clinical studies provide greater confidence regarding the effects of exposure concentration and dose, but few relevant studies have been made. Adverse gastrointestinal effects were observed in limited clinical studies at concentrations of 700 ppm or above, although no adverse gastrointestinal effects were also reported in two studies at higher concentrations. Overall, therefore, the published data do not present a particularly comprehensive profile on the toxic hazard to man of acute exposure to divalent inorganic tin. A food survey suggested that the contents of almost 4% of plain internal tinplate food cans contain over 150 mg/kg of tin and over 2.5 million such cans are consumed every year in the UK alone. Despite this, in the last 25 years, there have been no reports of acute effects attributable to tin contamination in the range 100-200 ppm. These facts strongly suggest that there is little evidence for an association between the consumption of food containing tin at concentrations up to 200 ppm and significant acute adverse gastrointestinal effects. Clearly though, only further clinical studies will generate unequivocal evidence that current legislative limits provide safe levels for adults in the general population.

  12. Post-release ranging behaviour of hand-raised black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, L. in Matusadona National Park, Zimbabwe with recommendations for management of introduction to the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Matipano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand-raised rhinos would preferentially settle at sites close to areas where human activity was significant. Hand-raised rhinos that attached themselves to sites of human activity tended to move less widely and to have smaller seasonal ranges than those that moved away from human settlements. These rhinos had no fear of humans and some animals would move along established roads into hostile areas outside the park. These factors made hand-raised rhinos more vulnerable to poaching than their wild counterparts. Management of hand-raised rhinos with regards to ranging behaviour is discussed in the text.

  13. Evidence by EIS of the interaction between proteins and tin oxide electrode surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachet, Hubert [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, UPR 15 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Case courrier no133-4 place Jussieu 75005 Paris (France); Debiemme-Chouvy, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.debiemme-chouvy@upmc.f [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, UPR 15 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Case courrier no133-4 place Jussieu 75005 Paris (France)

    2010-08-30

    Macromolecules like proteins are able to adhere to tin oxide electrodes at open circuit potential as proved by electrogravimetry experiments. In this work, electrochemical impedance studies were performed at aqueous electrolyte/F- or Sb-doped semiconducting tin oxide interfaces, including natural seawater. By this way, it was possible to characterize the potential dependence of the interfacial capacitance in various physicochemical conditions, without or in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). In the potential range where tin oxide is in the depletion regime (blocking interface), a capacitance excess is evidenced which can be attributed to the formation of surface states which are the signature of chemical bonding. By simulating the so-called surface state capacitance, three states have been pointed out. They are centred at 0.7, 0.9 and 1.1 eV in the tin oxide bandgap. On the basis of experimental arguments, the state at 1.1 eV was ascribed to the OH-terminated tin oxide surface, the two other states were found to be specific of the interaction of organic matter with the oxide surface. In the presence of BSA, the density of surface atoms (about 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}) involved in bonding is of the order of magnitude of the surface concentration of one BSA monolayer. The lasting character of these bonds was also shown. This finding shows the definitive protein immobilisation at the SnO{sub 2} surface.

  14. [Determination of high content of tin in geochemical samples by solid emission spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian-Zhen; Hao, Zhi-Hong; Tang, Rui-Ling; Li, Xiao-Jing; Li, Wen-Ge; Zhang, Qin

    2013-11-01

    A method for the determination of high content of tin in geochemical samples by solid emission spectrometry was presented. The dedicated high content tin spectrum standard series was developed. K2S2O7, NaF, Al2O3 and carbon powder were used as buffers and Ge was used as internal standard, and the ratio of sample/matrix/buffer is 1 : 1 : 2. A weak sensitive line (Sn 242. 170 0 nm) was used as the analytical line. The technologies of vertical electrodes, AC arc overlap spectrograph, interception of the exposure, quantitative computer translation spectrum and background correction were used. The determination range is 100-22 350 microg x g(-1), the detection limit is 16.64 microg x g(-1), and the precision is (RSD, n = 12) 4.11%-6.46%. The accuracy of the method has been verified by determination of high content of tin in national geochemical standard samples and the results are in agreement with certified value. The method can be used for measurement directly without dilution of high content of tin in geochemical samples, and it greatly improved the detection upper limit for the determination of tin with solid emission spectroscopy and has certain practical value.

  15. Broad spectral response photodetector based on individual tin-doped CdS nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichang Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High purity and tin-doped 1D CdS micro/nano-structures were synthesized by a convenient thermal evaporation method. SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM were used to examine the morphology, composition, phase structure and crystallinity of as-prepared samples. Raman spectrum was used to confirm tin doped into CdS effectively. The effect of impurity on the photoresponse properties of photodetectors made from these as-prepared pure and tin-doped CdS micro/nano-structures under excitation of light with different wavelength was investigated. Various photoconductive parameters such as responsivity, external quantum efficiency, response time and stability were analyzed to evaluate the advantage of doped nanowires and the feasibility for photodetector application. Comparison with pure CdS nanobelt, the tin-doped CdS nanowires response to broader spectral range while keep the excellect photoconductive parameters. Both trapped state induced by tin impurity and optical whispering gallery mode microcavity effect in the doped CdS nanowires contribute to the broader spectral response. The micro-photoluminescence was used to confirm the whispering gallery mode effect and deep trapped state in the doped CdS nanowires.

  16. Gravity Fields Generation In The Universe By The Large Range of Scales Convection Systems In Planets, Stars, Black Holes and Galaxies Based On The "Convection Bang Hypothesis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, H.; Amirshahkarami, A.; Gholibeigian, K.

    2015-12-01

    In our vision it is believed that the Big Bang was Convection Bang (CB). When CB occurred, a gigantic large-scale forced convection system (LFCS) began to create space-time including gravitons and gluons in more than light speed. Then, simultaneously by a swirling wild wind, created inflation process including many quantum convection loops (QCL) in locations which had more density of temperature and energetic particles like gravitons. QCL including fundamental particles, grew and formed black holes (BHs) as the core of galaxies. LFCSs of heat and mass in planets, stars, BHs and galaxies generate gravity and electromagnetic fields and change the properties of matter and space-time around the systems. Mechanism: Samples: 1- Due to gravity fields of Sun and Moon, Earth's inner core is dislocated toward them and rotates around the Earth's center per day and generates LFCSs, Gholibeigian [AGU, 2012]. 2- Dislocated Sun's core due to gravity fields of planets/ Jupiter, rotates around the Sun's center per 25-35 days and generates LFCSs, Gholibeigian [EGU, 2014]. 3- If a planet/star falls into a BH, what happens? It means, its dislocated core rotates around its center in less than light speed and generates very fast LFCS and friction, while it is rotating/melting around/inward the center of BH. Observable Factors: 1- There is not logical relation between surface gravity fields of planets/Sun and their masses (general relativity); see Planetary Fact Sheet/Ratio to Earth Values-NASA: Earth: mass/gravity =1/1, Jupiter=317.8/2.36, Neptune=17.1/1.12, Saturn=95.2/0.916, Moon=0.0128/0.166, Sun=333000/28. 2- Convective systems in thunderstorms help bring ozone down to Earth [Brian-Kahn]. 3- In 12 surveyed BHs, produced gravity force & magnetic field strength were matched (unique LFCS source) [PhysOrg - June 4, 2014]. Justification: After BB/CB, gravitons were created without any other masses and curvature of space-time (general relativity), but by primary gigantic convection

  17. Methodology for the effective stabilization of tin-oxide-based oxidation/reduction catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony N. (Inventor); Schryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Gulati, Suresh T. (Inventor); Summers, Jerry C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention described herein involves a novel approach to the production of oxidation/reduction catalytic systems. The present invention serves to stabilize the tin oxide reducible metal-oxide coating by co-incorporating at least another metal-oxide species, such as zirconium. In one embodiment, a third metal-oxide species is incorporated, selected from the group consisting of cerium, lanthanum, hafnium, and ruthenium. The incorporation of the additional metal oxide components serves to stabilize the active tin-oxide layer in the catalytic process during high-temperature operation in a reducing environment (e.g., automobile exhaust). Moreover, the additional metal oxides are active components due to their oxygen-retention capabilities. Together, these features provide a mechanism to extend the range of operation of the tin-oxide-based catalyst system for automotive applications, while maintaining the existing advantages.

  18. Cluster formation probability in the trans-tin and trans-lead nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Kannur University, Payyanur Campus, Payyanur 670 327 (India)], E-mail: drkpsanthosh@gmail.com; Biju, R.K.; Sahadevan, Sabina [P.G. Department of Physics and Research Centre, Payyanur College, Payyanur 670 327 (India)

    2010-07-01

    Within our fission model, the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM) cluster formation probabilities are calculated for different clusters ranging from carbon to silicon for the parents in the trans-tin and trans-lead regions. It is found that in trans-tin region the {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 20}Ne and {sup 24}Mg clusters have maximum cluster formation probability and lowest half lives as compared to other clusters. In trans-lead region the {sup 14}C, {sup 18,20}O, {sup 23}F, {sup 24,26}Ne, {sup 28,30}Mg and {sup 34}Si clusters have the maximum cluster formation probability and minimum half life, which show that alpha like clusters are most probable for emission from trans-tin region while non-alpha clusters are probable from trans-lead region. These results stress the role of neutron proton symmetry and asymmetry of daughter nuclei in these two cases.

  19. Cluster formation probability in the trans-tin and trans-lead nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P; Sahadevan, Sabina; 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.03.004

    2010-01-01

    Within our fission model, the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM) cluster formation probabilities are calculated for different clusters ranging from carbon to silicon for the parents in the trans-tin and trans- lead regions. It is found that in trans-tin region the 12^C, 16^O, 20^Ne and 24^Mg clusters have maximum cluster formation probability and lowest half lives as compared to other clusters. In trans-lead region the 14^C, 18, 20^O, 23^F, 24,26^Ne, 28,30^Mg and 34^Si clusters have the maximum cluster formation probability and minimum half life, which show that alpha like clusters are most probable for emission from trans-tin region while non-alpha clusters are probable from trans-lead region. These results stress the role of neutron proton symmetry and asymmetry of daughter nuclei in these two cases.

  20. Recovery Of Valuable Metals In Tin-Based Anodic Slimes By Carbothermic Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chulwoong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the recovery of anodic slimes by carbothermic reaction in the temperature range of 973~1,273K and amount of carbon as a function of time. Tin anodic slime samples were collected from the bottom of the electrolytic cells during the electro-refining of tin. The anodic slimes are consisted of high concentrated tin, silver, copper and lead oxides. The kinetics of reduction were determined by means of the weight-loss measurement technique. In order to understand in detail of carbothermic reaction, thermodynamic calculation was carried out and compared with experiments. From thermodynamic calculation and experiment, it was confirmed that Sn-based anodic slime could be reduced by controlling temperature and amount of carbon. However, any tendency between the reduction temperature and carbon content for the reduction reaction was not observed.

  1. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zheng Jiao; Xiaojuan Wan; Bing Zhao; Huijiao Guo; Tiebing Liu; Minghong Wu

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam irradiation on the gas sensing performance of tin dioxide thin films toward H2 are studied. The tin dioxide thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The results show that the sensitivity increased after electron beam irradiation. The electron beam irradiation effects on tin dioxide thin films were simulated and the mechanism was discussed.

  2. Tuning the optical bandgap of TiO2-TiN composite films as photocatalyst in the visible light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-TiN composite catalysts were prepared by oxidizing the TiN films in air at 350 °C. By adjusting the oxidation time to control the oxidation stage of TiN films, the optical band gap of the TiO2-TiN composites can be varied in a wide range from 1.68 eV to 3.23 eV. These composite films all showed red shift in photo-response towards the visible region, and depending on the optical band gap, some composite films exhibited good catalytic activity in the visible light region. This study provides a simple but effective method to prepare film photocatalyst working in visible light.

  3. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-11-01

    reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

  4. Determination of total tin in geological materials by electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometry using a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Chao, T.T.; Meier, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    An electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of total tin in geological materials, with use of a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace. The sample is decomposed by fusion with lithium metaborate and the melt is dissolved in 10% hydrochloric acid. Tin is then extracted into trioctylphosphine oxide-methyl isobutyl ketone prior to atomization. Impregnation of the furnace with a sodium tungstate solution increases the sensitivity of the determination and improves the precision of the results. The limits of determination are 0.5-20 ppm of tin in the sample. Higher tin values can be determined by dilution of the extract. Replicate analyses of eighteen geological reference samples with diverse matrices gave relative standard deviations ranging from 2.0 to 10.8% with an average of 4.6%. Average tin values for reference samples were in general agreement with, but more precise than, those reported by others. Apparent recoveries of tin added to various samples ranged from 95 to 111% with an average of 102%. ?? 1984.

  5. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  6. Synthesising highly reactive tin oxide using Tin(II2- ethylhexanoate polynucleation as precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Montenegro Hernández

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide is a widely used compound in technological applications, particularity as a catalyst, gas sensor and in making varistors, transparent conductors, electrocatalytic electrodes and photovoltaic cells. An ethylhexanoate tin salt, a carboxylic acid and poly-esterification were used for synthesising highly reactive tin oxide in the present study. Synthesis was controlled by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and recording changes in viscosity. The tin oxide characteristics so obtained were determined using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SnO2 dust synthesised and heat-treated at 550°C yielded high density aggregates, having greater than 50 μm particle size. This result demonstrates the high reactivity of the ceramic powders synthesised here.

  7. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-03-01

    Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles are formed in the presence of a carboxylic acid and base in air at room temperature. IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (coupled with infrared spectroscopy), powder X-ray diffraction, high temperature X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy are used for the characterization of Sn6O4(OH)4 and the investigation of its selective decomposition into SnO or SnO2. Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction results indicate that SnO is formed by the removal of water from crystalline Sn6O4(OH)4. SEM shows octahedral morphology of the Sn6O4(OH)4, SnO and SnO2 with particle size from 400 nm-2 μm during solid state conversion. Solution phase transformation of Sn6O4(OH)4 to SnO2 occurs in the presence of potassium glutarate and oxygen. SnO2 particles are 15-20 nm in size.

  8. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  9. Detection of the mosquito-borne flaviviruses, West Nile, Dengue, Saint Louis Encephalitis, Ilheus, Bussuquara, and Yellow Fever in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya) of Northeastern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, María A.; Fabbri, Cintia M.; Zunino, Gabriel E.; Kowalewski, Martín M.; Luppo, Victoria C.; Enría, Delia A.; Levis, Silvana C.; Calderón, Gladys E.

    2017-01-01

    Several medically important mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been detected in Argentina in recent years: Dengue (DENV), St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV), West Nile (WNV) and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. Evidence of Bussuquara virus (BSQV) and Ilheus virus (ILHV) activity were found, but they have not been associated with human disease. Non-human primates can act as important hosts in the natural cycle of flaviviruses and serological studies can lead to improved understanding of virus circulation dynamics and host susceptibility. From July–August 2010, we conducted serological and molecular surveys in free–ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya) captured in northeastern Argentina. We used 90% plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT90) to analyze 108 serum samples for antibodies to WNV, SLEV, YFV, DENV (serotypes 1and 3), ILHV, and BSQV. Virus genome detection was performed using generic reverse transcription (RT)-nested PCR to identify flaviviruses in 51 antibody-negative animals. Seventy animals had antibodies for one or more flaviviruses for a total antibody prevalence of 64.8% (70/108). Monotypic (13/70, 19%) and heterotypic (27/70, 39%) patterns were differentiated. Specific neutralizing antibodies against WNV, SLEV, DENV-1, DENV-3, ILHV, and BSQV were found. Unexpectedly, the highest flavivirus antibody prevalence detected was to WNV with 9 (8.33%) monotypic responses. All samples tested by (RT)-nested PCR were negative for viral genome. This is the first detection of WNV-specific antibodies in black howlers from Argentina and the first report in free-ranging non-human primates from Latin-American countries. Given that no animals had specific neutralizing antibodies to YFV, our results suggest that the study population remains susceptible to YFV. Monitoring of these agents should be strengthened to detect the establishment of sylvatic cycles of flaviviruses in America and evaluate risks to wildlife and human health. PMID:28187130

  10. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  11. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  12. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy investigation on indium tin oxide films under cathodic polarization in NaOH solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wenjiao; Cao, Si; Yang, Yanze; Wang, Hao; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yiming, E-mail: corrosion@fudan.edu.cn

    2012-09-30

    The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of indium tin oxide (ITO) films under the cathodic polarization in 0.1 M NaOH solution were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The as-received and the cathodically polarized ITO films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction for morphological, compositional and structural studies. The results showed that ITO films underwent a corrosion process during the cathodic polarization and the main component of the corrosion products was body-centered cubic indium. The electrochemical impedance parameters were related to the effect of the cathodic polarization on the ITO specimens. The capacitance of ITO specimens increased, while the charge transfer resistance and the inductance decreased with the increase of the polarization time. The proposed mechanism indicated that the corrosion products (metallic indium) were firstly formed during the cathodic polarization and then absorbed on the surface of the ITO film. As the surface was gradually covered by indium particles, the corrosion process was suppressed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cathodic polarization of indium tin oxide (ITO) in 0.1 M NaOH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cathodic polarization studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ITO underwent a corrosion attack during cathodic polarization, indium was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrochemical parameters of ITO were obtained using equivalent electrical circuit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A corrosion mechanism is proposed.

  13. Growth of YBCO Thin Films on TiN(001) and CeO2-Coated TiN Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0102 GROWTH OF YBCO THIN FILMS ON TiN(001) AND CeO2-COATED TiN SURFACES (POSTPRINT) Paul N. Barnes, Rand Biggers...GROWTH OF YBCO THIN FILMS ON TiN(001) AND CeO2-COATED TiN SURFACES (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Number: ASC-01-1691; Clearance Date: 19 Nov 2002. This paper contains color 14. ABSTRACT Epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O7-x ( YBCO ) layers on TiN(0 0

  14. Partitioning of Multivariate Phenotypes using Regression Trees Reveals Complex Patterns of Adaptation to Climate across the Range of Black Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Wendpouire Oubida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Local adaptation to climate in temperate forest trees involves the integration of multiple physiological, morphological, and phenological traits. Latitudinal clines are frequently observed for these traits, but environmental constraints also track longitude and altitude. We combined extensive phenotyping of 12 candidate adaptive traits, multivariate regression trees, quantitative genetics, and a genome-wide panel of SNP markers to better understand the interplay among geography, climate, and adaptation to abiotic factors in Populus trichocarpa. Heritabilities were low to moderate (0.13 to 0.32 and population differentiation for many traits exceeded the 99th percentile of the genome-wide distribution of FST, suggesting local adaptation. When climate variables were taken as predictors and the 12 traits as response variables in a multivariate regression tree analysis, evapotranspiration (Eref explained the most variation, with subsequent splits related to mean temperature of the warmest month, frost-free period (FFP, and mean annual precipitation (MAP. These grouping matched relatively well the splits using geographic variables as predictors: the northernmost groups (short FFP and low Eref had the lowest growth, and lowest cold injury index; the southern British Columbia group (low Eref and intermediate temperatures had average growth and cold injury index; the group from the coast of California and Oregon (high Eref and FFP had the highest growth performance and the highest cold injury index; and the southernmost, high-altitude group (with high Eref and low FFP performed poorly, had high cold injury index, and lower water use efficiency. Taken together, these results suggest variation in both temperature and water availability across the range shape multivariate adaptive traits in poplar.

  15. UV-visible spectroscopic estimation of photodegradation of rhodamine-B dye using tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangami, G; Dharmaraj, N

    2012-11-01

    Nanocrystalline, tin(IV) oxide (SnO(2)) particles has been prepared by thermal decomposition of tin oxalate precursor obtained from the reactions of tin(IV) chloride and sodium oxalate using eggshell membrane (ESM). The as-prepared SnO(2) nanoparticles were characterized by thermal studies, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, FT-IR and UV-visible studies and used as a photocatalyst for the degradation of rhodamine-B (Rh-B) dye. The size of the prepared nanoparticles was in the range of 5-12nm as identified from the TEM images. Powder XRD data revealed the presence of a tetragonal, rutile crystalline phase of the tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles. Thermal analysis showed that the decomposition of tin oxalate precursor to yield the titled tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles was completed below 500°C. The extent of degradation of Rh-B in the presence of SnO(2) monitored by absorption spectral measurements demonstrated that 94.48% of the selected dye was degraded upon irradiation with UV light for 60 min.

  16. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  17. Tailoring the structural and optical properties of TiN thin films by Ag ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, M.; Novaković, M.; Rakočević, Z.; Bibić, N.

    2016-12-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) thin films thickness of ∼260 nm prepared by dc reactive sputtering were irradiated with 200 keV silver (Ag) ions to the fluences ranging from 5 × 1015 ions/cm2 to 20 × 1015 ions/cm2. After implantation TiN layers were annealed 2 h at 700 °C in a vacuum. Ion irradiation-induced microstructural changes were examined by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, while the surface topography was observed using atomic force microscopy. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to get insights on the optical and electronic properties of TiN films with respect to their microstructure. The results showed that the irradiations lead to deformation of the lattice, increasing disorder and formation of new Ag phase. The optical results demonstrate the contribution of surface plasmon resonace (SPR) of Ag particles. SPR position shifted in the range of 354.3-476.9 nm when Ag ion fluence varied from 5 × 1015 ions/cm2 to 20 × 1015 ions/cm2. Shift in peak wavelength shows dependence on Ag particles concentration, suggesting that interaction between Ag particles dominate the surface plasmon resonance effect. Presence of Ag as second metal in the layer leads to overall decrease of optical resistivity of TiN.

  18. Underpotential deposition of tin(II) on a gold disc electrode and determination of tin in a tin plate sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhiqing; Shang, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Chunming

    2005-04-01

    This work describes a study of the underpotential deposition (UPD) of Sn2+ on a polycrystalline gold disc electrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronocoulometry (CC). Sn2+ ions showed well-defined peaks from UPD and UPD stripping (UPD-S) in 1 mol/L HCl solutions, while bulk deposition (BD) and BD stripping (BD-S) of the ions were also observed. The measured UPD shifts, DeltaE(UPD), between the UPD-S and the BD-S peaks were more than 200 mV. The UPD charge and the surface coverage of tin were measured by CC. A new method for determining Sn2+ was therefore developed, based on the excellent electrochemical properties of the Au/Sn UPD system. A plot of the UPD-DPASV (differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry) signal versus the Sn(II) concentration was obtained for [Sn(II)] of 1.98x10(-7) to 3.64x10(-5) M. The method developed here has been applied to determine the tin in a tin plate sample.

  19. Study on All-Solid-State Chloride Sensor Based on Tin Oxide/Indium Tin Oxide Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jui-Fu; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Sun, Tai-Ping; Hsiung, Shen-Kan; Kao, Hui-Ling

    2011-03-01

    An all-solid-state chloride electrode based on a tin oxide (SnO2)/indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was developed in this study. The sensing membrane of the electrode was prepared by mixing poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), [4,5-dimethy-l-3,6-bis(dodecyloxy)-1,2-phenylene] bis(mercury chloride) (ETH9033), and tridodecylmethyl ammonium chloride (TDDMACl). The mixed solution was mixed with tetrahydrofuran (THF), and then dropped on the sensing window of SnO2/ITO glass. According to the experimental results, the optimal weight ratio were PVC:DOS:ETH9033:TDDMACl=33:66:2:5. At this optimum weight ratio, the sensitivity was 54 mV/dec while the range of linear concentrations of NaCl solutions was between 10-4 and 1 M. The lower detection limit of the sensor reached 8×10-5 M and the response time was less than 1 s. The selectivity coefficient was consistent with the theory of Hofmeister lipophilicity. The lifetime was over 60 days and the repeatability was over 50 times. Moreover, the chloride ion sensor was successfully applied to detecting chloride ions in rinsing solutions for contact lenses, and the experimental results revealed that the correlation coefficient was 0.99.

  20. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-12-12

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to achieve transparent and conductive films free carriers have to be generated by oxygen vacancies, by metal ions at interstitial positions in the crystal lattice or by cation doping with Sb or Nb, respectively. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide films have been prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (dc MS) from metallic targets. The process parameters and the doping concentration in the films have been varied. The films have been electrically, optically and structurally analysed in order to analyse the influence of the process parameters and the doping concentration on the film properties. Post-deposition treatments of the films have been performed in order to improve the film properties. For the deposition of transparent and conductive tin oxide, the dominant parameter during the deposition is the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The Sb incorporation as doping atoms has a minor influence on the electrical, optical and structural properties. Within a narrow oxygen content in the sputtering gas highly transparent and conductive tin oxide films have been prepared. In this study, the lowest resistivity in the as deposited state is 2.9 m{omega} cm for undoped tin oxide without any postdeposition treatment. The minimum resistivity is related to a transition to crystalline films with the stoichiometry of SnO{sub 2}. At higher oxygen content the films turn out to have a higher resistivity due to an oxygen excess. After post

  1. "No Cosby Show": Single Black Mother Homes and How Black Men Build Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Maia Niguel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lives of 11 Black men to better understand how Black men who were raised in single Black mother homes build romantic relationships with Black women. One focus group and a series of individual in-person interviews were conducted with the participants who ranged between 23 and 43 years of age. Participants were…

  2. Third-generation muffin–tin orbitals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O K Andersen; T Saha-Dasgupta; S Ezhov

    2003-01-01

    By the example of $sp^3$-bonded semiconductors, we illustrate what 3rd-generation muffin–tin orbitals (MTOs) are. We demonstrate that they can be downfolded to smaller and smaller basis sets: $sp^3d^{10}, sp^3$, and bond orbitals. For isolated bands, it is possible to generate Wannier functions a priori. Also for bands, which overlap other bands, Wannier-like MTOs can be generated a priori. Hence, MTOs have a unique capability for providing chemical understanding.

  3. Incorporation of indium tin oxide nanoparticles in PEMFC electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolz, Andre [Renewable Energies Group, Institute for Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); CRP Henri Tudor, Department of Advanced Materials and Structures, Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Zils, Susanne; Ruch, David; Michel, Marc [CRP Henri Tudor, Department of Advanced Materials and Structures, Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Kotov, Nicholas [University of Michigan, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Roth, Christina [Renewable Energies Group, Institute for Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Applied Materials (IAM)-Energy Storage Systems (ESS), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Carbon materials suffer from corrosion at the cathode of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In the presence of water, carbon support materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide even at low potentials. Hence, nowadays it is very fashionable to look for alternative support materials, like oxides or conductive polymers. To gain the maximum performance for a new material one should also consider an appropriate electrode structure. This study shows the results for the incorporation of nanosized alternative support materials into advanced electrode architectures. Commercially available indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (<50 nm) are used as support for Pt nanoparticles in combination with Nafion-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the cathode side of a PEMFC. The MWCNTs promote a high electronic conductivity and help to form a porous network, which could accommodate the Pt/ITO nanoparticles. The microscopic investigations show a homogeneous electrode structure composed of Pt/ITO and MWCNT/Nafion multilayer. Single cell measurements show a maximum power density of 73 mW cm{sup -2} and a Pt utilization of 1468 mW mg{sub Pt}{sup -1} for the cathode. The performance data and the Pt utilization are comparable to a standard Pt/carbon black electrode possessing the same Pt loading in the electrode. Beside this, it is shown for the first time that ITO serves as support material under real fuel cell conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Heat Resistance of TiN Coated HSS Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兰英; 周焕雷; 贾庆莲

    2003-01-01

    The cutting friction, cutting deformation, producing heat, conducting heat, temperature field of TiN coated HSS tools in the cutting process are discussed profoundly. In order to make clear the heat property of TiN coated tools, from the micromechanism angle, the relationship of the heat property and the crystal structure of TiN compound is analyzed, and the regularity of TiN compound crystal structure changing with temperature rising is sought. The difference of the wear resistance and heat resistance of TiN coated tools deposited by c1 and c2 depositing techniques is proved by tests. The conclusions will offer the theoretical basis for correct design of geometrical parameters of TiN coated tools, rational selection of cutting regimes and optimization of the depositing technique.

  5. Thermally evaporated mechanically hard tin oxide thin films for opto-electronic apllications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sumanta K.; Rajeswari, V. P. [Centre for Nano Science and Technology, GVP College of Engineering (Autonomous), Visakhapatnam- 530048 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Tungsten doped tin oxide (WTO) and Molybdenum doped tin oxide (MoTO) thin film were deposited on corn glass by thermal evaporation method. The films were annealed at 350°C for one hour. Structural analysis using Xray diffraction data shows both the films are polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of tin oxide, Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, corresponding to JCPDS card number 01-078-6064. SEM photograph showed that both the films have spherical grains with size in the range of 20–30 nm. Compositional analysis was carried out using EDS which reveals the presence of Sn, O and the dopant Mo/W only thereby indicating the absence of any secondary phase in the films. The films are found to contain nearly 6 wt% of Mo, 8 wt% of W as dopants respectively. The transmission pattern for both the films in the spectral range 200 – 2000 nm shows that W doping gives a transparency of nearly 80% from 380 nm onwards while Mo doping has less transparency of 39% at 380nm. Film hardness measurement using Triboscope shows a film hardness of about 9–10 GPa for both the films. It indicates that W or M doping in tin oxide provides the films the added advantage of withstanding the mechanical wear and tear due to environmental fluctuations By optimizing the optical and electrical properties, W/Mo doped tin oxide films may be explored as window layers in opto-electronic applications such as solar cells.

  6. Light emission from silicon with tin-containing nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesgaard, Søren [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Chevallier, Jacques; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Jensen, Pia Bomholt; Larsen, Arne Nylandsted; Balling, Peter; Julsgaard, Brian, E-mail: brianj@phys.au.dk [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Gaiduk, Peter I. [Belarussian State University, Praspyekt Nyezalyezhnastsi 4, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Svane, Axel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2015-07-15

    Tin-containing nanocrystals, embedded in silicon, have been fabricated by growing an epitaxial layer of Si{sub 1−x−y}Sn{sub x}C{sub y}, where x = 1.6 % and y = 0.04 % on a silicon substrate, followed by annealing at various temperatures ranging from 650 {sup ∘}C to 900 {sup ∘}C. The nanocrystal density and average diameters are determined by scanning transmission-electron microscopy to ≈10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} and ≈5 nm, respectively. Photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates that the light emission is very pronounced for samples annealed at 725 {sup ∘}C, and Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry shows that the nanocrystals are predominantly in the diamond-structured phase at this particular annealing temperature. The origin of the light emission is discussed.

  7. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  8. Characterization of tin dioxide nanoparticles synthesized by oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Abruzzi,R. C.; B. A. Dedavid; Pires,M. J. R.

    2015-01-01

    AbstractTin dioxide (SnO2) is a promising material with great potential for applications such as gas sensors and catalysts. Nanostructures of this oxide exhibit greater activation efficiency given their larger effective surface. The present study presents results of the synthesis and characterization of tin dioxide under different conditions via oxidation of solid tin with nitric oxide. SnO2powder was characterized primarily by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, as well as co...

  9. Reductive spectrophotometry of divalent tin sensitization on soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejugam, Vinith; Wei, Xingfei; Roper, D. Keith

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and facile evaluation of tin (II) sensitization could lead to improved understanding of metal deposition in electroless (EL) plating. This report used a balanced redox reaction between 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB-HCL) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to evaluate effects of sensitization conditions (i.e., sensitization time, analyte concentration, aqueous immersion, and acid content) on the accumulated mass of surface-associated divalent tin ion. The accumulated mass of tin (II) increased as the sensitization time increased up to 30 s in proportion to aqueous tin (II) chloride concentrations between 2.6 and 26 mM at a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) content of 68 mM. The average mass peaked at 7.3 nanomoles (nmol) per cm2 after a 5 s aqueous immersion post-sensitization, and then decreased with increasing aqueous immersion post-sensitization. The total average tin (II) + tin (IV) accumulated on soda lime glass measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was 17% higher at 30 s sensitization, suggesting a fraction of the tin (II) present may have oxidized to tin (IV). These results indicated that in situ spectrophotometric evaluation of tin (II) could support development of EL plating for electronics, catalysis, and solar cells.

  10. Silicon- and tin-based cuprates: now catalytic in copper!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickgenannt, Andreas; Oestreich, Martin

    2010-01-11

    Silicon- and tin-containing molecules are versatile building blocks in organic synthesis. A stalwart method for their preparation relies on the stoichiometric use of silicon- and tin-based cuprates, although a few copper(I)-catalyzed or even copper-free protocols have been known for decades. In this Concept, we describe our efforts towards copper(I)-catalyzed carbon--silicon and also carbon--tin bond formations using soft bis(triorganosilyl) and bis(triorganostannyl) zinc reagents as powerful sources of nucleophilic silicon and tin. Conjugate addition, allylic substitution, and carbon--carbon multiple bond functionalization is now catalytic in copper!

  11. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Shamala; L C S Murthy; K Narasimha Rao

    2004-06-01

    Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different preparation conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of undoped evaporated films varied from 2.65 × 10-2 -cm to 3.57 × 10-3 -cm in the temperature range 150–200°C. For undoped spray pyrolyzed films, the resistivity was observed to be in the range 1.2 × 10-1 to 1.69 × 10-2 -cm in the temperature range 250–370°C. Hall effect measurements indicated that the mobility as well as carrier concentration of evaporated films were greater than that of spray deposited films. The lowest resistivity for antimony doped tin oxide film was found to be 7.74 × 10-4 -cm, which was deposited at 350°C with 0.26 g of SbCl3 and 4 g of SnCl4 (SbCl3/SnCl4 = 0.065). Evaporated films were found to be amorphous in the temperature range up to 200°C, whereas spray pyrolyzed films prepared at substrate temperature of 300–370°C were polycrystalline. The morphology of tin oxide films was studied using SEM.

  12. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  13. Copper zinc tin sulfide layers prepared from solution processable metal dithiocarbamate precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, Michael [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanocomposite Solar Cells, Graz University of Technology and NanoTecCenter Weiz, Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (Austria); Rath, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.rath@tugraz.at [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanocomposite Solar Cells, Graz University of Technology and NanoTecCenter Weiz, Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (Austria); Schenk, Alexander [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Fischereder, Achim [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, 8010 Graz (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanocomposite Solar Cells, Graz University of Technology and NanoTecCenter Weiz, Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (Austria); Haas, Wernfried [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanocomposite Solar Cells, Graz University of Technology and NanoTecCenter Weiz, Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (Austria); Institute for Electron Microscopy and Fine Structure Research, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Edler, Matthias [Chair of Chemistry of Polymeric Materials, University of Leoben, Otto Gloeckel-Strasse 2, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Chernev, Boril [Institute for Electron Microscopy and Fine Structure Research, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); Kunert, Birgit [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Hofer, Ferdinand [Institute for Electron Microscopy and Fine Structure Research, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, 8010 Graz (Austria); and others

    2012-10-15

    In this contribution we present a solution based route toward copper zinc tin sulfide - CZTS - layers using metal dithiocarbamate precursors. We focus on the synthesis of the precursor materials as well as on the fabrication of thin CZTS layers at low temperatures of 350 Degree-Sign C and their characterization. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements show that a precursor solution containing an excess of the zinc precursor, compared to the Cu and Sn precursors, has to be used to obtain CZTS films without secondary phases. Thus, the prepared films are Zn-rich, which is beneficial for solar cell applications. Raman as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the formation of CTZS. No clear evidence for free ZnS has been found. Electron microscopy shows agglomerates of 10 nm-sized crystallites forming spherical particles with a diameter between 50 nm and 400 nm. The prepared films possess high optical absorption (>1.10{sup 4} cm{sup -1}) and an optical band gap of approximately 1.6 eV. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CZTS layers are prepared from metal dithiocarbamate precursor solu-tions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No additional sulfur sources or capping agents are necessary. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prepared CZTS layers are zinc rich. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CZTS layers show a high absorption coefficient and a band gap of 1.6 eV.

  14. Synthesis of tin and tin oxide nanoparticles of low size dispersity for application in gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayral, C; Viala, E; Fau, P; Senocq, F; Jumas, J C; Maisonnat, A; Chaudret, B

    2000-11-17

    Nanocomposite core-shell particles that consist of a Sn0 core surrounded by a thin layer of tin oxides have been prepared by thermolysis of [(Sn(NMe2)2)2] in anisole that contains small, controlled amounts of water. The particles were characterized by means of electronic microscopies (TEM, HRTEM, SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The TEM micrographs show spherical nanoparticles, the size and size distribution of which depends on the initial experimental conditions of temperature, time, water concentration, and tin precursor concentration. Nanoparticles of 19 nm median size and displaying a narrow size distribution have been obtained with excellent yield in the optimized conditions. HRTEM, XPS, XRD and Mossbauer studies indicate the composite nature of the particles that consist of a well-crystallized tin beta core of approximately equals 11 nm covered with a layer of approximately equals 4 nm of amorphous tin dioxide and which also contain quadratic tin monoxide crystallites. The thermal oxidation of this nanocomposite yields well-crystallized nanoparticles of SnO2* without coalescence or size change. XRD patterns show that the powder consists of a mixture of two phases: the tetragonal cassiterite phase, which is the most abundant, and an orthorhombic phase. In agreement with the small SnO2 particle size, the relative intensity of the adsorbed dioxygen peak observed on the XPS spectrum is remarkable, when compared with that observed in the case of larger SnO2 particles. This is consistent with electrical conductivity measurements, which demonstrate that this material is highly sensitive to the presence of a reducing gas such as carbon monoxide.

  15. Junction characteristics of indium tin oxide/indium phosphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, P.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Hayes, R. E.; Russell, P. E.; Nottenburg, R. N.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    Efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)/p-InP solar cells have been fabricated. Typical uncorrected efficiencies range from 9-12 percent at AM1 intensities. It is shown that deposition of ITO causes a semi-insulating layer at the InP surface as determined by C-V measurements. The thickness of this layer is approximately 750 A. We believe that this high resistivity region is due to surface accumulation of Fe at the ITO/InP interface.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin(IV) Oxide Obtained by Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagirnyak, Svitlana V.; Lutz, Victoriya A.; Dontsova, Tatiana A.; Astrelin, Igor M.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of precursors on the characteristics of tin oxide obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was investigated. The synthesis of nanosized tin(IV) oxide was carried out with the use of two different precursors: tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II) and oxalic acid; tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II); and ammonium oxalate. The synthesized tin(IV) oxide samples were studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and optical spectra. The lattice parameters of tin(IV) oxide samples were defined, the bandgap of samples were calculated.

  17. Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    This resource letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. Both the physics and astrophysics of black holes are discussed. Breadth has been emphasized over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from non-technical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stability of black holes, numerical simulations, collisions, the production of gravity waves, black hole thermodynamics and Hawking radiation, quantum treatments of black holes, black holes in both higher and lower dimensions, and connections to nuclear and condensed matter physics. On the astronomical end, we also cover the physics of gas accretion onto black holes, relativistic jets, gravitationally red-shifted emission lines, evidence for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems and super-massive black holes at the centers...

  18. Solution of a tinned iron purchasing problem by Lagrangean relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorhout, B.

    1995-01-01

    A tin factory obtains its material from steel works. This consists of sheets of tinned iron which may have very diverging specifications with respect to length, width, thickness, and thicknesses of tinfoils. Prices per unit of volume vary with width and thickness. For large quantities of the same si

  19. Tin cans and refuse incineration: upgrading the scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapper, G.; Dijkstra, S.J.; Loon, van A.P.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the series of investigations whether and how it is possible to reclaim the iron and tin constituents after incineration, several experiments were performed with the refuse incinerator of Amsterdam. The operating conditions were varied and the influence on the behaviour of the tin cans were determ

  20. Role of tin as a reducing agent in iron containing heat absorbing soda–magnesia–lime–silica glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aman; S P Singh

    2004-12-01

    The role of tin as a reducing agent in a 18Na2O.2MgO.8CaO.72SiO2 glass containing a definite amount of total, Fe = [Fe2+] + [Fe3+], was investigated with different concentrations of total tin, Sn = [Sn2+] + [Sn4+], by absorption spectra of iron ions in the optical range 300–1200 nm recorded on a JASCO-7800 spectrophotometer. The single broad absorption band for Fe2+ ion was marked at 1055 nm in the near infrared region and a narrow weak band for Fe3+ ion at its max at around 380 nm was observed in the silicate glass. The proportion of ferrous iron was found to increase in the glass in the beginning with the addition of tin up to 0.788% Sn and then it approached a maxima with 1.182% Sn. Further addition of tin was found to be futile for the constant iron concentration of 0.875% for achieving higher [Fe2+]/[Fe3+] ratio for maximum heat absorption due to Fe2+ ion in the glass. The mechanism of the process was discussed on the basis of Sn2+/Sn4+ and Fe2+/Fe3+ mutual redox interaction in the molten glass at 1400°C. The suitable limit of tin was suggested to be 0.788 ≤ ≤ 1.182% by wt for 0.875% of total iron for getting maximum ferrous ion in the glass.

  1. Studies on Properties and Structure of Electroless Plating Tin Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Rui-dong; GUO Zhong-cheng; ZHU Xiao-yun

    2004-01-01

    The composition and structure of electroless tin coating were analyzed by SEM and X-ray diffraction. In the meantime, porosity, solderability and extensibility were determined by physical and chemical methods. The results showed that the porosity of the tin coating increases with the rise of bath temperature and decreases as the plating time rises. Solderability is improved with the rise of thickness of tin coating, and decreases when the tin deposit is heated at 180 ~ 200 ℃. The crystalline grain size becomes bigger and bigger with increasing plating time or bath temperature or coating thickness. X-ray diffraction indicates that only Cu and β-Sn phases show up in the diffraction patterns. Tin coating has a strong joint force with copper substrate and excellent function of electrochemical protection as anode coating.

  2. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  3. Horndeski black hole geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyakova, D A

    2016-01-01

    We examine geodesics for the scalar-tensor black holes in the Horndeski-Galileon framework. Our analysis shows that first kind relativistic orbits may not be present within some model parameters range. This is a highly pathological behavior contradicting to the black hole accretion and Solar System observations. We also present a new (although very similar to those previously known) solution, which contains the orbits we expect from a compact object, admits regular scalar field at the horizon and and can fit into the known stability criteria.

  4. Ti-N films created in close vicinity of transition from. alpha. -Ti(N) to. delta. -TiN sub x phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulek, V.; Musil, J. (Inst. of Physics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Valvoda, V.; Dobiasova, L. (Charles Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1991-07-07

    Ti-N films with nitrogen content ranging from 20 to 40 at.% are multiphase films which can contain {alpha}-Ti(N)+{delta}-TiN{sub x}, {alpha}-Ti(N)+{epsilon}-Ti{sub 2}N or {alpha}-Ti(N)+{epsilon}-Ti{sub 2}N+{delta}-TiN{sub x} phases. Mixed phase films exhibit some extraordinary properties in comparison with single-phase films. It was found that growth of the {epsilon}-Ti{sub 2}N phase is very sensitive to changes of some deposition parameters, especially the substrate surface temperature T{sub s}, the substrate ion current density i{sub s}, the ion energy E{sub i} and the deposition rate a{sub D}. The growth can be controlled not only by the substrate temperature T{sub s} under equilibrium conditions but also by the energy density S{sub E}=i{sub s}E{sub i}/a{sub D} delivered to the growing film. Special attention is devoted to films produced at surface temperatures T{sub s} lower than that necessary for the production of films containing the {epsilon}-Ti{sub 2}N phase. These films have a milky appearance and exhibit ''large'' (1-5 {mu}m) hexagonal {alpha}-Ti(N) crystallites. Conditions under which these films can be prepared are discussed in detail. (orig.).

  5. Electrochemical behavior of tin(II at the electrodeposition tin sulfide on Mo-electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazhmukhan Urazov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of tin ions (II and thiosulfate ions (S2O32- on the Mo electrode in various concentrations and potential scan rate was studied by voltammetric method. Dependence of oxidation and reduction currents from concentrations of tin (II ions and scan rate was obtained. It was showed the diffusion nature of the limiting stage of reduction. It was determined the different voltammograms’s character with a sweep potential to E = -1300mV or -1500mV for simultaneous reduction ions Sn (II and (S2O32- from 0,2 M sodium citrate on molybdenum electrode. Nanocrystalline films SnS with a thickness of 1 µ were obtained by the electrodeposition on glass/SnO2.

  6. Electrical Characterization of Postmetal Annealed Ultrathin TiN Gate Electrodes in Si MOS Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on sub-10 nm Silicon CMOS device fabrication technology, we have incorporated ultrathin TiN metal gate electrode in Hafnium Silicate (HfSiO based metal-oxide capacitors (MOSCAP with carefully chosen Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD process parameters. Gate element of the device has undergone a detailed postmetal annealed sequence ranging from 100°C to 1000°C. The applicability of ultrathin TiN on gate electrodes is established through current density versus voltage (J-V, resistance versus temperature (R-T, and permittivity versus temperature analysis. A higher process window starting from 600°C was intentionally chosen to understand the energy efficient behavior expected from ultrathin gate metallization and its unique physical state with shrinking thickness. The device characteristics in form of effective electronic mobility as a function of inverse charge density were also found better than those conventional gate stacks used for EOT scaling.

  7. (n,{gamma}) Experiments on tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Walker, C. L.; Rusev, G. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O' Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Kroll, J. [Charles University of Prague, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Agvaanluvsan, U.; Dashdorj, D.; Erdenehuluun, B.; Tsend-Ayush, T. [MonAme Scientific Research Center, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2013-04-19

    Neutron capture experiments on highly enriched {sup 117,119}Sn isotopes were performed with the DANCE detector array located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The DANCE detector provides detailed information about the multi-step {gamma}-ray cascade following neutron capture. Analysis of the experimental data provides important information to improve understanding of the neutron capture reaction, including a test of the statistical model, the assignment of spins and parities of neutron resonances, and information concerning the Photon Strength Function (PSF) and Level Density (LD) below the neutron separation energy. Preliminary results for the (n,{gamma}) reaction on {sup 117,119}Sn are presented. Resonance spins of the odd-A tin isotopes were almost completely unknown. Resonance spins and parities have been assigned via analysis of the multi-step {gamma}-ray spectra and directional correlations.

  8. Solderability perservative coatings: Electroless tin vs. organic azoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaki, I.; Ray, U.; Jackson, A.M.; Gordon, H.M. [AT and T Bell Labs., Princeton, NJ (United States); Vianco, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This paper compares the solderability performance and corrosions ion protection effectiveness of electroless tin coatings versus organic azole films after exposure to a series of humidity and thermal (lead-free solders) cycling conditions. The solderability of immersion tin is directly related to the tin oxide growth on the surface and is not affected by the formation of Sn-Cu intermetallic phases as long as the intermetallic phase is protected by a Sn layer. For a nominal tin thickness of 60{mu}inches, the typical thermal excursions associated with assembly are not sufficient to cause the intermetallic phase to consume the entire tin layer. Exposure to humidity at moderate to elevated temperatures promotes heavy tin oxide formation which leads to solderability loss. In contrast, thin azole films are more robust to humidity exposure; however upon heating in the presence of oxygen, they decompose and lead to severe solderability degradation. Evaluations of lead-free solder pastes for surface mount assembly applications indicate that immersion tin significantly improves the spreading of Sn:Ag and Sn:Bi alloys as compared to azole surface finishes.

  9. Tin LPP plasma control in the argon cusp source

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeoch, Malcolm W.

    2016-03-01

    The argon cusp plasma has been introduced [1,2] for 500W class tin LPP exhaust control in view of its high power handling, predicted low tin back-scatter from a beam dump, and avoidance of hydrogen usage. The physics of tin ion control by a plasma is first discussed. Experimentally, cusp stability and exhaust disc geometry have previously been proved at full scale [2], the equivalent of 300W-500W usable EUV. Here we verify operation of the plasma barrier that maintains a high argon density next to the collector, for its protection, and a low density in the long path toward the intermediate focus, for efficiency. A pressure differential of 2Pa has been demonstrated in initial work. Other aspects of tin LPP plasma control by the cusp have now been demonstrated using tin ions from a low Hz 130mJ CO2 laser pulse onto a solid tin surface at the cusp center. Plasma is rejected at the design to match a specified exhaust power is discussed. In view of this work, argon cusp exhaust control appears to be very promising for 500W class tin LPP sources.

  10. 76 FR 14902 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ..., surface finish, temper, coating metal (tin, chromium, chromium oxide), reduction (single-or double-reduced... products that are coated or plated with tin, chromium or chromium oxides. Flat-rolled steel products coated with tin are known as tin plate. Flat-rolled steel products coated with chromium or chromium oxides...

  11. In-vivo behavior of tin-radiopharmaceuticals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Tin is an essential ingredient of most technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals but its in-vivo distribution and long-term fate are not well understood. This work describes distribution in mice of several tin-117m labeled compounds. The results indicate that stannic-HEDTMP appears to be the best overall bone localizing agent with very low blood, muscle, kidney, or liver uptake, and its binding to bone is higher than that of tin-117m-DTPA, which make it potentially useful as an agent for skeletal scintigraphy and radiotherapy of bone tumors.

  12. Tin-phosphate glass anode for sodium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Honma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical property of tin-phosphate (designate as GSPO glass anode for the sodium ion battery was studied. During the first charge process, sodium ion diffused into GSPO glass matrix and due to the reduction of Sn2+ to Sn0 state sodiated tin metal nano-size particles are formed in oxide glass matrix. After the second cycle, we confirmed the steady reversible reaction ∼320 mAh/g at 0–1 V cutoff voltage condition by alloying process in NaxSn4. The tin-phosphate glass is a promising candidate of new anode active material that realizes high energy density sodium ion batteries.

  13. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin(IV) Oxide Obtained by Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    OpenAIRE

    Nagirnyak, Svitlana V.; Lutz, Victoriya A.; Dontsova, Tatiana A.; Astrelin, Igor M.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of precursors on the characteristics of tin oxide obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was investigated. The synthesis of nanosized tin(IV) oxide was carried out with the use of two different precursors: tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II) and oxalic acid; tin(II) oxalate obtained using tin chloride(II); and ammonium oxalate. The synthesized tin(IV) oxide samples were studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and optical spectra. The lattice parame...

  15. Moulting Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2012-03-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no black holes were thought to exist.

  16. Characterization of tin dioxide nanoparticles synthesized by oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Abruzzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTin dioxide (SnO2 is a promising material with great potential for applications such as gas sensors and catalysts. Nanostructures of this oxide exhibit greater activation efficiency given their larger effective surface. The present study presents results of the synthesis and characterization of tin dioxide under different conditions via oxidation of solid tin with nitric oxide. SnO2powder was characterized primarily by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, as well as complementary techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that the established synthesis conditions were suitable for obtaining rutile tin dioxide nanoparticles with a tetragonal crystal structure.

  17. Surface tension of molten tin investigated with sessile drop method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; YUAN Zhang-fu; FAN Jian-feng; KE Jia-jun

    2005-01-01

    The surface tension of molten tin was determined by a set of self-developed digital equipment with sessile drop method at oxygen partial pressure of 1.0 × 10-6 MPa under different temperatures, and the dependence of surface tension of molten tin on temperature was also discussed. The emphasis was placed on the comparison of surface tension of the same molten tin sample measured by using different equipments with sessile drop method. Results of the comparison indicate that the measurement results with sessile drop method under the approximate experimental conditions are coincident, and the self-developed digital equipment for surface tension measurement has higher stability and accuracy. The relationships of surface tension of molten tin and its temperature coefficient with temperature and oxygen partial pressure were also elucidated from the thermodynamic equilibrium analysis.

  18. Land Elevation TINs (Triangulated Irregular Networks) for Jefferson County, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Land Elevation TINs (Triangulated Irregular Networks) in this directory are generated from 2 foot contour lines from Jefferson County. Little is known about the...

  19. A Study of Optical Parameters of Tin Sulphide Thin Films Using the Swanepoel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragina, A. J.; Murali, K. V.; Preetha, K. C.; Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T. L.

    2011-10-01

    The knowledge of the optical parameters of thin films is important for optics and optoelectronics. In the present work, tin sulphide thin films were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition method. The as grown films were brown in color and highly adherent to the substrate. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and spectrophotometric measurements. XRD patterns showed that the films developed were orthorhombic structure. SEM images of tin sulphide thin films confirmed the formation of nanowires. Absorption spectra revealed medium absorption in the visible region and a gradual decrease with higher wavelength. The transmittance of the as-synthesized films is about 50% in the wavelength range 600-1000 nm. The methodological framework of the Swanepoel's method for the spectrophotometric determination of optical parameters of tin sulphide thin films using transmittance data was discussed. The Swanepoel's method is found to be applicable for thin films when measured transmittance spectra have at least one minimum and one maximum. By analyzing the transmission curve, the refractive index and the thickness of the film were evaluated. The energy band gaps are also reported. The optical band gap is direct with a value of 1.79 eV. The values of the optical band gap energy and thickness of the film calculated by Swanepoel's method were compared with that obtained from absorption spectra and cross sectional SEM photographs respectively. These properties demonstrated that tin sulphide thin films could be used as an absorber layer in the fabrication of heterojunction solar cells.

  20. Xenon behavior in TiN: A coupled XAS/TEM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bès, R.; Gaillard, C.; Millard-Pinard, N.; Gavarini, S.; Martin, P.; Cardinal, S.; Esnouf, C.; Malchère, A.; Perrat-Mabilon, A.

    2013-03-01

    Titanium nitride is a refractory material that is being considered as an inert matrix in future Generation IV nuclear reactors, in particular in relation to the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor. The main role of this matrix would be to act as a barrier against the release of fission products, in particular gaseous ones like xenon. This release phenomenon will be enhanced by high temperatures expected in the fuel vicinity: 1200 °C under normal conditions, and up to 1800 °C under accidental conditions. It is therefore necessary to investigate the behavior of volatile fission products in TiN under high temperature and irradiation. Indeed, these basic data are very useful to predict the volatile fission products released under these extreme conditions. Our previous work has shown that Xe introduced by ion implantation in sintered TiN tends to be released as a result of annealing, due to a transport mechanism towards the sample surface. The aim of the present work is to determine under which physical state Xe is in TiN. Xenon was first introduced using ion implantation at 800 keV in TiN samples obtained by hot pressing at several concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 8 at.%. Secondly, samples were annealed at high temperature, from 1000 °C to 1500 °C. Xe was then characterized by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The formation of intragranular xenon bubbles was demonstrated, and the xenon concentration which is sufficient to form bubbles is found to be lower than 0.4 at.% under our experimental conditions. These bubbles were found unpressurised at 15 K. Their size increases with the temperature and the local xenon concentration. For the highest xenon concentrations, a mechanism involving the formation of a Xe interconnected bubble network is proposed to explain Xe massive release observed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry experiments.

  1. Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN), Compiled a TIN baed our LIDARD data through ArcGIS tools, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) dataset, was produced all or in part from LIDAR information as of unknown. It is described as 'Compiled a TIN baed our...

  2. Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN), TIN raster file obtained from DASC, Published in unknown, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Reno County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of unknown. It is described as 'TIN raster file obtained from DASC'....

  3. Failure Mechanism of Reflow Conductor Roll of Electroplating Tinning Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The surface roughness of reflow conductor roll was checked on membrane sample. The surface morphology of conductor roll was observed by microscope, and the composition of adhered layer on conductor roll surface was analyzed by X-ray spectroscope. The results show that tin adhesion is the main reason for failure of conductor roll, and the failure of conductor roll is accelerated by wear. The measures to decrease tin adhesion and improve wear resistance were put forward.

  4. Study on Systemic Separation of Palladium, Silver, Cadmium and Tin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Zhen-hua; HUANG; Kun

    2013-01-01

    To accurately measure the yields of palladium,silver,cadmium and tin that generated from the fission of plutonium,radiochemical method is needed because there is much interference in using directγ-spectroscopy measurements.Usually,we want to get as much as possible the experiment data from one target,so it is required systemic separation of palladium,silver,cadmium and tin.Considering the

  5. Vacuum Carbothermal Reduction for Treating Tin Anode Slime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Weizhong; Qiu, Keqiang

    2013-11-01

    In this work, a process of vacuum carbothermal reduction was proposed for treating tin anode slime containing antimony and lead. During vacuum carbothermal reduction, the antimony and lead were selectively removed simultaneously by reducing and decomposing the less volatile mixed oxide of lead and antimony into the more volatile Sb2O3 and PbO. Then the tin was enriched in the distilland and primarily present as SnO2. Crude tin was obtained via vacuum reduction of the residual SnO2. The results showed that 92.85% by weight of antimony and 99.58% by weight of lead could be removed at 850°C for 60 min with 4 wt.% of reductant and air flow rate at 400 mL/min corresponding to the residual gas pressure of 40 Pa-150 Pa. Under these conditions, an evaporation ratio of 52.7% was achieved. Crude tin with a tin content of 94.22 wt.% was obtained at temperature of 900°C, reduction time of 60 min, reductant dosage of 12.5 wt.%, and a residual gas pressure of 40 Pa-400 Pa. Correspondingly, the direct recovery of tin was 94.35%.

  6. Combustion synthesis of tin dioxide nanocomposites for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakrania, Smitesh Dhirajlal

    The current work focuses on understanding the mechanisms controlling tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticle morphology in combustion synthesis systems and how nanoarchitecture affects performance of solid-state gas sensors. A range of analytical methods (including transmission and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, nitrogen absorption, and XEDS) were used to characterize the materials properties as a function of the combustion synthesis conditions. A novel method of generating tin dioxide materials was developed which provides a new degree of control over SnO2 morphology; including spherical, nanorod and encapsulated particle architectures. A simplified model for particle formation based on characteristic times was developed to identify the physical and chemical processes affecting the morphologies observed using transmission electron microscope imaging. The SnO2 nanoparticles evolve from primary particles sizes of 7 nm to 14 nm through the synthesis region, and the results indicate interparticle collision and sintering are the dominant mechanisms in determining particle size and morphology for the flame conditions studied. Metal acetates were used to create metal/SnO 2 nanocomposite materials, and the processes controlling gold acetate decomposition in particular were explored. The results of the studies suggest a relationship between the precursor crystallite size and the product nanoparticles. The well-characterized SnO2 particles were evaluated as the active materials for gas-sensing. Sensor sensitivity and time response to carbon monoxide in dry air was used to investigate microstructure-performance links. Excellent sensitivity (3 7, based on the ratio of the resistance of the sensor in air to the resistance in the target gas) and time response (4--20 seconds) were demonstrated for the thin film gas sensors. Fabrication studies demonstrated the sensor performance was a strong function of the film deposition method. A novel method for manufacturing

  7. Niobium carbide and tin precipitation in continuously cast microalloyed steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Julian

    With high yield strength, toughness and good weldability, microalloyed steels are widely used in the automotive, pipeline and transportation industries. Microalloying elements such as niobium (Nb), titanium (Ti) and vanadium (V) in concentrations of less than 0.1 wt. pct. are typical. For optimal benefits in the final product, it is usually desired for Ti to form fine precipitates during and after solidification and for Nb to be in solution prior to hot-rolling. Vanadium precipitates at lower temperatures and is less involved in the solidification/casting process. In one aspect of the investigation, the effects of cooling rate on the titanium nitride (TiN) precipitation size distribution were investigated in a Ti-added low-carbon steel. Prior research reported an inverse relationship between the average TiN precipitation size and the post-solidification cooling rate and the present work was undertaken to examine this behavior over a wider range of cooling rates. Using the GleebleRTM 3500's casting simulation capabilities along with controlled cooling rates, the TiN precipitation behavior in thick-slab, thin-slab and thin-strip material was simulated using a commercially produced 0.04C, 1.23Mn steel with near-stoichiometric Ti and N levels. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of carbon extraction replicas was carried out to characterize the influence of cooling rates on precipitate size distributions. Decreasing particle sizes with increasing cooling rates were found. Average particle sizes as low as 6.7 nm were present in thin-strip simulations and might be of interest, as fine particles could contribute to strengthening of rapidly cooled steels. In a second aspect of the investigation, niobium carbide (NbC) precipitation during the compact strip production (CSP) process was investigated in two Nb-added low-carbon steels. Instead of industrial sampling, the GleebleRTM was used for casting simulations using two CMn(Nb) steels with high and low- Nb

  8. Studies in group IV organometallic chemistry XXX. Synthesis of compounds containing tin---titanium and tin---zirconium bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.M.J.C.; Verbeek, F.; Noltes, J.G.

    1968-01-01

    Starting from the tetrakis(diethylamino) derivatives of titanium and zirconium and pheyltin hydrides six intermetalic compounds contianing up to nine tin and titanium(or zirconium) atoms have been obtained by hydrostannolysis type reactions.

  9. Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN), TIN Bayfield County, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Bayfield County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008....

  10. The episodic influx of tin-rich cosmic dust particles during the last ice age

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaViolette, Paul A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents evidence of the first detection of interstellar dust in ice age polar ice. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are reported for 15 elements found in dust filtered from eight samples of Camp Century Greenland ice dating from 40 to 78 kyrs BP. High concentrations of Sn, Sb, Au, Ag, Ir, and Ni were found to be present in three out of these eight samples. One compositionally anomalous dust sample from an ice core depth of 1230.5 m (age ∼49 kyrs BP, near the beginning of D/O stadial No. 13) was found to contain tin with an average weight percent of 49% as determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). This sample was also found to contain high concentrations of Pb with an average weight abundance of 8.4% and matching the Sn:Pb ratio observed in interstellar spectra. Dust particles in this sample generally have a platy morphology and range from submicron size up to a size as large as 120 μm, a particle consisting almost entirely of SnO2 and being the largest monomineralic extraterrestrial dust particle so far discovered. One porous aggregate tin-bearing particle was found to contain nanometer sized chondrules indicating an extraterrestrial origin. The extraterrestrial origin for the tin is also indicated by the presence of isotopic anomalies in the 114Sn, 115Sn and 117Sn isotopes. Follow up isotopic measurements of this tin-rich dust need to be performed to improve confidence in the anomalies reported here. High abundances of the low melting point elements Ag, Au, and Sb are also present in this tin-rich sample along with elevated abundances of the siderophiles Ir, Ni, Fe, and Co, the latter being present in chondritic proportions and indicating that about 9% of the dust has a C1 chondrite component. Measurements indicate that about 97% of this dust is of extraterrestrial origin with a 3% residual being composed of terrestrial windblown dust. EDS analysis of another tin-rich Camp Century ice core dust sample dating to ∼130 kyrs BP

  11. Crystal structure of a one-dimensional coordination polymer of tin(IV bromide with 1,4-dithiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Reuter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnBr4(C4H8S2] {systematic name: catena-poly[[tetrabromidotin(IV]-μ-1,4-dithiane-κ2S:S′]}, represents the first 1,4-dithiane complex with tin as coordination centre. The asymmetric unit consist of half a formula unit with the tin(IV atom at the centre of symmetry at 0,0,1/2 (Wyckoff symbol b and a centrosymmetric 1,4-dithiane molecule with the centre of symmetry in 1/2,0,1 (Wyckoff symbol c. The tin(IV atom is coordinated in a distorted octahedral manner by the four bromine atoms and two sulfur atoms of two 1,4-dithiane molecules in a trans-position. Sn—Br [mean value: 2.561 (5 Å] and Sn—S distances [2.6546 (6 Å] are in the typical range for octahedrally coordinated tin(IV atoms and the dithiane molecule adopts a chair conformation. The one-dimensional polymeric chains propagate along the [101] direction with weak intermolecular Br...Br [3.5724 (4 Å] between parallel chains and weak Br...H interactions [2.944–2.993 Å] within the chains.

  12. Tin Content Determination in Canned Fruits and Vegetables by Hydride Generation Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Rončević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin content in samples of canned fruits and vegetables was determined by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (HG-ICP-OES, and it was compared with results obtained by standard method of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Selected tin emission lines intensity was measured in prepared samples after addition of tartaric acid and followed by hydride generation with sodium borohydride solution. The most favorable line at 189.991 nm showed the best detection limit (1.9 μg L−1 and limit of quantification (6.4 μg kg−1. Good linearity and sensitivity were established from time resolved analysis and calibration tests. Analytical accuracy of 98–102% was obtained by recovery study of spiked samples. Method of standard addition was applied for tin determination in samples from fully protected tinplate. Tin presence at low-concentration range was successfully determined. It was shown that tenth times less concentrations of Sn were present in protected cans than in nonprotected or partially protected tinplate.

  13. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  14. PHOTOELECTRIC AND PHOTOMAGNETIC RESPONSE OF INDIUM-TIN OXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Meshkovsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The goal of the present research is investigation of photoelectric and photomagnetic response of ITO (indium-tin oxide films under UV laser irradiation. Method. The ITO films were prepared by magnetron sputtering with the thickness equal to 300nm. The films were irradiated by UV laser light with 248 nm wavelength in laser pulse energy range from 10 mJ to 150 mJ by KrF excimer laser. Metallic electrodes were deposited on the films. Information about the films surface topography was obtained by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The film structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Main Results. It was shown that voltage appears between metallic contacts under the UV light effect. The electric current was observed through resistive load. The anisotropy of electric field producing photoelectric response was demonstrated for the first time. The appearance of magnetic field under the laser light irradiation was observed for the first time. The dependence of the response voltage on the laser pulse energy was linear over the whole measured energy range. The following physical mechanism was proposed for description of the observed phenomenon: electric voltage is associated with non-uniform distribution of the average crystallite size along the film surface, and, therefore, with mean free path of the charge carriers along the film surface. Photomagnetic response could be associated with collective behavior of the large number of charged particles, created due to high intensity laser irradiation. Practical Relevance. The phenomenon being studied could be applied for creation of new optoelectronic devices, for example, modulators, optical detectors, etc. Particularly, due to linear dependence of photoelectric response on the laser pulse energy, this phenomenon is attractive for manufacturing of simple and cheap excimer laser pulse energy detectors.

  15. Current stress induced electrical instability in transparent zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Woo-Seok; Shin, Jae-Heon; Chung, Sung Mook; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Min; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2012-04-01

    Transparent zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors (ZTO-TFTs) [Zn:Sn = 4:1-2:1] have been fabricated so as to estimate the electrical instability under constant current stress. The relative intensity of the drain current noise power spectra density has been shown to have a typical 1/f-noise character, and it is implied that the mobility fluctuation in ZTO-TFT [Zn:Sn = 4:1] can be enhanced by a short-range ordering in amorphous Zn-Sn-oxide, causing a larger shift of the threshold voltage (deltaV(th)).

  16. Effect of pulsed voltage on electrochemical migration of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    influences the dendritic growth, although a tendency for more hydroxide precipitation was observed for lower duty cycles. The precipitation of tin hydroxides was identified as influencing factor for the reduction of charge transfer under pulsed voltage with low duty cycles, therefore resulting...... in the suppression of dendrite growth....... respectively at 10 and 5 V, while the duty cycle and the pulse width were varied in the range of ms. The results showed that varying of pulse width at fixed duty cycle has a minor effect under investigated conditions, whereas increasing duty cycle significantly reduces the time to short due to dendrite...

  17. Liquid crystal terahertz phase shifters with functional indium-tin-oxide nanostructures for biasing and alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chan-Shan; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Pan, Ru-Pin; Yu, Peichen; Pan, Ci-Ling

    2014-04-01

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowhiskers (NWhs) obliquely evaporated by electron-beam glancing-angle deposition can serve simultaneously as transparent electrodes and alignment layer for liquid crystal (LC) devices in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. To demonstrate, we constructed a THz LC phase shifter with ITO NWhs. Phase shift exceeding π/2 at 1.0 THz was achieved in a ˜517 μm-thick cell. The phase shifter exhibits high transmittance (˜78%). The driving voltage required for quarter-wave operation is as low as 5.66 V (rms), compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies.

  18. Modified carbon black materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Pollak, Elad; Lux, Simon

    2016-06-14

    A lithium (Li) ion battery comprising a cathode, a separator, an organic electrolyte, an anode, and a carbon black conductive additive, wherein the carbon black has been heated treated in a CO.sub.2 gas environment at a temperature range of between 875-925 degrees Celsius for a time range of between 50 to 70 minutes to oxidize the carbon black and reduce an electrochemical reactivity of the carbon black towards the organic electrolyte.

  19. Moulting Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no b...

  20. Magnetic fields around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, David A. G.

    Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our

  1. Formation of orthorhombic tin dioxide from mechanically milled monoxide powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamelas, F. J.

    2004-12-01

    X-ray scattering measurements are used to show that the metastable orthorhombic phase of tin dioxide is produced by the oxidation of mechanically milled litharge-phase tin monoxide. After milling to a grain size of approximately 20nm, followed by heating to 575°C, the fraction of the orthorhombic phase is approximately 80%. The orthorhombic phase was originally observed in high-pressure experiments, but more recently, it has been produced in a wide variety of thin-film and nanoparticle samples. The data presented here demonstrate the importance of small-grain-size tin monoxide as a precursor in the ambient-pressure synthesis of the orthorhombic phase. This result has practical importance in the production of tin dioxide gas sensors. A more fundamental observation is that the particle size of a precursor phase can have a marked effect on subsequent phases produced during oxidation. Lastly, a formula for determining the orthorhombic fraction in two-phase tin dioxide samples is developed using the method of standard additions.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence of tin oxide nanoribbons and nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraia, El-Shazly M.A., E-mail: duraia_physics@yahoo.co [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mansorov, Z.A. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tokmolden, S. [Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2009-11-15

    In this work we report the successful formation of tin oxide nanowires and tin oxide nanoribbons with high yield and by using simple cheap method. We also report the formation of curved nanoribbon, wedge-like tin oxide nanowires and star-like nanowires. The growth mechanism of these structures has been studied. Scanning electron microscope was used in the analysis and the EDX analysis showed that our samples is purely Sn and O with ratio 1:2. X-ray analysis was also used in the characterization of the tin oxide nanowire and showed the high crystallinity of our nanowires. The mechanism of the growth of our1D nanostructures is closely related to the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The photoluminescence PL measurements for the tin oxide nanowires indicated that there are three stable emission peaks centered at wavelengths 630, 565 and 395 nm. The nature of the transition may be attributed to nanocrystals inside the nanobelts or to Sn or O vacancies occurring during the growth which can induce trapped states in the band gap.

  3. Schwarzchild Black Holes in Matrix Theory, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, T; Klebanov, Igor R; Susskind, Leonard

    1998-01-01

    We present a crude Matrix Theory model for Schwarzchild black holes in uncompactified dimension greater than 5. The model accounts for the size, entropy, and long range static interactions of black holes. The key feature of the model is a Boltzmann gas of D0 branes, a concept which depends on certain qualitative features of Matrix Theory which previously have not been utilized in studies of black holes.

  4. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Williams

    Full Text Available Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users.The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components.Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol.Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality.

  5. Large area Germanium Tin nanometer optical film coatings on highly flexible aluminum substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lichuan; Zhang, Dainan; Zhang, Huaiwu; Fang, Jue; Liao, Yulong; Zhou, Tingchuan; Liu, Cheng; Zhong, Zhiyong; Harris, Vincent G.

    2016-09-01

    Germanium Tin (GeSn) films have drawn great interest for their visible and near-infrared optoelectronics properties. Here, we demonstrate large area Germanium Tin nanometer thin films grown on highly flexible aluminum foil substrates using low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Ultra-thin (10–180 nm) GeSn film-coated aluminum foils display a wide color spectra with an absorption wavelength ranging from 400–1800 nm due to its strong optical interference effect. The light absorption ratio for nanometer GeSn/Al foil heterostructures can be enhanced up to 85%. Moreover, the structure exhibits excellent mechanical flexibility and can be cut or bent into many shapes, which facilitates a wide range of flexible photonics. Micro-Raman studies reveal a large tensile strain change with GeSn thickness, which arises from lattice deformations. In particular, nano-sized Sn-enriched GeSn dots appeared in the GeSn coatings that had a thickness greater than 50 nm, which induced an additional light absorption depression around 13.89 μm wavelength. These findings are promising for practical flexible photovoltaic and photodetector applications ranging from the visible to near-infrared wavelengths.

  6. Black gold

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, MW

    2016-01-01

    Following the Yom Kippur war of October 1973, OPEC raises the price of oil by 70% along with a 5% reduction in oil production. Len Saunders a highly skilled and knowledgeable British engineer for Jaguar motors, is approached by the UK energy commission in the January of 1974 to create a new propulsion system; using a secret document from a German WW2 scientist, that they have come into possession of. Len Saunders sets to work on creating the holy grail of energy. Seven years later 1981, Haidar Farooq the Kuwait oil minister working at OPEC and head of a secret organisation named Black Gold bec

  7. Indium Tin Oxide@Carbon Core–Shell Nanowire and Jagged Indium Tin Oxide Nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports two new indium tin oxide (ITO-based nanostructures, namely ITO@carbon core–shell nanowire and jagged ITO nanowire. The ITO@carbon core–shell nanowires (~50 nm in diameter, 1–5 μm in length, were prepared by a chemical vapor deposition process from commercial ITO nanoparticles. A carbon overlayer (~5–10 in thickness was observed around ITO nanowire core, which was in situ formed by the catalytic decomposition of acetylene gas. This carbon overlayer could be easily removed after calcination in air at an elevated temperature of 700°C, thus forming jagged ITO nanowires (~40–45 nm in diameter. The growth mechanisms of ITO@carbon core–shell nanowire and jagged ITO nanowire were also suggested.

  8. Properties of Polydisperse Tin-doped Dysprosium and Indium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the complex permittivity, diffuse-reflectance, and characteristics of crystal lattices of tin-doped indium and dysprosium oxides are presented. Using the methods of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it is shown that doping of indium oxide with tin results in a significant increase of the components of the indium oxide complex permittivity and an appearance of the plasma resonance in its diffuse-reflectance spectra. This indicates the appearance of charge carriers with the concentration of more than 1021 cm−3 in the materials. On the other hand, doping of the dysprosium oxide with the same amount of tin has no effect on its optical and electromagnetic properties.

  9. Tin - an unlikely ally for silicon field effect transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2014-01-13

    We explore the effectiveness of tin (Sn), by alloying it with silicon, to use SiSn as a channel material to extend the performance of silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductors. Our density functional theory based simulation shows that incorporation of tin reduces the band gap of Si(Sn). We fabricated our device with SiSn channel material using a low cost and scalable thermal diffusion process of tin into silicon. Our high-κ/metal gate based multi-gate-field-effect-transistors using SiSn as channel material show performance enhancement, which is in accordance with the theoretical analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Physicochemical characteristics of fluorine doped tin oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A I [Electronics Department, National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics, and Electronics (INAOE), Luis E Erro No.1, 72000 Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Huerta, L [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-360, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Leon, J M O- Rueda de [Institute of Physics, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Acosta, D [Institute of Physics, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Malik, O [Electronics Department, National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics, and Electronics (INAOE), Luis E Erro No.1, 72000 Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Aguilar, M [Institute of Physics, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2006-12-07

    In this work, relationships between chemical and physical properties of fluorine doped tin oxide films prepared by the chemical spray pyrolysis technique have been studied. Changes in the structural, optical and electrical properties of these films in relation to their doping concentrations determined by the resonant nuclear reaction analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques have been correlated. By XPS measurements, it was found that the fluorine content in the tin oxide films does not induce any chemical shift of the Sn and O core levels. At the same time, XPS measurements are carried out at low binding energy, shown that the valence band of heavy doped tin oxide changes with respect to that determined in SnO{sub 2} powder, due to the influence of the fluorine doping. In addition, it was shown that the formation of F-Sn complexes provides a decrease in both the concentration and mobility of the carriers.

  11. Recovery of antimony-125 from tin-124 irradiated by neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluev, A. V.; Mityakhina, V. S.; Krasnikov, L. V.; Galkin, B. Ya.; Besnosyuk, V. I.

    2003-01-01

    Separation of 125Sb from tin using highly basic, medium-basic, and weakly basic ion-exchangers was studied. The best results were obtained for AN-31 weakly basic anion exchanger. The yield of 125Sb was 95-98% of the initial activity, the yield of tin, 98±0.5% of the initial amount. The separation coefficient is 106-107 for one cycle. A procedure based on ion exchange was developed. Extraction procedures of separation of 125Sb from tin were studied. Isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, and di- n-butyl ether were used as extracting agents. The most efficient extracting agent is di- n-butyl ether. Carrier-free radiochemically pure sample of 125Sb was produced. More than 20 mCi of the target product was recovered. The extraction recovery procedure of 125Sb has been developed.

  12. The effect of tin addition on the electrical conductivity of Sn-doped LaBaMnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmouni, H., E-mail: rahmounihedi@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux appliquée à l’Environnement, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès cité Erriadh, Université de Gabès, 6079 Gabès (Tunisia); Dhahri, A. [Laboratoire de la Matière Condensée et Nanosciences, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Khirouni, K. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux appliquée à l’Environnement, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès cité Erriadh, Université de Gabès, 6079 Gabès (Tunisia)

    2014-04-05

    Highlights: • DC conductance decreases throughout the whole explored temperature range. • Electronic conduction is found to be dominated by thermally activated hopping. • The material exhibits several features as a function of frequency and temperature. • LBMO-Sn system evolves from metallic to semiconductor behavior. -- Abstract: Electrical properties of La{sub 0.67}Ba{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x}O{sub 3} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.10) (LBMO-Sn) manganites have been investigated using admittance spectroscopy. The samples exhibit metallic behavior at below metal-semiconductor transition temperature (T{sub MS}) and semiconductor-like features above T{sub MS}. We find that T{sub MS} decreases from 300 K for x = 0 to 240 K for x = 0.10. Due to the substitution of manganese by tin, a decrease of DC conductance was observed throughout the whole explored temperature range. Such behavior is essentially due to the disorder introduced in the charge transfer mechanism when replacing some links of the Mn–O–Mn network by Mn–O–Sn ones. From dc conductance study, electronic conduction is found to be dominated by thermally activated hopping. The tin content affects strongly the activation energy (E{sub a}). Its value increases from 27 meV for x = 0 to 170 meV for x = 0.10. The ac conductance spectrum is found to be sensitive to the tin content. In contrary to free compound, when introducing tin, the material exhibits several features as a function of frequency and temperature. Also, the spectrum is characterized by the appearance of a conductance peaks, which shifts to higher frequencies. Such behavior indicates the presence of relaxation phenomenon in the system. In the high frequency range, ac conductance can be described by the power law G(ω) = Aω{sup s}, indicating a hopping conduction process. The variation of the exponent ‘s’ with temperature and tin content, permits us to conclude that hopping model may be the dominating mechanism in the system and confirm

  13. Transition metal catalysed Grignard-like allylic activation across tetragonal tin(II) oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradipta Sinha; Moloy Banerjee; Abhijit Kundu; Sujit Roy

    2002-08-01

    The reaction of allyl halide and a carbonyl compound under the aegis of tetragonal tin(II) oxide and catalytic 8, 10 metal complexes provides the corresponding homoallylic alcohol, via a novel allyl tin intermediate.

  14. The first barium tin(II) bromide fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénès, Georges; Merazig, Hocine; Muntasar, Abdualhafeed; Porterfield, Robyn

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to prepare barium tin(II) bromide fluorides for the first time, possibly similar to the chloride fluorides obtained earlier in our laboratory, precipitation reactions were carried out by mixing aqueous solutions of SnF2 and of BaBr2.2H2O. In contrast with the chloride fluoride system, a single powdered phase was obtained throughout the SnF2 - BaBr2 system, with the yield being maximum at X ≈ 0.25, where X is the molar fraction of barium bromide in the reaction mixture. Phase identification with the JCPDS database failed to produce a match, confirming that a new phase had been produced. The exact chemical composition of the new compound has not been obtained yet. Based on the X value for the maximum yield, the Sn/Ba ratio is likely to be 3/1 or 2/1. The Mössbauer spectrum at ambient conditions shows that bonding to tin(II) is covalent, therefore with the tin lone pair being stereoactive. The Mössbauer parameters ( δ = 3.68 mm/s, Δ = 0.99 mm/s) are similar to those of SnBrF and of Sn2BrF5, thereby showing that tin is bonded to both fluorine and bromine. The larger isomer shift and lower quadrupole splitting than in tin(II) fluorides show that the stereoactivity of the tin lone pair is lower than in the fluorides. The Mössbauer parameters fit well the linear correlation of the quadrupole splitting versus the isomer shift" that has been shown to be present in other series of tin(II) compounds. The linear decrease on this correlation shows that the contribution of non-spherical orbitals ( p and d) to the lone pair is a much larger contributor to the quadrupole splitting than lattice distortions. The structure is likely made of Ba2+ cations and tin(II) fluoride bromide polyatomic anions, with covalent bonding withinthe anions.

  15. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Jenny E

    2012-01-01

    This article documents our ongoing search for the elusive "intermediate-mass" black holes. These would bridge the gap between the approximately ten solar mass "stellar-mass" black holes that are the end-product of the life of a massive star, and the "supermassive" black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses found at the centers of massive galaxies. The discovery of black holes with intermediate mass is the key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes, or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth only hundreds of millions of years after the Big Bang. Here we focus on searches for black holes with masses of 10^4-10^6 solar masses that are found at galaxy centers. We will refer to black holes in this mass range as "low-mass" black holes, since they are at the low-mass end of supermassive black holes. We review the searches for low-mass black holes to date and show tentative evidence, from the number of low-mass black holes that are ...

  16. Charged black holes in phantom cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Qadir, Asghar; Rashid, Muneer Ahmad [National University of Sciences and Technology, Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2008-11-15

    In the classical relativistic regime, the accretion of phantom-like dark energy onto a stationary black hole reduces the mass of the black hole. We have investigated the accretion of phantom energy onto a stationary charged black hole and have determined the condition under which this accretion is possible. This condition restricts the mass-to-charge ratio in a narrow range. This condition also challenges the validity of the cosmic-censorship conjecture since a naked singularity is eventually produced due to accretion of phantom energy onto black hole. (orig.)

  17. On Destroying Extremal Magnetized Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Siahaan, Haryanto M

    2016-01-01

    The gedanken experiment by Wald to destroy a black hole using a test particle in the equatorial plane is adopted to the case of extremal magnetized black holes. We find that the presence of external magnetic fields resulting from the "magnetization" process using a Harrison-like transformation permits the test particle to have energies in the range which allows the destruction of black holes. However, from the corresponding effective potential we find that the test particle which may destroy the black hole can never reach the horizon.

  18. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: Roles for distinct TIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Zou, Ying; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Yannone, Steven M.; Campisi, Judith

    2007-10-02

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins (TRF1, TRF2 and POT1), and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. Along with two other proteins, TPP1 and hRap1, these form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere maintenance complex. It is not clear whether sub-complexes also exist in vivo. We provide evidence for two TIN2 sub-complexes with distinct functions in human cells. We isolated these two TIN2 sub-complexes from nuclear lysates of unperturbed cells and cells expressing TIN2 mutants TIN2-13, TIN2-15C, which cannot bind TRF2 or TRF1, respectively. In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere dysfunction and cell death. Our findings suggest that distinct TIN2 complexes exist, and that TIN2-15C-sensitive subcomplexes are particularly important for cell survival in the absence of functional p53.

  19. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: roles for distinctTIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-Ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Campisi, Judith

    2006-11-07

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins, TRF1, TRF2 and POT1, and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. These and two other proteins form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere-maintenance complex. It is not clear whether subcomplexes exist or function in vivo. Here, we provide evidence for two TIN2 subcomplexes with distinct functions in human cells. TIN2 ablation by RNA interference caused telomere uncapping and p53-independent cell death in all cells tested. However, we isolated two TIN2 complexes from cell lysates, each selectively sensitive to a TIN2 mutant (TIN2-13, TIN2-15C). In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN215C more than TIN2-13 caused genomic instability and cell death. Thus, TIN2 subcomplexes likely have distinct functions in telomere maintenance, and may provide selective targets for eliminating cells with mutant p53.

  20. Thermal and plasma-enhanced oxidation of ALD TiN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, A.W.; Brunets, I.; Boogaard, A.; Aarnink, A.A.I.; Kovalgin, A.Y.; Schmitz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite its high chemical stability, sputtered stoichiometric TiN can still be oxidized at temperatures below 400 ºC, whereas a non-stoichiometric TiN is known to oxidize even at room temperature. In this work, the oxidation behaviour of thin TiN layers, realized via atomic layer deposition (ALD), i

  1. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusse, Jay; Sampson, Mike; Leidecker, Henning; Kadesch, Jong

    2004-01-01

    This website provides information about tin whiskers and related research. The independent research performed during the past 50+ years is so vast that it is impractical to cover all aspects of tin whiskers in this one resource. Therefore, the absence of information in this website about a particular aspect of tin whiskers should NOT be construed as evidence of absence.

  2. 77 FR 5767 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order covering certain tin mill products from... antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty...

  3. 77 FR 34938 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order... Trade Commission (USITC) that revocation of the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products from... Department published the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan.\\1\\ On June 1,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  5. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, M C

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (roughly 3-20 solar masses), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (millions to billions of solar masses), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with hundreds to thousands of solar masses. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work t...

  6. Study on Optical Properties of Tin Oxide Thin Film at Different Annealing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturi Baco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tin Oxide (SnO2 thin film is one of the important transparent conducting oxides (TCOs and applied in various fields such as in solar cells, optoelectronic devices, heat mirror, gas sensors, etc due to its electrical and optical transparency in visible light spectrum. In this paper, we presented the optical properties of tin oxide thin film at four different annealing temperatures (373 K, 437 K, 573 K and 673 K prepared by radio frequency sputtering technique. The optical characteristic of these films was investigated using the UV-VIS 3101-PC Spectrophotometer. From this study, all samples exhibit high transmittance more than 70% in the visible light spectrum. Sample annealed at 473 K shows the maximum transmittance which is 87%. Refractive index, n were in the range of 2.33 – 2.80 at  = 550 nm and enhanced with the annealing temperature. However the extinction of coefficient, k was found to be very small. The optical band-edge absorption coefficients were found in the range of 104 – 105cm-1. The energy gap value was decreased with increasing annealing temperature and the type of photon transition was allowed direct transition.

  7. Control of preferred (222) crystalline orientation of sputtered indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Duy Phong [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Phan, Bach Thang [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Faculty of Materials Science, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van Dung; Nguyen, Huu Truong [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Ta, Thi Kieu Hanh [Faculty of Materials Science, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Maenosono, Shinya [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Ishikawa (Japan); Tran, Cao Vinh, E-mail: tcvinh@hcmus.edu.vn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam)

    2014-11-03

    We report a two-step growth process for the fabrication of (222)-plane textured indium tin oxide (ITO) films. A thin ITO seed layer was grown in mixed Argon + Oxygen gases, followed by a thick ITO deposited in Argon gas. X-Ray diffraction shows that the sputtered ITO films exhibit strongly preferred (222) crystalline orientation. The (222)-plane textured ITO films have high transmittance above 80% in the visible range and carrier concentration, mobility and resistivity in the range of 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}, 40 cm{sup 2}/Vs and 10{sup −4} Ω·cm, respectively. The surface roughness of our (222) textured ITO films is 1.4 nm, which is one of the smallest value obtained from sputtered ITO thin films. - Highlights: • Control of preferred (222) crystalline orientation of indium tin oxide (ITO) films • A thin oxygen rich seed layer activates (222) orientation growth of overhead ITO films. • The surface roughness of (222)-plane textured ITO films is about 1.4 nm. • Carrier concentration and resistivity are about 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} and 10{sup −4} Ω·cm, respectively.

  8. Theoretical modeling of a self-referenced dual mode SPR sensor utilizing indium tin oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sachin K.; Verma, Roli; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2016-06-01

    A prism based dual mode SPR sensor was theoretically modeled to work as a self-referenced sensor in spectral interrogation scheme. Self-referenced sensing was achieved by sandwiching an indium tin oxide thin film in between the prism base and the metal layer. The proposed sensor possesses two plasmon modes similar to long and short range SPRs (LR- and SR-SPRs) and we have analogically used LRSPR and SRSPR for them. However, these modes do not possess usual long range character due to the losses introduced by the imaginary part of indium tin oxide (ITO) dielectric function. One of the two plasmon modes responds to change in analyte refractive index while the other remains fixed. The influence of various design parameters on the performance of the sensor was evaluated. The performance of the proposed sensor was compared, via control simulations, with established dual mode geometries utilizing silicon dioxide (SiO2), Teflon AF-1600 and Cytop. The design parameters of the established geometries were optimized to obtain self-referenced sensing operation. Trade-offs between the resonance spectral width, minimum reflectivity, shift in resonance wavelength and angle of incidence were examined for optimal design. The present study will be useful in the fabrication of self-referenced sensors where the ambient conditions are not quite stable.

  9. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  10. Formation of black hole and emission of gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi

    2006-12-01

    Numerical simulations were performed for the formation process of rotating black holes. It is suggested that Kerr black holes are formed for wide ranges of initial parameters. The nature of gravitational waves from a test particle falling into a Kerr black hole as well as the development of 3D numerical relativity for the coalescing binary neutron stars are discussed.

  11. Geology,Geochemistry and Genesis of Yinyan Porphyry Tin Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正书; 朱金初; 等

    1989-01-01

    The Yinyan porphyry tin deposit is a blind deposit associated with a small granite porphyry stock.The petrology and geochemistry of the Yinyan granite porphyry suggest that it is genetically of the transfor-mation type,emplaced at the late stage of fractional crystallization within a high-level magma chamber.Ore-forming fluids are derived predominantly from the granitic magma and they interact with the wall rocks intensely when finding their way upwards through the granite porphyry.From the lower part of the porphyry upwards the following alteration zones can be distinguished(a)slightly altered granite porphyry (with weak potash feldspathization),(b)protolithionite-quartz greisenization zone,(c)to-paz-quartz greisenization zone,(d)senicite-quartz sericitization zone,and (e)silicification zone (quartz core at the surface).Tin mineralization is related to greisenization,especially to topaz-quartz greisenization.Rock and ore-forming temperatures and oxygen fugacities are estimated,respectively.There are significant differences in many aspects between the Yinyan porphyry tin deposit and volcan-ic-subvolcanic porphyry tin deposits.

  12. On the electrochemical migration mechanism of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical migration (ECM) of tin can result in the growth of a metal deposit with a dendritic structure from cathode to anode. In electronics, such growth can lead to short circuit of biased electrodes, potentially leading to intermittent or complete failure of an electronic device...

  13. Geochemistry of the Panasqueira tungsten-tin deposit, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Major tin-tungsten deposits in Portugal are related to intrusions of the Younger Series (300-280 Ma) of Hercynian granitoids. Mineralized granites are 'specialized' by a specific increase or decrease of major, minor and trace element contents in comparison with non-mineralized occurrences. Component

  14. High mobility tin oxide deposition with methanol addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Volintiru, I.; Graaf, A. de; Poodt, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    SnO 2 coated glass is widely used in thin film PV. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) is the most common method of deposition and apart from a tin precursor and oxygen precursor, other additives can improve the layer quality. In this contribution, the beneficial effect of methano

  15. A CityGML Extension for Handling Very Large Tins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K.; Ledoux, H.; Stoter, J.

    2016-10-01

    In addition to buildings, the terrain forms an important part of a 3D city model. Although in GIS terrains are usually represented with 2D grids, TINs are also increasingly being used in practice. One example is 3DTOP10NL, the 3D city model covering the whole of the Netherlands, which stores the relief with a constrained TIN containing more than 1 billion triangles. Due to the massive size of such datasets, the main problem that arises is: how to efficiently store and maintain them? While CityGML supports the storage of TINs, we argue in this paper that the current solution is not adequate. For instance, the 1 billion+ triangles of 3DTOP10NL require 686 GB of storage space with CityGML. Furthermore, the current solution does not store the topological relationships of the triangles, and also there are no clear mechanisms to handle several LODs. We propose in this paper a CityGML extension for the compact representation of terrains. We describe our abstract and implementation specifications (modelled in UML), and our prototype implementation to convert TINs to our CityGML structure. It increases the topological relationships that are explicitly represented, and allows us to compress up to a factor of ∼ 25 in our experiments with massive real-world terrains (more than 1 billion triangles).

  16. Burden of injuries and diseases in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The burden of injuries is underestimated to an even greater extent in developing countries than in industrialized countries. The objective of this paper is to analyze injuries and diseases in the monitored work place of the world's largest tin mining operation in Yunnan, South China.

  17. Fluid Inclusion Studies of the Skarn—type Tin Mineralization at Red—A—ven,Northwest Dartmoor,England

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭齐鸣; A.V.BROMLEY

    1992-01-01

    Two principal hydrothermal events have been recognized ,which resulted in the tin-bearing skarns at Red-A-ven ,Northwest Dartmoor.Tin was enriched during both the early (occurring as tin-bearing andradite) and late hydrothermal events (mainly as malayaite stannite and cassiterite,accompanied by boron silicates and minor tungsten).Thermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in diopside,garnet,malayaite,tourmaline-quartz and axinite were carried out,suggesting that the early skarns were formed at the temperature above 600℃and the salinities ranging from 10 to 20 wt.% NaCl eq.while the late skarns at the temperatures of 350-460℃ and the salinities ranging from 30 to 50wt.% NaCl eq.The estimated minimum depths are 2856m(850 bar) for the early event and 2526m(185 bar) for the late event.The birefringence of the andradite might be related with the superimposition of late hydrothermal fluids.

  18. Conflict minerals in the compute sector: estimating extent of tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold use in ICT products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Colin; Olivetti, Elsa; Miller, Reed; Roth, Richard; Kirchain, Randolph

    2015-01-20

    Recent legislation has focused attention on the supply chains of tin, tungsten, tantalum, and gold (3TG), specifically those originating from the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The unique properties of these so-called “conflict minerals” lead to their use in many products, ranging from medical devices to industrial cutting tools. This paper calculates per product use of 3TG in several information, communication, and technology (ICT) products such as desktops, servers, laptops, smart phones, and tablets. By scaling up individual product estimates to global shipment figures, this work estimates the influence of the ICT sector on 3TG mining in covered countries. The model estimates the upper bound of tin, tungsten, tantalum, and gold use within ICT products to be 2%, 0.1%, 15%, and 3% of the 2013 market share, respectively. This result is projected into the future (2018) based on the anticipated increase in ICT device production.

  19. Micro/nano-scale investigation on tin alloys and tin dioxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong

    Tin (Sn) and its alloys have been at people's service since 3000 BC when bronze (alloy of tin and copper) was produced in large scale. They have unique properties and find applications in various engineering fields. Correspondingly, there is abundant information waiting to be clarified surrounding these Sn-related materials. As the key element used for solder alloys, the properties of Sn alloys have been of great interest to the electronic packaging community. At the same time, the intriguing phenomenon of spontaneous Sn whisker growth from Sn / Sn-alloy thin films have bothered, yet also inspired materials scientists for over 60 years. The most commonly seen Sn-containing compound, SnO 2, is in high demand as well due to its exceptional electronic and chemical properties. In addition, nanostructures of SnO2 are intensively studied for their potential applications as solid-state sensors, transparent conducting materials, lithium-ion batteries, high-efficiency solar cell and recently, supercapacitors. The objective of this proposed research is to explore the amazing properties of Sn and Sn-alloys from several different perspectives. Firstly, ever since the banish of lead in solder alloys, lead-free alloys such as Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) has been put under the spotlight. We intend to use our expertise in nanomechanics to give an in-depth and thorough investigation on a popular SAC387 alloy. The mechanical properties of each phase and the local deformation mechanisms have been considered. Secondly, the Sn whisker growth phenomenon is to be re-visited. With the aid of digital image correlation (DIC) techniques, it was found that magnitude of the strain gradient plays an important role in whisker growth. Moreover, DIC helps to visualize the dynamic growth process in which the alteration of strain field has been identified to cause growth of subsequent whiskers. Last but not least, the performance of SnO2 nanowires is to be evaluated in several aspects including mechanical

  20. Dissonant Black Droplets and Black Funnels

    CERN Document Server

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Way, Benson

    2016-01-01

    A holographic field theory on a fixed black hole background has a gravitational dual represented by a black funnel or a black droplet. These states are "detuned" when the temperature of the field theory near the horizon does not match the temperature of the background black hole. In particular, the gravitational dual to the Boulware state must be a detuned solution. We construct detuned droplets and funnels dual to a Schwarzschild background and show that the Boulware phase is represented by a droplet. We also construct hairy black droplets associated to a low-temperature scalar condensation instability and show that they are thermodynamically preferred to their hairless counterparts.

  1. Metallic tin quantum sheets confined in graphene toward high-efficiency carbon dioxide electroreduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fengcai; Liu, Wei; Sun, Yongfu; Xu, Jiaqi; Liu, Katong; Liang, Liang; Yao, Tao; Pan, Bicai; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Ultrathin metal layers can be highly active carbon dioxide electroreduction catalysts, but may also be prone to oxidation. Here we construct a model of graphene confined ultrathin layers of highly reactive metals, taking the synthetic highly reactive tin quantum sheets confined in graphene as an example. The higher electrochemical active area ensures 9 times larger carbon dioxide adsorption capacity relative to bulk tin, while the highly-conductive graphene favours rate-determining electron transfer from carbon dioxide to its radical anion. The lowered tin-tin coordination numbers, revealed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, enable tin quantum sheets confined in graphene to efficiently stabilize the carbon dioxide radical anion, verified by 0.13 volts lowered potential of hydroxyl ion adsorption compared with bulk tin. Hence, the tin quantum sheets confined in graphene show enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability. This work may provide a promising lead for designing efficient and robust catalysts for electrolytic fuel synthesis.

  2. Blacking FTO by strongly cathodic polarization with enhanced photocurrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yun; Lu, Xiaoqing; Huang, Wei; Li, Zelin

    2015-08-01

    Transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (TFTO) coating on quartz glass is widely used as substrate in photoelectrochemistry for solar energy transformation, sensing and so on. We observed that the TFTO could become blackish by strongly cathodic polarization. Characterization of the black FTO (BFTO) by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that part of SnO2 on the TFTO was reduced into metal Sn nanoparticles during the cathodic polarization. The BFTO greatly increased solar absorption and enhanced photocurrent responses in comparison with TFTO. It might be necessary to take caution in photoelectrochemical measurements while the FTO is strongly cathodically polarized.

  3. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  4. One-pot synthesis of tin-borophosphate-carbon composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouyane, Mohamed [Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS, Université de Montpellier, CC 1502, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); LUSAC (EA 4253), Université de Caen Basse Normandie, 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Jumas, Jean-Claude; Olivier-Fourcade, Josette [Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS, Université de Montpellier, CC 1502, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Cassaignon, Sophie [UPMC (UMR7574 CNRS), Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris (France); Collège de France, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Jordy, Christian [SAFT, Direction de la Recherche, 111–113 Bd Alfred Daney, 33074 Bordeaux (France); Lippens, Pierre-Emmanuel, E-mail: lippens@univ-montp2.fr [Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253 CNRS, Université de Montpellier, CC 1502, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2016-01-15

    Sn{sub x}(Ca{sub 0.05}B{sub 0.975}P{sub 0.975}O{sub 3.95}){sub 1−x}/C composites as anode material for Li-ion batteries, with x=0.83 and x=0.71 were synthesized by a facile route including cellulose as carbon source. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. In the latter case, different tin phases were found in the composite including the Sn{sup II}-based amorphous interface between metallic tin and borophosphate particles that improves the dispersion of the active species. The best electrochemical performances were obtained for x=0.71 that were further improved by ball-milled the composite with a small amount of carbon black. - Graphical abstract: {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer spectra of Sn{sub x}(Ca{sub 0.05}B{sub 0.975}P{sub 0.975}O{sub 3.95}){sub 1−x}/C composites with x=0.83 (a) and x=0.71 (b).

  5. Spectroscopic and luminescent properties of Co2+ doped tin oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Durga Venkata Prasad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of electronic and chemical properties of metal oxides makes them exciting materials for basic research and for technological applications alike. Oxides span a wide range of electrical properties from wide band-gap insulators to metallic and superconducting. Tin oxide belongs to a class of materials called Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCO which constitutes an important component for optoelectronic applications. Co2+ doped tin oxide thin films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis synthesis and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, optical, EPR and PL techniques to collect the information about the crystal structure, coordination/local site symmetry of doped Co2+ ions in the host lattice and the luminescent properties of the prepared sample. Powder XRD data revealed that the crystal structure belongs to tetragonal rutile phase and its lattice cell parameters are evaluated. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 26 nm. The morphology of prepared sample was analyzed by using SEM and TEM studies. Functional groups of the prepared sample were observed in the FT-IR spectrum. Optical absorption and EPR studies have shown that on doping, Co2+ ions enter in the host lattice as octahedral site symmetry. PL studies of Co2+ doped SnO2 thin films exhibit blue and yellow emission bands. CIE chromaticity coordinates were also calculated from emission spectrum of Co2+ doped SnO2 thin films.

  6. Effect of Organic Tin Compounds on Electric Properties of Model Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podolak, M.; Engel, G.; Man, D. [Inst. of Physics, Opole Univ., Opole (Poland)

    2006-05-15

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the effect of selected organic tin compounds and potassium chloride (used as a reference substance) on the trans-membrane electric voltage and electric resistance of model membranes, the latter being nitrocellulose filters impregnated with butylene ester of lauric acid. The increasing KCl concentration (in the measurement chambers) caused a rapid rise of the negative trans-membrane voltage, whose value stabilized afterwards. In the case of (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}SnCl an abrupt maximum of the negative voltage was observed followed by a monotonic drop to zero. In the case of highest concentrations of this compound the voltages, after having reached zero, changed their polarization to the opposite. Within the range of small concentrations two slight voltage maxima were observed. Non-ionic tin compounds like (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}Sn and (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}Sn had an insignificant influence on the electric properties of the studied membranes. (orig.)

  7. Temperature measurements of partially-melted tin as a function of shock pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifter, Achim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Furlanetto, Michael R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obst, Andrew W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Payton, J R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stone, J B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tabaka, L J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grover, M [NST; Macrum, G [NST; Stevens, G D [NST; Swift, D C [LLNL; Turley, W D [NST; Veeser, L R [NST

    2009-01-01

    Equilibrium equation of state theory predicts that the free surface release temperature of shock loaded tin will show a plateau of 505 K in the pressure range from 19.5 to 33.0 GPa, corresponding to the solid-liquid mixed-phase region. In this paper we report free surface temperature measurements on shock-loaded tin from 15 to 31 GPa using multi-wavelength optical pyrometry. The shock waves were generated by direct contact of detonating high explosive with the sample. The pressure in the sample was determined by free surface velocity measurements using Photon Doppler Velocimetry. The emitted thermal radiance was measured at four wavelength bands in the near IR region from 1.5 to 5.0 {micro}m. The samples in most of the experiments had diamond-turned surface finishes, with a few samples being polished or ball rolled. At pressures higher than 25 GPa the measured free surface temperatures were higher than the predicted 505 K and increased with increasing pressure. This deviation could be explained by hot spots and/or variations in surface emissivity and requires a further investigation.

  8. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements.

  9. Doing Race in Different Places: Black Racial Cohesion on Black and White College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Edwards, Keisha L.; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the range of factors that contribute to Black students' success requires scholars to examine resiliency from multifaceted perspectives that include aspects of social competency, social responsibility, and agency. Using a national sample of 242 Black college students, the current study examines the indicators that inform racial…

  10. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  11. Highly conducting and crystalline doubly doped tin oxide films fabricated using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K., E-mail: kkr1365@yahoo.co [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpum College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India); Muruganantham, G.; Sakthivel, B. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpum College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Doubly doped (simultaneous doping of antimony and fluorine) tin oxide films (SnO{sub 2}:Sb:F) have been fabricated by employing an inexpensive and simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of SnCl{sub 2} precursor. The structural studies revealed that the films are highly crystalline in nature with preferential orientation along the (2 0 0) plane. It is found that the size of the crystallites of the doubly doped tin oxide films is larger (69 nm) than that (27 nm) of their undoped counterparts. The dislocation density of the doubly doped film is lesser (2.08x10{sup 14} lines/m{sup 2}) when compared with that of the undoped film (13.2x10{sup 14} lines/m{sup 2}), indicating the higher degree of crystallinity of the doubly doped films. The SEM images depict that the films are homogeneous and uniform. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap of the doubly doped films are 71% and 3.56 eV respectively. The sheet resistance (4.13 OMEGA/square) attained for the doubly doped film in this study is lower than the values reported for spray deposited fluorine or antimony doped tin oxide films prepared from aqueous solution of SnCl{sub 2} precursor (without using methanol or ethanol).

  12. Structural and dynamic properties of liquid tin from a new modified embedded-atom method force field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Joseph R.; Chen, Mohan; Stillinger, Frank H.; Carter, Emily A.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2017-02-01

    A new modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) force field is developed for liquid tin. Starting from the Ravelo and Baskes force field [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2482 (1997), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.79.2482], the parameters are adjusted using a simulated annealing optimization procedure in order to obtain better agreement with liquid-phase data. The predictive capabilities of the new model and the Ravelo and Baskes force field are evaluated using molecular dynamics by comparing to a wide range of first-principles and experimental data. The quantities studied include crystal properties (cohesive energy, bulk modulus, equilibrium density, and lattice constant of various crystal structures), melting temperature, liquid structure, liquid density, self-diffusivity, viscosity, and vapor-liquid surface tension. It is shown that although the Ravelo and Baskes force field generally gives better agreement with the properties related to the solid phases of tin, the new MEAM force field gives better agreement with liquid tin properties.

  13. Experimental Data on Liquid-Solid Phase Transition in Tin Using Pulsed Magnetic Loading on the Saturn Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jean-Paul; Hayes, Dennis B.; Asay, James R.; Flores, Paul A.; Watts, Phillip W.; Reisman, David B.

    2001-10-01

    Isentropic ramp-wave loading of materials is a novel method to study the kinetics of phase transitions, particularly in regimes that are overdriven by shock-loading techniques or that cannot be accessed using shock-loading techniques. In our experiments, the Sandia Saturn accelerator produces magnetically driven planar ramp waves of 200-300 ns rise time in aluminum, which then propagate into a material sample. To study the kinetics of the liquid-solid transition in tin under dynamic loading, molten tin initially at 600-800 K is isentropically loaded up to 300 kbar, driving it across the liquid-solid phase boundary. Experiments currently under way to obtain VISAR measurements at a lithium flouride window interface should show evidence of nonequilibrium freezing in tin if the characteristic transition time is in the range of 10-400 ns. *Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Corrosion of steels in molten gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Masatoshi, E-mail: kondo.masatoshi@nr.titech.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ishii, Masaomi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Muroga, Takeo [Department of Helical Plasma Research, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 502-5292 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion of RAFM steel, JLF-1, in liquid Sn–20Li was caused by the formation of Fe-Sn alloyed layer. - Highlights: • The corrosion tests were performed for the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 and the austenitic steel SUS316 in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li at 873 K up to 750 h. • The weight loss of the specimens exposed to liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li was evaluated. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Ga was caused by the alloying reaction between Ga and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn was caused by the alloying reaction between Sn and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn-20Li was caused by the formation of the Fe-Sn alloyed layer and the diffusion of Sn and Li into the steel matrix. - Abstract: The compatibility of steels in liquid gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li) was investigated by means of static corrosion tests. The corrosion tests were performed for reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 (JOYO-HEAT, Fe–9Cr–2W–0.1C) and austenitic steel SUS316 (Fe–18Cr–12Ni–2Mo). The test temperature was 873 K, and the exposure time was 250 and 750 h. The corrosion of these steels in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn–20Li alloy was commonly caused by the formation of a reaction layer and the dissolution of the steel elements into the melts. The reaction layer formed in liquid Ga was identified as Fe{sub 3}Ga from the results of metallurgical analysis and the phase diagram. The growth rate of the reaction layer on the JLF-1 steel showed a parabolic rate law, and this trend indicated that the corrosion could be controlled by the diffusion process through the layer. The reaction layer formed in liquid Sn and Sn–20Li was identified as FeSn. The growth rate had a linear function with exposure time. The corrosion in Sn and Sn–20Li could be controlled by the interface reaction on the layer. The growth rate of the layer formed

  15. Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Beams of Radioactive Tin Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ahn, S.H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Allmond, James M [ORNL; Ayres, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Baugher, T. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bazin, D. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Beene, James R [ORNL; Berryman, J. S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bey, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cartegni, L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)/Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Gade, A. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Garcia-Ruiz, R.F. [Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001, Leuven, Belgium; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University (TTU); Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Matos, M. [Louisiana State University; McDaniel, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Padgett, S [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Radford, David C [ORNL; Ratkiewicz, Andrew J [ORNL; Schmitt, Kyle [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Stroberg, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tostevin, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weisshaar, D. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wimmer, K. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL)/Central Michigan University; Winkler, R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2015-01-01

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at Sn-100, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at Sn-132 out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich Sn-130. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of gamma rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications.

  16. Photoelectricalchemical characteristics of brush plated tin sulfide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, B.; Jayachandran, M. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Alagappa Univ., Karaikudi (India). Dept. of Physics

    2003-08-01

    Thin films of tin sulfide find wide applications in optoelectronic devices and window materials for heterojunction solar cells. Thin films of p-SnS were brush plated onto tin oxide coated glass substrates from aqueous solution containing SnCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Deposits have been characterized with XRD and SEM for structural analysis. Hot probe method showed invariably p-type nature for all the brush plated SnS films. The variation of space charge capacitance, C{sub sc} with applied potential, V, was recorded for the PEC cell with p-SnS/Fe{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 2+}/Pt system. The spectral response of the PEC cell formed with SnS photoelectrode was studied and reported. (author)

  17. Photoelectrochemical characteristics of brush plated tin sulfide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, B.; Jayachandran, M. [Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 006 (India)

    2003-08-01

    Thin films of tin sulfide find wide applications in optoelectronic devices and window materials for heterojunction solar cells. Thin films of p-SnS were brush plated onto tin oxide coated glass substrates from aqueous solution containing SnCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Deposits have been characterized with XRD and SEM for structural analysis. Hot probe method showed invariably p-type nature for all the brush plated SnS films. The variation of space charge capacitance, C{sub sc}, with applied potential, V, was recorded for the PEC cell with p-SnS/Fe{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 2+}/Pt system. The spectral response of the PEC cell formed with SnS photoelectrode was studied and reported.

  18. Direct reaction experimental studies with beams of radioactive tin ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K. L., E-mail: kgrzywac@utk.edu; Ayres, A.; Bey, A.; Burcher, S.; Cartegni, L.; Cerizza, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Ahn, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Allmond, J. M.; Beene, J. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Liang, J. F.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Pain, S. D.; Radford, D. C.; Schmitt, K. T.; Smith, M. S.; Stracener, D. W.; Varner, R. L. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bardayan, D. W. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Baugher, T. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); and others

    2015-10-15

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at {sup 100}Sn, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at {sup 132}Sn out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich {sup 130}Sn. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of γ rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications.

  19. Polymorphic transition of tin under shock wave compression: Experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinatti F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the β-bct polymorphic transition in tin is investigated by means of plate impact experiments. The Sn target surface is observed in a partially released state obtained thanks to a transparent lithium fluoride (LiF anvil. We report both measurements of interface velocity and temperature obtained using Photon Doppler Velocimetry and IR optical pyrometer on shock-loaded tin from 8 to 16 GPa. We show that the Mabire Model EOS associated to the SCG plasticity model provides an overall good estimate of the velocity profiles. However, depnding on the shock amplitude, its prediction of the temperature profile may be less satisfactory, hence underlining the need for future improvements in terms of phase transition kinetics description.

  20. ORGANO—TIN POLYMERS:SYNTHESIS,PROPERTIES AND APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIRongbao; CheRongrui; 等

    1993-01-01

    Through interfacial poly-condensation of R2SnCl2 (R=Me,Bu) with various diacids,diphenols (diols),diamines,amino-acids,hydroxyacids,urea,or thiourea,a series of organo-tin poly-esters,poly-ethers,poly-amines,poly-amine-esters,poly-ureas,poly-thioureas were prepared,and characterised altogether totalling 100 polymers,among which 91 are previously unreported.The synthesized polymers have a potential as a thermostabilizer in PVC products.

  1. Antifriction and wear resistance of tin diffusion coating on brass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    After brass is coated with tin, heat treatment makes the coating metal Sn and the substrate metal lic elements Cu and Zn diffuse with each other. This causes the c oating composition to be changed and the interface to be strengthened. The diffusion coating with a multiphase structure formed by this process has excellent properties of antifriction and wear resistance. With the aid of scanning electron microscopy, electronic probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction, the mechanism of the properties is discussed.

  2. Field Emission from Carbon Nanotube/Tin Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bo; ZHANG Ya-fei

    2009-01-01

    Powder metallurgy was used to fabricate carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission cathodes. CNTs and tin (Sn) powder were blended, compacted and sintered. After polishing and etching, CNTs were exposed and protruded from the metal surface. CNTs were embedded into the Sn matrix, which acted as stable field emitters. The J-E curves show excellent field emission properties, such as low turn-on field of 2.8 V/μm, high emission current density and good current stability.

  3. Crystal structure of tin(II perchlorate trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hennings

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Sn(H2O3](ClO42, was synthesized by the redox reaction of copper(II perchlorate hexahydrate and metallic tin in perchloric acid. Both the trigonal–pyramidal [Sn(H2O3]2+ cations and tetrahedral perchlorate anions lie on crystallographic threefold axes. In the crystal, the cations are linked to the anions by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating (001 sheets.

  4. Palladium–tin catalysts on conducting polymers for nitrate removal

    OpenAIRE

    Dodouche, Ibrahim; Barbosa, Danns Pereira; Varela, Maria do Carmo Rangel Santos; Epron, Florence

    2009-01-01

    Trabalho completo: acesso restrito, p. 50–55 Palladium–tin catalysts were prepared by successive impregnation or co-impregnation onto polyaniline and polypyrrole. The catalytic tests showed that this type of catalyst is active for nitrate reduction. The use of polymer support improves the selectivity of the catalyst toward nitrogen formation compared to a classical support, and avoids the apparition of intermediate nitrite. These better performances of the catalysts supported on electroact...

  5. Patterning Cells on Optically Transparent Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Sunny; Revzin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The ability to exercise precise spatial and temporal control over cell-surface interactions is an important prerequisite to the assembly of multi-cellular constructs serving as in vitro mimics of native tissues. In this study, photolithography and wet etching techniques were used to fabricate individually addressable indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes on glass substrates. The glass substrates containing ITO microelectrodes were modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) silane to make them pr...

  6. Micropatterning of Proteins and Mammalian Cells on Indium Tin Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Sunny S.; Howland, Michael C.; Chen, Li-Jung; Silangcruz, Jaime; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V.; Schweikert, Emile A.; Parikh, Atul N.; Revzin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a novel surface engineering approach that combines oxygen plasma treatment and electrochemical activation to create micropatterned cocultures on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. In this approach, photoresist was patterned onto an ITO substrate modified with poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) silane. The photoresist served as a stencil during exposure of the surface to oxygen plasma. Upon incubation with collagen (I) solution and removal of the photoresist, the ITO substrate co...

  7. Structure Characterization of Semiconducting Tin and Tungsten Mixed Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, J. L.; Frantti, J.; Lantto, V.; Häggström, L.; Wikner, M.

    Mixed-oxide powders of tin and tungsten were made by heating various mixtures of SnO and WO3 powders, corresponding to the nominal formula SnxWO3+x with x between 0.5 and 2.0, in an argon atmosphere at 600°C for 15 hours. The α-SnWO4 phase was the result of heating of an equi-molar mixture of SnO and WO3 powders. In addition to 119Sn Mössbauer experiments, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the phase structures of the mixed-oxide powders. Mössbauer spectra from all samples show a small peak at ∽0mm/s from phase(s) like rutile SnO2, and a larger peak doublet centred at ∽3.4mm/s from the α-SnWO4 phase, where tin is in the form Sn4+ and Sn2+, respectively. Another peak doublet centred at ∽3.0mm/s was needed to obtain reasonable fits for samples with x≥1.3. This doublet originates from an undocumented phase where tin is also in the divalent form Sn2+. 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy made it possible to reveal the relative amounts of the two valence states of tin in the mixed-oxide structures. Raman spectroscopy as the other probe for ``local'' structures was insensitive to reveal the changes in the phase structures between different mixed-oxide samples up to x=1.72, but an extra peak at ∽890cm-1 in the Raman spectrum from the sample with x=2.0 indicates also the presence of the undocumented phase.

  8. Diffusion of tin in germanium: A GGA+U approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2011-10-18

    Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the formation and diffusion of tin-vacancy pairs (SnV) in germanium(Ge). Depending upon the Fermi energy, SnV pairs can form in neutral, singly negative, or doubly negative charged states. The activation energies of diffusion, also as function of the Fermi energy, are calculated to lie between 2.48-3.65 eV, in agreement with and providing an interpretation of available experimental work.

  9. Temperature Modeling of the Molten Glass in Tin Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zhihua; CHEN Jinshu; NIE Yingsong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the experimental investigation by quantitative analysis, temperature fields of the molten glass in tin bath were numerically simulated by the finite elememt method. The ex-perimental results show that the cooling rate of glass is directly proportional to the draught speed, but inversely proportional to the thickness of the glass. This model lays the foundation for computer simulation system about float glass.

  10. Atomic absorption determination of tin in foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, E R; Sulek, A

    1979-09-01

    Samples of green beans, applesauce, and a fruit juice were fortified with tin at 3 levels. Collaborators were asked to digest the samples, using HNO3-H2SO4, add methanol to enhance the absorption signal, and aspirate directly, using a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Results were received from 8 laboratories including 4 from Europe. However, only 6 laboratories used the prescribed methodology. All results were considered acceptable. The method has been adopted as interim official first action.

  11. Tin (Sn) for enhancing performance in silicon CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2013-10-01

    We study a group IV element: tin (Sn) by integrating it into silicon lattice, to enhance the performance of silicon CMOS. We have evaluated the electrical properties of the SiSn lattice by performing simulations using First-principle studies, followed by experimental device fabrication and characterization. We fabricated high-κ/metal gate based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using SiSn as channel material to study the impact of Sn integration into silicon. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Black holes with bottle-shaped horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We present a new class of four-dimensional AdS black holes with non-compact event horizons of finite area. The event horizons are topologically spheres with one puncture, with the puncture pushed to infinity in the form of a cusp. Because of the shape of their event horizons, we call such black holes "black bottles". The solution was obtained as a special case of the Plebanski-Demianski solution, and may describe either static or rotating black bottles. For certain ranges of parameters, an acceleration horizon may also appear in the space-time. We study the full parameter space of the solution, and the various limiting cases that arise. In particular, we show how the rotating black hole recently discovered by Klemm arises as a special limit.

  13. LIDAR data filtering and classification with TIN and assistant plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qihong; Mao, Jianhua; Li, Xianhua; Liu, Xuefeng

    2007-06-01

    LIDAR is a new promising technique in obtaining instantly 3D point cloud data representing the earth surface information. In order to extract valuable earth surface feature information for further application, 3D sub-randomly spatial distributed LIDAR point cloud should be filtered and classified firstly. In this article, a new LIDAR data filtering and classification algorithm is presented. First, the points' neighboring relation and height-jump situation in TIN (triangulated irregular network) model for 3D LIDAR point cloud are analyzed. After that, the filtering algorithm based on TIN neighboring relation and height-jump is presented. Third, an assistant plane is designed in TIN neighborhood filtering algorithm in order to yield more effective filtering result. Then, the LIDAR points are classified into bare ground points, building points and vegetation points using the above filtering algorithms. The experiment is performed using the airborne LIDAR data, and the result shows that this method has better effect on filtering and classification of LIDAR point cloud data.

  14. Black hairy tongue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-08-21

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient's re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment.

  15. Black hole hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  16. Black Hole Hair Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  17. Composition of nanocomposites based on thin layers of tin on porous silicon formed by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenshin, A. S.; Kashkarov, V. M.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Seredin, P. V.; Ryabtsev, S. V.; Bel'tyukov, A. N.; Gil'mutdinov, F. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy the features of morphology and peculiarities of the surface composition of nanocomposites made of thin tin layers by magnetron sputtering formed on porous silicon with pores size of 50-150 nm. Porous silicon was obtained on n-type conductivity crystalline silicon substrate. The obtained nanocomposites were found differ between themselves by the ratio of the main phases: tin dioxide, sub-oxide and metal tin in a dependence on the thickness of the deposited tin layer. Fraction of the oxidized tin in the phase composition of composites was reduced from the surface to the bulk of the sample. Moreover, it was determined that the deposition of tin nanolayers did not result in a considerable change of the phase composition of porous silicon substrate.

  18. Reactive Plasma Sprayed TiN Coating and Its Thermal Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Dong-li; YAN Dian-ran; HE Ji-ning; LI Xiang-zhi; DONG Yan-chun; ZHANG Jian-xin

    2007-01-01

    TiN coating was prepared by reactive plasma spraying in the Ar and N2 containing plasma jet. The results of XRD show that the TiN coating consists of TiN and Ti3O, neither Ti2N nor TiO2 phases. The toughening mechanism was characterized by analyzing the SEM morphologies of the TiN coating's indentation of microhardness and fracture surfaces. The results indicate that the coating possesses a high toughness. The adhesion strength among the TiN layers is 25.88 MPa, which is slightly lower than that of the Ni/Al bonding coating. The oxidation process of the RPS TiN coating is TiN→Ti3O→TiO2.

  19. A charge optimized many-body potential for titanium nitride (TiN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y-T; Liang, T; Martinez, J A; Phillpot, S R; Sinnott, S B

    2014-07-01

    This work presents a new empirical, variable charge potential for TiN systems in the charge-optimized many-body potential framework. The potential parameters were determined by fitting them to experimental data for the enthalpy of formation, lattice parameters, and elastic constants of rocksalt structured TiN. The potential does a good job of describing the fundamental physical properties (defect formation and surface energies) of TiN relative to the predictions of first-principles calculations. This potential is used in classical molecular dynamics simulations to examine the interface of fcc-Ti(0 0 1)/TiN(0 0 1) and to characterize the adsorption of oxygen atoms and molecules on the TiN(0 0 1) surface. The results indicate that the potential is well suited to model TiN thin films and to explore the chemistry associated with their oxidation.

  20. Effect of manganese sulfide on the precipitation behavior of tin in steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-lin Sun; Bo Song; Ling-zhi Yang; Su-fen Tao; Yong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Tramp elements such as tin are considered harmful to steel because of hot brittleness they induce at high temperatures. Because tramp elements retained in steel scrap will be enriched in new steel due to the difficultly of their removal, studies on the precipitation behav-ior of tin are essential. In this study, the effects of different inclusions on the precipitation behavior of tin in steel were studied. The results show that the tin-rich phase precipitates at austenite grain boundaries in an Fe–5%Sn alloy without MnS precipitates, whereas Sn precipitates at the boundaries of MnS inclusions in steel that contains MnS precipitates. MnS is more effective than silicon dioxide or aluminum oxide as a nucleation site for the precipitation of the tin phase, which is consistent with the disregistry between the lattice parameters of the tin phase and those of the inclusions.

  1. Incorporation of tin affects crystallization, morphology, and crystal composition of Sn-Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Søren; Katerinopoulou, A.; Falcone, D. D.;

    2014-01-01

    The crystallization of Sn-Beta in fl uoride medium is greatly in fl uenced by the amount and type of tin source present in the synthesis gel. By varying the amount of tin in the form of tin( IV ) chloride pentahydrate, the time required for crystallization was studied. It was found that tin...... not only drastically a ff ects the time required for crystallization, but also that the presence of tin changes the morphology of the formed Sn-Beta crystals. For low amounts of tin (Si/Sn ¼ 400) crystallization occurs within four days and the Sn-Beta crystals are capped bipyramidal in shape, whereas...... to the minimum time required for obtaining full crystallinity. At excessive crystallization times, the catalytic activity decreased, presumably due to Ostwald ripening...

  2. Seiberg-Witten Instability of Various Topological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2013-01-01

    We review the Seiberg-Witten instability of topological black holes in Anti-de Sitter space due to nucleation of brane-anti-brane pairs. We start with black holes in general relativity, and then proceed to discuss the peculiar property of topological black holes in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity -- they have instabilities that occur at only finite range of distance away from the horizon. This behavior is not unique to black holes in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz theory, as it is also found in the relatively simple systems of charged black hole with dilaton hair that arise in low energy limit of string theory.

  3. Improve low tin tin system recovery%提高低锡系统锡的回收率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农志民

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly describes Fenghuang Mining Branch’s production practice on re-scavenging of cleaning table tailings to recycle tinstone after the tailings’ enter into low tin system;it points out the problems that are not adapt to production requirements occur in the production process, and introduces some practices on technical reform of low tin system production, such practices achieve desired result that is the recovery ratio of tin has improved by 0.46%, realizing enterprise’s business philosophy of improving mineral dressing index.%文章主要阐述凤凰矿业分公司主选流程摇床尾矿进入低锡系统再次扫选进行回收锡石的生产实践,指出了在生产过程中出现的一些不适应生产要求的问题,并介绍了对该低锡系统生产进行的一些技术改造实践,达到了预期的效果,该系统锡的回收率提高了0.46个百分点,实现了提高企业选矿技术指标的经营理念。

  4. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  5. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  6. Life inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, V I

    2012-01-01

    We consider test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside a black hole, which are stable, periodic and neither come out of the black hole nor terminate at the singularity. Interiors of supermassive black holes may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on planets with the third-kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts.

  7. Charged Lifshitz Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pourhasan, R.; Mann, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate modifications of the Lifshitz black hole solutions due to the presence of Maxwell charge in higher dimensions for arbitrary $z$ and any topology. We find that the behaviour of large black holes is insensitive to the topology of the solutions, whereas for small black holes significant differences emerge. We generalize a relation previously obtained for neutral Lifshitz black branes, and study more generally the thermodynamic relationship between energy, entropy, and chemical pot...

  8. Thermoelectric detection of spherical tin inclusions in copper by magnetic sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreon, Hector; Nagy, Peter B.; Nayfeh, Adnan H.

    2000-12-01

    Inclusions and other types of imperfections in metals can be nondestructively detected by noncontacting magnetic measurements that sense the thermoelectric currents around such flaws when the specimen is subjected to directional heating and cooling. This article presents experimental data for the magnetic field produced by thermoelectric currents around surface-breaking spherical tin inclusions in copper under external thermal excitation for different lift-off distances between the sensor and the surface of the specimen. The diameter of the inclusions and the lift-off distance varied from 2.4 to 12.7 mm and from 12 to 20 mm, respectively. A fairly modest 0.7{sup o}C/cm temperature gradient in the specimen produced peak magnetic flux densities ranging from 1 to 250 nT. These results were found to be in good agreement with recently published theoretical predictions [P. B. Nagy and A. H. Nayfeh, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7481 (2000)].

  9. Surface-initiated synthesis of poly(3-methylthiophene) from indium tin oxide and its electrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubina, Natalia; Jenkins, Judith L; Paniagua, Sergio A; Mazzio, Katherine A; MacDonald, Gordon A; Jen, Alex K-Y; Armstrong, Neal R; Marder, Seth R; Luscombe, Christine K

    2012-01-24

    Poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MT) was synthesized directly from indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes modified with a phosphonic acid initiator, using Kumada catalyst transfer polymerization (KCTP). This work represents the first time that polymer thickness has been controlled in a surface initiated KCTP reaction, highlighting the utility of KCTP in achieving controlled polymerizations. Polymer film thicknesses were regulated by the variation of the solution monomer concentration and ranged from 30 to 265 nm. Electrochemical oxidative doping of these films was used to manipulate their near surface composition and effective work function. Doped states of the P3MT film are maintained even after the sample is removed from solution and potential control confirming the robustness of the films. Such materials with controllable thicknesses and electronic properties have the potential to be useful as interlayer materials for organic electronic applications.

  10. Self-Catalytic Growth of Tin Oxide Nanowires by Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongani S. Thabethe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis of tin oxide (SnO2 nanowires by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD process. Commercially bought SnO nanopowders were vaporized at 1050°C for 30 minutes with argon gas continuously passing through the system. The as-synthesized products were characterized using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The band gap of the nanowires determined from UV-visible absorption was around 3.7 eV. The SEM micrographs revealed “wool-like” structure which contains nanoribbons and nanowires with liquid droplets at the tips. Nanowires typically have diameter in the range of 50–200 nm and length 10–100 μm. These nanowires followed the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS growth mechanism.

  11. Investigation of the Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing Characteristics of Tin Oxide Mixed Cerium Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Haider

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tin oxide mixed cerium oxide were grown on unheated substrates by physical vapor deposition. The films were annealed in air at 500 °C for two hours, and were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical spectrophotometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy results reveal that the films were highly porous and porosity of our films was found to be in the range of 11.6–21.7%. The films were investigated for the detection of carbon monoxide, and were found to be highly sensitive. We found that 430 °C was the optimum operating temperature for sensing CO gas at concentrations as low as 5 ppm. Our sensors exhibited fast response and recovery times of 26 s and 30 s, respectively.

  12. Geochemical Characteristics of Rare Earth Elements in Gejiu Tin Polymetallic Deposits,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾润幸; 方维萱; 赫英; 高振敏; 李红阳

    2004-01-01

    In order to get a better understanding of metallogeny,the geochemical characteristics of REE and trace element for Gejiu tin polymetallic deposits were studied by comparing concentrations of REE and trace elements in different type ores and rocks,including skarn-type ore,bedded-type ore,vein-type ore,altered granite,country rocks. Results of this study indicated that the metallogenic matters for different type ores in the study area might be derived from the same origin source,which may be mainly related to granitic activities. Furthermore,there are some differences in concentrations of REE in different ores due to their different depositional mechanism during that time. LREE concentrations were enriched relatively in the vein-type ores and the bedded-type ores with relatively low total REE concentrations,whereas total REE concentrations were higher in the skarn-type ores with LREE and HREE concentrations in wide variation ranges.

  13. Controlled Deposition of Tin Oxide and Silver Nanoparticles Using Microcontact Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo C. Chan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This report describes extensive studies of deposition processes involving tin oxide (SnOx nanoparticles on smooth glass surfaces. We demonstrate the use of smooth films of these nanoparticles as a platform for spatially-selective electroless deposition of silver by soft lithographic stamping. The edge and height roughness of the depositing metallic films are 100 nm and 20 nm, respectively, controlled by the intrinsic size of the nanoparticles. Mixtures of alcohols as capping agents provide further control over the size and shape of nanoparticles clusters. The distribution of cluster heights obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM is modeled through a modified heterogeneous nucleation theory as well as Oswald ripening. The thermodynamic modeling of the wetting properties of nanoparticles aggregates provides insight into their mechanism of formation and how their properties might be further exploited in wide-ranging applications.

  14. Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Produced by Spark Ablation: Synthesis and Gas Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Efimov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis parameters and results of investigation of gas sensing properties of tin oxide nanoparticles produced by spark ablation are presented. The nanoparticles have sizes below 30 nm and their specific surface area is about 40 m2/g. In order to study the gas sensing properties, a special structure comprising heater, barrier layers and contact pads was utilized. The resistance of the sensor fabricated on the basis of this structure was measured at different concentrations of hydrogen in the air (100–500 ppm and different values of relative humidity (30–80%. At working temperature of 450°C, 100 ppm of hydrogen triggers more than 8-times decrease in the sensor resistance within the time interval of about 1 s. At the same time, the humidity variation does not have pronounced effect on the sensor resistance: less than 30% in the humidity range studied.

  15. Germanium-tin multiple quantum well on silicon avalanche photodiode for photodetection at two micron wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Lee, Shuh Ying; Lei, Dian; Gong, Xiao; Khai Loke, Wan; Yoon, Soon-Fatt; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2016-09-01

    We report the demonstration of a germanium-tin multiple quantum well (Ge0.9Sn0.1 MQW)-on-Si avalanche photodiode (APD) for light detection near the 2 μm wavelength range. The measured spectral response covers wavelengths from 1510 to 2003 nm. An optical responsivity of 0.33 A W-1 is achieved at 2003 nm due to the internal avalanche gain. In addition, a thermal coefficient of breakdown voltage is extracted to be 0.053% K-1 based on the temperature-dependent dark current measurement. As compared to the traditional 2 μm wavelength APDs, the Si-based APD is promising for its small excess noise factor, less stringent demand on temperature stability, and its compatibility with silicon technology.

  16. A Novel Electrochemical Detector using Prussian Blue Modified Indium Tin Oxide Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, In-Je; Kim, Ju-Ho; Kang, C. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Lee, Kisay; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a novel electrochemical detector (ECD) to catalyze redox efficiently by electrodepositing Prussian blue (PB, ferric hexacyanoferrate) on the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and amperometric methods were used. We investigated the PB surface properties by topography from atomic force microscopy (AFM). The PB film on dense and smooth surfaces could catalyze redox reaction efficiently. Compared with CE-ECD microchips using a bare-ITO electrode, the proposed CE-ECD microchip using a PB modified electrode has shown better sensitivity of the electropherograms. It has been verified that wide-ranging detection can be performed under the limits of 0.01 mM of dopamine and catechol respectively when we use a PB modified electrode.

  17. Electrochemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles onto indium tin oxide glass and application in biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Yanling; Song Yan; Wang Yuan; Di Junwei, E-mail: djw@suda.edu.cn

    2011-07-29

    A simple one-step method for the electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) onto bare indium tin oxide film coated glass substrate without any template or surfactant was investigated. The effect of electrolysis conditions such as potential range, temperature, concentration and deposition cycles were examined. The connectivity of GNPs was analyzed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were found to connect in pairs or to coalesce in larger numbers. The twin GNPs display a transverse and a longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band, which is similar to that of gold nanorods. The presence of longitudinal LSPR band correlates with high refractive index sensitivity. Conjugation of the twin-linked GNPs with albumin bovine serum-biotin was employed for the detection of streptavidin as a model based on the specific binding affinity in biotin/streptavidin pairs. The spectrophotometric sensor showed concentration-dependent binding for streptavidin.

  18. Anomalous infrared transmission of indium tin oxide thin films on two-dimensional nanosphere arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hang; Zhou, Yuqin; Zhou, Yurong

    2016-04-15

    The excitation of surface plasmons was studied by nano-structural indium tin oxide (ITO) films in the infrared range using nano-imprint lithography (NIL). We investigated the effect of the diameter of silica spheres, thickness of ITO film, and ordering degree of the mask plate on the transmission spectra of structural ITO films by experiments and simulations. Increasing the diameter of silica spheres makes the transmission valley blueshift, while increasing the thickness of ITO film leads the transmission valley redshift. The transmission valley corresponds to the absorption band which results from the excitation of surface plasmons. The ordering degree and the surface coverage ratios of mask plate affect the transmission feature directly. An excitation of local surface plasmons may exist on the undulated ITO surface.

  19. Transition-metal-free coupling reaction of vinylcyclopropanes with aldehydes catalyzed by tin hydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieki, Ryosuke; Kani, Yuria; Tsunoi, Shinji; Shibata, Ikuya

    2015-04-13

    Donor-acceptor cyclopropanes are useful building blocks for catalytic cycloaddition reactions with a range of electrophiles to give various cyclic products. In contrast, relatively few methods are available for the synthesis of homoallylic alcohols through coupling of vinylcyclopropanes (VCPs) with aldehydes, even with transition-metal catalysts. Here, we report that the hydrostannation of vinylcyclopropanes (VCPs) was effectively promoted by dibutyliodotin hydride (Bu2 SnIH). The resultant allylic tin compounds reacted easily with aldehydes. Furthermore, the use of Bu2 SnIH was effectively catalytic in the presence of hydrosilane as a hydride source, which established a coupling reaction of VCPs with aldehydes for the synthesis of homoallylic alcohols without the use of transition-metal catalysts. In contrast to conventional catalytic reactions of VCPs, the presented method allowed the use of several VCPs in addition to conventional donor-acceptor cyclopropanes.

  20. New aspects on URu2Si2 and CeTIn5 (T = Rh, Ir, Co) observed by high pressure NMR and NQR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Kohara

    2002-05-01

    NMR and NQR studies on two interesting systems (URu2Si2, CeTIn5) were performed under high pressure. (1) URu2Si2: In the pressure range 3.0 to 8.3 kbar, we have observed new 29Si NMR signals arising from the antiferromagnetic (AF) region besides the previously observed 29Si NMR signals which come from the paramagnetic (PM) region in the sample. This gives definite evidence for spatially-inhomogeneous development of AF ordering below 0 of 17.5 K. The volume fraction is enhanced by applied pressure, whereas the value of internal field (∼ 91 mT) remains constant up to 8.3 kbar. In the AF region, the ordered moment is about one order of magnitude larger than 0.03 . (2) CeTIn5: The pressure and temperature () dependences of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/1 of 115In in CeTIn5 have shown that the superconductivity (SC) occurs close to an AF instability. From the dependences of 1/1 and Knight shift below c, CeTIn5 has been found to exhibit non- wave (probable wave) SC with even parity and line nodes in the SC energy gap.

  1. The role of tin-promoted Pd/MWNTs via the management of carbonaceous species in selective hydrogenation of high concentration acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Elaheh; Mortazavi, Yadollah; Khodadadi, Abbas Ali; Rashidi, Ali Morad; Rashidzadeh, Mehdi

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, Pd/MWNTs are synthesized using polyol process and modified by tin as a promoter for selective hydrogenation of high concentrated acetylene feedstock. Polyol method results in highly dispersed nanoparticles with a depletion of particle size for tin-promoted Pd catalysts as characterized by TEM. Tin promoter plays a considerable role in hydrogenation of pure acetylene stream. This is attributed to formation of Pd2Sn structural phase, confirmed by XRD and TPR techniques, composed mainly of intermetallic species. Catalytic behavior of tin-promoted Pd catalysts is affected by geometric and electronic factors which are more pronounced in the case of Sn/Pd = 0.25. A discontinuity in Arrhenius plots for the Sn-promoted catalysts is appeared, which seems to be due to a kinetic factor as a result of change in acetylene coverage on Pd metallic ensembles at low and high temperature ranges. Higher selectivity of the catalysts to ethylene is attributed to the presence of more isolated adsorption sites on the catalyst surface originated from both intermetallic compounds confirmed by XPS and the ones formed via the carbonaceous species upon the acetylene hydrogenation reaction.

  2. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  3. Marketing for Black Alums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  4. Synthesis of di-μ-oxo-tetra-(α-pentyloxy)tin(Ⅳ)phthalocynine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ru Peng; Yu Hong Cao; Pei Feng Chen; Xiao Xia Huang

    2008-01-01

    Axially substituted tin phthalocyanines, namely dichloride-tetra-(pentyloxy) tin (IV) phthalocyanine 3 and its dimmer di-cyanine 4 were synthesized. The catalytic effect of H2O-free CaCl2 in quinoline was used for condensation of dihydroxy tin phthalocyanine 3 to the cofacially array dimmer 4. Their structures were characterized by UV-vis, IR, elemental analysis, MS, as well as 1HNMR spectroscopy.

  5. Electrical and Optical Properties of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coatings have been prepared using the mid-frequency pulsed DC closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique in an Ar/O2 atmosphere using blends of tin oxide and tin fluoride powder formed into targets. FTO coatings were deposited with a thickness of 400 nm on glass substrates. No post-deposition annealing treatments were carried out. The effects of the chemical composition on the structural (phase, grain size), optical (transmission, optical band-gap) ...

  6. Effect of preparation conditions on physic-chemical properties of tin-doped nanocrystalline indium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zhek, V. V.; Nefedov, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigation of phase formation and change of concentration of free electrons (Ne) in indium tin oxide system during heat treatment of coprecipitated hydroxides of indium and tin from nitric and hydrochloric solutions and also, for comparison melts of salts nitrates by an alkaline reactant (NH4OH) are considered.The performed investigation allowed to set the optimal condition of preparation of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide with maximal electron concentration.

  7. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  8. Central black hole masses of galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊军辉

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the stellar velocity dispersions in the host galaxies are used to estimate the central black hole masses for a sample of elliptical galaxies. We find that the central black hole masses are in the range of 10(5.5-9.5) M(○). Based on the estimated masses in this paper and those by Woo & Urry (2002) and the measured host galaxy absolute magnitude,a relation, log(MBH/M(○)) = -(0.25 ± 4.3 × 10-3)MR + (2.98 4 0.208) is found for central black hole mass and the host galaxy magnitude. Some discussions are presented.

  9. Safety assessment of Tin(IV) oxide as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    Tin(IV) oxide functions as an abrasive, bulking, and opacifying agent in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations up to 0.4% in rinse-off products and up to 1.3% in leave-on products. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) noted that tin(IV) oxide is a water-insoluble inorganic metal compound and should not be percutaneously absorbed; therefore, systemic exposure is not likely. Studies of dermal application of tin(IV) oxide were considered to determine toxicity at the site of application. The Panel concluded that tin(IV) oxide is safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

  10. Analysis of tin diffusion steps in the preparation of Nb3Sn-Cu superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    A three-stage heat treatment is employed to eliminate the tin ball-up problem. A void nucleation problem is encountered in stage I and it can be reduced by minimizing time at stage I. Therefore, T/sub d/, the tin depletion time, is important in order to minimize time at stage I. Experiments on stage I heat treatment in three geometrical conditions, planar, internal tin and external tin, are studied in order to determine T/sub d/ values. The depletion of tin layer is proportional to the square root of time for the planar and external tin cases. A finite-difference numerical analysis is applied to study these three geometrical conditions. The numerical model predicts T/sub d/ values slightly less than the experimental results. Possible causes of disagreement have been discussed. Results show that the planar geometry is the upper bound solution of the external tin wire condition and the internal tin wire condition is the lower bound solution of the external tin wire condition.

  11. Studies on Nanocrystalline TiN Coatings Prepared by Reactive Plasma Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yanchun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride (TiN coatings with nanostructure were prepared on the surface of 45 steel (Fe-0.45%C via reactive plasma spraying (denoted as RPS Ti powders using spraying gun with self-made reactive chamber. The microstructural characterization, phases constitute, grain size, microhardness, and wear resistance of TiN coatings were systematically investigated. The grain size was obtained through calculation using the Scherrer formula and observed by TEM. The results of X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction indicated that the TiN is main phase of the TiN coating. The forming mechanism of the nano-TiN was characterized by analyzing the SEM morphologies of surface of TiN coating and TiN drops sprayed on the surface of glass, and observing the temperature and velocity of plasma jet using Spray Watch. The tribological properties of the coating under nonlubricated condition were tested and compared with those of the AISI M2 high-speed steel and Al2O3 coating. The results have shown that the RPS TiN coating presents better wear resistance than the M2 high-speed steel and Al2O3 coating under nonlubricated condition. The microhardness of the cross-section and longitudinal section of the TiN coating was tested. The highest hardness of the cross-section of TiN coating is 1735.43HV100 g.

  12. Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish .

  13. Van der Waals black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Rajagopal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of extended phase space, where the negative cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure in the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we find an asymptotically AdS metric whose thermodynamics matches exactly that of the Van der Waals fluid. We show that as a solution of Einstein's equations, the corresponding stress energy tensor obeys (at least for certain range of metric parameters all three weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions.

  14. Dynamic viscosities of pure tin and Sn-Ag, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Ag-Cu eutectic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhitsina, E. V.; Gruner, S.; Kaban, I.; Hoyer, W.; Sidorov, V. E.; Popel', P. S.

    2011-02-01

    The dynamic viscosities of the melts of pure tin and eutectic Sn-Ag, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Ag-Cu alloys are studied in heating followed by cooling, and the maximum heating temperature was 1200°C. An irreversible decrease in the viscosity is found in the temperature range 800-1000°C in the polytherms of all melts. This finding is related to the loss of a local order in a melt and can be used to develop temperature regimes for the production of lead-free solders.

  15. On Accelerated Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Letelier, P S; Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    1998-01-01

    The C-metric is revisited and global interpretation of some associated spacetimes are studied in some detail. Specially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We found that the spacetime fo an accelerated Schwarzschild black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon. By using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature. We also show that the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/sqrt(27)) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated Kerr black holes. We found that they are not changed by the black hole rotation.

  16. Fundamental studies of tin whiskering in microelectronics finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinol, Lesly Agnes

    Common electronics materials, such as tin, copper, steel, and brass, are ambient reactive under common use conditions, and as such are prone to corrosion. During the early 1940s, reports of failures due to electrical shorting of components caused by 'whisker' (i.e., filamentary surface protrusion) growth on many surface types---including the aforementioned metals---began to emerge. Lead alloying of tin (3--10% by weight, typically in the eutectic proportion) eliminated whiskering risk for decades, until the July 2006 adoption of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive was issued by the European Union. This directive, which has since been adopted by California and parts of China, severely restricted the use of lead (market, imposing the need for developing reliable new "lead-free" alternatives to SnPb. In spite of the abundance of modern-day anecdotes chronicling whisker-related failures in satellites, nuclear power stations, missiles, pacemakers, and spacecraft navigation equipment, pure tin finishes are still increasingly being employed today, and the root cause(s) of tin whiskering remains elusive. This work describes a series of structured experiments exploring the fundamental relationships between the incidence of tin whiskering (as dependent variable) and numerous independent variables. These variables included deposition method (electroplating, electroless plating, template-based electrochemical synthesis, and various physical vapor deposition techniques, including resistive evaporation, electron beam evaporation, and sputtering), the inclusion of microparticles and organic contamination, the effects of sample geometry, and nanostructuring. Key findings pertain to correlations between sample geometry and whisker propensity, and also to the stress evolution across a series of 4"-diameter silicon wafers of varying thicknesses with respect to the degree of post-metallization whiskering. Regarding sample geometry, it was found that smaller

  17. Bokanmeldelse: Mikkel B Tin (2011 Spilleregler og spillerom. Tradisjonens estetikk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Homlong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mikkel B. Tin intresserer seg for estetiske dimensjoner i kunsten generelt og i folkekunsten spesielt. I boken Spilleregler og spillerom belyser han de skapende prosesser som drives fram av individets estetiske og håndverksmessige forhold til tradisjonelle håndverk og formspråk. Hans mål har vært å undersøke tradisjonen og kunsten i deres møtepunkt, et møtepunkt han kaller tradisjonens estetikk. Som bokens tittel signaliserer finnes det i denne sammenheng noen rammer å forholde seg til; spilleregler, men også en individuell frihet vi alle forventer oss at kunstutøvere må ha; spillerom. Boken gir mange empiriske eksempel på hvordan ulike utøvere forholder seg til tradisjonen. Ved gjenstandsanalyser og intervjuer studeres den tjekkiske kunstneren Tomás Smetanas tegninger, broderte kraver fra Øst-Telemark, utskårne mønster på treportaler i Romania, håndklær fra Ukraina og ståltrådsarbeider fra Slovakia. Til slutt behandles spilleregler og spillerom for grafitti, også her med et internasjonalt perspektiv. Boken inneholder et rikt bildemateriale, beskrivelser av variasjon i mønster, farge- og materialbruk i ulike arbeider, samt lokalt og internasjonalt sammenlignende analyse av disse arbeidene. Jeg finner boken interessant fordi Tin dreier diskusjonen bort fra at det å ta utgangspunkt i tradisjonens håndverk klassifiseres som kopiering og derfor ikke bidrar til utvikling av individets skapende evner. Han peker på hvordan tradisjonelle uttrykk i ulike materialer både kan lære oss noe og åpne for utvikling av egne uttrykk. Å ta opp en tradisjon betyr ikke å kopiere den, men å spille sammen med andre innen et visst spillerom der individets egne erfaringer påvirker det estetiske resultatet, er Tins budskap. Jeg forstår godt – og liker – assosiasjonen til kort- eller brikkespill der man jo tar utgangspunkt i et sett regler. Hvilke trekk man gjør eller kort man legger avhenger likevel av den aktuelle situasjonen og

  18. Leaching studies for tin recovery from waste e-scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Manis Kumar; Choubey, Pankaj Kumar; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumari, Archana; Lee, Jae-Chun; Kumar, Vinay; Jeong, Jinki

    2012-10-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the most essential components of all electrical and electronic equipments, which contain noteworthy quantity of metals, some of which are toxic to life and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, recycling of PCBs is necessary for the safe disposal/utilization of these metals. Present paper is a part of developing Indo-Korean recycling technique consists of organic swelling pre-treatment technique for the liberation of thin layer of metallic sheet and the treatment of epoxy resin to remove/recover toxic soldering material. To optimize the parameters required for recovery of tin from waste PCBs, initially the bench scale studies were carried out using fresh solder (containing 52.6% Sn and 47.3% Pb) varying the acid concentration, temperature, mixing time and pulp density. The experimental data indicate that 95.79% of tin was leached out from solder material using 5.5M HCl at fixed pulp density 50 g/L and temperature 90°C in mixing time 165 min. Kinetic studies followed the chemical reaction controlled dense constant size cylindrical particles with activation energy of 117.68 kJ/mol. However, 97.79% of tin was found to be leached out from solder materials of liberated swelled epoxy resin using 4.5M HCl at 90°C, mixing time 60 min and pulp density 50 g/L. From the leach liquor of solder materials of epoxy resin, the precipitate of sodium stannate as value added product was obtained at pH 1.9. The Pb from the leach residue was removed by using 0.1M nitric acid at 90°C in mixing time 45 min and pulp density 10g/L. The metal free epoxy resin could be disposed-of safely/used as filling material without affecting the environment.

  19. Leaching studies for tin recovery from waste e-scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Manis Kumar, E-mail: maniskrjha@gmail.com [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Choubey, Pankaj Kumar; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumari, Archana [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Lee, Jae-chun, E-mail: jclee@kigam.re.kr [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Vinay [Metal Extraction and Forming Division, National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur 831 007 (India); Jeong, Jinki [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the most essential components of all electrical and electronic equipments, which contain noteworthy quantity of metals, some of which are toxic to life and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, recycling of PCBs is necessary for the safe disposal/utilization of these metals. Present paper is a part of developing Indo-Korean recycling technique consists of organic swelling pre-treatment technique for the liberation of thin layer of metallic sheet and the treatment of epoxy resin to remove/recover toxic soldering material. To optimize the parameters required for recovery of tin from waste PCBs, initially the bench scale studies were carried out using fresh solder (containing 52.6% Sn and 47.3% Pb) varying the acid concentration, temperature, mixing time and pulp density. The experimental data indicate that 95.79% of tin was leached out from solder material using 5.5 M HCl at fixed pulp density 50 g/L and temperature 90 Degree-Sign C in mixing time 165 min. Kinetic studies followed the chemical reaction controlled dense constant size cylindrical particles with activation energy of 117.68 kJ/mol. However, 97.79% of tin was found to be leached out from solder materials of liberated swelled epoxy resin using 4.5 M HCl at 90 Degree-Sign C, mixing time 60 min and pulp density 50 g/L. From the leach liquor of solder materials of epoxy resin, the precipitate of sodium stannate as value added product was obtained at pH 1.9. The Pb from the leach residue was removed by using 0.1 M nitric acid at 90 Degree-Sign C in mixing time 45 min and pulp density 10 g/L. The metal free epoxy resin could be disposed-of safely/used as filling material without affecting the environment.

  20. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.; Tremonti, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3......We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3...

  1. Revisiting Black Holes as Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Could dark matter be made of intermediate-mass black holes formed in the beginning of the universe? A recent study takes a renewed look at this question.Galactic LurkersThe nature of dark matter has long been questioned, but the recent discovery of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has renewed interest in the possibility that dark matter could consist of primordial black holes in the mass range of 101000 solar masses.The relative amounts of the different constituents of the universe. Dark matter makes up roughly 27%. [ESA/Planck]According to this model, the extreme density of matter present during the universes early expansion led to the formation of a large number of intermediate-mass black holes. These black holes now hide in the halos of galaxies, constituting the mass that weve measured dynamically but remains unseen.LIGOs first gravitational-wave detection revealed the merger of two black holes that were both tens of solar masses in size. If primordial black holes are indeed a major constituent of dark matter, then LIGOs detection is consistent with what we would expect to find: occasional mergers of the intermediate-mass black holes that formed in the early universe and now lurk in galactic halos.Quasar MicrolensingTheres a catch, however. If there truly were a large number of intermediate-mass primordial black holes hiding in galactic halos, they wouldnt go completely unnoticed: we would see signs of their presence in the gravitational microlensing of background quasars. Unseen primordial black holes in a foreground galaxy could cause an image of a background quasar to briefly brighten which would provide us with clear evidence of such black holes despite our not being able to detect them directly.A depiction of quasar microlensing (click for a closer look!). The microlensing object in the foreground galaxy could be a star (as depicted), a primordial black hole, or any other compact object. [NASA

  2. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  3. Effect of tin etiopurpurin and light on the canine prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Steven H.; Keck, Rick W.; Doiron, Daniel R.

    1995-03-01

    A series of experiments was undertaken to determine the effects of the combination of light and the tissue photosensitizer, tin etiopurpurin, on the canine prostate. Mongrel dogs were injected intravenously with 1.0 mg/kg of photosensitizer twenty-four hours prior to light delivery. Laser light, 660 nm, was administered either transurethrally or interstitially and tissue effects were assessed by histopathologic examination. Both techniques of light delivery resulted in hemorrhagic necrosis of the surrounding tissue. Photodynamic therapy may offer a novel approach to the treatment of both benign and malignant diseases of the prostate.

  4. Laser synthesis of germanium tin alloys on virtual germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, S.; Conde, J. C.; Benedetti, A.; Serra, C.; Werner, J.; Oehme, M.; Schulze, J.; Buca, D.; Holländer, B.; Mantl, S.; Chiussi, S.

    2012-03-01

    Synthesis of heteroepitaxial germanium tin (GeSn) alloys using excimer laser processing of a thin 4 nm Sn layer on Ge has been demonstrated and studied. Laser induced rapid heating, subsequent melting, and re-solidification processes at extremely high cooling rates have been experimentally achieved and also simulated numerically to optimize the processing parameters. "In situ" measured sample reflectivity with nanosecond time resolution was used as feedback for the simulations and directly correlated to alloy composition. Detailed characterization of the GeSn alloys after the optimization of the processing conditions indicated substitutional Sn concentration of up to 1% in the Ge matrix.

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF LOW TEMPERATURE ION PLATING TiN COATINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The TiN coatings were deposited onto the low carbon steel substrates with different temperatures (150,250,350 and 450 ℃), using hollow cathode discharge (HCD) ion plating method. The measurements of the microhardness and wear resistance of the coatings show that the hardness value slowly increases and the wear resistance remains almost unchanged with increasing the substrate temperature from 150 ℃ to 450 ℃. The reason for effect of the substrate temperature on the properties and morphologies of the coatings was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  6. High dislocation density of tin induced by electric current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yi-Han; Liang, Chien-Lung; Lin, Kwang-Lung, E-mail: matkllin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Material Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, R. O. C (China); Wu, Albert T. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan, R. O. C (China)

    2015-12-15

    A dislocation density of as high as 10{sup 17} /m{sup 2} in a tin strip, as revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscope, was induced by current stressing at 6.5 x 10{sup 3} A/ cm{sup 2}. The dislocations exist in terms of dislocation line, dislocation loop, and dislocation aggregates. Electron Backscattered Diffraction images reflect that the high dislocation density induced the formation of low deflection angle subgrains, high deflection angle Widmanstätten grains, and recrystallization. The recrystallization gave rise to grain refining.

  7. Diffusion bonding of titanium alloy to tin-bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卓然; 冯吉才; 刘会杰

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum diffusion bonding of titanium alloy to tin-bronze has been studied and the feasibility and appropriate processing parameters have been investigated. The maximum tensile strength of the joints is bonded joint has been observed by SEM, X-ray and EPMA, and the main factors affecting diffusion bonding have been analyzed. The intermetallic compounds Ti2Cu and TiCu were formed near the interface. The width and quantity of the intermetallic compound increases with the increase of the bonding time. The formation of the intermetallic compounds results in embrittlement of the joint and the poor joint properties.

  8. Tin transition metal carbon alloys for lithium-ion battery negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Andrew Douglas William

    Tin-transition metal (for M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) and tin-transition metal-carbon (for M = Ti, V and Co) alloys were studied using combinatorial materials science techniques and high throughput characterization methods to identify the optimum transition metal to use as an alloy for Li-ion battery negative electrodes. Amorphous composition ranges were found in the Sn-Ti, Sn-V, Sn-Cr, and Sn-Co systems with the amorphous range forming with the lowest concentration of transition metal for Co. No composition from the Sn-M systems showed stable charge-discharge cycling. Of the tin-transition metal-carbon alloys studied, it was determined that the Sn-Co-C system had compositions for which the charge-discharge cycling was stable and the specific capacities were close to 600 mAh/g. It is speculated that the Sn-Co-C system remains amorphous over many charge-discharge cycles because of a lack of stable, room temperature Co-carbides. Mossbauer effect spectroscopy was performed on a Sn1-xCo x library and a [Sn0.63Co0.37]1- yCy library to help understand the local environment of the tin atoms in these materials and it was determined that the carbon did not have a great effect. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements were used to compare Sn-Co-C materials produced by mechanical attriting to Sn-Co-C materials produced by sputter deposition. These results revealed differences in the nanostructure. The attrited [Sn0.5Co0.5]1- yCy (for y = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8) materials were found to have a SnCo grain size on the order of 60 A while the sputtered [Sn0.45Co0.55 ]1-yCy (for y = 0.02, 0.10, 0.21, 0.34, 0.56, and 0.74) materials were found to be amorphous or have a SnCo grain size near 10 A, depending on composition. This difference in nanostructure may explain why the mechanically attrited samples could not attain their theoretical specific capacity while the sputtered samples were much closer to doing so. Porosity detected in the

  9. Black Hole Spin Properties of 130 AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Daly, Ruth A

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive black holes may be described by their mass and spin. When supermassive black holes are active, the activity provides a probe of the state of the black hole system. The spin of a hole can be estimated when the black hole mass and beam power of the source are known for sources with powerful outflows. Seventy-five sources for which both the black hole mass and beam power could be obtained are identified and used to obtain estimates of black hole spins. The 75 supermassive black holes studied include 52 FRII radio galaxies and 23 FRII radio loud quasars with redshifts ranging from about zero to two. The new values are combined with those obtained previously for 19 FRII radio galaxies, 7 FRII radio loud quasars, and 29 radio sources associated with CD galaxies to form samples of 71 FRII radio galaxies, 30 FRII quasars, and a total sample of 130 spin values; all of the sources are associated with massive elliptical galaxies. The new values obtained are similar to those obtained earlier at similar redsh...

  10. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochan, Kinjalk, E-mail: kinjalk@iucaa.in; Chakraborty, Sumanta, E-mail: sumanta@iucaa.in

    2016-04-10

    The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  11. Recent developments in the formation and structure of tin-iron oxides by laser pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, R.; Morjan, I.; Dumitrache, F.; Birjega, R.; Fleaca, C.; Soare, I.; Gavrila, L.; Luculescu, C.; Prodan, G.; Kuncser, V.; Filoti, G.

    2011-04-01

    Complex oxides demonstrate specific electric and magnetic properties which make them suitable for a wide variety of applications, including dilute magnetic semiconductors for spin electronics. A tin-iron oxide Sn 1- xFe xO 2 nanoparticulate material has been successfully synthesized by using the laser pyrolysis of tetramethyl tin-iron pentacarbonyl-air mixtures. Fe doping of SnO 2 nanoparticles has been varied systematically in the 3-10 at% range. As determined by EDAX, the Fe/Sn ratio (in at%) in powders varied between 0.14 and 0.64. XRD studies of Sn 1- xFe xO 2 nanoscale powders, revealed only structurally modified SnO 2 due to the incorporation of Fe into the lattice mainly by substitutional changes. The substitution of Fe 3+ in the Sn 4+ positions (Fe 3+ has smaller ionic radius as compared to the ionic radius of 0.69 Å for Sn 4+) with the formation of a mixed oxide Sn 1- xFe xO 2 is suggested. A lattice contraction consistent with the determined Fe/Sn atomic ratios was observed. The nanoparticle size decreases with the Fe doping (about 7 nm for the highest Fe content). Temperature dependent 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy data point to the additional presence of defected Fe 3+-based oxide nanoclusters with blocking temperatures below 60 K. A new Fe phase presenting magnetic order at substantially higher temperatures was evidenced and assigned to a new type of magnetism relating to the dispersed Fe ions into the SnO 2 matrix.

  12. Recent developments in the formation and structure of tin-iron oxides by laser pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrescu, R., E-mail: ralexandrescu2001@yahoo.co.uk [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, POB MG-36, Bucharest 077125, Magurele (Romania); Morjan, I.; Dumitrache, F.; Birjega, R.; Fleaca, C.; Soare, I.; Gavrila, L.; Luculescu, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, POB MG-36, Bucharest 077125, Magurele (Romania); Prodan, G. [Ovidius University of Constanta, Bd. Mamaia 124, Constanta (Romania); Kuncser, V.; Filoti, G. [National Institute of Materials Physics, POB MG-7, Bucharest 077125, Magurele (Romania)

    2011-04-01

    Complex oxides demonstrate specific electric and magnetic properties which make them suitable for a wide variety of applications, including dilute magnetic semiconductors for spin electronics. A tin-iron oxide Sn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} nanoparticulate material has been successfully synthesized by using the laser pyrolysis of tetramethyl tin-iron pentacarbonyl-air mixtures. Fe doping of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles has been varied systematically in the 3-10 at% range. As determined by EDAX, the Fe/Sn ratio (in at%) in powders varied between 0.14 and 0.64. XRD studies of Sn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} nanoscale powders, revealed only structurally modified SnO{sub 2} due to the incorporation of Fe into the lattice mainly by substitutional changes. The substitution of Fe{sup 3+} in the Sn{sup 4+} positions (Fe{sup 3+} has smaller ionic radius as compared to the ionic radius of 0.69 A for Sn{sup 4+}) with the formation of a mixed oxide Sn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} is suggested. A lattice contraction consistent with the determined Fe/Sn atomic ratios was observed. The nanoparticle size decreases with the Fe doping (about 7 nm for the highest Fe content). Temperature dependent {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy data point to the additional presence of defected Fe{sup 3+}-based oxide nanoclusters with blocking temperatures below 60 K. A new Fe phase presenting magnetic order at substantially higher temperatures was evidenced and assigned to a new type of magnetism relating to the dispersed Fe ions into the SnO{sub 2} matrix.

  13. Synthesis of a mixed-valent tin nitride and considerations of its possible crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Christopher M.; Holder, Aaron; Shulda, Sarah; Christensen, Steven T.; Diercks, David; Schwartz, Craig P.; Biagioni, David; Nordlund, Dennis; Kukliansky, Alon; Natan, Amir; Prendergast, David; Orvananos, Bernardo; Sun, Wenhao; Zhang, Xiuwen; Ceder, Gerbrand; Ginley, David S.; Tumas, William; Perkins, John D.; Stevanovic, Vladan; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Lany, Stephan; Richards, Ryan M.; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in theoretical structure prediction methods and high-throughput computational techniques are revolutionizing experimental discovery of the thermodynamically stable inorganic materials. Metastable materials represent a new frontier for these studies, since even simple binary non-ground state compounds of common elements may be awaiting discovery. However, there are significant research challenges related to non-equilibrium thin film synthesis and crystal structure predictions, such as small strained crystals in the experimental samples and energy minimization based theoretical algorithms. Here, we report on experimental synthesis and characterization, as well as theoretical first-principles calculations of a previously unreported mixed-valent binary tin nitride. Thin film experiments indicate that this novel material is N-deficient SnN with tin in the mixed ii/iv valence state and a small low-symmetry unit cell. Theoretical calculations suggest that the most likely crystal structure has the space group 2 (SG2) related to the distorted delafossite (SG166), which is nearly 0.1 eV/atom above the ground state SnN polymorph. This observation is rationalized by the structural similarity of the SnN distorted delafossite to the chemically related Sn3N4 spinel compound, which provides a fresh scientific insight into the reasons for growth of polymorphs of metastable materials. In addition to reporting on the discovery of the simple binary SnN compound, this paper illustrates a possible way of combining a wide range of advanced characterization techniques with the first-principle property calculation methods, to elucidate the most likely crystal structure of the previously unreported metastable materials.

  14. Synthesis of a mixed-valent tin nitride and considerations of its possible crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Christopher M; Holder, Aaron; Shulda, Sarah; Christensen, Steven T; Diercks, David; Schwartz, Craig P; Biagioni, David; Nordlund, Dennis; Kukliansky, Alon; Natan, Amir; Prendergast, David; Orvananos, Bernardo; Sun, Wenhao; Zhang, Xiuwen; Ceder, Gerbrand; Ginley, David S; Tumas, William; Perkins, John D; Stevanovic, Vladan; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Lany, Stephan; Richards, Ryan M; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-04-14

    Recent advances in theoretical structure prediction methods and high-throughput computational techniques are revolutionizing experimental discovery of the thermodynamically stable inorganic materials. Metastable materials represent a new frontier for these studies, since even simple binary non-ground state compounds of common elements may be awaiting discovery. However, there are significant research challenges related to non-equilibrium thin film synthesis and crystal structure predictions, such as small strained crystals in the experimental samples and energy minimization based theoretical algorithms. Here, we report on experimental synthesis and characterization, as well as theoretical first-principles calculations of a previously unreported mixed-valent binary tin nitride. Thin film experiments indicate that this novel material is N-deficient SnN with tin in the mixed ii/iv valence state and a small low-symmetry unit cell. Theoretical calculations suggest that the most likely crystal structure has the space group 2 (SG2) related to the distorted delafossite (SG166), which is nearly 0.1 eV/atom above the ground state SnN polymorph. This observation is rationalized by the structural similarity of the SnN distorted delafossite to the chemically related Sn3N4 spinel compound, which provides a fresh scientific insight into the reasons for growth of polymorphs of metastable materials. In addition to reporting on the discovery of the simple binary SnN compound, this paper illustrates a possible way of combining a wide range of advanced characterization techniques with the first-principle property calculation methods, to elucidate the most likely crystal structure of the previously unreported metastable materials.

  15. Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN), TIN created from Ortho photos / airborne GPS, Published in 2005, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, City of Salina.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. It...

  16. Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN), TIN of Thomas County, GA, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Thomas County BOC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It...

  17. Tin--a toxic heavy metal? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, S G; Femfert, U

    1984-03-01

    A tolerable limit for tin concentration in canned food of 250 ppm (Fritsch et al., 1977) is generally accepted. However, biochemical effects attributable to tin have been observed even after oral administration of 1 and 3 mg Sn/kg body wt (Yamaguchi et al., 1980). These doses reflect 10 and 30 ppm tin in the diet. The experiments of de Groot (1973) showed that hemoglobin concentrations in the blood of rats decreased significantly feeding a diet containing 150 ppm tin. The absorption of iron was diminished after simultaneous administration of 0.8 mumol Sn(II) and iron, reflecting a tin dose of 95 ppm tin, by injection into jejunal loops of rats (Schäfer and Forth, 1983). In general, however, canned food usually plays a secondary role in daily nutrition. Fortunately, concentrations of about 2000 ppm tin as reported by Warburton et al. (1962) and Barker and Runte (1972) are not found in canned food, but values between 50 and 500 ppm are not unusual (Piscator, 1979). If a large amount of canned food is eaten daily over a long period, disturbances of gastric acid secretion and a reduction in iron absorption or heme metabolism cannot be excluded. The storage of food, especially acid foods, in opened cans should be avoided as this practice increases the amount of tin in the food when it is consumed.

  18. Tin--a toxic heavy metal. A review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, S.G.; Femfert, U.

    1984-03-01

    A tolerable limit for tin concentration in canned food of 250 ppm (Fritsch et al., 1977) is generally accepted. However, biochemical effects attributable to tin have been observed even after oral administration of 1 and 3 mg Sn/kg body wt (Yamaguchi et al., 1980). These doses reflect 10 and 30 ppm tin in the diet. The experiments of de Groot (1973) showed that hemoglobin concentrations in the blood of rats decreased significantly feeding a diet containing 150 ppm tin. The absorption of iron was diminished after simultaneous administration of 0.8 mumol Sn(II) and iron, reflecting a tin dose of 95 ppm tin, by injection into jejunal loops of rats (Schaefer and Forth, 1983). In general, however, canned food usually plays a secondary role in daily nutrition. Fortunately, concentrations of about 2000 ppm tin as reported by Warburton et al. (1962) and Barker and Runte (1972) are not found in canned food, but values between 50 and 500 ppm are not unusual (Piscator, 1979). If a large amount of canned food is eaten daily over a long period, disturbances of gastric acid secretion and a reduction in iron absorption or heme metabolism cannot be excluded. The storage of food, especially acid foods, in opened cans should be avoided as this practice increases the amount of tin in the food when it is consumed.

  19. Electronic Properties of Tin and Bismuth from Angular Correlation of Annihilation Photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.E.; Trumpy, Georg

    1969-01-01

    A linear slit setup has been used to obtain results of angular-correlation measurements in (a) tin single crystals in three orientations: [001], [100], and [110], (b) bismuth single crystals in four orientations: [111], [100], [1¯10], and [2¯1¯1], (c) solid and liquid tin and bismuth, and (d) def...

  20. Microstructure and Impact Wear Resistance of TiN Reinforced High Manganese Steel Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA You-ping; LI Xiu-lan; WANG Cheng-hui; LU Lu

    2012-01-01

    A high-manganese austenitic steel matrix (Mn13) composite reinforced with TiN ceramic particles was synthesized by means of Vacuum-Evaporation Pattern Casting (V-EPC). The composite microstructure and interface bonding of TiN/matrix were analyzed utilizing optical microscope (OM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of different volume fraction of TiN on impact wear resistance were evaluated by MLD-10 impact wear test. The results showed that TiN was evenly distributed in composite layer and had a good interface bonding with matrix when the volume fractions of TiN were 27% and 36% respectively. However, cast defects and TiN agglomeration occurred when the TiN volume fraction increased to 48~. Compared with high-manganese austenitic steel (Mnl3), the im- pact wear resistance of the TiN-reinforced composite is better. In small impact load conditions, composite layer can effectively resist abrasives wear and TiN particles played an important role in determining impact wear resistance of composite layer. In large impact load, the synergistic roles of spalling of TiN particles and the increase of work hardening of Mn13 based material are responsible for impact wear resistance.

  1. Commerce Ministry Announced the Export Quotas for Zinc,Antimony,Tungsten,Tin and Silver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The Ministry of Commerce recently announcedits decision on the export quotas for zinc,anti-mony,tungsten,tin and silver in 2004.Accord-ing to the data released,all the export quotasare reduced except for silver.Relevant peoplesay that the raw materials shortage is a majorissue for the production of antimony and tin,

  2. Tin- and Lead-Based Perovskite Solar Cells under Scrutiny: An Environmental Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano-Luján, Lucía; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2015-01-01

    The effect of substituting lead with tin in perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs) has shows that lead is preferred over tin by a lower cumulative energy demand. The results, which also include end-of-life management, show that a recycling scenario that carefully handles emission of lead enables use...

  3. Characterisation of baroque tin amalgam mirrors of the historical Green Vault in Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywitzki, O.; Nedon, W.; Kopte, T.; Modes, T.

    2008-07-01

    The historical Green Vault, one of Europe’s most sumptuous treasure chambers, has reopened in September 2006 in the Dresden Royal Palace. For the baroque presentation of the artworks the special properties of tin amalgam mirrors are of great importance. A comprehensive analytic characterisation was necessary for restoration and reconstruction. The different original casting glasses were analysed in respect of chemical composition, roughness, waviness and optical properties like chromaticity coordinates and transmittance. The microstructure of the tin amalgam layers were investigated on metallographic cross-sections and by X-ray diffraction. The investigations reveal that the tin amalgam layers are composed of γ-HgSn6-10 phase with a grain size between 5 and 50 μm surrounded by a thin mercury phase with about 2 wt. % tin. However the most important property of the baroque tin amalgam mirrors is a relative low reflectivity of about 59% which is drastically lower than for silver mirrors with a reflectivity of about 96%. According to the characterisation results a suitable glass for reconstruction was selected. The mirror layers were produced by historical tin amalgam technology for the rooms not destroyed by bombarding of Dresden in February 1945. For the completely destroyed Jewel Room pure tin layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The results show that this new technology enables an adequate substitute for the original tin amalgam layers.

  4. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a...

  5. Heteroepitaxial growth of TiN film on MgO (100) by reactive magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Chun; Peng, Chun-Yen; Chang, Li

    2014-01-01

    TiN thin films were deposited on MgO (100) substrates at different substrate temperatures using rf sputtering with Ar/N2 ratio of about 10. At 700°C, the growth rate of TiN was approximately 0.05 μm/h. The structural and electrical properties of TiN thin films were characterized with x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Hall measurements. For all deposition conditions, XRD results show that the TiN films can be in an epitaxy with MgO with cube-on-cube orientation relationship of (001)TiN // (001)MgO and [100]TiN // [100]MgO. TEM with selected-area electron diffraction pattern verifies the epitaxial growth of the TiN films on MgO. SEM and AFM show that the surface of the TiN film is very smooth with roughness approximately 0.26 nm. The minimum resistivity of the films can be as low as 45 μΩ cm.

  6. Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite prepared by sol-gel route using simple precursors: structural and optical studies by DRS, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mardani, Maryam

    2015-02-25

    Binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using simple precursors from the solutions consisting of zinc acetate, tin(IV) chloride and ethanol. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and structural properties was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD results revealed the existence of the ZnO and SnO2 phases. FESEM results showed that binary zinc tin oxide nano-composites ranges from 56 to 60 nm in diameter at 400°C and 500°C annealing temperatures respectively. The optical band gap was increased from 2.72 eV to 3.11 eV with the increasing of the annealing temperature. FTIR results confirmed the presence of zinc oxide and tin oxide and the broad absorption peaks at 3426 and 1602 cm(-1) can be ascribed to the vibration of absorptive water, and the absorption peaks at 546, 1038 and 1410 cm(-1) are due to the vibration of Zn-O or Sn-O groups in binary zinc tin oxide.

  7. Ionization potentials of transparent conductive indium tin oxide films covered with a single layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticles grown by spray pyrolysis deposition

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited with single layers of monodispersive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nanoparticles of several nanometers in size were grown on glass substrates by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using conventional atomizers. These films have significantly higher ionization potentials than the bare ITO and FTO films grown using the same technique. The ITO films covered with FTO particles of 7 nm in average size show an ionization potential of 5.01 eV, as compared ...

  8. Electron-Beam Induced Transformations of Layered Tin Dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, E; Huang, Y; Komsa, H-P; Ghorbani-Asl, M; Krasheninnikov, A V; Sutter, P

    2016-07-13

    By combining high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and associated analytical methods with first-principles calculations, we study the behavior of layered tin dichalcogenides under electron beam irradiation. We demonstrate that the controllable removal of chalcogen atoms due to electron irradiation, at both room and elevated temperatures, gives rise to transformations in the atomic structure of Sn-S and Sn-Se systems so that new phases with different properties can be induced. In particular, rhombohedral layered SnS2 and SnSe2 can be transformed via electron beam induced loss of chalcogen atoms into highly anisotropic orthorhombic layered SnS and SnSe. A striking dependence of the layer orientation of the resulting SnS-parallel to the layers of ultrathin SnS2 starting material, but slanted for transformations of thicker few-layer SnS2-is rationalized by a transformation pathway in which vacancies group into ordered S-vacancy lines, which convert via a Sn2S3 intermediate to SnS. Absence of a stable Sn2Se3 intermediate precludes this pathway for the selenides, hence SnSe2 always transforms into basal plane oriented SnSe. Our results provide microscopic insights into the transformation mechanism and show how irradiation can be used to tune the properties of layered tin chalcogenides for applications in electronics, catalysis, or energy storage.

  9. Tin-porphyrin-assisted formation of coordination frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titi, Hatem M.

    2016-09-01

    Novel 3D networks synthesized by two different methods are reported in this article. Structure 1 {[CdL2]·(solvent)}n consists of CdII-single metallic nodes held together by coordinated isonicotinate ligands (L) to form a 3D chiral framework (P41212). The resulting structure exhibits threefold-interpenetrated dia coordination networks. After a few weeks the crystals were re-measured to form 1a {[Cd(L)2(H2O)]·DMF}n with two interpenetrated dia nets which is thermodynamically more stable. On the other hand, the addition of the tin(IV)-porphyrin to the same reaction mixture led to the formation of 3D pseudo-isostructures, based on oxo-centered CdII and MnII/III cluster nodes, 2 {[Cd3(OH)L4(H2O)3](ClO4)}n and 3 {[Mn3(O)L4(DMF)3](ClO4)}n. These structures represent topologically bcg nets. Possible synthetic mechanism was proposed to emphasize the role of the tin(IV)-porphyrin that led to the construction of oxo-centered trinuclear clusters in 2 and 3.

  10. Preparation and characterisation of tin dioxide electrocatalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tountian, C.D.; Poillerat, G.; Nkeng, P. [Laboratoire d' electrochimie et de chimie physique de corps solide, Strasbourg (France); Menard, H. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. de Chimie, Centre de Recherche en Electrochimie et Electrocatalyse

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted in which tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) was used as a support for electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH). This support then became a conductor by doping. The electrocatalysts used in this study were palladium (Pb) nanoparticles. Tin dioxide is an n-type semiconductor used in many applications such as solar cells, crystals displays, electrochromic devices, gas sensor and electrode material for electrooxidation of organic or inorganic pollutants in wastewaters. It is chemically stable and has good mechanical strength. The electrocatalyst SnO{sub 2}-based powders were synthesised using a sol-gel technique in order to obtain electrocatalysts in which Pd was in a metallic form. This paper described the preparation of the electrocatalysts of SnO{sub 2} by the polymeric precursor decomposition method. The electrocatalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron micrography (SEM) along with electrical studies in order to determine their physical proprieties before their use for ECH of phenol and cyclohexanol. The hydrogenation of phenol and cyclohexanol used as a model system was carried out in a dynamic cell in which the electrocatalyst composite powder was in continuous contact with a porous disc of reticulated vitreous carbon cathode. This study revealed that the use of these electrocatalysts is a promising new path because SnO{sub 2} obtained is thermodynamically stable.10 refs., 2 figs.

  11. The nature of paramagnetic defects in tin (IV) oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanovskaya, M., E-mail: ivanovskaya@bsu.by [Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems, Belarusian State University, Leningradskaya Str., 14, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Ovodok, E., E-mail: ovodokea@gmail.com [Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems, Belarusian State University, Leningradskaya Str., 14, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Golovanov, V. [South-Ukrainian University, Staroportofrankovskaya Str., 26, 65008 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2015-08-18

    Highlights: • EPR signal at g = 1.8–1.9 (D) was studied in SnO{sub 2} prepared under different conditions. • Conditions appropriate for detection of D signal and parameters of them were defined. • Structure of paramagnetic center (PC) attributed to the D signal was proposed. • The PC is a complex of oxygen vacancies with entrapped electrons near SnO{sub 2} surface. - Abstract: The nature of paramagnetic centers which are responsible for the EPR signal at g = 1.8–1.9 in tin (IV) oxide was studied. Polycrystalline SnO{sub 2} samples were obtained by sol–gel method and by thermal treatment of the precursors containing tin atoms in different oxidation states. The parameters of the EPR spectra recorded after heat treatment of the samples in air, oxygen and hydrogen atmospheres, and in vacuum were analyzed. The observed parameters of the EPR spectra do not allow to assign the paramagnetic center with g = 1.8–1.9 to Sn{sup 3+} center. The structure of the paramagnetic center attributed to the EPR signal at g = 1.8–1.9 was proposed. The proposed structure of the paramagnetic center includes a complex of oxygen vacancies at (1 0 1) plane of rutile-type SnO{sub 2} lattice.

  12. Acidic leaching of copper and tin from used consumer equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orac D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on studying thermal pretreatment and leaching of copper and tin from printed circuit boards (PCBs from used consumer equipment. Thermal treatment experiments were realized with and without presence of oxygen at 300°C, 500°C, 700°C and 900°C for 30 minutes. Leaching experiments were performed at 80°C in 2M HCl in two stages. The first stage consisted of classic leaching experiments of samples without and after thermal treatment. The second stage consisted of oxidative leaching experiments (blowing of air or oxygen with the aim to intensify metals leaching. The results of thermal treatment experiments show that maximal mass loss after burning (combustion was 53 % (700°C and after pyrolysis 47 % (900 %. Oxidative leaching resulted in complete dissolution of copper and tin after 60. or 90 minutes of thermally treated samples. Pyrolysis and combustion have positive effects on metals dissolution in comparison with samples without thermal pretreatment. Moreover, the dissolution of metals is more effective and needs shorter leaching time.

  13. Effects of heteroatoms and nanosize on tin-based electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Ricardo; Ortiz, Gregorio; Rodríguez, Inés; Tirado, José L.

    Tin-based intermetallic compounds of different compositions and with micro and nano-sized particles are studied as electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Crystalline microsized particles of CoSn x are obtained at high temperatures, while crystalline nano-sized particles are obtained at low-temperature following a one-pot method which is based on TEG solvent and reduction with NaBH 4. The observed capacities of CoSn x compounds in lithium test cells depend on the tin content, electrochemical cycling conditions and crystallite size. The change of the 119Sn Mössbauer isomer shift upon the electrochemical reaction with lithium is more limited for the intermetallic compounds CoSn x than for pure Sn. Nano-sized CoSn x materials show superior specific capacity than microsized CoSn x powders. The maximum observed reversible capacity of nano-Co 3Sn 2 is equal to 544 m Ah g -1 in the first cycle, while 413 m Ah g -1 were observed for nano-CoSn.

  14. Recent direct reaction experimental studies with radioactive tin beams

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, K L; Allmond, J M; Ayres, A; Bardayan, D W; Baugher, T; Bazin, D; Berryman, J S; Bey, A; Bingham, C; Cartegni, L; Cerizza, G; Chae, K Y; Cizewski, J A; Gade, A; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Garcia-Ruiz, R F; Grzywacz, R; Howard, M E; Kozub, R L; Liang, J F; Manning, B; Matos, M; McDaniel, S; Miller, D; Nesaraja, C D; O'Malley, P D; Padgett, S; Padilla-Rodal, E; Pain, S D; Pittman, S T; Radford, D C; Ratkiewicz, A; Schmitt, K T; Shore, A; Smith, M S; Stracener, D W; Stroberg, S R; Tostevin, J; Varner, R L; Weisshaar, D; Wimmer, K; Winkler, R

    2015-01-01

    Direct reaction techniques are powerful tools to study the single-particle nature of nuclei. Performing direct reactions on short-lived nuclei requires radioactive ion beams produced either via fragmentation or the Isotope Separation OnLine (ISOL) method. Some of the most interesting regions to study with direct reactions are close to the magic numbers where changes in shell structure can be tracked. These changes can impact the final abundances of explosive nucleosynthesis. The structure of the chain of tin isotopes is strongly influenced by the Z=50 proton shell closure, as well as the neutron shell closures lying in the neutron-rich, N=82, and neutron-deficient, N=50, regions. Here we present two examples of direct reactions on exotic tin isotopes. The first uses a one-neutron transfer reaction and a low-energy reaccelerated ISOL beam to study states in 131Sn from across the N=82 shell closure. The second example utilizes a one-neutron knockout reaction on fragmentation beams of neutron-deficient 106,108Sn...

  15. The interstellar abundances of tin and four other heavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, L. M.; Welty, D. E.; Morton, D. C.; Spitzer, L.; York, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    Spectra recorded at 1150-1600 A with an instrumental resolution near 16 km/s were obtained with the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph on board the HST. The gaseous interstellar abundances of five heavy elements along the light paths to 23 Ori, 15 Mon, 1 Sco, Pi Sco, and Pi Aqr were determined from the observations. The 1400.450 A line of Sn II was detected and identified toward three stars; at Z = 50, tin is the first element from the fifth row of the periodic table to be identified in the interstellar medium. One spectral line of each of Cu II (Z = 29) and Ga II (Z = 31), three lines of Ge II (Z = 32), and two lines of Kr I (Z = 36) were also detected toward some or all of the five stars. The depletions of these five heavy elements generally decrease monotonically with increasing atomic number toward each of the six stars, and tin is generally undepleted within the observational errors. The depletions of 26 elements from the interstellar gas in an average dense interstellar cloud appear to correlate with the elemental 'nebular' condensation temperatures more closely than with the first ionization potentials.

  16. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  17. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  18. Black hole clustering and duty cycles in the Illustris simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraf, C.; Sijacki, D.

    2017-04-01

    We use the high-resolution cosmological simulation Illustris to investigate the clustering of supermassive black holes across cosmic time, the link between black hole clustering and host halo masses, and the implications for black hole duty cycles. Our predicted black hole correlation length and bias match the observational data very well across the full redshift range probed. Black hole clustering is strongly luminosity dependent on small, 1-halo scales, with some moderate dependence on larger scales of a few Mpc at intermediate redshifts. We find black hole clustering to evolve only weakly with redshift, initially following the behaviour of their hosts. However, below z ∼ 2 black hole clustering increases faster than that of their hosts, which leads to a significant overestimate of the clustering-predicted host halo mass. The full distribution of host halo masses is very wide, including a low-mass tail extending up to an order of magnitude below the naive prediction for minimum host mass. Our black hole duty cycles, fduty, follow a power-law dependence on black hole mass and decrease with redshift, and we provide accurate analytic fits to these. The increase in clustering amplitude at late times, however, means that duty cycle estimates based on black hole clustering can overestimate fduty substantially, by more than two orders of magnitude. We find the best agreement when the minimum host mass is assumed to be 1011.2 M⊙, which provides an accurate measure across all redshifts and luminosity ranges probed by our simulation.

  19. Effects on stress rupture life and tensile strength of tin additions to Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Johnson, W.

    1982-01-01

    Because Inconel 718 represents a major use of columbium and a large potential source of columbium for aerospace alloys could be that of columbium derived from tin slags, the effects of tin additions to Inconel 718 at levels which might be typical of or exceed those anticipated if tin slag derived columbium were used as a melting stock were investigated. Tin was added to 15 pound Inconel 718 heats at levels varying from none added to approximately 10,000 ppm (1 wt%). Limited 1200 F stress rupture testing was performed at stresses from 68,000 to 115,000 psi and a few tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 800 and 1200 F. Additions of tin in excess of 800 ppm were detrimental to ductility and stress rupture life.

  20. Solidification Structure Refining of 430 Ferrite Stainless Steel With TiN Nucleation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Cai-xia; CHENG Guo-guang; LI Zhan-jun; ZHAO Pei

    2008-01-01

    The thermodynamics of TiN precipitation in liquid steel of 430 ferrite stainless steel has been calculated to find out the condition of TiN precipitation during the initial solidification stage. The difference in the solidification structure of 430 ferrite stainless steel has been discussed through comparative tests of vacuum induction furnace melt-ing with different contents of Ti. It has been found that the equiaxed grain proportion can be increased from 20% to 69% as the content of Ti from 0.1% up to 0.4%. The size of the TiN particles precipitated is 1--3 μm and the number of TiN particles is about (200--300)/μm2. It is found that the effect of using TiN to refine the solidification structure has been confirmed under the strict process condition used for 430 ferrite stainless steel.

  1. Assessment of organotin and tin-free antifouling paints contamination in the Korean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Ri-Nae; Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Minkyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2015-10-15

    Twelve organotins (methyl-, octyl-, butyl-, and phenyl-tin), and eight tin-free antifouling paints and their degradation products were measured in marine sediments from the Korean coastal area, and Busan and Ulsan bays, the largest harbor area in Korea. The total concentration of tin-free antifouling paints was two- to threefold higher than the total concentration of organotins. Principal component analysis was used to identify sites with relatively high levels of contamination in the inner bay area of Busan and Ulsan bays, which were separated from the coastal area. In Busan and Ulsan bays, chlorothalonil and DMSA were more dominant than in the coastal area. However, Sea-Nine 211 and total diurons, including their degradation products, were generally dominant in the Korean coastal area. The concentrations of tin and tin-free compounds were significantly different between the east and west coasts.

  2. Comparison of radioactive tracer tin colloid and phytate for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masato; Nagashima, Takashi; Kasagawa, Takahiro; Sakakibara, Masahiro; Oshida, Keiko; Sangai, Takafumi; Nakano, S.; Miyazaki, Masaru [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-10-01

    Eighty-four consecutive sentinel node biopsies were performed using dye and radioactive tracer (tin colloid for 42 tumors and phytate for 42 tumors). They had subdermal injection on the morning of surgery or the afternoon before surgery. Maximum RI count of each sentinel node was recorded and classified {<=}5 counts per second (cps), 5-20, or 20<. In injection on the afternoon before surgery, 19 tumors had {<=}5 cps and 2 had 20 cps< in 24 of tin colloid, whereas 1 had {<=}5 cps and 18 had 20 cps< in 22 of phytate. In injection on the morning of surgery, 9 had {<=}5 and 20 had 20< in 18 of tin colloid, whereas 1 had {<=}5 and 18 had 20< in 20 of phytate. The injection of phytate tended to have higher RI count than tin colloid. Phytate is superior to tin colloid for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. (author)

  3. Numerical Simulation of Wave Propagation and Phase Transition of Tin under Shock-Wave Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hai-Feng; LIU Hai-Feng; ZHANG Guang-Cai; ZHAO Yan-Song

    2009-01-01

    We undertake a numerical simulation of shock experiments on tin reported in the literature,by using a multiphase equation of state (MEOS) and a multiphase Steinberg Guinan (MSG) constitutive model for tin in the β,γ and liquid phases.In the MSG model,the Bauschinger effect is considered to better describe the unloading behavior.The phase diagram and Hugoniot of tin are calculated by MEOS,and they agree well with the experimental data.Combined with the MEOS and MSG models,hydrodynamic computer simulations are successful in reproducing the measured velocity profile of the shock wave experiment.Moreover,by analyzing the mass fraction contour as well as stress and temperature profiles of each phase for tin,we further discuss the complex behavior of tin under shock-wave loading.

  4. Algorithm of Producing and Storing TIN%TIN的生成和存储算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易法令; 郑晓颖

    2001-01-01

    TIN is basis of many kinds of surface analysing in GIS.The paper presents a effective algorithm of producing and storing TIN through analysing data structure of TIN on ARC/INFO system. Comparing the same algorithm of ARC/INFO system,the algorithm has mainly two characteristics: (1)speeding producing TIN;(2)reducing redundant data.%TIN是GIS中进行各种表面分析的基础。本文通过分析ARC/INFO系统中TIN的数据结构,提出了一种效率较高的TIN的生成和存储算法。该算法与ARC/INFO系统对应的算法相比主要有两个优点:(1)加快了生成TIN 的速度;(2)减少了数据冗余。

  5. NASA GSFC Tin Whisker Homepage http://nepp.nasa.gov/whisker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry

    2000-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Tin Whisker Homepage provides general information and GSFC Code 562 experimentation results regarding the well known phenomenon of tin whisker formation from pure tin plated substrates. The objective of this www site is to provide a central repository for information pertaining to this phenomenon and to provide status of the GSFC experiments to understand the behavior of tin whiskers in space environments. The Tin Whisker www site is produced by Code 562. This www site does not provide information pertaining to patented or proprietary information. All of the information contained in this www site is at the level of that produced by industry and university researchers and is published at international conferences.

  6. Fretting damage behavior and mechanism of tin coated zircaloy-4 tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-HyungKim; Ji-HyunSung; Seock-SamKim

    2001-01-01

    The fretting characteristics of TiN coated Zircaloy-4 tube were investigated experimen-tally. The fretting experiment was performed using TIN coated Zircaloy-4 tube as the fuel rod clad-ding material and uncoated Zircaloy-4 tube as one of grids. TIN coating is probably one of the mostfrequently and successfully used PVD coatings for the mitigation of fretting. In this study, TiN coat-ing by PVD was employed for improvement of Zircaloy-4 tube fretting characteristics. The frettingtester was designed and manufactured for this experiment. The number of cycles, slip amplitudeand normal load were selected as main factors of fretting. The results of this research showed thatthe wear volume of TiN coated Zircaloy-4 tube increased as number of cycles, normal load andslip amplitude increase but the quantity of volume was lower than the case of uncoated Zircaloy-4tube pairs.

  7. Black Branes as Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A

    2012-01-01

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  8. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  9. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  10. Asymptotic Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  11. Asymptotic black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  12. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carlip, S

    2014-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1970s that black holes radiate as black bodies has radically affected our understanding of general relativity, and offered us some early hints about the nature of quantum gravity. In this chapter I will review the discovery of black hole thermodynamics and summarize the many independent ways of obtaining the thermodynamic and (perhaps) statistical mechanical properties of black holes. I will then describe some of the remaining puzzles, including the nature of the quantum microstates, the problem of universality, and the information loss paradox.

  13. Site distortions created by the stereoactive lone pair of Tin(II) in highly symmetric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénès, Georges; Madamba, M. Cecilia; Merazig, Hocine; Muntasar, Abdualhafed; Zhu, Zhimeng

    2016-10-01

    Several fluoride compounds containing divalent tin that have a fluorite (CaF2-type) unit cell have been prepared and studied. Some are stoichiometric compounds while others are solid solutions. The cubic symmetry of the unit-cell (no lattice distortion and no superstructure) and the unique metal ion site of the fluorite structure make it that tin and the other metal have to be disordered on the normal metal site of the fluorite unit-cell. However, that site has the m3m-Oh point symmetry, and the metal ion is located in the center of a cube having fluoride ions in all its corners. Therefore, the same coordination should apply to tin. However, tin(II) possesses a non-bonding pair of electrons called a "lone pair", and in order for tin(II) to have a cubic symmetry, its lone pair has to be located on the unhybridized 5s orbital, that is spherical and thus does not distort the coordination. In such a case, the lone pair is said to be "non-stereoactive". This would make tin present in the form of the Sn2+ stannous ion, and therefore Sn-F bonding must be ionic. However, tin(II) fluorides are known to be always covalent with a hybridized lone pair on tin, which has therefore a reduced coordination number and therefore a highly distorted polyhedron of coordination. Such a hybridized lone pair is said to be "stereoactive". Tin-119 Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to probe the bonding type and it showed that bonding is covalent, the lone pair is hybridized and the tin coordination is dramatically distorted. A model based on a double disorder was made that accounts for the apparent contradiction between the crystallographic and the Mössbauer results.

  14. Stress analysis and microstructure of PVD monolayer TiN and multilayer TiN/(Ti,Al)N coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, NJM; Zoestbergen, E; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    Two PVD titanium nitride based coatings; monolayer TiN and multilayer resulting from the stacking of TiN and (Ti,Al)N layers were evaluated with respect to their stress state and microstructure. The TiN was deposited by triode evaporation ion plating, whereas the TiN/(Ti,AI)N was deposited using a r

  15. 76 FR 60001 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan; Final Results of the Second Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan; Final Results of the Second Expedited...) initiated the second sunset review of the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan... duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act....

  16. Influence of thermal treatment in N{sub 2} atmosphere on chemical, microstructural and optical properties of indium tin oxide and nitrogen doped indium tin oxide rf-sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroescu, H.; Anastasescu, M.; Preda, S.; Nicolescu, M.; Stoica, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Stefan, N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, RO-77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kampylafka, V.; Aperathitis, E. [FORTH-IESL, Crete (Greece); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Zaharescu, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Gartner, M., E-mail: mgartner@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-31

    We report the influence of the normal thermal treatment (TT) and of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) and nitrogen doped indium tin oxide (ITO:N) thin films. The TT was carried out for 1 h at 400 °C and the RTA for 1 min up to 400 °C, both in N{sub 2} atmosphere. The ITO and ITO:N films were deposited by reactive sputtering in Argon, and respectively Nitrogen plasma, on Si with (100) and (111) orientation. The present study brings data about the microstructural and optical properties of ITO thin films with thicknesses around 300–400 nm. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis showed the formation of continuous and homogeneous films, fully covered by quasi-spherical shaped particles, with higher roughness values on Si(100) as compared to Si(111). Spectroscopic ellipsometry allowed the determination of film thickness, optical band gap as well as of the dispersion curves of n and k optical constants. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of diffraction peaks corresponding to the same nominal bulk composition of ITO, but with different intensities and preferential orientation depending on the substrate, atmosphere of deposition and type of thermal treatment. - Highlights: ► Stability of the films can be monitored by experimental ellipsometric spectra. ► The refractive index of indium tin oxide film on 0.3–30 μm range is reported. ► Si(100) substrate induces rougher film surfaces than Si(111). ► Rapid thermal annealing and normal thermal treatment lead to stable conductive film. ► The samples have a higher preferential orientation after rapid thermal annealing.

  17. Analysis of mercury, selenium, and tin concentrations in canned fish marketed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S V; Aflaki, F; Sobhanardakani, S; Tayebi, L; Lashkan, A Babakhani; Regenstein, J M

    2013-08-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment could constitute a hazard to food security and public health. These can be accumulated in aquatic animals such as fish. In the present paper, three heavy metals (mercury, selenium, and tin) in canned products produced and sold in Iran were studied: longtail tuna, Kawakawa, Kilka, and yellowfin tuna were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and a direct mercury analyzer. Analytical results were validated by spiking the samples with various concentrations of these metals to test recovery. The metal contents, expressed in micrograms per gram, wet weight, varied depending upon the species studied. The levels of Hg ranged from 0.0003 to 0.408 μg/g, the levels of Sn ranged from 0.036 to 0.480 μg/g, while the levels of Se ranged from 0.130 to 4.500 μg/g. Comparative evaluation of these metals in different brands of canned fish showed that the average concentrations of Hg, Sn, and Se of all species is significantly lower than adverse level for the species themselves and for human consumption when compared with FAO/WHO permissible limits. Therefore, their contribution to the total body burden of these heavy metals can be considered as negligibly small.

  18. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-04-29

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  19. Surface tension and its temperature coefficient of molten tin determined with the sessile drop method at different oxygen partial pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhang Fu; Mukai, Kusuhiro; Takagi, Katsuhiko; Ohtaka, Masahiko; Huang, Wen Lai; Liu, Qiu Sheng

    2002-10-15

    The surface tension of molten tin has been determined by the sessile drop method at temperatures ranging from 523 to 1033 K and in the oxygen partial pressure (P(O(2))) range from 2.85 x 10(-19) to 8.56 x 10(-6) MPa, and its dependence on temperature and oxygen partial pressure has been analyzed. At P(O(2))=2.85 x 10(-19) and 1.06 x 10(-15) MPa, the surface tension decreases linearly with the increase of temperature and its temperature coefficients are -0.151 and -0.094 mN m(-1) K(-1), respectively. However, at high P(O(2)) (3.17 x 10(-10), 8.56 x 10(-6) MPa), the surface tension increases with the temperature near the melting point (505 K) and decreases above 723 K. The surface tension decrease with increasing P(O(2)) is much larger near the melting point than at temperatures above 823 K. The contact angle between the molten tin and the alumina substrate is 158-173 degrees, and the wettability is poor.

  20. A HIgh Current Density Low Cost Niobium 3 Tin Titanium Doped Conductor Utilizing A Novel Internal Tin Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A Zeitlin

    2005-02-23

    An internal tin conductor has been developed using a Mono Element Internal Tin (MEIT) with an integral Nb barrier surrounding the Nb filaments. High current densities of 3000 A/mm2+ at 12 T and 1800 A/mm2 at 15 T have been achieved in conductors as small as 0.152 mm with the use of Nb7.5Ta filaments and Ti in the Sn core. In contrast, conductors with pure Nb and Ti in the Sn achieved 2700 A/mm2 at 12 T. Two internal fins, developed and patented on the project, were introduced into the filament array and reduced the effective filament diameter (Deff) by 38%. Additional fins will further reduce Deff The conductor was produced from 152.4 mm diameter billets to produce wire as small as 0.152 mm. The process promises be scaleable to 304 mm diameter billets yielding wire of 0.304 mm diameter. The MEIT process wire was easy to draw with relatively few breaks. The cost of this conductor in large production quantities based on the cost model presented could meet the 1.5 $/kilo amp meter(KAM) target of the HEP community

  1. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy to choose the sites that can be occupied by divalent tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénès, Georges; Merazig, Hocine; Muntasar, Abdualhafed

    2014-04-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy can be a useful structural tool to assist crystallographic methods for site assignment when the compound under investigation contains divalent tin. The goal of this work was to show that the structure of tin(II) fluoride, also know as stannous fluoride, SnF2, could have been solved 14 years earlier if Mössbauer spectroscopic results, already known, had been used. A first attempt to solve the crystal structure, carried out by Bergerhoff in 1962 seemed to find the tin positions, however, it failed to find the positions of fluorine. Further extensive studies by Dénès et al. in the mid 1970s yielded the same results as those of Bergerhoff, despite the use of a Nonius CAD-4 automatic diffractometer, in contrast with Bergerhoff's film work. The tin positions yielded a residual of 0.23, and Fourier difference maps showed significant electron density that could be fluorine atoms, however, their number did not match the number of fluorine atoms expected and several F-F distances were way too short. In addition, refinement using these possible fluorine positions led to no improvement of the residual factor. Finally, the crystal structure was published by McDonald et al. in 1976. It was found that the tin sublattice determined by Bergerhoff was basically correct, except that half of the tin atoms found by Bergerhoff to be on the (4b) and (4e) special Wyckoff sites were actually on the (8f) general site. A translation of the origin of the unit-cell by the [1/8, 0, 3/16] vector allows to change the tin Wyckoff sites from (4b), (4e) and (8f) to two (8f) sites, while keeping the basic spatial distribution of tin. A method has now been designed, using 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy, to test the suitability of some Wyckoff sites for divalent tin, using the Mössbauer spectrum. The tin(II) doublet ( δ = 3.430(3) mm/s, Δ = 1.532(3) mm/s) shows that the lone pair is on a hybrid orbital, therefore, it is stereoactive, and it results that tin cannot be on

  2. Defect Engineering and Interface Phenomena in Tin Oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Albar, Arwa

    2017-04-05

    The advance in transparent electronics requires high-performance transparent conducting oxide materials. The microscopic properties of these materials are sensitive to the presence of defects and interfaces and thus fundamental understanding is required for materials engineering. In this thesis, first principles density functional theory is used to investigate the possibility of tuning the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of tin oxide by means of defects and interfaces. Our aim is to reveal unique properties and the parameters to control them as well as to explain the origin of unique phenomena in oxide materials. The stability of native defect in tin monoxide (SnO) under strain is investigated using formation energy calculations. We find that the conductivity (which is controlled by native defects) can be switched from p-type to either n-type or undoped semiconducting by means of applied pressure. We then target inducing magnetism in SnO by 3d transition metal doping. We propose that V doping is efficient to realize spin polarization at high temperature. We discuss different tin oxide interfaces. Metallic states are found to form at the SnO/SnO2 interface with electronic properties that depend on the interface terminations. The origin of these states is explained in terms of charge transfer caused by chemical bonding and band alignment. For the SnO/SnO2 heterostructure, we observe the formation of a two dimensional hole gas at the interface, which is surprising as it cannot be explained by the standard polar catastrophe model. Thus, we propose a charge density discontinuity model to explain our results. The model can be generalized to other polar-polar interfaces. Motivated by technological applications, the electronic and structural properties of the MgO (100)/SnO2 (110) interface are investigated. Depending on the interface termination, we observe the formation of a two dimensional electron gas or spin polarized hole gas. Aiming to identify further

  3. Adulteration and its detection of black raspberry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have continually researched improvements for commercially available cultivars of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap). During the past decade, we have analyzed fruit from over 1,000 black raspberry genotypes and cultivars, and found that the anthocyanin content to ranged from 39 to 9...

  4. Arbitrators, Blacks and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Kenneth

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of the handling of disciplinary problems of black employees concludes that management should be concerned because of the effect that grievance resolution may have on the company's overall employee discipline program and the additional appeal alternatives available to the black employee. (Author/EA)

  5. Perturbing supersymmetric black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Onozawa, H; Mishima, T; Ishihara, H; Onozawa, Hisashi; Okamura, Takashi; Mishima, Takashi; Ishihara, Hideki

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in the N=2 supergravity is presented. In the extreme case, the black hole responds to the perturbation of each field in the same manner. This is possibly because we can match the modes of the graviton, gravitino, and photon using supersymmetry transformations.

  6. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  7. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  8. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  9. Blacks and Trade Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, focuses on two issues: (1) the effect of the presence of trade unionism on the position of black workers in the labor market relative to white workers; and (2) the effect of federal government efforts to increase the position of black workers…

  10. Fifty shades of black

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2015-11-01

    Creating dark materials that prevent reflections has become hot competition recently, with Guinness World Records having to keep revising the darkest substance yet created. But depending on who's asking, the best black may not be the blackest black, as Jon Cartwright discovers.

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of channel black in small arms propellants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, M; Norwitz, G

    1967-05-01

    A spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of Channel Black in small arms propellants. The Channel Black is separated from the nitrocellulose and other organic compounds by dissolution of the propellant in morpholine and filtration through a sintered porcelain crucible containing an asbestos mat. The Channel Black is then dissolved by treating the mat and crucible with boiling nitric acid for 3 hr, the solution is filtered, and the yellow colour is measured. The colour is due to polycarboxylic acids with cyclic nuclei. The range of the method is from 0 to 0.5% of Channel Black.

  12. Cosmological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Stornaiolo, C

    2002-01-01

    In this letter we propose the existence of low density black holes and discuss its compatibility with the cosmological observations. The origin of these black holes can be traced back to the collapse of long wavelength cosmological perturbations during the matter dominated era, when the densities are low enough to neglect any internal and thermal pressure. By introducing a threshold density $\\hat{\\rho}$ above which pressure and non-gravitational interactions become effective, we find the highest wavelength for the perturbations that can reach an equilibrium state instead of collapsing to a black hole. The low density black holes introduced here, if they exist, can be observed through weak and strong gravitational lensing effects. Finally we observe that we obtained here a cosmological model which is capable to explain in a qualitative way the void formation together with the value $\\Omega=1$. But we remark that it needs to be improved by considering non spherical symmetric black holes.

  13. Primordial Black Hole Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, D; Turok, N G; Baumann, Daniel; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2007-01-01

    We reconsider the possibility that the observed baryon asymmetry was generated by the evaporation of primordial black holes that dominated the early universe. We present a simple derivation showing that the baryon asymmetry is insensitive to the initial black hole density and the cosmological model but is sensitive to the temperature-dependence of the CP and baryon-violating (or lepton-violating) interactions. We also consider the possibility that black holes stop evaporating and form Planck-mass remnants that act as dark matter. We show that primordial black holes cannot simultaneously account for both the observed baryon asymmetry and the (remnant) dark matter density unless the magnitude of CP violation is much greater than expected from most particle physics models. Finally, we apply these results to ekpyrotic/cyclic models, in which primordial black holes may form when branes collide. We find that obtaining the observed baryon asymmetry is compatible with the other known constraints on parameters.

  14. Lifshitz Topological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, R B

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  15. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Calculation of tin atomic data and plasma properties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, V.; Tolkach, V.; Hassanein, A.

    2005-08-26

    This report reviews the major methods and techniques we use in generating basic atomic and plasma properties relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography applications. The basis of the work is the calculation of the atomic energy levels, transitions probabilities, and other atomic data by various methods, which differ in accuracy, completeness, and complication. Later on, we calculate the populations of atomic levels and ion states in plasmas by means of the collision-radiation equilibrium (CRE) model. The results of the CRE model are used as input to the thermodynamic functions, such as pressure and temperature from the internal energy and density (equation of state), electric resistance, thermal conduction, and other plasma properties. In addition, optical coefficients, such as emission and absorption coefficients, are generated to resolve a radiation transport equation (RTE). The capabilities of our approach are demonstrated by generating the required atomic and plasma properties for tin ions and plasma within the EUV region near 13.5 nm.

  17. New doped tin dioxide electrodes for electrochemical ozone generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.H.; Li, G.; Liang, Y.R.; Nie, Z.Z.; Chen, Q.Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Xi' an (China). State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow, Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In this study, nickel (Ni) and antimony (Sb) doped tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) were prepared using a dip-coating pyrolysis method. The sol-gel dip coating method was used to prepare the Ni-Sb-SnO{sub 2} electrode. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were conducted to compare the morphology, crystallinity, composition and oxidation states achieved using the 2 different preparation methods. Results of the evaluation showed that electrodes prepared by the sol-gel method were much different than those prepared using the dip-coating pyrolysis method. Silver (Ag) and cerium (Ce) were doped onto the Ni and Sb doped SnO{sub 2}, and the relations between electrode properties and performance were investigated. Results demonstrated that Ag and Ce doping significantly improved electrode performance. The sol-gel dip coating method also significantly improved electrode performance. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Indium Tin Oxide-Polyaniline Biosensor: Fabrication and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Grooms

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel indium tin oxide (ITO-polyaniline (Pani biosensor wasdesigned, fabricated, and characterized. Initial testing was conducted for the detection ofbovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV. The biosensor design was based upon the specific natureof antibodies to capture the target virus, and the conductive properties of self-doped Pani totranslate the antibody-antigen binding into a quantifying signal. The first part of the study wasto assess the feasibility of the self-doped Pani to be incorporated into the biosensor design byevaluating its several parameters, such as conductivity, physical structure, thermogravimetricproperties, and antibody-binding properties. The second part of the paper highlights thefabrication of the ITO-Pani biosensor to detect the presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus(BVDV in pure culture. Although only BVDV culture was tested in this study, the biosensoris versatile for the detection of other pathogen of interest by changing the specificity of theantibodies.

  19. Growth of lead-tin telluride crystals under high gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, L. L.; Turchaninov, A. M.; Shumaev, O. V.; Bandeira, I. N.; An, C. Y.; Rappl, P. H. O.

    1992-04-01

    The influence of high gravity environment on several growth habits of lead-tin telluride crystals began to be investigated. Preliminary experiments with Pb 0.8Sn 0.2te grown by the Bridgman technique had been made at the centrifuge facilities of the Y.A. Gagarin Cosmonauts Center in the USSR, using accelerations of 5 g, 5.2 g and 8 g. The Sn distribution for these crystals was compared with that obtained for growth at normal gravity and the results show the existence of significant compositional inhomogeneities along the axial direction. Convection currents at high gravity seem to help multiple nucleation and subsequent random orientation of growth. Analyses of carrier concentrations as well as morphological characteristics were also made.

  20. Conductivity and thermoelectric properties of nanostructure tin oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Batal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide thin films doped with iron or copper were deposited on glass and porous alumina substrates, using the co-deposition dip coating sol–gel technique. Alumina substrate was prepared by the anodizing technique. Samples were sintered for 2 h at temperature 600 °C. The XRD spectrum of deposited samples shows a polycrystalline structure with a clear characteristic peak of SnO2 cassiterite phase. From (I–V characteristics measured at different temperatures for samples prepared on glass substrates, the density of states at the Fermi level was calculated. Thermoelectric effect was measured with a change of temperature for prepared samples under low pressure 1 mbar. Seebeck coefficient, the carrier concentration, the charge carrier mobility and the figure merit were determined for prepared samples under low pressure 1 mbar. Seebeck coefficient was improved when films were deposited on porous Alumina substrates.

  1. Preparation of Macro-Porous Tin Oxide for Sensing of Sulfur Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, No-Kuk; Lee, Tae Hoon; Sung, Yeon Baek; Kim, Yong Sul; Lee, Tae Jin

    2016-03-01

    Macro-porous tin oxide was prepared as an enhanced sensing material for sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide. Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) was used as a template for the formation of macro-pores. Tin chloride was used as a precursor for the synthesis of tin oxide, and was impregnated over PMMA beads using a rotary vacuum evaporator. The solid Sn/PMMA material was treated thermally for 4 h at 600 degrees C. The porous morphology of tin oxide prepared in this study was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The surface area of this material measured by the nitrogen adsorption method was approximately 56 m2/g. The crystal structure of the porous material analyzed by XRD was a typical structure of tin oxide. The response of macro-porous tin oxide as a chemical gas sensor was measured using an I-V source meter and the change in signal was observed with the repeated injection of hydrogen sulfide and air. The sensing tests for macro-porous tin oxide were carried out at 200 degrees C and the fast response of macro-porous sensing material was also confirmed.

  2. Prevalence\tof\tBRAF\tMutation\tin\tPapillary\tThyroid\tCancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatha Dmour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Papillary\tthyroid\tcancer\t(PTC\tis\tthe\tmost\tcommon\tendocrine\tmalignancy\tand\tthe\tmost\tcommon\tgenetic\tanomaly with\tPTC\tis\tthe\tBRAF\tV600E\tmutation.\tThis\tmutation\tis\tlinked\tto\tmany\tclinical\tand\tpathological\tfeatures\tand\tmay\thave\ta diagnostic\tand\ttherapeutic\trole\tespecially\tin\tthe\tera\tof\ttargeted\ttherapy.\tThe\taim\tof\tthis\tstudy\tis\tto\treview\tthe\tprevalence of BRAF\tV600E\tmutation\tin\tPTC,\tits\tdistribution\taccording\tto\tthe\thistological\tsubtype\tand\tgeographic\tarea\tand\tits\tassociation\twith the\tage\tof\tpatients,\tgender,\tsubtype\tand\trecurrence\tof\ttumors. Methods: The\tPubmed\tdatabase\twas\tsearched\tto\tlook\tfor\tarticles\tabout\tBRAF\tmutation\tin\tPTC.\tOutcomes\tof\tinterest\tincluded prevalence,\tage,\tgender,\tcountry,\tsubtype\tand\trecurrence. Results:\tThe\tprevalence\tof\tBRAF\tV600E\tmutation\tin\tPTC\twas\t47%,\twith\tnoticeably\thigher\tprevalence\tin\tthe\teastern\tcountries. The\tprevalence of\tBRAF\tV600E\twas\talso\thigher\tin\tthe\ttall\tand\tclassic\tsubtypes\tand\tcould\tbe\tassociated\twith\tworse\tprognosis\tand higher\trisk\tof\trecurrence. Conclusions: The\tBRAF\tmutation,\twhich\tis\tmore\tprevalent\tin\tthe\teastern\tcountries,\tis\tdetermined\tto\tbe\tan\timportant\tmolecular marker\tfor\tPTC.

  3. From toothpaste to topological insulators and materials for valleytronics: The journeys of fluorinated tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Lopez, Salvador; Rivero, Pablo; Yan, Jia-An; Garcia-Suarez, Victor Manuel; Ferrer, Jaime

    2015-03-01

    Tin fluoride has a vast literature. This material is stable in bulk form at room temperature and has commercial applications that include fluorinated toothpaste. Bulk tin fluoride has a pair of fluorine atoms bridging two tin atoms. In the recent past the electronic properties of 2D tin with honeycomb structure have been discussed thus generating a wealth of literature that emphasizes its non-topologically-trivial electronic properties due to the combination of a Dirac-like dispersion and a strong spin-orbit coupling given its large atomic mass. Nevertheless the stability of such freestanding structures has been contested recently. As it turns out, the most stable form of fluorinated tin does not possess a graphane-like structure either. In the most stable phase to be discussed here, fluorine atoms tilt away from (graphane-like) positions over/below tin atoms; in an atomistic arrangement similar to the one seen on their parent bulk structure. Electronic properties depend on atomistic coordination, and the most stable form of fluorinated tin does not possess non-trivial topological properties. Nevertheless it represents a new paradigm for valleytronics in 2D.

  4. Modulation of the effective work function of TiN metal gate for PMOS application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Kai; Ma Xueli; Yang Hong; Wang Wenwu

    2013-01-01

    It is important to find a way to modulate the work function of TiN metal gate towards the valence band edge of Si,which can meet the lower threshold voltage requirement of p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor.In this work,effects of TiN thickness,post-deposition annealing (PDA),oxygen incorporation and N concentration variation on the work function of TiN metal gate in MOS structures are systematically investigated.It can be found that the work function positively shifts at the initial stage as the thickness of the TiN layer increases and stabilizes at such a thickness.PDA at N2 ambience with a trace of O2 can also cause a positive shift in the work function of TiN metal gate.The same tendency can be observed when oxygen is incorporated into TiN.Finally,increasing the N concentration in TiN can also positively shift the work function.All these measures are effective in modulating the TiN metal gate so that it is more suitable for PMOS application.

  5. Interfacial Bonding Strength of TiN Film Coated on Si3N4 Ceramic Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The fraction of TiN/Si3N4 in the cross section was observed with scanning electric microscope (SEM), and residual stresses of TiN coated on the surface of Si3N4 ceramic were measured with X-ray diffraction (XRD).The hardness of TiN film was measured, and bonding strength of TiN film coated on Si3N4 substrate was measured by scratching method. The formed mechanism of residual stress and the failure mechanism of the bonding interface in the film were analyzed, and the adhesion mechanism of TiN film was investigated preliminarily. The results show that residual stresses of TiN film are all behaved as compressive stress, and TiN film is represented smoothly with brittle fracture, which is closely bonded with Si3N4 substrate. TiN film has high hardness and bonding strength of about 500 MPa, which could satisfy usage requests of the surface of cutting Si3N4 ceramic.

  6. Hematite Surface Activation by Chemical Addition of Tin Oxide Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Waldemir M; Souza, Flavio L

    2016-09-05

    In this study, the effect of tin (Sn(4+) ) modification on the surface of hematite electrodes synthesized by an aqueous solution route at different times (2, 5, 10, 18, and 24 h) is investigated. As confirmed from X-ray diffraction results, the as-synthesized electrode exhibits an oxyhydroxide phase, which is converted into a pure hematite phase after being subjected to additional thermal treatment at 750 °C for 30 min. The tin-modified hematite electrode is prepared by depositing a solution of Sn(4+) precursor on the as-synthesized electrode, followed by thermal treatment under the same abovementioned conditions. This modification results in an enhancement of the photocurrent response for all hematite electrodes investigated and attains the highest values of around 1.62 and 2.3 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 and 1.4 V versus RHE, respectively, for electrodes obtained in short synthesis times (2 h). Contact angle measurements suggest that the deposition of Sn(4+) on the hematite electrode provides a more hydrophilic surface, which favors a chemical reaction at the interface between the electrode and electrolyte. This result generates new perspectives for understanding the deposition of Sn(4+) on the hematite electrode surface, which is in contrast with several studies previously reported; these studies state that the enhancement in photocurrent density is related to either the induction of an increased donor charge density or shift in the flat-band potential, which favors charge separation.

  7. Electrospun carbon-tin oxide composite nanofibers for use as lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, Christopher A; Ji, Liwen; Lin, Zhan; Toprakci, Ozan; Zhang, Xiangwu; Khan, Saad A

    2011-07-01

    Composite carbon-tin oxide (C-SnO(2)) nanofibers are prepared by two methods and evaluated as anodes in lithium-ion battery half cells. Such an approach complements the long cycle life of carbon with the high lithium storage capacity of tin oxide. In addition, the high surface-to-volume ratio of the nanofibers improves the accessibility for lithium intercalation as compared to graphite-based anodes, while eliminating the need for binders or conductive additives. The composite nanofibrous anodes have first discharge capacities of 788 mAh g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) current density, which are greater than pure carbon nanofiber anodes, as well as the theoretical capacity of graphite (372 mAh g(-1)), the traditional anode material. In the first protocol to fabricate the C-SnO(2) composites, tin sulfate is directly incorporated within polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers by electrospinning. During a thermal treatment the tin salt is converted to tin oxide and the polymer is carbonized, yielding carbon-SnO(2) nanofibers. In the second approach, we soak the nanofiber mats in tin sulfate solutions prior to the final thermal treatment, thereby loading the outer surfaces with SnO(2) nanoparticles and raising the tin content from 1.9 to 8.6 wt %. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses confirm the formation of conversion of tin sulfate to tin oxide. Furthermore, analysis with Raman spectroscopy reveals that the additional salt soak treatment from the second fabrication approach increases in the disorder of the carbon structure, as compared to the first approach. We also discuss the performance of our C-SnO(2) compared with its theoretical capacity and other nanofiber electrode composites previously reported in the literature.

  8. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzillo, Anita T.; Mertig, Angela G.; Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict.

  9. Investigations on structural, elastic, thermodynamic and electronic properties of TiN, Ti2N and Ti3N2 under high pressure by first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruike; Zhu, Chuanshuai; Wei, Qun; Du, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    The lattice parameters, cell volume, elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are calculated at zero pressure, and their values are in excellent agreement with the available data, for TiN, Ti2N and Ti3N2. By using the elastic stability criteria, it is shown that the three structures are all stable. The brittle/ductile behaviors are assessed in the pressures from 0 GPa to 50 GPa. Our calculations present that the performances for TiN, Ti2N and Ti3N2 become from brittle to ductile with pressure rise. The Debye temperature rises as pressure increase. With increasing N content, the enhancement of covalent interactions and decline of metallicity lead to the increase of the micro-hardness. Their constant volume heat capacities increase rapidly in the lower temperature, at a given pressure. At higher temperature, the heat capacities are close to the Dulong-Petit limit, and the heat capacities of TiN and Ti2N are larger than that of c-BN. The thermal expansion coefficients of titanium nitrides are slightly larger than that of c-BN. The band structure and the total Density of States (DOS) are calculated at 0 GPa and 50 GPa. The results show that TiN and Ti2N present metallic character. Ti3N2 present semiconducting character. The band structures have some discrepancies between 0 GPa and 50 GPa. The extent of energy dispersion increases slightly at 50 GPa, which means that the itinerant character of electrons becomes stronger at 50 GPa. The main bonding peaks of TiN, Ti2N and Ti3N2 locate in the range from -10 to 10 eV, which originate from the contribution of valance electron numbers of Ti s, Ti p, Ti d, N s and N p orbits. We can also find that the pressure makes that the total DOS decrease at the Fermi level for Ti2N. The bonding behavior of N-Ti compounds is a combination of covalent and ionic nature. As N content increases, valence band broadens, valence electron concentration increases, and covalent interactions become stronger

  10. Black Hole Critical Phenomena Without Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liebling, S L

    2000-01-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  11. Determination of nitrogen content in thick TiN layers by proton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havranek, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Kvitek, J. (Nuclear Physics Inst., Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Rez (Czechoslovakia)); Musil, J.; Poulek, V. (Inst. of Physics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1990-06-01

    Non-Rutherford proton backscattering has been employed for the determination of the nitrogen content in TiN layers of a thickness of several micrometres deposited on a steel backing. The required proton scattering cross section has been measured using standards comprising thin TiN films on a light substrate. The scattering cross section of 2 MeV protons of nitrogen for {theta}{sub lab}=160deg was found to be 5.7 times the Rutherford value. Nitrogen detection limits in thick TiN samples are discussed. (orig.).

  12. Film Coating Process Research and Characterization of TiN Coated Racetrack-type Ceramic Pipe

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, Bo; Wei, Wei; Fan, Le; Pei, Xiangtao; Hong, Yuanzhi; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    TiN film was coated on the internal face of racetrack-type ceramic pipe by three different methods: radio-frequency sputtering, DC sputtering and DC magnetron sputtering. The deposition rates of TiN film under different coating methods were compared. According to the AFM, SEM, XPS test results,these properties were analyzed, such as TiN film roughness and surface morphology. At the same time, the deposition rates were studied under two types' cathode, Ti wires and Ti plate. According to the SEM test results, Ti plate cathode can improve the TiN/Ti film deposition rate obviously.

  13. Kinetic Model of TiN Particle Dissolution and Coarsening during Welding Thermal Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With carbon extraction replica technique, electron diffraction and EDAX analysis, second particle size distributionin two Ti microalloyed steels and their heat-affected zones were investigated. The results show that the particles inthe Ti microalloyed steels are TiN particles, and the TiN particles in the steel with lower Ti/N ratio exhibit smallersize and lower dissolution and coarsening rate and extent. Based on the investigation results, kinetic models for TiNparticle dissolution and coarsening during welding thermal cycle were developed. The predicted values calculated byusing the models are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  14. Water bath synthesis of tin oxide nanostructure coating for a molecular sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Yoshitake; Ohji, Tatsuki; Kato, Kazumi

    2014-03-01

    Tin oxide nanostructures were fabricated using a water bath technique. The structures were modified with dye-labeled DNAs for a molecular sensor. Sensing mechanism of the sensor was based on a photoelectric conversion effect. Photoluminescence intensities from the tin oxide nanostructures reached to 16 times larger than that from SnO2:F films. High photocurrent of 5.5 x 10(-6) A and high signal-to-noise ratio of 29 were achieved in this system. Photoelectric conversion on a combination of the dye-labeled DNA and the tin oxide was an essence of the sensing system. Surface nanospaces were effectively utilized to increase photoluminescence and photocurrent.

  15. Structural and physical properties of tin oxide thin films for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Su-Shia; Tsai, Yung-Shiang; Bai, Kai-Ren

    2016-09-01

    Tin oxide films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. At a lower sputtering pressure, the tin oxide film comprised nanocrystalline orthorhombic SnO with a (110) orientation, greater p-type conductivity and better hydrophobicity. Increasing substrate temperature resulted in the coexistence of nanocrystalline orthorhombic SnO and tetragonal SnO2 in the deposited film, favoring hydrophilicity, changing the p-type conductivity to n-type conductivity, and reducing resistivity. As the sputtering pressure or substrate temperature increased, the tin oxide film exhibited a lower surface roughness, a larger optical energy gap, and higher optical transmission.

  16. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  17. Development of silver/gold nanocages onto indium tin oxide glass as a reagentless plasmonic mercury sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Daodan; Hu, Tingting; Chen, Na [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: zhangwei@cigit.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Multi-scale Manufacturing Technology, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China); Di, Junwei, E-mail: djw@suda.edu.cn [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • A reagentless, sensitive and selective optical sensor for detection of Hg(II) was developed. • Silver–gold nanocages were prepared on the transparent indium tin oxide coated glass surface. • The nanomaterials could act as optical sensing probe as well as reducing agent. • The plasmonic sensor could be used to detect mercury ions in field analysis. Abstract: We demonstrate the utilization of silver/gold nanocages (Ag/Au NCs) deposited onto transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) film glass as the basis of a reagentless, simple and inexpensive mercury probe. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak wavelength was located at ~800 nm. By utilizing the redox reaction between Hg²⁺ ions and Ag atoms that existed in Ag/Au NCs, the LSPR peak of Ag/Au NCs was blue-shifted. Thus, we develop an optical sensing probe for the detection of Hg²⁺ ions. The LSPR peak changes were lineally proportional to the concentration of Hg²⁺ ions over the range from 10 ppb to 0.5 ppm. The detection limit was ~5 ppb. This plasmonic probe shows good selectivity and high sensitivity. The proposed optical probe is successfully applied to the sensing of Hg²⁺ in real samples.

  18. Fluorine-doped tin oxide films grown by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering with an Sn target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Bo-Huei; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Pin-Jen; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2011-03-20

    Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films have been deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering with an Sn target. Various ratios of CF4/O2 gas were injected to enhance the optical and electrical properties of the films. The extinction coefficient was lower than 1.5×10(-3) in the range from 400 to 800 nm when the CF4O2 ratio was 0.375. The resistivity of fluorine-doped SnO2 films (1.63×10(-3) Ω cm) deposited at 300 °C was 27.9 times smaller than that of undoped SnO2 (4.55×10(-2) Ω cm). Finally, an FTO film was consecutively deposited for protecting the oxidation of indium tin oxide films. The resistivity of the double-layered film was 2.68×10(-4) Ω cm, which increased by less than 39% at a 450 °C annealing temperature for 1 h in air.

  19. Structural and optical properties of tin (II) sulfide thin films deposited using organophosphorus precursor (Ph3PS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assili, Kawther; Alouani, Khaled; Vilanova, Xavier

    2017-02-01

    Tin sulfide (SnS) thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates using triphenylphosphine sulfide (Ph3PS) as a sulfur precursor in a chemical vapor deposition reactor in a temperature range of 250 °C-400 °C. The influence of the sulphidisation temperature in the crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and optical properties has been investigated. X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analysis of x-rays, and Raman spectroscopy showed that pure SnS thin films have been successfully obtained at 250 °C. All the deposited films were polycrystalline and showed orthorhombic structure, with a preferential orientation according to the direction . The optical measurements showed that the films deposited exhibited a direct allowed transition and have a relatively high absorption coefficient. The presence of mixed tin sulfide phases granted by the variation of the sulphidisation temperature has affected the optical properties of the deposited films. The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k), has low values compared to conventional semiconductor materials. The grown films can be considered as a good light absorbing material and a promising candidate for application in optoelectronic devices.

  20. Effects of TiN film coating on electrochemical behaviors ofnanotube formed Ti-xHf alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang LEE; Won-Gi KIM; Joo-Young CHO; Sang-Won EUN; Han-Cheol CHOE

    2009-01-01

    Ti-xHf (x=10%, 20%, 30% and 40%, mass fraction) alloys were prepared by arc melting, and the microstructure was controlled for 24 h at 1 000 ℃ in argon atmosphere. The formation of nanotube was conducted by anodizing on Ti-Hf alloys in 1.0 mol/L H3PO4 electrolytes with small amounts of NaF at room temperature. And then TiN coatings were coated by DC-sputtering on the anodized surface. Microstructures and nanotube morphology of the alloys were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy(FE-SEM) and X-ray diffractometry(XRD). The corrosion properties of the specimens were examined through potentiodynamic test (potential range from -1 500 to 2 000 mV) in 0.9 % NaCl solution by potentiostat. The microstructure shows the acicular phase and α′ phase with Hf content. The amorphous oxide surface is transformed to crystalline anatase phase. TiN coated nanotube surface has a good corrosion resistance.

  1. The influence of the effective physical properties of tin electrodeposited films on the growth of tin whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Aaron E.

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize and calculate the effective film properties of electrodeposited tin films to determine factors influencing the growth of tin (Sn) whiskers. The growth of Sn whiskers represents an increased risk to the reliability of electronic devices, and is a particular concern in the high reliability environments demanded in aerospace and defense applications. Efforts to prevent whisker growth have proven difficult, in part, due to the lack of understanding concerning the fundamental mechanisms responsible for whisker growth. In the present study, Sn, Sn-Cu, and Sn Cu Pb films were electrodeposited from commercial electrolytes with different deposition parameters. The morphology of Sn hillocks and whiskers were characterized leading to a growth model considering the role of grain boundary mobility. Crystallographic texture measurements revealed non-random textures, dependent on electrolyte type, electrolyte additives, deposition current density, and film thickness. The crystallographic texture was also found to evolve with time, indicating recrystallization and grain growth. The corresponding textures were used to calculate the effective physical properties of the films, showing significant differences in the linear modulus of elasticity, biaxial modulus of elasticity, and coefficient of thermal expansion. The influence of these effective properties on the strain energy density of the film was analyzed with respect to the evolution of crystallographic texture and film stress. The results show that the reduction of strain energy and surface energy is not the only driving force dictating the evolution of the crystallographic texture. Recommendations are made for future studies to apply the analysis tools developed in this study for future whisker research, as well as for industrial applications.

  2. Photographic Images of Blacks in Sexuality Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Mariamne H.

    1988-01-01

    In the 16 college-level sexuality textbooks examined, photographs of Blacks have more impact than those of Whites, not only because of their rarity compared to the broad range of representations of Whites, but also because there is a problematic pattern to the kinds of images that appear. (IAH)

  3. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  4. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  5. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Kleihaus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  6. Black Hole Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Mitra

    1994-01-01

    In the talk different definitions of the black hole entropy are discussed and compared. It is shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy $S^{BH}$ (defined by the response of the free energy of a system containing a black hole on the change of the temperature) differs from the statistical- mechanical entropy $S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}\\ln \\hat{\\rho})$ (defined by counting internal degrees of freedom of a black hole). A simple explanation of the universality of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (...

  7. Black hole entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, V

    1994-01-01

    In the talk different definitions of the black hole entropy are discussed and compared. It is shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S^{BH} (defined by the response of the free energy of a system containing a black hole on the change of the temperature) differs from the statistical- mechanical entropy S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}\\ln \\hat{\\rho}) (defined by counting internal degrees of freedom of a black hole). A simple explanation of the universality of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (i.e. its independence of the number and properties of the fields which might contribute to S^{SM}) is given.

  8. Primordial Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    MacGibbon, Jane H; Linnemann, J T; Marinelli, S S; Stump, D; Tollefson, K

    2015-01-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are of interest in many cosmological contexts. PBHs lighter than about 1012 kg are predicted to be directly detectable by their Hawking radiation. This radiation should produce both a diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background from the cosmologically-averaged distribution of PBHs and gamma-ray burst signals from individual light black holes. The Fermi, Milagro, Veritas, HESS and HAWC observatories, in combination with new burst recognition methodologies, offer the greatest sensitivity for the detection of such black holes or placing limits on their existence.

  9. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  10. An Investigation of Black Tern Reproductive Success in Vermont 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The black tern is a colonial nesting marsh bird which has been declining significantly in numbers throughout its range, and in particular in the Northeast. In...

  11. Feminism and Black Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Bell

    1989-01-01

    Women's studies programs have largely ignored Black women. Until Black women's studies courses are developed, feminist scholarship on Black women will not advance, and the contributions of Black women to women's rights movements and African American literature and scholarship may be neglected. (DM)

  12. The Price of "Black Dominance."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of stereotyping black males as athletes, noting that over-identification with athletes and the world of physical performance limits black children's development by discouraging academic achievement. Examines the negative influence of mass media focus on black athletes, rappers, and stylized ghetto blackness. Discusses…

  13. Deposition of the TiN and TiO2 films in the inverted cylindrical direct-current magnetron by a reactive sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostin E. G.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of research of optical radiation of discharge plasma in a wave range 350 – 820 nm and discharge voltage of an inverted cylindrical magnetron at various flows of reactive gases (N2, О2 are presented. Changes of discharge voltage have features which can be compared to a films composition and with character of changes of intensity of spectral lines of titanium atoms and molecules of reacting gases. It is shown, that the control of a deposition of TiN and TiO2 films it is possible to carry out, both with the help of measuring of discharge voltage, and with the help of the optical control of intensity of Ti, N2, O2 lines emitted by plasma. The optical control simultaneously several components of the gas medium is more informative. Optimum conditions of synthesis of stoichiometric TiN and TiO2 films are determined. The X-ray analysis was carried out, the microhardness of TiN films and refractive index of TiO2 films, received in optimum requirements, was measured.

  14. Facile Synthesis and Characterization of Two Dimensional Layered Tin Disulfide Nanowalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Zafer; Shahrezaei, Sina; Temiz, Selcuk; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2016-04-01

    Two dimensional layered metal chalcogenides, especially tin sulfides, have recently received great interest due to their enticing physical and chemical properties and hold promise for various applications. We report on synthesis of phase-pure two dimensional tin disulfide nanowalls by a facile vapor-phase synthesis method on insulator substrates such as silicon dioxide and magnesium oxide using tin dioxide and sulfur powders as precursors. The synthesized tin disulfide nanowalls have been characterized to study their fundamental properties by using various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The synthesized films have an open network structure constituted of very uniform interconnected nanowalls with high crystallinity.

  15. 浅谈硫酸盐镀锡%Introduction to stannous sulfate tin plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉

    2014-01-01

    In circuit board plating process, due to the reason that management or maintenance does not reach the designated position, there often appear unhealthy phenomenon such as uneven tin, tin plating thickness cried, tin bath opacity, independent grommet with etched tin, which lead to scrap. This article focuses on the cause of the bad and the improving measures.%在电路板电镀生产过程中,由于疏于管理或保养不到位,常出现镀锡厚度不均匀、镀锡锡面发黑、镀锡槽液混浊、独立孔环被蚀刻等镀锡不良现象,造成报废。文章主要讨论引起上述不良的原因及改善办法。

  16. Effect of TiN powder mixed in Electrical Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttamara, A.; Mesee, J.

    2016-11-01

    Many trials were studied about powder mixed in Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM). The experiments were carried for improving surface characteristics and related to the surface modification. The experiment was carried out using a copper tool electrode and EDMed in titanium nitride (TiN) powder mixed in dielectric fluid. In this research, to obtain the even modified layer, the effects of EDMed conditions were investigated. The EDMed surfaces were observed by SEM. Under the suitable discharge conditions in TiN powder mixed kerosene, the stable thick TiN layer adhered on the workpiece surface. The microcrack length per unit area treated in TiN mixed kerosene was greater than that treated in normal kerosene. Titanium carbon nitride (TiCN) was found on the modified layer by XRD analysis. The effect of the diffusion of carbon during cooling on the characteristics of the recast layer was discussed.

  17. Selection of materials for tokamak plasma facing elements based on a liquid tin capillary pore system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyublinski, I. E.; Vertkov, A. V.; Zharkov, M. Yu; Sevryukov, O. N.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Shumskiy, V. A.; Ivannikov, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Capillary-Pore Systems (CPS) filled by liquid metals are considered as an alternative solution of materials choice for plasma facing component of tokamak reactor. Tin is viewed as one of the candidates for CPS because it has lower corrosiveness than gallium and lower saturated vapour pressure compared to lithium. The corrosion resistance of Mo, Nb and W in pure liquid tin was investigated. The corrosion tests were carried out in the static isothermal conditions at a temperature up to 1050°C. As a result of the corrosion study, it was found that Mo does not corrode in liquid Sn, as opposed to Nb and is compatible with liquid tin in temperatures of up to approx. 1000°C. This allows considering Mo as an alloy base material of the in-vessel tokamak elements based on liquid tin capillary pore systems.

  18. TIN Dataset Model of the Mahogany Zone Structure in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI TIN data model of the Mahogany Zone structure was needed to perform overburden calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil...

  19. [Phase transition analysis of ancient bronze mirror surface tin amalgam in heating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-yun; Qin, Ying

    2010-10-01

    Taking advantage of theta-theta scanning (vertical goniometer) sealed and ceramic X-ray tube full-automatic diffractometer, which can be heated and detected at the same time when the temperature is between normal temperature and 1200 degrees C, and X-ray fluorescence, and combining surface feature with character, high tin bronze mirror which had been daubed "tin amalgam" was detected and analyzed. It can prove that phase with Hg will disappear gradually when the sample is heated to the temperature higher than the boiling point of Hg; It indicates that bronze surface cannot be as a proof of "tin amalgam" used whether it contains Hg, moreover, it is not necessary that bronze mirror is covered with "tin amalgam" in terms of application.

  20. Tin oxide nanosheet assembly for hydrophobic/hydrophilic coating and cancer sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Yoshitake; Ohji, Tatsuki; Kato, Kazumi

    2012-03-01

    Tin oxide nanosheets were crystallized on transparent conductive oxide substrates of fluorine-doped tin oxide in aqueous solutions. The nanosheets had chemical ratio of Sn:O:F = 1:1.85:0.076, suggesting fluorine doping into SnO(2). They were hydrophobic surfaces with contact angle of 140°. They were converted to hydrophilic surfaces with contact angle of below 1° by light irradiation. The simple water process will be applied to surface coating of polymers, metals, biomaterials, papers, etc. Furthermore, the tin oxide nanosheets were modified with dye-labeled monoclonal antibody. Monoclonal antibody reacts with human alpha-fetoprotein in blood serum of hepatocellular cancer patient. Photoluminescence and photocurrent were obtained from the nanosheets under excitation light. Photoelectric conversion was an essence in the sensing system. The tin oxide nanosheets with dye-labeled prostate specific antigen will be used for electrodes of prostate cancer sensors.

  1. Corrosion inhibitors for mild steel; stannous tin (SnII) in ordinary portland cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagoe-Crentsil, K.K.; Glasser, F.P.; Yilmaz, V.T. (Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-01-01

    Salts containing divalent tin (SnII) are shown to give a measure of corrosion protection to mild steel embedded in cement paste. Results of linear polarization measurements are shown for samples cured at 40[degree] for up to 240 days in pastes containing initially 0-1628mM/l chloride: Sn[sup 2+], but not Sn[sup 4+], is an effective inhibitor at an initial concentration of 200mM/l. However tin solubility in pore fluid is very low: less than 0.01mM/l at 60d. It is speculated that tin stabilizes the passivating layers although no direct evidence for the incorporation of tin in corrosion product was found by analytical electron microscopy. Other theories of inhibition are discussed.

  2. Filtrates & Residues: Experimental Work with Tin (II) Chloride in a High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Manuela Martin

    1988-01-01

    Presents a high school chemistry lab experiment using tin (II) chloride to explore the concepts of hydrolysis, Le Chatelier's principle, and electrolysis. Presents methodology and the chemistry involved. Offers questions for the students. (MVL)

  3. TIN Dataset Model of Overburden Above the Mahogany Zone in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI TIN data model of the overburden material above the Mahogany Zone was needed to perform calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009...

  4. TIN Dataset Model of the Mahogany Bed Structure in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI TIN data model of the Mahogany bed structure was needed to perform overburden calculations in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado as part of a 2009 National...

  5. TIN Dataset Model of Overburden Above the Mahogany Bed in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An ESRI TIN data model of the overburden material above the Mahogany bed was needed to perform calculations in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado as part of a 2009...

  6. Formation of Ti-N graded bioceramic layer by DC hollow-cathode plasma nitriding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chuan-lin

    2004-01-01

    Ti-N graded ceramic layer was formed on titanium by using DC hollow-cathode plasma nitriding technique. The structure of Ti-N layer was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry(XRD) with Cu Kα radiation, and the microhardness( HV0.1) was measured from the surface to inner along the cross section of Ti-N layer. The results indicate that the Ti-N graded layer is composed of ε-Ti2 N, δ-TiN and α-Ti(N) phases. Mechanism discussion shows that hollow-cathode discharge can intensify gas ionization, increase current density and enhance the nitriding potential, which directly increases the thickness of the diffusion coatings compared with traditional nitriding methods.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF NANOSECOND ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES TO OBTAIN TIN AND THE PROPERTIES OF ITS ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Komkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally found that the effect of nanosecond electromagnetic pulses to melt the charge, while the carbon thermal recovery of the tin ore, accelerates the formation of the metallic phase.

  8. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  9. Janus black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.

  10. Black Rail Pilot Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aural surveys using tape recorded calls proved to be an efficient and effective way to survey large expanses of shallow marsh for black rails (Laterallus...

  11. Black Friday = Broget Branding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Black Friday er et godt eksempel på, hvordan ikke kun produktbrands og corporate brands rejser på tværs af landegrænser, men også traditioner som Halloween, Valentines Day og i dette tilfælde den ultimative tilbuds-fredag, som i USA går under navnet Black Friday. Men hvad er Black Friday i Danmark......? Essensen ved Black Friday er lave priser, og det er der ved første øjekast ikke mange brandingmuligheder forbundet ved, hvis man forstår branding som en måde at skabe ekstra værdi omkring sit produkt eller sin virksomhed. Som brand bliver man dog alligevel nødt til at forholde sig til konceptet, da det er...

  12. 锡后处理对锡镀层性能的影响%Influence of tin post-processing on tin coating properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧爱良; 王英锋; 樊应县; 刘季超; 刘奕林

    2015-01-01

    The porosity, anti-tarnish property, soldering property, reflow soldering solderability and the tin whisker growth inhibition of the pure tin coating were tested after passivation treatment and metal protectant treatment, respectively. Test results show that the coating porosities of the pure tin layer to be treated by using passivation and metal protectant are reduced, and the anti-tarnish property is improved. The metal protectant coating can restrain the tin whisker from growth and extend the storage life of the products effectively, and it doesn’t affect the soldering performance. Comparatively, the passivation treatment growth soldering property of the tin layer and has no apparent affect on restraining the tin whisker from growth.%分别测试了纯锡镀层经钝化及金属保护剂处理后的孔隙率、防变色能力、可焊、回流焊性能及抑制锡须生长情况。试验结果表明:对纯锡层采用钝化和金属保护剂处理均能有效降低镀层的孔隙率,提高镀层的防变色能力。金属保护剂处理能有效防止锡层的氧化,延长产品的储存寿命,对焊接性能无影响,同时能有效抑制锡须生长;钝化处理降低了锡镀层的焊接性能,对抑制锡须生长作用不明显。

  13. Nonsynchronized segmented heterochromia in black scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, C; Godbolt, A M; Messenger, A G; Jones, S K

    2003-05-01

    Nonsynchronized segmented heterochromia in black scalp hair is a rarely reported entity, the only previous report being described in association with iron deficiency anaemia. A 14-year-old girl presented with a 2-year history of nonsynchronized segmented heterochromia. She was otherwise well and her serum iron, copper, zinc and protein levels were all within the normal range. She had no clinical evidence of vitiligo or alopecia areata. This patient is believed to represent the first reported case of nonsynchronized segmented heterochromia in black scalp hair as a presentation of premature greying of the hair.

  14. Tetra(acetylacetonato) tin(Ⅳ) as new catalyst for polytrimethylene terephthalate synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chelate tetra(acetylacetonato) tin(Ⅳ) was prepared and used as catalyst for polytrimethylene terephthalate synthesis.It exhibited higher catalytic activity than tetrabutyl titanate,butyltinhydroxide oxide and dibutyltin oxide.Decrease in reaction time, content of terminal carboxyl group,color intensity and increase in intrinsic viscosity were observed.The unique molecular structure can be considered as factor remarkably improving the catalytic activity of tetra(acetylacetonato) tin(Ⅳ).

  15. Ultraflexible polymer solar cells using amorphous zinc-indium-tin oxide transparent electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nanjia; Buchholz, Donald B; Zhu, Guang; Yu, Xinge; Lin, Hui; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P H

    2014-02-01

    Polymer solar cells are fabricated on highly conductive, transparent amorphous zinc indium tin oxide (a-ZITO) electrodes. For two representative active layer donor polymers, P3HT and PTB7, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are comparable to reference devices using polycrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Benefitting from the amorphous character of a-ZITO, the new devices are highly flexible and can be repeatedly bent to a radius of 5 mm without significant PCE reduction.

  16. Occupational irritant contact folliculitis associated with triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Petri, M

    1982-01-01

    Triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) is a bioactive organo-tin compound used in concentrations 2-12% as anti-foulants in boat paints. The chemical is moderately toxic to the skin. An occupational irritant contact folliculitis from TPTF in a marine paint plant worker is described. Contact allergy...... was excluded by patch testing. An attempt to reproduce the follicular reaction in man, rabbit and guinea pig was unsuccessful....

  17. Effect of fabrication conditions on the properties of indium tin oxide powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Wei

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that indium tin oxide (ITO) crystalline powders are prepared by coprecipitation method. Fabrication conditions mainly as sintering temperature and Sn doping content are correlated with the phase, microstructure, infrared emissivity ε and powder resistivity of indium tin oxides by means of x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and transmission electron microscope. The optimum sintering temperature of 1350℃ and Sn doping content 6~8wt% are determined. The application of ITO in the military camouflage field is proposed.

  18. Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xingling, E-mail: shixingling1985@hotmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Xu, Lingli [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Munar, Melvin L.; Ishikawa, Kunio [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Dental implant made of pure titanium (Ti) is prone to scratch and abrasion during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results an increase in surface roughness and therefore, facilitates the adhesion of bacteria. In severe cases, this could lead to peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, surface modification of Ti is necessary to improve its abrasion resistance. Besides, a strong implant–gingiva interface should also be guaranteed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was first prepared with gas nitriding to increase surface hardness of pure the substrate. Then, the TiN was hydrothermally treated in CaCl{sub 2} solution in order to improve its soft tissue biocompatibility. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on surface properties of TiN was investigated and its biocompatibility was assessed in vitro using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell. It was determined that 120 °C was the critical temperature for the hydrothermal treatment condition. Treatment below 120 °C could incorporate Ca into TiN surface, oxidize TiN surface partially and then improve the wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were improved and cell spreading was enhanced on hydrothermally treated specimens compared with untreated ones. Improved wettability, Ca incorporation and negative surface due to interstitial N were believed to be the main reasons. Hydrothermal treatment is expected to make TiN a promising dental implant coating with excellent abrasion resistance and good soft tissue affinity. - Highlights: • Ca was incorporated into TiN surface while not sacrificing its hardness. • Interstitial N due to oxidation promoted Ca adsorption and cell adhesion. • Hydrothermal treatment makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant.

  19. Suppression of tin precipitation in SiSn alloy layers by implanted carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiduk, Peter; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed the accumul......By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed...

  20. Modelling quantum black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, T R

    2016-01-01

    Novel bound states are obtained for manifolds with singular potentials. These singular potentials require proper boundary conditions across boundaries. The number of bound states match nicely with what we would expect for black holes. Also they serve to model membrane mechanism for the black hole horizons in simpler contexts. The singular potentials can also mimic expanding boundaries elegantly, there by obtaining appropriately tuned radiation rates.

  1. Helical superconducting black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P

    2012-05-25

    We construct novel static, asymptotically five-dimensional anti-de Sitter black hole solutions with Bianchi type-VII(0) symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have a vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, nonisotropic dual ground states with an emergent scaling symmetry.

  2. Black Is Cool!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1997-01-01

    Do you remember the colors the college freshmen dyed their hair when you were here? Turquoise, orange, bright yellow.... Things have changed. Black has (?)ome the color of choice among the young people. Young men and women alike dye their hair coal black. The women let their hair grow very long. and it hangs straight and stringy down their backs. The young men leave it long on

  3. Braneworld black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    In these lectures, I give an introduction to and overview of braneworlds and black holes in the context of warped compactifications. I first describe the general paradigm of braneworlds, and introduce the Randall-Sundrum model. I discuss braneworld gravity, both using perturbation theory, and also non perturbative results. I then discuss black holes on the brane, the obstructions to finding exact solutions, and ways of tackling these difficulties. I describe some known solutions, and conclude with some open questions and controversies.

  4. Black Hole Induced Ejections

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, G.

    2004-01-01

    Black Holes generate a particular kind of environments dominated by an accretion flow which concentrates a magnetic field. The interplay of gravity and magnetism creates this paradoxical situation where relativistic ejection is allowed and consequently high energy phenomena take place. Therefore Black Holes, which are very likely at the origin of powerfull astrophysical phenomena such as AGNs, micro- quasars and GRBs where relativistic ejections are observed, are at the heart of high energy a...

  5. An experimental study of tin partition between melt and aqueous fluid in F/CI-coexisting magma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU XiaoYan; BI XianWu; SHANG LinBo; HU RuiZhong; CAI GuoSheng; CHEN YouWei

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the formation mechanism of tin ores associated with F-bearing granite, an experimental study of tin partition between F-bearing granitic melt and coexisting HCI-bearing aqueous fluid was conducted at 850"C and 100MPa with fo2 approaching NNO. Geochemical behavior of tin was traced by changes in starting solid materials with different alumina saturation index ASl, in F content and in starting fluids of various HCl concentrations. The results show that DSn increases with ASl of melt and peraluminous melt is favorable for tin partition into aqueous fluid in the F/Cl-coexisting system. Aqueous fluid of higher HCl concentrations is advantageous for enrichment of tin. Furthermore,chlorine contents in glass run products correlate positively with F and CI contents in the magma. In the F/Cl-coexisting system, granitic melts with high F contents (>~-1 wt%) could extract and enrich tin in the melt which can serve as a reservoir for the formation of tin ores. However, the partition coefficient of tin would increase significantly when F contents in the melt were below 1 wt%. Therefore, the decrease of F contents is favorable to the partition of tin into aqueous fluid with high HCI contents, thus promoting deposition of hydrothermal tin ores.

  6. Cosmic censorship inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Thorlacius, L

    2006-01-01

    A simple argument is given that a traversable Cauchy horizon inside a black hole is incompatible with unitary black hole evolution. The argument assumes the validity of black hole complementarity and applies to a generic black hole carrying angular momentum and/or charge. In the second part of the paper we review recent work on the semiclassical geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes.

  7. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steven L Liebling

    2000-10-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  8. Charged Galileon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  9. Ultramassive Black Hole Coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Fazeel; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gr...

  10. Benzotriazolate cage complexes of tin(II) and lithium: halide-influenced serendipitous assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulway, Scott A; Layfield, Richard A; Bodensteiner, Michael; Scheuermayer, Sabine; Scheer, Manfred; Zabel, Manfred

    2011-08-07

    The one-pot reactions of the tin(II) halides SnX(2) (X = F, Cl, Br, I) with lithium hexamethyldisilazide, [Li(hmds)], and benzotriazole, (bta)H, produce contrasting outcomes. Tin(II) fluoride does not react with [Li(hmds)] and (bta)H, the outcome being the formation of insoluble [Li(bta)](∞). Tin(II) chloride and tin(II) bromide react with [Li(hmds)] and (bta)H in toluene to produce the hexadecametallic tin(II)-lithium cages [(hmds)(8)Sn(8)(bta)(12)Li(8)X(4)]·(n toluene) [X = Cl, 3·(8 toluene); X = Br, 4·(3 toluene)]. The reaction of tin(II) iodide with [Li(hmds)] and (bta)H in thf solvent produces the ion-separated species [{(thf)(2)Li(bta)}(3){Li(thf)}](2)[SnI(4)]·(thf), [5](2)[SnI(4)]·(thf), the structure of which contains a cyclic trimeric unit of lithium benzotriazolate and a rare example of the tetraiodostannate(II) dianion.

  11. Highly selective fluorescent probe for the detection of tin (IV) Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Leiming; Yang, Jing; Wang, Qiusheng, E-mail: wangqsh@tjut.edu.cn; Zeng, Lintao, E-mail: zlt1981@126.com

    2014-04-15

    A novel fluorescent compound, 7-diethylamino-3-(2'-(1H-imidazo[4,5-b]phenazine)yl)coumarin (DIPC), was synthesized and employed as a fluorescent probe for detecting tin (IV) ion. Upon addition of tin (IV) ion to the solution of DIPC in DMSO–water (9:1, v/v), DIPC exhibited a considerable red-shift in its absorption spectrum and a decrease in fluorescence intensity. These changes result from tin (IV) ion binding to carbonyl oxygen of coumarin and nitrogen of imidazole, reflecting an enhanced ICT process from N,N-diethylamino unit to imidazole unit. The tin (IV) ion selective response was clearly observed by the naked eye through color change. We also studied the bioimaging application of DIPC for detecting tin (IV) ion in Hela cells. And a significant decrease of the fluorescence from the intracellular area was observed. -- Highlights: • We synthesized a novel coumarin derivative (DIPC). • DIPC was used to detect tin (IV) ion selectively. • The detection process was studied upon UV–vis and fluorescence spectrum. • We studied the bioimaging application of DIPC for detecting Sn{sup 4+} ion in cells.

  12. Metallic tin quantum sheets confined in graphene toward high-efficiency carbon dioxide electroreduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fengcai; Liu, Wei; Sun, Yongfu; Xu, Jiaqi; Liu, Katong; Liang, Liang; Yao, Tao; Pan, Bicai; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Ultrathin metal layers can be highly active carbon dioxide electroreduction catalysts, but may also be prone to oxidation. Here we construct a model of graphene confined ultrathin layers of highly reactive metals, taking the synthetic highly reactive tin quantum sheets confined in graphene as an example. The higher electrochemical active area ensures 9 times larger carbon dioxide adsorption capacity relative to bulk tin, while the highly-conductive graphene favours rate-determining electron transfer from carbon dioxide to its radical anion. The lowered tin–tin coordination numbers, revealed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, enable tin quantum sheets confined in graphene to efficiently stabilize the carbon dioxide radical anion, verified by 0.13 volts lowered potential of hydroxyl ion adsorption compared with bulk tin. Hence, the tin quantum sheets confined in graphene show enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability. This work may provide a promising lead for designing efficient and robust catalysts for electrolytic fuel synthesis. PMID:27585984

  13. Preparation of silver tin oxide powders by hydrothermal reduction and crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Silver tin oxide composite powders were synthesized by the hydrothermal method with a silver ammine solution and a Na2SnO3 solution as raw marrials. H2C2O4 was used as the co-precipitator of silver ions and tin ions. The co-precipitation conditions were investigated. The results show that the co-precipitate of Ag2C2O4 and Sn(OH)4 is available when the pH value of the solution is 4.27-8.36. Using the obtained precipitate as precursor, the reduction of Ag+ and the crystallization of tin oxide were carried out simultaneonsly by the hydrothermal method and silver tin oxide composite powders were obtained. The composite powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy spectrum analysis. The results show that the silver tin oxide composite powders are small with a diameter of about 2 μm and with homogeneous distribution of tin.

  14. The influence of temperature and humidity on the wettability of immersion tin coated printed wiring boards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, U.; Artaki, I. [AT and T Bell Labs., Princeton, NJ (United States); Vianco, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper investigates the merits and drawbacks of immersion tin coatings as potential printed wiring board (PWB) surface finishes. Immersion tin films applied in various thicknesses (0.2 to 2 {mu}m) to different copper substrates were characterized relative to thermal stability and shelflife. Thermal excursions included those typical in mixed technology assembly processes. Exposure to temperature/humidity was varied from near ambient (35{degree}C/85%RH) to harsh (steam aging). A minimum thickness of {approximately}60{mu}in (1.5{mu}m) was determined to be critical for assembly operations involving multiple thermal excursions. Even though formation of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMC) is facile, at the copper-tin interface, these compounds do not adversely affect the soldering performance, as long as the IMC phase is protected by a tin surface layer. Immersion tin finishes are relatively stable to thermal exposure, but are readily oxidized in the presence of humidity. This oxide growth is directly responsible for solderability degradation. The underlying copper substrate was also found to have a significant impact on the thermal stability of tin films. An electroless copper substrate caused significantly more intermetallic formation, that resulted in poor solderability even under moderate temperature, humidity conditions.

  15. Tin amalgam mirrors: investigation by XRF, SEM-EDS, XRD and EPMA-WDS mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizio, E.; Orsega, E. F.; Sommariva, G.; Falcone, R.

    2013-06-01

    Ancient mirrors were constituted by a tin-mercury amalgam layer superimposed to a glass sheet. This was the only one method used until the nineteenth century, when the wet silvering process was invented. The tin amalgam is a binary alloy of tin and mercury constituted by two different phases: a mercury-rich liquid phase and a tin-rich solid phase. The amalgam alteration produces mercury loss and a general growth of the solid crystalline phase. In addition, tin dioxide and monoxide are formed with a consequent decrease of the amalgam adhesion to the glass. These degradation phenomena led to reduction or disappearance of the mirror reflective power. The aim of this study was the characterization of the amalgam layers of eight mirror samples dating during the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and by a Scanning Electron Microscope with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and for the first time on this type of alloy by X-ray Fluorescence and EPMA-WDS (Electron Probe Micro Analysis with Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry) elemental mapping. The contents of tin, mercury, and some trace elements in the amalgam layers have been determined. The investigation of the superficial patterns of the amalgam by SEM, EPMA-WDS mapping, and SEM-EDS allowed a first understanding of some morphologies and processes of the degradation of the amalgam layer.

  16. Effect of microstructure on the breakage of tin bronze machining chips during pulverization via jet milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Elham; Ghambari, Mohammad; Farhangi, Hasan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, jet milling was used to recycle tin bronze machining chips into powder. The main purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the microstructure of tin bronze machining chips on their breakage behavior. An experimental target jet mill was used to pulverize machining chips of three different tin bronze alloys containing 7wt%, 10wt%, and 12wt% of tin. Optical and electron microscopy, as well as sieve analysis, were used to follow the trend of pulverization. Each alloy exhibited a distinct rate of size reduction, particle size distribution, and fracture surface appearance. The results showed that the degree of pulverization substantially increased with increasing tin content. This behavior was attributed to the higher number of machining cracks as well as the increased volume fraction of brittle δ phase in the alloys with higher tin contents. The δ phase was observed to strongly influence the creation of machining cracks as well as the nucleation and propagation of cracks during jet milling. In addition, a direct relationship was observed between the mean δ-phase spacing and the mean size of the jet-milled product; i.e., a decrease in the δ-phase spacing resulted in smaller particles.

  17. Wear Behavior of Fiber Laser Textured TiN Coatings in a Heavy Loaded Sliding Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ugues

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In heavy loaded mating components, such as sliders and sliding bearings, guaranteeing the efficiency of lubricant films for long times during severe service conditions is very complicated. In this work, the benefits deriving from the use of fiber laser sources for surface texturing of very thin TiN coatings in severe wear working conditions were demonstrated. Evaluations of the laser textured dimples shape, geometry and density are given. Wear performance of the fiber laser textured surfaces was evaluated in discontinuous oil lubricated conditions with a flat contact. High normal load and low sliding speed were applied. Comparison tests were also performed on commercial TiN and WC/C coatings. In terms of average wear volume and maximum wear depth, Laser Surface Texturing of TiN provided respectively a 70% and a 45% reduction if compared to plain TiN. If compared to WC/C the wear resistance gains were lower but LST TiN maintained such benefits for longer wear runs. SEM analysis also revealed that the laser interaction provided a localized thermal cracking to the TiN coating. However, the sliding action caused very limited and localized coating fragmentation or delamination.

  18. Thermodynamic Properties of Liquid Silver-Antimony-Tin Alloys Determined from Electrochemical and Calorimetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łapsa, Joanna; Onderka, Bogusław

    2016-08-01

    The thermodynamic properties of liquid Ag-Sb-Sn alloys were obtained through use of the drop solution calorimetric method and electromotive force (emf) measurements of galvanic cells with a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid electrolyte. The experiments were carried out along Ag0.25Sb0.75, Ag0.5Sb0.5 and Ag0.75Sb0.25 sections of the ternary system in the temperature range from 973 K to 1223 K. From the measured emf, the tin activity in liquid solutions of Ag-Sb-Sn was determined for the first time. The partial and integral enthalpy of mixing were determined from calorimetric measurements at two temperatures. These measurements were performed along two cross-sections: Sb0.5Sn0.5 at 912 K and 1075 K, and Ag0.75Sb0.25 at 1075 K. Both experimental data sets were used to find ternary interaction parameters by applying the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu model of the substitutional solution. Consequently, the set of parameters describing the thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase was derived.

  19. Electrogenerated chemiluminescent behavior of MCLA at an indium-tin-oxide electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhihuang [MOE Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Wang Jian [MOE Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Lin Zhengyu [MOE Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Chen Guonan [MOE Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)]. E-mail: gnchen@fzu.edu.cn

    2006-08-15

    In this paper, the electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3(7H)-one (MCLA) at an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode in phosphate buffer solution has been investigated when linear sweep voltammetry was applied. The optimum chemical conditions and electrochemical parameters for this ECL system have been investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, it was found that the ECL intensity was linear with the concentration of MCLA in the range of 6.0 x 10{sup -7} to 1.0 x 10{sup -5} mol/L, and its detection limit for MCLA was 2.0 x 10{sup -7} mol/L. The possible mechanism for ECL of MCLA at the ITO electrode was also discussion. Furthermore, it was found that some sophora flavescens, such as matrine and oxymatrine, might enhance the ECL intensity of MCLA. Therefore, it is possible to develop a new ECL method for determination of matrine and oxymatrine.

  20. Influence of Zn doping on electrical and optical properties of multilayered tin oxide thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J S Bhat; K I Maddani; A M Karguppikar

    2006-06-01

    In this study, the electrical and optical properties of Zn doped tin oxide films prepared using sol–gel spin coating process have been investigated. The SnO2 : Zn multi-coating films were deposited at optimum deposition conditions using a hydroalcoholic solution consisting of stannous chloride and zinc chloride. Films with Zn doping levels from 0–10 wt% in solution are developed. The results of electrical measurements indicate that the sheet resistance of the deposited films increases with increasing Zn doping concentration and several superimposed coatings are necessary to reach expected low sheet resistance. Films with three coatings show minimum sheet resistance of 1.479 k/ in the case of undoped SnO2 and 77 k/ for 5 wt% Zn doped SnO2 when coated on glass substrate. In the case of single layer SnO2 film, absorption edge is 3.57 eV and when doped with Zn absorption edge shifts towards lower energies (longer wavelengths). The absorption edge lies in the range of 3.489–3.557 eV depending upon the Zn doping concentration. The direct and indirect transitions and their dependence on dopant concentration and number of coatings are presented.

  1. Indium Tin Oxide-Magnesium Fluoride Co-Deposited Films for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joycer A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hambourger, Paul D.; Bruckner, Eric; Ferrante, Rhea; Pal, Anna Marie; Mayer, Karen; Pietromica, Anthony J.

    1998-01-01

    Highly transparent coatings with a maximum sheet resistivity between 10(exp 8) and 10(exp 9) ohms/square are desired to prevent charging of solar arrays for low Earth polar orbit and geosynchronous orbit missions. Indium tin oxide (ITO) and magnesium fluoride (MgF2) were ion beam sputter co-deposited onto fused silica substrates and were evaluated for transmittance, sheet resistivity and the effects of simulated space environments including atomic oxygen (AO) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. Optical properties and sheet resistivity as a function of MgF2 content in the films will be presented. Films containing 8.4 wt.% MgF2 were found to be highly transparent and provided sheet resistivity in the required range. These films maintained a high transmittance upon exposure to AO and to VUV radiation, although exposure to AO in the presence of charged species and intense electromagnetic radiation caused significant degradation in film transmittance. Sheet resistivity of the as-fabricated films increased with time in ambient conditions. Vacuum beat treatment following film deposition caused a reduction in sheet resistivity. However, following vacuum heat treatment, sheet resistivity values remained stable during storage in ambient conditions.

  2. Improving the performance of fluorine-doped tin oxide by adding salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: Aguspur@uns.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Widiyandari, Hendri [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Dr. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Suryana, Risa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Jumari, Arif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia)

    2015-07-01

    High-performance fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated via a spray deposition technique with salt added to the precursor. The addition of NaCl in the precursor improved the conductivity of the FTO films. Increasing the NaCl concentration to its optimal concentration reduced the sheet resistance of the FTO film. The optimal values for the addition of a NaCl were 0.5, 0.5, 1.5, and 1.5 at.% for the FTO film prepared using NH{sub 4}F concentration of 4, 10, 16, and 22 at.%, respectively. The lowest sheet resistance of the salt-added FTO film was 4.8 Ω/□. The FTO film averaged a transmittance of more than 80% in the visible range region (λ = 400–800 nm). XRD diffractograms confirmed that the crystal structure of the as-grown FTO film was that of a tetragonal SnO{sub 2} and that the addition of salt improved its crystallinity. This film has the potential for use as an electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). - Highlights: • A method to improve FTO performance using the addition of salt • The FTO film exhibited high performance of conductivity and light transmittance. • This technique is low-cost, fast and scales-up easily using simple devices.

  3. Effect of solvent ratio on the optoelectronic properties of fluorine doped tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthick, P.; Divya, V.; Sridharan, M.; Jeyadheepan, K., E-mail: jeyadheepan@eee.sastra.edu [Center for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur – 613401 (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Tirumalaisamudram, Thanjavur – 613401 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were deposited on to the well cleaned microscopic glass substrates using nebulized-spray pyrolysis (n-SP) technique by varying the water to ethanol solvent proportion. The deposited thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Hall measurements to study the structural, optical, surface morphological and electrical properties of the films, respectively. Results of the analyzes show that the films are polycrystalline, having tetragonal structure with the preferred orientation along (110) plane. The grain size varies between 7 to 20 nm. The optimized films exhibit the optical transparency of 85 % at the wavelength of 580 nm. The optical bandgap lies in the range of 3.94 to 4 eV. The optimized films, deposited with 40 % of ethanol proportion are having the mean resistivity 4.72×10{sup −3} Ω-cm, carrier concentration 1.79×10{sup 20} cm{sup 3} and the mobility 7 cm{sup 2}/Vs.

  4. Effect of solvent ratio on the optoelectronic properties of fluorine doped tin oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, P.; Divya, V.; Sridharan, M.; Jeyadheepan, K.

    2015-06-01

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were deposited on to the well cleaned microscopic glass substrates using nebulized-spray pyrolysis (n-SP) technique by varying the water to ethanol solvent proportion. The deposited thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Hall measurements to study the structural, optical, surface morphological and electrical properties of the films, respectively. Results of the analyzes show that the films are polycrystalline, having tetragonal structure with the preferred orientation along (110) plane. The grain size varies between 7 to 20 nm. The optimized films exhibit the optical transparency of 85 % at the wavelength of 580 nm. The optical bandgap lies in the range of 3.94 to 4 eV. The optimized films, deposited with 40 % of ethanol proportion are having the mean resistivity 4.72×10-3 Ω-cm, carrier concentration 1.79×1020 cm3 and the mobility 7 cm2/Vs.

  5. Uniaxial tensile and shear deformation tests of gold–tin eutectic solder film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Namazu, Hideki Takemoto, Hiroshi Fujita and Shozo Inoue

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel experimental technique for measuring mechanical properties of gold-tin (Au–Sn eutectic solder film used for soldering package in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS. Dual-source DC magnetron sputtering was employed to deposit Au-20 weight % (wt% Sn film. The tensile test with in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD measurement evaluates the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio at intermediate temperatures. The Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio at room temperature were found to be 51.3 GPa and 0.288, lower than bulk values. The Young's modulus decreased with increasing temperature, whereas the Poisson's ratio did not depend on temperature. The XRD tensile test also showed creep deformation behavior of Au–Sn film. We have developed a shear deformation test technique, which is performed by using Au–Sn film sandwiched by two single crystal silicon (Si cantilever structures, to characterize the shear properties of the film. The shear moduli obtained from the shear deformation tests ranged from 11.5 to 13.3 GPa, about 38% lower than those from the XRD tensile tests. The measured shear strength from 12 to 17 MPa exhibited a temperature dependency. Information about the tensile and shear characteristics would likely to be of great use in designing Au–Sn soldering packages for MEMS.

  6. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cihan Çakır

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption–dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  7. Study of arsenopyrite weathering products in mine wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alvarez-Ayuso, E., E-mail: esther.alvarez@irnasa.csic.es [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Pellitero, E. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rodriguez, M.A. [Faculty of Sciences, Crystallography and Mineralogy Area, Avd. Elvas s/n. Extremadura University, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Garcia-Sanchez, A. [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Tamayo, A.; Rubio, J.; Rubio, F. [Ceramic and Glass Institute (CSIC), c/Kelsen, 5, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Rubin, J. [Material Science Institute of Aragon, CSIC-Zaragoza University, c/Maria de Luna 3, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Arsenopyrite-rich wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations were studied to determine the composition and characteristics of the secondary phases formed under natural weathering conditions so as to assess their potential environmental risk. Representative weathered arsenopyrite-bearing rock wastes collected from the mine dumps were analysed using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, polarizing microscopy analysis, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microRaman and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Scorodite, pharmacosiderite and amorphous ferric arsenates (AFA) with Fe/As molar ratios in the range 1.2-2.5 were identified as secondary arsenic products. The former showed to be the most abundant and present in the different studied mining areas. Its chemical composition showed to vary in function of the original surrounding rock mineralogy in such a way that phosphoscorodite was found as the mineral variety present in apatite-containing geoenvirons. Other ever-present weathering phases were goethite and hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), displaying, respectively, As retained amounts about 1 and 20% (expressed as As{sub 2}O{sub 5}). The low solubility of scorodite, the relatively low content of AFA and the formation of compounds of variable charge, mostly of amorphous nature, with high capacity to adsorb As attenuate importantly the dispersion of this element into the environment from these arsenopyrite-bearing wastes.

  8. Novel Carbon Dioxide Microsensor Based on Tin Oxide Nanomaterial Doped With Copper Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Ward, Benjamin J.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major indicators of fire and therefore its measurement is very important for low-false-alarm fire detection and emissions monitoring. However, only a limited number of CO2 sensing materials exist due to the high chemical stability of CO2. In this work, a novel CO2 microsensor based on nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) doped with copper oxide (CuO) has been successfully demonstrated. The CuO-SnO2 based CO2 microsensors are fabricated by means of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology and sol-gel nanomaterial-synthesis processes. At a doping level of CuO: SnO2 = 1:8 (molar ratio), the resistance of the sensor has a linear response to CO2 concentrations for the range of 1 to 4 percent CO2 in air at 450 C. This approach has demonstrated the use of SnO2, typically used for the detection of reducing gases, in the detection of an oxidizing gas.

  9. Properties of Hydrogen Sulfide Sensors Based on Thin Films of Tin Dioxide and Tungsten Trioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastianov, E. Yu.; Maksimova, N. K.; Chernikov, E. V.; Sergeichenko, N. V.; Rudov, F. V.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of hydrogen sulfide in the concentration range of 0-100 ppm on the characteristics of thin films of tin dioxide and tungsten trioxide obtained by the methods of magnetron deposition and modified with gold in the bulk and on the surface is studied. The impurities of antimony and nickel have been additionally introduced into the SnO2 bulk. An optimal operating temperature of sensors 350°C was determined, at which there is a satisfactory correlation between the values of the response to H2S and the response time. Degradation of the sensor characteristics is investigated in the long-term ( 0.5-1.5 years) tests at operating temperature and periodic exposure to hydrogen sulfide, as well as after conservation of samples in the laboratory air. It is shown that for the fabrication of H2S sensors, the most promising are thin nanocrystalline Au/WO3:Au films characterized by a linear concentration dependence of the response and high stability of parameters during exploitation.

  10. Ultrafast modulation of the plasma frequency of vertically aligned indium tin oxide rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Daniel B; Li, Shi-Qiang; Tagliazucchi, Mario; Buchholz, D Bruce; Weiss, Emily A; Chang, Robert P H

    2014-03-12

    Light-matter interaction at the nanoscale is of particular interest for future photonic integrated circuits and devices with applications ranging from communication to sensing and imaging. In this Letter a combination of transient absorption (TA) and the use of third harmonic generation as a probe (THG-probe) has been adopted to investigate the response of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of vertically aligned indium tin oxide rods (ITORs) upon ultraviolet light (UV) excitation. TA experiments, which are sensitive to the extinction of the LSPR, show a fluence-dependent increase in the frequency and intensity of the LSPR. The THG-probe experiments show a fluence-dependent decrease of the LSPR-enhanced local electric field intensity within the rod, consistent with a shift of the LSPR to higher frequency. The kinetics from both TA and THG-probe experiments are found to be independent of the fluence of the pump. These results indicate that UV excitation modulates the plasma frequency of ITO on the ultrafast time scale by the injection of electrons into, and their subsequent decay from, the conduction band of the rods. Increases to the electron concentration in the conduction band of ∼13% were achieved in these experiments. Computer simulation and modeling have been used throughout the investigation to guide the design of the experiments and to map the electric field distribution around the rods for interpreting far-field measurement results.

  11. Highly efficient copper-zinc-tin-selenide (CZTSe) solar cells by electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Ok; Lee, Kee Doo; Seul Oh, Lee; Seo, Se-Won; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, Honggon; Jeong, Jeung-hyun; Ko, Min Jae; Kim, BongSoo; Son, Hae Jung; Kim, Jin Young

    2014-04-01

    Highly efficient copper-zinc-tin-selenide (Cu2ZnSnSe4 ; CZTSe) thin-film solar cells are prepared via the electrodepostion technique. A metallic alloy precursor (CZT) film with a Cu-poor, Zn-rich composition is directly deposited from a single aqueous bath under a constant current, and the precursor film is converted to CZTSe by annealing under a Se atmosphere at temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 600 °C. The crystallization of CZTSe starts at 400 °C and is completed at 500 °C, while crystal growth continues at higher temperatures. Owing to compromises between enhanced crystallinity and poor physical properties, CZTSe thin films annealed at 550 °C exhibit the best and most-stable device performances, reaching up to 8.0 % active efficiency; among the highest efficiencies for CZTSe thin-film solar cells prepared by electrodeposition. Further analysis of the electronic properties and a comparison with another state-of-the-art device prepared from a hydrazine-based solution, suggests that the conversion efficiency can be further improved by optimizing parameters such as film thickness, antireflection coating, MoSe2 formation, and p-n junction properties.

  12. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, M. Cihan; Çalışkan, Deniz; Bütün, Bayram; Özbay, Ekmel

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO) heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption–dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively. PMID:27690048

  13. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous indium tin oxide possessing an electronically conductive framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Theo T; Li, Jianquan; Nazar, Linda F

    2002-07-24

    The new mesoporous transparent conducting oxide based on indium-tin-oxide, meso-ITO, has been synthesized by a modified sol-gel method, using CTAB as the surfactant. Critical was the employment of triethanolamine to control the rate of hydrolysis and inhibit deposition of the bulk oxides. Removal of the surfactant by calcination yielded a relatively well-ordered worm-hole motif arrangement of pores visible in the TEM and stable to 400 degrees C. BET measurements revealed no hysteresis in the absorption-desorption isotherm, consistent with a narrow pore-size distribution (between 20 and 40 A depending on the In:Sn ratio); surface areas ranged between 270 and 310 m2/g. This colorless material is the first mesoporous oxide exhibiting substantial framework conductivity, with a conductivity at 25 degrees C of 1.2 x 10-3 S/cm. This distinguishes it from mesoporous mixed-valence transition-metal oxides that exhibit weak hopping semiconductor behavior and much lower conductivity.

  14. Gate tunability and collapse of superconductivity in hybrid tin-graphene Josephson junction arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchiat, Vincent

    The accessible and surface-exposed 2D electron gas offered by graphene provides indeed an ideal platform on which to tune, via application of an electrostatic gate, the coupling between adsorbates deposited on its surface. We have experimentally studied the case of graphene transistors which channel is decorated with an array of superconducting tin nanoparticles. They induce via percolation of proximity effect a global 2D superconducting state which critical temperature Tc can be tuned by gate voltage. When the Graphene show strong disorder, it is possible to tune via the applied gate voltage the system towards an insulating state, demonstrating the possibility to trigger a superconducting to insulator transition, which features ressembles those found in granular superconductors. In this work, graphene monolayers are surface-conjugated to regular arrays of superconducting disk-shaped metal islands, whose inter-island distances were patterned to be in the quasi-ballistic limit of the underlying 2D electron gas. Arrays can be made on a large range of geometry and density, up to the highly diluted limit with less than 5% surface coverage and few micrometers in between islands. In the lower temperature limit (graphene sheet. Interestingly, the superconducting state vanishes exponentially in gate voltage and rests in a metallic state, caused by quantum fluctuations of phase is found for diluted and regular arrays. This peculiar behaviour provides evidence for recently developed theory, and may provide a hint to the understanding of long-standing issue of ``zero-temperature'' bosonic metallic state

  15. Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, Patricia L; Emerson, Thomas E; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R; Ward, Timothy

    2012-08-28

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin Oxide as Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Verma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The bulk SnO2 was synthesized by oxidizing the fine powder (50 mesh of metallic tin (purity 99.99, Aldrich powder at 750°C for 9 hrs hours in programmable temperature controlled furnace. The gross structure and phase purity of the powder sample ground from sintered pellets were examined by powder X-ray diffraction technique. The phase identification /gross structural characteristics of synthesized SnO2 materials explored through powder X-ray diffracto meter reveals that the sample crystallize in tetragonal structure with lattice parameters a = b = 4.7346Å, c = 3.1787Å. The surface morphology investigated through scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy (SEM & AFM results that pure SnO2 possesses uniform grains and is almost homogeneously distributed, which indicates the high packing density of the materials and nano spheres like structures on the surface of SnO2sample. Average sensitivity of the sensor was found to be 27 MΩ/%RH.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Ethanol Sensing Properties of Tin Oxide Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anima Johari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One‐dimensional nanostructures of Tin oxide (SnO2 have been synthesized by thermal evaporation method with and with out a catalyst on silicon substrate. The nanostructure growth was carried out by using a mixture of SnO2 and graphite powders at a temperature of 1050C in nitrogen (N2 ambience. The synthesized SnO2 nanostructures show polycrystalline nature with tetragonal rutile structure. SEM investigation reveals wire‐like and rod‐shaped nanostructures on silicon substrate, with and without the gold catalyst layer respectively. EDX and TEM observation concludes that the uniform SnO2 nanowires (diameter ~ 25 nm and length ~ 50 μm grow with vapor‐liquid‐solid (VLS mechanism whereas, the SnO2 nanorods with varying diameter grow with vapor‐solid (VS mechanism. UV‐ Vis spectra estimates that the optical band gaps of the SnO2 nanowires and nanorods were 3.92 eV and 3.67 eV respectively. As synthesized single SnO2 nanowire based gas sensor exhibit relatively good performance to ethanol gas. This sensing behaviour offers a suitable application of the SnO2 nanowire sensor for detection of ethanol gas.

  18. Sublimation TiN Coating of RF Power Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorkiewicz, J.; Kula, J.; Pszona, S.; Sobczak, J.; Bilinski, A.

    2008-03-01

    Titanium evaporation in a reactive atmosphere of ammonia has been chosen to deposit thin (up to 10 nm) protective surface layers containing titanium nitride and titanium oxinitrides which suppress secondary electron emission. The coating procedure, applied by the author in DESY (Hamburg) for TESLA couplers anti-multipactor protection, has been recently implemented in The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ) where a new coating device is used, equipped with a special titanium sublimation setup in a 100 1 vacuum chamber. Several arrays of cylindrical and coaxial RF coupler windows have been coated so far after optimizing the processing parameters. A check of the obtained surface layers ability to attenuate secondary electron emission has been performed; measurements of the secondary electron yield from TiN layers deposited on alumina samples were done in IPJ on as-delivered coated samples, then after vacuum bake-out and finally after additional electron bombardment of their surfaces. Also chemical composition of the surface layers has been studied using XPS in the Institute of Physical Chemistry (IChF).

  19. Broadband resonances in indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Qiang; Sakoda, Kazuaki; Ketterson, John B.; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2015-07-01

    There is currently much discussion within the nanophotonics community regarding the origin of wavelength selective absorption/scattering of light by the resonances in nanorod arrays. Here, we report a study of resonances in ordered indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays resulting from waveguide-like modes. We find that with only a 2.4% geometrical coverage, micron-length nanorod arrays interact strongly with light across a surprisingly wide band from the visible to the mid-infrared, resulting in less than 10% transmission. Simulations show excellent agreement with our experimental observations. The field profile in the vicinity of the rods obtained from simulations shows that the electric field is mainly localized on the surfaces of the nanorods for all resonances. Based on our analysis, the resonances in the visible are different in character from those in the infrared. When light is incident on the array, part of it propagates in the space between the rods and part of it is guided within the rods. The phase difference (interference) at the ends of the rods forms the basis for the resonances in the visible region. The resonances in the infrared are Fabry-Perot-like resonances involving standing surface waves between the opposing ends of the rods. Simple analytical formulae predict the spectral positions of these resonances. It is suggested that these phenomena can be utilized for wavelength-selective photodetectors, modulators, and nanorod-based solar cells.

  20. Broadband resonances in indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shi-Qiang, E-mail: s-li@u.northwestern.edu, E-mail: r-chang@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Dr., Evanston, Illinois 60208-3108 (United States); Sakoda, Kazuaki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); NU-NIMS Materials Innovation Center, 2220 Campus Dr., Evanston, Illinois 60208-3108 (United States); Ketterson, John B. [NU-NIMS Materials Innovation Center, 2220 Campus Dr., Evanston, Illinois 60208-3108 (United States); Department of Physics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States); Chang, Robert P. H., E-mail: s-li@u.northwestern.edu, E-mail: r-chang@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Dr., Evanston, Illinois 60208-3108 (United States); NU-NIMS Materials Innovation Center, 2220 Campus Dr., Evanston, Illinois 60208-3108 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    There is currently much discussion within the nanophotonics community regarding the origin of wavelength selective absorption/scattering of light by the resonances in nanorod arrays. Here, we report a study of resonances in ordered indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays resulting from waveguide-like modes. We find that with only a 2.4% geometrical coverage, micron-length nanorod arrays interact strongly with light across a surprisingly wide band from the visible to the mid-infrared, resulting in less than 10% transmission. Simulations show excellent agreement with our experimental observations. The field profile in the vicinity of the rods obtained from simulations shows that the electric field is mainly localized on the surfaces of the nanorods for all resonances. Based on our analysis, the resonances in the visible are different in character from those in the infrared. When light is incident on the array, part of it propagates in the space between the rods and part of it is guided within the rods. The phase difference (interference) at the ends of the rods forms the basis for the resonances in the visible region. The resonances in the infrared are Fabry-Perot-like resonances involving standing surface waves between the opposing ends of the rods. Simple analytical formulae predict the spectral positions of these resonances. It is suggested that these phenomena can be utilized for wavelength-selective photodetectors, modulators, and nanorod-based solar cells.

  1. Search for technetium in natural tin metallurgical residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, C.W.

    1996-07-01

    Possible instability of baryons inside the nuclei might result in accumulation of rare isotopes in natural ores. In this respect, isotopes of technetium have certain advantages that can be useful in the search for technetium in nonradioactive ores by chemical methods. In this paper, we review the history of technetium research and discuss a new approach to the search for natural technetium associated with tin ores which appears to offer a rare possibility of discovering a smelting operation by-product such as flue dust, in which the volatile technetium heptoxide (Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7}), like rhenium heptoxide (Re{sub 2}O{sub 7}), would be expected to concentrate. Our concept of a search for technetium in these materials would be based on the assumption that traces of rhenium could occur in the ore and could be traced most easily by neutron activation of small samples. Such a procedure would confirm that an enrichment from the ore to the flue dust actually occurs with the rhenium and therefore should occur with technetium. Furthermore, this occurrence should identify the best location to search for technetium.

  2. Etching of germanium-tin using ammonia peroxide mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yuan; Ong, Bin Leong; Wang, Wei; Gong, Xiao; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng [Institute of Material Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, #08-03, Innovis, Singapore 138634 (Singapore); Tok, Eng-Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2015-12-28

    The wet etching of germanium-tin (Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}) alloys (4.2% < x < 16.0%) in ammonia peroxide mixture (APM) is investigated. Empirical fitting of the data points indicates that the etch depth of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} is proportional to the square root of the etch time t and decreases exponentially with increasing x for a given t. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that increasing t increases the intensity of the Sn oxide peak, whereas no obvious change is observed for the Ge oxide peak. This indicates that an accumulation of Sn oxide on the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} surface decreases the amount of Ge atoms exposed to the etchant, which accounts for the decrease in etch rate with increasing etch time. Atomic force microscopy was used to examine the surface morphologies of the Ge{sub 0.918}Sn{sub 0.082} samples. Both root-mean-square roughness and undulation periods of the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} surface were observed to increase with increasing t. This work provides further understanding of the wet etching of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} using APM and may be used for the fabrication of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}-based electronic and photonic devices.

  3. Patterning cells on optically transparent indium tin oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sunny; Revzin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The ability to exercise precise spatial and temporal control over cell-surface interactions is an important prerequisite to the assembly of multi-cellular constructs serving as in vitro mimics of native tissues. In this study, photolithography and wet etching techniques were used to fabricate individually addressable indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes on glass substrates. The glass substrates containing ITO microelectrodes were modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) silane to make them protein and cell resistive. Presence of insulating PEG molecules on the electrode surface was verified by cyclic voltammetry employing potassium ferricyanide as a redox reporter molecule. Importantly, the application of reductive potential caused desorption of the PEG layer, resulting in regeneration of the conductive electrode surface and appearance of typical ferricyanide redox peaks. Application of reductive potential also corresponded to switching of ITO electrode properties from cell non-adhesive to cell-adhesive. Electrochemical stripping of PEG-silane layer from ITO microelectrodes allowed for cell adhesion to take place in a spatially defined fashion, with cellular patterns corresponding closely to electrode patterns. Micropatterning of several cell types was demonstrated on these substrates. In the future, the control of the biointerfacial properties afforded by this method will allow to engineer cellular microenvironments through the assembly of three or more cell types into a precise geometric configuration on an optically transparent substrate.

  4. Multifunctional Indium Tin Oxide Electrode Generated by Unusual Surface Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouden, Sarra; Dahi, Antoine; Hauquier, Fanny; Randriamahazaka, Hyacinthe; Ghilane, Jalal

    2016-11-01

    The indium tin oxide (ITO) material has been widely used in various scientific fields and has been successfully implemented in several devices. Herein, the electrochemical reduction of ITO electrode in an organic electrolytic solution containing alkali metal, NaI, or redox molecule, N-(ferrocenylmethyl) imidazolium iodide, was investigated. The reduced ITO surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and grazing incident XRD demonstrating the presence of the electrolyte cation inside the material. Reversibility of this process after re-oxidation was evidenced by XPS. Using a redox molecule based ionic liquid as supporting electrolyte leads to fellow electrochemically the intercalation process. As a result, modified ITO containing ferrocenyl imidazolium was easily generated. This reduction process occurs at mild reducing potential around -1.8 V and causes for higher reducing potential a drastic morphological change accompanied with a decrease of the electrode conductivity at the macroscopic scale. Finally, the self-reducing power of the reduced ITO phase was used to initiate the spontaneous reduction of silver ions leading to the growth of Ag nanoparticles. As a result, transparent and multifunctional active ITO surfaces were generated bearing redox active molecules inside the material and Ag nanoparticles onto the surface.

  5. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  6. How fast black holes spin in quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Maio, Umberto; Petkova, Margarita; Perego, Albino; Volonteri, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Mass and spin are often referred to as the two `hairs' of astrophysical black holes, as they are the only two parameters needed to completely characterize them in General Relativity. The interaction between black holes and their environment is where complexity lies, as the relevant physical processes occur over a large range of scales. This is particularly relevant in the case of super-massive black holes (SMBHs), hosted in galaxy centers and surrounded by swirling gas and various generations of stars, that compete with the SMBH for gas consumption, and affect the thermodynamics of the gas itself. How dynamics and thermodynamics in such fiery environment affect the angular momentum of the gas accreted onto SMBHs, and hence black hole spins is uncertain. We explore the interaction between SMBHs and their environment during active phases through simulations of circum-nuclear discs (CND) around black holes in quasars hosted in the remnants of galaxy mergers. These are the first 3D (sub-)parsec resolution simulat...

  7. Nonthermal WIMPs and primordial black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, Julian; Şengör, Gizem; Watson, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Nonthermal histories for the early universe have received notable attention as they are a rich source of phenomenology, while also being well motivated by top-down approaches to beyond the Standard Model physics. The early (pre-big bang nucleosynthesis) matter phase in these models leads to enhanced growth of density perturbations on sub-Hubble scales. Here, we consider whether primordial black hole formation associated with the enhanced growth is in conflict with existing observations. Such constraints depend on the tilt of the primordial power spectrum, and we find that nonthermal histories are tightly constrained in the case of a significantly blue spectrum. Alternatively, if dark matter is taken to be of nonthermal origin, we can restrict the primordial power spectrum on scales inaccessible to cosmic microwave background and large scale structure observations. We establish constraints for a wide range of scalar masses (reheat temperatures) with the most stringent bounds resulting from the formation of 1015 g black holes. These black holes would be evaporating today and are constrained by FERMI observations. We also consider whether the breakdown of the coherence of the scalar oscillations on subhorizon scales can lead to a Jean's pressure preventing black hole formation and relaxing our constraints. Our main conclusion is that primordial black hole constraints, combined with existing constraints on nonthermal weakly interacting massive particles, favor a primordial spectrum closer to scale invariance or a red tilted spectrum.

  8. Black hole bombs and photon mass bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Pani, Paolo; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Berti, Emanuele; Ishibashi, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Generic extensions of the standard model predict the existence of ultralight bosonic degrees of freedom. Several ongoing experiments are aimed at detecting these particles or constraining their mass range. Here we show that massive vector fields around rotating black holes can give rise to a strong superradiant instability which extracts angular momentum from the hole. The observation of supermassive spinning black holes imposes limits on this mechanism. We show that current supermassive black hole spin estimates provide the tightest upper limits on the mass of the photon (mv<4x10^{-20} eV according to our most conservative estimate), and that spin measurements for the largest known supermassive black holes could further lower this bound to mv<10^{-22} eV. Our analysis relies on a novel framework to study perturbations of rotating Kerr black holes in the slow-rotation regime, that we developed up to second order in rotation, and that can be extended to other spacetime metrics and other theories.

  9. XPS investigations of tribolayers formed on TiN and (Ti,Re)N coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oktay, Serkan; Kahraman, Zafer; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat, E-mail: kursat@itu.edu.tr

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The (Ti,Re)N coating (8 ± 1.9 at.% Re) consisted of TiN and ReNx (x > 1.33) phases. • TiO{sub 2} provided low friction coefficient to TiN coating at 150 °C. • Re addition to TiN drastically dropped the friction coefficients to 0.17–0.22. • Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} provided very low friction coefficient to (Ti,Re)N coating. • Re addition to TiN improved the wear behavior. - Abstract: TiN and (Ti,Re)N coatings were deposited on high-speed-steel substrates by a hybrid coating system composed of cathodic arc PVD and magnetron sputtering techniques. In order to keep rhenium content low (8 ± 1.9 at.%) in the coating, magnetron sputtering technique was utilized to evaporate rhenium. The (Ti,Re)N coating consisted of TiN and ReN{sub x} (x > 1.33) phases. The hardness of TiN and (Ti,Re)N were 31 GPa and 29 GPa ( ± 2 GPa), respectively. Tribological behaviors of the samples were tested against Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} balls at 21 °C (RT) and 150 °C (HT) by reciprocating wear technique. The tribolayers were analyzed by XPS technique. Friction coefficients of TiN were 0.56, 0.35 for 21 °C and 150 °C tests, respectively. Rhenium addition to TiN drastically dropped the friction coefficients to 0.22 and 0.17 for RT and HT samples. Rhenium addition also improved the wear resistance of the coating at both test temperatures. For TiN, main oxide component of the tribolayers was Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} for RT tests and TiO{sub 2} for HT tests. The oxide layer formed on (Ti,Re)N were the mixture of TiO{sub 2}, Ti−O−N, ReO{sub 2} and Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} for both test temperatures. Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} provided very low friction coefficient to (Ti,Re)N. The findings are consistent with the crystal chemistry approach.

  10. Thermodynamic black di-rings

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Previously the five dimensional $S^1$-rotating black rings have been superposed in concentric way by some solitonic methods and regular systems of two $S^1$-rotating black rings were constructed by the authors and then Evslin and Krishnan (we called these solutions black di-rings). In this place we show some characteristics of the solutions of five dimensional black di-rings, especially in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the summary of the di-ring expressions and their physical quantities, first we comment on the equivalence of the two different solution-sets of the black di-rings. Then the existence of thermodynamic black di-rings are shown, in which both iso-thermality and iso-rotation between the inner black ring and the outer black ring are realized. We also give detailed analysis of peculiar properties of the thermodynamic black di-ring including discussion about a certain kind of thermodynamic stability (instability) of the system.

  11. Application of A 10 μg tin microcalorimeter in the field of low-energy X-ray metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, C.; Bouchard, J.; Cassette, P.; Leblanc, E.

    2000-04-01

    LNHB (Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel) is responsible for the French radioactivity standards and the updating of the radionuclide table containing all available atomic and nuclear data. This implies decay scheme studies which require high-energy resolution spectrometry and also activity measurements using low threshold and high detection efficiency detectors. To explore the capabilities of cryogenic detectors for low-energy X-ray metrology, there has been a collaboration with the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in order to develop a fast microcalorimeter with a tin absorber which guarantees a detection efficiency greater than 99.9% in the 1-6 keV energy range. A feasability study of a decay scheme analysis was carried out on this microcalorimeter with a 139Ce source; preliminary results on relative intensities are presented.

  12. Growth Structural and Optical Properties of the Thermally Evaporated Tin Diselenide (SnSe2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sachdeva1,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin diselenide (SnSe2 compound was prepared by melt-quenching technique from its constituent elements. The phase structure and composition of the chemical constituents present in the bulk has been determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersion X-ray analysis (EDAX respectively. SnSe2 thin films were grown using direct thermal evaporation of SnSe2 compound material on chemically cleaned glass substrate, which were held at different substrate temperatures. X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM were used to examine structure and surface morphology of the films. The investigations show that the films grown above 150 °C are single phase and polycrystalline in nature. VIS-IR Spectra of the films were recorded in the wavelength range 380 nm to 1300 nm. The data has been analyzed to find optical parameters like absorption coefficient and energy bandgap.

  13. Fabrication and performance analysis of 4-sq cm indium tin oxide/InP photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, T. A.; Li, X.; Phelps, P. W.; Coutts, T. J.; Tzafaras, N.

    1991-01-01

    Large-area photovoltaic solar cells based on direct current magnetron sputter deposition of indium tin oxide (ITO) into single-crystal p-InP substrates demonstrated both the radiation hardness and high performance necessary for extraterrestrial applications. A small-scale production project was initiated in which approximately 50 ITO/InP cells are being produced. The procedures used in this small-scale production of 4-sq cm ITO/InP cells are presented and discussed. The discussion includes analyses of performance range of all available production cells, and device performance data of the best cells thus far produced. Additionally, processing experience gained from the production of these cells is discussed, indicating other issues that may be encountered when large-scale productions are begun.

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and solution behavior of new tin tetrachloride adducts with γ-keto allyl phosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Haitham; Sanhoury, M. A. K.; Rezgui, F.

    2017-01-01

    Four new octahedral complexes of the type [SnCl4L2] (L = γ-keto allyl phosphonate) (1-4) were prepared and characterized by multinuclear (1H, 13C, 31P and 119Sn) NMR, IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The NMR data show, as expected, that these complexes exist in solution as mixtures of cis and trans isomers. More importantly, the solution structure was confirmed by 119Sn NMR spectra which show two triplets corresponding to the two isomers. In addition, the solution behavior of these complexes in the presence of excess ligand was studied by variable temperature NMR using the coalescence temperature method. The metal-ligand exchange activation energies were therefore determined and found to be in the range 57-60 kJ/mol. The effect of remote substituents on the metal-ligand interaction was studied and compared with closely related tin-phosphoryl complexes.

  15. Alkaline earth lead and tin compounds Ae2Pb, Ae2Sn, Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba, as thermoelectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parker and David J Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed theoretical study of three alkaline earth compounds Ca2Pb, Sr2Pb and Ba2Pb, which have undergone little previous study, calculating electronic band structures and Boltzmann transport and bulk moduli using density functional theory. We also study the corresponding tin compounds Ca2Sn, Sr2Sn and Ba2Sn. We find that these are all narrow band gap semiconductors with an electronic structure favorable for thermoelectric performance, with substantial thermopowers for the lead compounds at temperature ranges from 300 to 800 K. For the lead compounds, we further find very low calculated bulk moduli—roughly half of the values for the lead chalcogenides, suggestive of soft phonons and hence low lattice thermal conductivity. All these facts indicate that these materials merit experimental investigation as potential high performance thermoelectrics. We find good potential for thermoelectric performance in the environmentally friendly stannide materials, particularly at high temperature.

  16. Further studies of the anodic dissolution in sodium chloride electrolyte of aluminium alloys containing tin and gallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestoridi, Maria; Pletcher, Derek; Wharton, Julian A.; Wood, Robert J. K.

    As part of a programme to develop a high power density, Al/air battery with a NaCl brine electrolyte, the high rate dissolution of an aluminium alloy containing tin and gallium was investigated in a small volume cell. The objective was to define the factors that limit aluminium dissolution in condition that mimic a high power density battery. In a cell with a large ratio of aluminium alloy to electrolyte, over a range of current densities the extent of dissolution was limited to ∼1000 C cm -2 of anode surface by a thick layer of loosely bound, crystalline deposit on the Al alloy anode formed by precipitation from solution. This leads to a large increase in impedance and acts as a barrier to transport of ions.

  17. Further studies of the anodic dissolution in sodium chloride electrolyte of aluminium alloys containing tin and gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestoridi, Maria; Pletcher, Derek [The School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Wharton, Julian A.; Wood, Robert J.K. [School of Engineering Sciences, The University, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-05

    As part of a programme to develop a high power density, Al/air battery with a NaCl brine electrolyte, the high rate dissolution of an aluminium alloy containing tin and gallium was investigated in a small volume cell. The objective was to define the factors that limit aluminium dissolution in condition that mimic a high power density battery. In a cell with a large ratio of aluminium alloy to electrolyte, over a range of current densities the extent of dissolution was limited to {proportional_to}1000 C cm{sup -2} of anode surface by a thick layer of loosely bound, crystalline deposit on the Al alloy anode formed by precipitation from solution. This leads to a large increase in impedance and acts as a barrier to transport of ions. (author)

  18. Residual stress determination in PECVD TiN coatings by X-ray diffraction: a parametric study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, N.B.; Horsewell, Andy; Mogensen, K.S.;

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to study the residual macroscopic stress in titanium-nitride, TiN, coatings deposited onto a tool steer substrate. The measurements were performed with a theta-theta decoupled X-ray diffractometer. The coatings were manufactured using an industrial pulsed-DC...... properties are also discussed, e.g. microstructure, composition and hardness....... values were found to range from -1.5 to 1.5 GPa. The intrinsic stresses for the major part of the coatings were close to zero lending to low intrinsic strain energies favouring a preferred orientation of the coating corresponding to the plane with the lowest surface energy which is (200). Other...

  19. Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide Nanofibers Deposited by a Novel Focused Electrospinning Method. Application to the Detection of TATP Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José Pedro; Fernández, Maria Jesús; Fontecha, José Luis; Matatagui, Daniel; Sayago, Isabel; Horrillo, Maria Carmen; Gracia, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    A new method of depositing tin dioxide nanofibers in order to develop chemical sensors is presented. It involves an electrospinning process with in-plane electrostatic focusing over micromechanized substrates. It is a fast and reproducible method. After an annealing process, which can be performed by the substrate heaters, it is observed that the fibers are intertwined forming porous networks that are randomly distributed on the substrate. The fiber diameters oscillate from 100 nm to 200 nm and fiber lengths reach several tens of microns. Each fiber has a polycrystalline structure with multiple nano-grains. The sensors have been tested for the detection of acetone and hydrogen peroxide (precursors of the explosive triacetone triperoxide, TATP) in air in the ppm range. High and fast responses to these gases have been obtained. PMID:25521384

  20. The effect of different annealing temperatures on tin and cadmium telluride phases obtained by a modified chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Anderson Fuzer [Departamento de Química, CCE, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Campus Goiabeiras, 29075-910 Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Porto, Arilza de Oliveira, E-mail: arilzaporto@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Magela de Lima, Geraldo [Departamento de Química, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Paniago, Roberto [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Ardisson, José Domingos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Synthesis of cadmium and tin telluride. ► Chemical route to obtain pure crystalline cadmium and tin telluride. ► Effect of the annealing temperature on the crystalline phases. ► Removal of tin oxide as side product through thermal treatment. -- Abstract: In this work tin and cadmium telluride were prepared by a modification of a chemical route reported in the literature to obtain metallacycles formed by oxidative addition of tin-tellurium bonds to platinum (II). Through this procedure it was possible to obtain tin and cadmium telluride. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the crystalline phases obtained as well as the presence of side products. In the case of tin telluride it was identified potassium chloride, metallic tellurium and tin oxide as contaminants. The tin oxidation states were also monitored by {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. The annealing in hydrogen atmosphere was chosen as a strategy to reduce the tin oxide and promote its reaction with the excess of tellurium present in the medium. The evolution of this tin oxide phase was studied through the annealing of the sample at different temperatures. Cadmium telluride was obtained with high degree of purity (98.5% relative weight fraction) according to the Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The modified procedure showed to be very effective to obtain amorphous tin and cadmium telluride and the annealing at 450 °C has proven to be useful to reduce the amount of oxide produced as side product.